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Sample records for i-deficient cmsii mutant

  1. Isolation of a Histoplasma capsulatum cDNA that complements a mitochondrial NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit I-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C H; McEwen, J E

    1999-06-30

    A cDNA library was prepared from Histoplasma capsulatum strain G-217B yeast cells and an apparently full-length cDNA for a subunit of the citric acid cycle enzyme NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase was identified by sequence analysis. Its predicted amino acid sequence is more similar to the IDH1 regulatory subunit of S. cerevisiae NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase than to the IDH2 catalytic subunit. After expression in S. cerevisiae from an S. cerevisiae promoter, it was shown to functionally complement an S. cerevisiae idh1 mutant, but not an idh2 mutant, for growth on acetate as a carbon source and for production of NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. These results confirm that the H. capsulatum cDNA encodes a homologue of subunit I of the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme that functions in the citric acid cycle.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency ...

  3. Riboflavin-responsive oxidative phosphorylation complex I deficiency caused by defective ACAD9: new function for an old gene.

    PubMed

    Gerards, Mike; van den Bosch, Bianca J C; Danhauser, Katharina; Serre, Valérie; van Weeghel, Michel; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Sluiter, Wim; Schoonderwoerd, Kees; Scholte, Hans R; Prokisch, Holger; Rötig, Agnès; de Coo, Irenaeus F M; Smeets, Hubert J M

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency is the most common oxidative phosphorylation defect. Mutations have been detected in mitochondrial and nuclear genes, but the genetics of many patients remain unresolved and new genes are probably involved. In a consanguineous family, patients presented easy fatigability, exercise intolerance and lactic acidosis in blood from early childhood. In muscle, subsarcolemmal mitochondrial proliferation and a severe complex I deficiency were observed. Exercise intolerance and complex I activity was improved by a supplement of riboflavin at high dosage. Homozygosity mapping revealed a candidate region on chromosome three containing six mitochondria-related genes. Four genes were screened for mutations and a homozygous substitution was identified in ACAD9 (c.1594 C>T), changing the highly conserved arginine-532 into tryptophan. This mutation was absent in 188 ethnically matched controls. Protein modelling suggested a functional effect due to the loss of a stabilizing hydrogen bond in an α-helix and a local flexibility change. To test whether the ACAD9 mutation caused the complex I deficiency, we transduced fibroblasts of patients with wild-type and mutant ACAD9. Wild-type, but not mutant, ACAD9 restored complex I activity. An unrelated patient with the same phenotype was compound heterozygous for c.380 G>A and c.1405 C>T, changing arginine-127 into glutamine and arginine-469 into tryptophan, respectively. These amino acids were highly conserved and the substitutions were not present in controls, making them very probably pathogenic. Our data support a new function for ACAD9 in complex I function, making this gene an important new candidate for patients with complex I deficiency, which could be improved by riboflavin treatment. PMID:20929961

  4. Recurrent infections in partial complement factor I deficiency: evaluation of three generations of a Brazilian family

    PubMed Central

    Grumach, A S; Leitão, M F; Arruk, V G; Kirschfink, M; Condino-Neto, A

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the evaluation of a factor I-deficient Brazilian family (three generations, 39 members) with strong consanguinity. The complete factor I-deficient patients (n = 3) presented recurrent respiratory infections, skin infections and meningitis; one of them died after sepsis. They presented an impaired total haemolytic activity (CH50), low C3, low factor H and undetectable C3dg/C3d. Partial factor I deficiency was detected in 16 family members (normal low cut-off value was 25 µg/ml). Respiratory infections were the most common clinical occurrence among partial factor I-deficient relatives. Two of them were submitted to nephrectomy following recurrent urinary tract infections. An additional two heterozygous relatives presented with arthritis and rheumatic fever. Apparently, patients with partial factor I deficiency are also at higher risk for recurrent infections. Vaccination against capsulated bacteria and the eventual use of prophylactic antibiotics should be considered individually in this patient group. PMID:16412054

  5. Allospecific rejection of MHC class I-deficient bone marrow by CD8 T cells.

    PubMed

    Haspot, F; Li, H W; Lucas, C L; Fehr, T; Beyaz, S; Sykes, M

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance of long-term immunosuppression is a desired goal in organ transplantation. Mixed chimerism offers a promising approach to tolerance induction, and we have aimed to develop low-toxicity, nonimmunodepleting approaches to achieve this outcome. In a mouse model achieving fully MHC-mismatched allogeneic bone marrow engraftment with minimal conditioning (3 Gy total body irradiation followed by anti-CD154 and T cell-depleted allogeneic bone marrow cells), CD4 T cells in the recipient are required to promote tolerance of preexisting alloreactive recipient CD8 T cells and thereby permit chimerism induction. We now demonstrate that mice devoid of CD4 T cells and NK cells reject MHC Class I-deficient and Class I/Class II-deficient marrow in a CD8 T cell-dependent manner. This rejection is specific for donor alloantigens, since recipient hematopoiesis is not affected by donor marrow rejection and MHC Class I-deficient bone marrow that is syngeneic to the recipient is not rejected. Recipient CD8 T cells are activated and develop cytotoxicity against MHC Class I-deficient donor cells in association with rejection. These data implicate a novel CD8 T cell-dependent bone marrow rejection pathway, wherein recipient CD8 T cells indirectly activated by donor alloantigens promote direct killing, in a T cell receptor-independent manner, of Class I-deficient donor cells.

  6. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  7. Mutations in Complex I Assembly Factor TMEM126B Result in Muscle Weakness and Isolated Complex I Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Caballero, Laura; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Bianchi, Lucas; Assouline, Zahra; Barcia, Giulia; Metodiev, Metodi D; Rio, Marlène; Funalot, Benoît; van den Brand, Mariël A M; Guerrero-Castillo, Sergio; Molenaar, Joery P; Koolen, David; Brandt, Ulrich; Rodenburg, Richard J; Nijtmans, Leo G; Rötig, Agnès

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial complex I deficiency results in a plethora of often severe clinical phenotypes manifesting in early childhood. Here, we report on three complex-I-deficient adult subjects with relatively mild clinical symptoms, including isolated, progressive exercise-induced myalgia and exercise intolerance but with normal later development. Exome sequencing and targeted exome sequencing revealed compound-heterozygous mutations in TMEM126B, encoding a complex I assembly factor. Further biochemical analysis of subject fibroblasts revealed a severe complex I deficiency caused by defective assembly. Lentiviral complementation with the wild-type cDNA restored the complex I deficiency, demonstrating the pathogenic nature of these mutations. Further complexome analysis of one subject indicated that the complex I assembly defect occurred during assembly of its membrane module. Our results show that TMEM126B defects can lead to complex I deficiencies and, interestingly, that symptoms can occur only after exercise. PMID:27374773

  8. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency presenting as maternal illness in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Innes, A M; Seargeant, L E; Balachandra, K; Roe, C R; Wanders, R J; Ruiter, J P; Casiro, O; Grewar, D A; Greenberg, C R

    2000-01-01

    The spectrum of clinical presentation of fatty acid oxidation defects (FAOD) continues to expand. One FAOD, L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency has been associated with liver disease in pregnancies involving a heterozygous mother carrying an affected fetus. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) deficiency typically presents as a Reyelike syndrome in children between 8 and 18 mo. of age. We have investigated a family in which the mother developed liver disease consistent with acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) and hyperemesis gravidarum in her two successive pregnancies. Neither child nor their mother was found to carry the common LCHAD G1528C mutation. Both children were subsequently shown to have absent activity of CPT I. This is the first report of CPT I deficiency presenting as maternal illness in pregnancy.

  9. Human conditions of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide hormone produced mainly by the liver in response to the endocrine GH stimulus, but it is also secreted by multiple tissues for autocrine/paracrine purposes. IGF-I is partly responsible for systemic GH activities although it possesses a wide number of own properties (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions). IGF-I is a closely regulated hormone. Consequently, its logical therapeutical applications seems to be limited to restore physiological circulating levels in order to recover the clinical consequences of IGF-I deficiency, conditions where, despite continuous discrepancies, IGF-I treatment has never been related to oncogenesis. Currently the best characterized conditions of IGF-I deficiency are Laron Syndrome, in children; liver cirrhosis, in adults; aging including age-related-cardiovascular and neurological diseases; and more recently, intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this review is to summarize the increasing list of roles of IGF-I, both in physiological and pathological conditions, underlying that its potential therapeutical options seem to be limited to those proven states of local or systemic IGF-I deficiency as a replacement treatment, rather than increasing its level upper the normal range. PMID:23148873

  10. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined. PMID:27374774

  11. Biallelic Mutations in TMEM126B Cause Severe Complex I Deficiency with a Variable Clinical Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Alston, Charlotte L; Compton, Alison G; Formosa, Luke E; Strecker, Valentina; Oláhová, Monika; Haack, Tobias B; Smet, Joél; Stouffs, Katrien; Diakumis, Peter; Ciara, Elżbieta; Cassiman, David; Romain, Nadine; Yarham, John W; He, Langping; De Paepe, Boel; Vanlander, Arnaud V; Seneca, Sara; Feichtinger, René G; Płoski, Rafal; Rokicki, Dariusz; Pronicka, Ewa; Haller, Ronald G; Van Hove, Johan L K; Bahlo, Melanie; Mayr, Johannes A; Van Coster, Rudy; Prokisch, Holger; Wittig, Ilka; Ryan, Michael T; Thorburn, David R; Taylor, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common biochemical phenotype observed in individuals with mitochondrial disease. With 44 structural subunits and over 10 assembly factors, it is unsurprising that complex I deficiency is associated with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technologies including custom, targeted gene panels or unbiased whole-exome sequencing (WES) are hugely powerful in identifying the underlying genetic defect in a clinical diagnostic setting, yet many individuals remain without a genetic diagnosis. These individuals might harbor mutations in poorly understood or uncharacterized genes, and their diagnosis relies upon characterization of these orphan genes. Complexome profiling recently identified TMEM126B as a component of the mitochondrial complex I assembly complex alongside proteins ACAD9, ECSIT, NDUFAF1, and TIMMDC1. Here, we describe the clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in six cases of mitochondrial disease from four unrelated families affected by biallelic (c.635G>T [p.Gly212Val] and/or c.401delA [p.Asn134Ilefs(∗)2]) TMEM126B variants. We provide functional evidence to support the pathogenicity of these TMEM126B variants, including evidence of founder effects for both variants, and establish defects within this gene as a cause of complex I deficiency in association with either pure myopathy in adulthood or, in one individual, a severe multisystem presentation (chronic renal failure and cardiomyopathy) in infancy. Functional experimentation including viral rescue and complexome profiling of subject cell lines has confirmed TMEM126B as the tenth complex I assembly factor associated with human disease and validates the importance of both genome-wide sequencing and proteomic approaches in characterizing disease-associated genes whose physiological roles have been previously undetermined.

  12. Investigating complex I deficiency in Purkinje cells and synapses in patients with mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Chrysostomou, Alexia; Grady, John P.; Laude, Alex; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Cerebellar ataxia is common in patients with mitochondrial disease, and despite previous neuropathological investigations demonstrating vulnerability of the olivocerebellar pathway in patients with mitochondrial disease, the exact neurodegenerative mechanisms are still not clear. We use quantitative quadruple immunofluorescence to enable precise quantification of mitochondrial respiratory chain protein expression in Purkinje cell bodies and their synaptic terminals in the dentate nucleus. Methods We investigated NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13 protein expression in 12 clinically and genetically defined patients with mitochondrial disease and ataxia and 10 age‐matched controls. Molecular genetic analysis was performed to determine heteroplasmy levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in Purkinje cell bodies and inhibitory synapses. Results Our data reveal that complex I deficiency is present in both Purkinje cell bodies and their inhibitory synapses which surround dentate nucleus neurons. Inhibitory synapses are fewer and enlarged in patients which could represent a compensatory mechanism. Mitochondrial DNA heteroplasmy demonstrated similarly high levels of mutated mitochondrial DNA in cell bodies and synapses. Conclusions This is the first study to use a validated quantitative immunofluorescence technique to determine complex I expression in neurons and presynaptic terminals, evaluating the distribution of respiratory chain deficiencies and assessing the degree of morphological abnormalities affecting synapses. Respiratory chain deficiencies detected in Purkinje cell bodies and their synapses and structural synaptic changes are likely to contribute to altered cerebellar circuitry and progression of ataxia. PMID:26337858

  13. The skeletal structure of insulin-like growth factor I-deficient mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D.; Majumdar, S.; Laib, A.; Powell-Braxton, L.; Rosen, C.; Beamer, W.; Nauman, E.; Leary, C.; Halloran, B.

    2001-01-01

    The importance of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) for growth is well established. However, the lack of IGF-I on the skeleton has not been examined thoroughly. Therefore, we analyzed the structural properties of bone from mice rendered IGF-I deficient by homologous recombination (knockout [k/o]) using histomorphometry, peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT), and microcomputerized tomography (muCT). The k/o mice were 24% the size of their wild-type littermates at the time of study (4 months). The k/o tibias were 28% and L1 vertebrae were 26% the size of wild-type bones. Bone formation rates (BFR) of k/o tibias were 27% that of the wild-type littermates. The k/o bones responded normally to growth hormone (GH; 1.7-fold increase) and supranormally to IGF-I (5.2-fold increase) with respect to BFR. Cortical thickness of the proximal tibia was reduced 17% in the k/o mouse. However, trabecular bone volume (bone volume/total volume [BV/TV]) was increased 23% (male mice) and 88% (female mice) in the k/o mice compared with wild-type controls as a result of increased connectivity, increased number, and decreased spacing of the trabeculae. These changes were either less or not found in L1. Thus, lack of IGF-I leads to the development of a bone structure, which, although smaller, appears more compact.

  14. Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency Increases Protein Acetylation and Accelerates Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Karamanlidis, Georgios; Lee, Chi Fung; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Kolwicz, Stephen C.; Suthammarak, Wichit; Gong, Guohua; Sedensky, Margaret M.; Morgan, Philip G.; Wang, Wang; Tian, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases including heart failure but the specific mechanisms for this link remain largely elusive. We modeled the impairment of mitochondrial respiration by inactivation of the Ndufs4 gene, a protein critical for Complex I (C-I) assembly, in the mouse heart (cKO). While C-I supported respiration decreased by >40%, the cKO mice maintained normal cardiac function in vivo and high-energy phosphate content in isolated perfused hearts. However, the cKO mice developed accelerated heart failure after pressure overload or repeated pregnancy. Decreased NAD+/NADH ratio by C-I deficiency inhibited Sirt3 activity, leading to increase in protein acetylation, and sensitization of the permeability transition in mitochondria (mPTP). NAD+ precursor supplementation to cKO mice partially normalized the NAD+/NADH ratio, protein acetylation and mPTP sensitivity. These findings describe a mechanism connecting mitochondrial dysfunction to the susceptibility to diseases and propose a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23931755

  15. Analysis of the mitochondrial encoded subunits of complex I in 20 patients with a complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Meulemans, Ann; Lissens, Willy; Van Coster, Rudy; De Meirleir, Linda; Smet, Joél; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Liebaers, Inge; Seneca, Sara

    2004-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I deficiency is a frequently diagnosed enzyme defect of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system in humans. However, in many patients, with complex I deficiency and clinical symptoms suggestive of mitochondrial disease, often no genetic defect can be found after investigation of the most common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. In this study, 20 patients were selected with a biochemically documented complex I defect and no common mtDNA mutation. We used the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method with primers encompassing all mitochondrial encoded fragments, to search in a systematic manner for mutations in the mitochondrial genome of complex I. In our group of patients, we were able to detect a total of 96 nucleotide changes. We were not able to find any disease causing mutation in the mitochondrial encoded subunits of complex I. These results suggested that the complex I deficiency in this group of patients is most probably caused by a defect in one of the nuclear encoded structural genes of complex I, or in one of the genes involved in proper assembly of the enzyme.

  16. Therapeutic applications of the TAT-mediated protein transduction system for complex I deficiency and other mitochondrial diseases.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo-Yu; Kao, Mou-Chieh

    2015-09-01

    Among the five enzyme complexes in the oxidative phosphorylation system, NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (also called complex I) is the largest, most intricate, and least understood. This enzyme complex spans the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the first step of electron transfer by the oxidation of NADH, and thereby provides two electrons for the reduction of quinone to quinol. Complex I deficiency is associated with many severe mitochondrial diseases, including Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and Leigh syndrome. However, to date, conventional treatments for the majority of genetic mitochondrial diseases are only palliative. Developing a reliable and convenient therapeutic approach is therefore considered to be an urgent need. Targeted proteins fused with the protein transduction domain of human immunodeficiency virus 1 transactivator of transcription (TAT) have been shown to enter cells by crossing plasma membranes while retaining their biological activities. Recent developments show that, in fusion with mitochondrial targeting sequences (MTSs), TAT-MTS-bound cargo can be correctly transported into mitochondria and restore the missing function of the cargo protein in patients' cells. The available evidence suggests that the TAT-mediated protein transduction system holds great promise as a potential therapeutic approach to treat complex I deficiency, as well as other mitochondrial diseases.

  17. Erythropoietin prevents endothelial dysfunction in GTP-cyclohydrolase I-deficient hph1 mice.

    PubMed

    dʼUscio, Livius V; Santhanam, Anantha V R; Katusic, Zvonimir S

    2014-12-01

    : In this study, we used the mutant hph1 mouse model, which has deficiency in GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I) activity, to test the hypothesis that erythropoietin (EPO) protects aortic wall from oxidative stress induced by uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Both GTPCH I activity and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) levels were reduced in hph1 mice, whereas 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (7,8-BH2) levels were significantly increased. Furthermore, BH4 deficiency caused increased production of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide in the aorta thus resulting in impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine. Treatment of hph1 mice with recombinant human EPO (1000 U/kg, subcutaneously for 3 days) significantly decreased superoxide anion production by eNOS and improved BH4 to 7,8-BH2 ratio in aortas. EPO also significantly decreased production of hydrogen peroxide and improved endothelium-dependent relaxations in aortas of hph1 mice. In addition, EPO treatment increased protein expressions of copper-/zinc-superoxide dismutase, manganese-superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the aorta of hph1 mice. Our findings demonstrate that treatment with EPO prevented oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction caused by eNOS uncoupling. Increased vascular expressions of antioxidants seem to be an important molecular mechanism underlying vascular protection by EPO during chronic BH4 deficiency.

  18. Hyperargininemia due to arginase I deficiency: the original patients and their natural history, and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Schlune, A; Vom Dahl, S; Häussinger, D; Ensenauer, R; Mayatepek, E

    2015-09-01

    Hyperargininemia is caused by deficiency of arginase 1, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine to urea as the final enzyme in the urea cycle. In contrast to other urea cycle defects, arginase 1 deficiency usually does not cause catastrophic neonatal hyperammonemia but rather presents with progressive neurological symptoms including seizures and spastic paraplegia in the first years of life and hepatic pathology, such as neonatal cholestasis, acute liver failure, or liver fibrosis. Some patients have developed hepatocellular carcinoma. A usually mild or moderate hyperammonemia may occur at any age. The pathogenesis of arginase I deficiency is yet not fully understood. However, the accumulation of L-arginine and the resulting abnormalities in the metabolism of guanidine compounds and nitric oxide have been proposed to play a major pathophysiological role. This article provides an update on the first patients ever described, gives an overview of the distinct clinical characteristics, biochemical as well as genetical background and discusses treatment options. PMID:26123990

  19. Complement factor I deficiency: a not so rare immune defect. Characterization of new mutations and the first large gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Complement Factor I (CFI) is a serine protease with an important role in complement alternative pathway regulation. Complete factor I deficiency is strongly associated with severe infections. Approximately 30 families with this deficiency have been described worldwide. Patients and methods We have studied five new Spanish families suffering from CFI deficiency. From 19 screened people, 7 homozygous, 10 heterozygous and 2 healthy subjects were identified. Clinical, biochemical and genetic descriptions are included. Results Molecular studies demonstrated 4 novel mutations in the screened individuals; amongst them, we describe here the first great gene deletion reported in the CFI locus, which includes full exon 2 and part of the large intron 1. Conclusion CFI deficiency is possibly an underestimated defect and the eventual existence of this deficiency should be tested in those patients exhibiting low C3 and recurrent bacterial infections. We propose a simple diagnostic flowchart to help clinicians in the identification and correct diagnosis of such patients. PMID:22710145

  20. Mitochondrial complex I deficiency leads to inflammation and retinal ganglion cell death in the Ndufs4 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alfred K.; Song, Lanying; Murray, Karl D.; van der List, Deborah; Sun, Chao; Shen, Yan; Xia, Zhengui; Cortopassi, Gino A.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) is a major contributor to neuronal energetics, and mutations in complex I lead to vision loss. Functional, neuroanatomical and transcriptional consequences of complex I deficiency were investigated in retinas of the Ndufs4 knockout mouse. Whole-eye ERGs and multielectrode arrays confirmed a major retinal ganglion cell functional loss at P32, and retinal ganglion cell loss at P42. RNAseq demonstrated a mild and then sharp increase in innate immune and inflammatory retinal transcripts at P22 and P33, respectively, which were confirmed with QRT-PCR. Intraperitoneal injection of the inflammogen lipopolysaccharide further reduced retinal ganglion cell function in Ndufs4 KO, supporting the connection between inflammatory activation and functional loss. Complex I deficiency in the retina clearly caused innate immune and inflammatory markers to increase coincident with loss of vision, and RGC functional loss. How complex I incites inflammation and functional loss is not clear, but could be the result of misfolded complex I generating a ‘non-self’ response, and induction of innate immune response transcripts was observed before functional loss at P22, including β-2 microglobulin and Cx3cr1, and during vision loss at P31 (B2m, Tlr 2, 3, 4, C1qa, Cx3cr1 and Fas). These data support the hypothesis that mitochondrial complex I dysfunction in the retina triggers an innate immune and inflammatory response that results in loss of retinal ganglion cell function and death, as in Leber's hereditary Optic Neuropathy and suggests novel therapeutic routes to counter mitochondrial defects that contribute to vision loss. PMID:25652399

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency due to a codon 84 nonsense mutation of the apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Yanagi, Hisako; Hattori, Naoko; Yamakawa, Kimiko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Hamaguchi, Hideo ); Hiasa, Yoshikazu; Maeda, Toshihiro ); Tanaka, Isao; Obara, Takashi )

    1991-04-01

    The molecular genetic defect of a female patient with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency and premature atherosclerosis was examined. Her parents were first cousins. Her plasma density fraction from 1.063 to 1.21 g/ml contained no apoA-I on SDS/PAGE and no measurable high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Southern blot hybridization showed no gross abnormality to be present in the patient's apoA-I gene and homozygosity for a haplotype of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in the apoA-I gene region. Sequencing after amplification by PCR revealed a codon 84 nonsense mutation (CAG {r arrow} TAG, Gln {r arrow} stop) of exon 4 and a codon 37 missense mutation (GCC{r arrow} ACC, Ala {r arrow} Thr) of exon 3 in the patient's apoA-I gene. The data from dot-blot hybridization with allele-specific oligonucleotide probes indicated that she was homozygous for the apoA-I gene with regard to the two mutations. The codon 37 missense mutation was also detected in the apoA-I gene of 6 out of 60 controls, who all had normal levels of apoA-I and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, suggesting that the missense mutation is polymorphic and not associated with apoA-I deficiency. These finding indicate that homozygosity for the apoA-I gene with codon 84 nonsense mutation causes the deficiency of apoA-I and of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the patient.

  2. Effects of TAT-conjugated platinum nanoparticles on lifespan of mitochondrial electron transport complex I-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans, nuo-1.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Yuri; Kim, Juewon; Miyamoto, Yusei

    2010-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticle (Pt-np) species are superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics and also have an activity similar to that of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. To examine if this complex I-like activity functions in vivo, we studied the effects of Pt-nps on the lifespan of a mitochondrial complex I-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans mutant, nuo-1 (LB25) compared with wild-type N2. We synthesized a fusion protein of a cell-penetrating peptide, human immunodeficiency virus-1 TAT (48-60), C-terminally linked to a peptide with a high affinity to platinum (GRKKRRQRRRPPQ-DRTSTWR). Pt-nps were functionalized by conjugation with this fusion protein at a 1:1 ratio of TAT-PtBP to Pt atoms. Adult worms were treated with conjugated Pt-nps for 10 days. The mean lifespan of untreated N2 and LB25 was 19.6 ± 0.4 and 11.8 ± 0.3 days, respectively. Using 5 μM of conjugated Pt-nps, the lifespan of N2 and LB25 was maximally extended. This maximal lifespan extension of LB25 was 31.9 ± 2.6%, which was significantly greater than that of N2 (21.1 ± 1.7%, P < 0.05 by Student's t-test). Internalization of Pt into the whole body and mitochondria was similar between these two strains. Excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species was not observed in the cytosol or mitochondria of untreated LB25. Treatment for five days with 5 μM conjugated Pt-nps decreased cytosolic and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in N2 and LB25 to a similar extent. The ratio of [NAD(+)]/[NADH] was very low in the whole body and mitochondria of control LB25. After five days of treatment with 5 μM conjugated Pt-nps, the ratio of [NAD(+)]/[NADH] was increased in N2 and LB25. However, the degree of the increase was much higher in LB25 than in N2. Pt-nps function as NADH oxidase and recover the [NAD(+)]/[NADH] ratio in LB25, leading to effective extension of the lifespan of LB25. PMID:20957220

  3. Characterization of High Density Lipoprotein Particles in Familial Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency With Premature Coronary Atherosclerosis, Corneal Arcus and Opacification, and Tubo-Eruptive and Planar Xanthomas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe two male siblings with homozygous familial apolipoprotein (apo) A-I deficiency, markedly decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, undetectable plasma apoA-1, tubo-eruptive and planar xanthomas, and mild corneal arcus and opacification. Sequencing of the apoA-I gene re...

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  5. Leigh syndrome associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency due to novel mutations In NDUFV1 and NDUFS2.

    PubMed

    Marin, Samantha E; Mesterman, Ronit; Robinson, Brian; Rodenburg, Richard J; Smeitink, Jan; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    Leigh syndrome (LS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by either mitochondrial or nuclear DNA mutations resulting in dysfunctional mitochondrial energy metabolism. Mutations in genes encoding for subunits of the respiratory chain or assembly factors of respiratory chain complexes are often documented in LS cases. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH):ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) enzyme deficiencies account for a significant proportion of mitochondrial disorders, including LS. In an attempt to expand the repertoire of known mutations accounting for LS, we describe the clinical, radiological, biochemical and molecular data of six patients with LS found to have novel mutations in two complex I subunits (NDUFV1 and NDUFS2). Two siblings were homozygous for the previously undescribed R386C mutation in NDUFV1, one patient was a compound heterozygote for the R386C mutation in NDUFV1 and a frameshift mutation in the same gene, one patient was a compound heterozygote for the R88G and R199P mutations in NDUFV1, and two siblings were compound heterozygotes for an undescribed E104A mutation in NDUFS2. After the novel mutations were identified, we employed prediction models using protein conservation analysis (SIFT, PolyPhen and UCSC genome browser) to determine pathogenicity. The R386C, R88G, R199P, and E104A mutations were found to be likely pathogenic, and thus presumably account for the LS phenotype. This case series broadens our understanding of the etiology of LS by identifying new molecular defects that can result in complex I deficiency and may assist in targeted diagnostics and/or prenatal diagnosis of LS in the future.

  6. The pleiotropic effects of decanoic acid treatment on mitochondrial function in fibroblasts from patients with complex I deficient Leigh syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanabus, Marta; Fassone, Elisa; Hughes, Sean David; Bilooei, Sara Farahi; Rutherford, Tricia; Donnell, Maura O'; Heales, Simon J R; Rahman, Shamima

    2016-05-01

    There is growing interest in the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) to treat inherited metabolic diseases including mitochondrial disorders. However, neither the mechanism whereby the diet may be working, nor if it could benefit all patients with mitochondrial disease, is known. This study focusses on decanoic acid (C10), a component of the medium chain triglyceride KD, and a ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ known to be involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. The effects of C10 were investigated in primary fibroblasts from a cohort of patients with Leigh syndrome (LS) caused by nuclear-encoded defects of respiratory chain complex I, using mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme assays, gene expression microarray, qPCR and flow cytometry. Treatment with C10 increased citrate synthase activity, a marker of cellular mitochondrial content, in 50 % of fibroblasts obtained from individuals diagnosed with LS in a PPAR-γ-mediated manner. Gene expression analysis and qPCR studies suggested that treating cells with C10 supports fatty acid metabolism, through increasing ACADVL and CPT1 expression, whilst downregulating genes involved in glucose metabolism (PDK3, PDK4). PCK2, involved in blocking glucose metabolism, was upregulated, as was CAT, encoding catalase. Moreover, treatment with C10 also decreased oxidative stress in complex I deficient (rotenone treated) cells. However, since not all cells from subjects with LS appeared to respond to C10, prior cellular testing in vitro could be employed as a means for selecting individuals for subsequent clinical studies involving C10 preparations. PMID:27080638

  7. Treatment with N- and C-Terminal Peptides of Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Partly Compensate the Skeletal Abnormalities in IGF-I Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1–36) and PTHrP (107–111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a, cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1–36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone. PMID:24503961

  8. Treatment with N- and C-terminal peptides of parathyroid hormone-related protein partly compensate the skeletal abnormalities in IGF-I deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-de la Rosa, Lourdes; López-Herradón, Ana; Portal-Núñez, Sergio; Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Lozano, Daniel; Cediel, Rafael; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Esbrit, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency causes growth delay, and IGF-I has been shown to partially mediate bone anabolism by parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH-related protein (PTHrP) is abundant in bone, and has osteogenic features by poorly defined mechanisms. We here examined the capacity of PTHrP (1-36) and PTHrP (107-111) (osteostatin) to reverse the skeletal alterations associated with IGF-I deficiency. Igf1-null mice and their wild type littermates were treated with each PTHrP peptide (80 µg/Kg/every other day/2 weeks; 2 males and 4 females for each genotype) or saline vehicle (3 males and 3 females for each genotype). We found that treatment with either PTHrP peptide ameliorated trabecular structure in the femur in both genotypes. However, these peptides were ineffective in normalizing the altered cortical structure at this bone site in Igf1-null mice. An aberrant gene expression of factors associated with osteoblast differentiation and function, namely runx2, osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of NF-κB ligand ratio, Wnt3a , cyclin D1, connexin 43, catalase and Gadd45, as well as in osteocyte sclerostin, was found in the long bones of Igf1-null mice. These mice also displayed a lower amount of trabecular osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis than those in wild type mice. These alterations in Igf1-null mice were only partially corrected by each PTHrP peptide treatment. The skeletal expression of Igf2, Igf1 receptor and Irs2 was increased in Igf1-null mice, and this compensatory profile was further improved by treatment with each PTHrP peptide related to ERK1/2 and FoxM1 activation. In vitro, PTHrP (1-36) and osteostatin were effective in promoting bone marrow stromal cell mineralization in normal mice but not in IGF-I-deficient mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that PTHrP (1-36) and osteostatin can exert several osteogenic actions even in the absence of IGF-I in the mouse bone.

  9. NK cells infiltrating a MHC class I-deficient lung adenocarcinoma display impaired cytotoxic activity toward autologous tumor cells associated with altered NK cell-triggering receptors.

    PubMed

    Le Maux Chansac, Béatrice; Moretta, Alessandro; Vergnon, Isabelle; Opolon, Paule; Lécluse, Yann; Grunenwald, Dominique; Kubin, Marek; Soria, Jean-Charles; Chouaib, Salem; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia

    2005-11-01

    NK cells are able to discriminate between normal cells and cells that have lost MHC class I (MHC-I) molecule expression as a result of tumor transformation. This function is the outcome of the capacity of inhibitory NK receptors to block cytotoxicity upon interaction with their MHC-I ligands expressed on target cells. To investigate the role of human NK cells and their various receptors in the control of MHC-I-deficient tumors, we have isolated several NK cell clones from lymphocytes infiltrating an adenocarcinoma lacking beta2-microglobulin expression. Unexpectedly, although these clones expressed NKG2D and mediated a strong cytolytic activity toward K562, Daudi and allogeneic MHC-class I+ carcinoma cells, they were unable to lyse the autologous MHC-I- tumor cell line. This defect was associated with alterations in the expression of natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) by NK cells and the NKG2D ligands, MHC-I-related chain A, MHC-I-related chain B, and UL16 binding protein 1, and the ICAM-1 by tumor cells. In contrast, the carcinoma cell line was partially sensitive to allogeneic healthy donor NK cells expressing high levels of NCR. Indeed, this lysis was inhibited by anti-NCR and anti-NKG2D mAbs, suggesting that both receptors are required for the induced killing. The present study indicates that the MHC-I-deficient lung adenocarcinoma had developed mechanisms of escape from the innate immune response based on down-regulation of NCR and ligands required for target cell recognition.

  10. D-Galactose Induces a Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Potential Benefits of Nutrient Combination in Ameliorating Muscle Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Liao; Liu, Xin; Liu, Jing; Li, Hua; Yang, Yanshen; Liu, Jia; Guo, Zihao; Xiao, Ke; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiankang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Accumulating research has shown that chronic D-galactose (D-gal) exposure induces symptoms similar to natural aging in animals. Therefore, rodents chronically exposed to D-gal are increasingly used as a model for aging and delay-of-aging pharmacological research. Mitochondrial dysfunction is thought to play a vital role in aging and age-related diseases; however, whether mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in mice exposed to D-gal remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated cognitive dysfunction, locomotor activity, and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in D-gal exposure in mice. We found that D-gal exposure (125 mg/kg/day, 8 weeks) resulted in a serious impairment in grip strength in mice, whereas spatial memory and locomotor coordination remained intact. Interestingly, muscular mitochondrial complex I deficiency occurred in the skeletal muscle of mice exposed to D-gal. Mitochondrial ultrastructure abnormality was implicated as a contributing factor in D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Moreover, three combinations (A, B, and C) of nutrients applied in this study effectively reversed D-gal-induced muscular impairment. Nutrient formulas B and C were especially effective in reversing complex I dysfunction in both skeletal muscle and heart muscle. These findings suggest the following: (1) chronic exposure to D-gal first results in specific muscular impairment in mice, rather than causing general, premature aging; (2) poor skeletal muscle strength induced by D-gal might be due to the mitochondrial dysfunction caused by complex I deficiency; and (3) the nutrient complexes applied in the study attenuated the skeletal muscle impairment, most likely by improving mitochondrial function. PMID:24476218

  11. Detection of biosynthetic intermediates in proteoglycan-deficient mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, R.I.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants lacking xylosyltransferase or galactosyltransferase I do not synthesize mature proteoglycans. The authors predicted that the mutants would accumulate biosynthetic intermediates upstream from the block imposed by mutation. Using the fusogenic properties of vesicular stomatitis virus, the authors fused monolayers composed of galactosyltransferase I-deficient cells with virus-infected xylosyltransferase-deficient cells. Immediately following fusion the cells were pulse-labelled with /sup 35/SO/sub 4/ for one hour. Quantification of radioactive products showed that the mutants contained biosynthetically active intermediates that proceeded to mature glycosaminoglycans. The production of glycosaminoglycan was dependent on fusion, and fusion of each mutant to itself did not result in radioactive product. Analysis of the newly made glycosaminoglycans through HPLC anion-exchange chromatography showed that the fused cells synthesized heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate in about the same proportion as wildtype cells. These findings suggest that the mutants accumulate precursors to both families of proteoglycans. They also found that progeny virus from infected CHO cells contain proteoglycans, presumably derived from the plasma membrane. This observation suggests that the virus can be used to isolate intermediates accumulating in the mutants.

  12. Heptanoate as a neural fuel: energetic and neurotransmitter precursors in normal and glucose transporter I-deficient (G1D) brain

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Good, Levi B; Ma, Qian; Malloy, Craig R; Pascual, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    It has been postulated that triheptanoin can ameliorate seizures by supplying the tricarboxylic acid cycle with both acetyl-CoA for energy production and propionyl-CoA to replenish cycle intermediates. These potential effects may also be important in other disorders associated with impaired glucose metabolism because glucose supplies, in addition to acetyl-CoA, pyruvate, which fulfills biosynthetic demands via carboxylation. In patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D), ketogenic diet fat (a source only of acetyl-CoA) reduces seizures, but other symptoms persist, providing the motivation for studying heptanoate metabolism. In this work, metabolism of infused [5,6,7-13C3]heptanoate was examined in the normal mouse brain and in G1D by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In both groups, plasma glucose was enriched in 13C, confirming gluconeogenesis from heptanoate. Acetyl-CoA and glutamine levels became significantly higher in the brain of G1D mice relative to normal mice. In addition, brain glutamine concentration and 13C enrichment were also greater when compared with glutamate in both animal groups, suggesting that heptanoate and/or C5 ketones are primarily metabolized by glia. These results enlighten the mechanism of heptanoate metabolism in the normal and glucose-deficient brain and encourage further studies to elucidate its potential antiepileptic effects in disorders of energy metabolism. PMID:23072752

  13. Neonatal multiorgan failure due to ACAD9 mutation and complex I deficiency with mitochondrial hyperplasia in liver, cardiac myocytes, skeletal muscle, and renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nancy; Wang, Xinjian; Peng, Yanyan; Valencia, C Alexander; Khuchua, Zaza; Hata, Jessica; Witte, David; Huang, Taosheng; Bove, Kevin E

    2016-03-01

    Complex I deficiency causes Leigh syndrome, fatal infant lactic acidosis, and neonatal cardiomyopathy. Mutations in more than 100 nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA genes miscode for complex I subunits or assembly factors. ACAD9 is an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase with a novel function in assembly of complex I; biallelic mutations cause progressive encephalomyopathy, recurrent Reye syndrome, and fatal cardiomyopathy. We describe the first autopsy in fatal neonatal lethal lactic acidosis due to mutations in ACAD9 that reduced complex I activity. We identified mitochondrial hyperplasia in cardiac myocytes, diaphragm muscle, and liver and renal tubules in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial antigens. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous variants in the ACAD9 gene: c.187G>T (p.E63*) and c.941T>C (p.L314P). The nonsense mutation causes late infantile lethality; the missense variant is novel. Autopsy-derived fibroblasts had reduced complex I activity (53% of control) with normal activity in complexes II to IV, similar to reported cases of ACAD9 deficiency.

  14. Carbon dioxide fixation and photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen in a mutant of Chlamydomonas lacking Photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V.

    1995-09-01

    Sustained photoassimilation of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen has been observed in a Photosystem I deficient mutant B4 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that contains only Photosystem II. The data indicate that Photosystem II alone is capable of spanning the potential difference between water oxidation/oxygen evolution and ferredoxin reduction. The rates of both CO{sub 2} fixation and hydrogen and oxygen evolution are similar in the mutant to that of the wild-type C. reinhardtii 137c containing both photosystems. The wild-type had stable photosynthetic activity, measured as CO{sub 2} fixation, under both air and anaerobic conditions, while the mutant was stable only under anaerobic conditions. The results are discussed in terms of the fundamental mechanisms and energetics of photosynthesis and possible implications for the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis.

  15. Glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D) at 25 (1990–2015): Presumptions, facts and the lives of persons with this rare disease

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Juan M.; Ronen, Gabriel M.

    2015-01-01

    As is often the case for rare diseases, the number of published reviews and case reports of Glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D) approaches or exceeds that of original research. This can indicate medical interest, but also scientific stagnation. In assessing this state of affairs here, we focus not on what is peculiar or disparate about G1D, but on the assumptions that have reigned thus far undisputed, and critique them as a potential impediment to progress. To summarize the most common G1D phenotype, we trace the 25-year story of G1D in parallel with the natural history of one of two index patients, identified in 1990 by one of us (G.M.R.) and brought up to date by the other (J.M.P.) while later examining widely-repeated but little-scrutinized statements. Among them are those that pertain to assumptions about brain fuels; energy-failure; cerebrospinal glucose concentration; the purpose of ketogenic diet; the role of the defective blood brain barrier; genotype-phenotype correlations; a bewildering array of phenotypes; ictogenesis, seizures and the electroencephalogram; the use of mice to model the disorder; and what treatments may and may not be expected to accomplish. We reach the forgone conclusion that the proper study of mankind - and of one of its ailments (G1D) - is man itself (rather than mice, isolated cells or extrapolated inferences), and propose a framework for rigorous investigation that we hope will lead to a better understanding and to better treatments for this and for rare disorders in general. These considerations, together with experience drawn from other disorders, lead, as a logical consequence, to the nullification of the view that therapeutic development (i.e., trials) for rare diseases could or should be accelerated without the most vigorous scientific scrutiny: Trial and error constitute an inseparable couple, such that, at the present time, hastening the former is bound to precipitate the latter. PMID:26341673

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I Deficiency Increases Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Cognitive Deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Lefterov, Iliya; Fitz, Nicholas F.; Cronican, Andrea A.; Fogg, Allison; Lefterov, Preslav; Kodali, Ravindra; Wetzel, Ronald; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2010-01-01

    A hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels, accompanied by cognitive decline. Previously, we showed that human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) decreases Aβ40 aggregation and toxicity. Here we demonstrate that apoA-I in lipidated or non-lipidated form prevents the formation of high molecular weight aggregates of Aβ42 and decreases Aβ42 toxicity in primary brain cells. To determine the effects of apoA-I on AD phenotype in vivo, we crossed APP/PS1ΔE9 to apoA-IKO mice. Using a Morris water maze, we demonstrate that the deletion of mouse Apoa-I exacerbates memory deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice. Further characterization of APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-IKO mice showed that apoA-I deficiency did not affect amyloid precursor protein processing, soluble Aβ oligomer levels, Aβ plaque load, or levels of insoluble Aβ in brain parenchyma. To examine the effect of Apoa-I deletion on cerebral amyloid angiopathy, we measured insoluble Aβ isolated from cerebral blood vessels. Our data show that in APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-IKO mice, insoluble Aβ40 is increased more than 10-fold, and Aβ42 is increased 1.5-fold. The increased levels of deposited amyloid in the vessels of cortices and hippocampi of APP/PS1ΔE9/apoA-IKO mice, measured by X-34 staining, confirmed the results. Finally, we demonstrate that lipidated and non-lipidated apoA-I significantly decreased Aβ toxicity against brain vascular smooth muscle cells. We conclude that lack of apoA-I aggravates the memory deficits in APP/PS1ΔE9 mice in parallel to significantly increased cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:20739292

  17. Lesion mimic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Moeder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a substantial number of lesion mimic mutants (LMM) have been isolated and a growing number of the genes have been cloned. It is now becoming clear that these mutants are valuable tools to dissect various aspects of programmed cell death (PCD) and pathogen resistance pathways in plants. Together with other forward genetics approaches LMMs shed light on the PCD machinery in plant cells and revealed important roles for sphingolipids, Ca2+ and chloroplast-derived porphyrin-metabolites during cell death development. PMID:19513227

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. Increased mitochondrial ATP production capacity in brain of healthy mice and a mouse model of isolated complex I deficiency after isoflurane anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Manjeri, Ganesh R; Rodenburg, Richard J; Blanchet, Lionel; Roelofs, Suzanne; Nijtmans, Leo G; Smeitink, Jan A; Driessen, Jacques J; Koopman, Werner J H; Willems, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    We reported before that the minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane is decreased in complex I-deficient mice lacking the NDUFS4 subunit of the respiratory chain (RC) (1.55 and 0.81% at postnatal (PN) 22-25 days and 1.68 and 0.65% at PN 31-34 days for wildtype (WT) and CI-deficient KO, respectively). A more severe respiratory depression was caused by 1.0 MAC isoflurane in KO mice (respiratory rate values of 86 and 45 at PN 22-25 days and 69 and 29 at PN 31-34 days for anesthetized WT and KO, respectively). Here, we address the idea that isoflurane anesthesia causes a much larger decrease in brain mitochondrial ATP production in KO mice thus explaining their increased sensitivity to this anesthetic. Brains from WT and KO mice of the above study were removed immediately after MAC determination at PN 31-34 days and a mitochondria-enriched fraction was prepared. Aliquots were used for measurement of maximal ATP production in the presence of pyruvate, malate, ADP and creatine and, after freeze-thawing, the maximal activity of the individual RC complexes in the presence of complex-specific substrates. CI activity was dramatically decreased in KO, whereas ATP production was decreased by only 26% (p < 0.05). The activities of CII, CIII, and CIV were the same for WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia decreased the activity of CI by 30% (p < 0.001) in WT. In sharp contrast, it increased the activity of CII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 50% (p < 0.001) and that of CIII by 37% (p < 0.001) and 40% (p < 0.001) in WT and KO, respectively, whereas it tended to increase that of CIV in both WT and KO. Isoflurane anesthesia increased ATP production by 52 and 69% in WT (p < 0.05) and KO (p < 0.01), respectively. Together these findings indicate that isoflurane anesthesia interferes positively rather than negatively with the ability of CI-deficient mice brain mitochondria to convert their main substrate pyruvate into ATP.

  20. A genetic defect in the biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate proteoglycan: galactosyltransferase I deficiency in fibroblasts from a patient with a progeroid syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Quentin, E; Gladen, A; Rodén, L; Kresse, H

    1990-01-01

    A small proteoglycan that contains only a single dermatan sulfate chain is the main proteoglycan synthesized by skin fibroblasts. Fibroblasts from a patient with progeroidal appearance and symptoms of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome have a reduced ability of converting the core protein of this proteoglycan into a mature glycosaminoglycan chain-bearing species. This abnormality is the consequence of a deficiency in galactosyltransferase I (xylosylprotein 4-beta-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1.133), which catalyzes the second glycosyl transfer reaction in the assembly of the dermatan sulfate chain. The glycosaminoglycan-free core protein secreted by the patient's fibroblasts bears an unsubstituted xylose residue. The mutant enzyme is abnormally thermolabile. Preincubation of fibroblasts at 41 degrees C leads to a further reduction in the production of mature proteoglycan and affects the capacity for glycosaminoglycan synthesis on p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside more strongly in the mutant than in control cells. Images PMID:2106134

  1. Starch mutants of Chlamydomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Berry-Lowe, S.L.; Schmidt, G.W. )

    1990-05-01

    Wild type Chlamydomonas accumulates starch and triglycerides when grown under nitrogen limiting conditions. Toward elucidation of the mechanisms for control of starch biosynthesis, we isolated mutants impaired int he accumulation of storage carbohydrates. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (strain ya-12) was mutagenized by UV irradiation and colonies were screened by iodine staining after growth in darkness. Mutants, denoted ais for altered in iodine staining, have been characterized by electron microscopy and assays for starch synthease, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucomutase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and amylase activities. Transcript analysis of wild type and mutant RNAs with PGI, ADPG-pyrophosphorylase, and waxy probes have also been carried out. No deficiencies of any of these components have been detected. Furthermore, long-term cultures of ya-12 and ais-1d in nitrogen-limited chemostats have been studied; starch also does not accumulate in ais-1d under these conditions. Thus, the lesion affects an essential factor of unknown identity that is required for starch synthesis.

  2. The zebrafish early arrest mutants.

    PubMed

    Kane, D A; Maischein, H M; Brand, M; van Eeden, F J; Furutani-Seiki, M; Granato, M; Haffter, P; Hammerschmidt, M; Heisenberg, C P; Jiang, Y J; Kelsh, R N; Mullins, M C; Odenthal, J; Warga, R M; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1996-12-01

    This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but conditionally lethal: mutant cells, most of which lyse, sometimes survive to become notochord, muscles, or, in rare cases, large neurons, all cell types which become postmitotic in the gastrula. Some of the genes of the early arrest group may be necessary for progression though the cell cycle; if so, the survival of early differentiating cells may be based on having their terminal mitosis before the zygotic requirement for these genes. PMID:9007229

  3. Identification of Arabidopsis rat Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Nam, Jaesung; Humara, Jaime M.; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Lee, Lan-Ying; Cao, Hongbin; Valentine, Lisa; Li, Jingling; Kaiser, Anthony D.; Kopecky, Andrea L.; Hwang, Hau-Hsuan; Bhattacharjee, Saikat; Rao, Praveen K.; Tzfira, Tzvi; Rajagopal, Jyothi; Yi, HoChul; Veena; Yadav, Badam S.; Crane, Yan M.; Lin, Kui; Larcher, Yves; Gelvin, Matthew J.K.; Knue, Marnie; Ramos, Cynthia; Zhao, Xiaowen; Davis, Susan J.; Kim, Sang-Ic; Ranjith-Kumar, C.T.; Choi, Yoo-Jin; Hallan, Vipin K.; Chattopadhyay, Sudip; Sui, Xiangzhen; Ziemienowicz, Alicja; Matthysse, Ann G.; Citovsky, Vitaly; Hohn, Barbara; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2003-01-01

    Limited knowledge currently exists regarding the roles of plant genes and proteins in the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation process. To understand the host contribution to transformation, we carried out root-based transformation assays to identify Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to Agrobacterium transformation (rat mutants). To date, we have identified 126 rat mutants by screening libraries of T-DNA insertion mutants and by using various “reverse genetic” approaches. These mutants disrupt expression of genes of numerous categories, including chromatin structural and remodeling genes, and genes encoding proteins implicated in nuclear targeting, cell wall structure and metabolism, cytoskeleton structure and function, and signal transduction. Here, we present an update on the identification and characterization of these rat mutants. PMID:12805582

  4. ECB deacylase mutants

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Frances H.; Shao, Zhixin; Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lorraine J.

    2002-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  5. Transfer of cloned human class I major histocompatibility complex genes into HLA mutant human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Y; Koller, B; Geraghty, D; Orr, H; Shaw, S; Kavathas, P; DeMars, R

    1986-01-01

    Three new kinds of recombinant DNA constructs were used to transfer cloned human class I HLA genes (A2 and B8) into unique HLA mutant lymphoblastoid cells: pHeBo(x): a class I gene, "x," in plasmid vector pHeBo, which contains a hygromycin resistance gene and Epstein-Barr virus oriP element that sustains extrachromosomal replication; pHPT(x): gene x in a vector with a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene; pHPTe(x): gene x in a vector with the HPRT gene and oriP element. Cell surface class I antigen expression was strong in transferents made with class I-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line mutants .144 (A-null), .53 (B-null), and .184 (A-null, B-null). Transferents expressing HLA-A2 were recognized specifically by HLA-A2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. When introduced on either of the vectors with the Epstein-Barr virus oriP element, the class I gene replicated extrachromosomally and was lost at rates of 0.2 to 0.3 per cell division. When introduced with vector pHPT (lacking Epstein-Barr virus oriP), the B8 gene was inserted at different chromosomal locations. Introduction of the HLA-B8 gene failed to restore antigen expression by HLA-B-null mutant .174, providing evidence that, unlike mutants exemplified by .53, .144, and .184, some HLA antigen loss mutants are deficient in a trans-acting function needed for class I antigen expression. Of more general interest, the results obtained with HLA class I genes in vectors that replicate extrachromosomally suggest ways of relating genic expression to chromatin structure and function and of attempting to clone functional human centromeres. Images PMID:3023867

  6. Transfer of cloned human class I major histocompatibility complex genes into HLA mutant human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Koller, B; Geraghty, D; Orr, H; Shaw, S; Kavathas, P; DeMars, R

    1986-04-01

    Three new kinds of recombinant DNA constructs were used to transfer cloned human class I HLA genes (A2 and B8) into unique HLA mutant lymphoblastoid cells: pHeBo(x): a class I gene, "x," in plasmid vector pHeBo, which contains a hygromycin resistance gene and Epstein-Barr virus oriP element that sustains extrachromosomal replication; pHPT(x): gene x in a vector with a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene; pHPTe(x): gene x in a vector with the HPRT gene and oriP element. Cell surface class I antigen expression was strong in transferents made with class I-deficient lymphoblastoid cell line mutants .144 (A-null), .53 (B-null), and .184 (A-null, B-null). Transferents expressing HLA-A2 were recognized specifically by HLA-A2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. When introduced on either of the vectors with the Epstein-Barr virus oriP element, the class I gene replicated extrachromosomally and was lost at rates of 0.2 to 0.3 per cell division. When introduced with vector pHPT (lacking Epstein-Barr virus oriP), the B8 gene was inserted at different chromosomal locations. Introduction of the HLA-B8 gene failed to restore antigen expression by HLA-B-null mutant .174, providing evidence that, unlike mutants exemplified by .53, .144, and .184, some HLA antigen loss mutants are deficient in a trans-acting function needed for class I antigen expression. Of more general interest, the results obtained with HLA class I genes in vectors that replicate extrachromosomally suggest ways of relating genic expression to chromatin structure and function and of attempting to clone functional human centromeres. PMID:3023867

  7. Complete Mitochondrial Complex I Deficiency Induces an Up-Regulation of Respiratory Fluxes That Is Abolished by Traces of Functional Complex I1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Kristina; Obata, Toshihiro; Feher, Kristen; Bock, Ralph; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Meyer, Etienne H.

    2015-01-01

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is central to cellular NAD+ recycling and accounts for approximately 40% of mitochondrial ATP production. To understand how complex I function impacts respiration and plant development, we isolated Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lines that lack complex I activity due to the absence of the catalytic subunit NDUFV1 (for NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase flavoprotein1) and compared these plants with ndufs4 (for NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase Fe-S protein4) mutants possessing trace amounts of complex I. Unlike ndufs4 plants, ndufv1 lines were largely unable to establish seedlings in the absence of externally supplied sucrose. Measurements of mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis revealed that compared with ndufv1, the complex I amounts retained by ndufs4 did not increase mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation capacities. No major differences were seen in the mitochondrial proteomes, cellular metabolomes, or transcriptomes between ndufv1 and ndufs4. The analysis of fluxes through the respiratory pathway revealed that in ndufv1, fluxes through glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were dramatically increased compared with ndufs4, which showed near wild-type-like fluxes. This indicates that the strong growth defects seen for plants lacking complex I originate from a switch in the metabolic mode of mitochondria and an up-regulation of respiratory fluxes. Partial reversion of these phenotypes when traces of active complex I are present suggests that complex I is essential for plant development and likely acts as a negative regulator of respiratory fluxes. PMID:26134164

  8. Nonchemotactic Mutants of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, John B.; Adler, Julius; Dahl, Margaret M.

    1967-01-01

    We have isolated 40 mutants of Escherichia coli which are nonchemotactic as judged by their failure to swarm on semisolid tryptone plates or to make bands in capillary tubes containing tryptone broth. All the mutants have normal flagella, a fact shown by their shape and reaction with antiflagella serum. All are fully motile under the microscope and all are sensitive to the phage chi. Unlike its parent, one of the mutants, studied in greater detail, failed to show chemotaxis toward oxygen, glucose, serine, threonine, or aspartic acid. The failure to exhibit chemotaxis does not result from a failure to use the chemicals. The swimming of this mutant was shown to be random. The growth rate was normal under several conditions, and the growth requirements were unchanged. Images PMID:5335897

  9. Genetics Home Reference: carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... in cells. A group of fats called long-chain fatty acids cannot enter mitochondria unless they are ... carnitine. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A connects carnitine to long-chain fatty acids so they can enter mitochondria and ...

  10. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  11. Paranodal permeability in `myelin mutants'

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, S.; Mierzwa, A.; Scherer, S.S.; Peles, E.; Arevalo, J.C.; Chao, M.V.; Rosenbluth, J.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent dextran tracers of varying sizes have been used to assess paranodal permeability in myelinated sciatic nerve fibers from control and three `myelin mutant' mice, Caspr-null, cst-null and shaking. We demonstrate that in all of these the paranode is permeable to small tracers (3kDa, 10kDa), which penetrate most fibers, and to larger tracers (40kDa, 70kDa), which penetrate far fewer fibers and move shorter distances over longer periods of time. Despite gross diminution in transverse bands in the Caspr-null and cst-null mice, the permeability of their paranodal junctions is equivalent to that in controls. Thus, deficiency of transverse bands in these mutants does not increase the permeability of their paranodal junctions to the dextrans we used, moving from the perinodal space through the paranode to the internodal periaxonal space. In addition, we show that the shaking mice, which have thinner myelin and shorter paranodes, show increased permeability to the same tracers despite the presence of transverse bands. We conclude that the extent of penetration of these tracers does not depend on the presence or absence of transverse bands but does depend on the length of the paranode and, in turn, on the length of `pathway 3', the helical extracellular pathway that passes through the paranode parallel to the lateral edge of the myelin sheath. PMID:21618613

  12. Paranodal permeability in "myelin mutants".

    PubMed

    Shroff, Seema; Mierzwa, Amanda; Scherer, Steven S; Peles, Elior; Arevalo, Juan C; Chao, Moses V; Rosenbluth, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Fluorescent dextran tracers of varying sizes have been used to assess paranodal permeability in myelinated sciatic nerve fibers from control and three "myelin mutant" mice, Caspr-null, cst-null, and shaking. We demonstrate that in all of these the paranode is permeable to small tracers (3 kDa and 10 kDa), which penetrate most fibers, and to larger tracers (40 kDa and 70 kDa), which penetrate far fewer fibers and move shorter distances over longer periods of time. Despite gross diminution in transverse bands (TBs) in the Caspr-null and cst-null mice, the permeability of their paranodal junctions is equivalent to that in controls. Thus, deficiency of TBs in these mutants does not increase the permeability of their paranodal junctions to the dextrans we used, moving from the perinodal space through the paranode to the internodal periaxonal space. In addition, we show that the shaking mice, which have thinner myelin and shorter paranodes, show increased permeability to the same tracers despite the presence of TBs. We conclude that the extent of penetration of these tracers does not depend on the presence or absence of TBs but does depend on the length of the paranode and, in turn, on the length of "pathway 3," the helical extracellular pathway that passes through the paranode parallel to the lateral edge of the myelin sheath. PMID:21618613

  13. Construction of mouse adenovirus type 1 mutants.

    PubMed

    Cauthen, Angela N; Welton, Amanda R; Spindler, Katherine R

    2007-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus provides a model for studying adenovirus pathogenesis in the natural host. The ability to make viral mutants allows the investigation of specific mouse adenoviral gene contributions to virus-host interactions. Methods for propagation and titration of wild-type mouse adenovirus, production of viral DNA and viral DNA-protein complex, and transfection of mouse cells to obtain mouse adenovirus mutants are described in this chapter. Plaque purification, propagation, and titration of the mutant viruses are also presented.

  14. Preventing neurodegeneration in the Drosophila mutant bubblegum.

    PubMed

    Min, K T; Benzer, S

    1999-06-18

    The Drosophila melanogaster recessive mutant bubblegum (bgm) exhibits adult neurodegeneration, with marked dilation of photoreceptor axons. The bubblegum mutant shows elevated levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), as seen in the human disease adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In ALD, the excess can be lowered by dietary treatment with "Lorenzo's oil," a mixture of unsaturated fatty acids. Feeding the fly mutant one of the components, glyceryl trioleate oil, blocked the accumulation of excess VLCFAs as well as development of the pathology. Mutant flies thus provide a potential model system for studying mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and screening drugs for treatment.

  15. Melanin-deficient mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Torres-Guererro, H; Edman, J C

    1994-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. The ability of C. neoformans to produce melanin has been correlated with virulence. The role of melanin in promoting virulence is unclear, although an anti-oxidant function has been suggested. To begin to define the genetic mechanisms responsible for melanin production in C. neoformans, we describe the isolation of seven melanin-deficient mutant classes. Some of the mutants can be suppressed by addition of Cu2+ to media, suggesting that the phenoloxidase of C. neoformans, like other fungal phenoloxidases, contains copper. Other mutants display a recessive sterile phenotype. A genetic and phenotypic characterisation of these mutants is presented. PMID:7983575

  16. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  17. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.

  18. CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Po-Jung; Lee, Chi-Ching; Tan, Bertrand Chin-Ming; Yeh, Yuan-Ming; Julie Chu, Lichieh; Chen, Ting-Wen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Lee, Cheng-Yang; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Liu, Hsuan; Tang, Petrus

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes. PMID:25398898

  19. Mutants of thermotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.J.; Fontana, D.R.; Poff, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum, strain HL50 were mutagenized with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, cloned, allowed to form pseudoplasmodia and screened for aberrant positive and negative thermotaxis. Three types of mutants were found. Mutant HO428 exhibits only positive thermotaxis over the entire temperature range (no negative thermotaxis). HO596 and HO813 exhibit weakened positive thermotaxis and normal negative thermotaxis. The weakened positive thermotactic response results in a shift toward warmer temperatures in the transition temperature from negative to positive thermotaxis. Mutant HO209 exhibits weakened positive and negative thermotactic responses and has a transition temperature similar to the 'wild type' (HL50).The two types of mutants represented by HO428, HO596 and HO813 support the model that positive and negative thermotaxis have separate pathways for temperature sensing. The type of mutants which contains HO209 suggests that those two pathways converge at some point before the response.

  20. Mutants of yeast sensitive to ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Snow, R

    1967-09-01

    Six uvr mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with hypersensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light were isolated after mutagen treatment with ethylmethanesulfonate. UV sensitivity ranges from moderate to extreme, and four of the mutants are also sensitive to nitrous acid. Ranking in terms of UV sensitivity does not parallel ranking in terms of nitrous acid sensitivity. Homozygous diploid mutant strains are somewhat less sensitive than the corresponding haploids. All mutations are recessive. None of the mutants is sensitive to gamma rays, and each shows photoreactivation after UV radiation. Complementation tests and tetrad analysis indicate that each strain represents mutation in a different gene. Two of the uvr genes are linked, and two others are centromere-linked.

  1. Prodigiosin synthesis in mutants of Serratia marcesens.

    PubMed

    Morrison, D A

    1966-04-01

    Morrison, D. A. (Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass.). Prodigiosin synthesis in mutants of Serratia marcescens. J. Bacteriol. 91:1509-1604. 1966.-Exchange of biosynthetic intermediates through the culture medium was used to characterize several hundred new color mutants of Serratia marcescens. The general scheme of prodigiosin synthesis as a bifurcated pathway, in which monopyrrole and bipyrrole precursors are synthesized separately and then coupled to form pigment, was confirmed and extended. Mutants of one new class excreted a product likely to be a new intermediate in monopyrrole synthesis, those of a second excreted a new product in the bipyrrole pathway, and those of a third were blocked at early steps in both pathways. Two novel classes of mutants were isolated, in each of which a lack of some product present in Serratia and Escherichia cultures resulted in loss of all steps in prodigiosin biosynthesis.

  2. Cooperative Interaction Within RNA Virus Mutant Spectra.

    PubMed

    Shirogane, Yuta; Watanabe, Shumpei; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses usually consist of mutant spectra because of high error rates of viral RNA polymerases. Growth competition occurs among different viral variants, and the fittest clones predominate under given conditions. Individual variants, however, may not be entirely independent of each other, and internal interactions within mutant spectra can occur. Examples of cooperative and interfering interactions that exert enhancing and suppressing effects on replication of the wild-type virus, respectively, have been described, but their underlying mechanisms have not been well defined. It was recently found that the cooperation between wild-type and variant measles virus genomes produces a new phenotype through the heterooligomer formation of a viral protein. This observation provides a molecular mechanism underlying cooperative interactions within mutant spectra. Careful attention to individual sequences, in addition to consensus sequences, may disclose further examples of internal interactions within mutant spectra. PMID:26162566

  3. Arabidopsis mutants with increased sensitivity to aluminum.

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, P B; Tai, C Y; Kochian, L V; Howell, S H

    1996-01-01

    Al-sensitive (als) mutants of Arabidopsis were isolated and characterized with the aim of defining mechanisms of Al toxicity and resistance. Most als mutants selected on the basis of root growth sensitivity to Al were recessive, and together the mutants constituted eight complementation groups. Also, in most als mutants, Al sensitivity appeared to be specific for Al relative to La (another trivalent cation), except als2, which was more sensitive to La than wild type. The tendency of roots on mutant seedlings to accumulate Al was examined by staining with morin and hematoxylin, dyes used to indicate the presence of Al. A significant increase in morin staining was observed in als5, consistent with its increased sensitivity to Al. Unexpectedly, als7 and als4 showed less morin staining, suggesting that the roots on these mutants accumulate less Al than wild type seedlings after exposure to Al-containing solutions. Roots of wild-type seedlings produce callose in response to AlCl3 concentrations that inhibit root growth. Only als5 accumulated more callose than wild type in response to low levels (25 mu M) of AICI3 However, als4 and als7 did not accumulate callose at this AlCl3 concentration even though root growth was significantly inhibited. The lack of callose accumulation in als4 and als7 suggests that there is not an obligatory relationship between callose deposition and Al-induced inhibition of root growth. PMID:8819866

  4. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kakar, S.N.; Perez, A.; Gonzales, J.

    1993-06-01

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organopollutants in soils and aqueous media. Although some of the organic compounds are degraded under nonligninolytic conditions, most are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, biopulping, biobleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated or are hyperproducers or supersecretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through ultraviolet-light and gamma-rays mutagenesis we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants produced 272 units (U) of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity per liter after nine days under high nitrogen. The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 U/L and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low-nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 days.

  5. Accelerated bang recovery in Drosophila genderblind mutants.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, David E; Yanoga, Fatoumata; Grosjean, Yael

    2008-07-01

    Cystine-glutamate transporters import cystine into cells for glutathione synthesis and protection from oxidative stress, but also export significant amounts of glutamate. Increasing evidence suggests that 'ambient extracellular glutamate' secreted by cystine-glutamate transporters in the nervous system modulates glutamatergic synapse strength and behavior. To date, the only cystine-glutamate transporter mutants examined behaviorally are Drosophila genderblind mutants. These animals contain loss-of-function mutations in the 'genderblind' gene, which encodes an xCT subunit essential for cystine-glutamate transporter function. Genderblind was named based on a mutant courtship phenotype: male genderblind mutants are attracted to normally aversive male pheromones and thus court and attempt to copulate with both male and female partners equally. However, genderblind protein is expressed in many parts of the fly brain and thus might be expected to also regulate other behaviors, including behaviors not related to male courtship or chemosensation. Here, we show that genderblind mutants display faster recovery and increased negative geotaxis after strong mechanical stimuli (e.g., they climb faster and farther after vial banging). This phenotype is displayed by both males and females, consistent with strong genderblind expression in both sexes. PMID:19430543

  6. Enhanced cellulase production in mutants of Thermomonospora

    SciTech Connect

    Fennington, G.; Lupo, D.; Stutzenberger, F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermomonospora curvata, a thermophilic actinomycete, secretes multiple forms of endo-beta, 1-4-glucanase (EG) when grown on cellulose-mineral salts liquid medium. The EG activity (measured as carboxymethyl cellulose hydrolysis) was separated by ion exchange chromatography into three distinct components which differed in their kinetic properties. Exposure of T. curvata to ultraviolet light, N-nitrosoguanidine, or ethane methyl sulfonate produced mutants with enhanced EG production. Selection of colonies which cleared cellulose agar plants containing 2-deoxyglucose or glycerol yielded mutants having 1.5 to 2.6 times the extracellular EG and saccharifying activity (measured by filter-paper and cotton-fiber hydrolysis). The secretion of extracellular protein was increased proportionally in mutant cultures. (Refs. 40).

  7. [Synthetic lethal genes to mutant p53].

    PubMed

    Tongyang, Liu; Haiqiang, Guo; Meiyan, Zhu; Yingze, Huang; Shuting, Jia; Ying, Luo; Jihong, Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Targeted therapy has become a powerful approach for cancer treatment. Better understanding of oncogenes as well as synthetic lethal interactions with oncogenes will lead to new strategies for tumor-specific treatment. It is well known that mutant p53 plays an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor development. Thus, understanding the synthetic lethal relationship between p53 mutations and interacting genes in tumor is critical for the personalized treatments of p53 mutant tumors. Synthetic lethal genes to mutant p53 can be divided into cell cycle regulators and non-cell cycle regulators. This paper review show these two types of target genes contribute to synthetic lethal interactions with p53 mutations and potential applications of these interactions in anticancer therapy.

  8. High Persister Mutants in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Torrey, Heather L.; Keren, Iris; Via, Laura E.; Lee, Jong Seok; Lewis, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis forms drug-tolerant persister cells that are the probable cause of its recalcitrance to antibiotic therapy. While genetically identical to the rest of the population, persisters are dormant, which protects them from killing by bactericidal antibiotics. The mechanism of persister formation in M. tuberculosis is not well understood. In this study, we selected for high persister (hip) mutants and characterized them by whole genome sequencing and transcriptome analysis. In parallel, we identified and characterized clinical isolates that naturally produce high levels of persisters. We compared the hip mutants obtained in vitro with clinical isolates to identify candidate persister genes. Genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, carbon metabolism, toxin-antitoxin systems, and transcriptional regulators were among those identified. We also found that clinical hip isolates exhibited greater ex vivo survival than the low persister isolates. Our data suggest that M. tuberculosis persister formation involves multiple pathways, and hip mutants may contribute to the recalcitrance of the infection. PMID:27176494

  9. Structure of mutant human oncogene protein determined

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.

    1989-01-16

    The protein encoded by a mutant human oncogene differs only slightly in structure from the native protein that initiates normal cell division, a finding that may complicate efforts to develop inhibitors of the mutant protein. Previously, the x-ray structure of the protein encoded by the normal c-Ha-ras gene, a protein believed to signal cells to start or stop dividing through its interaction with guanosine triphosphate (GTP), was reported. The structure of the protein encoded by a transforming c-Ha-ras oncogene, in which a valine codon replaces the normal glycine codon at position 12 in the gene, has now been determined. The differences in the structures of the mutant and normal proteins are located primarily in a loop that interacts with the /beta/-phosphate of a bound guanosine diphosphate (GDP) molecule.

  10. TOMATOMA: A Novel Tomato Mutant Database Distributing Micro-Tom Mutant Collections

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takeshi; Ariizumi, Tohru; Okabe, Yoshihiro; Asamizu, Erika; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Fukuda, Naoya; Mizoguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Aoki, Koh; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The tomato is an excellent model for studies of plants bearing berry-type fruits and for experimental studies of the Solanaceae family of plants due to its conserved genetic organization. In this study, a comprehensive mutant tomato population was generated in the background of Micro-Tom, a dwarf, rapid-growth variety. In this and previous studies, a family including 8,598 and 6,422 M2 mutagenized lines was produced by ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis and γ-ray irradiation, and this study developed and investigated these M2 plants for alteration of visible phenotypes. A total of 9,183 independent M2 families comprising 91,830 M2 plants were inspected for phenotypic alteration, and 1,048 individual mutants were isolated. Subsequently, the observed mutant phenotypes were classified into 15 major categories and 48 subcategories. Overall, 1,819 phenotypic categories were found in 1,048 mutants. Of these mutants, 549 were pleiotropic, whereas 499 were non-pleiotropic. Multiple different mutant alleles per locus were found in the mutant libraries, suggesting that the mutagenized populations were nearly saturated. Additionally, genetic analysis of backcrosses indicated the successful inheritance of the mutations in BC1F2 populations, confirming the reproducibility in the morphological phenotyping of the M2 plants. To integrate and manage the visible phenotypes of mutants and other associated data, we developed the in silico database TOMATOMA, a relational system interfacing modules between mutant line names and phenotypic categories. TOMATOMA is a freely accessible database, and these mutant recourses are available through the TOMATOMA (http://tomatoma.nbrp.jp/index.jsp). PMID:21258066

  11. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as well as heteroallelic offspring of these two strains ('xCT/sut') and their associated genetic backgrounds. Homozygous sut mutant males showed reduced spontaneous alternation in spontaneous alternation tasks as well as reduced movement in an open field maze, but xCT and xCT/sut strains did not show significant changes in these tasks compared to appropriate controls. Neither xCT nor sut mutants showed differences from controls in rotarod tests. Female behavioral phenotypes were independent of estrus cycle stage. To ensure that homozygous xCT, sut, and xCT/sut strains all represent protein null alleles, we measured whole brain xCT protein levels using immunoblots. xCT, sut and xCT/sut strains showed no detectable xCT protein expression, confirming them as null alleles. Previously published microdialysis experiments showed reduced striatal glutamate in xCT mutants. Using the same methods, we measured reduced interstitial glutamate levels in the striatum but not cerebellum of sut mutants. However, we detected no glutamate change in the striatum or cerebellum of sut/xCT mice. We detected no changes in whole brain EAAT-1, -2, or -3 expression. We conclude that the behavioral and chemical differences exist between slc7a11 mutant strains, but we were unable to definitively attribute any of these differences to loss of system xc-.

  12. Nondisjunction Mutants of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Horvitz, H. Robert; Brenner, Sydney

    1979-01-01

    The frequency of males (5AA; XO) among the self progeny of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites (5AA; XX) is about one in 500. Fifteen him (for "high incidence of males") mutations have been identified that increase this frequency by a factor of ten to 150, as a result of increased X-chromosome nondisjunction. The mutations define ten complementation groups, which have been mapped: nine are autosomal, and one sex linked. Most of the mutants are superficially wild type in anatomy and behavior; however, him-4 mutants display gonadal abnormalities, and unc-86 mutants, which have a Him phenotype, exhibit a variety of anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. All the mutants segregate fertile 3X hermaphrodite progeny as well as XO male progeny. Some produce large numbers of inviable zygotes. Mutants in all ten genes produce diplo-X and nullo-X exceptional ova, and in the four strains tested, diplo-X and nullo-X exceptional sperm are produced by 2X "transformed" males. It appears likely that most of the mutants have defects in both gamete lines of the hermaphrodite. XO males of him strains other than him-4 and unc-86 are similar to wild-type males in anatomy and behavior, and all produce equal or almost equal numbers of haplo-X and nullo-X sperm, and no diplo-X sperm. Male fertility is reduced to varying extents in all him mutants. In four of the strains, nondisjunction during oogenesis has been shown to occur at a reductional division, and in three of these strains, abnormalities in recombination have been demonstrated. One mutant also exhibits autosomal nondisjunction, but many of the others probably do not. Therefore, the X chromosome of C. elegans may differ from the autosomes in the mechanisms controlling its meiotic behavior.——3X hermaphrodites are shorter and less fertile than 2X hermaphrodites, and they produce many inviable zygotes among their self progeny: these are probably 4X zygotes. Haplo-X and diplo-X ova are produced in 2:1 ratio by 3X

  13. Neurospora crassa mutants deficient in asparagine synthetase.

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, K G; Nelson, R E; Schuster, S M

    1983-01-01

    Neurospora crassa mutants deficient in asparagine synthetase were selected by using the procedure of inositol-less death. Complementation tests among the 100 mutants isolated suggested that their alterations were genetically allelic. Recombination analysis with strain S1007t, an asparagine auxotroph, indicated that the mutations were located near or within the asn gene on linkage group V. In vitro assays with a heterokaryon indicated that the mutation was dominant. Thermal instability of cell extracts from temperature-sensitive strains in an in vitro asparagine synthetase assay determined that the mutations were in the structural gene(s) for asparagine synthetase. PMID:6137480

  14. Novel Two-Step Hierarchical Screening of Mutant Pools Reveals Mutants under Selection in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Jeong; Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Elfenbein, Johanna R.; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Reynolds, M. Megan; Porwollik, Steffen; Cheng, Pui; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Contaminated chicken/egg products are major sources of human salmonellosis, yet the strategies used by Salmonella to colonize chickens are poorly understood. We applied a novel two-step hierarchical procedure to identify new genes important for colonization and persistence of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in chickens. A library of 182 S. Typhimurium mutants each containing a targeted deletion of a group of contiguous genes (for a total of 2,069 genes deleted) was used to identify regions under selection at 1, 3, and 9 days postinfection in chicks. Mutants in 11 regions were under selection at all assayed times (colonization mutants), and mutants in 15 regions were under selection only at day 9 (persistence mutants). We assembled a pool of 92 mutants, each deleted for a single gene, representing nearly all genes in nine regions under selection. Twelve single gene deletion mutants were under selection in this assay, and we confirmed 6 of 9 of these candidate mutants via competitive infections and complementation analysis in chicks. STM0580, STM1295, STM1297, STM3612, STM3615, and STM3734 are needed for Salmonella to colonize and persist in chicks and were not previously associated with this ability. One of these key genes, STM1297 (selD), is required for anaerobic growth and supports the ability to utilize formate under these conditions, suggesting that metabolism of formate is important during infection. We report a hierarchical screening strategy to interrogate large portions of the genome during infection of animals using pools of mutants of low complexity. Using this strategy, we identified six genes not previously known to be needed during infection in chicks, and one of these (STM1297) suggests an important role for formate metabolism during infection. PMID:26857572

  15. Ethanol production using engineered mutant E. coli

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Clark, David P.

    1991-01-01

    The subject invention concerns novel means and materials for producing ethanol as a fermentation product. Mutant E. coli are transformed with a gene coding for pyruvate decarboxylase activity. The resulting system is capable of producing relatively large amounts of ethanol from a variety of biomass sources.

  16. Rapid Antibiotic Resistance Evolution of GASP Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiucen; Kim, Hyunsung; Pourmand, Nader; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    The GASP phenotype in bacteria is due to a mutation which enables the bacteria to grow under high stress conditions where other bacteria stop growing. We probe using our Death Galaxy microenvironment how rapidly the GASP mutant can evolve resistance to mutagenic antibiotics compared to wild-type bacteria, and explore the genomic landscape changes due to the evolution of resistance.

  17. Yeast mutants overproducing iso-cytochromes c

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, F.; Cardillo, T.S.; Errede, B.; Friedman, L.; McKnight, G.; Stiles, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    For over 15 years, the iso-cytochrome c system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to investigate a multitude of problems in genetics and molecular biology. More recently, attention has been focused on using mutants for examining translation and transcriptional processes and for probing regulatory regions governing gene expression. In an effort to explore regulatory mechanisms and to investigate mutational alterations that lead to increased levels of gene products, we have isolated and characterized mutants that overproduce cytochrome c. In this paper we have briefly summarized background information of some essential features of the iso-cytochrome c system and we have described the types of mutants that overproduce iso-1-cytochrome c or iso-2-cytochrome c. Genetic procedures and recombinant DNA procedures were used to demonstrate that abnormally high amounts of gene products occur in mutants as result of duplications of gene copies or of extended alteration of regulatory regions. The results summarized in this paper point out the requirements of gross mutational changes or rearrangements of chromosomal segments for augmenting gene products.

  18. Genotyping-by-sequencing of glossy mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glossy mutants are a common occurrence in Brassica oleracea L. and they have been documented in most crop varieties of the species including cabbage, kale, broccoli, and collard. Glossy phenotypes have been of particular interest to researchers due to observations that they influence insect behavior...

  19. POST Quantum Cryptography from Mutant Prime Knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuoli, Annalisa; Palumbo, Giandomenico

    By resorting to basic features of topological knot theory we propose a (classical) cryptographic protocol based on the `difficulty' of decomposing complex knots generated as connected sums of prime knots and their mutants. The scheme combines an asymmetric public key protocol with symmetric private ones and is intrinsecally secure against quantum eavesdropper attacks.

  20. Generation and identification of Arabidopsis EMS mutants.

    PubMed

    Qu, Li-Jia; Qin, Genji

    2014-01-01

    EMS mutant analysis is a routine experiment to identify new players in a specific biological process or signaling pathway using forward genetics. It begins with the generation of mutants by treating Arabidopsis seeds with EMS. A mutant with a phenotype of interest (mpi) is obtained by screening plants of the M2 generation under a specific condition. Once the phenotype of the mpi is confirmed in the next generation, map-based cloning is performed to locate the mpi mutation. During the map-based cloning, mpi plants (Arabidopsis Columbia-0 (Col-0) ecotype background) are first crossed with Arabidopsis Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, and the presence or absence of the phenotype in the F1 hybrids indicates whether the mpi is recessive or dominant. F2 plants with phenotypes similar to the mpi, if the mpi is recessive, or those without the phenotype, if the mpi is dominant, are used as the mapping population. As few as 24 such plants are selected for rough mapping. After finding one marker (MA) linked to the mpi locus or mutant phenotype, more markers near MA are tested to identify recombinants. The recombinants indicate the interval in which the mpi is located. Additional recombinants and molecular markers are then required to narrow down the interval. This is an iterative process of narrowing down the mapping interval until no further recombinants or molecular markers are available. The genes in the mapping interval are then sequenced to look for the mutation. In the last step, the wild-type or mutated gene is cloned to generate binary constructs. Complementation or recapitulation provides the most convincing evidence in determining the mutation that causes the phenotype of the mpi. Here, we describe the procedures for generating mutants with EMS and analyzing EMS mutations by map-based cloning.

  1. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under

  2. Intact Interval Timing in Circadian CLOCK Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Cordes, Sara; Gallistel, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    While progress has been made in determining the molecular basis for the circadian clock, the mechanism by which mammalian brains time intervals measured in seconds to minutes remains a mystery. An obvious question is whether the interval timing mechanism shares molecular machinery with the circadian timing mechanism. In the current study, we trained circadian CLOCK +/− and −/− mutant male mice in a peak-interval procedure with 10 and 20-s criteria. The mutant mice were more active than their wild-type littermates, but there were no reliable deficits in the accuracy or precision of their timing as compared with wild-type littermates. This suggests that expression of the CLOCK protein is not necessary for normal interval timing. PMID:18602902

  3. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Y.; Clewell, D.B.

    1980-08-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  4. Mutant p53: One, No One, and One Hundred Thousand

    PubMed Central

    Walerych, Dawid; Lisek, Kamil; Del Sal, Giannino

    2015-01-01

    Encoded by the mutated variants of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene, mutant p53 proteins are getting an increased experimental support as active oncoproteins promoting tumor growth and metastasis. p53 missense mutant proteins are losing their wild-type tumor suppressor activity and acquire oncogenic potential, possessing diverse transforming abilities in cell and mouse models. Whether various mutant p53s differ in their oncogenic potential has been a matter of debate. Recent discoveries are starting to uncover the existence of mutant p53 downstream programs that are common to different mutant p53 variants. In this review, we discuss a number of studies on mutant p53, underlining the advantages and disadvantages of alternative experimental approaches that have been used to describe the numerous mutant p53 gain-of-function activities. Therapeutic possibilities are also discussed, taking into account targeting either individual or multiple mutant p53 proteins in human cancer. PMID:26734571

  5. Mutant Sodium Channel for Tumor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Bakhos A; Christensen, Adam P; Pike, Lisa; Wurdinger, Thomas; Perry, Katherine F; Saydam, Okay; Jacobs, Andreas H; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Weissleder, Ralph; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Corey, David P; Breakefield, Xandra O

    2009-01-01

    Viral vectors have been used to deliver a wide range of therapeutic genes to tumors. In this study, a novel tumor therapy was achieved by the delivery of a mammalian brain sodium channel, ASIC2a, carrying a mutation that renders it constitutively open. This channel was delivered to tumor cells using a herpes simplex virus-1/Epstein–Barr virus (HSV/EBV) hybrid amplicon vector in which gene expression was controlled by a tetracycline regulatory system (tet-on) with silencer elements. Upon infection and doxycycline induction of mutant channel expression in tumor cells, the open channel led to amiloride-sensitive sodium influx as assessed by patch clamp recording and sodium imaging in culture. Within hours, tumor cells swelled and died. In addition to cells expressing the mutant channel, adjacent, noninfected cells connected by gap junctions also died. Intratumoral injection of HSV/EBV amplicon vector encoding the mutant sodium channel and systemic administration of doxycycline led to regression of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice as assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. The advantage of this direct mode of tumor therapy is that all types of tumor cells become susceptible and death is rapid with no time for the tumor cells to become resistant. PMID:19259066

  6. Isolation of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Chidambaram, M; Sharma, B; Petras, S F; Reese, C P; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M

    1995-01-01

    Two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 that do not produce leukotoxin were isolated. Following mutagenesis, colonies were screened with antiserum by a filter assay for absence of the secreted leukotoxin. The two mutants both appeared to produce normal amounts of other antigens, as judged by reactivity with polyclonal serum from an animal with pasteurellosis, and were not altered in beta-hemolytic activity as seen on blood agar plates. There was no evidence of either cell-associated or secreted leukotoxin protein when Western blots (immunoblots) were carried out with the polyclonal serum or with a monoclonal antibody directed against the leukotoxin. Southern blots revealed that both mutants show the wild-type restriction pattern at the leukotoxin locus, although the strain with the lktA2 mutation showed differences in other regions of the chromosome on analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strain with the lktA2 mutation grew more slowly than did the wild-type strain, while the strain with the lktA1 mutation was indistinguishable from the wild-type strain in its growth properties. The strain with the lktA1 mutation should be valuable in determining the role of the leukotoxin in virulence as well as in identifying other virulence factors of P. haemolytica. PMID:7868223

  7. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels. PMID:26732534

  8. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  9. A photorespiratory mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, K.; Marek, L.F.; Spalding, M.H. )

    1990-05-01

    A mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, designated 18-7F, has been isolated and characterized. 18-7F requires a high CO{sub 2} concentration for photoautrophic growth in spite of the apparent induction of a functional CO{sub 2} concentrating mechanism in air-adapted cells. In 2% O{sub 2} the photosynthetic characteristics of 18-7F and wild type are similar. In 21% O{sub 2}, photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution is severely inhibited in the mutant by preillumination in limiting CO{sub 2}, although the apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon is similar in preilluminated cells and in cells incubated in the dark prior to O{sub 2} evolution measurements. Net CO{sub 2} uptake is also inhibited when the cells are exposed to air (21% O{sub 2}, 0.035% CO{sub 2}, balance N{sub 2}) for longer than a few minutes. ({sup 14}C)Phosphoglycolate accumulates within 5 minutes of photosynthetic {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation in cells of 18-7F. Phosphoglycolate does not accumulate in wild type. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity in extracts from air-adapted cells of 18-7F is 10 to 20% of that in wild-type Chlamydomonas. The activity of phosphoglycolate phosphatase in heterozygous diploids is intermediate between that of homozygous mutant and wild-type diploids. It was concluded that the high-CO{sub 2} requiring phenotype in 18-7F results from a phosphoglycolate phosphatase deficiency. Genetic analyses indicate that this deficiency results from a single-gene, nuclear mutation. We have named the locus pgp-1.

  10. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, J.P.

    1997-07-29

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned. 15 figs.

  11. Isolation of mouse cell proteoglycan mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, K.M.; Keller, J.M.

    1986-05-01

    The sulfated proteoglycans on the surface of cultured mammalian cells have been implicated in a variety of phenomena. To obtain more direct evidence for the role of these molecules in specific cellular functions, they are isolating mutants that produce altered sulfated proteoglycans from a cloned line of Swiss mouse 3T3 cells. This cell type was selected because it exhibits contact inhibition of growth and there is extensive information on its' cell surface and extracellular proteoglycans and other glycoproteins. Cells were chemically mutagenized and subjected to one or more cycles of radiation suicide in the presence of /sup 35/S-sulfate. By replica plating, 150 clones, which appear to incorporate abnormal amounts of /sup 35/S-sulfate, have been selected. After recloning three times via the replica plating technique, the proteoglycans of 29 clones have thus far been analyzed. They have identified four clones which appear to make altered amounts of either cell surface heparan sulfate or chondroitin sulfate. The biochemical bases for the altered levels of the proteoglycans are under study. Of particular interest, however, is the fact that in this limited collection of mutants the chemical alterations correlate with specific altered cellular morphologies.

  12. Method for rapid isolation of sensitive mutants

    DOEpatents

    Freyer, James P.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitive mammalian cell mutants are rapidly isolated using flow cytometry. A first population of clonal spheroids is established to contain both normal and mutant cells. The population may be naturally occurring or may arise from mutagenized cells. The first population is then flow sorted by size to obtain a second population of clonal spheroids of a first uniform size. The second population is then exposed to a DNA-damaging agent that is being investigated. The exposed second population is placed in a growth medium to form a third population of clonal spheroids comprising spheroids of increased size from the mammalian cells that are resistant to the DNA-damaging agent and spheroids of substantially the first uniform size formed from the mammalian cells that are sensitive to the DNA-damaging agent. The third population is not flow sorted to differentiate the spheroids formed from resistant mammalian cells from spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells. The spheroids formed from sensitive mammalian cells are now treated to recover viable sensitive cells from which a sensitive cell line can be cloned.

  13. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropical

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, S.G.; Rayle, D.L. ); Cleland, R.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  14. Too Many Mutants with Multiple Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Drake, John W.

    2007-01-01

    It has recently become clear that the classical notion of the random nature of mutation does not hold for the distribution of mutations among genes: most collections of mutants contain more isolates with two or more mutations than predicted by the mutant frequency on the assumption of a random distribution of mutations. Excesses of multiples are seen in a wide range of organisms, including riboviruses, DNA viruses, prokaryotes, yeasts, and higher eukaryotic cell lines and tissues. In addition, such excesses are produced by DNA polymerases in vitro. These “multiples” appear to be generated by transient, localized hypermutation rather than by heritable mutator mutations. The components of multiples are sometimes scattered at random and sometimes display an excess of smaller distances between mutations. As yet, almost nothing is known about the mechanisms that generate multiples, but such mutations have the capacity to accelerate those evolutionary pathways that require multiple mutations where the individual mutations are neutral or deleterious. Examples that impinge on human health may include carcinogenesis and the adaptation of microbial pathogens as they move between individual hosts. PMID:17687667

  15. Auxin physiology of the tomato mutant diageotropica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, S. G.; Rayle, D. L.; Cleland, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) mutant diageotropica (dgt) exhibits biochemical, physiological, and morphological abnormalities that suggest the mutation may have affected a primary site of auxin perception or action. We have compared two aspects of the auxin physiology of dgt and wild-type (VFN8) seedlings: auxin transport and cellular growth parameters. The rates of basipetal indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) polar transport are identical in hypocotyl sections of the two genotypes, but dgt sections have a slightly greater capacity for IAA transport. 2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid and ethylene reduce transport in both mutant and wild-type sections. The kinetics of auxin uptake into VFN8 and dgt sections are nearly identical. These results make it unlikely that an altered IAA efflux carrier or IAA uptake symport are responsible for the pleiotropic effects resulting from the dgt mutation. The lack of auxin-induced cell elongation in dgt plants is not due to insufficient turgor, as the osmotic potential of dgt cell sap is less (more negative) than that of VFN8. An auxin-induced increase in wall extensibility, as measured by the Instron technique, only occurs in the VFN8 plants. These data suggest dgt hypocotyls suffer a defect in the sequence of events culminating in auxin-induced cell wall loosening.

  16. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered phototropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khurana, J. P.; Poff, K. L.

    1989-01-01

    Thirty five strains of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. have been identified with altered phototropic responses to 450-nm light. Four of these mutants have been more thoroughly characterized. Strain JK224 shows normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. However, while the amplitude for "first positive" phototropism is the same as that in the wild-type, the threshold and fluence for the maximum response in "first positive" phototropism are shifted to higher fluence by a factor of 20-30. This mutant may represent an alteration in the photoreceptor pigment for phototropism. Strain JK218 exhibits no curvature to light at any fluence from 1 micromole m-2 to 2700 micromoles m-2, but shows normal gravitropism. Strain JK345 shows no "first positive" phototropism, and reduced gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Strain JK229 shows no measurable "first positive" phototropism, but normal gravitropism and "second positive" phototropism. Based on these data, it is suggested that: 1. gravitropism and phototropism contain at least one common element; 2. "first positive" and "second positive" phototropism contain at least one common element; and 3. "first positive" phototropism can be substantially altered without any apparent alteration of "second positive" phototropism.

  17. Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Defects in Acetate Metabolism: Isolation and Characterization of Acn(-) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn(-) (``ACetate Nonutilizing'') mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism. PMID:8878673

  18. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defects in acetate metabolism: isolation and characterization of Acn- mutants.

    PubMed

    McCammon, M T

    1996-09-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn- ("ACetate Nonutilizing") mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism.

  19. Neurobehavioral Mutants Identified in an ENU Mutagenesis Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Melloni N.; Dunning, Jonathan P; Wiley, Ronald G; Chesler, Elissa J; Johnson, Dabney K; Goldowitz, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We report on a behavioral screening test battery that successfully identified several neurobehavioral mutants among a large-scale ENU-mutagenized mouse population. Large numbers of ENU mutagenized mice were screened for abnormalities in central nervous system function based on abnormal performance in a series of behavior tasks. We developed and employed a high-throughput screen of behavioral tasks to detect behavioral outliers. Twelve mutant pedigrees, representing a broad range of behavioral phenotypes, have been identified. Specifically, we have identified two open field mutants (one displaying hyper-locomotion, the other hypo-locomotion), four tail suspension mutants (all displaying increased immobility), one nociception mutant (displaying abnormal responsiveness to thermal pain), two prepulse inhibition mutants (displaying poor inhibition of the startle response), one anxiety-related mutant (displaying decreased anxiety in the light/dark test), and one learning and memory mutant (displaying reduced response to the conditioned stimulus) These findings highlight the utility of a set of behavioral tasks used in a high throughput screen to identify neurobehavioral mutants. Further analysis (i.e., behavioral and genetic mapping studies) of mutants is in progress with the ultimate goal of identification of novel genes and mouse models relevant to human disorders as well as the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  20. Mutants of Downy Mildew Resistance in Lactuca Sativa (Lettuce)

    PubMed Central

    Okubara, P. A.; Anderson, P. A.; Ochoa, O. E.; Michelmore, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    As part of our investigation of disease resistance in lettuce, we generated mutants that have lost resistance to Bremia lactucae, the casual fungus of downy mildew. Using a rapid and reliable screen, we identified 16 distinct mutants of Latuca sativa that have lost activity of one of four different downy mildew resistance genes (Dm). In all mutants, only a single Dm specificity was affected. Genetic analysis indicated that the lesions segregated as single, recessive mutations at the Dm loci. Dm3 was inactivated in nine of the mutants. One of five Dm1 mutants was selected from a population of untreated seeds and therefore carried a spontaneous mutation. All other Dm1, Dm3, Dm5/8 and Dm7 mutants were derived from γ- or fast neutron-irradiated seed. In two separate Dm1 mutants and in each of the eight Dm3 mutants analyzed, at least one closely linked molecular marker was absent. Also, high molecular weight genomic DNA fragments that hybridized to a tightly linked molecular marker in wild type were either missing entirely or were truncated in two of the Dm3 mutants, providing additional evidence that deletions had occurred in these mutants. Absence of mutations at loci epistatic to the Dm genes suggested that such loci were either members of multigene families, were critical for plant survival, or encoded components of duplicated pathways for resistance; alternatively, the genes determining downy mildew resistance might be limited to the Dm loci. PMID:8088530

  1. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Luo, Pan; Di, Dong-Wei; Wang, Li; Wang, Ming; Lu, Cheng-Kai; Wei, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Zi; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-07-06

    Identification of mutants with impairments in auxin biosynthesis and dynamics by forward genetic screening is hindered by the complexity, redundancy and necessity of the pathways involved. Furthermore, although a few auxin-deficient mutants have been recently identified by screening for altered responses to shade, ethylene, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or cytokinin (CK), there is still a lack of robust markers for systematically isolating such mutants. We hypothesized that a potentially suitable phenotypic marker is root curling induced by CK, as observed in the auxin biosynthesis mutant CK-induced root curling 1 / tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (ckrc1/taa1). Phenotypic observations, genetic analyses and biochemical complementation tests of Arabidopsis seedlings displaying the trait in large-scale genetic screens showed that it can facilitate isolation of mutants with perturbations in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. However, unlike transport/signaling mutants, the curled (or wavy) root phenotypes of auxin-deficient mutants were significantly induced by CKs and could be rescued by exogenous auxins. Mutants allelic to several known auxin biosynthesis mutants were re-isolated, but several new classes of auxin-deficient mutants were also isolated. The findings show that CK-induced root curling provides an effective marker for discovering genes involved in auxin biosynthesis or homeostasis.

  2. Forward genetic screen for auxin-deficient mutants by cytokinin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; Luo, Pan; Di, Dong-Wei; Wang, Li; Wang, Ming; Lu, Cheng-Kai; Wei, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Tian-Zi; Amakorová, Petra; Strnad, Miroslav; Novák, Ondřej; Guo, Guang-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Identification of mutants with impairments in auxin biosynthesis and dynamics by forward genetic screening is hindered by the complexity, redundancy and necessity of the pathways involved. Furthermore, although a few auxin-deficient mutants have been recently identified by screening for altered responses to shade, ethylene, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) or cytokinin (CK), there is still a lack of robust markers for systematically isolating such mutants. We hypothesized that a potentially suitable phenotypic marker is root curling induced by CK, as observed in the auxin biosynthesis mutant CK-induced root curling 1 / tryptophan aminotransferase of Arabidopsis 1 (ckrc1/taa1). Phenotypic observations, genetic analyses and biochemical complementation tests of Arabidopsis seedlings displaying the trait in large-scale genetic screens showed that it can facilitate isolation of mutants with perturbations in auxin biosynthesis, transport and signaling. However, unlike transport/signaling mutants, the curled (or wavy) root phenotypes of auxin-deficient mutants were significantly induced by CKs and could be rescued by exogenous auxins. Mutants allelic to several known auxin biosynthesis mutants were re-isolated, but several new classes of auxin-deficient mutants were also isolated. The findings show that CK-induced root curling provides an effective marker for discovering genes involved in auxin biosynthesis or homeostasis. PMID:26143750

  3. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii Altered in Cercosporin Synthesis and Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, R G; Walker, D C; Rollins, J A; Ehrenshaft, M; Daub, M E

    1991-10-01

    We have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus.

  4. Mutants of Cercospora kikuchii Altered in Cercosporin Synthesis and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, R. G.; Walker, D. C.; Rollins, J. A.; Ehrenshaft, M.; Daub, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have obtained spontaneous and UV-induced stable mutants, altered in the synthesis of cercosporin, of the fungal soybean pathogen Cercospora kikuchii. The mutants were isolated on the basis of colony color on minimal medium. The UV-induced mutants accumulated, at most, 2% of wild-type cercosporin levels on all media tested. In contrast, cercosporin accumulation by the spontaneous mutants was strongly medium regulated, occurring only on potato dextrose medium but at concentrations comparable to those produced by the wild-type strain. UV-induced mutants unable to synthesize cercosporin on any medium were unable to incite lesions when inoculated onto the soybean host. Cercosporin was reproducibly isolated from all inoculated leaves showing lesions. Although cercosporin involvement in disease has been indirectly suggested by many previous studies, this is the first report in which mutants blocked in cercosporin synthesis have been used to demonstrate that cercosporin is a crucial pathogenicity factor for this fungal genus. Images PMID:16348567

  5. Colony mutants of compatible nocardiae displaying variations in recombining capacity.

    PubMed

    Brownell, G H; Walsh, R S

    1972-03-01

    Colonial morphology mutants of Nocardia erythropolis were isolated following ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The alleles rou-1/smo-1 were located by recombinant analysis and found to be linked to previously mapped characters. On the basis of recombinant class type patterns obtained from various selective characters it was postulated that the rou-1 allele may span a region of unique nucleotides in the Mat-Ce genome. Recombination frequencies of rou-1 and smo-2 bearing mutants of the Mat-Ce mating type were found to differ by over 1000 fold. Attempts to demonstrate that low recombination frequencies produced by the Smo mutants were due to Rec(-) genes were unsuccessful. No increased sensitivity to either UV or X irradiation was observed by the Smo mutants. Acriflavine treatment of either Rou or Smo colony mutants failed to accelerate reversion or to alter the recombining potentials of the mutants.

  6. pyewacket, a new zebrafish fin pigment pattern mutant.

    PubMed

    Mellgren, Eve M; Johnson, Stephen L

    2006-06-01

    Many mutants that disrupt zebrafish embryonic pigment pattern have been isolated, and subsequent cloning of the mutated genes causing these phenotypes has contributed to our understanding of pigment cell development. However, few mutants have been identified that specifically affect development of the adult pigment pattern. Through a mutant screen for adult pigment pattern phenotypes, we identified pyewacket (pye), a novel zebrafish mutant in which development of the adult caudal fin pigment pattern is aberrant. Specifically, pye mutants have fin melanocyte pigment pattern defects and fewer xanthophores than wild-type fins. We mapped pye to an interval where a single gene, the zebrafish ortholog of the human gene DHRSX, is present. pye will be an informative mutant for understanding how xanthophores and melanocytes interact to form the pigment pattern of the adult zebrafish fin.

  7. [Molecular analysis of space mutant line of kidney bean].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Li, J G; Wang, P S; Wang, X Q; Jiang, X C

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To identify the occurrence of gene mutant in mutant lines in the offspring of Kidney bean seeds under space flight condition. Method. Kidney bean seeds were carried onboard a recoverable satellite for 15 days in space and were planted on the ground after recovery. Five mutant lines showing variation in the form of leaf blade and their parents were analyzed with RAPD technique. Result. 50 random 10-mer primers were used in this study, among which 20 primers generated 180 polymorphic DNA bands, their size ranged from 200 bp to 2000 bp. 3 primers amplified obviously different bands in the DNA of mutant lines in comparison with that of the control. Conclusion. This is the first molecular analysis of the mutant lines of Kidney bean generated by space mutagenesis at DNA level. The result of RAPD analysis indicated that distinct variations were demonstrated in the DNA of mutant lines as compared with that of the original control.

  8. Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ehinger, Johannes K; Piel, Sarah; Ford, Rhonan; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander; Morota, Saori; Taylor, Robert W; Turnbull, Doug M; Cornell, Clive; Moss, Steven J; Metzsch, Carsten; Hansson, Magnus J; Fliri, Hans; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most prevalent defect in the respiratory chain in paediatric mitochondrial disease. This heterogeneous group of diseases includes serious or fatal neurological presentations such as Leigh syndrome and there are very limited evidence-based treatment options available. Here we describe that cell membrane-permeable prodrugs of the complex II substrate succinate increase ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration in CI-deficient human blood cells, fibroblasts and heart fibres. Lactate accumulation in platelets due to rotenone-induced CI inhibition is reversed and rotenone-induced increase in lactate:pyruvate ratio in white blood cells is alleviated. Metabolomic analyses demonstrate delivery and metabolism of [(13)C]succinate. In Leigh syndrome patient fibroblasts, with a recessive NDUFS2 mutation, respiration and spare respiratory capacity are increased by prodrug administration. We conclude that prodrug-delivered succinate bypasses CI and supports electron transport, membrane potential and ATP production. This strategy offers a potential future therapy for metabolic decompensation due to mitochondrial CI dysfunction. PMID:27502960

  9. Cell-permeable succinate prodrugs bypass mitochondrial complex I deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ehinger, Johannes K.; Piel, Sarah; Ford, Rhonan; Karlsson, Michael; Sjövall, Fredrik; Frostner, Eleonor Åsander; Morota, Saori; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.; Cornell, Clive; Moss, Steven J.; Metzsch, Carsten; Hansson, Magnus J.; Fliri, Hans; Elmér, Eskil

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiency is the most prevalent defect in the respiratory chain in paediatric mitochondrial disease. This heterogeneous group of diseases includes serious or fatal neurological presentations such as Leigh syndrome and there are very limited evidence-based treatment options available. Here we describe that cell membrane-permeable prodrugs of the complex II substrate succinate increase ATP-linked mitochondrial respiration in CI-deficient human blood cells, fibroblasts and heart fibres. Lactate accumulation in platelets due to rotenone-induced CI inhibition is reversed and rotenone-induced increase in lactate:pyruvate ratio in white blood cells is alleviated. Metabolomic analyses demonstrate delivery and metabolism of [13C]succinate. In Leigh syndrome patient fibroblasts, with a recessive NDUFS2 mutation, respiration and spare respiratory capacity are increased by prodrug administration. We conclude that prodrug-delivered succinate bypasses CI and supports electron transport, membrane potential and ATP production. This strategy offers a potential future therapy for metabolic decompensation due to mitochondrial CI dysfunction. PMID:27502960

  10. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae unencapsulated mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Benedi, V.J.; Ciurana, B.; Tomas, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants were obtained after UV irradiation and negative selection with anticapsular serum. Unencapsulation, rather than expression of a structurally altered capsule, was found in the mutants. The mutant strains showed no alterations in their outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide, and a great similarity with the wild type in the properties tested (serum resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity, and lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage sensitivity), with the exception of a higher cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to bacteriophage FC3-9.

  11. Growth and development of maize that contains mutant tubulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Wick

    2004-07-23

    Mutant maize plants containing a Mu transposon disrupting one of the five beta tubulin genes of interest were followed for several generations and hybridized with each other to produce plants containing disruptions in both copies of a single gene or disruption of more than one tubulin gene. Seedlings of some of these plants were grown under chilling conditions for a few weeks. After DOE funding ended, plants have been assessed to see whether mutant are more or less tolerant to chilling. Other mutant plants will be assessed for their male and female fertility relative to non-mutant siblings or other close relatives.

  12. [Pigment composition and photosynthetic activity of pea chlorophyll mutants].

    PubMed

    Ladygin, V G

    2003-01-01

    Pea chlorophyll mutants chlorotica 2004 and 2014 have been studied. The mutants differ from the initial form (pea cultivar Torsdag) in stem and leaf color (light green in the mutant 2004 and yellow-green in the mutant 2014), relative chlorophyll content (approximately 80 and 50%, respectively), and the composition of carotenoids: the mutant 2004 contains a significantly smaller amount of carotene but accumulates more lutein and violaxanthine; in the mutant 2014, the contents of all carotenoids are decreased proportionally to the decrease in chlorophyll content. It is shown that the rates of CO2 assimilation and oxygen production in the mutant chlorotica 2004 and 2014 plants are reduced. The quantum efficiency of photosynthesis in the mutants is 29-30% lower than in the control plants; in their hybrids, however, it is 1.5-2 higher. It is proposed that both the greater role of dark respiration in gas exchange and the reduced photosynthetic activity in chlorotica mutants are responsible for the decreased phytomass increment in these plants. On the basis of these results, the conclusion is drawn that the mutations chlorotica 2004 and 2014 affect the genes controlling the formation and functioning of various components of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  13. Induced mutants from dihaploid potatoes after pollen mother cell treatment.

    PubMed

    Przewoźny, T; Schieder, O; Wenzel, G

    1980-05-01

    Microspore mother cells of dihaploid Solanum tuberosum plants were mutagenically treated during the stage of meiosis. Mutagenesis was performed either by irradiation with x- or γ-rays or by the application of nitrosomethylurethane or methylnitronitrosoguanidine. Then, by use of the anther culture technique, 913 functional plants and 442 untreated control plants were regenerated. From the exposed plants seven distinct mutants could be isolated, predominantly chlorophyll deficient lines, while from the controls no clear-cut mutants arose. One mutant turned out to be photomorphogenetic in addition to having a chlorophyll defect. In addition to the production of mutants the treatments significantly increased the frequency of multicellular structure formation from microspores.

  14. plenty, a novel hypernodulation mutant in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chie; Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-09-01

    Nitrogen fixation in nodules that contain symbiotic rhizobial bacteria enables legumes to thrive in nitrogen-poor soils. However, this symbiosis is energy consuming. Therefore, legumes strictly control nodulation at both local and systemic levels. Mutants deficient in such controls exhibit a range of phenotypes from non-nodulation to hypernodulation. Here, we isolated a novel hypernodulation mutant from the M(2) progeny derived from Lotus japonicus MG-20 seeds mutagenized by irradiation with a carbon ion beam. We named the mutant 'plenty' because it formed more nodules than the wild-type MG-20. The nodulation zone in the plenty mutant was wider than that in the wild type, but not as enhanced as those in other previously reported hypernodulation mutants such as har1, klv or tml of L. japonicus. Unlike these hypernodulation mutants, the plenty mutant developed nodules of the same size as MG-20. Overall, the plenty mutant exhibited a unique phenotype of moderate hypernodulation. However, a biomass assay indicated that this unique pattern of hypernodulation was a hindrance to host plant growth. The plenty mutant displayed some tolerance to external nitrates and a normal triple response to ethylene. Grafting experiments demonstrated that the root of plenty was responsible for its hypernodulation phenotype. Genetic mapping indicated that the PLENTY gene was located on chromosome 2.

  15. Physiological characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of mengovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Bond, C W; Swim, H E

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four temperature-sensitive mutants of mengovirus were characterized physiologically with respect to phenotype. The mutants were separated into four classes on the basis of viral RNA synthesis. L-67-S cells infected with five of the mutants synthesized little viral RNA at 39.5 C. These mutants are designated RNA-. One mutant is designated RNA* since its RNA synthesis is altered at both 39.5 and 31.5 C. The other mutants were divided into two groups, RNA plus or minus (25 TO 49% of wild-type RNA synthesis) and RNA plus (50 to 100% of wild-type RNA synthesis). The time of expression of the mutation in the RNA- mutants was estimated from the results of reciprocal temperature-shift experiments. The mutatation in ts12 appears to be expressed at the time RNA synthesis normally begins. The defect in three of the mutants was expressed 1 to 2 h before RNA synthesis is normally detectable. Protein synthesis is required before RNA synthesis begins when the cells are shifted from 39.5 to 31.5 C. The RNA polymerase synthesized by cells infected with these RNA- mutants at 31.5 C was stable and fully active when assayed at 39.5 C in vitro. The sedimentation profiles of the viral RNA synthesized by cells infected with RNA plus and RNA plus or minus mutants are similar to wild-type profiles with the exception of ts148. Cells infected with this RNA plus or minus mutant synthesize RNA that sediments in a sucrose gradient like replicative-intermediate RNA, but little mature viral RNA is evident. The results of step-up experiments indicate that the temperature-sensitive period for the majority of the RNA plus and RNA plus and minus mutants extends through most of the replicative cycle. The temperature-sensitive defect of four of the mutants, however, was expressed in the first hour, suggesting that some undefined early function is required for the eventual maturation of mengovirus. The virions of three of the RNA- mutants were more thermolabile than wild-type virions. Five of the

  16. Fitness of Escherichia coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline

    PubMed Central

    Linkevicius, Marius; Anderssen, Jytte Mark; Sandegren, Linus; Andersson, Dan I.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of Escherichia coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline after exposure to adverse conditions in vitro and in vivo. Methods Survival in response to low pH, bile salts, oxidative stress and human serum was examined for E. coli mutants with reduced susceptibility to tigecycline due to single mutations that caused increased efflux (marR, lon) or impaired LPS (rfaC, rfaE, lpcA). An in vitro competition assay was used to determine growth fitness defects. Competitive fitness was assessed using mouse infection models. MICs, exponential growth rates and expression levels of efflux-related genes were measured for genetically reconstructed double and triple mutants. Results The LPS mutants were 48–85-fold more susceptible to bile salts compared with the ERN mutants and the WT. As shown by in vitro competitions, the fitness reduction was 0.3%–13% for ERN mutants and ∼24% for LPS mutants. During in vivo survival experiments, LPS mutants were outcompeted by the WT strain in the thigh infection model. Constructed double ERN and LPS mutants showed additive and synergistic increases in tigecycline MICs. Conclusions Generally, reduced susceptibility to tigecycline caused a decrease in fitness under stressful in vitro and in vivo conditions with ERN mutants being fitter than LPS mutants. When combined, ERN mutations caused a synergistic increase in the MIC of tigecycline. These findings could explain why clinical resistance to tigecycline in E. coli is mainly associated with up-regulation of the AcrAB efflux system. PMID:26851608

  17. Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides produced by mutant bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G. (Inventor); Petersen, Gene R. (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Structurally altered capsular polysaccharides are produced by mutant bacteria. These polysaccharides are isolated by selecting a wild type bacterial strain and a phage producing degradative enzymes that have substrate specificity for the capsular polysaccharides produced by the wild type bacteria. Phage-resistant mutants producing capsular polysaccharides are selected and the structurally altered capsular polysaccharide is isolated therefrom.

  18. A Mutant Hunt Using the C-Fern (Ceratopteris Richardii)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calie, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    A modification of the popular C-Fern system, the tropical fern Ceratopteris richardii is developed in which students plate out a genetically mixed set of fern spores and then select for specific mutants. This exercise can provide students with an experience in plant mutant selection and can be used as a platform to expose students to a diverse…

  19. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  20. Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, K.J.; Kiser, C.S.; Esko, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants defective in proteoglycan synthesis by radiographic screening for cells unable to incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material. Some mutants did not incorporate TVSO4 into acid-precipitable material, whereas others incorporated about 3-fold less radioactivity. HPLC anion exchange chromatographic analysis of radiolabelled glycosaminoglycans isolated from these mutants revealed many are defective in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. Mutants 803 and 677 do not synthesize heparan sulfate, although they produce chondroitin sulfate: strain 803 makes chondroitin sulfate normally, whereas 677 overaccumulates chondroitin sulfate by a factor of three. These mutants fall into the same complementation group, suggesting that the mutations are allelic. A second group of heparan sulfate biosynthetic mutants, consisting of cell lines 625, 668 and 679, produce undersulfated heparan sulfate and normal chondroitin sulfate. Treatment of the chains with nitrous acid should determine the position of the sulfate groups along the chain. These mutants may define a complementation group that is defective in the enzymes which modify the heparan sulfate chain. To increase the authors repertoire of heparan sulfate mutants, they are presently developing an in situ enzyme assay to screen colonies replica plated on filter discs for sulfotransferase defects.

  1. Isolation of mutants of the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia.

    PubMed

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  2. Gravitropism in roots of intermediate-starch mutants of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Wright, J. B.; Caspar, T.

    1996-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in roots of wild type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (strain Wassilewskija) and three starch-deficient mutants that were generated by T-DNA insertional mutagenesis. One of these mutants was starchless while the other two were intermediate mutants, which had 51% and 60%, respectively, of the WT amount of starch as determined by light and electron microscopy. The four parameters used to assay gravitropism were: orientation during vertical growth, time course of curvature, induction, and intermittent stimulation experiments. WT roots were much more responsive to gravity than were roots of the starchless mutant, and the intermediate starch mutants exhibited an intermediate graviresponse. Our data suggest that lowered starch content in the mutants primarily affects gravitropism rather than differential growth because both phototropic curvature and growth rates were approximately equal among all four genotypes. Since responses of intermediate-starch mutants were closer to the WT response than to the starchless mutant, it appears that 51-60% of the WT level of starch is near the threshold amount needed for full gravitropic sensitivity. While other interpretations are possible, the data are consistent with the starch statolith hypothesis for gravity perception in that the degree of graviresponsiveness is proportional to the total mass of plastids per cell.

  3. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Oliver E.; Pan, David

    1994-01-01

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating.

  4. Mutant maize variety containing the glt1-1 allele

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, O.E.; Pan, D.

    1994-07-19

    A maize plant has in its genome a non-mutable form of a mutant allele designated vitX-8132. The allele is located at a locus designated as glt which conditions kernels having an altered starch characteristic. Maize plants including such a mutant allele produce a starch that does not increase in viscosity on cooling, after heating. 2 figs.

  5. Isolation of Mutants of the Nitrogen-Fixing Actinomycete Frankia

    PubMed Central

    Kakoi, Kentaro; Yamaura, Masatoshi; Kamiharai, Toshihito; Tamari, Daiki; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Kucho, Ken-Ichi

    2014-01-01

    Frankia is a nitrogen (N)-fixing multicellular actinomycete which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with actinorhizal plants. Several aspects of Frankia N fixation and symbiosis are distinct, but genes involved in the specific features are largely unknown because of the lack of an efficient mutant screening method. In this study, we isolated mutants of Frankia sp. strain CcI3 using hyphae fragments mutagenized by chemical mutagens. Firstly, we isolated uracil auxotrophs as gain-of-function mutants resistant to 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA). We obtained seven 5-FOA resistant mutants, all of which required uracil for growth. Five strains carried a frame shift mutation in orotidine-5′-phosphate decarboxylase gene and two carried an amino acid substitution in the orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Secondly, we isolated mutants showing loss-of-function phenotypes. Mutagenized hyphae were fragmented by ultrasound and allowed to multiply at their tips. Hyphae were fragmented again and short fragments were enriched by filtration through 5 μm pores filters. Next-generation and Sanger sequencing revealed that colonies formed from the short hyphae fragments consisted of cells with an identical genotype. From the mutagenized colony population, we isolated three pigmentation mutants and a mutant with reduced N-fixation activity. These results indicate that our procedure is useful for the isolation of loss-of-function mutants using hyphae of Frankia. PMID:24389412

  6. Reverse Genetics in Zebrafish: Mutants, Morphants, and Moving Forward.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathan D

    2016-02-01

    Gene editing in zebrafish has begun to reveal discordance between mutant phenotypes and those associated with knockdown via morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs). These studies suggest that MOs should not be used as a standalone tool and underscore the need for guidelines that require defined mutants to assess gene function in zebrafish.

  7. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Da-Long; Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  8. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  9. Mutant strain of C. acetobutylicum and process for making butanol

    DOEpatents

    Jain, Mahendra K.; Beacom, Daniel; Datta, Rathin

    1993-01-01

    A biologically pure asporogenic mutant of Clostridium acetobutylicum is produced by growing sporogenic C. acetobutylicum ATCC 4259 and treating the parent strain with ethane methane sulfonate. The mutant which as been designated C. acetobutylicum ATCC 55025 is useful in an improved ABE fermentation process, and produces high concentrations of butanol and total solvents.

  10. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-He; Xi, Fei-Fei; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Guo-Hai

    2016-01-01

    An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT) is larger than that of wild type (WT) and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape. PMID:27610363

  11. Elucidation of the Photorhabdus temperata Genome and Generation of a Transposon Mutant Library To Identify Motility Mutants Altered in Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Sheldon; Rowedder, Holli; Michaels, Brandye; Bullock, Hannah; Jackobeck, Ryan; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Durakovic, Umjia; Gately, Jon; Janicki, Erik

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora forms a specific mutualistic association with its bacterial partner Photorhabdus temperata. The microbial symbiont is required for nematode growth and development, and symbiont recognition is strain specific. The aim of this study was to sequence the genome of P. temperata and identify genes that plays a role in the pathogenesis of the Photorhabdus-Heterorhabditis symbiosis. A draft genome sequence of P. temperata strain NC19 was generated. The 5.2-Mb genome was organized into 17 scaffolds and contained 4,808 coding sequences (CDS). A genetic approach was also pursued to identify mutants with altered motility. A bank of 10,000 P. temperata transposon mutants was generated and screened for altered motility patterns. Five classes of motility mutants were identified: (i) nonmotile mutants, (ii) mutants with defective or aberrant swimming motility, (iii) mutant swimmers that do not require NaCl or KCl, (iv) hyperswimmer mutants that swim at an accelerated rate, and (v) hyperswarmer mutants that are able to swarm on the surface of 1.25% agar. The transposon insertion sites for these mutants were identified and used to investigate other physiological properties, including insect pathogenesis. The motility-defective mutant P13-7 had an insertion in the RNase II gene and showed reduced virulence and production of extracellular factors. Genetic complementation of this mutant restored wild-type activity. These results demonstrate a role for RNA turnover in insect pathogenesis and other physiological functions. IMPORTANCE The relationship between Photorhabdus and entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis represents a well-known mutualistic system that has potential as a biological control agent. The elucidation of the genome of the bacterial partner and role that RNase II plays in its life cycle has provided a greater understanding of Photorhabdus as both an insect pathogen and a nematode symbiont. PMID

  12. Cardiac-Targeted Transgenic Mutant Mitochondrial Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, James J.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Green, Elgin; Hoying-Brandt, Amy; Cucoranu, Ioan; Haase, Chad P.; Russ, Rodney; Srivastava, Jaya; Ivey, Kristopher; Ludaway, Tomika; Kapoor, Victor; Abuin, Allison; Shapoval, Alexsey; Santoianni, Robert; Saada, Ann; Elpeleg, Orly; Lewis, William

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) DNA biogenesis is critical to cardiac contractility. DNA polymerase gamma (pol γ) replicates mtDNA, whereas thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) monophosphorylates pyrimidines intramitochondrially. Point mutations in POLG and TK2 result in clinical diseases associated with mtDNA depletion and organ dysfunction. Pyrimidine analogs (NRTIs) inhibit Pol γ and mtDNA replication. Cardiac “dominant negative” murine transgenes (TGs; Pol γ Y955G, and TK2 H121N or I212N) defined the role of each in the heart. mtDNA abundance, histopathological features, histochemistry, mitochondrial protein abundance, morphometry, and echocardiography were determined for TGs in “2 × 2” studies with or without pyrimidine analogs. Cardiac mtDNA abundance decreased in Y955C TGs (∼50%) but increased in H121N and I212N TGs (20-70%). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) increased in hearts of all mutants. Ultrastructural changes occurred in Y955C and H121N TGs. Histopathology demonstrated hypertrophy in H121N, LV dilation in I212N, and both hypertrophy and dilation in Y955C TGs. Antiretrovirals increased LV mass (≈50%) for all three TGs which combined with dilation indicates cardiomyopathy. Taken together, these studies demonstrate three manifestations of cardiac dysfunction that depend on the nature of the specific mutation and antiretroviral treatment. Mutations in genes for mtDNA biogenesis increase risk for defective mtDNA replication, leading to LV hypertrophy. PMID:18446447

  13. Huntington's disease cerebrospinal fluid seeds aggregation of mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Tan, Z; Dai, W; van Erp, T G M; Overman, J; Demuro, A; Digman, M A; Hatami, A; Albay, R; Sontag, E M; Potkin, K T; Ling, S; Macciardi, F; Bunney, W E; Long, J D; Paulsen, J S; Ringman, J M; Parker, I; Glabe, C; Thompson, L M; Chiu, W; Potkin, S G

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by an expanded CAG triplet repeat producing a mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with a polyglutamine-repeat expansion. Onset of symptoms in mutant huntingtin gene-carrying individuals remains unpredictable. We report that synthetic polyglutamine oligomers and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from BACHD transgenic rats and from human HD subjects can seed mutant huntingtin aggregation in a cell model and its cell lysate. Our studies demonstrate that seeding requires the mutant huntingtin template and may reflect an underlying prion-like protein propagation mechanism. Light and cryo-electron microscopy show that synthetic seeds nucleate and enhance mutant huntingtin aggregation. This seeding assay distinguishes HD subjects from healthy and non-HD dementia controls without overlap (blinded samples). Ultimately, this seeding property in HD patient CSF may form the basis of a molecular biomarker assay to monitor HD and evaluate therapies that target mHTT.

  14. Huntington's disease cerebrospinal fluid seeds aggregation of mutant huntingtin

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Z; Dai, W; van Erp, T G M; Overman, J; Demuro, A; Digman, M A; Hatami, A; Albay, R; Sontag, E M; Potkin, K T; Ling, S; Macciardi, F; Bunney, W E; Long, J D; Paulsen, J S; Ringman, J M; Parker, I; Glabe, C; Thompson, L M; Chiu, W; Potkin, S G

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is caused by an expanded CAG triplet repeat producing a mutant huntingtin protein (mHTT) with a polyglutamine-repeat expansion. Onset of symptoms in mutant huntingtin gene-carrying individuals remains unpredictable. We report that synthetic polyglutamine oligomers and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from BACHD transgenic rats and from human HD subjects can seed mutant huntingtin aggregation in a cell model and its cell lysate. Our studies demonstrate that seeding requires the mutant huntingtin template and may reflect an underlying prion-like protein propagation mechanism. Light and cryo-electron microscopy show that synthetic seeds nucleate and enhance mutant huntingtin aggregation. This seeding assay distinguishes HD subjects from healthy and non-HD dementia controls without overlap (blinded samples). Ultimately, this seeding property in HD patient CSF may form the basis of a molecular biomarker assay to monitor HD and evaluate therapies that target mHTT. PMID:26100538

  15. Poliovirus Mutants Resistant to Neutralization with Soluble Cell Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Gerardo; Peters, David; Racaniello, Vincent R.

    1990-12-01

    Poliovirus mutants resistant to neutralization with soluble cellular receptor were isolated. Replication of soluble receptor-resistant (srr) mutants was blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell receptor for poliovirus, indicating that the mutants use this receptor to enter cells. The srr mutants showed reduced binding to HeLa cells and cell membranes. However, the reduced binding phenotype did not have a major impact on viral replication, as judged by plaque size and one-step growth curves. These results suggest that the use of soluble receptors as antiviral agents could lead to the selection of neutralization-resistant mutants that are able to bind cell surface receptors, replicate, and cause disease.

  16. Architectural phenotypes in the transparent testa mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Buer, Charles S.; Djordjevic, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Flavonoids are low molecular weight secondary plant metabolites with a myriad of functions. As flavonoids affect auxin transport (an important growth-controlling hormone) and are biologically active in eukaryotes, flavonoid mutants were expected to have undescribed architectural phenotypes. The Arabidopsis thaliana transparent testa (tt) mutants are compromised in the enzymatic steps or transcriptional regulators affecting flavonoid synthesis. tt mutant seedlings were grown on hard-slanted agar (a stress condition), under varying light conditions, and in soil to examine the resulting growth patterns. These tt mutants revealed a wide variety of architectural phenotypes in root and aerial tissues. Mutants with increased inflorescences, siliques, and lateral root density or reduced stature are traits that could affect plant yield or performance under certain environmental conditions. The regulatory genes affected in architectural traits may provide useful molecular targets for examination in other plants. PMID:19129166

  17. Isolation and characterization of gallium resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants.

    PubMed

    García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Hernández-González, Ismael L; Maeda, Toshinari; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Boogerd, Fred C; Sheng, Lili; Wood, Thomas K; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 cells resistant to the novel antimicrobial gallium nitrate (Ga) were developed using transposon mutagenesis and by selecting spontaneous mutants. The mutants showing the highest growth in the presence of Ga were selected for further characterization. These mutants showed 4- to 12-fold higher Ga minimal inhibitory growth concentrations and a greater than 8-fold increase in the minimum biofilm eliminating Ga concentration. Both types of mutants produced Ga resistant biofilms whereas the formation of wild-type biofilms was strongly inhibited by Ga. The gene interrupted in the transposon mutant was hitA, which encodes a periplasmic iron binding protein that delivers Fe³⁺ to the HitB iron permease; complementation of the mutant with the hitA gene restored the Ga sensitivity. This hitA mutant showed a 14-fold decrease in Ga internalization versus the wild-type strain, indicating that the HitAB system is also involved in the Ga uptake. Ga uptake in the spontaneous mutant was also lower, although no mutations were found in the hitAB genes. Instead, this mutant harbored 64 non-silent mutations in several genes including those of the phenazine pyocyanin biosynthesis. The spontaneous mutant produced 2-fold higher pyocyanin basal levels than the wild-type; the addition of this phenazine to wild-type cultures protected them from the Ga bacteriostatic effect. The present data indicate that mutations affecting Ga transport and probably pyocyanin biosynthesis enable cells to develop resistance to Ga.

  18. Isolation and characterization of tox mutants of corynebacteriophage beta.

    PubMed Central

    Laird, W; Groman, N

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen nontoxinogenic (tox) mutants of corynebacteriophage beta have been isolated by using a tissue culture screening technique. The mutants fall into four major classes. Two of the classes, I and II, appear to contain missense and nonsense mutants, respectively. However, classes III and IV have not been previously described. Class III mutants produce two proteins (CRMs) seriologically related to diphtheria toxin, but efforts to demonstrate the presence of more than one tox gene have been successful. Class IV mutants are phenotypically CRM-, failing to produce any detectable protein serologically related to diphtheria toxin. Genetic studies indicate that the mutations in class IV strains are not in a gene distinct form the structural gene for toxin, and that the CRM- strains retain at least a portion of that gene. A natural phage isolate, gamma, behaves in a completely parallel fashion to the class IV mutants. The production of tox+ recombinants through recombination of various pairs of tox phage mutants has been demonstrated. The implications of these findings for the natural history of diphtheria are discussed. Images PMID:820873

  19. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  20. Proteasome inhibitors suppress the protein expression of mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Halasi, Marianna; Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancer, with almost 50% of all types of cancer expressing a mutant form of p53. p53 transactivates the expression of its primary negative regulator, HDM2. HDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase, which initiates the proteasomal degradation of p53 following ubiquitination. Proteasome inhibitors, by targeting the ubiquitin proteasome pathway inhibit the degradation of the majority of cellular proteins including wild-type p53. In contrast, in this study we found that the protein expression of mutant p53 was suppressed following treatment with established or novel proteasome inhibitors. Furthermore, for the first time we demonstrated that Arsenic trioxide, which was previously shown to suppress mutant p53 protein level, exhibits proteasome inhibitory activity. Proteasome inhibitor-mediated suppression of mutant p53 was partially rescued by the knockdown of HDM2, suggesting that the stabilization of HDM2 by proteasome inhibitors might be responsible for mutant p53 suppression to some extent. This study suggests that suppression of mutant p53 is a general property of proteasome inhibitors and it provides additional rationale to use proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of tumors with mutant p53.

  1. Proteasome inhibitors suppress the protein expression of mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Halasi, Marianna; Pandit, Bulbul; Gartel, Andrei L

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancer, with almost 50% of all types of cancer expressing a mutant form of p53. p53 transactivates the expression of its primary negative regulator, HDM2. HDM2 is a ubiquitin ligase, which initiates the proteasomal degradation of p53 following ubiquitination. Proteasome inhibitors, by targeting the ubiquitin proteasome pathway inhibit the degradation of the majority of cellular proteins including wild-type p53. In contrast, in this study we found that the protein expression of mutant p53 was suppressed following treatment with established or novel proteasome inhibitors. Furthermore, for the first time we demonstrated that Arsenic trioxide, which was previously shown to suppress mutant p53 protein level, exhibits proteasome inhibitory activity. Proteasome inhibitor-mediated suppression of mutant p53 was partially rescued by the knockdown of HDM2, suggesting that the stabilization of HDM2 by proteasome inhibitors might be responsible for mutant p53 suppression to some extent. This study suggests that suppression of mutant p53 is a general property of proteasome inhibitors and it provides additional rationale to use proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of tumors with mutant p53. PMID:25485499

  2. Analysis of p53 mutants for transcriptional activity.

    PubMed Central

    Raycroft, L; Schmidt, J R; Yoas, K; Hao, M M; Lozano, G

    1991-01-01

    The wild-type p53 protein functions to suppress transformation, but numerous mutant p53 proteins are transformation competent. To examine the role of p53 as a transcription factor, we made fusion proteins containing human or mouse p53 sequences fused to the DNA binding domain of a known transcription factor, GAL4. Human and mouse wild-type p53/GAL4 specifically transactivated expression of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter in HeLa, CHO, and NIH 3T3 cells. Several mutant p53 proteins, including a mouse p53 mutant which is temperature sensitive for suppression, were also analyzed. A p53/GAL4 fusion protein with this mutation was also transcriptionally active only at the permissive temperature. Another mutant p53/GAL4 fusion protein analyzed mimics the mutation inherited in Li-Fraumeni patients. This fusion protein was as active as wild-type p53/GAL4 in our assay. Two human p53 mutants that arose from alterations of the p53 gene in colorectal carcinomas were 30- to 40-fold less effective at activating transcription than wild-type p53/GAL4 fusion proteins. Thus, functional wild-type p53/GAL4 fusion proteins activate transcription, while several transformation competent mutants do so poorly or not at all. Only one mutant p53/GAL4 fusion protein remained transcriptionally active. Images PMID:1944276

  3. Escherichia coli mutants resistant to inactivation by high hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, K J; Bartlett, D H; Soontjens, C C; Cornelis, K; Wuytack, E Y; Michiels, C W

    1997-01-01

    Alternating cycles of exposure to high pressure and outgrowth of surviving populations were used to select for highly pressure-resistant mutants of Escherichia coli MG1655. Three barotolerant mutants (LMM1010, LMM1020, and LMM1030) were isolated independently by using outgrowth temperatures of 30, 37, and 42 degrees C, respectively. Survival of these mutants after pressure treatment for 15 min at ambient temperature was 40 to 85% at 220 MPa and 0.5 to 1.5% at 800 MPa, while survival of the parent strain, MG1655, decreased from 15% at 220 MPa to 2 x 10(-8)% at 700 MPa. Heat resistance of mutants LMM1020 and LMM1030 was also altered, as evident by higher D values at 58 and 60 degrees C and reduced z values compared to those for the parent strain. D and z values for mutant LMM1010 were not significantly different from those for the parent strain. Pressure sensitivity of the mutants increased from 10 to 50 degrees C, as opposed to the parent strain, which showed a minimum around 40 degrees C. The ability of the mutants to grow at moderately elevated pressure (50 MPa) was reduced at temperatures above 37 degrees C, indicating that resistance to pressure inactivation is unrelated to barotolerant growth. The development of high levels of barotolerance as demonstrated in this work should cause concern about the safety of high-pressure food processing. PMID:9055412

  4. Selection and properties of Streptococcus thermophilus mutants deficient in urease.

    PubMed

    Monnet, C; Pernoud, S; Sepulchre, A; Fremaux, C; Corrieu, G

    2004-06-01

    Natural variations of the urea content of milk have a detrimental effect on the regularity of acidification by Streptococcus thermophilus strains used in dairy processes. The aim of the present study was to select urease-deficient mutants of S. thermophilus and to investigate their properties. Using an improved screening medium on agar plates, mutants were selected from 4 different parent strains after mutagen treatment and by spontaneous mutation. Most mutants were stable and had a phage sensitivity profile similar to that of their parent strain. Some of them contained detrimental secondary mutations, as their acidifying activity was lower than that of the parent strain cultivated in the presence of the urease inhibitor flurofamide. The proportion of this type of mutant was much lower among spontaneous mutants than among mutants selected after mutagen treatment. Utilization of urease-deficient mutants in dairy processes may have several advantages, such as an increase in acidification, an improved regularity of acidification, and a lower production of ammonia in whey.

  5. Nitrate Reductase-Deficient Mutants in Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Somers, David A.; Kuo, Tsung-Min; Kleinhofs, Andris; Warner, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate reductase-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants were assayed for the presence of a functional molybdenum cofactor determined from the activity of the molybdoenzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, and for nitrate reductase-associated activities. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to detect nitrate reductase cross-reacting material in the mutants. The cross-reacting material levels of the mutants ranged from 8 to 136% of the wild type and were correlated with their nitrate reductase-associated activities, except for nar 1c, which lacked all associated nitrate reductase activities but had 38% of the wild-type cross-reacting material. The cross-reacting material of two nar 1 mutants, as well as nar 2a, Xno 18, Xno 19, and Xno 29, exhibited rocket immunoprecipitates that were similar to the wild-type enzyme indicating structural homology between the mutant and wild-type nitrate reductase proteins. The cross-reacting materials of the seven remaining nar 1 alleles formed rockets only in the presence of purified wild-type nitrate reductase, suggesting structural modifications of the mutant cross-reacting materials. All nar 1 alleles and Xno 29 had xanthine dehydrogenase activity indicating the presence of functional molybdenum cofactors. These results suggest that nar 1 is the structural gene for nitrate reductase. Mutants nar 2a, Xno 18, and Xno 19 lacked xanthine dehydrogenase activity and are considered to be molybdenum cofactor deficient mutants. Cross-reacting material was not detected in uninduced wild-type or mutant extracts, suggesting that nitrate reductase is synthesized de novo in response to nitrate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16662774

  6. Rhizobium phaseoli symbiotic mutants with transposon Tn5 insertions.

    PubMed Central

    Noel, K D; Sanchez, A; Fernandez, L; Leemans, J; Cevallos, M A

    1984-01-01

    Rhizobium phaseoli CFN42 DNA was mutated by random insertion of Tn5 from suicide plasmid pJB4JI to obtain independently arising strains that were defective in symbiosis with Phaseolus vulgaris but grew normally outside the plant. When these mutants were incubated with the plant, one did not initiate visible nodule tissue (Nod-), seven led to slow nodule development (Ndv), and two led to superficially normal early nodule development but lacked symbiotic nitrogenase activity (Sna-). The Nod- mutant lacked the large transmissible indigenous plasmid pCFN42d that has homology to Klebsiella pneumoniae nitrogenase (nif) genes. The other mutants had normal plasmid content. In the two Sna- mutants and one Ndv mutant, Tn5 had inserted into plasmid pCFN42d outside the region of nif homology. The insertions of the other Ndv mutants were apparently in the chromosome. They were not in plasmids detected on agarose gels, and, in contrast to insertions on indigenous plasmids, they were transmitted in crosses to wild-type strain CFN42 at the same frequency as auxotrophic markers and with the same enhancement of transmission by conjugation plasmid R68.45. In these Ndv mutants the Tn5 insertions were the same as or very closely linked to mutations causing the Ndv phenotype. However, in two mutants with Tn5 insertions on plasmid pCFN42d, an additional mutation on the same plasmid, rather than Tn5, was responsible for the Sna- or Ndv phenotype. When plasmid pJB4JI was transferred to two other R. phaseoli strains, analysis of symbiotic mutants was complicated by Tn5-containing deleted forms of pJB4JI that were stably maintained. Images PMID:6325385

  7. Egg-Laying Defective Mutants of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Carol; Tsung, Nancy; Horvitz, H. Robert

    1983-01-01

    We have isolated 145 fertile mutants of C. elegans that are defective in egg laying and have characterized 59 of them genetically, behaviorally and pharmacologically. These 59 mutants define 40 new genes called egl, for egg-laying abnormal. Most of the other mutants are defective in previously identified genes. The egl mutants differ with respect to the severity of their egg-laying defects and the presence of behavioral or morphological pleiotropies. We have defined four distinct categories of mutants based on their responses to the pharmacological agents serotonin and imipramine, which stimulate egg laying by wild-type hermaphrodites. These drugs test the functioning of the vulva, the vulval and uterine muscles and the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), which innervate the vulval muscles. Mutants representing 14 egl genes fail to respond to serotonin and to imipramine and are likely to be defective in the functioning of the vulva or the vulval and uterine muscles. Four mutants (representing four different genes) lay eggs in response to serotonin but not to imipramine and appear to be egg-laying defective because of defects in the HSNs; three of these four were selected specifically for these drug responses. Mutants representing seven egl genes lay eggs in response to serotonin and to imipramine. One egl mutant responds to imipramine but not to serotonin. The remaining egl mutants show variable or intermediate responses to the drugs. Two of the HSN-defective mutants, egl-1 and her-1(n695), lack HSN cell bodies and are likely to be expressing the normally male-specific program of HSN cell death. Whereas egl-1 animals appear to be defective specifically in HSN development, her-1(n695) animals exhibit multiple morphological pleiotropies, displaying partial transformation of the sexual phenotype of many cells and tissues. At least two of the egl mutants appear to be defective in the processing of environmental signals that modulate egg laying and may define new

  8. Biochemical nature of cellulases from mutants of Trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Montenecourt, B.S.; Kelleher, T.J.; Eveleigh, D.E.; Pettersson, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The cellulases of two new mutants of T. reesei, RUT-NG14 and RUT-C30, have been examined with respect to the separation and biochemical characterization of the various components in the cellulase complex. The cellulase of both mutants has been shown to contain enhanced proportions of a cellobiohydrolase by quantitative immune precipitation. Application of ion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography protein separations affords a rapid (30 min) and simple method of separating and comparing cellulase components from potential high-yielding cellulase mutants.

  9. Isolation of acetyl esterase mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed Central

    Higerd, T B

    1977-01-01

    Five mutants of Bacillus subtilis 168 defective in an intracellular esterase activity were identified. By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, four of the mutants were shown to lack esterase B activity, and the fifth lacked esterase A activity. All of the back-crossed esterase mutants were able to sporulate at wild-type frequency and produce exoprotease(s) and antibiotic(s). No difference in motility could be attributed to the esterase mutation. PBS1 transduction analysis showed all the esterase B mutations to be linked to the hisA marker. Images PMID:402361

  10. Mutant γPKC that causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 upregulates Hsp70, which protects cells from the mutant's cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kota; Seki, Takahiro; Onji, Tomoya; Adachi, Naoko; Tanaka, Shigeru; Hide, Izumi; Saito, Naoaki; Sakai, Norio

    2013-10-11

    Several missense mutations in the protein kinase Cγ (γPKC) gene have been found to cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14), an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We previously demonstrated that the mutant γPKC found in SCA14 is misfolded, susceptible to aggregation and cytotoxic. Molecular chaperones assist the refolding and degradation of misfolded proteins and prevention of the proteins' aggregation. In the present study, we found that the expression of mutant γPKC-GFP increased the levels of heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in SH-SY5Y cells. To elucidate the role of this elevation, we investigated the effect of siRNA-mediated knockdown of Hsp70 on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of mutant γPKC. Knockdown of Hsp70 exacerbated the aggregation and cytotoxicity of mutant γPKC-GFP by inhibiting this mutant's degradation. These findings suggest that mutant γPKC increases the level of Hsp70, which protects cells from the mutant's cytotoxicity by enhancing its degradation.

  11. Clear Plaque Mutants of Lactococcal Phage TP901-1

    PubMed Central

    Kot, Witold; Kilstrup, Mogens; Vogensen, Finn K.; Hammer, Karin

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for obtaining turbid plaques of the lactococcal bacteriophage TP901-1 and its derivative TP901-BC1034. We have further used the method to isolate clear plaque mutants of this phage. Analysis of 8 such mutants that were unable to lysogenize the host included whole genome resequencing. Four of the mutants had different mutations in structural genes with no relation to the genetic switch. However all 8 mutants had a mutation in the cI repressor gene region. Three of these were located in the promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequences and five in the N-terminal part of the encoded CI protein involved in the DNA binding. The conclusion is that cI is the only gene involved in clear plaque formation i.e. the CI protein is the determining factor for the lysogenic pathway and its maintenance in the lactococcal phage TP901-1. PMID:27258092

  12. Sporulation of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Yousten, Allan A.; Hanson, Richard S.

    1972-01-01

    A mutant of Bacillus subtilis 168 lacking aconitase (EC 4.2.1.3) was found to be blocked at stage 0 or I of sporulation. Although adenosine triphosphate levels, which normally decrease in tricarboxylic acid cycle mutants at the completion of exponential growth, could be maintained at higher levels by feeding metabolizable carbon sources, this did not permit the cells to progress further into the sporulation sequence. When post-exponential-phase cells of mutants blocked in the first half of the tricarboxylic acid cycle were resuspended with an energy source in culture fluid from post-exponential-phase wild-type B. subtilis or Escherichia coli, good sporulation occurred. The spores produced retained the mutant genotype and were heat stable but lost refractility and heat stability several hours after their production. Images PMID:4110146

  13. Metabolic Disruption in Drosophila Bang-Sensitive Seizure Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fergestad, Tim; Bostwick, Bret; Ganetzky, Barry

    2006-01-01

    We examined a number of Drosophila mutants with increased susceptibility to seizures following mechanical or electrical stimulation to better understand the underlying factors that predispose neurons to aberrant activity. Several mutations in this class have been molecularly identified and suggest metabolic disruption as a possible source for increased seizure susceptibility. We mapped the bang-sensitive seizure mutation knockdown (kdn) to cytological position 5F3 and identified citrate synthase as the affected gene. These results further support a role for mitochondrial metabolism in controlling neuronal activity and seizure susceptibility. Biochemical analysis in bang-sensitive mutants revealed reductions in ATP levels consistent with disruption of mitochondrial energy production in these mutants. Electrophysiological analysis of mutants affecting mitochondrial proteins revealed an increased likelihood for a specific pattern of seizure activity. Our data implicate cellular metabolism in regulating seizure susceptibility and suggest that differential sensitivity of neuronal subtypes to metabolic changes underlies distinct types of seizure activity. PMID:16648587

  14. Reeler: new tales on an old mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    D'Arcangelo, G; Curran, T

    1998-03-01

    Neurological mouse mutants provide an opportunity to dissect the complex mechanisms that underlie vertebrate brain development. Advances in genetic technologies have permitted the identification of genes disrupted in many mutants, allowing a molecular interpretation of the phenotypes. For several decades, the spontaneous mutant mouse reeler has been used as a model for the analysis of the development of laminated brain structures. In this ataxic mutant, the migration of many neurons is aberrant, resulting in disrupted cellular organization. Recently, reelin, the gene disrupted in the reeler mouse, has been identified, reelin encodes a novel extracellular molecule that controls neural cell positioning through mechanisms that are not yet completely understood. Analysis of the expression pattern and the properties of the reelin gene product (Reelin) suggests models for its function during brain development. Furthermore, the recent identification of genes that may function in the Reelin signaling pathway advances our knowledge of the molecular basis of neuronal migration. PMID:9631651

  15. Rescue of a Dominant Mutant With RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yongrui; Messing, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Maize Mucronate1 is a dominant floury mutant based on a misfolded 16-kDa γ-zein protein. To prove its function, we applied RNA interference (RNAi) as a dominant suppressor of the mutant seed phenotype. A γ-zein RNAi transgene was able to rescue the mutation and restore normal seed phenotype. RNA interference prevents gene expression. In most cases, this is used to study gene function by creating a new phenotype. Here, we use it for the opposite purpose. We use it to reverse the creation of a mutant phenotype by restoring the normal phenotype. In the case of the maize Mucronate1 (Mc1) phenotype, interaction of a misfolded protein with other proteins is believed to be the basis for the Mc1 phenotype. If no misfolded protein is present, we can reverse the mutant to the normal phenotype. One can envision using this approach to study complex traits and in gene therapy. PMID:20876558

  16. Lens Extrusion from Laminin Alpha 1 Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Semina, Elena V.; Duncan, Melinda K.

    2014-01-01

    We report analysis of the ocular lens phenotype of the recessive, larval lethal zebrafish mutant, lama1a69/a69. Previous work revealed that this mutant has a shortened body axis and eye defects including a defective hyaloid vasculature, focal corneal dysplasia, and loss of the crystalline lens. While these studies highlight the importance of laminin α1 in lens development, a detailed analysis of the lens defects seen in these mutants was not reported. In the present study, we analyze the lenticular anomalies seen in the lama1a69/a69 mutants and show that the lens defects result from the anterior extrusion of lens material from the eye secondary to structural defects in the lens capsule and developing corneal epithelium associated with basement membrane loss. Our analysis provides further insights into the role of the lens capsule and corneal basement membrane in the structural integrity of the developing eye. PMID:24526906

  17. [Riboflavin transport in cells of riboflavin-dependent yeast mutants].

    PubMed

    Sibirnyĭ, A A; Shavlovskiĭ, G M; Ksheminskaia, G P; Orlovskaia, A G

    1977-01-01

    Riboflavin was transported at a high rate into yeast cells of Pichia guilliermondii and Schwanniomyces occidentalis mutants capable of growth in a medium containing low concentrations of riboflavin, and having multiple susceptibility to some antibiotics and antimetabolites. Sucrose and sodium azide inhibited transport of riboflavin. Other riboflavin dependent mutants of Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia ohmeri, Torulopsis candida, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also growing in media containing low concentrations of riboflavin, were not capable of its active transport. PMID:329070

  18. FTIR and EDXRF investigations of salt tolerant soybean mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Celik, Ozge; Atak, Cimen

    2013-07-01

    Molecular structure and elemental composition of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) seeds of S04-05 (Ustun-1) variety together with its salt tolerant mutants were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Salt tolerant soybean mutants were in vivo and in vitro selected from the M2 generation of gamma irradiated S04-05 soybean variety. Examination of the secondary structure of proteins revealed the presence of some alterations in soybean mutants in comparison to those of the control groups. The difference IR spectra indicated that salt tolerant mutants (M2) have less protein but more lipid contents. Chemometric treatment of the FTIR data was performed and principle component analysis (PCA) revealed clear difference between control group of seeds and mutants. EDXRF analysis showed that salt tolerant mutants considerably contained more chlorine, copper and zinc elements when compared to the control group, although most of the trace elements concentrations were not significantly altered.

  19. Proteomic analysis of the flooding tolerance mechanism in mutant soybean.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Nanjo, Yohei; Nishimura, Minoru

    2013-02-21

    Flooding stress of soybean is a serious problem because it reduces growth; however, flooding-tolerant cultivars have not been identified. To analyze the flooding tolerance mechanism of soybean, the flooding-tolerant mutant was isolated and analyzed using a proteomic technique. Flooding-tolerance tests were repeated five times using gamma-ray irradiated soybeans, whose root growth (M6 stage) was not suppressed even under flooding stress. Two-day-old wild-type and mutant plants were subjected to flooding stress for 2days, and proteins were identified using a gel-based proteomic technique. In wild-type under flooding stress, levels of proteins related to development, protein synthesis/degradation, secondary metabolism, and the cell wall changed; however, these proteins did not markedly differ in the mutant. In contrast, an increased number of fermentation-related proteins were identified in the mutant under flooding stress. The root tips of mutant plants were not affected by flooding stress, even though the wild-type plants had damaged root. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the mutant increased at an early stage of flooding stress compared with that of the wild-type. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the fermentation system in the early stages of flooding may be an important factor for the acquisition of flooding tolerance in soybean.

  20. Isolation of New Gravitropic Mutants under Hypergravity Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Akiko; Toyota, Masatsugu; Shimada, Masayoshi; Mekata, Mika; Kurata, Tetsuya; Tasaka, Masao; Morita, Miyo T.

    2016-01-01

    Forward genetics is a powerful approach used to link genotypes and phenotypes, and mutant screening/analysis has provided deep insights into many aspects of plant physiology. Gravitropism is a tropistic response in plants, in which hypocotyls and stems sense the direction of gravity and grow upward. Previous studies of gravitropic mutants have suggested that shoot endodermal cells in Arabidopsis stems and hypocotyls are capable of sensing gravity (i.e., statocytes). In the present study, we report a new screening system using hypergravity conditions to isolate enhancers of gravitropism mutants, and we also describe a rapid and efficient genome mapping method, using next-generation sequencing (NGS) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based markers. Using the endodermal-amyloplast less 1 (eal1) mutant, which exhibits defective development of endodermal cells and gravitropism, we found that hypergravity (10 g) restored the reduced gravity responsiveness in eal1 hypocotyls and could, therefore, be used to obtain mutants with further reduction in gravitropism in the eal1 background. Using the new screening system, we successfully isolated six ene (enhancer of eal1) mutants that exhibited little or no gravitropism under hypergravity conditions, and using NGS and map-based cloning with SNP markers, we narrowed down the potential causative genes, which revealed a new genetic network for shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis. PMID:27746791

  1. Biofilm formation-defective mutants in Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aroa; Leal-Morales, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Lorena; Platero, Ana I; Bardallo-Pérez, Juan; Díaz-Romero, Alberto; Acemel, Rafael D; Illán, Juan M; Jiménez-López, Julia; Govantes, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Out of 8000 candidates from a genetic screening for Pseudomonas putida KT2442 mutants showing defects in biofilm formation, 40 independent mutants with diminished levels of biofilm were analyzed. Most of these mutants carried insertions in genes of the lap cluster, whose products are responsible for synthesis, export and degradation of the adhesin LapA. All mutants in this class were strongly defective in biofilm formation. Mutants in the flagellar regulatory genes fleQ and flhF showed similar defects to that of the lap mutants. On the contrary, transposon insertions in the flagellar structural genes fliP and flgG, that also impair flagellar motility, had a modest defect in biofilm formation. A mutation in gacS, encoding the sensor element of the GacS/GacA two-component system, also had a moderate effect on biofilm formation. Additional insertions targeted genes involved in cell envelope function: PP3222, encoding the permease element of an ABC-type transporter and tolB, encoding the periplasmic component of the Tol-OprL system required for outer membrane stability. Our results underscore the central role of LapA, suggest cross-regulation between motility and adhesion functions and provide insights on the role of cell envelope trafficking and maintenance for biofilm development in P. putida.

  2. Antigenic and virulence properties of Pasteurella haemolytica leukotoxin mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Petras, S F; Chidambaram, M; Illyes, E F; Froshauer, S; Weinstock, G M; Reese, C P

    1995-01-01

    Antigenic properties of two mutants of Pasteurella haemolytica, strains 59B0071 and 59B0072, that do not produce detectable leukotoxin were investigated. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis with a number of polyclonal sera from animals recovering from pasteurellosis revealed that both mutants secreted a variety of antigens that were also present in cultures of several wild-type strains. These antigens ranged from about 100 to 15 kDa. Mutant strain 59B0071 was found to be totally deficient in leukotoxin, as judged not only by Western blotting but also by cytotoxicity assays with bovine lymphoma (BL-3) cells or bovine polymorphonuclear cells as targets. The mutant strain 59B0071 had normal levels of a secreted sialylglycoprotease, however. When strains were tested for virulence in goat and cattle challenge experiments, a reduction in mortality and lung lesions was observed with the mutant 59B0071 in comparison with results obtained with wild-type strains. These results are consistent with an important role for leukotoxin in P. haemolytica virulence and suggest that leukotoxin-negative mutants may be useful tools in the investigation of other virulence properties involved in P. haemolytica infections. PMID:7868224

  3. Spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of Pennisetum americanum: Genetics and chlorophyll quantities.

    PubMed

    Koduru, P R; Rao, M K

    1980-05-01

    Thirteen spontaneously occurring chlorophyll deficient phenotypes have been described and their genetic basis was established. Ten of these - 'white', 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white virescent', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'white striping 4', 'fine striping', 'chlorina' and 'yellow virescent' showed monogenic recessive inheritance and the remaining three - 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' seedling phenotypes showed digenic recessive inheritance. The genes for (i) 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) and (ii) 'patchy white' (pw) and 'white striping 1' (wst 1) showed independent assortment. Further, the genes for 'white' (w), 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) were inherited independently of the gene for hairy leaf margin (Hm).In the mutants - 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' phenotypes total quantity of chlorophyll was significantly less than that in the corresponding controls, while in 'white virescent' there was no reduction in the mature stage. For nine of the mutants the quantity of chlorophyll was also estimated in F1's (mutant x control green). In F1's of six of the mutants - 'white tip', 'patchy white', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'fine striping' and 'yellow striping' the quantity of chlorophyll was almost equal to the wild type. In the F1's of three of the mutants - 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2' and 'light green' an intermediate value between the mutant and wild types was observed. In 'yellow virescent' retarded synthesis of chlorophyll, particularly chlorophyll a was observed in the juvenile stage. Reduced quantity of chlorophyll was associated with defective chloroplasts. In the mutants - 'white tipped green, 'white virescent', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' defective

  4. [The screening of mutants induced by physical and chemical factors and construction of mutant population for Brassica napus L].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jia-Yan; Tu, Jin-Dong; Fan, Shu-Wei; Wu, Jian-Guo; Shi, Chun-Hai

    2007-04-01

    The mature seeds of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) from variety Gaoyou 605 were treated with g-rays and Ethyl Methan Sulfonate (EMS). 152 mutants (12.67% of M2 population) with mutative traits, including the mutation of leaf color, leaf shape, plant height, number and angle of branches, diameter of main stalk, color of stalk and flower, number and size of petals, pistil shape, male sterility, bud death and date of bloom were found in screened M2 progenies, which have been identified in M3. The mutants of cotyledon and root traits were also screened by hydroponics culture and their total mutant frequency were estimated at 12.78% and 7.07% in M3, respectively. Identification of M4 showed that these mutations could be inherited stably. The mutant library including the mutants of leaf, plant-type, flower, cotyledon, root and physiological traits had been built in present experiment. These mutants might be used as important germplasm for rapeseed breeding and functional genomics study.

  5. Isolation of prostrate turfgrass mutants via screening of dwarf phenotype and characterization of a perennial ryegrass prostrate mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junmei; Thammina, Chandra; Li, Wei; Yu, Hao; Yer, Huseyin; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Marron, Manon; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Chen, Yongqin; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J; Guillard, Karl; Zhang, Xian; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Prostrate turf varieties are desirable because of their increased low mowing tolerance, heat resistance, traffic resistance and ground coverage compared with upright varieties. Mutation breeding may provide a powerful tool to create prostrate varieties, but there are no simple, straightforward methods to screen for such mutants. Elucidation of the molecular basis of the major 'green revolution' traits, dwarfism and semi-dwarfism, guided us to design a simple strategy for isolating dwarf mutants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). We have shown that gamma-ray-mediated dominant dwarf mutants can be easily screened for at the three-leaf stage. About 10% of dwarf mutant lines also displayed a prostrate phenotype at mature stages (>10 tillers). One prostrate line, Lowboy I, has been characterized in detail. Lowboy I had significantly shorter canopy, leaf blade and internode lengths compared with wild type. Lowboy I also exhibited greater tolerance to low mowing stress than wild type. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) restored Lowboy I to a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the dwarf and prostrate phenotypes were both due to GA deficiency. We further showed that phenotypes of Lowboy I were dominant and stably inherited through sexual reproduction. Prostrate turfgrass mutants are difficult to screen for because the phenotype is not observed at young seedling stages, therefore our method represents a simple strategy for easily isolating prostrate mutants. Furthermore, Lowboy I may provide an outstanding germplasm for breeding novel prostrate perennial ryegrass cultivars. PMID:26955481

  6. Isolation of prostrate turfgrass mutants via screening of dwarf phenotype and characterization of a perennial ryegrass prostrate mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junmei; Thammina, Chandra; Li, Wei; Yu, Hao; Yer, Huseyin; El-Tanbouly, Rania; Marron, Manon; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Chen, Yongqin; Inguagiato, John; McAvoy, Richard J.; Guillard, Karl; Zhang, Xian; Li, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Prostrate turf varieties are desirable because of their increased low mowing tolerance, heat resistance, traffic resistance and ground coverage compared with upright varieties. Mutation breeding may provide a powerful tool to create prostrate varieties, but there are no simple, straightforward methods to screen for such mutants. Elucidation of the molecular basis of the major ‘green revolution’ traits, dwarfism and semi-dwarfism, guided us to design a simple strategy for isolating dwarf mutants of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). We have shown that gamma-ray-mediated dominant dwarf mutants can be easily screened for at the three-leaf stage. About 10% of dwarf mutant lines also displayed a prostrate phenotype at mature stages (>10 tillers). One prostrate line, Lowboy I, has been characterized in detail. Lowboy I had significantly shorter canopy, leaf blade and internode lengths compared with wild type. Lowboy I also exhibited greater tolerance to low mowing stress than wild type. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA) restored Lowboy I to a wild-type phenotype, indicating that the dwarf and prostrate phenotypes were both due to GA deficiency. We further showed that phenotypes of Lowboy I were dominant and stably inherited through sexual reproduction. Prostrate turfgrass mutants are difficult to screen for because the phenotype is not observed at young seedling stages, therefore our method represents a simple strategy for easily isolating prostrate mutants. Furthermore, Lowboy I may provide an outstanding germplasm for breeding novel prostrate perennial ryegrass cultivars. PMID:26955481

  7. Hydrocarbon assimilation and biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.K.; Fiechter, A.; Reiser, J. ); Kaeppeli, O. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors isolated transposon Tn5-GM-induced mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG201 that were unable to grow in minimal media containing hexadecane as a carbon source. Some of these mutants lacked extracellular rhamnolipids, as shown by measuring the surface and interfacial tensions of the cell culture supernatants. Furthermore, the concentrated culture media of the mutant strains were tested for the presence of rhamnolipids by thin-layer chromatography and for rhamnolipid activities, including hemolysis and growth inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the inhibition of Bacillus subtilis. Mutant 65E12 was unable to produce extracellular rhamnolipids under any of the conditions tested, lacked the capacity to take up {sup 14}C-labeled hexadecane, and did not grow in media containing individual alkanes with chain lengths ranging from C{sub 12} to C{sub 19}. However, growth on these alkanes and uptake of ({sup 14}C)hexadecane were restored when small amounts of purified rhamnolipids were added to the cultures. Mutant 59C7 was unable to grow in media containing hexadecane, nor was it able to take up ({sup 14}C)hexadecane uptake. The addition of small amounts of rhamnolipids restored on alkanes and ({sup 14}C)hexadecane uptake. In glucose-containing media, however, mutant 59C7 produced rhamnolipids at levels about twice as high as those of the wild-type strain. These results show that rhamnolipids play a major role in hexadecane uptake and utilization by P.aeruginosa.

  8. New lv Mutants of Pea Are Deficient in Phytochrome B.

    PubMed Central

    Weller, J. L.; Nagatani, A.; Kendrick, R. E.; Murfet, I. C.; Reid, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The lv-1 mutant of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is deficient in responses regulated by phytochrome B (phyB) in other species but has normal levels of spectrally active phyB. We have characterized three further lv mutants (lv-2, lv-3, and lv-4), which are all elongated under red (R) and white light but are indistinguishable from wild type under far-red light. The phyB apoprotein present in the lv-1 mutant was undetectable in all three new lv mutants. The identification of allelic mutants with and without phyB apoprotein suggests that Lv may be a structural gene for a B-type phytochrome. Furthermore, it indicates that the lv-1 mutation results specifically in the loss of normal biological activity of this phytochrome. Red-light-pulse and fluence-rate-response experiments suggest that lv plants are deficient in the low-fluence response (LFR) but retain a normal very-low-fluence-rate-dependent response for leaflet expansion and inhibition of stem elongation. Comparison of lv alleles of differing severity indicates that the LFR for stem elongation can be mediated by a lower level of phyB than the LFR for leaflet expansion. The retention of a strong response to continuous low-fluence-rate R in all four lv mutants suggests that there may be an additional phytochrome controlling responses to R in pea. The kinetics of phytochrome destruction and reaccumulation in the lv mutant indicate that phyB may be involved in the light regulation of phyA levels. PMID:12228490

  9. Auditory development in progressive motor neuronopathy mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Brors, Dominik; Hansen, Stefan; Berend, Achim; Mlynski, Robert; Aletsee, Christoph; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the hearing development in the progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mouse mutant. This mouse has been used as a model for human motoneuron disease. A missense mutation in the tubulin-specific chaperon E (Tbce) gene on mouse chromosome 13 was localized as the underlying genetic defect. The protein encoded by the Tbce gene is essential for the formation of primary tubulin complexes. Studies on motoneurons show disorganization in microtubules and disturbed axonal transport, followed by retrograde degeneration of the motoneurons. A similar pathomechanism is also possible for hearing disorders where disrupted microtubules could cause functional deficits in spiral ganglion neurons or in cochlear hair cells. Click auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry in homozygous pmn mutants showed a normal onset of hearing, but an increasing hearing threshold from postnatal day 26 (P26) on to death, compared to heterozygous mutants and wild-type mice. Histological sections of the cochlea at different ages showed a regular morphology. Additionally, spiral ganglion explants from mutant and wild-type mice were cultured. The neurite length from pmn mutants was shorter than in wild-type mice, and the neurite number/explant was significantly decreased in pmn mutants. We show that the pmn mouse mutant is a model for a progressive rapid hearing loss from P26 on, after initially normal hearing development. Heterozygous mice are not affected by this defect. With the knowledge of the well-known pathomechanism of this defect in motoneurons, a dysfunction of cellular mechanisms regulating tubulin assembling suggests that tubulin assembling plays an essential role in hearing function and maintenance.

  10. Development and characterisation of highly antibiotic resistant Bartonella bacilliformis mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cláudia; Martínez-Puchol, Sandra; Ruiz-Roldán, Lidia; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to develop and characterise in vitro Bartonella bacilliformis antibiotic resistant mutants. Three B. bacilliformis strains were plated 35 or 40 times with azithromycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin or rifampicin discs. Resistance-stability was assessed performing 5 serial passages without antibiotic pressure. MICs were determined with/without Phe-Arg-β-Napthylamide and artesunate. Target alterations were screened in the 23S rRNA, rplD, rplV, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE and rpoB genes. Chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin resistance were the most difficult and easiest (>37.3 and 10.6 passages) to be selected, respectively. All mutants but one selected with chloramphenicol achieved high resistance levels. All rifampicin, one azithromycin and one ciprofloxacin mutants did not totally revert when cultured without antibiotic pressure. Azithromycin resistance was related to L4 substitutions Gln-66 → Lys or Gly-70 → Arg; L4 deletion Δ62–65 (Lys-Met-Tyr-Lys) or L22 insertion 83::Val-Ser-Glu-Ala-His-Val-Gly-Lys-Ser; in two chloramphenicol-resistant mutants the 23S rRNA mutation G2372A was detected. GyrA Ala-91 → Val and Asp-95 → Gly and GyrB Glu474 → Lys were detected in ciprofloxacin-resistant mutants. RpoB substitutions Gln-527 → Arg, His-540 → Tyr and Ser-545 → Phe plus Ser-588 → Tyr were detected in rifampicin-resistant mutants. In 5 mutants the effect of efflux pumps on resistance was observed. Antibiotic resistance was mainly related to target mutations and overexpression of efflux pumps, which might underlie microbiological failures during treatments. PMID:27667026

  11. Auditory development in progressive motor neuronopathy mouse mutants.

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, Stefan; Brors, Dominik; Hansen, Stefan; Berend, Achim; Mlynski, Robert; Aletsee, Christoph; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-11-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the hearing development in the progressive motor neuronopathy (pmn) mouse mutant. This mouse has been used as a model for human motoneuron disease. A missense mutation in the tubulin-specific chaperon E (Tbce) gene on mouse chromosome 13 was localized as the underlying genetic defect. The protein encoded by the Tbce gene is essential for the formation of primary tubulin complexes. Studies on motoneurons show disorganization in microtubules and disturbed axonal transport, followed by retrograde degeneration of the motoneurons. A similar pathomechanism is also possible for hearing disorders where disrupted microtubules could cause functional deficits in spiral ganglion neurons or in cochlear hair cells. Click auditory brainstem response (ABR) audiometry in homozygous pmn mutants showed a normal onset of hearing, but an increasing hearing threshold from postnatal day 26 (P26) on to death, compared to heterozygous mutants and wild-type mice. Histological sections of the cochlea at different ages showed a regular morphology. Additionally, spiral ganglion explants from mutant and wild-type mice were cultured. The neurite length from pmn mutants was shorter than in wild-type mice, and the neurite number/explant was significantly decreased in pmn mutants. We show that the pmn mouse mutant is a model for a progressive rapid hearing loss from P26 on, after initially normal hearing development. Heterozygous mice are not affected by this defect. With the knowledge of the well-known pathomechanism of this defect in motoneurons, a dysfunction of cellular mechanisms regulating tubulin assembling suggests that tubulin assembling plays an essential role in hearing function and maintenance. PMID:19735697

  12. Defective Glycinergic Synaptic Transmission in Zebrafish Motility Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Hiromi; Carta, Eloisa; Yamanaka, Iori; Harvey, Robert J.; Kuwada, John Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brainstem. Recently, in vivo analysis of glycinergic synaptic transmission has been pursued in zebrafish using molecular genetics. An ENU mutagenesis screen identified two behavioral mutants that are defective in glycinergic synaptic transmission. Zebrafish bandoneon (beo) mutants have a defect in glrbb, one of the duplicated glycine receptor (GlyR) β subunit genes. These mutants exhibit a loss of glycinergic synaptic transmission due to a lack of synaptic aggregation of GlyRs. Due to the consequent loss of reciprocal inhibition of motor circuits between the two sides of the spinal cord, motor neurons activate simultaneously on both sides resulting in bilateral contraction of axial muscles of beo mutants, eliciting the so-called ‘accordion’ phenotype. Similar defects in GlyR subunit genes have been observed in several mammals and are the basis for human hyperekplexia/startle disease. By contrast, zebrafish shocked (sho) mutants have a defect in slc6a9, encoding GlyT1, a glycine transporter that is expressed by astroglial cells surrounding the glycinergic synapse in the hindbrain and spinal cord. GlyT1 mediates rapid uptake of glycine from the synaptic cleft, terminating synaptic transmission. In zebrafish sho mutants, there appears to be elevated extracellular glycine resulting in persistent inhibition of postsynaptic neurons and subsequent reduced motility, causing the ‘twitch-once’ phenotype. We review current knowledge regarding zebrafish ‘accordion’ and ‘twitch-once’ mutants, including beo and sho, and report the identification of a new α2 subunit that revises the phylogeny of zebrafish GlyRs. PMID:20161699

  13. Generation of point-mutant FAK knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Tavora, B; Batista, S; Alexopoulou, A N; Kostourou, V; Fernandez, I; Robinson, S D; Lees, D M; Serrels, B; Hodivala-Dilke, K

    2014-11-01

    Focal adhesion kinase is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase with signaling functions downstream of integrins and growth factor receptors. In addition to its role in adhesion, migration, and proliferation it also has non-kinase scaffolding functions in the nucleus. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation involves the following: (1) ligand bound growth factors or clustered integrins activate FAK kinase domain; (2) FAK autophosphorylates tyrosine (Y) 397; (3) Src binds pY397 and phosphorylates FAK at various other sites including Y861; (4) downstream signaling of activated FAK elicits changes in cellular behavior. Although many studies have demonstrated roles for the kinase domain, Y397 and Y861 sites, in vitro much less is known about their functions in vivo. Here, we report the generation of a series of FAK-mutant knockin mice where mutant FAK, either kinase dead, non-phosphorylatable mutants Y397F and Y861F, or mutant Y397E-containing a phosphomimetic site that results in a constitutive active Y397, can be expressed in a Cre inducible fashion driven by the ROSA26 promoter. In future studies, intercrossing these mice with FAKflox/flox mice and inducible cre-expressing mice will enable the in vivo study of mutant FAK function in the absence of endogenous FAK in a spatially and temporally regulated fashion within the whole organism. PMID:25242698

  14. The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium: Identification of ocular mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, Monica M.; Wang, Xiaofei; Lu, Lu; Miller, Darla R; Rinchik, Eugene M; Williams, Robert; Goldowitz, Daniel

    2005-06-01

    The Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium (TMGC) is in its fifth year of a ethylnitrosourea (ENU)-based mutagenesis screen to detect recessive mutations that affect the eye and brain. Each pedigree is tested by various phenotyping domains including the eye, neurohistology, behavior, aging, ethanol, drug, social behavior, auditory, and epilepsy domains. The utilization of a highly efficient breeding protocol and coordination of various universities across Tennessee makes it possible for mice with ENU-induced mutations to be evaluated by nine distinct phenotyping domains within this large-scale project known as the TMGC. Our goal is to create mutant lines that model human diseases and disease syndromes and to make the mutant mice available to the scientific research community. Within the eye domain, mice are screened for anterior and posterior segment abnormalities using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, eye weight, histology, and immunohistochemistry. As of January 2005, we have screened 958 pedigrees and 4800 mice, excluding those used in mapping studies. We have thus far identified seven pedigrees with primary ocular abnormalities. Six of the mutant pedigrees have retinal or subretinal aberrations, while the remaining pedigree presents with an abnormal eye size. Continued characterization of these mutant mice should in most cases lead to the identification of the mutated gene, as well as provide insight into the function of each gene. Mice from each of these pedigrees of mutant mice are available for distribution to researchers for independent study.

  15. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

  16. Inhibition of DNA Methyltransferases Blocks Mutant Huntingtin-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yanchun; Daito, Takuji; Sasaki, Yo; Chung, Yong Hee; Xing, Xiaoyun; Pondugula, Santhi; Swamidass, S. Joshua; Wang, Ting; Kim, Albert H.; Yano, Hiroko

    2016-01-01

    Although epigenetic abnormalities have been described in Huntington’s disease (HD), the causal epigenetic mechanisms driving neurodegeneration in HD cortex and striatum remain undefined. Using an epigenetic pathway-targeted drug screen, we report that inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), decitabine and FdCyd, block mutant huntingtin (Htt)-induced toxicity in primary cortical and striatal neurons. In addition, knockdown of DNMT3A or DNMT1 protected neurons against mutant Htt-induced toxicity, together demonstrating a requirement for DNMTs in mutant Htt-triggered neuronal death and suggesting a neurodegenerative mechanism based on DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional repression. Inhibition of DNMTs in HD model primary cortical or striatal neurons restored the expression of several key genes, including Bdnf, an important neurotrophic factor implicated in HD. Accordingly, the Bdnf promoter exhibited aberrant cytosine methylation in mutant Htt-expressing cortical neurons. In vivo, pharmacological inhibition of DNMTs in HD mouse brains restored the mRNA levels of key striatal genes known to be downregulated in HD. Thus, disturbances in DNA methylation play a critical role in mutant Htt-induced neuronal dysfunction and death, raising the possibility that epigenetic strategies targeting abnormal DNA methylation may have therapeutic utility in HD. PMID:27516062

  17. Mutants of Arabidopsis with altered regulation of starch degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Caspar, T.; Lin, Tsanpiao; Kakefuda, G.; Benbow, L.; Preiss, J.; Somerville, C. )

    1991-04-01

    Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. with altered regulation of starch degradation were identified by screening for plants that retained high levels of leaf starch after a period of extended darkness. The mutant phenotype was also expressed in seeds, flowers, and roots, indicating that the same pathway of starch degradation is used in these tissues. In many respects, the physiological consequences of the mutations were equivalent to the effects observed in previously characterized mutants of Arabidopsis that are unable to synthesize starch. One mutant line, which was characterized in detail, had normal levels of activity of the starch degradative enzymes {alpha}-amylase, {beta}-amylase, phosphorylase, D-enzyme, and debranching enzyme. Thus, it was not possible to establish a biochemical basis for the phenotype, which was due to a recessive mutant at a locus designated sex 1 at position 12.2 on chromosome 1. This raises the possibility that hitherto unidentified factors, altered by the mutation, play a key role in regulating or catalyzing starch degradation.

  18. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  19. Nanoformulated cell-penetrating survivin mutant and its dual actions

    PubMed Central

    Sriramoju, Bhasker; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the differential actions of a dominant-negative survivin mutant (SurR9-C84A) against cancerous SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cell lines and differentiated SK-N-SH neurons. In both the cases, the mutant protein displayed dual actions, where its effects were cytotoxic toward cancerous cells and proliferative toward the differentiated neurons. This can be explained by the fact that tumorous (undifferentiated SK-N-SH) cells have a high endogenous survivin pool and upon treatment with mutant SuR9-C84A causes forceful survivin expression. These events significantly lowered the microtubule dynamics and stability, eventually leading to apoptosis. In the case of differentiated SK-N-SH neurons that express negligible levels of wild-type survivin, the mutant indistinguishably behaved in a wild-type fashion. It also favored cell-cycle progression, forming the chromosome-passenger complex, and stabilized the microtubule-organizing center. Therefore, mutant SurR9-C84A represents a novel therapeutic with its dual actions (cytotoxic toward tumor cells and protective and proliferative toward neuronal cells), and hence finds potential applications against a variety of neurological disorders. In this study, we also developed a novel poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticulate formulation to surmount the hurdles associated with the delivery of SurR9-C84A, thus enhancing its effective therapeutic outcome. PMID:25045261

  20. Biochemical and biological analysis of Mek1 phosphorylation site mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W; Kessler, D S; Erikson, R L

    1995-01-01

    Recently, we described the constitutive activation of Mek1 by mutation of its two serine phosphorylation sites. We have now characterized the biochemical properties of these Mek1 mutants and performed microinjection experiments to investigate the effect of an activated Mek on oocyte maturation. Single acidic substitution of either serine 218 or 222 activated Mek1 by 10-50 fold. The double acidic substitutions, [Asp218, Asp222] and [Asp218, Glu222], activated Mek1 over 6000-fold. The specific activity of the [Asp218, Asp222] and [Asp218, Glu222] Mek1 mutants, 29 nanomole phosphate per minute per milligram, is similar to that of wild-type Mek1 activated by Raf-1 in vitro. Although the mutants with double acidic substitutions could not be further activated by Raf-1, three of those with single acidic substitution were activated by Raf-1 to the specific activity of activated wild-type Mek1. Injection of the [Asp218, Asp222] Mek1 mutant into Xenopus oocytes activated both MAP kinase and histone H1 kinase and induced germinal vesicle breakdown, an effect that was only partially blocked by inhibition of protein synthesis. These data provide a measure of Mek's potential to influence cell functions and a quantitative basis to assess the biological effects of Mek1 mutants in a variety of circumstances. Images PMID:7612960

  1. Characterization of Leber Congenital Amaurosis-associated NMNAT1 Mutants*

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yo; Margolin, Zachary; Borgo, Benjamin; Havranek, James J.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Leber congenital amaurosis 9 (LCA9) is an autosomal recessive retinal degeneration condition caused by mutations in the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT1. This condition leads to early blindness but no other consistent deficits have been reported in patients with NMNAT1 mutations despite its central role in metabolism and ubiquitous expression. To study how these mutations affect NMNAT1 function and ultimately lead to the retinal degeneration phenotype, we performed detailed analysis of LCA-associated NMNAT1 mutants, including the expression, nuclear localization, enzymatic activity, secondary structure, oligomerization, and promotion of axonal and cellular integrity in response to injury. In many assays, most mutants produced results similar to wild type NMNAT1. Indeed, NAD+ synthetic activity is unlikely to be a primary mechanism underlying retinal degeneration as most LCA-associated NMNAT1 mutants had normal enzymatic activity. In contrast, the secondary structure of many NMNAT1 mutants was relatively less stable as they lost enzymatic activity after heat shock, whereas wild type NMNAT1 retains significant activity after this stress. These results suggest that LCA-associated NMNAT1 mutants are more vulnerable to stressful conditions that lead to protein unfolding, a potential contributor to the retinal degeneration observed in this syndrome. PMID:26018082

  2. Constitutively cellulose-producing mutant of trichoderma reesei

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, S.; Gopalkrishnan, K.S.; Ghose, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    The single major factor limiting the economy of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose is the cost of the cellulase enzymes. Most of the work to date in reducing this cost has centered around selection of hyperproducing strains using the standard cellulose medium. Cellulose is an insoluble substrate with obvious design disadvantages in bioreactors. It is often indicated that another reasonable approach to the problem would be the isolation of constitutive mutants which require no inducer to form cellulase. In fact, the goal of several laboratories around the world working on the hydrolysis of cellulosic substances has been to isolate a constitutive mutant. Reported here is the isolation of a constitutively cellulase producing mutant in T. reesei that produces high levels of all of the component enzymes in the cellulase complex in the presence of glucose or sucrose. With this constitutive mutant, it is hoped that a major hurdle of working with an insoluble substrate will be overcome. The mutant will allow easier operation and control of cellulose bioreactors and can be used for continuous enzyme production, as opposed to the present batch production system. Also, a number of other unusable susbtrates like whey and molasses can be used for commercial preparations of cellulases. (Refs. 2).

  3. Nitrate reduction mutants of Fusarium moniliforme (Gibberella fujikuroi)

    SciTech Connect

    Klittich, C.J.R.; Leslie, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    Twelve strains of Fusarium moniliforme were examined for their ability to sector spontaneously on toxic chlorate medium. All strains sectored frequently; 91% of over 1200 colonies examined formed chlorate-resistant, mutant sectors. Most of these mutants had lesions in the nitrate reduction pathway and were unable to utilize nitrate (nit mutants). nit mutations occurred in seven loci: a structural gene for nitrate reductase (nit1), a regulatory gene specific for the nitrate reduction pathway (nit3), and five genes controlling the production of a molybdenum-containing cofactors that is necessary for nitrate reductase activity (nit2, nit4, nit5, nit6, nit7). No mutations affecting nitrite reductase or a major nitrogen regulatory locus were found among over 1000 nit mutants. Mutations of nit1 were recovered most frequently (39-66%, depending on the strain) followed by nit3 mutations (23-42%). The frequency of isolation of each mutant type could be altered, however, by changing the source of nitrogen in the chlorate medium. The authors concluded that genetic control of nitrate reduction in F. moniliforme is similar to that in Aspergillus and Neurospora, but that the overall regulation of nitrogen metabolism may be different.

  4. Characterization of a mutant glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Shen, Dong; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Qi-He

    2014-10-01

    A series of site-directed mutant glucose isomerase at tryptophan 139 from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A were purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. W139F mutation is the most efficient mutant derivative with a tenfold increase in its catalytic efficiency toward glucose compared with the native GI. With a maximal activity at 80 °C of 59.58 U/mg on glucose, this mutant derivative is the most active type ever reported. The enzyme activity was maximal at 90 °C and like other glucose isomerase, this mutant enzyme required Co(2+) or Mg(2+) for enzyme activity and thermal stability (stable for 20 h at 80 °C in the absence of substrate). Its optimum pH was around 7.0, and it had 86 % of its maximum activity at pH 6.0 incubated for 12 h at 60 °C. This enzyme was determined as thermostable and weak-acid stable. These findings indicated that the mutant GI W139F from T. saccharolyticum strain B6A is appropriate for use as a potential candidate for high-fructose corn syrup producing enzyme. PMID:25139657

  5. Characterization of a mutant glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Heng; Shen, Dong; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Qi-He

    2014-10-01

    A series of site-directed mutant glucose isomerase at tryptophan 139 from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A were purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. W139F mutation is the most efficient mutant derivative with a tenfold increase in its catalytic efficiency toward glucose compared with the native GI. With a maximal activity at 80 °C of 59.58 U/mg on glucose, this mutant derivative is the most active type ever reported. The enzyme activity was maximal at 90 °C and like other glucose isomerase, this mutant enzyme required Co(2+) or Mg(2+) for enzyme activity and thermal stability (stable for 20 h at 80 °C in the absence of substrate). Its optimum pH was around 7.0, and it had 86 % of its maximum activity at pH 6.0 incubated for 12 h at 60 °C. This enzyme was determined as thermostable and weak-acid stable. These findings indicated that the mutant GI W139F from T. saccharolyticum strain B6A is appropriate for use as a potential candidate for high-fructose corn syrup producing enzyme.

  6. Dissecting the cellular functions of plant microtubules using mutant tubulins.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-04-01

    α- and β-tubulins, the building blocks of the microtubule (MT) polymer, are encoded by multiple genes that are largely functionally redundant in plants. Null tubulin mutants are thus phenotypically indistinguishable from the wild type, but miss-sense or deletion mutations of critical amino acid residues that are important for the assembly, stability, or dynamics of the polymer disrupt the proper organization and function of the resultant MT arrays. Mutant tubulins co-assemble with wild-type tubulins into mutant MTs with compromised functions, and thus mechanistically act as dominant-negative MT poisons. Cortical MT arrays in interphase plant cells are most sensitive to tubulin mutations, and are transformed into helical structures or random orientation, which produce twisted or radially swollen cells. Mutant plants resistant to MT-targeted herbicides may possess tubulin mutations at the binding sites of the herbicides. Tubulin mutants are valuable tools for investigating how individual MTs are organized into particular patterns in cortical arrays, and for defining the functional contribution of MTs to various MT-dependent or -assisted cellular processes in plant cells.

  7. Comparison of non-mutant and mutant waxy genes in rice and maize.

    PubMed

    Okagaki, R J; Wessler, S R

    1988-12-01

    The waxy gene, which is responsible for the synthesis of amylose in endosperm and pollen, is genetically well characterized in many grasses including maize and rice. Homology between the previously cloned maize waxy gene and the rice gene has facilitated our cloning of a 15-kb HindIII fragment that contains the entire rice gene. A comparison of the restriction maps of the maize and rice genes indicates that many restriction sites within translated exons are conserved. In addition, the rice gene encodes a 2.4-kb transcript that programs the in vitro synthesis of a 64-kD pre-protein which is efficiently precipitated with maize waxy antisera. We demonstrate that these gene products are altered in rice strains containing mutant waxy genes. Southern blot analysis of 16 rice strains, ten containing waxy mutations, reveals that the waxy gene and flanking restriction fragments are virtually identical. These results contrast dramatically with the high level of insertions and deletions associated with restriction fragment length polymorphism and spontaneous mutations among the waxy alleles of maize. PMID:2906308

  8. Isolation and preliminary characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants of encephalomyocarditis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Radloff, R J

    1978-01-01

    Thirty temperature-sensitive mutants of encephalomyocarditis virus have been isolated and partially characterized. Fifteen of these mutants are phenotypically RNA+ thirteen are RNA-, and two are RNA +/-. Six RNA + mutants, one RNA- mutants, and one RNA +/- mutant have virions which are more thermosensitive at 56 degree C than the wild-type virions. Hela cells infected at the nonpermissive temperature with any of the RNA+ mutants produced neither infective nor noninfective viral particles. The cleavage of the precursor polypeptides in cells infected with 11 of the RNA+ mutants was defective at the nonpermissive temperature. This defect in cleavage occurred only in those precursor polypeptides leading to capsid proteins. Images PMID:211249

  9. Production and characterization of streptomycin dependent mutants of Pasteurella multocida from bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed Central

    de Alwis, M C; Carter, G R; Chengappa, M M

    1980-01-01

    A large number of streptomycin dependent mutants were produced from bovine haemorrhagic septicaemia strains of Pasteurella multocida. The mutants required a minimum concentration of 25-50 microgram/mL streptomycin for growth and tolerated a concentration of 200 mg/mL. These mutants were avirulent to mice, when inoculated alone, but some mutants killed mice when inoculated with streptomycin. Biochemically all mutants were uniform and similar to the wild type. Most mutants were stable, but a few produced streptomycin independent revertants. The rate of reversion varied with each mutant. Most revertants were highly virulent for mice, some totally avirulant and a few relatively avirulent. PMID:6778598

  10. Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Whittle, Edward J.

    2008-01-29

    The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

  11. Developmental mechanisms underlying polydactyly in the mouse mutant Doublefoot

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Alexandra P; Babbs, Christian; Brown, Jennifer M; Morriss-Kay, Gillian M

    2003-01-01

    The pre-axial polydactylous mouse mutant Doublefoot has 6–9 digits per limb but lacks anteroposterior polarity (there is no biphalangeal digit 1). It differs from other polydactylous mutants in showing normal Shh expression, but polarizing activity (shown by mouse-chick grafting experiments) and hedgehog signalling activity (shown by expression of Ptc1) are present throughout the distal mesenchyme. The Dbf mutation has not yet been identified. Here we review current understanding of this mutant, and briefly report new results indicating (1) that limb bud expansion is concomitant with ectopic Ihh expression and with extension of the posterior high cell proliferation rate into the anterior region, and (2) that the Dbf mutation is epistatic to Shh in the limb. PMID:12587916

  12. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders.

  13. Candida albicans mutant construction and characterization of selected virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Motaung, T E; Albertyn, J; Pohl, C H; Köhler, Gerwald

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid, polymorphic yeast, associated with humans, where it mostly causes no harm. However, under certain conditions it can cause infections ranging from superficial to life threatening. This ability to become pathogenic is often linked to the immune status of the host as well as the expression of certain virulence factors by the yeast. Due to the importance of C. albicans as a pathogen, determination of the molecular mechanisms that allow this yeast to cause disease is important. These studies rely on the ability of researchers to create deletion mutants of specific genes in order to study their function. This article provides a critical review of the important techniques used to create deletion mutants in C. albicans and highlights how these deletion mutants can be used to determine the role of genes in the expression of virulence factors in vitro.

  14. Characteristics of a glycerol utilization mutant of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Courtright, J B

    1975-01-01

    A mutant of Neurospora crassa able to grow on liquid minimal glycerol medium without evidence of conidiation and with high cell yields has been isolated and shown to be allelic to ff-1. The glycerol-specific induction of glycerokinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was similar in both wild-type and mutant cells, although higher specific activities as well as higher glycerokinase cross-reacting material levels were found in fully induced mutant cells. After growth in minimal glycerol medium there is a significant reduction in wild-type cells of the activities of both pyruvate dehydrogenase and dihydrolipoyl transacetylase. This evidence indicates a relationship between the conditional acetate requirement by wild-type cells grown on glycerol medium and the levels of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Images PMID:126227

  15. Isolation and characterization of yeast monomorphic mutants of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Elorza, M V; Sentandreu, R; Ruiz-Herrera, J

    1994-01-01

    A method was devised for the isolation of yeast monomorphic (LEV) mutants of Candida albicans. By this procedure, about 20 stable yeast-like mutants were isolated after mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate. The growth rate of the mutants in different carbon sources, both fermentable and not, was indistinguishable from that of the parental strain, but they were unable to grow as mycelial forms after application of any of the common effective inducers, i.e., heat shock, pH alterations, proline addition, or use of GlcNAc as the carbon source. Studies performed with one selected strain demonstrated that it had severe alterations in the chemical composition of the cell wall, mainly in the levels of chitin and glucans, and in specific mannoproteins, some of them recognizable by specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. It is suggested that these structural alterations hinder the construction of a normal hyphal wall. Images PMID:8157600

  16. First evidence of pfcrt mutant Plasmodium falciparum in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Fidock, David A; Belmonte, Olivier; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Ariey, Frédéric

    2006-09-01

    The island of Madagascar, lying in the Indian Ocean approximately 250 miles from the African coast, has so far remained one of the few areas in the world without noticeable Plasmodium falciparum high-grade chloroquine (CQ) resistance. Here we report genotyping data on pfcrt in Madagascar. The pfcrt K76T mutation, which is critical for resistance to CQ, was detected in six (3.3%) of 183 P. falciparum isolates screened, within the mutant haplotypes CVIET and CVIDT. This is the first observation of pfcrt mutant parasites on the island. The current massive distribution of CQ for in-home management of fever in children will promote the dissemination of these mutant CQ-resistant parasites. In this context, genotyping of pfcrt remains a useful tool for CQ resistance surveillance as the prevalence of pfcrt mutations is far from saturation in Madagascar.

  17. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders. PMID:26436900

  18. Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with defective vacuolar function

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamoto, K.; Yoshizawa, K.; Ohsumi, Y.; Anraku, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have a small vacuolar lysine pool were isolated and characterized. Mutant KL97 (lys1 slp1-1) and strain KL197-1A (slp1-1), a prototrophic derivative of KL97, did not grow well in synthetic medium supplemented with 10 mM lysine. Genetic studies indicated that the slp1-1mutation (for small lysine pool) is recessive and is due to a single chromosomal mutation. Mutant KL97 shows the following pleiotropic defects in vacuolar functions. (i) It has small vacuolar pools for lysine, arginine, and histidine. (ii) Its growth is sensitive to lysine, histidine, Ca/sup 2 +/, heavy metal ions, and antibiotics. (iii) It has many small vesicles but no large central vacuole. (iv) It has a normal amount of the vacuolar membrane marker ..cap alpha..-mannosidase but shows reduced activities of the vacuole sap markers proteinase A, proteinase B, and carboxypeptidase Y.

  19. Insulin receptor membrane retention by a traceable chimeric mutant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The insulin receptor (IR) regulates glucose homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation. It has been hypothesized that the specific signaling characteristics of IR are in part determined by ligand-receptor complexes localization. Downstream signaling could be triggered from the plasma membrane or from endosomes. Regulation of activated receptor's internalization has been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the differential isoform and ligand-specific signaling. Results We generated a traceable IR chimera that allows the labeling of the receptor at the cell surface. This mutant binds insulin but fails to get activated and internalized. However, the mutant heterodimerizes with wild type IR inhibiting its auto-phosphorylation and blocking its internalization. IR membrane retention attenuates AP-1 transcriptional activation favoring Akt activation. Conclusions These results suggest that the mutant acts as a selective dominant negative blocking IR internalization-mediated signaling. PMID:23805988

  20. Localization of transposon insertions in pathogenicity mutants of Erwinia amylovora and their biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bellemann, P; Geider, K

    1992-05-01

    Transposon Tn5, on a mobilizable ColE1 plasmid, on a Ti plasmid derepressed for bacterial transfer, and on the bacteriophage fd genome, was used to construct pathogenicity mutants of the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Eleven nonpathogenic mutants were isolated from 1600 independent mutants screened. These mutants were divided into three types: auxotrophs, exopolysaccharide (EPS)-deficient mutants and a mutant of the dsp phenotype. According to their insertion sites the Tn5 mutants were mapped into several classes. Some of the mutants could be complemented with cosmid clones from a genomic library of the parent strain for EPS production on minimal agar. EPS-deficient mutants and the dsp mutant could complement each other to produce virulence symptoms on pear slices.

  1. Internal deletion mutants of Xenopus transcription factor IIIA.

    PubMed Central

    Hanas, J S; Littell, R M; Gaskins, C J; Zebrowski, R

    1989-01-01

    Xenopus transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA) or TFIIIA mutants with internal deletions were expressed in E. coli utilizing a bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase system. TFIIIA or deletion mutant TFIIIAs, isolated from E.coli cell extracts, were identified by SDS PAGE and immunoblotting with rabbit antiserum against native TFIIIA purified from Xenopus immature oocytes. Specific DNA binding of intact or internally deleted TFIIIA was compared by analyzing their abilities to protect the internal control gene (ICR) of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene from DNase I digestion. Intact protein, synthesized from a full-length TFIIIA cDNA, bound specifically to the entire ICR (+96 to +43) and promoted 5S RNA gene transcription in vitro. One TFIIIA deletion mutant, expressed from cDNA lacking the coding sequence for the putative fourth zinc finger (designated from the N-terminus, amino acids 103-132) protected the ICR from DNase I digestion from nucleotide positions +96 to +78. A second TFIIIA mutant resulting from fusion of putative zinc fingers 7 and 8 (deletion of amino acids 200-224) protected the 5S gene ICR from positions +96 to +63. The DNase I protection patterns of these mutant proteins are consistent with the formation of strong ICR contacts by those regions of the protein on the N-terminal side of the mutation but not by those regions on the C-terminal side of the mutation. The regions of the protein comprising the N-terminal 3 fingers and N-terminal six fingers appear to be in contact with approximately 18 and 33 bp of DNA respectively on the 3' side of the 5S gene ICR. These internal deletion mutants promoted 5S RNA synthesis in vitro and DNA renaturation. Images PMID:2690011

  2. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa

    PubMed Central

    Vuimo, Tatiana A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Korneeva, Vera A.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Orlova, Nadezhda A.; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in ‘global’ assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5–20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  3. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa.

    PubMed

    Kolyadko, Vladimir N; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Vuimo, Tatiana A; Surov, Stepan S; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A; Korneeva, Vera A; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Orlova, Nadezhda A; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in 'global' assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5-20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  4. A male sterile pepper (C. annuum L.) mutant.

    PubMed

    Daskaloff, S

    1968-08-01

    1. After treatment of dry seeds of red pepperCapsicum annuum L. with X-rays a male-sterile mutant was discovered in the M2. 2. The male-sterile mutant segregates in a ratio of 3.28:1 (χ(2)=3.148, probability 0.07). 3. After an alternative cultivation of male-sterile plants and of a variety with good combining ability relatively good fruit-setting and seed production was obtained. 4. Grafting of male-sterile scions to normal stocks does not affect the male-sterile phenotype.

  5. COAGULASE-NEGATIVE MUTANTS OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: GENETIC STUDIES.

    PubMed

    KORMAN, R Z

    1963-09-01

    Korman, Ruth Z. (Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.). Coagulase-negative mutants of Staphylococcus aureus: genetic studies. J. Bacteriol. 86:363-369. 1963.-The behavior in mutation and transduction of pleiotropic coagulase-negative mutants of Staphylococcus aureus PS 53 (NCTC 8511) was analyzed. Coagulase-positive colonies were recovered, as well as a novel phenotype resistant to some cell-wall inhibitors and differing in sugar fermentation pattern. The hypothesis that the coagulase-negative strains differ from the original propagating strain in the structure or organization of the cell wall is discussed.

  6. Characterization of Sugar Insensitive (sis) Mutants of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, Susan I.

    2009-06-08

    Despite the fact that soluble sugar levels have been postulated to play an important role in the control of a wide variety of plant metabolic and developmental pathways, the mechanisms by which plants respond to soluble sugar levels remain poorly understood. Plant responses to soluble sugar levels are also important in bioenergy production, as plant sugar responses are believed to help regulate both carbon fixation and carbon partitioning. For example, accumulation of soluble sugars, such as sucrose and glucose, in source tissues leads to feedback inhibition of photosynthesis, thereby decreasing rates of carbon fixation. Soluble sugar levels can also affect sink strengths, affecting the rates of accumulation of carbon-based compounds into both particular molecular forms (e.g. carbohydrates versus lipids versus proteins) and particular plant organs and tissues. Mutants of Arabidopsis that are defective in the ability to respond to soluble sugar levels were isolated and used as tools to identify some of the factors involved in plant sugar response. These sugar insensitive (sis) mutants were isolated by screening mutagenized seeds for those that were able to germinate and develop relatively normal shoot systems on media containing 0.3 M glucose or 0.3 M sucrose. At these sugar concentrations, wild-type Arabidopsis germinate and produce substantial root systems, but show little to no shoot development. Twenty-eight sis mutants were isolated during the course of four independent mutant screens. Based on a preliminary characterization of all of these mutants, sis3 and sis6 were chosen for further study. Both of these mutations appear to lie in previously uncharacterized loci. Unlike many other sugar-response mutants, sis3 mutants exhibit a wild-type or near wild-type response in all phytohormone-response assays conducted to date. The sis6-1 mutation is unusual in that it appears to be due to overexpression of a gene, rather than representing a loss of function mutation

  7. Mutants of Arabidopsis as tools for physiology and molecular biology

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, C.R.; Artus, N.; Browse, J.; Caspar, T.; Estelle, M.; Haughn, G.; Kunst, L.; Martinez, J.; McCourt, P.; Moffatt, B.

    1986-04-01

    The authors discuss the importance of developing a facile system for genetic analysis in higher plants which can be used to approach problems specific to plant biology in much the same way that molecular genetic approaches have been used in other classes of organisms such as yeast and Drosophila. Toward this end, they have developed methods for the isolation and analysis of mutants of Arabidopsis with specific alterations in photosynthesis, photorespiration, starch metabolism, lipid metabolism, purine metabolism, amino acid metabolism and phytohormone responses. The utility of this collection of mutants for studying problems in physiology and biochemistry is illustrated with selected examples.

  8. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, M.; Millard, C.S.; Stols, L.

    1998-06-23

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria. 2 figs.

  9. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2002-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  10. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  11. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    1998-01-01

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which as been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  12. Regioselective alkane hydroxylation with a mutant AlkB enzyme

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Daniel J.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-11-13

    AlkB from Pseudomonas putida was engineered using in-vivo directed evolution to hydroxylate small chain alkanes. Mutant AlkB-BMO1 hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. Mutant AlkB-BMO2 similarly hydroxylates propane and butane at the terminal carbon at a rate greater than the wild-type to form 1-propanol and 1-butanol, respectively. These biocatalysts are highly active for small chain alkane substrates and their regioselectivity is retained in whole-cell biotransformations.

  13. Repair effects of laser on mutants of filamentous fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yansheng; Xiao, Canpeng; Qian, Hailun; Su, Baoliang; Hu, Yujun; Deng, Jianhui

    1999-09-01

    The paper reports that penicillin-producing strains and lovastatin-producing strains were irradiated by UV and subsequently by laser (632.8 nm), and the reparation rate reached 297% and 264%. High-yield mutant was selected with improved potency of 24.5% and 30%, respectively; Gibberellin producing strains were treated with chemical agent LiCl, and then irradiated with 632.8 nm laser. One mutant with 189.6% increased potency was obtained. The experimental results indicated that using laser irradiation after UV or chemical agent mutation was a new useful method in breeding high-yield strains.

  14. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  15. Mutations and Misconceptions: The Isolation and Study of Mutant Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corner, Thomas R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes simple, inexpensive activities for teaching students about mutants and mutations in bacteria. Explains how to isolate bacteria from soil and leaves and how to grow bacteria on agar or in broth. Describes how to construct a gradient plate for finding the minimum inhibitory concentration of a substance and how to use this set up to find…

  16. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Flavahan, William A.; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Venteicher, Andrew S.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Suvà, Mario L.; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas1,2. Mutant IDH protein produces a novel onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), that interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5′-methylcytosine hydroxylases3–7. TET enzymes catalyze a key step in the removal of DNA methylation8,9. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP)10,11, though the functional significance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hyper-methylation at CTCF binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to aberrantly interact with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and down-regulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wildtype gliomaspheres up-regulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression. PMID:26700815

  17. Functional analysis of an Orc6 mutant in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Balasov, Maxim; Huijbregts, Richard P H; Chesnokov, Igor

    2009-06-30

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a 6-subunit complex required for the initiation of DNA replication in eukaryotic organisms. ORC is also involved in other cell functions. The smallest Drosophila ORC subunit, Orc6, is important for both DNA replication and cytokinesis. To study the role of Orc6 in vivo, the orc6 gene was deleted by imprecise excision of P element. Lethal alleles of orc6 are defective in DNA replication and also show abnormal chromosome condensation and segregation. The analysis of cells containing the orc6 deletion revealed that they arrest in both the G(1) and mitotic stages of the cell cycle. Orc6 deletion can be rescued to viability by a full-length Orc6 transgene. The expression of mutant transgenes of Orc6 with deleted or mutated C-terminal domain results in a release of mutant cells from G(1) arrest and restoration of DNA replication, indicating that the DNA replication function of Orc6 is associated with its N-terminal domain. However, these mutant cells accumulate at mitosis, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of Orc6 is important for the passage through the M phase. In a cross-species complementation experiment, the expression of human Orc6 in Drosophila Orc6 mutant cells rescued DNA replication, suggesting that this function of the protein is conserved among metazoans. PMID:19541634

  18. Molecular mapping and characterization of the silkworm apodal mutant

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peng; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Fu, Ming-Yue; Hu, Hai; Song, Jiang-Bo; He, Song-Zhen; Gai, Ting-Ting; Dai, Fang-Yin; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is important for their survival; in essence, it results from the differential expression of genes during development of the insect body. The silkworm apodal (ap) mutant has degraded thoracic legs making crawling and eating difficult and the female is sterile, which is an ideal subject for studying the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis. Here, we confirmed that the infertility of ap female moths is a result of the degradation of the bursa copulatrix. Positional cloning of ap locus and expression analyses reveal that the Bombyx mori sister of odd and bowl (Bmsob) gene is a strong candidate for the ap mutant. The expression of Bmsob is down-regulated, while the corresponding Hox genes are up-regulated in the ap mutant compared to the wild type. Analyses with the dual luciferase assay present a declined activity of the Bmsob promoter in the ap mutant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Bmsob can inhibit Hox gene expression directly and by suppressing the expression of other genes, including the BmDsp gene. The results of this study are an important contribution to our understanding of the diversification of insect body plan. PMID:26738847

  19. Enhanced cellulase producing mutants developed from heterokaryotic Aspergillus strain.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baljit; Oberoi, H S; Chadha, B S

    2014-03-01

    A heterokaryon 28, derived through protoplast fusion between Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus tubingensis (Dal8), was subjected cyclic mutagenesis followed by selection on increasing levels of 2-deoxy glucose (2-DG) as selection marker. The derived deregulated cellulase hyper producing mutant '64', when compared to fusant 28, produced 9.83, 7.8, 3.2, 4.2 and 19.74 folds higher endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, FPase and xylanase, respectively, under shake cultures. The sequence analysis of PCR amplified β-glucosidase gene from wild and mutant showed nucleotide deletion/substitution. The mutants showed highly catalytic efficient β-glucosidase as evident from low Km and high Vmax values. The expression profiling through zymogram analysis also indicated towards over-expression of cellulases. The up/down regulated expressed proteins observed through SDS-PAGE were identified by Peptide mass fingerprinting The cellulase produced by mutants in conjunction with cellulase free xylanase derived from Thermomyces lanuginosus was used for efficient utilization of alkali treated rice straw for obtaining xylo-oligosaccharides and ethanol.

  20. Searching and Mining Visually Observed Phenotypes of Maize Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are thousands of maize mutants, which are invaluable resources for plant research. Geneticists use them to study underlying mechanisms of biochemistry, cell biology, cell development, and cell physiology. To streamline the understanding of such complex processes, researchers need the most curr...

  1. Some Experiments with Respiratory Deficient Mutants of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    Methods are described for the induction and identification of respiratory deficient mutants in yeast. Practical schemes are given to enable students to obtain dose-response information for physical and chemical mutagens such as heat, ultraviolet light, or acriflavine. A simple test for environmental mutagens is described. (Author/MA)

  2. Screening for gene regulation mutants by bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Stevenson, Becky; Lee, Byeong-ha; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-07-09

    Because plants cannot move, they have evolved complex sensing and response systems to cope with the physical environment. Adverse environmental conditions, such as those causing abiotic stress, often cause significant losses in crop productivity and quality. Because of a paucity of well-defined visible phenotypes, conventional genetic screens have not been very successful in isolating abiotic stress signal transduction mutants of plants. Here, we describe a reporter gene-based strategy to screen for mutants affected in abiotic stress-regulated gene transcription. Our genetic screen uses the firefly luciferase reporter gene driven by the cold, drought, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive RD29A promoter (RD29A::LUC). Arabidopsis plants transformed with the RD29A::LUC reporter emit bioluminescence in response to cold, drought, salt, or ABA treatment. After mutagenesis of these plants with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), mutants can be screened from the M2 population by monitoring the level of stress-inducible bioluminescence with a high-throughput, low-light imaging system. This protocol describes in detail the procedures for this luciferase reporter-based genetic screen for Arabidopsis mutants defective in abiotic stress signaling.

  3. Choline Acetyltransferase-Deficient Mutants of the Nematode CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS

    PubMed Central

    Rand, James B.; Russell, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    We have identified five independent allelic mutations, defining the gene cha-1, that result in decreased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Four of the mutant alleles, when homozygous, lead to ChAT reductions of>98%, as well as recessive phenotypes of uncoordinated behavior, small size, slow growth and resistance to cholinesterase inhibitors. Animals homozygous for the fifth allele retain approximately 10% of the wild-type enzyme level; purified enzyme from this mutant has altered Km values for both choline and acetyl-CoA and is more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. These qualitative alterations, together with gene dosage data, argue that cha-1 is the structural gene for ChAT. cha-1 has been mapped to the left arm of linkage group IV and is within 0.02 map unit of the gene unc-17, mutant alleles of which lead to all of the phenotypes of cha-1 mutants except for the ChAT deficiency. Extensive complementation studies of cha-1 and unc-17 alleles reveal a complex complementation pattern, suggesting that both loci may be part of a single complex gene. PMID:6698395

  4. Rest Mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, Cara E.; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F.; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I.

    2015-01-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest. PMID:25712696

  5. Screening of Bacillus subtilis transposon mutants with altered riboflavin production.

    PubMed

    Tännler, Simon; Zamboni, Nicola; Kiraly, Csilla; Aymerich, Stéphane; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-09-01

    To identify novel targets for metabolic engineering of riboflavin production, we generated about 10,000 random, transposon-tagged mutants of an industrial, riboflavin-producing strain of Bacillus subtilis. Process-relevant screening conditions were established by developing a 96-deep-well plate method with raffinose as the carbon source, which mimics, to some extent, carbon limitation in fed batch cultures. Screening in raffinose and complex LB medium identified more efficiently riboflavin overproducing and underproducing mutants, respectively. As expected for a "loss of function" analysis, most identified mutants were underproducers. Insertion mutants in two genes with yet unknown function, however, were found to attain significantly improved riboflavin titers and yields. These genes and possibly further ones that are related to them are promising candidates for metabolic engineering. While causal links to riboflavin production were not obvious for most underproducers, we demonstrated for the gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapB how a novel, non-obvious metabolic engineering strategy can be derived from such underproduction mutations. Specifically, we improved riboflavin production on various substrates significantly by deregulating expression of the gluconeogenic genes gapB and pckA through knockout of their genetic repressor CcpN. This improvement was also verified under the more process-relevant conditions of a glucose-limited fed-batch culture. PMID:18582593

  6. Mutant IDH is sufficient to initiate enchondromatosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Makoto; Sasaki, Masato; Cairns, Rob A; Inoue, Satoshi; Puviindran, Vijitha; Li, Wanda Y; Snow, Bryan E; Jones, Lisa D; Wei, Qingxia; Sato, Shingo; Tang, Yuning J; Nadesan, Puviindran; Rockel, Jason; Whetstone, Heather; Poon, Raymond; Weng, Angela; Gross, Stefan; Straley, Kimberly; Gliser, Camelia; Xu, Yingxia; Wunder, Jay; Mak, Tak W; Alman, Benjamin A

    2015-03-01

    Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze α-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas. PMID:25730874

  7. 'Green revolution' genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators.

    PubMed

    Peng, J; Richards, D E; Hartley, N M; Murphy, G P; Devos, K M; Flintham, J E; Beales, J; Fish, L J; Worland, A J; Pelica, F; Sudhakar, D; Christou, P; Snape, J W; Gale, M D; Harberd, N P

    1999-07-15

    World wheat grain yields increased substantially in the 1960s and 1970s because farmers rapidly adopted the new varieties and cultivation methods of the so-called 'green revolution'. The new varieties are shorter, increase grain yield at the expense of straw biomass, and are more resistant to damage by wind and rain. These wheats are short because they respond abnormally to the plant growth hormone gibberellin. This reduced response to gibberellin is conferred by mutant dwarfing alleles at one of two Reduced height-1 (Rht-B1 and Rht-D1) loci. Here we show that Rht-B1/Rht-D1 and maize dwarf-8 (d8) are orthologues of the Arabidopsis Gibberellin Insensitive (GAI) gene. These genes encode proteins that resemble nuclear transcription factors and contain an SH2-like domain, indicating that phosphotyrosine may participate in gibberellin signalling. Six different orthologous dwarfing mutant alleles encode proteins that are altered in a conserved amino-terminal gibberellin signalling domain. Transgenic rice plants containing a mutant GAI allele give reduced responses to gibberellin and are dwarfed, indicating that mutant GAI orthologues could be used to increase yield in a wide range of crop species.

  8. Eskimo1 mutants of Arabidopsis are constitutively freezing-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Xin, Z; Browse, J

    1998-06-23

    Temperate plants develop a greater ability to withstand freezing in response to a period of low but nonfreezing temperatures through a complex, adaptive process of cold acclimation. Very little is known about the signaling processes by which plants perceive the low temperature stimulus and transduce it into the nucleus to activate genes needed for increased freezing tolerance. To help understand the signaling processes, we have isolated mutants of Arabidopsis that are constitutively freezing-tolerant in the absence of cold acclimation. Freezing tolerance of wild-type Arabidopsis was increased from -5.5 degreesC to -12.6 degreesC by cold acclimation whereas the freezing tolerance of 26 mutant lines ranged from -6.8 degreesC to -10.6 degreesC in the absence of acclimation. Plants with mutations at the eskimo1 (esk1) locus accumulated high levels of proline, a compatible osmolyte, but did not exhibit constitutively increased expression of several cold-regulated genes involved in freezing tolerance. RNA gel blot analysis suggested that proline accumulation in esk1 plants was mediated by regulation of transcript levels of genes involved in proline synthesis and degradation. The characterization of esk1 mutants and results from other mutants suggest that distinct signaling pathways activate different aspects of cold acclimation and that activation of one pathway can result in considerable freezing tolerance without activation of other pathways.

  9. Abnormal grooming activity in Dab1(scm) (scrambler) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Strazielle, C; Lefevre, A; Jacquelin, C; Lalonde, R

    2012-07-15

    Dab1(scm) mutant mice, characterized by cell ectopias and degeneration in cerebellum, hippocampus, and neocortex, were compared to non-ataxic controls for different facets of grooming caused by brief water immersions, as well as some non-grooming behaviors. Dab1(scm) mutants were strongly affected in their quantitative functional parameters, exhibiting higher starting latencies before grooming relative to non-ataxic littermates of the A/A strain, fewer grooming bouts, and grooming components of shorter duration, with an unequal regional distribution targeting almost totally the rostral part (head washing and forelimb licking) of the animal. Only bouts of a single grooming element were preserved. The cephalocaudal order of grooming elements appeared less disorganized, mutant and control mice initiating the grooming with head washing and forelimb licking prior to licking posterior parts. However, mutants differed from controls in that all their bouts were incomplete but uninterrupted, although intergroup difference for percentage of the incorrect transitions was not significant. In contrast to grooming, Dab1(scm) mice ambulated for a longer time. During walking episodes, they exhibited more body scratching than controls, possibly to compensate for the lack of licking different body parts. In conjunction with studies with other ataxic mice, these results indicate that the cerebellar cortex affects grooming activity and is consequently involved in executing various components, but not in its sequential organization, which requires other brain regions such as cerebral cortices or basal ganglia.

  10. X-ray structures of NS1 effector domain mutants.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuangluo; Robertus, Jon D

    2010-02-15

    The influenza A virus nonstructural protein NS1 is a multifunctional dimeric protein that acts as a potent inhibitor of the host cellular antiviral state. The C-terminal effector domain of NS1 binds host proteins, including CPSF30, and is a target for the development of new antiviral drugs. Here we present crystallographic structures of two mutant effector domains, W187Y and W187A, of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus. Unlike wild-type, the mutants behave exclusively as monomers in solution based on gel filtration data and light scattering. The W187Y mutant is able to bind CPSF30 with a binding affinity close to the wild-type protein; that is, it retains a receptor site for aromatic ligands nearly identical to the wild-type. Therefore, this monomeric mutant protein could serve as a drug target for a high throughput inhibitor screening assays, since its binding pocket is unoccupied in solution and potentially more accessible to small molecule ligands.

  11. An Escherichia coli Mutant That Makes Exceptionally Long Cells

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Elaine B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although Escherichia coli is a very small (1- to 2-μm) rod-shaped cell, here we describe an E. coli mutant that forms enormously long cells in rich media such as Luria broth, as long indeed as 750 μm. These extremely elongated (eel) cells are as long as the longest bacteria known and have no internal subdivisions. They are metabolically competent, elongate rapidly, synthesize DNA, and distribute cell contents along this length. They lack only the ability to divide. The concentration of the essential cell division protein FtsZ is reduced in these eel cells, and increasing this concentration restores division. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is usually a very small bacterium, 1 to 2 μm long. We have isolated a mutant that forms enormously long cells, 700 times longer than the usual E. coli cell. E. coli filaments that form under other conditions usually die within a few hours, whereas our mutant is fully viable even when it reaches such lengths. This mutant provides a useful tool for the study of aspects of E. coli physiology that are difficult to investigate with small cells. PMID:25691528

  12. Molecular mapping and characterization of the silkworm apodal mutant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peng; Tong, Xiao-Ling; Fu, Ming-Yue; Hu, Hai; Song, Jiang-Bo; He, Song-Zhen; Gai, Ting-Ting; Dai, Fang-Yin; Lu, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is important for their survival; in essence, it results from the differential expression of genes during development of the insect body. The silkworm apodal (ap) mutant has degraded thoracic legs making crawling and eating difficult and the female is sterile, which is an ideal subject for studying the molecular mechanisms of morphogenesis. Here, we confirmed that the infertility of ap female moths is a result of the degradation of the bursa copulatrix. Positional cloning of ap locus and expression analyses reveal that the Bombyx mori sister of odd and bowl (Bmsob) gene is a strong candidate for the ap mutant. The expression of Bmsob is down-regulated, while the corresponding Hox genes are up-regulated in the ap mutant compared to the wild type. Analyses with the dual luciferase assay present a declined activity of the Bmsob promoter in the ap mutant. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Bmsob can inhibit Hox gene expression directly and by suppressing the expression of other genes, including the BmDsp gene. The results of this study are an important contribution to our understanding of the diversification of insect body plan. PMID:26738847

  13. Susceptibility genes for schizophrenia: mutant models, endophenotypes and psychobiology.

    PubMed

    O'Tuathaigh, Colm M P; Desbonnet, Lieve; Moran, Paula M; Waddington, John L

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterised by a multifactorial aetiology that involves genetic liability interacting with epigenetic and environmental factors to increase risk for developing the disorder. A consensus view is that the genetic component involves several common risk alleles of small effect and/or rare but penetrant copy number variations. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence for broader, overlapping genetic-phenotypic relationships in psychosis; for example, the same susceptibility genes also confer risk for bipolar disorder. Phenotypic characterisation of genetic models of candidate risk genes and/or putative pathophysiological processes implicated in schizophrenia, as well as examination of epidemiologically relevant gene × environment interactions in these models, can illuminate molecular and pathobiological mechanisms involved in schizophrenia. The present chapter outlines both the evidence from phenotypic studies in mutant mouse models related to schizophrenia and recently described mutant models addressing such gene × environment interactions. Emphasis is placed on evaluating the extent to which mutant phenotypes recapitulate the totality of the disease phenotype or model selective endophenotypes. We also discuss new developments and trends in relation to the functional genomics of psychosis which might help to inform on the construct validity of mutant models of schizophrenia and highlight methodological challenges in phenotypic evaluation that relate to such models.

  14. Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants lacking inducible cyanase.

    PubMed

    Guilloton, M; Karst, F

    1987-03-01

    To determine the physiological role of cyanate aminohydrolase (cyanase, EC 3.5.5.3) in bacteria, mutants of Escherichia coli K12 devoid of this inducible activity were isolated and their properties investigated. Five independent mutations were localized next to lac; three of them lay between lacY and codA. Thus cyanase activity could depend on the integrity of one gene or set of clustered genes; we propose for this locus the symbol cnt. Growth of the mutant stains was more sensitive to cyanate than growth of wild-type strains. This difference was noticeable in synthetic medium in the presence of low concentrations of cyanate (less than or equal to 1 mM). Higher concentrations inhibited growth of both wild-type and mutant strains. Urea in aqueous solutions dissociates slowly into ammonium cyanate. Accordingly wild-type strains were able to grow on a synthetic medium containing 0.5 M-urea whereas mutants lacking cyanase were not. We conclude that cyanase could play a role in destroying exogenous cyanate originating from the dissociation of carbamoyl compounds such as urea; alternatively cyanate might constitute a convenient nitrogen source for bacteria able to synthesize cyanase in an inducible way.

  15. Growth properties of Cellulomonas flavigena mutants affected in cellulose utilization.

    PubMed Central

    Béguin, P; Eisen, H

    1978-01-01

    The role of cellobiose metabolism in cellulose utilization by Cellulomonas flavigena was investigated by studying mutants unable to grow on cellobiose or cellulose. The results show that the ability to utilize cellulose is strictly dependent on the ability to utilize cellobiose. PMID:415038

  16. Growth properties of Cellulomonas flavigena mutants affected in cellulose utilization.

    PubMed

    Béguin, P; Eisen, H

    1978-02-01

    The role of cellobiose metabolism in cellulose utilization by Cellulomonas flavigena was investigated by studying mutants unable to grow on cellobiose or cellulose. The results show that the ability to utilize cellulose is strictly dependent on the ability to utilize cellobiose.

  17. Let-7 Sensitizes KRAS Mutant Tumor Cells to Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Ying; Tan, Chalet

    2015-01-01

    KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. Let-7 is a family of tumor suppressor microRNAs that are frequently suppressed in solid tumors, where KRAS mutations are highly prevalent. In this study, we investigated the potential use of let-7 as a chemosensitizer. We found that let-7b repletion selectively sensitized KRAS mutant tumor cells to the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and gemcitabine. Transfection of let-7b mimic downregulated the expression of mutant but not wild-type KRAS. Combination of let-7b mimic with paclitaxel or gemcitabine diminished MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling concurrently, triggered the onset of apoptosis, and reverted the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in KRAS mutant tumor cells. In addition, let-7b repletion downregulated the expression of β-tubulin III and ribonucleotide reductase subunit M2, two proteins known to mediate tumor resistance to paclitaxel and gemcitabine, respectively. Let-7 may represent a new class of chemosensitizer for the treatment of KRAS mutant tumors. PMID:25946136

  18. Rest mutant zebrafish swim erratically and display atypical spatial preferences.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Cara E; Li, Edward; Maaswinkel, Hans; Kritzer, Mary F; Weng, Wei; Sirotkin, Howard I

    2015-05-01

    The Rest/Nrsf transcriptional repressor modulates expression of a large set of neural specific genes. Many of these target genes have well characterized roles in nervous system processes including development, plasticity and synaptogenesis. However, the impact of Rest-mediated transcriptional regulation on behavior has been understudied due in part to the embryonic lethality of the mouse knockout. To investigate the requirement for Rest in behavior, we employed the zebrafish rest mutant to explore a range of behaviors in adults and larva. Adult rest mutants of both sexes showed abnormal behaviors in a novel environment including increased vertical swimming, erratic swimming patterns and a proclivity for the tank walls. Adult males also had diminished reproductive success. At 6 days post fertilization (dpf), rest mutant larva were hypoactive, but displayed normal evoked responses to light and sound stimuli. Overall, these results provide evidence that rest dysfunction produces atypical swimming patterns and preferences in adults, and reduced locomotor activity in larvae. This study provides the first behavioral analysis of rest mutants and reveals specific behaviors that are modulated by Rest.

  19. Suppression and Restoration of Lesion Formation in Arabidopsis lsd Mutants.

    PubMed

    Weymann, K.; Hunt, M.; Uknes, S.; Neuenschwander, U.; Lawton, K.; Steiner, H. Y.; Ryals, J.

    1995-12-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a broad-spectrum, systemic defense response that is activated in many plant species after pathogen infection. We have previously described Arabidopsis mutants that constitutively express SAR and concomitantly develop lesions simulating disease (lsd). Here, we describe two new mutants, lsd6 and lsd7, that develop spontaneous necrotic lesions and possess elevated levels of salicylic acid (SA) as well as heightened disease resistance, similar to the previously characterized lsd and accelerated cell death (acd2) mutants. Genetic analysis of lsd6 and lsd7 showed that the mutant phenotypes segregated as simple dominant traits. When crossed with transgenic Arabidopsis plants containing the SA-degrading enzyme salicylate hydroxylase, the F1 progeny showed suppression of both SAR gene expression and resistance. In addition, salicylate hydroxylase suppressed lesion formation in the F1 progeny, suggesting that SA or some SA-dependent process may have a role in pathogen-associated cell death. Surprisingly, lesions were restored in the lsd6 F1 progeny after the application of either 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid or SA. Lesions were not restored by treatment with either compound in the lsd7 F1 plants. Our findings demonstrate that steps early in the signal transduction pathway leading to SAR and disease resistance are potentiated by later events, suggesting feedback control of lesion formation.

  20. Selection and phenotypic characterization of nonhemagglutinating mutants of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Chandad, F; Mayrand, D; Grenier, D; Hinode, D; Mouton, C

    1996-01-01

    To further investigate the relationship between fimbriae and the hemagglutinating adhesin HA-Ag2 of Porphyromonas gingivalis, three spontaneous mutants of the type strain ATCC 33277 were selected by a hemadsorption procedure. They were characterized for hemagglutination, trypsin-like and lectin-binding activities, and hydrophobicity and for the presence of fimbriae. The presence of the 42-kDa (the fimbrilin subunit) and the 43- and 49-kDa (the HA-Ag2 components) polypeptides was investigated by immunoblotting using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies directed to fimbriae and to the hemagglutinating adhesin HA-Ag2. Cells from two of the three mutants (M1 and M2) exhibited no or little hemagglutination activity and very low trypsin-like activity and did not show the 43- and 49-kDa polypeptides. Abnormal fimbriation in M1 was deduced from the following observations of cells grown for 18 h: absence of the 42-kDa polypeptide and of a 14-kDa polypeptide and no fimbriae visible on electron micrographs. While the cells of mutant M2, irrespective of the age of the culture, were found to lack the 43- and 49-kDa polypeptides and hemagglutination activity, the supernatants of cultures grown for 72 h had high hemagglutination and trypsin-like activities and revealed the presence of the 42-, 43-, and 49-kDa polypeptides. This suggests that M2 may be missing some molecules which anchor the components to the cell surface. Mutant M3 showed levels of activities similar to those of the parental strain but lacked the 43-kDa polypeptide. Other pleiotropic effects observed for the mutants included loss of dark pigmentation and lower hydrophobicity. The data from this study fuel an emerging consensus whereby fimbriation, hemagglutination, and proteolytic activities, as well as other functions in P. gingivalis, are intricate. PMID:8641806

  1. Two-Pore Channels: Lessons from Mutant Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Ruas, Margarida; Galione, Antony; Parrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent interest in two-pore channels (TPCs) has resulted in a variety of studies dealing with the functional role and mechanism of action of these endo-lysosomal proteins in diverse physiological processes. With the availability of mouse lines harbouring mutant alleles for Tpcnl and/or Tpcn2 genes, several studies have made use of them to validate, consolidate and discover new roles for these channels not only at the cellular level but, importantly, also at the level of the whole organism. The different mutant mouse lines that have been used were derived from distinct genetic manipulation strategies, with the aim of knocking out expression of TPC proteins. However, the expression of different residual TPC sequences predicted to occur in these mutant mouse lines, together with the varied degree to which the effects on Tpcn expression have been studied, makes it important to assess the true knockout status of some of the lines. In this review we summarize these Tpcn mutant mouse lines with regard to their predicted effect on Tpcn expression and the extent to which they have been characterized. Additionally, we discuss how results derived from studies using these Tpcn mutant mouse lines have consolidated previously proposed roles for TPCs, such as mediators of NAADP signalling, endo-lysosomal functions, and pancreatic β cell physiology. We will also review how they have been instrumental in the assignment of new physiological roles for these cation channels in processes such as membrane electrical excitability, neoangiogenesis, viral infection and brown adipose tissue and heart function, revealing, in some cases, a specific contribution of a particular TPC isoform. PMID:27330869

  2. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, inmore » Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.« less

  3. Identification and Characterization of Aspergillus Nidulans Mutants Defective in Cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, S. D.; Morrell, J. L.; Hamer, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    Filamentous fungi undergo cytokinesis by forming crosswalls termed septa. Here, we describe the genetic and physiological controls governing septation in Aspergillus nidulans. Germinating conidia do not form septa until the completion of their third nuclear division. The first septum is invariantly positioned at the basal end of the germ tube. Block-and-release experiments of nuclear division with benomyl or hydroxyurea, and analysis of various nuclear division mutants demonstrated that septum formation is dependent upon the third mitotic division. Block-and-release experiments with cytochalasin A and the localization of actin in germlings by indirect immunofluorescence showed that actin participated in septum formation. In addition to being concentrated at the growing hyphal tips, a band of actin was also apparent at the site of septum formation. Previous genetic analysis in A. nidulans identified four genes involved in septation (sepA-D). We have screened a new collection of temperature sensitive (ts) mutants of A. nidulans for strains that failed to form septa at the restrictive temperature but were able to complete early nuclear divisions. We identified five new genes designated sepE, G, H, I and J, along with one additional allele of a previously identified septation gene. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, nuclear counts and cell morphology, we sorted these cytokinesis mutants into three phenotypic classes. Interestingly, one class of mutants fails to form septa and fails to progress past the third nuclear division. This class of mutants suggests the existence of a regulatory mechanism in A. nidulans that ensures the continuation of nuclear division following the initiation of cytokinesis. PMID:8150280

  4. A combinatorial strategy for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Manchado, Eusebio; Weissmueller, Susann; Morris, John P; Chen, Chi-Chao; Wullenkord, Ramona; Lujambio, Amaia; de Stanchina, Elisa; Poirier, John T; Gainor, Justin F; Corcoran, Ryan B; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Rudin, Charles M; Rosen, Neal; Lowe, Scott W

    2016-06-30

    Therapeutic targeting of KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma represents a major goal of clinical oncology. KRAS itself has proved difficult to inhibit, and the effectiveness of agents that target key KRAS effectors has been thwarted by activation of compensatory or parallel pathways that limit their efficacy as single agents. Here we take a systematic approach towards identifying combination targets for trametinib, a MEK inhibitor approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, which acts downstream of KRAS to suppress signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. Informed by a short-hairpin RNA screen, we show that trametinib provokes a compensatory response involving the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) that leads to signalling rebound and adaptive drug resistance. As a consequence, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of FGFR1 in combination with trametinib enhances tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo. This compensatory response shows distinct specificities: it is dominated by FGFR1 in KRAS-mutant lung and pancreatic cancer cells, but is not activated or involves other mechanisms in KRAS wild-type lung and KRAS-mutant colon cancer cells. Importantly, KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells and patients’ tumours treated with trametinib show an increase in FRS2 phosphorylation, a biomarker of FGFR activation; this increase is abolished by FGFR1 inhibition and correlates with sensitivity to trametinib and FGFR inhibitor combinations. These results demonstrate that FGFR1 can mediate adaptive resistance to trametinib and validate a combinatorial approach for treating KRAS-mutant lung cancer. PMID:27338794

  5. Parent-of-Origin-Effect rough endosperm Mutants in Maize.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fang; Daliberti, Mary; Bagadion, Alyssa; Xu, Miaoyun; Li, Yubing; Baier, John; Tseung, Chi-Wah; Evans, Matthew M S; Settles, A Mark

    2016-09-01

    Parent-of-origin-effect loci have non-Mendelian inheritance in which phenotypes are determined by either the maternal or paternal allele alone. In angiosperms, parent-of-origin effects can be caused by loci required for gametophyte development or by imprinted genes needed for seed development. Few parent-of-origin-effect loci have been identified in maize (Zea mays) even though there are a large number of imprinted genes known from transcriptomics. We screened rough endosperm (rgh) mutants for parent-of-origin effects using reciprocal crosses with inbred parents. Six maternal rough endosperm (mre) and three paternal rough endosperm (pre) mutants were identified with three mre loci mapped. When inherited from the female parent, mre/+ seeds reduce grain fill with a rough, etched, or pitted endosperm surface. Pollen transmission of pre mutants results in rgh endosperm as well as embryo lethality. Eight of the mutants had significant distortion from the expected one-to-one ratio for parent-of-origin effects. Linked markers for mre1, mre2, and mre3 indicated that the mutant alleles have no bias in transmission. Histological analysis of mre1, mre2, mre3, and pre*-949 showed altered timing of starch grain accumulation and basal endosperm transfer cell layer (BETL) development. The mre1 locus delays BETL and starchy endosperm development, while mre2 and pre*-949 cause ectopic starchy endosperm differentiation. We conclude that many parent-of-origin effects in maize have incomplete penetrance of kernel phenotypes and that there is a large diversity of endosperm developmental roles for parent-of-origin-effect loci.

  6. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.

  7. Arabidopsis Mutant bik1 Exhibits Strong Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Bi, Kai; He, Zhangchao; Gao, Zhixiao; Zhao, Ying; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40–50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2) and npr1-1 [non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms. PMID:27679580

  8. Arabidopsis Mutant bik1 Exhibits Strong Resistance to Plasmodiophora brassicae

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Bi, Kai; He, Zhangchao; Gao, Zhixiao; Zhao, Ying; Fu, Yanping; Cheng, Jiasen; Xie, Jiatao; Jiang, Daohong

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis-induced kinase1 (BIK1), a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, plays an important role in resistance against pathogens and insects in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unknown whether BIK1 functions against Plasmodiophora brassicae, an obligate biotrophic protist that attacks cruciferous plants and induces gall formation on roots. Here, we investigated the potential roles of receptors FLS2, BAK1, and BIK1 in the infection of P. brassicae cruciferous plants. Wild-type plants, fls2, and bak1 mutants showed typical symptom on roots, and the galls were filled with large quantities of resting spores, while bik1 mutant plants exhibited strong resistance to P. brassicae. Compared with that of the wild-type plants, the root hair and cortical infection rate of bik1 mutant were significantly reduced by about 40–50%. A considerable portion of bik1 roots failed to form typical galls. Even if some small galls were formed, they were filled with multinucleate secondary plasmodia. The bik1 plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) at infected roots than other mutants and wild-type plants. Exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment alleviated the clubroot symptoms in wild-type plants, and the expression of the SA signaling marker gene PR1 was significantly increased in bik1. Both sid2 (salicylic acid induction-deficient 2) and npr1-1 [non-expresser of PR genes that regulate systemic acquired resistance (SAR)] mutants showed increased susceptibility to P. brassicae compared with wild-type plants. These results suggest that the resistance of bik1 to P. brassicae is possibly mediated by SA inducible mechanisms.

  9. [Hormone-dependent insertional Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with decreased viability and fertility].

    PubMed

    Tomilova, N B; Tomilov, A A; Ogarkova, O A; Soldatova, O P; Tarasov, V A

    2001-09-01

    We present data on the phenotype identification and genetic analysis of offspring in three lines of dominant morphological mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana having drastically reduced fertility (a sterile calluslike mutant, a flower mutant, and a dwarf mutant) and in five lines of recessive morphological mutants (four mutants with lethal seedlings and one pigmentation mutant). The mutants were selected from a collection of transgenic plants that had genomes carrying a T-DNA insertion of plasmid vectors pLD3 and pPCVRN4; the collection was created earlier via agrobacterial transformation of germinating seeds. The results presented here were obtained using compensation of hormonal imbalance in the insertional morphological mutants of A. thaliana by exogenous hormones. PMID:11642128

  10. Analysis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis mutant libraries reveals loci-dependent transcription biases and strategies to novel mutant discovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of Johne’s disease in ruminants and it has been implicated as a cause of Crohn’s disease in humans. The generation of comprehensive random mutant banks by transposon mutagenesis is a fundamental wide genomic technology utilized...

  11. Conditional Lethal Mutants of Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrids I. Host Range Mutants of Ad2+ND1

    PubMed Central

    Grodzicker, Terri; Anderson, Carl; Sharp, Phillip A.; Sambrook, Joe

    1974-01-01

    Human adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) grows poorly in monkey cells, although this defect can be overcome by co-infection with simian virus 40 (SV40). The nondefective Ad2-SV40 hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, replicates efficiently in both human and African green monkey kidney cells, presumably due to the insertion of SV40 sequences into the Ad2 DNA. Several mutants of Ad2+ND1 have been isolated that grow and plaque poorly in monkey cells, although they retain the ability to replicate and plaque efficiently in HeLa cells. One of these mutants (H39) has been examined in detail. Studies comparing the DNA of the mutant with Ad2+ND1 either by the cleavage patterns produced by Escherichia coli R·RI restriction endonuclease digestion or by heteroduplexing reveal no differences. The pattern of protein synthesis of Ad2+ND1 and H39 in monkey cells is quite different with the mutant resembling Ad2, which is defective in the synthesis of late proteins. However, in human cells, the proteins synthesized by H39 and the parent Ad2+ND1 are very similar. The production of SV40 U antigen in H39-infected cells is different from that in Ad2+ND1-infected cells. Finally, the growth of H39 in monkey cells can be complemented by SV40. Images PMID:4364898

  12. Metabolomic Characterization of Knockout Mutants in Arabidopsis: Development of a Metabolite Profiling Database for Knockout Mutants in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kusano, Miyako; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Iwasa, Mami; Kobayashi, Makoto; Hayashi, Naomi; Watanabe-Takahashi, Akiko; Narisawa, Tomoko; Tohge, Takayuki; Hur, Manhoi; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Nikolau, Basil J; Saito, Kazuki

    2014-05-14

    Despite recent intensive research efforts in functional genomics, the functions of only a limited number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genes have been determined experimentally, and improving gene annotation remains a major challenge in plant science. As metabolite profiling can characterize the metabolomic phenotype of a genetic perturbation in the plant metabolism, it provides clues to the function(s) of genes of interest. We chose 50 Arabidopsis mutants, including a set of characterized and uncharacterized mutants, that resemble wild-type plants. We performed metabolite profiling of the plants using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. To make the data set available as an efficient public functional genomics tool for hypothesis generation, we developed the Metabolite Profiling Database for Knock-Out Mutants in Arabidopsis (MeKO). It allows the evaluation of whether a mutation affects metabolism during normal plant growth and contains images of mutants, data on differences in metabolite accumulation, and interactive analysis tools. Nonprocessed data, including chromatograms, mass spectra, and experimental metadata, follow the guidelines set by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative and are freely downloadable. Proof-of-concept analysis suggests that MeKO is highly useful for the generation of hypotheses for genes of interest and for improving gene annotation. MeKO is publicly available at http://prime.psc.riken.jp/meko/.

  13. Efflux Pump Overexpression in Multiple-Antibiotic-Resistant Mutants of Bacteroides fragilis

    PubMed Central

    Pumbwe, Lilian; Glass, Daniel; Wexler, Hannah M.

    2006-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant mutants of a wild-type Bacteroides fragilis strain (strain ADB77) and a quadruple resistance nodulation division family efflux pump deletion mutant (ADB77 ΔbmeB1 ΔbmeB3 ΔbmeB12 ΔbmeB15) were selected with antimicrobials. Ampicillin, doripenem, imipenem, levofloxacin, and metronidazole selected for mutants from both strains; cefoxitin selected for mutants from strain ADB77 only; and sodium dodecyl sulfate selected mutants from ADB77ΔbmeB1 ΔbmeB3 ΔbmeB12 ΔbmeB15 only. The mutants overexpressed one or more efflux pumps. PMID:16940115

  14. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    PubMed

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). PMID:26562446

  15. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    PubMed

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph).

  16. Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yingying; Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Sanchez, Isaac C.

    2014-02-01

    Globular proteins contain cavities/voids that play specific roles in controlling protein function. Elongated cavities provide migration channels for the transport of ions and small molecules to the active center of a protein or enzyme. Using Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics on fully atomistic protein/water models, a new computational methodology is introduced that takes into account the protein's dynamic structure and maps all the cavities in and on the surface. To demonstrate its utility, the methodology is applied to study cavity structure in myoglobin and five of its mutants. Computed cavity and channel size distributions reveal significant differences relative to the wild type myoglobin. Computer visualization of the channels leading to the heme center indicates restricted ligand access for the mutants consistent with the existing interpretations. The new methodology provides a quantitative measure of cavity structure and distributions and can become a valuable tool for the structural characterization of proteins.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Clover, R.H.; Kieber, J.; Signer, E.R. )

    1989-07-01

    Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix{sup +} on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix{sup {minus}} in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix{sup {minus}} on alfalfa.

  18. Transgene expression study of CXCR4 active mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Menka; Afrin, Farhat; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gangenahalli, Gurudutta

    2014-01-01

    Homing and engraftment, a determining factor in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation success is defined as a process through which hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) lodge recipient bone marrow. SDF-1/CXCR4 axis acts as a principle regulator in homing and engraftment, however, CXCR4 signaling is dependent upon expression of CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1, which is highly dynamic. Hence, present investigation was aimed to explore the potential of CXCR4 constitutive active mutants (CXCR4-CAMs) in overcoming the limitation of CXCR4 signaling and up-modulate its efficiency in homing and engraftment. Regulated transgene expression study of these mutants revealed their significantly enhanced cell adhesion efficiency to endothelium and extracellular matrix protein. This altogether indicates promising prospects of CXCR4-CAMs in research aimed to improve HSPCs engraftment efficiency. PMID:25482641

  19. Dynamic void distribution in myoglobin and five mutants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yingying; Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Sanchez, Isaac C

    2014-01-01

    Globular proteins contain cavities/voids that play specific roles in controlling protein function. Elongated cavities provide migration channels for the transport of ions and small molecules to the active center of a protein or enzyme. Using Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics on fully atomistic protein/water models, a new computational methodology is introduced that takes into account the protein's dynamic structure and maps all the cavities in and on the surface. To demonstrate its utility, the methodology is applied to study cavity structure in myoglobin and five of its mutants. Computed cavity and channel size distributions reveal significant differences relative to the wild type myoglobin. Computer visualization of the channels leading to the heme center indicates restricted ligand access for the mutants consistent with the existing interpretations. The new methodology provides a quantitative measure of cavity structure and distributions and can become a valuable tool for the structural characterization of proteins. PMID:24500195

  20. Isolation of Arabidopsis mutants with altered seed fatty acid composition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, B.; Browse, J.; Somerville, C. Washington State Univ., Pullman )

    1989-04-01

    By direct screening of Arabidopsis seed fatty acid methyl esters, we have isolated mutants which are deficient in the elongation of 18:1 to 20:1 and the desaturation of 18:2 to 18:3. Both the elongation and the desaturation mutants, designated MB14 and BL1 respectively, have only 10% of the wild-type levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in their seeds. The intermediate levels of 20:1 and 18:3 in F1 seeds of crosses to the wild type indicate that the level of enzyme is regulating the amount of 20:1 and 18:3 in seeds. Consistent with this observation, the mutations were found to segregate 1:2:1 in F2 seeds. We have found that the 18:2 desaturase mutation is clearly expressed in root phosphatidylcholine.

  1. Anthracycline metabolites of tetracenomycin C-nonproducing Streptomyces glaucescens mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Yue, S; Motamedi, H; Wendt-Pienkowski, E; Hutchinson, C R

    1986-01-01

    Mutants of Streptomyces glaucescens GLA.0 which are blocked in the production of tetracenomycin C (compound 1), an anthracycline antibiotic having significant antitumor activity, accumulated several new anthracycline metabolites structurally related to compound 1 and to intermediates of its biosynthetic pathway. Through chemical and spectroscopic comparisons with the known anthracycline metabolites of the wild-type strain, we identified the two regioisomers of tetracenomycin B2 (compounds 7a and 7b), 8-demethyltetracenomycin C (compound 12), tetracenomycin D2 (compound 11), tetracenomycin E (compound 13), and the 12-naphthacenone forms of compounds 7a, 7b, and 2 (tetracenomycin D1). A hypothetical biosynthetic pathway to compound 1 is presented that is consistent with the occurrence of compounds 7b, 13, and 5 (tetracenomycin A2) and with the cosynthetic behavior of tetracenomycin C-nonproducing mutants (H. Motamedi, E. Wendt-Pienkowski, and C. R. Hutchinson, J. Bacteriol. 167:575-580, 1986). PMID:3460987

  2. Molecular Determinants of Mutant Phenotypes, Inferred from Saturation Mutagenesis Data

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Arti; Gupta, Kritika; Khare, Shruti; Jain, Pankaj C.; Patel, Siddharth; Kumar, Prasanth; Pulianmackal, Ajai J.; Aghera, Nilesh; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how mutations affect protein activity and organismal fitness is a major challenge. We used saturation mutagenesis combined with deep sequencing to determine mutational sensitivity scores for 1,664 single-site mutants of the 101 residue Escherichia coli cytotoxin, CcdB at seven different expression levels. Active-site residues could be distinguished from buried ones, based on their differential tolerance to aliphatic and charged amino acid substitutions. At nonactive-site positions, the average mutational tolerance correlated better with depth from the protein surface than with accessibility. Remarkably, similar results were observed for two other small proteins, PDZ domain (PSD95pdz3) and IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB1). Mutational sensitivity data obtained with CcdB were used to derive a procedure for predicting functional effects of mutations. Results compared favorably with those of two widely used computational predictors. In vitro characterization of 80 single, nonactive-site mutants of CcdB showed that activity in vivo correlates moderately with thermal stability and solubility. The inability to refold reversibly, as well as a decreased folding rate in vitro, is associated with decreased activity in vivo. Upon probing the effect of modulating expression of various proteases and chaperones on mutant phenotypes, most deleterious mutants showed an increased in vivo activity and solubility only upon over-expression of either Trigger factor or SecB ATP-independent chaperones. Collectively, these data suggest that folding kinetics rather than protein stability is the primary determinant of activity in vivo. This study enhances our understanding of how mutations affect phenotype, as well as the ability to predict fitness effects of point mutations. PMID:27563054

  3. Comparative Analysis of Mutant Tyrosine Kinase Chemical Rescue†

    PubMed Central

    Muratore, Kathryn E.; Seeliger, Markus A.; Wang, Zhihong; Fomina, Dina; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Havranek, James J.; Baker, David; Kuriyan, John; Cole, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases are critical cell signaling enzymes. These enzymes have a highly conserved Arg residue in their catalytic loop which is present two residues or four residues downstream from an absolutely conserved Asp catalytic base. Prior studies on protein tyrosine kinases Csk and Src revealed the potential for chemical rescue of catalytically-deficient mutant kinases (Arg to Ala mutations) by small diamino compounds, particularly imidazole, however the potency and efficiency of rescue was greater for Src. This current study further examines the structural and kinetic basis of rescue for mutant Src as compared to mutant Abl tyrosine kinase. An X-ray crystal structure of R388A Src revealed the surprising finding that a histidine residue of the N-terminus of a symmetry-related kinase inserts into the active site of the adjacent Src and mimics the hydrogen bonding pattern seen in wild-type protein tyrosine kinases. Abl R367A shows potent and efficient rescue more comparable to Src, even though its catalytic loop is more like that of Csk. Various enzyme redesigns of the active sites indicate that the degree and specificity of rescue is somewhat flexible, but the overall properties of the enzymes and rescue agents play an overarching role. The newly discovered rescue agent 2-aminoimidazole is about as efficient as imidazole in rescuing R/A Src and Abl. Rate vs. pH studies with these imidazole analogs suggest that the protonated imidazolium is the preferred form for chemical rescue, consistent with structural models. The efficient rescue seen with mutant Abl points to the potential of this approach to be used effectively to analyze Abl phosphorylation pathways in cells. PMID:19260709

  4. Generating amphioxus Hedgehog knockout mutants and phenotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wang; Guang, Li; Yiquan, Wang

    2015-10-01

    The amphioxus is a promising animal model for evolutionary-developmental studies due to its key position on the animal phylogenetic tree. In the present study, we reported a genetically modified amphioxus strain on the Hedgehog (Hh) gene locus using the TALEN method. The result showed that our TALEN pair injection could bring about 34% mutations in the amphioxus Hh coding region. Further analysis on the F(0) gametic DNA revealed that the mutations had entered into gametes. So, we paired one F(0) male carrying an 8 bp deletion with a wild-type (WT) female, and carefully nursed the F(1) embryos up to adulthood. We then screened F(1) individually via analyzing their genomic DNA from a tiny tail tip, and obtained eight heterozygous mutants from the F(1) offspring. Moreover, our observation on the F(2) embryos generated by mating F(1) mutants also revealed that about 25% of early larvae developed aberrantly with head and tail curving ventrally, agenesis of the mesoblastic tissue under their anterior notochord, and no mouth opening. With the larva growth, deformities (such as twist of head and tail, mouth absent, ventrally localized endostyle and gill slits) became more severe, and eventually those malformed larvae died due to no food intake. Genetic analysis showed that all these deformed embryos were homozygous mutants and the ratio of Hh hetorozygotes vs WT agreed with Mondel's law. WT amphioxus larvae are asymmetric with the mouth on the left and gill slits on the right side. However, the homozygous mutant larvae became left-right symmetric with the gill slits on the ventral side, indicating a conserved role of Hedgehog signaling in establishing the left-right embryonic axis.

  5. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection. PMID:21248032

  6. Poring over two-pore channel pore mutants

    PubMed Central

    Penny, Christopher J.; Patel, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore channels are members of the voltage-gated ion channel superfamily. They localise to the endolysosomal system and are likely targets for the Ca2+ mobilising messenger NAADP. In this brief review, we relate mutagenesis of the TPC pore to a recently published homology model and discuss how pore mutants are informing us of TPC function. Molecular physiology of these ubiquitous proteins is thus emerging. PMID:27226934

  7. Interaction of smooth muscle caldesmon with calmodulin mutants.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, M V; Bushueva, T L; Shirinsky, V P; Lukas, T J; Watterson, D M; Gusev, N B

    1995-02-20

    The interaction of avian smooth muscle caldesmon with calmodulin (CaM) was investigated by studying the ability of selected mutant calmodulins to induce fluorescence changes in caldesmon. Different types of CaM mutants were used including point charge mutants, cluster mutations, and mutations which alter the calcium binding of CaM. The caldesmon binding properties were only slightly affected by E84K-CaM or by the double mutation E84Q/E120Q-CaM. Affinity of calmodulin to caldesmon was decreased 2-4 times by point mutation G33V-CaM, double mutation E84K/E120K-CaM, deletion of residues 82-84, and by cluster mutations DEE118-120-->KKK or EEE82-84-->KKK. Mutations of the first (E31A-CaM) and the second (E67A-CaM) calcium binding sites reduced the affinity of calmodulin to caldesmon by at least 5-fold; in addition these calmodulin mutants exhibited smaller changes in the fluorescence spectra of caldesmon. Simultaneous mutation of the two negatively charged clusters of calmodulin EEE82-84-->KKK and DEE118-120-->KKK resulted in a more than 15-fold decrease in the affinity of calmodulin for caldesmon. The data indicate that charged and uncharged amino acids in both halves of CaM play an important role in the binding of calmodulin to caldesmon, and that Ca2+ binding must be maintained in the amino-terminal sites for maximal interaction with caldesmon.

  8. Generating amphioxus Hedgehog knockout mutants and phenotype analysis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wang; Guang, Li; Yiquan, Wang

    2015-10-01

    The amphioxus is a promising animal model for evolutionary-developmental studies due to its key position on the animal phylogenetic tree. In the present study, we reported a genetically modified amphioxus strain on the Hedgehog (Hh) gene locus using the TALEN method. The result showed that our TALEN pair injection could bring about 34% mutations in the amphioxus Hh coding region. Further analysis on the F(0) gametic DNA revealed that the mutations had entered into gametes. So, we paired one F(0) male carrying an 8 bp deletion with a wild-type (WT) female, and carefully nursed the F(1) embryos up to adulthood. We then screened F(1) individually via analyzing their genomic DNA from a tiny tail tip, and obtained eight heterozygous mutants from the F(1) offspring. Moreover, our observation on the F(2) embryos generated by mating F(1) mutants also revealed that about 25% of early larvae developed aberrantly with head and tail curving ventrally, agenesis of the mesoblastic tissue under their anterior notochord, and no mouth opening. With the larva growth, deformities (such as twist of head and tail, mouth absent, ventrally localized endostyle and gill slits) became more severe, and eventually those malformed larvae died due to no food intake. Genetic analysis showed that all these deformed embryos were homozygous mutants and the ratio of Hh hetorozygotes vs WT agreed with Mondel's law. WT amphioxus larvae are asymmetric with the mouth on the left and gill slits on the right side. However, the homozygous mutant larvae became left-right symmetric with the gill slits on the ventral side, indicating a conserved role of Hedgehog signaling in establishing the left-right embryonic axis. PMID:26496756

  9. A rat homolog of the mouse deafness mutant jerker (je).

    PubMed

    Truett, G E; Walker, J A; Brock, J W

    1996-05-01

    An autosomal recessive deafness mutant was discovered in our colony of Zucker (ZUC) rats. These mutants behave like shaker-waltzer deafness mutants, and their inner ear pathology classifies them among neuroepithelial degeneration type of deafness mutants. To determine whether this rat deafness mutation (-) defines a unique locus or one that has been previously described, we mapped its chromosomal location. F2 progeny of (Pbrc:ZUC x BN/Crl) A/a B/b H/h +/- F1 rats were scored for coat color and behavioral phenotypes. Segregation analysis indicated that the deafness locus might be loosely linked with B on rat Chromosome (Chr) 5 (RNO5). Therefore, 40 -/- rats were scored for BN and ZUC alleles at four additional loci, D5Mit11, D5Mit13, Oprd1, and Gnb1, known to map to RNO5 or its homolog, mouse Chr 4 (MMU4). Linkage analysis established the gene order (cM distance) as D5Mit11-(19.3)-B-(17.9)-D5Mit13-(19. 2)-Oprd1-(21.5) - (1.2) Gnb1, placing the deafness locus on distal RNO5. The position of the deafness locus on RNO5 is similar to that ofjerker (je) on MMU4; the phenotypes and patterns of inheritance of the deafness mutation and je are also similar. It seems likely that the mutation affects the rat homolog of je. The rat deafness locus should, therefore, be named jerker and assigned the gene symbol Je. PMID:8661723

  10. Human ARF4 expression rescues sec7 mutant yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, S B; Wu, C; Silve, S; Howell, K E; Melançon, P; Kahn, R A; Franzusoff, A

    1996-01-01

    Vesicle-mediated traffic between compartments of the yeast secretory pathway involves recruitment of multiple cytosolic proteins for budding, targeting, and membrane fusion events. The SEC7 gene product (Sec7p) is a constituent of coat structures on transport vesicles en route to the Golgi complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify mammalian homologs of Sec7p and its interacting proteins, we used a genetic selection strategy in which a human HepG2 cDNA library was transformed into conditional-lethal yeast sec7 mutants. We isolated several clones capable of rescuing sec7 mutant growth at the restrictive temperature. The cDNA encoding the most effective suppressor was identified as human ADP ribosylation factor 4 (hARF4), a member of the GTPase family proposed to regulate recruitment of vesicle coat proteins in mammalian cells. Having identified a Sec7p-interacting protein rather than the mammalian Sec7p homolog, we provide evidence that hARF4 suppressed the sec7 mutation by restoring secretory pathway function. Shifting sec7 strains to the restrictive temperature results in the disappearance of the mutant Sec7p cytosolic pool without apparent changes in the membrane-associated fraction. The introduction of hARF4 to the cells maintained the balance between cytosolic and membrane-associated Sec7p pools. These results suggest a requirement for Sec7p cycling on and off of the membranes for cell growth and vesicular traffic. In addition, overexpression of the yeast GTPase-encoding genes ARF1 and ARF2, but not that of YPT1, suppressed the sec7 mutant growth phenotype in an allele-specific manner. This allele specificity indicates that individual ARFs are recruited to perform two different Sec7p-related functions in vesicle coat dynamics. PMID:8668142

  11. Pollen embryogenesis to induce, detect, and analyze mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Constantin, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of fully differentiated plants from individual pollen grains through a series of developmental phases that resemble embryogenesis beginning with the zygote was demonstrated during the mid-1960's. This technology opened the door to the use of haploid plants (sporophytes with the gametic number of chromosomes) for plant breeding and genetic studies, biochemical and metabolic studies, and the selection of mutations. Although pollen embryogenesis has been demonstrated successfully in numerous plant genera, the procedure cannot as yet be used routinely to generate large populations of plants for experiments. Practical results from use of the technology in genetic toxicology research to detect mutations have failed to fully realize the theoretical potential; further developments of the technology could overcome the limitations. Pollen embryogenesis could be used to develop plants from mutant pollen grains to verify that genetic changes are involved. Through either spontaneous or induced chromosome doubling, these plants can be made homozygous and used to analyze genetically the mutants involved. The success of this approach will depend on the mutant frequency relative to the fraction of pollen grains that undergo embryogenesis; these two factors will dictate population size needed for success. Research effort is needed to further develop pollen embryogenesis for use in the detection of genotoxins under both laboratory and in situ conditions.

  12. Mutants of Neurospora deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) glycohydrolase.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, R E; Selitrennikoff, C P; Siegel, R W

    1975-01-01

    A new screening technique has been developed for the rapid identification of Neurospora crassa mutants that are deficient in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide glycohydrolase (NADase) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate glycohydrolase (NADPase) activities. Using this procedure, five single-gene mutants were isolated whose singular difference from wild type appeared to be the absence of NAD(P)ase (EC 3.2.2.6). All five mutants were found to be genetically allelic and did not complement in heterocaryons. This gene, nada [NAD(P)ase], was localized in linkage group IV. One of the nada alleles was found to specify an enzyme that was critically temperature sensitive and had altered substrate affinity. Mutations at the nada locus did not affect the genetic program for the expression of NAD(P)ase during cell differentiation, nor did they have a general effect on NAD catabolism. Nada mutations did not have simultaneous effects on other glycohydrolase activities. Tests of dominance (in heterocaryons) and in vitro mixing experiments did not provide evidence that nada mutations alter activators or inhibitors of NAD(P)ase. Thus, the nada gene appears to specify only the structure of N. crassa NAD(P)ase. Images PMID:165174

  13. TBP mutants defective in activated transcription in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, K M; Ricupero-Hovasse, S; Winston, F

    1995-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) plays a central and essential role in transcription initiation. At TATA box-containing genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II, TBP binds to the promoter and initiates the assembly of a multiprotein preinitiation complex. Several studies have suggested that binding of TBP to the TATA box is an important regulatory step in transcription initiation in vitro. To determine whether TBP is a target of regulatory factors in vivo, we performed a genetic screen in yeast for TBP mutants defective in activated transcription. One class of TBP mutants identified in this screen comprises inositol auxotrophs that are also defective in using galactose as a carbon source. These phenotypes are due to promoter-specific defects in transcription initiation that are governed by the upstream activating sequence (UAS) and apparently not by the sequence of the TATA element. The finding that these TBP mutants are severely impaired in DNA binding in vitro suggests that transcription initiation at certain genes is regulated at the level of TATA box binding by TBP in vivo. Images PMID:7729424

  14. Potent inhibition of HIV-1 replication by a Tat mutant.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Luke W; Sivakumaran, Haran; Major, Lee; Suhrbier, Andreas; Harrich, David

    2009-11-10

    Herein we describe a mutant of the two-exon HIV-1 Tat protein, termed Nullbasic, that potently inhibits multiple steps of the HIV-1 replication cycle. Nullbasic was created by replacing the entire arginine-rich basic domain of wild type Tat with glycine/alanine residues. Like similarly mutated one-exon Tat mutants, Nullbasic exhibited transdominant negative effects on Tat-dependent transactivation. However, unlike previously reported mutants, we discovered that Nullbasic also strongly suppressed the expression of unspliced and singly-spliced viral mRNA, an activity likely caused by redistribution and thus functional inhibition of HIV-1 Rev. Furthermore, HIV-1 virion particles produced by cells expressing Nullbasic had severely reduced infectivity, a defect attributable to a reduced ability of the virions to undergo reverse transcription. Combination of these inhibitory effects on transactivation, Rev-dependent mRNA transport and reverse transcription meant that permissive cells constitutively expressing Nullbasic were highly resistant to a spreading infection by HIV-1. Nullbasic and its activities thus provide potential insights into the development of potent antiviral therapeutics that target multiple stages of HIV-1 infection.

  15. Regulation of apoptosis of rbf mutant cells during Drosophila development

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka-Matakatsu, Miho; Xu, Jinhua; Cheng, Leping; Du, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma gene Rb leads to defects in cell proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis, depending on specific cell or tissue types. To gain insights into the genes that can modulate the consequences of Rb inactivation, we carried out a genetic screen in Drosophila to identify mutations that affected apoptosis induced by inactivation of the Retinoblastoma-family protein (rbf) and identified a mutation that blocked apoptosis induced by rbf. We found this mutation to be a new allele of head involution defective (hid) and showed that hid expression is deregulated in rbf mutant cells in larval imaginal discs. We identified an enhancer that regulates hid expression in response to developmental cues as well as to radiation and demonstrated that this hid enhancer is directly repressed by RBF through an E2F binding site. These observations indicate that apoptosis of rbf mutant cells is mediated by an upregulation of hid. Finally, we showed that bantam, a miRNA that regulates hid translation, is expressed in the interommatidial cells in the larval eye discs and modulates the survival of rbf mutant cells. PMID:19100727

  16. Genetic analysis of salt-tolerant mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, V; Ponce, M R; Micol, J L

    2000-01-01

    Stress caused by the increased salinity of irrigated fields impairs plant growth and is one of the major constraints that limits crop productivity in many important agricultural areas. As a contribution to solving such agronomic problems, we have carried out a large-scale screening for Arabidopsis thaliana mutants induced on different genetic backgrounds by EMS treatment, fast neutron bombardment, or T-DNA insertions. From the 675,500 seeds we screened, 17 mutant lines were isolated, all but one of which yielded 25-70% germination levels on 250 mm NaCl medium, a condition in which their ancestor ecotypes are unable to germinate. Monogenic recessive inheritance of NaCl-tolerant germination was displayed with incomplete penetrance by all the selected mutants, which fell into five complementation groups. These were named SALOBRENO (SAN) and mapped relative to polymorphic microsatellites, the map positions of three of them suggesting that they are novel genes. Strains carrying mutations in the SAN1-SAN4 genes display similar responses to both ionic effects and osmotic pressure, their germination being NaCl and mannitol tolerant but KCl and Na(2)SO(4) sensitive. In addition, NaCl-, KCl-, and mannitol-tolerant as well as abscisic-acid-insensitive germination was displayed by sañ5, whose genetic and molecular characterization indicates that it carries an extremely hypomorphic or null allele of the ABI4 gene, its deduced protein product lacking the APETALA2 DNA binding domain. PMID:10629000

  17. Characterization of lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli K-12 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Boman, H G; Monner, D A

    1975-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the carbohydrate composition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from a number of LPS mutants were used to propose a schematic composition for the LPS from Escherichia coli K-12. The formula contains four regions: the first consists of lipid A, ketodeoxyoctonoic acid, and a phosphorous component; the second contains only heptose; the third only glucose; and the fourth additional glucose, galactose, and rhamnose. LPS from E. coli B may have a similar composition but lacks the galactose and rhamnose units. A set of LPS-specific bacteriophages were used for comparing three mutants of Salmonella with a number of LPS mutants of E. coli K-12. The results confirm that there are basic similarities in the first and second regions of the LPS structure; they also support the four region divisions of the LPS formula. Paper chromatography was used for characterization of 32-P-labeled LPS from different strains of E. coli and Salmonella. The Rf values for LPS varied from 0.27 to 0.75 depending on the amounts of carbohydrates in the molecule. LPS from all strains studied was homogenous except for strain D31 which produced two types of LPS. Mild acid hydrolysis of labeled LPS liberated lipid A and two other components with phosphate, one of which was assigned to the first region. It is suggested that paper chromatography can be used in biosynthetic studies concerning regions 2 to 4. Images PMID:1089628

  18. Heteroduplex DNA in Meiotic Recombination in Drosophila mei-9 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Radford, Sarah J.; McMahan, Susan; Blanton, Hunter L.; Sekelsky, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Meiotic recombination gives rise to crossovers, which are required in most organisms for the faithful segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiotic cell division. Characterization of crossover-defective mutants has contributed much to our understanding of the molecular mechanism of crossover formation. We report here a molecular analysis of recombination in a Drosophila melanogaster crossover-defective mutant, mei-9. In the absence of mei-9 activity, postmeiotic segregation associated with noncrossovers occurs at the expense of crossover products, suggesting that the underlying meiotic function for MEI-9 is in crossover formation rather than mismatch repair. In support of this, analysis of the arrangement of heteroduplex DNA in the postmeiotic segregation products reveals different patterns from those observed in Drosophila Msh6 mutants, which are mismatch-repair defective. This analysis also provides evidence that the double-strand break repair model applies to meiotic recombination in Drosophila. Our results support a model in which MEI-9 nicks Holliday junctions to generate crossovers during meiotic recombination, and, in the absence of MEI-9 activity, the double Holliday junction intermediate instead undergoes dissolution to generate noncrossover products in which heteroduplex is unrepaired. PMID:17339219

  19. A mutant of barley lacking NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    A mutant of barley, LaPr 88/29, deficient in peroxisomal NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been identified. Compared to the wild type the activities of NADH-HPR and NADPH-HPR were severely reduced but the mutant was still capable of fixing CO{sub 2} at rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type in air. Although lacking an enzyme in the main photorespiratory pathway, there appeared to be little disruption to photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C) serine were similar in both mutant and wild type. LaPr 88/29 has been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase (GR) and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-HPR activity is due to the NADH-HPR enzyme. Immunological studies, using antibodies raised against spinach HPR, have shown that the NADH-dependent enzyme protein is absent in LaPr 88/29 but there appears to be enhanced synthesis of the NADPH-dependent enzyme protein.

  20. Functional Analysis of Jasmonates in Rice through Mutant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Dhakarey, Rohit; Kodackattumannil Peethambaran, Preshobha; Riemann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonic acid, one of the major plant hormones, is, unlike other hormones, a lipid-derived compound that is synthesized from the fatty acid linolenic acid. It has been studied intensively in many plant species including Arabidopsis thaliana, in which most of the enzymes participating in its biosynthesis were characterized. In the past 15 years, mutants and transgenic plants affected in the jasmonate pathway became available in rice and facilitate studies on the functions of this hormone in an important crop. Those functions are partially conserved compared to other plant species, and include roles in fertility, response to mechanical wounding and defense against herbivores. However, new and surprising functions have also been uncovered by mutant approaches, such as a close link between light perception and the jasmonate pathway. This was not only useful to show a phenomenon that is unique to rice but also helped to establish this role in plant species where such links are less obvious. This review aims to provide an overview of currently available rice mutants and transgenic plants in the jasmonate pathway and highlights some selected roles of jasmonate in this species, such as photomorphogenesis, and abiotic and biotic stress. PMID:27135235

  1. Mutant SOD1 forms ion channel: implications for ALS pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Allen, Michael J; Lacroix, Jérome J; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Capone, Ricardo; Whitlock, Jenny L; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Arnsdorf, Morton F; Roos, Raymond P; Lal, Ratnesh

    2012-03-01

    Point mutations in the gene encoding copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) impart a gain-of-function to this protein that underlies 20-25% of all familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) cases. However, the specific mechanism of mutant SOD1 toxicity has remained elusive. Using the complementary techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrophysiology, and cell and molecular biology, here we examine the structure and activity of A4VSOD1, a mutant SOD1. AFM of A4VSOD1 reconstituted in lipid membrane shows discrete tetrameric pore-like structure with outer and inner diameters 12.2 and 3.0nm respectively. Electrophysiological recordings show distinct ionic conductances across bilayer for A4VSOD1 and none for wildtype SOD1. Mouse neuroblastoma cells exposed to A4VSOD1 undergo membrane depolarization and increases in intracellular calcium. These results provide compelling new evidence that a mutant SOD1 is capable of disrupting cellular homeostasis via an unregulated ion channel mechanism. Such a "toxic channel" mechanism presents a new therapeutic direction for ALS research. PMID:21930207

  2. Inositol depletion restores vesicle transport in yeast phospholipid flippase mutants.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Kanako; Yamamoto, Takaharu; Sakai, Shota; Mioka, Tetsuo; Sano, Takamitsu; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, type 4 P-type ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer. Flippases function in the formation of transport vesicles, but the mechanism remains unknown. Here, we isolate an arrestin-related trafficking adaptor, ART5, as a multicopy suppressor of the growth and endocytic recycling defects of flippase mutants in budding yeast. Consistent with a previous report that Art5p downregulates the inositol transporter Itr1p by endocytosis, we found that flippase mutations were also suppressed by the disruption of ITR1, as well as by depletion of inositol from the culture medium. Interestingly, inositol depletion suppressed the defects in all five flippase mutants. Inositol depletion also partially restored the formation of secretory vesicles in a flippase mutant. Inositol depletion caused changes in lipid composition, including a decrease in phosphatidylinositol and an increase in phosphatidylserine. A reduction in phosphatidylinositol levels caused by partially depleting the phosphatidylinositol synthase Pis1p also suppressed a flippase mutation. These results suggest that inositol depletion changes the lipid composition of the endosomal/TGN membranes, which results in vesicle formation from these membranes in the absence of flippases.

  3. Epilepsy-induced abnormal striatal plasticity in Bassoon mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ghiglieri, Veronica; Picconi, Barbara; Sgobio, Carmelo; Bagetta, Vincenza; Barone, Ilaria; Paillè, Vincent; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; Polli, Federica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Altrock, Wilko; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Bernardi, Giorgio; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; Di Luca, Monica; Calabresi, Paolo

    2009-05-01

    Recently, the striatum has been implicated in the spread of epileptic seizures. As the absence of functional scaffolding protein Bassoon in mutant mice is associated with the development of pronounced spontaneous seizures, we utilized this new genetic model of epilepsy to investigate seizure-induced changes in striatal synaptic plasticity. Mutant mice showed reduced long-term potentiation in striatal spiny neurons, associated with an altered N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit distribution, whereas GABAergic fast-spiking (FS) interneurons showed NMDA-dependent short-term potentiation that was absent in wild-type animals. Alterations in the dendritic morphology of spiny neurons and in the number of FS interneurons were also observed. Early antiepileptic treatment with valproic acid reduced epileptic attacks and mortality, rescuing physiological striatal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor subunit composition. However, morphological alterations were not affected by antiepileptic treatment. Our results indicate that, in Bsn mutant mice, initial morphological alterations seem to reflect a more direct effect of the abnormal genotype, whereas plasticity changes are likely to be caused by the occurrence of repeated cortical seizures.

  4. Ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone for mutant glucocerebrosidase.

    PubMed

    Bendikov-Bar, Inna; Maor, Gali; Filocamo, Mirella; Horowitz, Mia

    2013-02-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in lysosomes due to mutations in the GBA1 gene encoding the lysosomal hydrolase β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). The disease has a broad spectrum of phenotypes, which were divided into three different Types; Type 1 GD is not associated with primary neurological disease while Types 2 and 3 are associated with central nervous system disease. GCase molecules are synthesized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound polyribosomes, translocated into the ER and following modifications and correct folding, shuttle to the lysosomes. Mutant GCase molecules, which fail to fold correctly, undergo ER associated degradation (ERAD) in the proteasomes, the degree of which is one of the factors that determine GD severity. Several pharmacological chaperones have already been shown to assist correct folding of mutant GCase molecules in the ER, thus facilitating their trafficking to the lysosomes. Ambroxol, a known expectorant, is one such chaperone. Here we show that ambroxol increases both the lysosomal fraction and the enzymatic activity of several mutant GCase variants in skin fibroblasts derived from Type 1 and Type 2 GD patients.

  5. Temperature Sensitivity of Neural Tube Defects in Zoep Mutants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Phyo; Swartz, Morgan R; Kindt, Lexy M; Kangas, Ashley M; Liang, Jennifer Ostrom

    2015-12-01

    Neural tube defects (NTD) occur when the flat neural plate epithelium fails to fold into the neural tube, the precursor to the brain and spinal cord. Squint (Sqt/Ndr1), a Nodal ligand, and One-eyed pinhead (Oep), a component of the Nodal receptor, are required for anterior neural tube closure in zebrafish. The NTD in sqt and Zoep mutants are incompletely penetrant. The penetrance of several defects in sqt mutants increases upon heat or cold shock. In this project, undergraduate students tested whether temperature influences the Zoep open neural tube phenotype. Single pairs of adults were spawned at 28.5°C, the normal temperature for zebrafish, and one half of the resulting embryos were moved to 34°C at different developmental time points. Analysis of variance indicated temperature and clutch/genetic background significantly contributed to the penetrance of the open neural tube phenotype. Heat shock affected the embryos only at or before the midblastula stage. Many factors, including temperature changes in the mother, nutrition, and genetic background, contribute to NTD in humans. Thus, sqt and Zoep mutants may serve as valuable models for studying the interactions between genetics and the environment during neurulation.

  6. Ambroxol as a pharmacological chaperone for mutant glucocerebrosidase.

    PubMed

    Bendikov-Bar, Inna; Maor, Gali; Filocamo, Mirella; Horowitz, Mia

    2013-02-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is characterized by accumulation of glucosylceramide in lysosomes due to mutations in the GBA1 gene encoding the lysosomal hydrolase β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase). The disease has a broad spectrum of phenotypes, which were divided into three different Types; Type 1 GD is not associated with primary neurological disease while Types 2 and 3 are associated with central nervous system disease. GCase molecules are synthesized on endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound polyribosomes, translocated into the ER and following modifications and correct folding, shuttle to the lysosomes. Mutant GCase molecules, which fail to fold correctly, undergo ER associated degradation (ERAD) in the proteasomes, the degree of which is one of the factors that determine GD severity. Several pharmacological chaperones have already been shown to assist correct folding of mutant GCase molecules in the ER, thus facilitating their trafficking to the lysosomes. Ambroxol, a known expectorant, is one such chaperone. Here we show that ambroxol increases both the lysosomal fraction and the enzymatic activity of several mutant GCase variants in skin fibroblasts derived from Type 1 and Type 2 GD patients. PMID:23158495

  7. Schizosaccharomyces pombe glycosylation mutant with altered cell surface properties.

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, C E; Ballou, L; Ball, G

    1994-01-01

    Mutagenesis of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells yielded a strain that made reduced amounts of invertase. A comparison of the O- and N-linked carbohydrate chains of the wild-type and mutant glycoproteins revealed that a single type of alpha 1-->2-linked mannose was missing in the mutant. Analysis of the wild-type galactomannoprotein showed that it contained a heterogeneous small "core" oligosaccharide fraction linked to asparagine with sugar compositions that ranged from Man9(GlcNAc)2- to Gal4Man10(GlcNAc)2-. The galactose units are in terminal positions of a Man10(GlcNAc)2- unit that is similar to the mannoprotein core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Attached to this core in a larger oligosaccharide fraction is an alpha 1-->6-linked polymannose chain that is substituted at position 2 with alpha-linked mannose and galactose. The O-linked sugars consist of mannose, alpha 1-->2-linked mannosylmannose and alpha 1-->2-linked galactosylmannose, along with small amounts of tri- and tetrasaccharides. The glycosylation mutant lacks alpha 1-->2-linked mannose on both the O-linked chains and the outer chain of the large N-linked chains, suggesting that it may be defective in regulation of an alpha 1,2-mannosyltransferase that adds mannose to glycoproteins in the Golgi. PMID:7937765

  8. Molecular Imaging of Metabolic Reprograming in Mutant IDH Cells

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Pavithra; Chaumeil, Myriam M.; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) have recently been identified as drivers in the development of several tumor types. Most notably, cytosolic IDH1 is mutated in 70–90% of low-grade gliomas and upgraded glioblastomas, and mitochondrial IDH2 is mutated in ~20% of acute myeloid leukemia cases. Wild-type IDH catalyzes the interconversion of isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG). Mutations in the enzyme lead to loss of wild-type enzymatic activity and a neomorphic activity that converts α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). In turn, 2-HG, which has been termed an “oncometabolite,” inhibits key α-KG-dependent enzymes, resulting in alterations of the cellular epigenetic profile and, subsequently, inhibition of differentiation and initiation of tumorigenesis. In addition, it is now clear that the IDH mutation also induces a broad metabolic reprograming that extends beyond 2-HG production, and this reprograming often differs from what has been previously reported in other cancer types. In this review, we will discuss in detail what is known to date about the metabolic reprograming of mutant IDH cells, and how this reprograming has been investigated using molecular metabolic imaging. We will describe how metabolic imaging has helped shed light on the basic biology of mutant IDH cells, and how this information can be leveraged to identify new therapeutic targets and to develop new clinically translatable imaging methods to detect and monitor mutant IDH tumors in vivo. PMID:27014635

  9. Tn5 insertion mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa deficient in surface expression of ferripyochelin-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.A.

    1987-07-01

    Transposon (Tn5) insertion mutants were isolated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. These mutants were screened for expression of the ferripyochelin-binding protein with monoclonal antibody in a whole-cell immunoblot assay. Fourteen mutants were identified which did not express ferripyochelin-binding protein on the cell surface. These mutants did not take up /sup 59/Fe-labeled pyochelin and grew slowly in the presence of iron chelators.

  10. Restoring virulence to mutants lacking subunits of multiprotein machines: functional complementation of a Brucella virB5 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sprynski, Nicolas; Felix, Christine; O’Callaghan, David; Vergunst, Annette C.

    2012-01-01

    Complementation for virulence of a non-polar virB5 mutant in Brucella suis 1330 was not possible using a pBBR-based plasmid but was with low copy vector pGL10. Presence of the pBBR-based replicon in wildtype B. suis had a dominant negative effect, leading to complete attenuation in J774 macrophages. This was due to pleiotropic effects on VirB protein expression due to multiple copies of the virB promoter region and over expression of VirB5. Functional complementation of mutants in individual components of multiprotein complexes such as bacterial secretion systems, are often problematic; this study highlights the importance of using a low copy vector. PMID:23650582

  11. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the mutant weaver mouse.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, N B; Szabo, M; Verina, T; Wei, J; Dlouhy, S R; Won, L; Heller, A; Hodes, M E; Ghetti, B

    1998-12-01

    The weaver (wv) mutant mouse manifests severe locomotor defects, a deficiency in granule cells of the cerebellum, and cellular deficits in the midbrain dopaminergic system. The wv phenotype is associated with a missense mutation in the pore region of the G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel, GIRK2. The homozygous male wv mouse is essentially infertile due to an inadequate level of sperm production. Females are fertile although they also manifest the neurological phenotype. Homozygotes of both sexes have reduced body weight. We have evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in heterozygote and homozygote male and female wv mutants in comparison with wild-type controls. Testicular weight was significantly reduced in the homozygous males, due to degenerative changes of seminiferous epithelium. Serum and pituitary content of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin were normal in all groups, and the normal sex differences were noted (FSH and LH higher in males, prolactin higher in females). Pituitary growth hormone (GH) concentration was normal, with control and mutant males showing higher GH than females. Serum testosterone levels were normal in the mutants, as was testicular testosterone. Testicular alpha-inhibin content was mildly reduced, but high in proportion to testicular weight. The defect in spermatogenesis appeared predominantly in the postmeiotic stages. In situ hybridization was consistent with expression of some GIRK2 mRNA isoforms in seminiferous epithelium. There were no significant differences between genotypes in the levels of dopamine, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the mediobasal and preoptic hypothalamic regions. Homovanillic acid levels in these two areas were, however, reduced in wv homozygotes compared to wild-type animals. In the light of normal pituitary hormone levels, normal hypothalamic monoamine concentrations and normal sex differences in

  12. A new fuzzless seed locus in an upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) mutant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various fiber mutants of cotton have been reported since 1920. Two of the best characterized mutants are the naked seed loci, N1N1 and n2n2. Recently, a naked-tufted mutant called 9023n4t was developed from the cultivar SC 9023 through chemical mutagenesis. The objective of this research was to dete...

  13. Isolation, characterization, and expression analyses of tryptophan aminotransferase genes in a maize dek18 mutant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dek18 mutant of maize has decreased auxin content in kernels. Molecular and functional characterization of this mutant line offers the possibility to better understand auxin biology in maize seed development. Seeds of the dek18 mutants are smaller compared to wild type seeds and the vegetative d...

  14. Differential analysis in Proteome of Space Induced Rice and Soybean Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Lu, B.; Gu, D.; Han, S.; Gao, Y.; Sun, Y.

    To investigate the change trends of proteome induced in space environment we chose 3 Rice mutants 2 Soybean mutants and the seeds which were selected as high yields high tillering rice blast resistance soybean insect pest resistance and wider leaf shape individually after abroad Recoverable Satellite JB-1 for 15 days in 1996 and their corresponding controls Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis 2-D with Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining and PDQuest TM software analysis found that In 6 rice samples 329 pm 35 protein spots were detected in controls whereas 298 pm 37 protein spots detected in mutants representing a 9 decrease 69 pm 27 protein spots were lost in mutants while 37 pm 14 protein spots appeared additionally showing 11 protein spots were lost in mutants 58 protein spots were significantly regulated in mutants with 16 pm 7 up- and 42 pm 18 down-regulated which occupied 5 and 14 of the total average mutants spots separately In 3 soybean leaf samples 263 pm 12 protein spots were detected in controls whereas 255 pm 20 protein spots detected in mutants representing a 3 decrease 49 pm 10 protein spots were lost in mutants while 36 pm 16 protein spots appeared additionally showing 5 protein spots lost in mutants 51 protein spots were significantly regulated in mutants with 25 pm 7 up- and 26 pm 15 down-regulated which occupied 9 8 and 10 2 of the total average mutants spots separately In 3 soybean seed samples 208 pm 41 protein spots were

  15. Expression of an anthranilate synthase from maize mutant bf-1 in maize line HiII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize mutant bf-1 was one of a series of maize mutants generated by radiation from the Bikini Atoll atomic bomb test in 1946. It is characterized by blue fluorescence in seedlings and anthers under ultraviolet illumination and by mutant plants giving off a characteristic grape-like odor due to the ...

  16. Isolation and characterization of symbiotic mutants of bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis) strain NC92: mutants with host-specific defects in nodulation and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, K J; Anjaiah, V; Nambiar, P T; Ausubel, F M

    1987-01-01

    Random transposon Tn5 mutagenesis of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Arachis) strain NC92, a member of the cowpea cross-inoculation group, was carried out, and kanamycin-resistant transconjugants were tested for their symbiotic phenotype on three host plants: groundnut, siratro, and pigeonpea. Two nodulation (Nod- phenotype) mutants were isolated. One is unable to nodulate all three hosts and appears to contain an insertion in one of the common nodulation genes (nodABCD); the other is a host-specific nodulation mutant that fails to nodulate pigeonpea, elicits uninvaded nodules on siratro, and elicits normal, nitrogen-fixing nodules on groundnut. In addition, nine mutants defective in nitrogen fixation (Fix- phenotype) were isolated. Three fail to supply symbiotically fixed nitrogen to all three host plants. Surprisingly, nodules elicited by one of these mutants exhibit high levels of acetylene reduction activity, demonstrating the presence of the enzyme nitrogenase. Three more mutants have partially effective phenotypes (Fix +/-) in symbiosis with all three host plants. The remaining three mutants fail to supply fixed nitrogen to one of the host plants tested while remaining partially or fully effective on the other two hosts; two of these mutants are Fix- in pigeonpea and Fix +/- on groundnut and on siratro, whereas the other one is Fix- on groundnut but Fix+ on siratro and on pigeonpea. These latter mutants also retain significant nodule acetylene reduction activity, even in the ineffective symbioses. Such bacterial host-specific fixation (Hsf) mutants have not previously been reported. Images PMID:3032910

  17. The global translation profile in a ribosomal protein mutant resembles that of an eIF3 mutant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genome-wide assays performed in Arabidopsis and other organisms have revealed that the translation status of mRNAs responds dramatically to different environmental stresses and genetic lesions in the translation apparatus. To identify additional features of the global landscape of translational control, we used microarray analysis of polysomal as well as non-polysomal mRNAs to examine the defects in translation in a poly(A) binding protein mutant, pab2 pab8, as well as in a mutant of a large ribosomal subunit protein, rpl24b/shortvalve1. Results The mutation of RPL24B stimulated the ribosome occupancy of mRNAs for nuclear encoded ribosomal proteins. Detailed analysis yielded new insights into the translational regulon containing the ribosomal protein mRNAs. First, the ribosome occupancy defects in the rpl24b mutant partially overlapped with those in a previously analyzed initiation factor mutant, eif3h. Second, a group of mRNAs with incomplete coding sequences appeared to be uncoupled from the regulon, since their dependence on RPL24B differed from regular mRNAs. Third, different sister paralogs of the ribosomal proteins differed in their translation state in the wild-type. Some sister paralogs also differed in their response to the rpl24b mutation. In contrast to rpl24b, the pab2 pab8 mutant revealed few gene specific translational defects, but a group of seed storage protein mRNAs were stimulated in their ribosome occupancy. In the course of this work, while optimizing the statistical analysis of ribosome occupancy data, we collected 12 biological replicates of translation states from wild-type seedlings. We defined 20% of mRNAs as having a high variance in their translation state. Many of these mRNAs were functionally associated with responses to the environment, suggesting that subtle variation in the environmental conditions is sensed by plants and transduced to affect the translational efficiency of hundreds of mRNAs. Conclusions These data

  18. Discrimination learning in Rora(sg) and Grid2(ho) mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2008-09-01

    Rora(sg) mutants with mild cerebellar granule cell degeneration were compared to Grid2(ho) mutants with more severe granule cell degeneration as well as Purkinle cell atrophy for left-right and dark-light discrimination learning tasks in a water-filled T-maze. The acquisition rate of both cerebellar mutants was slowed down during light-dark but not left-right discrimination learning. However, the mutants were impaired in reversal training in both tasks. In contrast, neither mutant differed from controls in passive avoidance learning. These results indicate that mice with cerebellar damage are affected in some instrumental learning tasks and have perseverative tendencies.

  19. Identification of an arsenic tolerant double mutant with a thiol-mediated component and increased arsenic tolerance in phyA mutants.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Yul; Lee, David; Harris, Hugh; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew; Kumabe, Bryan; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2007-03-01

    A genetic screen was performed to isolate mutants showing increased arsenic tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana population of activation tagged lines. The most arsenic-resistant mutant shows increased arsenate and arsenite tolerance. Genetic analyses of the mutant indicate that the mutant contains two loci that contribute to arsenic tolerance, designated ars4 and ars5. The ars4ars5 double mutant contains a single T-DNA insertion, ars4, which co-segregates with arsenic tolerance and is inserted in the Phytochrome A (PHYA) gene, strongly reducing the expression of PHYA. When grown under far-red light conditions ars4ars5 shows the same elongated hypocotyl phenotype as the previously described strong phyA-211 allele. Three independent phyA alleles, ars4, phyA-211 and a new T-DNA insertion allele (phyA-t) show increased tolerance to arsenate, although to a lesser degree than the ars4ars5 double mutant. Analyses of the ars5 single mutant show that ars5 exhibits stronger arsenic tolerance than ars4, and that ars5 is not linked to ars4. Arsenic tolerance assays with phyB-9 and phot1/phot2 mutants show that these photoreceptor mutants do not exhibit phyA-like arsenic tolerance. Fluorescence HPLC analyses show that elevated levels of phytochelatins were not detected in ars4, ars5 or ars4ars5, however increases in the thiols cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione were observed. Compared with wild type, the total thiol levels in ars4, ars5 and ars4ars5 mutants were increased up to 80% with combined buthionine sulfoximine and arsenic treatments, suggesting the enhancement of mechanisms that mediate thiol synthesis in the mutants. The presented findings show that PHYA negatively regulates a pathway conferring arsenic tolerance, and that an enhanced thiol synthesis mechanism contributes to the arsenic tolerance of ars4ars5.

  20. Identification of An Arsenic Tolerant Double Mutant With a Thiol-Mediated Component And Increased Arsenic Tolerance in PhyA Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, D.Y.; Lee, D.; Harris, H.; Raab, A.; Feldmann, J.; Meharg, A.; Kumabe, B.; Komives, E.A.; Schroeder, J.I.; /SLAC, SSRL /Sydney U. /Aberdeen U. /UC, San Diego

    2007-04-06

    A genetic screen was performed to isolate mutants showing increased arsenic tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana population of activation tagged lines. The most arsenic-resistant mutant shows increased arsenate and arsenite tolerance. Genetic analyses of the mutant indicate that the mutant contains two loci that contribute to arsenic tolerance, designated ars4 and ars5. The ars4ars5 double mutant contains a single T-DNA insertion, ars4, which co-segregates with arsenic tolerance and is inserted in the Phytochrome A (PHYA) gene, strongly reducing the expression of PHYA. When grown under far-red light conditions ars4ars5 shows the same elongated hypocotyl phenotype as the previously described strong phyA-211 allele. Three independent phyA alleles, ars4, phyA-211 and a new T-DNA insertion allele (phyA-t) show increased tolerance to arsenate, although to a lesser degree than the ars4ars5 double mutant. Analyses of the ars5 single mutant show that ars5 exhibits stronger arsenic tolerance than ars4, and that ars5 is not linked to ars4. Arsenic tolerance assays with phyB-9 and phot1/phot2 mutants show that these photoreceptor mutants do not exhibit phyA-like arsenic tolerance. Fluorescence HPLC analyses show that elevated levels of phytochelatins were not detected in ars4, ars5 or ars4ars5, however increases in the thiols cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione were observed. Compared with wild type, the total thiol levels in ars4, ars5 and ars4ars5 mutants were increased up to 80% with combined buthionine sulfoximine and arsenic treatments, suggesting the enhancement of mechanisms that mediate thiol synthesis in the mutants. The presented findings show that PHYA negatively regulates a pathway conferring arsenic tolerance, and that an enhanced thiol synthesis mechanism contributes to the arsenic tolerance of ars4ars5.

  1. Identification of an arsenic tolerant double mutant with a thiol-mediated component and increased arsenic tolerance in phyA mutants.

    PubMed

    Sung, Dong-Yul; Lee, David; Harris, Hugh; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg; Meharg, Andrew; Kumabe, Bryan; Komives, Elizabeth A; Schroeder, Julian I

    2007-03-01

    A genetic screen was performed to isolate mutants showing increased arsenic tolerance using an Arabidopsis thaliana population of activation tagged lines. The most arsenic-resistant mutant shows increased arsenate and arsenite tolerance. Genetic analyses of the mutant indicate that the mutant contains two loci that contribute to arsenic tolerance, designated ars4 and ars5. The ars4ars5 double mutant contains a single T-DNA insertion, ars4, which co-segregates with arsenic tolerance and is inserted in the Phytochrome A (PHYA) gene, strongly reducing the expression of PHYA. When grown under far-red light conditions ars4ars5 shows the same elongated hypocotyl phenotype as the previously described strong phyA-211 allele. Three independent phyA alleles, ars4, phyA-211 and a new T-DNA insertion allele (phyA-t) show increased tolerance to arsenate, although to a lesser degree than the ars4ars5 double mutant. Analyses of the ars5 single mutant show that ars5 exhibits stronger arsenic tolerance than ars4, and that ars5 is not linked to ars4. Arsenic tolerance assays with phyB-9 and phot1/phot2 mutants show that these photoreceptor mutants do not exhibit phyA-like arsenic tolerance. Fluorescence HPLC analyses show that elevated levels of phytochelatins were not detected in ars4, ars5 or ars4ars5, however increases in the thiols cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine and glutathione were observed. Compared with wild type, the total thiol levels in ars4, ars5 and ars4ars5 mutants were increased up to 80% with combined buthionine sulfoximine and arsenic treatments, suggesting the enhancement of mechanisms that mediate thiol synthesis in the mutants. The presented findings show that PHYA negatively regulates a pathway conferring arsenic tolerance, and that an enhanced thiol synthesis mechanism contributes to the arsenic tolerance of ars4ars5. PMID:17335514

  2. Escherichia coli Mutants that Synthesize Dephosphorylated Lipid A Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Brian O.; Masoudi, Ali; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2010-01-01

    The lipid A moiety of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide is a hexa-acylated disaccharide of glucosamine that is phosphorylated at the 1 and 4′ positions. Expression of the Francisella novicida lipid A 1-phosphatase FnLpxE in E. coli results in dephosphorylation of the lipid A proximal unit. Co-expression of FnLpxE and the Rhizobium leguminosarum lipid A oxidase RlLpxQ in E. coli converts much of the proximal glucosamine to 2-amino-2-deoxy-gluconate. Expression of the F. novicida lipid A 4′-phosphatase FnLpxF in wild-type E. coli has no effect because FnLpxF cannot dephosphorylate hexa-acylated lipid A. However, expression of FnLpxF in E. coli lpxM mutants, which synthesize penta-acylated lipid A lacking the secondary 3′-myristate chain, causes extensive 4′-dephosphorylation. Co-expression of FnLpxE and FnLpxF in lpxM mutants results in massive accumulation of lipid A species lacking both phosphate groups, and introduction of RlLpxQ generates phosphate-free lipid A variants containing 2-amino-2-deoxy-gluconate. The proposed lipid A structures were confirmed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Strains with 4′-dephosphorylated lipid A display increased polymyxin resistance. Heptose-deficient mutants of E. coli lacking both the 1- and 4′-phosphate moieties are viable on plates but sensitive to CaCl2. Our methods for re-engineering lipid A structure may be useful for generating novel vaccines and adjuvants. PMID:20795687

  3. Coliphage P1 morphogenesis: analysis of mutants by electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J T; Walker, D H

    1983-01-01

    We used electron microscopy and serum blocking power tests to determine the phenotypes of 47 phage P1 amber mutants that have defects in particle morphogenesis. Eleven mutants showed head defects, 30 showed tail defects, and 6 had a defect in particle maturation (which could be either in the head or in the tail). Consideration of previous complementation test results, genetic and physical positions of the mutations, and phenotypes of the mutants allowed assignment of most of the 47 mutations to genes. Thus, a minimum of 12 tail genes, 4 head genes, and 1 particle maturation gene are now known for P1. Of the 12 tail genes, 1 (gene 19, located within the invertible C loop) codes for tail fibers, 6 (genes 3, 5, 16, 20, 21, and 26) code for baseplate components (although one of these genes could code for the tail tube), 1 (gene 22) codes for the sheath, 1 (gene 6) affects tail length, 2 (genes 7 and 25) are involved in tail stability, and 1 (gene 24) either codes for a baseplate component or is involved in tail stability. Of the four head genes, gene 9 codes for a protein required for DNA packaging. The function of head gene 4 is unclear. Head gene 8 probably codes for a minor head protein, whereas head gene 23 could code for either a minor head protein or the major head protein. Excluding the particle maturation gene (gene 1), the 12 tail genes are clustered in three regions of the P1 physical genome. The four head genes are at four separate locations. However, some P1 head genes have not yet been detected and could be located in two regions (for which there are no known genes) adjacent to genes 4 and 8. The P1 morphogenetic gene clusters are interrupted by many genes that are expressed in the prophage. Images PMID:6834479

  4. Characterization of Phospho-(Tyrosine)-Mimetic Calmodulin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stateva, Silviya R.; Salas, Valentina; Benaim, Gustavo; Menéndez, Margarita; Solís, Dolores; Villalobo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) phosphorylated at different serine/threonine and tyrosine residues is known to exert differential regulatory effects on a variety of CaM-binding enzymes as compared to non-phosphorylated CaM. In this report we describe the preparation and characterization of a series of phospho-(Y)-mimetic CaM mutants in which either one or the two tyrosine residues present in CaM (Y99 and Y138) were substituted to aspartic acid or glutamic acid. It was expected that the negative charge of the respective carboxyl group of these amino acids mimics the negative charge of phosphate and reproduce the effects that distinct phospho-(Y)-CaM species may have on target proteins. We describe some physicochemical properties of these CaM mutants as compared to wild type CaM, after their expression in Escherichia coli and purification to homogeneity, including: i) changes in their electrophoretic mobility in the absence and presence of Ca2+; ii) ultraviolet (UV) light absorption spectra, far- and near-UV circular dichroism data; iii) thermal stability in the absence and presence of Ca2+; and iv) Tb3+-emitted fluorescence upon tyrosine excitation. We also describe some biochemical properties of these CaM mutants, such as their differential phosphorylation by the tyrosine kinase c-Src, and their action as compared to wild type CaM, on the activity of two CaM-dependent enzymes: cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1 (PDE1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) assayed in vitro. PMID:25830911

  5. Enhanced radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by oleamide

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yoon-Jin; Chung, Da Yeon; Lee, Su-Jae; Ja Jhon, Gil; Lee, Yun-Sil . E-mail: yslee@kcch.re.kr

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Effect of oleamide, an endogenous fatty-acid primary amide, on tumor cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR) has never before been explored. Methods and Materials: NCI H460, human lung cancer cells, and human astrocytoma cell lines, U87 and U251, were used. The cytotoxicity of oleamide alone or in combination with IR was determined by clonogenic survival assay, and induction of apoptosis was estimated by FACS analysis. Protein expressions were confirmed by Western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis of Bax by use of confocal microscopy was also performed. The combined effect of IR and oleamide to suppress tumor growth was studied by use of xenografts in the thighs of nude mice. Results: Oleamide in combination with IR had a synergistic effect that decreased clonogenic survival of lung-carcinoma cell lines and also sensitized xenografts in nude mice. Enhanced induction of apoptosis of the cells by the combined treatment was mediated by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, which resulted in the activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 accompanied by cytochrome c release and Bid cleavage. The synergistic effects of the combined treatment were more enhanced in p53 mutant cells than in p53 wild-type cells. In p53 wild-type cells, both oleamide and radiation induced Bax translocation to mitochondria. On the other hand, in p53 mutant cells, radiation alone slightly induced Bax translocation to mitochondria, whereas oleamide induced a larger translocation. Conclusions: Oleamide may exhibit synergistic radiosensitization in p53 mutant cells through p53-independent Bax translocation to mitochondria.

  6. Phosphatase Under-Producer Mutants Have Altered Phosphorus Relations1

    PubMed Central

    Tomscha, Jennifer L.; Trull, Melanie C.; Deikman, Jill; Lynch, Jonathan P.; Guiltinan, Mark J.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) acquisition and partitioning are essential for plant homeostasis. P is available for plant uptake when in its inorganic form (H2PO4−, or Pi), but Pi is often limiting in soils. Plants secrete acid phosphatases (APases) into the apoplastic space, which may be important for obtaining Pi from organic P sources; however, the relative importance of these enzymes for plant P nutrition has yet to be determined. We demonstrate that the root-associated APase pool is increased in Arabidopsis when Pi is limiting and document five APase isoforms secreted from Arabidopsis roots. Previously, we presented the identification of the phosphatase under-producer (pup) mutants, which have decreased in vivo root APase staining when grown under low P conditions. Here, we present the characterization of one of these, pup3, and further studies with pup1. pup3 has 49%, 38%, and 37% less specific APase activity in exudates, roots, and shoots, respectively. Root-associated APase activity is decreased by 16% in pup1 and 25% in pup3, regardless of P treatment. Two APase activity isoforms are reduced in pup3 exudates, and root and shoot isoforms are also affected. One of the two exudate isoforms is recognized by a polyclonal antibody raised to an Arabidopsis purple APase recombinant protein (AtPAP12); however, AtPAP12 transcript levels are unaffected in the mutant. The pup3 mutation was mapped to 68.4 ± 6.0 centimorgans on chromosome 5. Although P concentrations were not altered in pup1 and pup3 tissues when grown in nutrient solution in which Pi was the sole source of P, the mutants had 10% (pup1) and 17% (pup3) lower shoot P concentrations when grown in a peat-vermiculite mix in which the majority of the total P was present as organic P. Therefore, the pup defects, which include secreted APases, are functionally important for plant P nutrition. PMID:15122033

  7. Resveratrol Antagonizes Antimicrobial Lethality and Stimulates Recovery of Bacterial Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanli; Zhou, Jinan; Qu, Yilin; Yang, Xinguang; Shi, Guojing; Wang, Xiuhong; Hong, Yuzhi; Drlica, Karl; Zhao, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS; superoxide, peroxide, and hydroxyl radical) are thought to contribute to the rapid bactericidal activity of diverse antimicrobial agents. The possibility has been raised that consumption of antioxidants in food may interfere with the lethal action of antimicrobials. Whether nutritional supplements containing antioxidant activity are also likely to interfere with antimicrobial lethality is unknown. To examine this possibility, resveratrol, a popular antioxidant dietary supplement, was added to cultures of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus that were then treated with antimicrobial and assayed for bacterial survival and the recovery of mutants resistant to an unrelated antimicrobial, rifampicin. Resveratrol, at concentrations likely to be present during human consumption, caused a 2- to 3-fold reduction in killing during a 2-hr treatment with moxifloxacin or kanamycin. At higher, but still subinhibitory concentrations, resveratrol reduced antimicrobial lethality by more than 3 orders of magnitude. Resveratrol also reduced the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) characteristic of treatment with quinolone (oxolinic acid). These data support the general idea that the lethal activity of some antimicrobials involves ROS. Surprisingly, subinhibitory concentrations of resveratrol promoted (2- to 6-fold) the recovery of rifampicin-resistant mutants arising from the action of ciprofloxacin, kanamycin, or daptomycin. This result is consistent with resveratrol reducing ROS to sublethal levels that are still mutagenic, while the absence of resveratrol allows ROS levels to high enough to kill mutagenized cells. Suppression of antimicrobial lethality and promotion of mutant recovery by resveratrol suggests that the antioxidant may contribute to the emergence of resistance to several antimicrobials, especially if new derivatives and/or formulations of resveratrol markedly increase bioavailability. PMID:27045517

  8. Analysis of Escherichia coli mutants with a linear respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory chain of E. coli is branched to allow the cells' flexibility to deal with changing environmental conditions. It consists of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductases NADH dehydrogenase I and II, as well as of three terminal oxidases. They differ with respect to energetic efficiency (proton translocation) and their affinity to the different quinone/quinol species and oxygen. In order to analyze the advantages of the branched electron transport chain over a linear one and to assess how usage of the different terminal oxidases determines growth behavior at varying oxygen concentrations, a set of isogenic mutant strains was created, which lack NADH dehydrogenase I as well as two of the terminal oxidases, resulting in strains with a linear respiratory chain. These strains were analyzed in glucose-limited chemostat experiments with defined oxygen supply, adjusting aerobic, anaerobic and different microaerobic conditions. In contrast to the wild-type strain MG1655, the mutant strains produced acetate even under aerobic conditions. Strain TBE032, lacking NADH dehydrogenase I and expressing cytochrome bd-II as sole terminal oxidase, showed the highest acetate formation rate under aerobic conditions. This supports the idea that cytochrome bd-II terminal oxidase is not able to catalyze the efficient oxidation of the quinol pool at higher oxygen conditions, but is functioning mainly under limiting oxygen conditions. Phosphorylation of ArcA, the regulator of the two-component system ArcBA, besides Fnr the main transcription factor for the response towards different oxygen concentrations, was studied. Its phosphorylation pattern was changed in the mutant strains. Dephosphorylation and therefore inactivation of ArcA started at lower aerobiosis levels than in the wild-type strain. Notably, not only the micro- and aerobic metabolism was affected by the mutations, but also the anaerobic metabolism, where the respiratory chain should not be important. PMID:24475268

  9. Rubisco mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Pinto, T S; Malcata, F X; Arrabaça, J D; Silva, J M; Spreitzer, R J; Esquível, M G

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an ideal fuel characterized by high enthalpy change and lack of greenhouse effects. This biofuel can be released by microalgae via reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenases. The main competitor for the reducing power required by the hydrogenases is the Calvin cycle, and rubisco plays a key role therein. Engineered Chlamydomonas with reduced rubisco levels, activity and stability was used as the basis of this research effort aimed at increasing hydrogen production. Biochemical monitoring in such metabolically engineered mutant cells proceeded in Tris/acetate/phosphate culture medium with S-depletion or repletion, both under hypoxia. Photosynthetic activity, maximum photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll and protein levels were all measured. In addition, expression of rubisco, hydrogenase, D1 and Lhcb were investigated, and H2 was quantified. At the beginning of the experiments, rubisco increased followed by intense degradation. Lhcb proteins exhibited monomeric isoforms during the first 24 to 48 h, and D1 displayed sensitivity under S-depletion. Rubisco mutants exhibited a significant decrease in O2 evolution compared with the control. Although the S-depleted medium was much more suitable than its complete counterpart for H2 production, hydrogen release was observed also in sealed S-repleted cultures of rubisco mutated cells under low-moderate light conditions. In particular, the rubisco mutant Y67A accounted for 10-15-fold higher hydrogen production than the wild type under the same conditions and also displayed divergent metabolic parameters. These results indicate that rubisco is a promising target for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered microalgae.

  10. Turgor regulation in the osmosensitive cut mutant of Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Lew, Roger R; Levina, Natalia N

    2007-05-01

    The internal hydrostatic pressure (turgor) of fungal cells is maintained at 400-500 kPa. The turgor is regulated by changes in ion flux and by production of the osmotically active metabolite glycerol. In Neurospora crassa, there are at least two genetically distinct pathways that function in adaptation to hyperosmotic shock. One involves a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade (kinases OS-4, OS-5 and OS-2 downstream of the osmosensing OS-1); the other is less understood, but involves the cut gene, which encodes a putative phosphatase. This study examined turgor regulation, electrical responses, ion fluxes and glycerol accumulation in the cut mutant. Turgor recovery after hyperosmotic treatment was similar to that in the wild-type, for both time-course ( approximately 40 min) and magnitude. Prior to turgor recovery, the hyperosmotic shock caused a rapid transient depolarization of the membrane potential, followed by a sustained hyperpolarization that occurred concomitant with increased H(+) efflux, indicating that the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase was being activated. These changes also occurred in the wild-type. Net fluxes of Ca(2+) and Cl(-) during turgor recovery were similar to those in the wild-type, but K(+) influx was attenuated in the cut mutant. The similar turgor recovery can be explained by the ion uptake, since glycerol did not accumulate in the cut mutant within the time frame of turgor recovery (but did accumulate in the wild-type). The results suggest that turgor regulation involves multi-faceted coordination of both ion flux and glycerol accumulation. Ion uptake is activated by a MAP kinase cascade, while CUT is required for glycerol accumulation.

  11. Regulation of chloroplast biogenesis: the immutans mutant of Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Rodermel, Steven

    2015-11-16

    The immutans (im) variegation mutant of Arabidopsis is an ideal model to gain insight into factors that control chloroplast biogenesis. im defines the gene for PTOX, a plastoquinol terminal oxidase that participates in control of thylakoid redox. Here, we report that the im defect can be suppressed during the late stages of plant development by gigantea (gi2), which defines the gene for GIGANTEA (GI), a central component of the circadian clock that plays a poorly-understood role in diverse plant developmental processes. imgi2 mutants are late-flowering and display other well-known phenotypes associated with gi2, such as starch accumulation and resistance to oxidative stress. We show that the restoration of chloroplast biogenesis in imgi2 is caused by a developmental-specific de-repression of cytokinin signaling that involves crosstalk with signaling pathways mediated by gibberellin (GA) and SPINDLY (SPY), a GA response inhibitor. Suppression of the plastid defect in imgi2 is likely caused by a relaxation of excitation pressures in developing plastids by factors contributed by gi2, including enhanced rates of photosynthesis and increased resistance to oxidative stress. Interestingly, the suppression phenotype of imgi can be mimicked by crossing im with the starch accumulation mutant, sex1, perhaps because sex1 utilizes pathways similar to gi. We conclude that our studies provide a direct genetic linkage between GIGANTEA and chloroplast biogenesis, and we construct a model of interactions between signaling pathways mediated by gi, GA, SPY, cytokinins, and sex1 that are required for chloroplast biogenesis.

  12. The antiandrogenic effect of finasteride against a mutant androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Zhang, Haitao; Ip, Clement

    2011-05-15

    Finasteride is known to inhibit Type 2 5α-reductase and thus block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The structural similarity of finasteride to DHT raises the possibility that finasteride may also interfere with the function of the androgen receptor (AR). Experiments were carried out to evaluate the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride in LNCaP, C4-2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cells. Finasteride decreased DHT binding to AR, and DHT-stimulated AR activity and cell growth in LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but not in VCaP cells. LNCaP and C4-2 (derived from castration-resistant LNCaP) cells express the T877A mutant AR, while VCaP cells express the wild type AR. When PC-3 cells, which are AR-null, were transfected with either the wild type or the T877A mutant AR, only the mutant AR-expressing cells were sensitive to finasteride inhibition of DHT binding. Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1) is a novel endogenous facilitator of AR binding to DHT. In Prx1-rich LNCaP cells, the combination of Prx1 knockdown and finasteride was found to produce a greater inhibitory effect on AR activity and cell growth than either treatment alone. The observation suggests that cells with a low expression of Prx1 are likely to be more responsive to the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride. Additional studies showed that the efficacy of finasteride was comparable to that of bicalutamide (a widely used non-steroidal antiandrogen). The implication of the above findings is discussed in the context of developing strategies to improve the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy.

  13. Detecting Functional Groups of Arabidopsis Mutants by Metabolic Profiling and Evaluation of Pleiotropic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jörg; Börnke, Frederik; Schmiedl, Alfred; Kleine, Tatjana; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic profiles and fingerprints of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with various defects in plastidic sugar metabolism or photosynthesis were analyzed to elucidate if the genetic mutations can be traced by comparing their metabolic status. Using a platform of chromatographic and spectrometric tools data from untargeted full MS scans as well as from selected metabolites including major carbohydrates, phosphorylated intermediates, carboxylates, free amino acids, major antioxidants, and plastidic pigments were evaluated. Our key observations are that by multivariate statistical analysis each mutant can be separated by a unique metabolic signature. Closely related mutants come close. Thus metabolic profiles of sugar mutants are different but more similar than those of photosynthesis mutants. All mutants show pleiotropic responses mirrored in their metabolic status. These pleiotropic responses are typical and can be used for separating and grouping of the mutants. Our findings show that metabolite fingerprints can be taken to classify mutants and hence may be used to sort genes into functional groups. PMID:22639613

  14. Isolation and characterization of Rhizobium meliloti mutants affected in exopolysaccharide production.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Navarro, D N; Palomares, A J; Casadesús, J

    1991-06-01

    Rhizobium meliloti mutants affected in the production of exopolysaccharide (EPS) were isolated after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. The mutants were classified into three phenotypic classes: (I) Exo-, rough mutants lacking exopolysaccharide; (II) Exos (for "small") which form tiny, compact colonies and synthesize reduced amounts of EPS; and (III) Exoc (for "constitutive"), hypermucoid mutants which overproduce EPS. Hypermucoid strains showed increased resistance to desiccation. All the mutants were able to nodulate, although a significant decrease in infectivity degree and/or competitiveness was found in rough and compact strains. Two mutants proved to be deficient in nitrogen fixation. Complementation analysis with cloned R. meliloti exo genes could not be applied to the study of these Fix- mutants because introduction of plasmids derived from cosmid vector pLAFR1 caused loss of nodulating ability. However, complementation of calcofluor staining and EPS production was observed. Complementation with certain exo genes also caused a marked increase in motility.

  15. [Collection of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered sensitivity to oxidative stress inductors].

    PubMed

    Ezhova, T A; Soldatova, O P; Mamanova, L B; Musin, S M; Grimm, B; Shestakov, S V

    2001-01-01

    Selective systems for screening Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. mutants with altered sensitivity to the oxidative stress (OS) inductors norflurazon (NF), acifluorfen (AF), and plumbagin (PB) were developed and a collection of 28 mutants was obtained. Dwarf and necrotic forms predominated among the NF-tolerant mutants, while pigment mutants and those with changed root morphology prevailed among the AF-tolerant and PB-sensitive mutants, respectively. Genetic and biochemical analysis of certain mutants was performed; quantitative and qualitative changes in the content of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase isoforms have been revealed. These data, complemented by the data on the cross-tolerance (sensitivity) of the mutants to paraquat, indicate a correlation between tolerance to the OS inductors and the functions of antioxidant systems. PMID:15926316

  16. Use of Electroporation To Generate a Thiobacillus neapolitanus Carboxysome Mutant

    PubMed Central

    English, R. S.; Jin, S.; Shively, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Two cloning vectors designed for use in Escherichia coli and the thiobacilli were constructed by combining a Thiobacillus intermedius plasmid replicon with a multicloning site, lacZ(prm1), and either a kanamycin or a streptomycin resistance gene. Conditions necessary for the introduction of DNA into T. intermedius and T. neapolitanus via electroporation were examined and optimized. By using optimal electroporation conditions, the gene encoding a carboxysome shell protein, csoS1A, was insertionally inactivated in T. neapolitanus. The mutant showed a reduced number of carboxysomes and an increased level of CO(inf2) necessary for growth. PMID:16535117

  17. Applications of mutant yeast strains with low glycogen storage capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, G. R.; Schubert, W. W.; Stokes, B. O.

    1981-01-01

    Several strains of Hansenula polymorpha were selected for possible low glycogen storage characteristics based on a selective I2 staining procedure. The levels of storage carbohydrates in the mutant strains were found to be 44-70% of the levels in the parent strain for cultures harvested in stationary phase. Similar differences generally were not found for cells harvested in exponential phase. Yeast strains deficient in glycogen storage capability are valuable in increasing the relative protein value of microbial biomass and also may provide significant cost savings in substrate utilization in fermentative processes.

  18. Production of Cystatin C Wild Type and Stabilized Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Szymanska, Aneta; Lindstrom, Veronica; Grubb, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Cystatin C is produced in all nucleated cells. It has various functions and biological activities. Researchers are focused on its role in kidney diseases as a marker of glomerular filtration but also as a very important link in development of amyloid diseases. This work describes expression and purification of both wild type (wt) and stabilized form (stab 1 and 2) of wt cystatin C and amyloid-forming L68Q mutant of cystatin C. The recombinant cystatin C can be used in projects requiring pure cystatin C to examine models of dimerization and fibrils formation as well as a standard in clinical tests.

  19. A pea mutant for the study of hydrotropism in roots.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, M J; Takahashi, H; Biro, R L

    1985-10-25

    Plant roots grow in the direction of increasing soil moisture, but studies of hydrotropism have always been difficult to interpret because of the effect of gravity. In this study it was found that roots of the mutant pea ;Ageotropum' are neither gravitropic nor phototropic, but do respond tropically to a moisture gradient, making them an ideal subject for the study of hydrotropism. When the root caps were removed, elongation was not affected but hydrotropism was blocked, suggesting that the site of sensory perception resides in the root cap.

  20. Using PATIMDB to Create Bacterial Transposon Insertion Mutant Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Urbach, Jonathan M.; Wei, Tao; Liberati, Nicole; Grenfell-Lee, Daniel; Villanueva, Jacinto; Wu, Gang; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    PATIMDB is a software package for facilitating the generation of transposon mutant insertion libraries. The software has two main functions: process tracking and automated sequence analysis. The process tracking function specifically includes recording the status and fates of multiwell plates and samples in various stages of library construction. Automated sequence analysis refers specifically to the pipeline of sequence analysis starting with ABI files from a sequencing facility and ending with insertion location identifications. The protocols in this unit describe installation and use of PATIMDB software. PMID:19343706

  1. Quantum chemical modeling of rhodopsin mutants displaying switchable colors.

    PubMed

    Melaccio, Federico; Ferré, Nicolas; Olivucci, Massimo

    2012-09-28

    We look at the possibility to compute and understand the color change occurring upon mutation of a photochromic protein. Accordingly, ab initio multiconfigurational quantum chemical methods are used to construct basic quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics (QM/MM) models for a small mutant library of the sensory rhodopsin of Anabaena (Nostoc) sp. PCC7120 cyanobacterium. Together with the wild-type forms, a set of 26 absorption maxima spanning a ca. 80 nm range is obtained. We show that these models can be used to capture the electrostatic change controlling the computed color variation and the change in the ionization of specific side chains. PMID:22699180

  2. Checkpoint Blockade Cancer Immunotherapy Targets Tumour-Specific Mutant Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gubin, Matthew M.; Zhang, Xiuli; Schuster, Heiko; Caron, Etienne; Ward, Jeffrey P.; Noguchi, Takuro; Ivanova, Yulia; Hundal, Jasreet; Arthur, Cora D.; Krebber, Willem-Jan; Mulder, Gwenn E.; Toebes, Mireille; Vesely, Matthew D.; Lam, Samuel S.K.; Korman, Alan J.; Allison, James P.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Pearce, Erika L.; Schumacher, Ton N.; Aebersold, Ruedi; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Gillanders, William E.; Artyomov, Maxim N.; Schreiber, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The immune system plays key roles in determining the fate of developing cancers by not only functioning as a tumour promoter facilitating cellular transformation, promoting tumour growth and sculpting tumour cell immunogenicity1–6, but also as an extrinsic tumour suppressor that either destroys developing tumours or restrains their expansion1,2,7. Yet clinically apparent cancers still arise in immunocompetent individuals in part as a consequence of cancer induced immunosuppression. In many individuals, immunosuppression is mediated by Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death-1 (PD-1), two immunomodulatory receptors expressed on T cells8,9. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) based therapies targeting CTLA-4 and/or PD-1 (checkpoint blockade) have yielded significant clinical benefits—including durable responses—to patients with different malignancies10–13. However, little is known about the identity of the tumour antigens that function as the targets of T cells activated by checkpoint blockade immunotherapy and whether these antigens can be used to generate vaccines that are highly tumour-specific. Herein, we use genomics and bioinformatics approaches to identify tumour-specific mutant proteins as a major class of T cell rejection antigens following αPD-1 and/or αCTLA-4 therapy of mice bearing progressively growing sarcomas and show that therapeutic synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccines incorporating these mutant epitopes induce tumour rejection comparably to checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. Whereas, mutant tumour antigen-specific T cells are present in progressively growing tumours, they are reactivated following treatment with αPD-1- and/or αCTLA-4 and display some overlapping but mostly treatment-specific transcriptional profiles rendering them capable of mediating tumour rejection. These results reveal that tumour-specific mutant antigens (TSMA) are not only important targets of checkpoint blockade therapy but also can be

  3. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants.

    PubMed

    Gáliková, Martina; Diesner, Max; Klepsatel, Peter; Hehlert, Philip; Xu, Yanjun; Bickmeyer, Iris; Predel, Reinhard; Kühnlein, Ronald P

    2015-10-01

    Maintenance of biological functions under negative energy balance depends on mobilization of storage lipids and carbohydrates in animals. In mammals, glucagon and glucocorticoid signaling mobilizes energy reserves, whereas adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) play a homologous role in insects. Numerous studies based on AKH injections and correlative studies in a broad range of insect species established the view that AKH acts as master regulator of energy mobilization during development, reproduction, and stress. In contrast to AKH, the second peptide, which is processed from the Akh encoded prohormone [termed "adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptide" (APRP)] is functionally orphan. APRP is discussed as ecdysiotropic hormone or as scaffold peptide during AKH prohormone processing. However, as in the case of AKH, final evidence for APRP functions requires genetic mutant analysis. Here we employed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering to create AKH and AKH plus APRP-specific mutants in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Lack of APRP did not affect any of the tested steroid-dependent processes. Similarly, Drosophila AKH signaling is dispensable for ontogenesis, locomotion, oogenesis, and homeostasis of lipid or carbohydrate storage until up to the end of metamorphosis. During adulthood, however, AKH regulates body fat content and the hemolymph sugar level as well as nutritional and oxidative stress responses. Finally, we provide evidence for a negative autoregulatory loop in Akh gene regulation. PMID:26275422

  4. Computational and Experimental Study of Neuroglobin and Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Lauren; Cho, Samuel; Kim-Shaprio, Daniel

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a hexacoordinated heme protein that is closely related to hemoglobin and myoglobin and normally found in the brain and nervous systems. It is involved in cellular oxygen homeostasis and reversibly binds to oxygen with a higher binding affinity than hemoglobin. To protect the brain tissue from hypoxic or ischemic conditions, Ngb increases oxygen availability. We have previously shown that a mutant form of Ngb reduces nitrite to nitric oxide 50x faster than myoglobin and 500x faster than hemoglobin. It also tightly binds to carbon monoxide (CO) with an association rate that is 500x faster than hemoglobin. To analyze the structure of neuroglobin and the characteristics causing these phenomena, we performed 3 sets of 1 microsecond molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of wild-type oxidized and reduced human Ngb and their C46A, C55A, H64L, and H64Q mutants. We also directly compare our MD simulations with time-resolved absorption spectroscopy. These studies will help identify treatments for diseases involving low nitric oxide availability and carbon monoxide poisoning. This research was supported by an NIH NSRA predoctoral fellowship in the Structural and Computational Biophysics Program training Grant (T32GM095440-05).

  5. Mutants of PC12 cells with altered cyclic AMP responses

    SciTech Connect

    Block, T.; Kon, C.; Breckenridge, B.M.

    1984-10-01

    PCl2 cells, derived from a rat pheochromocytoma, were mutagenized and selected in media containing agents known to elevate intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP). More than 40 clones were isolated by selection with cholera toxin or 2-chloroadenosine or both. The variants that were deficient in accumulating cAMP were obtained by using a protocol in which 1 ..mu..m 8-bromo-cAMP was included in addition to the agonist. Certain of these variants were partially characterized with respect to the site of altered cAMP metabolism. The profiles of adenylate cyclase activity responsiveness of certain variants to guanosine-5'-(BETA,..gamma..-imido) triphosphate and to forskolin resembled those of UNC and cyc phenotypes of S49 lymphoma cells, which are functionally deficient in the GTP-sensitive coupling protein, N/sub s/. Other variants were characterized by increased cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity at low substrate concentration. Diverse morphological traits were observed among the variants, but it was not possible to assign them to a particular cAMP phenotype. Two revertants of a PCl2 mutant were isolated and observed to have regained a cellular cAMP response to 2-chloroadenosine and to forskolin. It is hoped that these PCl2 mutants will have utility for defining cAMP-mediated functions, including any links to the action of nerve growth factor, in cells derived from the neural crest.

  6. Identification of Drosophila Mutants Affecting Defense to an Entomopathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Wang, Jonathan B.; Brown, Markus A.; Euerle, Christopher; St. Leger, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Fungi cause the majority of insect disease. However, to date attempts to model host–fungal interactions with Drosophila have focused on opportunistic human pathogens. Here, we performed a screen of 2,613 mutant Drosophila lines to identify host genes affecting susceptibility to the natural insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma549). Overall, 241 (9.22%) mutant lines had altered resistance to Ma549. Life spans ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 days, with females being more susceptible than males in all lines. Speed of kill correlated with within-host growth and onset of sporulation, but total spore production is decoupled from host genotypes. Results showed that mutations affected the ability of Drosophila to restrain rather than tolerate infections and suggested trade-offs between antifungal and antibacterial genes affecting cuticle and gut structural barriers. Approximately, 13% of mutations where in genes previously associated with host pathogen interactions. These encoded fast-acting immune responses including coagulation, phagocytosis, encapsulation and melanization but not the slow-response induction of anti-fungal peptides. The non-immune genes impact a wide variety of biological functions, including behavioral traits. Many have human orthologs already implicated in human disorders; while others were mutations in protein and non-protein coding genes for which disease resistance was the first biological annotation. PMID:26202798

  7. Impairment in motor learning of somatostatin null mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Zeyda, T; Diehl, N; Paylor, R; Brennan, M B; Hochgeschwender, U

    2001-07-01

    Somatostatin was first identified as a hypothalamic factor which inhibits the release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary (somatotropin release inhibitory factor, SRIF). Both SRIF and its receptors were subsequently found widely distributed within and outside the nervous system, in the adult as well as in the developing organism. Reflecting this wide distribution, somatostatin has been implicated regulating a diverse array of biological processes. These include body growth, homeostasis, sensory perception, autonomous functions, rate of intestinal absorption, behavior, including cognition and memory, and developmental processes. We produced null mutant mice lacking somatostatin through targeted mutagenesis. The mutant mice are healthy, fertile, and superficially indistinguishable from their heterozygous and wildtype littermates. A 'first round' phenotype screen revealed that mice lacking somatostatin have elevated plasma growth hormone levels, despite normal body size, and have elevated basal plasma corticosterone levels. In order to uncover subtle and unexpected differences, we carried out a systematic behavioral phenotype screen which identified a significant impairment in motor learning revealed when increased demands were made on motor coordination. Motor coordination and motor learning require an intact cerebellum. While somatostatin is virtually absent from the adult cerebellum, the ligand and its receptor(s) are transiently expressed at high levels in the developing cerebellum. This result suggests the functional significance of transient expression of SRIF and its receptors in the development of the cerebellum. PMID:11430867

  8. Cell Wall Alterations in the Arabidopsis emb30 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Shevell, Diane E.; Kunkel, Tim; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2000-01-01

    The Arabidopsis EMB30 gene is essential for controlling the polarity of cell growth and for normal cell adhesion during seedling development. In this article, we show that emb30 mutations also affect the growth of undifferentiated plant cells and adult tissues. EMB30 possesses a Sec7 domain and, based on similarities to other proteins, presumably functions in the secretory pathway. The plant cell wall depends on the secretory pathway to deliver its complex polysaccharides. We show that emb30 mutants have a cell wall defect that sometimes allows material to be deposited into the interstitial space between cells instead of being restricted to cell corners. In addition, pectin, a complex polysaccharide important for cell adhesion, appears to be abnormally localized in emb30 plants. In contrast, localization of epitopes associated with xyloglucan or arabinogalactan was similar in wild-type and emb30 tissues, and the localization of a marker molecule to vacuoles appeared normal. Therefore, emb30 mutations do not cause a general defect in the secretory pathway. Together, these results suggest that emb30 mutations result in an abnormal cell wall, which in turn may account for the defects in cell adhesion and polar cell growth control observed in the mutants. PMID:11090208

  9. Nonselective enrichment for yeast adenine mutants by flow cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruschi, C. V.; Chuba, P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The expression of certain adenine biosynthetic mutations in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a red colony color. This phenomenon has historically provided an ideal genetic marker for the study of mutation, recombination, and aneuploidy in lower eukaryotes by classical genetic analysis. In this paper, it is reported that cells carrying ade1 and/or ade2 mutations exhibit primary fluorescence. Based on this observation, the nonselective enrichment of yeast cultures for viable adenine mutants by using the fluorescence-activated cell sorter has been achieved. The advantages of this approach over conventional genetic analysis of mutation, recombination, and mitotic chromosomal stability include speed and accuracy in acquiring data for large numbers of clones. By using appropriate strains, the cell sorter has been used for the isolation of both forward mutations and chromosomal loss events in S. cerevisiae. The resolving power of this system and its noninvasiveness can easily be extended to more complex organisms, including mammalian cells, in which analogous metabolic mutants are available.

  10. Disruption of Olfactory Receptor Neuron Patterning in Scutoid mutant Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Tom, W.; de Bruyne, M.; Haehnel, M.; Carlson, J. R.; Ray, A.

    2010-01-01

    Olfactory neurons show an extreme diversity of cell types with each cell usually expressing one member from a large family of 60 Odorant receptor (Or)genes in Drosophila. Little is known about the developmental processes and transcription factors that generate this stereotyped pattern of cellular diversity. Here we investigate the molecular and cellular basis of defects in olfactory system function in an unusual dominant mutant, Scutoid. We show that the defects map to olfactory neurons innervating a specific morphological class of sensilla on the antenna, large basiconics. Molecular analysis indicates defects in neurons expressing specific classes of receptor genes that map to large basiconic sensilla. Previous studies have shown that in Scutoid mutants the coding region of the transcriptional repressor snail is translocated near the no-ocelli promoter, leading to misexpression of snail in the developing eye-antenna disc. We show that ectopic expression of snail in developing olfactory neurons leads to severe defects in neurons of the antennal large basiconics supporting the model that the dominant olfactory phenotype in Scutoid is caused by misexpression of snail. PMID:20875862

  11. Molecular analysis of ethylene-insensitive mutants in arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyerowitz, E.

    1991-01-01

    The subject of this study is the biochemical basis of ethylene reception. The Arabidopsis thaliana ETR gene codes for the ethylene receptor or is involved in transduction of the ethylene-generated signal. We have cloned an etr mutation which results in a decrease in the ethylene response of the plant, with a decrease in ethylene binding of about five-fold. Two genes have been found in the cloned region which confer resistance. By sequence analysis, the first protein contains three distinct regions: a transmembrane region, a serine/threonine protein kinase region, and a control region similar to the RAS-binding region of yeast adenylate cyclase. The second protein contains a zinc-finger; since sequence of the first protein shows no mutant-dependent changes, and transition metals have been implicated in ethylene binding, this protein could be the ETR gene product. However, no mutant dependent differences have been found in this protein, either. The mutation could be upstream of the coding region of either gene and involve regulatory elements, so we are continuing to sequence. (MHB)

  12. Craniofacial skeletal defects of adult zebrafish glypican 4 (knypek) mutants

    PubMed Central

    LeClair, Elizabeth E.; Mui, Stephanie R.; Huang, Angela; Topczewska, Jolanta M.; Topczewski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan Glypican 4 (Gpc4) is part of the Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, which is required for convergence and extension during zebrafish gastrulation. To observe Glypican 4-deficient phenotypes at later stages, we rescued gpc4−/− (knypek) homozygotes and raised them for more than one year. Adult mutants showed diverse cranial malformations of both dermal and endochondral bones, ranging from shortening of the rostral-most skull to loss of the symplectic. Additionally, the adult palatoquadrate cartilage was disorganized, with abnormal chondrocyte orientation. To understand how the palatoquadrate cartilage normally develops, we examined a juvenile series of wild type and mutant specimens. This identified two novel domains of elongated chondrocytes in the larval palatoquadrate, which normally form prior to endochondral ossification. In contrast, gpc4−/− larvae never form these domains, suggesting a failure of chondrocyte orientation, though not differentiation. Our findings implicate Gpc4 in the regulation of zebrafish cartilage and bone morphogenesis. PMID:19777561

  13. Treatment of MDR1 Mutant Dogs with Macrocyclic Lactones

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Joachim; Janko, Christina

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, encoded by the multidrug resistance gene MDR1, is an ATP-driven drug efflux pump which is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier of vertebrates. Drug efflux of macrocyclic lactones by P-glycoprotein is highly relevant for the therapeutic safety of macrocyclic lactones, as thereby GABA-gated chloride channels, which are confined to the central nervous system in vertebrates, are protected from high drug concentrations that otherwise would induce neurological toxicity. A 4-bp deletion mutation exists in the MDR1 gene of many dog breeds such as the Collie and the Australian Shepherd, which results in the expression of a non-functional P-glycoprotein and is associated with multiple drug sensitivity. Accordingly, dogs with homozygous MDR1 mutation are in general prone to neurotoxicity by macrocyclic lactones due to their increased brain penetration. Nevertheless, treatment of these dogs with macrocyclic lactones does not inevitably result in neurological symptoms, since, the safety of treatment highly depends on the treatment indication, dosage, route of application, and the individual compound used as outlined in this review. Whereas all available macrocyclic lactones can safely be administered to MDR1 mutant dogs at doses usually used for heartworm prevention, these dogs will experience neurological toxicity following a high dose regimen which is common for mange treatment in dogs. Here, we review and discuss the neurotoxicological potential of different macrocyclic lactones as well as their treatment options in MDR1 mutant dogs. PMID:22039792

  14. Mutants highlight the modular control of butterfly eyespot patterns.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Antónia; Prijs, Joop; Bax, Minka; Hakkaart, Thomas; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    The eyespots on butterfly wings are thought to be serially homologous pattern elements. Yet eyespots differ greatly in number, shape, color, and size, within and among species. To what extent do these serially homologues have separate developmental identities, upon which selection acts to create diversity? We examined x-ray-induced mutations for the eyespots of the nymphalid butterfly Bicyclus anynana that highlight the modular control of these serially homologous wing pattern elements. These mutations reduce or eliminate individual eyespots, or groups of eyespots, with no further effect on the wing color pattern. The collection of mutants highlights a greater potential developmental repertoire than that observed across the genus Bicyclus. We studied in detail one such mutation, of codominant effect, that causes the elimination of two adjacent eyespots on the ventral hindwing. By analyzing the expression of genes known to be involved in eyespot formation, we found an alteration in the differentiation of the "organizing" cells at the eyespot's center. No such cells differentiate in the wing subdivisions lacking the two eyespots in the mutants. We propose several developmental models, based on wing compartmentalization in Drosophila, that provide the first framework for thinking about the molecular evolution of butterfly wing pattern modularity. PMID:12622735

  15. Plasmid Recombination in a Rad52 Mutant of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, K. J.; Livingston, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    Using plasmids capable of undergoing intramolecular recombination, we have compared the rates and the molecular outcomes of recombination events in a wild-type and a rad52 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The plasmids contain his3 heteroalleles oriented in either an inverted or a direct repeat. Inverted repeat plasmids recombine approximately 20-fold less frequently in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. Most events from both cell types have continuous coconversion tracts extending along one of the homologous segments. Reciprocal exchange occurs in fewer than 30% of events. Direct repeat plasmids recombine at rates comparable to those of inverted repeat plasmids in wild-type cells. Direct repeat conversion tracts are similar to inverted repeat conversion tracts in their continuity and length. Inverted and direct repeat plasmid recombination differ in two respects. First, rad52 does not affect the rate of direct repeat recombination as drastically as the rate of inverted repeat recombination. Second, direct repeat plasmids undergo crossing over more frequently than inverted repeat plasmids. In addition, crossovers constitute a larger fraction of mutant than wild-type direct repeat events. Many crossover events from both cell types are unusual in that the crossover HIS3 allele is within a plasmid containing the parental his3 heteroalleles. PMID:1644271

  16. Stargazer (stg), new deafness mutant in the Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Truett, G E; Brock, J W; Lidl, G M; Kloster, C A

    1994-12-01

    We describe a new deafness mutant found in the Zucker rat. The mutant phenotype appears to be caused by an autosomal recessive gene, tentatively named stargazer, gene symbol stg. The phenotype is characterized by stargazing, head tossing, drawing back, circling, and hyperactivity, all of which are apparent by the third week of life. Although the affected animals sire or bear normal-sized litters, mortality is high for litters of affected dams, apparently due to trampling or neglect by the hyperactive dams. Affected animals are unable to swim and, when lifted by the tail, they are likely to curl ventrally, rather than extending their paws downward. These behaviors are consistent with a disorder of the vestibular system. Auditory evoked potential recordings were attempted as a hearing test. The failure of audible clicks up to 90 decibels to stimulate the auditory tract indicates that stargazers are profoundly deaf. These disruptions of vestibular and auditory systems suggest that the stargazer phenotype may be caused by disordered development of the inner ear. Histologic examination of the inner ear revealed progressive degeneration of cells in the acoustic ganglion and of hair cells. The stargazer rat may be useful as a model for hereditary deafness or hyperactivity. PMID:7898033

  17. Bacillus pumilus Cyanide Dihydratase Mutants with Higher Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Mary A.; Sewell, B. Trevor; Benedik, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide degrading nitrilases are noted for their potential to detoxify industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide. However, such application would benefit from an improvement to characteristics such as their catalytic activity and stability. Following error-prone PCR for random mutagenesis, several cyanide dihydratase mutants from Bacillus pumilus were isolated based on improved catalysis. Four point mutations, K93R, D172N, A202T, and E327K were characterized and their effects on kinetics, thermostability and pH tolerance were studied. K93R and D172N increased the enzyme’s thermostability whereas E327K mutation had a less pronounced effect on stability. The D172N mutation also increased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate at pH 7.7 but lowered its kcat. However, the A202T mutation, located in the dimerization or the A surface, destabilized the protein and abolished its activity. No significant effect on activity at alkaline pH was observed for any of the purified mutants. These mutations help confirm the model of CynD and are discussed in the context of the protein–protein interfaces leading to the protein quaternary structure. PMID:27570524

  18. Flavonoid accumulation patterns of transparent testa mutants of arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peer, W. A.; Brown, D. E.; Tague, B. W.; Muday, G. K.; Taiz, L.; Murphy, A. S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells.

  19. Pyrin gene and mutants thereof, which cause familial Mediterranean fever

    DOEpatents

    Kastner, Daniel L.; Aksentijevichh, Ivona; Centola, Michael; Deng, Zuoming; Sood, Ramen; Collins, Francis S.; Blake, Trevor; Liu, P. Paul; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Richards, Robert I.; Ricke, Darrell O.; Doggett, Norman A.; Pras, Mordechai

    2003-09-30

    The invention provides the nucleic acid sequence encoding the protein associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The cDNA sequence is designated as MEFV. The invention is also directed towards fragments of the DNA sequence, as well as the corresponding sequence for the RNA transcript and fragments thereof. Another aspect of the invention provides the amino acid sequence for a protein (pyrin) associated with FMF. The invention is directed towards both the full length amino acid sequence, fusion proteins containing the amino acid sequence and fragments thereof. The invention is also directed towards mutants of the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences associated with FMF. In particular, the invention discloses three missense mutations, clustered in within about 40 to 50 amino acids, in the highly conserved rfp (B30.2) domain at the C-terminal of the protein. These mutants include M6801, M694V, K695R, and V726A. Additionally, the invention includes methods for diagnosing a patient at risk for having FMF and kits therefor.

  20. Energy Homeostasis Control in Drosophila Adipokinetic Hormone Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Gáliková, Martina; Diesner, Max; Klepsatel, Peter; Hehlert, Philip; Xu, Yanjun; Bickmeyer, Iris; Predel, Reinhard; Kühnlein, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of biological functions under negative energy balance depends on mobilization of storage lipids and carbohydrates in animals. In mammals, glucagon and glucocorticoid signaling mobilizes energy reserves, whereas adipokinetic hormones (AKHs) play a homologous role in insects. Numerous studies based on AKH injections and correlative studies in a broad range of insect species established the view that AKH acts as master regulator of energy mobilization during development, reproduction, and stress. In contrast to AKH, the second peptide, which is processed from the Akh encoded prohormone [termed “adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptide” (APRP)] is functionally orphan. APRP is discussed as ecdysiotropic hormone or as scaffold peptide during AKH prohormone processing. However, as in the case of AKH, final evidence for APRP functions requires genetic mutant analysis. Here we employed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering to create AKH and AKH plus APRP-specific mutants in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Lack of APRP did not affect any of the tested steroid-dependent processes. Similarly, Drosophila AKH signaling is dispensable for ontogenesis, locomotion, oogenesis, and homeostasis of lipid or carbohydrate storage until up to the end of metamorphosis. During adulthood, however, AKH regulates body fat content and the hemolymph sugar level as well as nutritional and oxidative stress responses. Finally, we provide evidence for a negative autoregulatory loop in Akh gene regulation. PMID:26275422

  1. JC polyomavirus mutants escape antibody-mediated neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ray, Upasana; Cinque, Paola; Gerevini, Simonetta; Longo, Valeria; Lazzarin, Adriano; Schippling, Sven; Martin, Roland; Buck, Christopher B; Pastrana, Diana V

    2015-09-23

    JC polyomavirus (JCV) persistently infects the urinary tract of most adults. Under conditions of immune impairment, JCV causes an opportunistic brain disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). JCV strains found in the cerebrospinal fluid of PML patients contain distinctive mutations in surface loops of the major capsid protein, VP1. We hypothesized that VP1 mutations might allow the virus to evade antibody-mediated neutralization. Consistent with this hypothesis, neutralization serology revealed that plasma samples from PML patients neutralized wild-type JCV strains but failed to neutralize patient-cognate PML-mutant JCV strains. This contrasted with serological results for healthy individuals, most of whom robustly cross-neutralized all tested JCV variants. Mice administered a JCV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine initially showed neutralizing "blind spots" (akin to those observed in PML patients) that closed after booster immunization. A PML patient administered an experimental JCV VLP vaccine likewise showed markedly increased neutralizing titer against her cognate PML-mutant JCV. The results indicate that deficient humoral immunity is a common aspect of PML pathogenesis and that vaccination may overcome this humoral deficiency. Thus, vaccination with JCV VLPs might prevent the development of PML.

  2. Leaf Epicuticular Waxes of the Eceriferum Mutants in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Jenks, M. A.; Tuttle, H. A.; Eigenbrode, S. D.; Feldmann, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    Wild-type Arabidopsis leaf epicuticular wax (EW) occurs as a smooth layer over the epidermal surface, whereas stem EW has a crystalline microstructure. Wild-type EW load was more than 10-fold lower on leaves than on stems. Compared with the EW on wild-type stems, EW on wild-type leaves had a much higher proportion of their total EW load in the form of alkanes and 1-alcohols; a large reduction in secondary alcohols, ketones, and esters; and a chain-length distribution for major EW classes that was skewed toward longer lengths. The eceriferum (cer) mutations often differentially affected leaf and stem EW chemical compositions. For example, the cer2 mutant EW phenotype was expressed on the stem but not on the leaf. Compared to wild type, the amount of primary alcohols on cer9 mutants was reduced on leaves but elevated on stems, whereas an opposite differential effect for primary alcohols was observed on cer16 leaves and stems. Putative functions for CER gene products are discussed. The CER4 and CER6 gene products may be involved in fatty aldehyde reduction and C26 fatty acylcoenzyme A elongation, respectively. CER1, CER8, CER9, and CER16 gene products may be involved in EW substrate transfer. The CER3 gene product may be involved in release of fatty acids from elongase complexes. CER2 gene product may have regulatory functions. PMID:12228482

  3. Establishment of Homozygote Mutant Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Cohen-Hadad, Yaara; Aharoni, Shira; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Schonberger, Oshrat; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Zeligson, Sharon; Eiges, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    We report on the derivation of a diploid 46(XX) human embryonic stem cell (HESC) line that is homozygous for the common deletion associated with Spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA) from a pathenogenetic embryo. By characterizing the methylation status of three different imprinted loci (MEST, SNRPN and H19), monitoring the expression of two parentally imprinted genes (SNRPN and H19) and carrying out genome-wide SNP analysis, we provide evidence that this cell line was established from the activation of a mutant oocyte by diploidization of the entire genome. Therefore, our SMA parthenogenetic HESC (pHESC) line provides a proof-of-principle for the establishment of diseased HESC lines without the need for gene manipulation. As mutant oocytes are easily obtained and readily available during preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) cycles, this approach should provide a powerful tool for disease modelling and is especially advantageous since it can be used to induce large or complex mutations in HESCs, including gross DNA alterations and chromosomal rearrangements, which are otherwise hard to achieve. PMID:26473610

  4. Bacillus pumilus Cyanide Dihydratase Mutants with Higher Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Crum, Mary A; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cyanide degrading nitrilases are noted for their potential to detoxify industrial wastewater contaminated with cyanide. However, such application would benefit from an improvement to characteristics such as their catalytic activity and stability. Following error-prone PCR for random mutagenesis, several cyanide dihydratase mutants from Bacillus pumilus were isolated based on improved catalysis. Four point mutations, K93R, D172N, A202T, and E327K were characterized and their effects on kinetics, thermostability and pH tolerance were studied. K93R and D172N increased the enzyme's thermostability whereas E327K mutation had a less pronounced effect on stability. The D172N mutation also increased the affinity of the enzyme for its substrate at pH 7.7 but lowered its k cat. However, the A202T mutation, located in the dimerization or the A surface, destabilized the protein and abolished its activity. No significant effect on activity at alkaline pH was observed for any of the purified mutants. These mutations help confirm the model of CynD and are discussed in the context of the protein-protein interfaces leading to the protein quaternary structure. PMID:27570524

  5. Flavonoid Accumulation Patterns of Transparent Testa Mutants of Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Wendy Ann; Brown, Dana E.; Tague, Brian W.; Muday, Gloria K.; Taiz, Lincoln; Murphy, Angus S.

    2001-01-01

    Flavonoids have been implicated in the regulation of auxin movements in Arabidopsis. To understand when and where flavonoids may be acting to control auxin movement, the flavonoid accumulation pattern was examined in young seedlings and mature tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis. Using a variety of biochemical and visualization techniques, flavonoid accumulation in mature plants was localized in cauline leaves, pollen, stigmata, and floral primordia, and in the stems of young, actively growing inflorescences. In young Landsberg erecta seedlings, aglycone flavonols accumulated developmentally in three regions, the cotyledonary node, the hypocotyl-root transition zone, and the root tip. Aglycone flavonols accumulated at the hypocotyl-root transition zone in a developmental and tissue-specific manner with kaempferol in the epidermis and quercetin in the cortex. Quercetin localized subcellularly in the nuclear region, plasma membrane, and endomembrane system, whereas kaempferol localized in the nuclear region and plasma membrane. The flavonoid accumulation pattern was also examined in transparent testa mutants blocked at different steps in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. The transparent testa mutants were shown to have precursor accumulation patterns similar to those of end product flavonoids in wild-type Landsberg erecta, suggesting that synthesis and end product accumulation occur in the same cells. PMID:11402185

  6. Abnormal Synaptic Vesicle Biogenesis in Drosophila Synaptogyrin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Robin J.; Akbergenova, Yulia; Jorquera, Ramon A.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2012-01-01

    Sustained neuronal communication relies on the coordinated activity of multiple proteins that regulate synaptic vesicle biogenesis and cycling within the presynaptic terminal. Synaptogyrin and synaptophysin are conserved MARVEL domain-containing transmembrane proteins that are among the most abundant synaptic vesicle constituents, although their role in the synaptic vesicle cycle has remained elusive. To further investigate the function of these proteins, we generated and characterized a synaptogyrin (gyr) null mutant in Drosophila, whose genome encodes a single synaptogyrin isoform and lacks a synaptophysin homolog. We demonstrate that Drosophila synaptogyrin plays a modulatory role in synaptic vesicle biogenesis at larval neuromuscular junctions. Drosophila lacking synaptogyrin are viable and fertile and have no overt deficits in motor function. However, ultrastructural analysis of gyr larvae revealed increased synaptic vesicle diameter and enhanced variability in the size of synaptic vesicles. In addition, the resolution of endocytic cisternae into synaptic vesicles in response to strong stimulation is defective in gyr mutants. Electrophysiological analysis demonstrated an increase in quantal size and a concomitant decrease in quantal content, suggesting functional consequences for transmission caused by the loss of synaptogyrin. Furthermore, high-frequency stimulation resulted in increased facilitation and a delay in recovery from synaptic depression, indicating that synaptic vesicle exo-endocytosis is abnormally regulated during intense stimulation conditions. These results suggest that synaptogyrin modulates the synaptic vesicle exo-endocytic cycle and is required for the proper biogenesis of synaptic vesicles at nerve terminals. PMID:23238721

  7. Podospora mutant defective in glucose-dependent growth control.

    PubMed Central

    Durrens, P

    1983-01-01

    A mutation (modE), previously described as a membrane mutation, results in several modifications of the female developmental cycle: a high density of protoperithecia, the unscheduled development of protoperithecia into sterile perithecia on the homokaryons of each mating type, and the independence of ascospore outgrowth from the substances normally required for germination. Cultured in liquid medium, the modE strain showed two additional specific features: a higher growth yield than that of wild-type cultures (plus 10% of dry weight) and an extreme reduction of cell life span. Both mutant traits were specific to glucose limitation. Despite the large difference existing in the sensitivity of cells to glucose starvation, the glycogen and trehalose reserves of mutant and wild-type cells were nearly identical. Considered together, these results suggest that the primary effect of the mutation lies in the disruption of a glucose-dependent regulation controlling the transition of the metabolic pattern of cells from growth to quiescence. PMID:6841314

  8. Mutants highlight the modular control of butterfly eyespot patterns.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Antónia; Prijs, Joop; Bax, Minka; Hakkaart, Thomas; Brakefield, Paul M

    2003-01-01

    The eyespots on butterfly wings are thought to be serially homologous pattern elements. Yet eyespots differ greatly in number, shape, color, and size, within and among species. To what extent do these serially homologues have separate developmental identities, upon which selection acts to create diversity? We examined x-ray-induced mutations for the eyespots of the nymphalid butterfly Bicyclus anynana that highlight the modular control of these serially homologous wing pattern elements. These mutations reduce or eliminate individual eyespots, or groups of eyespots, with no further effect on the wing color pattern. The collection of mutants highlights a greater potential developmental repertoire than that observed across the genus Bicyclus. We studied in detail one such mutation, of codominant effect, that causes the elimination of two adjacent eyespots on the ventral hindwing. By analyzing the expression of genes known to be involved in eyespot formation, we found an alteration in the differentiation of the "organizing" cells at the eyespot's center. No such cells differentiate in the wing subdivisions lacking the two eyespots in the mutants. We propose several developmental models, based on wing compartmentalization in Drosophila, that provide the first framework for thinking about the molecular evolution of butterfly wing pattern modularity.

  9. Taq DNA Polymerase Mutants and 2'-Modified Sugar Recognition.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Hayley J; Gochi, Andrea M; Chia, Hannah E; Ogonowsky, Alexie L; Chiang, Sharon; Filipovic, Nedim; Weiden, Aurora G; Hadley, Emma E; Gabriel, Sara E; Leconte, Aaron M

    2015-09-29

    Chemical modifications to DNA, such as 2' modifications, are expected to increase the biotechnological utility of DNA; however, these modified forms of DNA are limited by their inability to be effectively synthesized by DNA polymerase enzymes. Previous efforts have identified mutant Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I (Taq) enzymes capable of recognizing 2'-modified DNA nucleotides. While these mutant enzymes recognize these modified nucleotides, they are not capable of synthesizing full length modified DNA; thus, further engineering is required for these enzymes. Here, we describe comparative biochemical studies that identify useful, but previously uncharacterized, properties of these enzymes; one enzyme, SFM19, is able to recognize a range of 2'-modified nucleotides much wider than that previously examined, including fluoro, azido, and amino modifications. To understand the molecular origins of these differences, we also identify specific amino acids and combinations of amino acids that contribute most to the previously evolved unnatural activity. Our data suggest that a negatively charged amino acid at 614 and mutation of the steric gate residue, E615, to glycine make up the optimal combination for modified oligonucleotide synthesis. These studies yield an improved understanding of the mutational origins of 2'-modified substrate recognition as well as identify SFM19 as the best candidate for further engineering, whether via rational design or directed evolution. PMID:26334839

  10. Characterization of chloroplast division using the Arabidopsis mutant arc5.

    PubMed

    Robertson, E J; Rutherford, S M; Leech, R M

    1996-09-01

    arc5 is a chloroplast division mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. To identify the role of ARC5 in the chloroplast replication process we have followed the changes in arc5 chloroplasts during their perturbed division. ARC5 does not affect proplastid division but functions at a later stage in chloroplast development. Chloroplasts in developing mesophyll cells of arc5 leaves do not increase in number and all of the chloroplasts in mature leaf cells show a central constriction. Young arc5 chloroplasts are capable of initiating the division process but fail to complete daughter-plastid separation. Wild-type plastids increase in number to a mean of 121 after completing the division process, but in the mutant arc5 the approximately 13 plastids per cell are still centrally constricted but much enlarged. As the arc5 chloroplasts expand and elongate without dividing, the internal thylakoid membrane structure becomes flexed into an undulating ribbon. We conclude that the ARC5 gene is necessary for the completion of the last stage of chloroplast division when the narrow isthmus breaks, causing the separation of the daughter plastids.

  11. Analyses of tomato fruit brightness mutants uncover both cutin-deficient and cutin-abundant mutants and a new hypomorphic allele of GDSL lipase.

    PubMed

    Petit, Johann; Bres, Cécile; Just, Daniel; Garcia, Virginie; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Marion, Didier; Bakan, Bénédicte; Joubès, Jérôme; Domergue, Frédéric; Rothan, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    The cuticle is a protective layer synthesized by epidermal cells of the plants and consisting of cutin covered and filled by waxes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the thick cuticle embedding epidermal cells has crucial roles in the control of pathogens, water loss, cracking, postharvest shelf-life, and brightness. To identify tomato mutants with modified cuticle composition and architecture and to further decipher the relationships between fruit brightness and cuticle in tomato, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant collection in the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom for mutants with altered fruit brightness. Our screen resulted in the isolation of 16 glossy and 8 dull mutants displaying changes in the amount and/or composition of wax and cutin, cuticle thickness, and surface aspect of the fruit as characterized by optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The main conclusions on the relationships between fruit brightness and cuticle features were as follows: (1) screening for fruit brightness is an effective way to identify tomato cuticle mutants; (2) fruit brightness is independent from wax load variations; (3) glossy mutants show either reduced or increased cutin load; and (4) dull mutants display alterations in epidermal cell number and shape. Cuticle composition analyses further allowed the identification of groups of mutants displaying remarkable cuticle changes, such as mutants with increased dicarboxylic acids in cutin. Using genetic mapping of a strong cutin-deficient mutation, we discovered a novel hypomorphic allele of GDSL lipase carrying a splice junction mutation, thus highlighting the potential of tomato brightness mutants for advancing our understanding of cuticle formation in plants.

  12. Analyses of Tomato Fruit Brightness Mutants Uncover Both Cutin-Deficient and Cutin-Abundant Mutants and a New Hypomorphic Allele of GDSL Lipase[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Johann; Bres, Cécile; Just, Daniel; Garcia, Virginie; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Marion, Didier; Bakan, Bénédicte; Joubès, Jérôme; Domergue, Frédéric; Rothan, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The cuticle is a protective layer synthesized by epidermal cells of the plants and consisting of cutin covered and filled by waxes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the thick cuticle embedding epidermal cells has crucial roles in the control of pathogens, water loss, cracking, postharvest shelf-life, and brightness. To identify tomato mutants with modified cuticle composition and architecture and to further decipher the relationships between fruit brightness and cuticle in tomato, we screened an ethyl methanesulfonate mutant collection in the miniature tomato cultivar Micro-Tom for mutants with altered fruit brightness. Our screen resulted in the isolation of 16 glossy and 8 dull mutants displaying changes in the amount and/or composition of wax and cutin, cuticle thickness, and surface aspect of the fruit as characterized by optical and environmental scanning electron microscopy. The main conclusions on the relationships between fruit brightness and cuticle features were as follows: (1) screening for fruit brightness is an effective way to identify tomato cuticle mutants; (2) fruit brightness is independent from wax load variations; (3) glossy mutants show either reduced or increased cutin load; and (4) dull mutants display alterations in epidermal cell number and shape. Cuticle composition analyses further allowed the identification of groups of mutants displaying remarkable cuticle changes, such as mutants with increased dicarboxylic acids in cutin. Using genetic mapping of a strong cutin-deficient mutation, we discovered a novel hypomorphic allele of GDSL lipase carrying a splice junction mutation, thus highlighting the potential of tomato brightness mutants for advancing our understanding of cuticle formation in plants. PMID:24357602

  13. Arabidopsis genes essential for seedling viability: isolation of insertional mutants and molecular cloning.

    PubMed Central

    Budziszewski, G J; Lewis, S P; Glover, L W; Reineke, J; Jones, G; Ziemnik, L S; Lonowski, J; Nyfeler, B; Aux, G; Zhou, Q; McElver, J; Patton, D A; Martienssen, R; Grossniklaus, U; Ma, H; Law, M; Levin, J Z

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a large-scale genetic screen to identify genes with a seedling-lethal mutant phenotype. From screening approximately 38,000 insertional mutant lines, we identified >500 seedling-lethal mutants, completed cosegregation analysis of the insertion and the lethal phenotype for >200 mutants, molecularly characterized 54 mutants, and provided a detailed description for 22 of them. Most of the seedling-lethal mutants seem to affect chloroplast function because they display altered pigmentation and affect genes encoding proteins predicted to have chloroplast localization. Although a high level of functional redundancy in Arabidopsis might be expected because 65% of genes are members of gene families, we found that 41% of the essential genes found in this study are members of Arabidopsis gene families. In addition, we isolated several interesting classes of mutants and genes. We found three mutants in the recently discovered nonmevalonate isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway and mutants disrupting genes similar to Tic40 and tatC, which are likely to be involved in chloroplast protein translocation. Finally, we directly compared T-DNA and Ac/Ds transposon mutagenesis methods in Arabidopsis on a genome scale. In each population, we found only about one-third of the insertion mutations cosegregated with a mutant phenotype. PMID:11779813

  14. ALS-linked mutant SOD1 damages mitochondria by promoting conformational changes in Bcl-2

    PubMed Central

    Pedrini, Steve; Sau, Daniela; Guareschi, Stefania; Bogush, Marina; Brown, Robert H.; Naniche, Nicole; Kia, Azadeh; Trotti, Davide; Pasinelli, Piera

    2010-01-01

    In mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1)-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), accumulation of misfolded mutant SOD1 in spinal cord mitochondria is thought to cause mitochondrial dysfunction. Whether mutant SOD1 is toxic per se or whether it damages the mitochondria through interactions with other mitochondrial proteins is not known. We previously identified Bcl-2 as an interacting partner of mutant SOD1 specifically in spinal cord, but not in liver, mitochondria of SOD1 mice and patients. We now show that mutant SOD1 toxicity relies on this interaction. Mutant SOD1 induces mitochondrial morphological changes and compromises mitochondrial membrane integrity leading to release of Cytochrome C only in the presence of Bcl-2. In cells, mouse and human spinal cord with SOD1 mutations, the binding to mutant SOD1 triggers a conformational change in Bcl-2 that results in the uncovering of its toxic BH3 domain and conversion of Bcl-2 into a toxic protein. Bcl-2 carrying a mutagenized, non-toxic BH3 domain fails to support mutant SOD1 mitochondrial toxicity. The identification of Bcl-2 as a specific target and active partner in mutant SOD1 mitochondrial toxicity suggests new therapeutic strategies to inhibit the formation of the toxic mutant SOD1/Bcl-2 complex and to prevent mitochondrial damage in ALS. PMID:20460269

  15. Characterization of epitopes on the rabies virus glycoprotein by selection and analysis of escape mutants.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Firouzeh; Wandeler, Alexander I; Nadin-Davis, Susan A

    2016-07-15

    The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV). No escape mutants were generated from either of the bat-associated viral variants but two neutralization mutants were derived from the WSKV isolate. Seven independent ERA mutants were recovered using Mabs directed against antigenic sites I (four mutants) and IIIa (three mutants) of the glycoprotein. The cross-neutralization patterns of these viral mutants were used to determine the precise location and nature of the G protein epitopes recognized by these Mabs. Nucleotide sequencing of the G gene indicated that those mutants derived using Mabs directed to antigenic site (AS) III all contained amino acid substitutions in this site. However, of the four mutants selected with AS I Mabs, two bore mutations within AS I as expected while the remaining two carried mutations in AS II. WSKV mutants exhibited mutations at the sites appropriate for the Mabs used in their selection. All ERA mutant preparations were more cytopathogenic than the parental virus when propagated in cell culture; when in vivo pathogenicity in mice was examined, three of these mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity while the remaining four mutants exhibited comparable pathogenic properties to those of the parent virus. PMID:27132040

  16. Isolation and characterization of nonspreading mutants of the gliding bacterium Cytophaga johnsonae.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, L E; Pate, J L; Betzig, R J

    1984-01-01

    Three approaches were taken to isolate a total of 153 nonspreading mutants derived from our laboratory strain of Cytophaga johnsonae, UW101, or from its auxotrophic derivative, UW10538. Characterization of 109 of these mutants led to their placement in five general categories: (i) motile, nonspreading (MNS) mutants whose cells are motile to various degrees but whose colonies fail to spread on agar gels under any conditions of incubation; (ii) conditional nonspreading (CNS) mutants with motile cells whose colonies require more moisture to spread on agar gels than do those of wild-type cells; (iii) filamentous conditional motility (FCM) mutants whose cells grow as nonmotile filaments or as motile cells with wild-type morphology, depending on conditions of incubation; (iv) short, tumbling, nonspreading (STN) mutants with short cells that tumble constantly; and (v) truly nonmotile (TNM) mutants whose cells never move and whose colonies never spread under any conditions tested. All TNM mutants exhibited a remarkable pleiotropy not seen in the other four classes of mutants: all were resistant to 39 phages to which wild-type cells are sensitive, and all were unable to digest chitin, which is digested by wild-type cells. The correlation between ability to move and phage sensitivity was strengthened further by showing that 150 additional TNM mutants derived from UW101 and 43 TNM mutants derived from 29 independent isolates of C. johnsonae were resistant to all phages to which their parents were sensitive. Furthermore, motile revertants of TNM mutants became phage sensitive, and temperature-sensitive mutants were motile and phage sensitive at 25 degrees C and nonmotile and phage resistant at 32 degrees C. Evidence supports the conclusion that any mutation rendering cells truly nonmotile invariably alters cell surface-associated properties such as phage sensitivity and chitin digestion merely as a consequence of changing a moving cell surface to a static surface. Images PMID

  17. A novel mutant p53 binding partner BAG5 stabilizes mutant p53 and promotes mutant p53 GOFs in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Xuetian; Zhao, Yuhan; Huang, Grace; Li, Jun; Zhu, Junlan; Feng, Zhaohui; Hu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human tumors. Many tumor-associated mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins gain new tumor-promoting activities, including increased proliferation, metastasis and chemoresistance of tumor cells, which are defined as gain-of-functions (GOFs). Mutp53 proteins often accumulate at high levels in human tumors, which is important for mutp53 to exert their GOFs. The mechanism underlying mutp53 proteins accumulation in tumors is not fully understood. Here, we report that BAG5, a member of Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG) family proteins, promotes mutp53 accumulation in tumors, which in turn enhances mutp53 GOFs. Mechanistically, BAG5 interacts with mutp53 proteins to protect mutp53 from ubiquitination and degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligases MDM2 and CHIP, which in turn promotes mutp53 protein accumulation and therefore GOFs in promoting cell proliferation, tumor growth, cell migration and chemoresistance. BAG5 is frequently overexpressed in many human tumors and the overexpression of BAG5 is associated with poor prognosis of cancer patients. Altogether, this study revealed that inhibition of mutp53 degradation by BAG5 is a novel and critical mechanism underlying mutp53 protein accumulation and GOFs in cancer. Furthermore, our results also uncovered that promoting mutp53 accumulation and GOFs is a novel mechanism of BAG5 in tumorigenesis. PMID:27807478

  18. Plaque color method for rapid isolation of novel recA mutants of Escherichia coli K-12: new classes of protease-constitutive recA mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Tessman, E S; Peterson, P

    1985-01-01

    As a prerequisite to mutational analysis of functional sites on the RecA protein of Escherichia coli, a method was developed for rapid isolation of recA mutants with altered RecA protease function. The method involves plating mutagenized lambda recA+ cI ind on strains deleted for recA and containing, as indicators of RecA protease activity, Mu d(Ap lac) fusions in RecA-inducible genes. The lambda recA phages were recognized by their altered plaque colors, and the RecA protease activity of the lambda recA mutant lysogens was measured by expression of beta-galactosidase from dinD::lac. One class of recA mutants had constitutive protease activity and was designated Prtc; in these cells the RecA protein was always in the protease form without the usual need for DNA damage to activate it. Some Prtc mutants were recombinase negative and were designated Prtc Rec-. Another class of 65 recA mutants isolated as being protease defective were all also recombinase defective. Unlike the original temperature-dependent Prtc Rec+ mutant (recA441), the new Prtc Rec+ mutants showed constitutive protease activity at any growth temperature, with some having considerably greater activity than the recA441 strain. Study of these strong Prtc Rec+ mutants revealed a new SOS phenomenon, increased permeability to drugs. Use of this new SOS phenomenon as an index of protease strength clearly distinguished 5 Prtc mutants as the strongest among 150. These five strongest Prtc mutants showed the greatest increase in spontaneous mutation frequency and were not inhibited by cytidine plus guanosine, which inhibited the constitutive protease activity of the recA441 strain and of all the other new Prtc mutants. Strong Prtc Rec+ mutants were more UV resistant than recA+ strains and showed indications of having RecA proteins whose specific activity of recombinase function was higher than that of wild-type RecA. A Prt+ Rec- mutant with an anomalous response to effectors is described. PMID:3160686

  19. Genetic Interactions between the Chlorate-Resistant Mutant cr 8 8 and the Photomorphogenic Mutants cop1 and hy5

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dongsun; Lin, Yun; Cheng, Chi-Lien

    2000-01-01

    The chlorate-resistant mutant cr88 is defective in photomorphogenesis, as shown by the phenotypes of long hypocotyls in red light and yellow cotyledons under all light conditions. A subset of light-regulated genes is expressed at subnormal levels in cr88. To analyze further the role that CR88 plays in photomorphogenesis, we investigated the genetic interactions between cr88 and mutants of two other loci affecting photomorphogenesis, CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). COP1 represses the expression of light-regulated genes in the dark, and HY5 inhibits hypocotyl elongation in the light. Using morphological, cellular, and gene expression criteria for epistasis analyses to position CR88 in the genetic hierarchy of the photomorphogenesis pathway, we determined that CR88 acts downstream of COP1 but in a branch separate from HY5. In the course of our analysis, we discovered that light causes extensive destruction of plastids in dark-grown cop1 seedlings and that cr88 prevents this destruction. PMID:10662857

  20. Selection and characterization of L-ethionine resistant mutants of Trichosporon cutaneum.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Nelly; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2005-01-01

    Trichosporon cutaneum R57 and its L-ethionine resistant mutant NZ94 strain were investigated. The amino acid analyses of cell content of both strains were carried out. The pool of free methionine in the mutant strain is enhanced 16.5 times. The total amount of sulphur-containing amino acids in the mutant cells was significantly increased from 36.8 in the wild strain to 113.4 mg/g protein in the mutant strain. In the process of mutant strain cultivation there was found a high excretion of free methionine (259 microg/ml) in the medium. It was shown that the amino acid content of both wild and mutant strains would be helpful for formulating of new improved animal nutritional diets.

  1. [LIGHT-DEPENDENT SYNTHESIS OF CELL MEMBRANES IN THE Brc-1 MUTANT OF CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII].

    PubMed

    Semenova, G A; Chekunova, E M; Ladygin, V G

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of cells of the Brc-1 mutant of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown in the light and in the dark has been studied. The Brc-1 mutant contains the brc-1 mutation in the nucleus gene LTS3. In the light, all membrane structures in mutant cells form normally and are well developed. In the dark under heterotrophic conditions, the mutant cells grew and divided well, however, all its cell membranes: plasmalemma, tonoplast, mitochondrial membranes, membranes of the nucleus shell and chloroplast, thylakoids, and the membranes of dictiosomes of the Golgi apparatus were not detected. In the dark under heterotrophic conditions, mutant cells well grow and divide. It were shown that a short-term (1-10 min) exposure of Brc-1 mutant cells to light leads to the restoration of all above-mentioned membrane structures. Possible reasons for the alterations of membrane structures are discussed.

  2. Cloning, preparation and preliminary crystallographic studies of penicillin V acylase autoproteolytic processing mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P. Manish; Brannigan, James A.; Prabhune, Asmita; Pundle, Archana; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Dodson, G. Guy; Suresh, C. G.

    2005-01-01

    The production, crystallization and characterization of three inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase from B. sphaericus in their respective precursor and processed forms are reported. The space groups are different for the native enzyme and the mutants. The crystallization of three catalytically inactive mutants of penicillin V acylase (PVA) from Bacillus sphaericus in precursor and processed forms is reported. The mutant proteins crystallize in different primitive monoclinic space groups that are distinct from the crystal forms for the native enzyme. Directed mutants and clone constructs were designed to study the post-translational autoproteolytic processing of PVA. The catalytically inactive mutants will provide three-dimensional structures of precursor PVA forms, plus open a route to the study of enzyme–substrate complexes for this industrially important enzyme.

  3. [LIGHT-DEPENDENT SYNTHESIS OF CELL MEMBRANES IN THE Brc-1 MUTANT OF CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII].

    PubMed

    Semenova, G A; Chekunova, E M; Ladygin, V G

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of cells of the Brc-1 mutant of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown in the light and in the dark has been studied. The Brc-1 mutant contains the brc-1 mutation in the nucleus gene LTS3. In the light, all membrane structures in mutant cells form normally and are well developed. In the dark under heterotrophic conditions, the mutant cells grew and divided well, however, all its cell membranes: plasmalemma, tonoplast, mitochondrial membranes, membranes of the nucleus shell and chloroplast, thylakoids, and the membranes of dictiosomes of the Golgi apparatus were not detected. In the dark under heterotrophic conditions, mutant cells well grow and divide. It were shown that a short-term (1-10 min) exposure of Brc-1 mutant cells to light leads to the restoration of all above-mentioned membrane structures. Possible reasons for the alterations of membrane structures are discussed. PMID:26281212

  4. C. elegans and mutants with chronic nicotine exposure as a novel model of cancer phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kanteti, Rajani; Dhanasingh, Immanuel; El-Hashani, Essam; Riehm, Jacob J; Stricker, Thomas; Nagy, Stanislav; Zaborin, Alexander; Zaborina, Olga; Biron, David; Alverdy, John C; Im, Hae Kyung; Siddiqui, Shahid; Padilla, Pamela A; Salgia, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We previously investigated MET and its oncogenic mutants relevant to lung cancer in C. elegans. The inactive orthlogues of the receptor tyrosine kinase Eph and MET, namely vab-1 and RB2088 respectively, the temperature sensitive constitutively active form of KRAS, SD551 (let-60; GA89) and the inactive c-CBL equivalent mutants in sli-1 (PS2728, PS1258, and MT13032) when subjected to chronic exposure of nicotine resulted in a significant loss in egg-laying capacity and fertility. While the vab-1 mutant revealed increased circular motion in response to nicotine, the other mutant strains failed to show any effect. Overall locomotion speed increased with increasing nicotine concentration in all tested mutant strains except in the vab-1 mutants. Moreover, chronic nicotine exposure, in general, upregulated kinases and phosphatases. Taken together, these studies provide evidence in support of C. elegans as initial in vivo model to study nicotine and its effects on oncogenic mutations identified in humans.

  5. Isolation of pigmentation mutants of the green filamentous photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus.

    PubMed

    Pierson, B K; Keith, L M; Leovy, J G

    1984-07-01

    Mutants deficient in the production of bacteriochlorophyll c (Bchl c) and one mutant lacking colored carotenoids were isolated from the filamentous gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus. Mutagenesis was achieved by using UV radiation or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Several clones were isolated that were deficient in Bchl c synthesis. All reverted. One double mutant deficient both in Bchl c synthesis and in the synthesis of colored carotenoids under anaerobic conditions was isolated. Isolation of a revertant in Bchl c synthesis from this double mutant produced a mutant strain of Chloroflexus that grew photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions and lacked colored carotenoids. Analysis of pigment contents and growth rates of the mutants revealed a positive association between growth rate and content of Bchl c under light-limiting conditions.

  6. Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Min; Bernat, Gabor; Singh, Abhay K.; Mi, Hualing; Rogner, Matthias; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Ogawa, Teruo

    2008-09-10

    A mutant ( 5) of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 constructed by inactivating five inorganic carbon sequestration systems did not take up CO2 or HCO3– and was unable to grow in air with or without glucose. The 4 mutant in which BicA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3– uptake and grew under these conditions but more slowly than the wild-type strain. The 5 mutant required 1.7% CO2 to attain half the maximal growth rate. Electron transport activity of the mutants was strongly inhibited under high light intensities, with the 5 mutant more susceptible to high light than the 4 mutant. The results implicated the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy.

  7. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid resistant mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with increased salt tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Murphy, M.A.; Khan, R.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Nineteen mutant Arabidopsis families resistant to the proline analog azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (ACA) were characterized in terms of NaCl tolerance and proline content. Mutants were selected from about 64,000 progeny of about 16,000 self-pollinated Columbia parents which had been mutated with ethyl methane sulfonate during seed imbibition. Selections were performed during seed germination on aseptic agar medium containing 0.2 to 0.25 mM ACA. Nineteen mutant families, 12 clearly independent, retained resistance to ACA in the M{sub 4} generation. Based on germination on 150 mM NaCl, 13 of the mutant families were more tolerant than the wild type. Two mutants of intermediate resistance to ACA were markedly more salt tolerant than the others. Four mutant families appeared to overproduce proline. Of these, only 3 showed slight increases in salt tolerance.

  8. Selective targeting of KRAS-Mutant cells by miR-126 through repression of multiple genes essential for the survival of KRAS-Mutant cells

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Toshifumi; Jones, Matthew F.; Subramanian, Murugan; Li, Xiao Ling; Ou, Oliver; Zhu, Yuelin; Yang, Yuan; Wakefield, Lalage M.; Hussain, S. Perwez; Gaedcke, Jochen; Ried, Thomas; Luo, Ji; Caplen, Natasha J.; Lal, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of hundreds of genes. However, identifying the critical targets within a miRNA-regulated gene network is challenging. One approach is to identify miRNAs that exert a context-dependent effect, followed by expression profiling to determine how specific targets contribute to this selective effect. In this study, we performed miRNA mimic screens in isogenic KRAS-Wild-type (WT) and KRAS-Mutant colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to identify miRNAs selectively targeting KRAS-Mutant cells. One of the miRNAs we identified as a selective inhibitor of the survival of multiple KRAS-Mutant CRC lines was miR-126. In KRAS-Mutant cells, miR-126 over-expression increased the G1 compartment, inhibited clonogenicity and tumorigenicity, while exerting no effect on KRAS-WT cells. Unexpectedly, the miR-126-regulated transcriptome of KRAS-WT and KRAS-Mutant cells showed no significant differences. However, by analyzing the overlap between miR-126 targets with the synthetic lethal genes identified by RNAi in KRAS-Mutant cells, we identified and validated a subset of miR-126-regulated genes selectively required for the survival and clonogenicity of KRAS-Mutant cells. Our strategy therefore identified critical target genes within the miR-126-regulated gene network. We propose that the selective effect of miR-126 on KRAS-Mutant cells could be utilized for the development of targeted therapy for KRAS mutant tumors. PMID:25245095

  9. Antiphase Synchronization in a Flagellar-Dominance Mutant of Chlamydomonas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptos, Kyriacos C.; Wan, Kirsty Y.; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan; Pesci, Adriana I.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2013-10-01

    Groups of beating flagella or cilia often synchronize so that neighboring filaments have identical frequencies and phases. A prime example is provided by the unicellular biflagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which typically displays synchronous in-phase beating in a low-Reynolds number version of breaststroke swimming. We report the discovery that ptx1, a flagellar-dominance mutant of C. reinhardtii, can exhibit synchronization in precise antiphase, as in the freestyle swimming stroke. High-speed imaging shows that ptx1 flagella switch stochastically between in-phase and antiphase states, and that the latter has a distinct waveform and significantly higher frequency, both of which are strikingly similar to those found during phase slips that stochastically interrupt in-phase beating of the wild-type. Possible mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed.

  10. Kinetic stability of designed glycosylation mutants of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Tams, J W; Welinder, K G

    2001-08-31

    The effect of glycans and surface mutations on protein unfolding induced by heat or urea has been studied. Removal of the only native high mannose type glycan in the N142P, N142T, and N142D CIP mutants reduced the lifetime to half of that of wtCIP at irreversible conditions of unfolding. The effect was moderate at reversible conditions. Five glycomutants designed to have 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6N glycans showed a correlation between increased carbohydrate mass and increased stability toward irreversible unfolding. The results are in agreement with a dampening effect of glycans on backbone fluctuation in both the native and the unfolded states. However, experiments in reversible conditions were less clear because of additional effects of an increasing number of amino acid substitutions and aggregation. Examples of strong effects from minor surface changes were also observed.

  11. pH-Responsive Pharmacological Chaperones for Rescuing Mutant Glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Mena-Barragán, Teresa; Narita, Aya; Matias, Dino; Tiscornia, Gustavo; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Higaki, Katsumi; Garcia Fernández, José Manuel; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen

    2015-09-28

    A general approach is reported for the design of small-molecule competitive inhibitors of lysosomal glycosidases programmed to 1) promote correct folding of mutant enzymes at the endoplasmic reticulum, 2) facilitate trafficking, and 3) undergo dissociation and self-inactivation at the lysosome. The strategy is based on the incorporation of an orthoester segment into iminosugar conjugates to switch the nature of the aglycone moiety from hydrophobic to hydrophilic in the pH 7 to pH 5 window, which has a dramatic effect on the enzyme binding affinity. As a proof of concept, new highly pH-responsive glycomimetics targeting human glucocerebrosidase or α-galactosidase with strong potential as pharmacological chaperones for Gaucher or Fabry disease, respectively, were developed. PMID:26386364

  12. Antiphase synchronization in a flagellar-dominance mutant of Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Leptos, Kyriacos C; Wan, Kirsty Y; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan; Pesci, Adriana I; Goldstein, Raymond E

    2013-10-11

    Groups of beating flagella or cilia often synchronize so that neighboring filaments have identical frequencies and phases. A prime example is provided by the unicellular biflagellate Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which typically displays synchronous in-phase beating in a low-Reynolds number version of breaststroke swimming. We report the discovery that ptx1, a flagellar-dominance mutant of C. reinhardtii, can exhibit synchronization in precise antiphase, as in the freestyle swimming stroke. High-speed imaging shows that ptx1 flagella switch stochastically between in-phase and antiphase states, and that the latter has a distinct waveform and significantly higher frequency, both of which are strikingly similar to those found during phase slips that stochastically interrupt in-phase beating of the wild-type. Possible mechanisms underlying these observations are discussed.

  13. Management of a patient with advanced BRAF-mutant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Michelle T; Daud, Adil

    2014-03-01

    A 49-year-old man initially diagnosed in 1995 with cutaneous melanoma presented to the authors' institution in 2009 with metastatic, BRAF V600E-mutant melanoma. His treatment course to date has included surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy, and interferon, metastasectomies, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factors, a clinical trial with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX-4032), clinical trial with combination BRAF plus MEK inhibition with vemurafenib plus GDC-0973, and combination targeted and immune therapy with vemurafenib plus the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab. This case report illustrates the long-term management of a patient with metastatic melanoma using targeted and immune therapy, evolution in treatment guidelines, next directions in research, and the critical role of clinical trials in advancement of patient care.

  14. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in brassica.

    PubMed

    Rood, S B; Williams, P H; Pearce, D; Murofushi, N; Mander, L N; Pharis, R P

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode [ein/ein]) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A(3) (GA(3)) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA(1) and GA(3) were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using [(2)H]GA(1), as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA(20) and GA(1), and the rate of GA(19) metabolism were simultaneously analyzed at day 7 by feeding [(2)H(2)]GA(19) and measuring metabolites [(2)H(2)]GA(20) and [(2)H(2)]GA(1) and endogenous GA(20) and GA(1), with [(2)H(5)]GA(20) and [(2)H(5)]GA(1) as quantitative internal standards. Levels of GA(1) and GA(20) were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA(20) and GA(1) were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA(1) biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of [(3)H]GA(20) to [(3)H]GA(1) was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA(1) biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A(1) and A(3). The enhanced GA production probably underlies the accelerated shoot growth and development, and particularly, the increased shoot elongation.

  15. Enhanced tumor radiosensitivity by a survivin dominant-negative mutant.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Chun-Ting; Mao, Yong-Qiu; Zhang, Peng; Shi, Hua-Shan; Li, Zhi-Yong; Pan, Li; Yu, Dan-Dan; Leng, Fei; Chen, Xiang; Ying, Wei; Xu, Jing-Hui; Li, Wei; Wu, Fan; Wen, Yuan; Ma, Tian-Tai; Wei, Yu-Quan

    2010-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of tumors is due to a complex interaction of various factors, it has been reported that survivin also acts as a constitutive and inducible radioresistance factor in a panel of tumor cells and approaches designed to inhibit survivin expression or function may lead to tumor sensitisation to chemical and physical agents. Previously, we found that the plasmid encoding the phosphorylation-defective mouse survivin threonine 34-->alanine mutant complexed to DOTAP-chol liposome (Lip-mS) can suppress murine primary breast carcinoma. However, little is known regarding the biological effect of Lip-mS combined with radiation. The present study was designed to determine whether Lip-mS could enhance the anti-tumor activity of radiation. The Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cells treated with a combination of Lip-mS and radiation displayed apparently increased apoptosis compared with those treated with Lip-mS or radiation alone. Mice bearing LLC tumors were treated with intravenous injections of Lip-mS and radiation, the combined treatment significantly reduced mean tumor volume compared with either treatment alone. Moreover, the anti-tumor effect of Lip-mS combined with radiation was greater than their additive effect when compared with the expected effect of the combined treatment. These data suggest that inhibition of survivin using a dominant-negative mutant, survivin T34A, could sensitize LLC cells to radiation efficiently and the synergistic anti-tumor activity may in part result from increasing the apoptosis of tumor cells, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis and inducing a tumor-protective immune response in the combined treatment. PMID:19956869

  16. [Peculiarities of morphogenetical development of erwiniophage ZF40 virulent mutants ].

    PubMed

    Korol', N A; Romaniuk, L V; Ostapchuk, A N; Ivanitsa, T V; Kushkina, A I; Tovkach, F I

    2011-01-01

    The distortion of morphopoiesis or tail attachment to the capsid is a characteristic feature of morphogenetical development not only of a reproductive infection but also of the lysogenic induction of the defective bacteriophage Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc). A model system for studying morphogenetical development and assembling of the virion was created on the basis of the phage ZF40 and its two virulent mutants ZF40-421 and ZF40(5/5), as well as the indicator culture Ecc M2-4/50 R1 being nontraditional host for these phages. It has helped to establish that the diameter of the phage capsid is not a conservative value. The presence of capsids of two types with the average diameters 60.3 and 65.0 nm is characteristic of the virmutant ZF40c(5/5)/50RI, while in the course of morphogenesis the phage ZF40-421/50RI forms only one type of heads of 65 nm in size. These heads are probably not firmly connected to the tails since the degree of the secondary destruction of the virions of the phage Zf40-421/50RI is considerably higher, than that of the virions of the phage ZF40c(5/5)/50RI. The number of capsids being 60.3 nm in diameter prevails considerably in the latter. The both virulent mutants as a whole are essentially more stable than their isogenic partners obtained on Ecc RC5297 which helps to make a conclusion about considerable influence of specific bacterial proteins of the host-cell on morphogenesis and morphopoiesis. PMID:21598661

  17. A mutant gene that increases gibberellin production in Brassica

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, S.B. ); Williams, P.H. ); Pearce, D.; Pharis, R.P. ); Murofushi, Noboru ); Mander, L.N. )

    1990-07-01

    A single gene mutant (elongated internode (ein/ein)) with accelerated shoot elongation was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa. Relative to normal plants, mutant plants had slightly accelerated floral development, greater stem dry weights, and particularly, increased internode and inflorescence elongation. The application of the triazole plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, inhibited shoot elongation, returning ein to a more normal phenotype. Conversely, exogenous gibberellin A{sub 3} (GA{sub 3}) can convert normal genotypes to a phenotype resembling ein. The content of endogenous GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 3} were estimated by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring using ({sup 2}H)GA{sub 1} as a quantitative internal standard and at day 14 were 1.5- and 12.1-fold higher per stem, respectively, in ein than in normal plants, although GA concentrations were more similar. The endogenous levels of GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1}, and the rate of GA{sub 19} metabolism were simultaneously analyzed. Levels of GA{sub 1} and GA{sub 20} were 4.6- and 12.9-fold higher, respectively, and conversions to GA{sub 20} and GA{sub 1} were 8.3 and 1.3 times faster in ein than normal plants. Confirming the enhanced rate of GA{sub 1} biosynthesis in ein, the conversion of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} to ({sup 3}H) GA{sub 1} was also faster in ein than in the normal genotype. Thus, the ein allele results in accelerated GA{sub 1} biosynthesis and an elevated content of endogenous GAs, including the dihydroxylated GAs A{sub 1} and A{sub 3}.

  18. Glycine receptor mouse mutants: model systems for human hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Langlhofer, Georg; Kluck, Christoph J; Villmann, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Human hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder caused by disturbances in inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. Mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptor subunits or associated proteins, such as GLRA1, GLRB, GPHN and ARHGEF9, have been detected in patients suffering from hyperekplexia. Classical symptoms are exaggerated startle attacks upon unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli, massive tremor, loss of postural control during startle and apnoea. Usually patients are treated with clonazepam, this helps to dampen the severe symptoms most probably by up-regulating GABAergic responses. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similar neuromotor phenotypes have been observed in mouse models that carry glycine receptor mutations. These mouse models serve as excellent tools for analysing the underlying pathomechanisms. Yet, studies in mutant mice looking for postsynaptic compensation of glycinergic dysfunction via an up-regulation in GABAA receptor numbers have failed, as expression levels were similar to those in wild-type mice. However, presynaptic adaptation mechanisms with an unusual switch from mixed GABA/glycinergic to GABAergic presynaptic terminals have been observed. Whether this presynaptic adaptation explains the improvement in symptoms or other compensation mechanisms exist is still under investigation. With the help of spontaneous glycine receptor mouse mutants, knock-in and knock-out studies, it is possible to associate behavioural changes with pharmacological differences in glycinergic inhibition. This review focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of the various mouse models used to elucidate the underlying signal transduction pathways and adaptation processes and describes a novel route that uses gene-therapeutic modulation of mutated receptors to overcome loss of function mutations. PMID:23941355

  19. Carbon and energy metabolism of atp mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P R; Michelsen, O

    1992-12-01

    The membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase plays a key role in free-energy transduction of biological systems. We report how the carbon and energy metabolism of Escherichia coli changes in response to deletion of the atp operon that encodes this enzyme. Compared with the isogenic wild-type strain, the growth rate and growth yield were decreased less than expected for a shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis alone as a source of ATP. Moreover, the respiration rate of a atp deletion strain was increased by 40% compared with the wild-type strain. This result is surprising, since the atp deletion strain is not able to utilize the resulting proton motive force for ATP synthesis. Indeed, the ratio of ATP concentration to ADP concentration was decreased from 19 in the wild type to 7 in the atp mutant, and the membrane potential of the atp deletion strain was increased by 20%, confirming that the respiration rate was not controlled by the magnitude of the opposing membrane potential. The level of type b cytochromes in the mutant cells was 80% higher than the level in the wild-type cells, suggesting that the increased respiration was caused by an increase in the expression of the respiratory genes. The atp deletion strain produced twice as much by-product (acetate) and exhibited increased flow through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glycolytic pathway. These three changes all lead to an increase in substrate level phosphorylation; the first two changes also lead to increased production of reducing equivalents. We interpret these data as indicating that E. coli makes use of its ability to respire even if it cannot directly couple this ability to ATP synthesis; by respiring away excess reducing equivalents E. coli enhances substrate level ATP synthesis.

  20. Mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} identified in MODY3 and MODY5 downregulate DPP-IV gene expression in Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Ning; Adachi, Tetsuya; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Takeda, Jun; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Ishihara, Akihiko; Yasuda, Koichiro; Tsuda, Kinsuke . E-mail: jinkan@tom.life.h.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-04

    Dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a well-documented drug target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF)-1{alpha} and HNF-1{beta}, known as the causal genes of MODY3 and MODY5, respectively, have been reported to be involved in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression. But, it is not completely clear (i) that they play roles in regulation of DPP-IV gene expression, and (ii) whether DPP-IV gene activity is changed by mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} in MODY3 and MODY5. To explore these questions, we investigated transactivation effects of wild HNF-1{alpha} and 13 mutant HNF-1{alpha}, as well as wild HNF-1{beta} and 2 mutant HNF-1{beta}, on DPP-IV promoter luciferase gene in Caco-2 cells by means of a transient experiment. Both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} significantly transactivated DPP-IV promoter, but mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} exhibited low transactivation activity. Moreover, to study whether mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} change endogenous DPP-IV enzyme activity, we produced four stable cell lines from Caco-2 cells, in which wild HNF-1{alpha} or wild HNF-1{beta}, or else respective dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC or dominant-negative mutant HNF-1{beta}R177X, was stably expressed. We found that DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly increased in wild HNF-1{alpha} cells and wild HNF-1{beta} cells, whereas they decreased in HNF-1{alpha}T539fsdelC cells and HNF-1{beta}R177X cells, compared with DPP-IV gene expression and enzyme activity in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that both wild HNF-1{alpha} and wild HNF-1{beta} have a stimulatory effect on DPP-IV gene expression, but that mutant HNF-1{alpha} and mutant HNF-1{beta} attenuate the stimulatory effect.

  1. Characterization of a spontaneous, pressure-tolerant Listeria monocytogenes Scott A ctsR deletion mutant.

    PubMed

    Joerger, Rolf D; Chen, Haiqiang; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2006-01-01

    A spontaneous, pressure-tolerant mutant of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, designated 2-1, was isolated after several rounds of pressure treatments at 500 MPa for 10 min. Mutant 2-1 was almost 100,000-fold more resistant than the wild type to a pressure of 350 MPa, and about 100-fold more resistant to 450 MPa when pressurized in growth medium. Approximately ten times more mutant cells than wild-type cells survived a 20-min exposure to 55 degrees C, and the mutant appears also to be more resistant to 0.2% H(2)O(2), although the difference could not be confirmed statistically. About 10 times more wild-type than mutant cells survived exposure to growth medium adjusted to pH 2.5 with HCl. The mutant is about 16-fold more sensitive to nisin than the wild type. Mutant 2-1 is non-motile, produces hemolytic activity, is able to grow in fetal calf serum as well as the wild type, and exhibits a lower level of invasiveness of human ileocecal adenocarcinoma cells than the wild type. The mutation in strain 2-1 is a deletion in the ctsR gene that results in the predicted production of truncated CtsR of 20 amino acids compared to a CtsR of 152 amino acids in the wild type. With the exception of its response to pH and possibly also to H(2)O(2), mutant 2-1 shares most of the phenotypes of the previously described ctsR mutant, AK01. The isolation of another spontaneous, pressure-resistant ctsR mutant confirms the central role of this regulatory gene in pressure tolerance of L. monocytogenes. Although such mutants appear of lesser concern to human health then the wild type, current detection methods for Listeria monocytogenes are not able to distinguish between these mutants and wildtype cells. PMID:16761946

  2. Separation of prodigiosenes and identification as prodigiosin syntrophic pigment from mutant pairs of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Hearn, W R; Williams, R H; Burgus, R C; Williams, R P

    1972-10-01

    Countercurrent distribution is capable of resolving mixtures of closely related prodigiosene pigments. Syntrophic pigment produced by several pairs of Serratia marcescens color mutants was identified as prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-amyl-6-methoxyprodigiosene) by countercurrent distribution, soda lime pyrolysis, and other techniques. The metabolic block of mutant strain H-462, derived from parent strain HY, was located between the blocks of mutant strains OF and WF, both derived from parent strain Nima.

  3. Molecular-Genetic Mapping of Zebrafish Mutants with Variable Phenotypic Penetrance

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Lauren A.; Burgess, Harold A.; Granato, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Forward genetic screens in vertebrates are powerful tools to generate models relevant to human diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Variability in phenotypic penetrance and expressivity is common in these disorders and behavioral mutant models, making their molecular-genetic mapping a formidable task. Using a ‘phenotyping by segregation’ strategy, we molecularly map the hypersensitive zebrafish houdini mutant despite its variable phenotypic penetrance, providing a generally applicable strategy to map zebrafish mutants with subtle phenotypes. PMID:22039502

  4. Molecular and biochemical characterization of xrs mutants defective in Ku80.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, B K; Priestley, A; Steingrimsdottir, H; Gell, D; Blunt, T; Jackson, S P; Lehmann, A R; Jeggo, P A

    1997-01-01

    The gene product defective in radiosensitive CHO mutants belonging to ionizing radiation complementation group 5, which includes the extensively studied xrs mutants, has recently been identified as Ku80, a subunit of the Ku protein and a component of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Several group 5 mutants, including xrs-5 and -6, lack double-stranded DNA end-binding and DNA-PK activities. In this study, we examined additional xrs mutants at the molecular and biochemical levels. All mutants examined have low or undetectable levels of Ku70 and Ku80 protein, end-binding, and DNA-PK activities. Only one mutant, xrs-6, has Ku80 transcript levels detectable by Northern hybridization, but Ku80 mRNA was detectable by reverse transcription-PCR in most other mutants. Two mutants, xrs-4 and -6, have altered Ku80 transcripts resulting from mutational changes in the genomic Ku80 sequence affecting RNA splicing, indicating that the defects in these mutants lie in the Ku80 gene rather than a gene controlling its expression. Neither of these two mutants has detectable wild-type Ku80 transcript. Since the mutation in both xrs-4 and xrs-6 cells results in severely truncated Ku80 protein, both are likely candidates to be null mutants. Azacytidine-induced revertants of xrs-4 and -6 carried both wild-type and mutant transcripts. The results with these revertants strongly support our model proposed earlier, that CHO-K1 cells carry a copy of the Ku80 gene (XRCC5) silenced by hypermethylation. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that previously proposed ATP-binding and phosphorylation sites are not required for Ku80 activity, whereas N-terminal deletions of more than the first seven amino acids result in severe loss of activities. PMID:9032253

  5. Isolation of pigmented and nonpigmented mutants of Serratia marcescens with reduced cell surface hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.

    1984-10-01

    Enrichment for nonhydrophobic mutants of Serratia marcescens yielded two types: (i) a nonpigmented mutant which exhibited partial hydrophobic characteristics compared with the wild type, as determined by adherence to hexadecane and polystyrene; and (ii) a pigmented, nonhydrophobic mutant whose colonies were translucent with respect to those of the wild type. The data suggest that the pronounced cell surface hydrophobicity of the wild type is mediated by a combination of several surface f

  6. Germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa that responds to siderophores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlang, G.; Williams, N. P.

    1977-01-01

    A conditionally germination-defective mutant of Neurospora crassa has been found to be partially curable by ferricrocin and other siderophores. The mutant conidia rapidly lose their membrane-bound siderophores when suspended in buffer or growth media. Germination is consequently delayed unless large numbers of conidia are present (positive population effect). This indicates that the mutant has a membrane defect involving the siderophore attachment site.

  7. Automated screening for mutants affecting dopaminergic-neuron specification in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Doitsidou, Maria; Flames, Nuria; Lee, Albert C; Boyanov, Alexander; Hobert, Oliver

    2008-10-01

    We describe an automated method to isolate mutant Caenorhabditis elegans that do not appropriately execute cellular differentiation programs. We used a fluorescence-activated sorting mechanism implemented in the COPAS Biosort machine to isolate mutants with subtle alterations in the cellular specificity of GFP expression. This methodology is considerably more efficient than comparable manual screens and enabled us to isolate mutants in which dopamine neurons do not differentiate appropriately. PMID:18758453

  8. Proton suicide: general method for direct selection of sugar transport- and fermentation-defective mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelman, J.W.; Clark, D.P.

    1984-11-01

    A positive selection procedure was devised for bacterial mutants incapable of producing acid from sugars by fermentation. The method relied on the production of elemental bromine from a mixture of bromide and bromate under acidic conditions. When wild-type Escherichia coli cells were plated on media containing a fermentable sugar and an equimolar mixture of bromide and bromate, most of the cells were killed but a variety of mutants unable to produce acid from the sugar survived. Among these mutants were those defective in (i) sugar uptake, (ii) the glycolytic pathway, and (iii) the excretion. There were also novel mutants with some presumed regulatory defects affecting fermentation.

  9. Construction and pilot screening of a signature-tagged mutant library of Sinorhizobium fredii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yuan Chun; Wu, Li Juan; Liu, Jian Xin; Zhang, Pan; Jiao, Jian; Yan, Hui; Liu, Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2016-03-01

    Sinorhizobium fredii is well known for its ability to establish symbiosis with diverse legumes such as Glycine max (soybean, determinate nodules) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea, indeterminate nodules). In order to make screening of S. fredii genes related to symbiosis cost-effective, we constructed a large Tn5 insertion mutant library of S. fredii CCBAU45436 using the signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) technique. This STM library contains a total of 25,500 independent mutants distributed in 17 sublibraries tagged by corresponding distinct DNA bar-code sequences. After the pilot screening of 255 mutants in 15 batches, Tag85-4, Tag4-17, Tag4-11 and Tag10-13 were found to have attenuated competitiveness (0-30 % in nodule occupation) compared to the wild-type strain when inoculated on soybean. Further characterization of these mutants suggests that Tag4-11 (a pyrC mutant) and Tag10-13 (a nrdJ mutant) are defective in establishing symbiosis with soybean. The pyrC mutant induced uninfected pseudonodules while the nrdJ mutant formed significantly more nodules containing bacteroids with poor persistence ability. When these two mutants were tested on pigeon pea, host-specific symbiotic defects were found. These results demonstrated the STM library as a valuable resource for identifying S. fredii genes relevant to symbiosis. PMID:26472206

  10. Surface structure of the compound eye of various Drosophila species and eye mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Stumm-Tegethoff, B F; Dicke, A W

    1974-01-01

    The surface structure of the compound eyes of 6 Drosophila species and 12 eye mutants of D. melanogaster were compared by scanning electron microscopy. D. melanogaster, D. simulans, D. hydei, D. funebris and D. virilis displayed hexagonal facets and differed only slightly in the distribution of bristles. D. lebanonensis displayed tetragonal facets.No obvious differences in surface structure of the eyes of colour mutants of D. melanogaster were found. Mutants with structural modifications of the eyes revealed irregular patterns of bristles, variations in bristle number and variations in facet shape, size and organization. The mutant spa(pol) does not display clear-cut delineated facets.

  11. Membrane function in lipid mutants of Arabidopsis. First year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Browse, J.A.

    1993-06-01

    Progress on the biochemical characterization of the fad3 mutants deficient in 18:3 fatty acid synthesis and the fab2 mutant that accumulates increased amounts of 18:0 is described. Studies of the cell biology and physiology of the fab2 and fad2 mutants have provided evidence for some of the critical roles played by unsaturated fatty acids as components of plant membranes. Finally, the fab2 mutant has allowed us to carry out the first isolation and characterization of intergenic suppressor mutations in a higher plant.

  12. The Electrogenic Bacterium Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 and its Mutants with Increased Reducing Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikova, T. A.; Emelyanova, L. K.; Novikova, L. M.; Mordkovich, N. N.; Shakulov, R. S.; Debabov, V. G.

    2013-02-01

    Mutants of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 resistant to fosfomycin, a toxic analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate, were obtained. The mutants exhibited an increased reducing activity and a higher rate of lactate utilization. A correlation was shown between the rates of metabolism of oxidized substrates and the rate of reduction of methylene blue, a mediator of electron transport. The mutants of S.oneidensis MR-1 will be used in microbial fuel cells (MFC) to enhance energy production from organic compounds. The strain S. oneidensis MR-1 and its mutants with an increased electron production will be used as a good source of bioelectricity in MFC in the experiments on the International Space Station.

  13. Metabolism of Proline, Glutamate, and Ornithine in Proline Mutant Root Tips of Zea mays (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dierks-Ventling, Christa; Tonelli, Chiara

    1982-01-01

    In excised pro1-1 mutant and corresponding normal type roots of Zea mays L. the uptake and interconversion of [14C]proline, [14C]glutamic acid, [14C]glutamine, and [14C]ornithine and their utilization for protein synthesis was measured with the intention of finding an explanation for the proline requirement of the mutant. Uptake of these four amino acids, with the exception of proline, was the same in mutant and normal roots, but utilization differed. Higher than normal utilization rates for proline and glutamic acid were noted in mutant roots leading to increased CO2 production, free amino acid interconversion, and protein synthesis. Proline was synthesized from either glutamic acid (or glutamine) or ornithine in both mutant and normal roots; it did not accumulate but rather was used for protein synthesis. Ornithine was not a good precursor for proline in either system, but was preferentially converted to arginine and glutamine, particularly in mutant roots. The pro1-1 mutant was thus not deficient in its ability to make proline. Based on these findings, and on the fact that ornithine, arginine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid are elevated as free amino acids in mutant roots, it is suggested that in the pro1-1 mutant proline catabolism prevails over proline synthesis. PMID:16662144

  14. Production of amino acids by analog-resistant mutants of the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, G; Sora, S; Ciferri, O

    1981-01-01

    Mutants of Spirulina platensis resistant to 5-fluorotryptophan, beta-3-thienyl-alanine, ethionine, p-fluorophenylalanine, or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid were isolated. Some of these mutants appeared to be resistant to more than one analog and to overproduce the corresponding amino acids. A second group was composed of mutants that were resistant to one analog only. Of the latter mutants, one resistant to azetidine-2-carboxylic acid was found to overproduce proline only, whereas one resistant to fluorotryptophan and one resistant to ethionine did not overproduce any of the tested amino acids. PMID:6792182

  15. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus mutants expressing reduced susceptibility to common house-cleaners

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A.O.; O’Leary, J.O.; Muthaiyan, A.; Langevin, M.J.; Delgado, A.; Abalos, A.T.; Fajardo, A.R.; Marek, J.; Wilkinson, B.J.; Gustafson, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize mutants of Staphylococcus aureus expressing reduced susceptibility to house cleaners (HC), assess the impact of the alternative sigma factor SigB on HC susceptibility, and determine the MIC of clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to a HC. Methods and Results Susceptibility to HC, HC components, H2O2, vancomycin and oxacillin and physiological parameters were determined for HC-reduced susceptibility (HCRS) mutants, parent strain COL and COLsigB::kan. HCRS mutants selected with three HC expressed reduced susceptibility to multiple HC, HC components, H2O2 and vancomycin. Two unique HCRS mutants also lost the methicillin resistance determinant. In addition, all HCRS mutants exhibited better growth at two temperatures, and one HCRS mutant expressed reduced carotenoid production. COLsigB::kan demonstrated increased susceptibility to all HC and many HC components. sigB operon mutations were not detected in one HCRS mutant background. Of 76 clinical MRSA, 20 exhibited reduced susceptibility to a HC. Conclusions HCRS mutants demonstrate altered susceptibility to multiple antimicrobials. While sigB is required for full HC resistance, one HCRS mechanism does not involve sigB operon mutations. Clinical MRSA expressing reduced susceptibility to a common HC were detected. Significance and Impact of the Study This study suggests that HCRS mutants are not protected against, nor selected by, practical HC concentrations. PMID:15659191

  16. Genetic Analysis of Carbohydrate Transport-deficient Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Levinthal, Mark; Simoni, Robert D.

    1969-01-01

    Mutants (car) isolated from Salmonella typhimurium were unable to utilize or ferment the following carbohydrates (all d-configuration): glucose, fructose, mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, sorbitol, mannitol, maltose, melibiose, and glycerol. The mutants did utilize galactose, glucose 6-phosphate, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, pyruvate, and l-lactate. Biochemical analysis showed that there were two classes of mutants, each lacking one component of a phosphotransferase system. CarA mutants were deficient in enzyme I; carB lacked the phosphate carrier protein, HPr. Mapping experiments showed that the carA gene was located near pro; the carB gene mapped near purC. PMID:4884816

  17. Natural and artificial mutants as valuable resources for functional genomics and molecular breeding.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    With the completion of rice genome sequencing, large collection of expression data and the great efforts in annotating rice genomes, the next challenge is to systematically assign functions to all predicted genes in the genome. The generations and collections of mutants at the genome-wide level form technological platform of functional genomics. In this study, we have reviewed currently employed tools to generate such mutant populations. These tools include natural, physical, chemical, tissue culture, T-DNA, transposon or gene silencing based mutagenesis. We also reviewed how these tools were used to generate a large collection of mutants and how these mutants can be screened and detected for functional analysis of a gene. The data suggested that the current population of mutants might be large enough to tag all predicted genes. However, the collection of flanking sequencing tags (FSTs) is limited due to the relatively higher cost. Thus, we have proposed a new strategy to generate gene-silencing mutants at the genome-wide level. Due to the large collection of insertion mutants, the next step to rice functional genomics should be focusing on functional characterization of tagged genes by detailed survey of corresponding mutants. Additionally, we also evaluated the utilization of these mutants as valuable resources for molecular breeding.

  18. Tissue-Specific Profiling Reveals Transcriptome Alterations in Arabidopsis Mutants Lacking Morphological Phenotypes[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Marissa; Bruex, Angela; Kainkaryam, Raghunandan M.; Zheng, Xiaohua; Huang, Ling; Woolf, Peter J.; Schiefelbein, John

    2013-01-01

    Traditional genetic analysis relies on mutants with observable phenotypes. Mutants lacking visible abnormalities may nevertheless exhibit molecular differences useful for defining gene function. To examine this, we analyzed tissue-specific transcript profiles from Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor gene mutants with known roles in root epidermis development, but lacking a single-gene mutant phenotype due to genetic redundancy. We discovered substantial transcriptional changes in each mutant, preferentially affecting root epidermal genes in a manner consistent with the known double mutant effects. Furthermore, comparing transcript profiles of single and double mutants, we observed remarkable variation in the sensitivity of target genes to the loss of one or both paralogous genes, including preferential effects on specific branches of the epidermal gene network, likely reflecting the pathways of paralog subfunctionalization during evolution. In addition, we analyzed the root epidermal transcriptome of the transparent testa glabra2 mutant to clarify its role in the network. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of genetic redundancy and duplicate gene diversification at the level of a specific gene regulatory network, and they demonstrate the usefulness of tissue-specific transcript profiling to define gene function in mutants lacking informative visible changes in phenotype. PMID:24014549

  19. Photophysiology of the Elongated Internode (ein) Mutant of Brassica rapa: ein Mutant Lacks a Detectable Phytochrome B-Like Polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Devlin, P F; Rood, S B; Somers, D E; Quail, P H; Whitelam, G C

    1992-11-01

    Several phytochrome-controlled processes have been examined in etiolated and light-grown seedlings of a normal genotype and the elongated internode (ein/ein) mutant of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa. Although etiolated ein seedlings displayed normal sensitivity to prolonged far-red light with respect to inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, expansion of cotyledons, and synthesis of anthocyanin, they displayed reduced sensitivity to prolonged red light for all three of these deetiolation responses. In contrast to normal seedlings, light-grown ein seedlings did not show a growth promotion in response to end-of-day far-red irradiation. Additionally, whereas the first internode of light-grown normal seedlings showed a marked increase in elongation in response to reduced ratio of red to far-red light, ein seedlings showed only a small elongation response. When blots of protein extracts from etiolated and light-treated ein and normal seedlings were probed with monoclonal antibody to phytochrome A, an immunostaining band at about 120 kD was observed for both extracts. The immunostaining intensity of this band was substantially reduced for extracts of light-treated normal and ein seedlings. A mixture of three monoclonal antibodies directed against phytochrome B from Arabidopsis thaliana immunostained a band at about 120 kD for extracts of etiolated and light-treated normal seedlings. This band was undetectable in extracts of ein seedlings. We propose that ein is a photoreceptor mutant that is deficient in a light-stable phytochrome B-like species.

  20. Photophysiology of the Elongated Internode (ein) Mutant of Brassica rapa: ein Mutant Lacks a Detectable Phytochrome B-Like Polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Devlin, P F; Rood, S B; Somers, D E; Quail, P H; Whitelam, G C

    1992-11-01

    Several phytochrome-controlled processes have been examined in etiolated and light-grown seedlings of a normal genotype and the elongated internode (ein/ein) mutant of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa. Although etiolated ein seedlings displayed normal sensitivity to prolonged far-red light with respect to inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, expansion of cotyledons, and synthesis of anthocyanin, they displayed reduced sensitivity to prolonged red light for all three of these deetiolation responses. In contrast to normal seedlings, light-grown ein seedlings did not show a growth promotion in response to end-of-day far-red irradiation. Additionally, whereas the first internode of light-grown normal seedlings showed a marked increase in elongation in response to reduced ratio of red to far-red light, ein seedlings showed only a small elongation response. When blots of protein extracts from etiolated and light-treated ein and normal seedlings were probed with monoclonal antibody to phytochrome A, an immunostaining band at about 120 kD was observed for both extracts. The immunostaining intensity of this band was substantially reduced for extracts of light-treated normal and ein seedlings. A mixture of three monoclonal antibodies directed against phytochrome B from Arabidopsis thaliana immunostained a band at about 120 kD for extracts of etiolated and light-treated normal seedlings. This band was undetectable in extracts of ein seedlings. We propose that ein is a photoreceptor mutant that is deficient in a light-stable phytochrome B-like species. PMID:16653143

  1. Streptomyces relC mutants with an altered ribosomal protein ST-L11 and genetic analysis of a Streptomyces griseus relC mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, K

    1990-01-01

    Several relaxed (rel) mutants have been obtained from Streptomyces species by selecting colonies resistant to thiopeptin, an analogue of thiostrepton. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, I compared the ribosomal proteins from rel and rel+ pairs of S. antibioticus, S. lavendulae, S. griseoflavus, and S. griseus. It was found that all of the Streptomyces rel mutants thus examined had an altered or missing ribosomal protein, designated tentatively ST-L11. These rel mutants therefore could be classified as relC mutants and were highly sensitive to erythromycin or high temperature. A relC mutant of S. griseus was defective in streptomycin production, but phenotypic reversion of this defect to normal productivity was found at high incidence among progeny of the relC mutant. This phenotypic reversion did not accompany a reappearance of ribosomal protein ST-L11, and furthermore the ability of accumulating ppGpp still remained at a low level, thus suggesting existence of a mutation (named sup) which suppresses the streptomycin deficiency phenotype exhibited by the relC mutant. Genetic analysis revealed that there is a correlation between the rel mutation and the inability to produce streptomycin or aerial mycelia. The sup mutation was found to lie at a chromosomal locus distinct from that of the relC mutation. It was therefore concluded that the dependence of streptomycin production on the normal function of the relC gene could be entirely bypassed by a mutation at the suppressor locus (sup). The suppressing effect of the sup mutation on the relC mutation was blocked when the afs mutation (defective in A-factor synthesis) was introduced into a relC sup double mutant. It is proposed that the sup gene or its product can be direct or indirect target for ppGpp. Images PMID:2113916

  2. Reduced gravitropic sensitivity in roots of a starch-deficient mutant of Nicotiana sylvestris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.; Sack, F. D.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitropism was studied in seedlings of Nicotiana sylvestris Speg. et Comes wild-type (WT) and mutant NS 458 which has a defective plastid phosphoglucomutase (EC 2.7.5.1.). Starch was greatly reduced in NS 458 compared to the WT, but small amounts of starch were detected in rootcap columella cells in NS 458 by light and electron microscopy. The roots of WT are more sensitive to gravity than mutant NS 458 roots since: (1) in mutant roots, curvature was reduced and delayed in the time course of curvature; (2) curvature of mutant roots was 24-56% that of WT roots over the range of induction periods tested; (3) in intermittent-stimulation experiments, curvature of mutant roots was 37% or less than that of WT roots in all treatments tested. The perception time, determined by intermittent-stimulation experiments, was < or = 5 s for WT roots and 30-60 s for mutant roots. The growth rates for WT and NS 458 roots were essentially equal. These results and our previous results with WT and starchless mutant Arabidopsis roots (Kiss et al. 1989, Planta 177, 198-206) support the conclusions that a full complement of starch is necessary for full gravitropic sensitivity and that amyloplasts function in gravity perception. Since a presumed relatively small increase in plastid buoyant mass (N. sylvestris mutant versus Arabidopsis mutant) significantly improves the orientation of the N. sylvestris mutant roots, we suggest that plastids are the likeliest candidates to be triggering gravity perception in roots of both mutants.

  3. Towards a "Golden Standard" for computing globin stability: Stability and structure sensitivity of myoglobin mutants.

    PubMed

    Kepp, Kasper P

    2015-10-01

    Fast and accurate computation of protein stability is increasingly important for e.g. protein engineering and protein misfolding diseases, but no consensus methods exist for important proteins such as globins, and performance may depend on the type of structural input given. This paper reports benchmarking of six protein stability calculators (POPMUSIC 2.1, I-Mutant 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0, CUPSAT, SDM, and mCSM) against 134 experimental stability changes for mutations of sperm-whale myoglobin. Six different high-resolution structures were used to test structure sensitivity that may impair protein calculations. The trend accuracy of the methods decreased as I-Mutant 2.0 (R=0.64-0.65), SDM (R=0.57-0.60), POPMUSIC2.1 (R=0.54-0.57), I-Mutant 3.0 (R=0.53-0.55), mCSM (R=0.35-0.47), and CUPSAT (R=0.25-0.48). The mean signed errors increased as SDMMutant 2.0Mutant 3.0Mutant 2.0Mutant 3.0Mutant 3.0 (0.05)Mutant 2.0 (0.09)Mutant 2.0 is proficient for this purpose, as further validated against a data set of related cytochrome c like proteins. The results also emphasize the importance of high-quality crystal structures and reveal structure-dependent effects even in the near-atomic resolution limit.

  4. Factors influencing maternal behavior in the hubb/hubb mutant mouse.

    PubMed

    Alston-Mills, B; Parker, A C; Eisen, E J; Wilson, R; Fletcher, S

    We examined the maternal behavior of hubb/hubb mutant mice and normal control (+/hubb) siblings. From previous observations we noted that mutants groom their pups less, suckle less than normal, and often cannibalize the young. To date, these observations had not been quantified. Although prolactin (PRL) is linked to maternal behavior, it was difficult to measure because of the hyperirratibility of the mutant mice. Consequently, dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), were measured in the median eminence in brains of both normal and mutant mice. Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-determining step in dopamine synthesis, was localized in the brain by immunohistochemistry. Five mutant and nine normal dams were observed for pup retrieval and crouching. Mean time for pup retrieval was slower (p < 0.06) for mutants (28.09 s) than for normal dams (18.49 s). Crouching was the same for both strains. Mutant pups were cold to the touch, and not well groomed. Brains from both strains were examined at Day 11 and Day 18 of gestation and Day 2 and Day 11 of lactation. Qualitatively, tyrosine hydroxylase localization in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence was the same in both strains for the gestation samples. The decrease in staining observed from gestation to lactation in the normal mice was increased in the mutants. Dopamine was similar in both strains at all stages, but DOPAC was significantly higher at early lactation in the mutants. We do not assume an absolute inverse relationship between dopaminergic activities and prolactin, but it is likely that the increase in DOPAC in the mutant reflects a decrease in prolactin, which could contribute to the diminished maternal care in the mutants. PMID:10627055

  5. Towards a "Golden Standard" for computing globin stability: Stability and structure sensitivity of myoglobin mutants.

    PubMed

    Kepp, Kasper P

    2015-10-01

    Fast and accurate computation of protein stability is increasingly important for e.g. protein engineering and protein misfolding diseases, but no consensus methods exist for important proteins such as globins, and performance may depend on the type of structural input given. This paper reports benchmarking of six protein stability calculators (POPMUSIC 2.1, I-Mutant 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0, CUPSAT, SDM, and mCSM) against 134 experimental stability changes for mutations of sperm-whale myoglobin. Six different high-resolution structures were used to test structure sensitivity that may impair protein calculations. The trend accuracy of the methods decreased as I-Mutant 2.0 (R=0.64-0.65), SDM (R=0.57-0.60), POPMUSIC2.1 (R=0.54-0.57), I-Mutant 3.0 (R=0.53-0.55), mCSM (R=0.35-0.47), and CUPSAT (R=0.25-0.48). The mean signed errors increased as SDMMutant 2.0Mutant 3.0Mutant 2.0Mutant 3.0Mutant 3.0 (0.05)Mutant 2.0 (0.09)Mutant 2.0 is proficient for this purpose, as further validated against a data set of related cytochrome c like proteins. The results also emphasize the importance of high-quality crystal structures and reveal structure-dependent effects even in the near-atomic resolution limit. PMID:26054434

  6. A Gibberellin-Deficient Brassica Mutant-rosette.

    PubMed

    Rood, S B; Pearce, D; Williams, P H; Pharis, R P

    1989-02-01

    A single-gene mutant (rosette [ros/ros]) in which shoot growth and development are inhibited was identified from a rapid cycling line of Brassica rapa (syn campestris). Relative to normal plants, the mutant germinated slowly, had delayed or incomplete floral development, and reduced leaf, petiole, and internode growth. The exogenous application of GA(3) by foliar spray or directly to the shoot tip of rosette resulted in rapid flowering, bolting (shoot elongation), and viable seed production. Shoots of rosette contained endogenous levels of total gibberellin (GA)-like substances (;Tan-ginbozu' dwarf rice assay) of about one-tenth of that of the normal rapid-cycling line of B. rapa which consisted almost entirely of a very nonpolar, GA-like substance which yielded GA(1) and GA(3) upon mild acid hydrolysis. In a normal rapid-cycling B. rapa line, the nonpolar putative GA(1) and GA(3) conjugates were present, but additionally, free GA(1) and GA(3) were abundant and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. The quantities of free GA(1) and GA(3) in the normal line and in rosette were quantified by GC-MS-SIM using [(2)H(2)]GA(1) as an internal standard. Fourteen-day-old rosette and normal seedlings contained 5.3 and 23.2 ng GA(1) per plant, respectively. At day 21 the rosette plants contained 7.7 and 26.1 nanograms per plant of GA(1) and GA(3), while normal plants contained 31.1 and 251.5 nanograms per plant, respectively. Thus, normal plants contained from four to ten times higher levels of total GA-like substances, GA(1), or GA(3), than rosette. The ros allele results in reduced GA level, yielding the rosette phenotype whose delayed germination and flowering, and reduced shoot growth responses indicate a probable role for endogenous GA(1) and GA(3) in the regulation of these processes in Brassica.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of Synechococcus sp PCC 7002 phycobilisome core mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gindt, Y.M.

    1993-04-01

    The role of the L[sub cm] (I), [beta][sup 18] (II), and [alpha][sup AP-B] (III) chromoproteins in the phycobilisome (PBS) core was investigated using genetically engineered strains of Synechococcus missing different polypeptides. Intact cells, isolated PBS, and subcore preparations for each mutant were studied to determine the effect of that mutation on energy transfer within the PBS core and to the reaction centers. Three mutants lacked the II and/or III polypeptides, while the I chromophore was altered in others. A lower energy absorbing chromophore, A[sub max] = 695 nm, was substituted for the I chromophore. The deletion of the II and III subunits had no discernible effect on energy transfer from the PBS to PSII. In cells and isolated PBS, the altered I chromophore acts to quench the PBS complex and to redirect the energy which would be transferred to PSII. In the PBS and subcore preparations, deletion of the III subunit did not alter energy transfer within the core. The deletion of the II subunit from the PBS caused a small decrease in the excited state lifetimes of the final emitters indicating more disorder within the core. The I chromophore was found to absorb at 670nm and to emit at 683nm within the intact PBS. The II chromophore emits at 679nm while the III chromophore emits at 682nm. A strong interaction exists between the I chromophore and the II subunit. Upon deletion of the II subunit from the PBS core, the I chromophore emits at a higher energy. The II subunit could act to stabilize the I chromophore-binding pocket, or exciton coupling could be occurring between the two. The role of the III chromophore is still unclear at this time. The III chromophore does contribute to the RT emission of the isolated PBS, but it transfers energy to I at 77 K. One can conclude that the III subunit is adjacent to the trimer containing the I polypeptide.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of Synechococcus sp PCC 7002 phycobilisome core mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Gindt, Y.M.

    1993-04-01

    The role of the L{sub cm} (I), {beta}{sup 18} (II), and {alpha}{sup AP-B} (III) chromoproteins in the phycobilisome (PBS) core was investigated using genetically engineered strains of Synechococcus missing different polypeptides. Intact cells, isolated PBS, and subcore preparations for each mutant were studied to determine the effect of that mutation on energy transfer within the PBS core and to the reaction centers. Three mutants lacked the II and/or III polypeptides, while the I chromophore was altered in others. A lower energy absorbing chromophore, A{sub max} = 695 nm, was substituted for the I chromophore. The deletion of the II and III subunits had no discernible effect on energy transfer from the PBS to PSII. In cells and isolated PBS, the altered I chromophore acts to quench the PBS complex and to redirect the energy which would be transferred to PSII. In the PBS and subcore preparations, deletion of the III subunit did not alter energy transfer within the core. The deletion of the II subunit from the PBS caused a small decrease in the excited state lifetimes of the final emitters indicating more disorder within the core. The I chromophore was found to absorb at 670nm and to emit at 683nm within the intact PBS. The II chromophore emits at 679nm while the III chromophore emits at 682nm. A strong interaction exists between the I chromophore and the II subunit. Upon deletion of the II subunit from the PBS core, the I chromophore emits at a higher energy. The II subunit could act to stabilize the I chromophore-binding pocket, or exciton coupling could be occurring between the two. The role of the III chromophore is still unclear at this time. The III chromophore does contribute to the RT emission of the isolated PBS, but it transfers energy to I at 77 K. One can conclude that the III subunit is adjacent to the trimer containing the I polypeptide.

  9. Forced expression of chimeric human fibroblast tropomyosin mutants affects cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Human fibroblasts generate at least eight tropomyosin (TM) isoforms (hTM1, hTM2, hTM3, hTM4, hTM5, hTM5a, hTM5b, and hTMsm alpha) from four distinct genes, and we have previously demonstrated that bacterially produced chimera hTM5/3 exhibits an unusually high affinity for actin filaments and a loss of the salt dependence typical for TM-actin binding (Novy, R.E., J. R. Sellers, L.-F. Liu, and J.J.-C. Lin, 1993. Cell Motil. & Cytoskeleton. 26: 248-261). To examine the functional consequences of expressing this mutant TM isoform in vivo, we have transfected CHO cells with the full-length cDNA for hTM5/3 and compared them to cells transfected with hTM3 and hTM5. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that stably transfected CHO cells incorporate force- expressed hTM3 and hTM5 into stress fibers with no significant effect on general cell morphology, microfilament organization or cytokinesis. In stable lines expressing hTM5/3, however, cell division is slow and sometimes incomplete. The doubling time and the incidence of multinucleate cells in the stable hTM5/3 lines roughly parallel expression levels. A closely related chimeric isoform hTM5/2, which differs only in the internal, alternatively spliced exon also produces defects in cytokinesis, suggesting that normal TM function may involve coordination between the amino and carboxy terminal regions. This coordination may be prevented in the chimeric mutants. As bacterially produced hTM5/3 and hTM5/2 can displace hTM3 and hTM5 from actin filaments in vitro, it is likely that CHO-expressed hTM5/3 and hTM5/2 can displace endogenous TMs to act dominantly in vivo. These results support a role for nonmuscle TM isoforms in the fine tuning of microfilament organization during cytokinesis. Additionally, we find that overexpression of TM does not stabilize endogenous microfilaments, rather, the hTM-expressing cells are actually more sensitive to cytochalasin B. This suggests that regulation of microfilament integrity in vivo

  10. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    SciTech Connect

    Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

    1987-08-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production.

  11. A chilling sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis with altered steryl-ester metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Hugly, S.; McCourt, P.; Somerville, C. ); Browse, J. ); Patterson, G.W. )

    1990-07-01

    A chilling-sensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was isolated and subjected to genetic, physiological, and biochemical analysis. The chilling-sensitive nature of the mutant line is due to a single recessive nuclear mutation at a locus designated chs1. In contrast to wild-type plants, which are not adversely affected by low temperatures, the chs1 mutant is killed by several days of exposure to temperatures below 18{degree}C. Following exposure to chilling temperatures, the mutant displays two common symptoms of chilling injury - leaf chlorosis and electrolyte leakage. In these respects, the physiological response of the mutant to low temperatures mimics the response observed in some naturally occurring chilling sensitive species. The biochemical basis of chilling sensitivity was explored by examining the pattern of incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} into soluble metabolites and lipids in wild-type and mutant plants. The only difference observed between the mutant and wild type was that following low temperature treatment, the mutant accumulated 10-fold more radioactivity in a specific class of neutral lipids which were identified by a variety of criteria to be steryl-esters. The accumulation of radioactivity in the steryl-ester fraction occurs 24 hours before there is any visible evidence of chilling injury.

  12. Direct selection of Clostridium acetobutylicum fermentation mutants by a proton suicide method

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto, P.H.; Mendez, B.S. )

    1990-02-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 10132 mutants altered in acetic acid synthesis or in the shift to solventogenesis were directly selected by a proton suicide method after mutagenic treatment, by using bromide and bromate as selective agents. The mutants were characterized according to their solvent and acid production. On the selection plates they differed in colony phenotype from the parent strain.

  13. Isolation of a recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus lactis ML3.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D G; McKay, L L

    1983-01-01

    A recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus lactis ML3 designated MMS36 was isolated on the basis of its sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate. This mutant also displayed sensitivity to UV irradiation. The inability of MMS36 to mediate homologous recombination was demonstrated by transduction of plasmid-linked lactose fermenting ability but not chromosomally mediated streptomycin resistance. PMID:6409888

  14. A DNA adenine methylase mutant of Shigella flexneri shows no significant attenuation of virulence.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yasuko; Fernández, Reinaldo E; Maurelli, Anthony T

    2004-04-01

    Mutants of Salmonella defective in DNA adenine methylase (dam) have been reported to be attenuated for virulence and to provide protective immunity when used as vaccine strains. To determine whether these observations could be extended to Shigella, a dam mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a was characterized and examined for the role of dam in pathogenesis. The Shigella dam mutant showed some unique characteristics; however, it retained virulence in vivo as well as in vitro. The mutant invaded cultured L2 monolayer cells as efficiently as the wild-type parent, but its intracellular growth was suppressed up to 7 h post-invasion. Furthermore, the invading dam mutant formed smaller plaques in cell monolayers compared to the parent strain. However, the mutant produced keratoconjunctivitis in the Sereny test in guinea pigs only slightly more slowly than the wild-type. While the effect of the dam mutation on virulence was modest, the rate of spontaneous mutation in the dam mutant was 1000-fold greater compared with the wild-type. The virulence and high mutability displayed by the dam mutant of Sh. flexneri suggest that a general anti-bacterial pathogen vaccine strategy based on mutations in dam needs to be re-evaluated.

  15. Induction, isolation, and characterization of aspergillus niger mutant strains producing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase.

    PubMed Central

    Nevalainen, K M

    1981-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger mutant strain, VTT-D-80144, with an improvement of three- to fourfold in the production of extracellular beta-galactosidase was isolated after mutagenesis. The production of beta-galactosidase by this mutant was unaffected by fermentor size, and the enzyme was also suitable for immobilization. PMID:6784672

  16. The MSC phenotype of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) - a method for production of plant mitochondrial mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mosaic (MSC) mutants of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) appear after passage through cell cultures. The MSC phenotype shows paternal transmission and is associated with mitochondrial DNA rearrangements. This review describes the origins and phenotypes of independently produced MSC mutants of cuc...

  17. Genetic background impacts soluble and cell wall-bound aromatics in brown midrib mutants of sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects that genetic background has on two sorghum brown midrib (bmr) mutants, plant phenolics, lignin biosynthetic enzymes and stem anatomy were evaluated in wild-type (WT), bmr-6, bmr-12 and double-mutants (bmr-6 and bmr-12) in near isogenic , RTx430 and Wheatland backgrounds. The...

  18. [Catabolyte repression of Escherichia coli K12 mutants with defects in different systems of glucose transport].

    PubMed

    Gershanovich, V N; Iurovitskaia, N V; Komissarova, L V; Bol'shakova, T N; Erlagaeva, R S

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of glucose catabolite repression was studied in E. coli mutants inable to transport this carbohydrate. The pts 1, H mutant P34 was much less sensitive to the repressive effect of glucose on beta-galactosidase synthesis than the parent type. The 1103 mutant devoid of enzyme 1 of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) behaves in the same way as P34 mutant after addition of glucose to casamino acid mineral medium. However, in minimal medium with succinate as the sole source of carbon, cells of the 1103 mutant show enhanced sensibility to transient glucose repression. The effect of hypersensibility disappears when the lac I mutation leading to constitutive the beta-galactosidase synthesis is introduced in 1103 mutant. It is shown that the enhanced sensibility of beta-galactosidase synthesis to glucose transient repression in 1103 mutant is an effect of the aburpt decrease in its growth rate in the presence of succinate and most probably this decrease leads to "inducer exclusion" of the lac operon. It is also shown that if one introduces the P34 mutation in strain JD3 devoid of one of the enzymes II for glucose (and due to this resistant to glucose catabolite respression) then the level of resistance in double mutant does not increase in spite of considerable supression of 14C glucose accumulation. In connection with this the role is discussed of separate components of the E. coli K 12 glucose transport system in realization of the phenomenon of catabolite repression. PMID:785237

  19. A Laboratory Exercise for Isolation and Characterizing Microbial Mutants with Metabolic Defects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Frank J.; Leslie, John F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes science experiments for undergraduate biology instruction on the concepts of mutation and characterization of the resulting mutant strains. The filamentous fungi "Fusarium moniliforme" is used to illustrate the induction of mutants (mutagenesis), identification of the mutated gene, construction of a biochemical pathway, and genetic…

  20. Properties of a hydrogen-inhibited mutant of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    PubMed Central

    Odom, J M; Wall, J D

    1987-01-01

    A mutant of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 has been obtained which is incapable of sulfate respiration with molecular hydrogen but which grows normally on lactate plus sulfate under argon. Growth characteristics of the mutant suggest that the defect is involved in electron transfer to sulfate or nitrate but not thiosulfate. PMID:3818548

  1. Regulation of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Biosynthesis in Salmonella typhimurium: Isolation of Regulatory Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, J. M.; Freundlich, M.; Umbarger, H. E.

    1969-01-01

    5′,5′,5′-Trifluoro-dl-leucine inhibited the activity of α-isopropylmalate synthetase (the initial enzyme unique to leucine biosynthesis) as well as the growth of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutants of S. typhimurium resistant to the analogue were isolated and characterized. In most cases, they overproduced and excreted leucine or leucine, valine, and isoleucine as a result of an alteration in the regulation of branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. Biochemical and genetic tests allowed the mutants to be grouped into three classes: I, a moderately large group (13%) which had high, constitutive leucine biosynthetic enzyme levels and mutant sites linked to the leucine operon (operator constitutive); II, a single mutant in which the mutant site was linked to the leucine operon and in which α-isopropylmalate synthetase was not inhibited by leucine (feedback negative); III, a majority type which had constitutive levels of leucine, valine, and isoleucine biosynthetic enzymes and mutant sites unlinked to the leucine operon. Mutants of class I provide important evidence for the concept of an operon organization of genes involved in leucine biosynthesis. The properties of class III mutants indicate that there is some element involved in regulation which is common to the three pathways. Images PMID:4887507

  2. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  3. Canopy Light Interception of a Conventional and an Erect Leaf Mutant Sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two sorghum lines, an erect leafed mutant sorghum and the wild type from which the mutant was generated, were field grown in rectilinear arrays at low (23 plants per square meter) and high (10 plants per square meter) population densities. Canopy light interception, biomass accretion and yield were ...

  4. Analysis of proteomic changes in colored mutants of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma).

    PubMed

    Barbachano-Torres, Alejandra; Castelblanco-Matiz, Lina M; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Cerda-García-Rojas, Carlos M; Salgado, Luis M; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa

    2014-06-01

    The yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous synthesizes astaxanthin as its most prevalent xanthophyll derivative. Comparisons between the protein profiles of mutant lines of this yeast can provide insight into the carotenogenic pathway. Differently colored mutants (red, orange, pink, yellow, and white) were obtained from this yeast species, and their protein profiles were determined using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE). Individual proteins differentially expressed were identified using mass spectrometry. The red mutants hyperproduced total carotenoids (mainly astaxanthin), while in white and orange mutants, mutagenesis affected the phytoene dehydrogenase activity as indicated by the accumulation of phytoene. Inactivation of astaxanthin synthase after the mutagenic treatment was evident in β-carotene accumulating mutants. Differences in the proteomic profiles of wild-type X. dendrorhous and its colored mutants were demonstrated using 2DE. Of the total number of spots detected in each gel (297-417), 128 proteins were present in all strains. The red mutant showed the greatest number of matches with respect to the wild type (305 spots), while the white and yellow mutants, which had reduced concentrations of total carotenoids, presented the highest correlation coefficient (0.6) between each other. A number of differentially expressed proteins were sequenced, indicating that tricarboxylic acid cycle and stress response proteins are closely related to the carotenogenic process. PMID:24676883

  5. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct. PMID:19716523

  6. Rhizobium japonicum mutant strains unable to grow chemoautotrophically with H2.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, R J

    1981-01-01

    Rhizobium japonicum strain SR grows chemoautotrophically on a mineral salts medium when incubated in an H2- and CO2-containing atmosphere. Mutant strains unable to grow or that grow very poorly chemoautotrophically with H2 have been isolated from strain SR. The mutant isolation procedure involved mutagenesis with ethyl methane sulfonate, penicillin selection under chemoautotrophic growth conditions, and plating of the survivors onto medium containing carbon. The resulting colonies were replica plated onto medium that did not contain carbon, and the plates were incubated in an H2- and CO2-containing atmosphere. Mutant strains unable to grow under these conditions were chosen. Over 100 mutant strains with defects in chemoautotrophic metabolism were obtained. The phenotypes of the mutants fall into various classes. These include strains unable to oxidize H2 and strains deficient in CO2 uptake. Some of the mutant strains were capable of oxidizing H2 only when artificial electron acceptors were provided. Two mutant strains specifically lack activity of the key CO2-fixing enzyme ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Other mutant strains lack both H2-oxidizing ability and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. PMID:6780521

  7. Impaired exercise tolerance and skeletal muscle myopathy in sulfonylurea receptor-2 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Douglas; Pytel, Peter; Katz, Sophie; Earley, Judy U.; Collins, Keith; Metcalfe, Jamie; Lang, Roberto M.

    2009-01-01

    By sensing intracellular energy levels, ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels help regulate vascular tone, glucose metabolism, and cardioprotection. SUR2 mutant mice lack full-length KATP channels in striated and smooth muscle and display a complex phenotype of hypertension and coronary vasospasm. SUR2 mutant mice also display baseline cardioprotection and can withstand acute sympathetic stress better than normal mice. We now studied response to a form of chronic stress, namely that induced by 4 wk of daily exercise on SUR2 mutant mice. Control mice increased exercise capacity by 400% over the training period, while SUR2 mutant mice showed little increase in exercise capacity. Unexercised SUR2 mutant showed necrotic and regenerating fibers in multiple muscle skeletal muscles, including quadriceps, tibialis anterior, and diaphragm muscles. Unlike exercised control animals, SUR2 mutant mice did not lose weight, presumably due to less overall exertion. Unexercised SUR2 mutant mice showed a trend of mildly reduced cardiac function, measured by fractional shortening, (46 ± 4% vs. 57 ± 7% for SUR2 mutant and control, respectively), and this decrease was not exacerbated by chronic exercise exposure. Despite an improved response to acute sympathetic stress and baseline cardioprotection, exercise intolerance results from lack of SUR2 KATP channels in mice. PMID:19675276

  8. Phenotypic comparison of samdc and spe mutants reveals complex relationships of polyamine metabolism in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Valdés-Santiago, Laura; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio; Winkler, Robert; León-Ramírez, Claudia G; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2012-03-01

    Synthesis of spermidine involves the action of two enzymes, spermidine synthase (Spe) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (Samdc). Previously we cloned and disrupted the gene encoding Spe as a first approach to unravel the biological function of spermidine in Ustilago maydis. With this background, the present study was designed to provide a better understanding of the role played by Samdc in the regulation of the synthesis of this polyamine. With this aim we proceeded to isolate and delete the gene encoding Samdc from U. maydis, and made a comparative analysis of the phenotypes of samdc and spe mutants. Both spe and samdc mutants behaved as spermidine auxotrophs, and were more sensitive than the wild-type strain to different stress conditions. However, the two mutants displayed significant differences: in contrast to spe mutants, samdc mutants were more sensitive to LiCl stress, high spermidine concentrations counteracted their dimorphic deficiency, and they were completely avirulent. It is suggested that these differences are possibly related to differences in exogenous spermidine uptake or the differential location of the respective enzymes in the cell. Alternatively, since samdc mutants accumulate higher levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), whereas spe mutants accumulate decarboxylated SAM, the known opposite roles of these metabolites in the processes of methylation and differentiation offer an additional attractive hypothesis to explain the phenotypic differences of the two mutants, and provide insights into the additional roles of polyamine metabolism in the physiology of the cell.

  9. Identical substitutions in magnesium chelatase paralogs result in chlorophyll deficient soybean mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) chlorophyll deficient line MinnGold is a spontaneous mutant characterized by yellow foliage. Map-based cloning and transgenic complementation revealed that the mutant phenotype is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in the third exon of a Mg-chelat...

  10. Behavioral Mutants of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. II. Behavioral Analysis and Focus Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Homyk, Theodore

    1977-01-01

    Several simple tests have been applied to study the behavior and performance of mutants of Drosophila melanogaster isolated in the preceding study (Homyk and Sheppard 1977). The tests showed that many mutants have specific behavioral abnormalities and that most mutants can easily be distinguished from an Oregon-R control on the basis of their behavioral phenotypes. Mutants representing six genes hop poorly and are unable to initiate wing oscillation when tethered. Mutations in four genes reduce the level of spontaneous motor activity of flies and increase the excitability threshold necessary to induce high activity motor functions such as running and flying. The latter mutants are referred to as hypoactive. Another class, stress-sensitive, including mutations in three genes, are reversibly paralyzed by mechanical shock. Mosaic analyses suggest that six mutations affect muscular tissue and two others affect neural tissue. It is also shown that tan mutants fail to retract their forelegs during flight and that the focus responsible for this behavioral phenotype is the compound eye. Specific behavioral abnormalities of several mutants are discussed in conjunction with previous studies from many laboratories concerning the participation of neural, sensory and muscular elements producing behavior in normal (nonmutant) insects. Such considerations are an essential prelude to anatomical and physiological studies of the mutants in Drosophila. PMID:17248753

  11. Plastid distribution in columella cells of a starchless Arabidopsis mutant grown in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilaire, E.; Paulsen, A. Q.; Brown, C. S.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Wild-type and starchless Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seedlings (TC7) were grown and fixed in the microgravity environment of a U.S. Space Shuttle spaceflight. Computer image analysis of longitudinal sections from columella cells suggest a different plastid positioning mechanism for mutant and wild-type in the absence of gravity.

  12. Detection and characterization of mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants by functional complementation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sweasy, J B; Loeb, L A

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and utilized a bacterial complementation system to identify and characterize mammalian DNA polymerase beta mutants. In this complementation system, wild-type rat DNA polymerase beta replaces both the replicative and repair functions of DNA polymerase I in the Escherichia coli recA718 polA12 double mutant; our 263 DNA polymerase beta mutants replace E. coli polymerase I less efficiently or not at all. Of the 10 mutants that have been shown to contain DNA sequence alterations, 2 exhibit a split phenotype with respect to complementation of the growth defect and methylmethanesulfonate sensitivity of the double mutant; one is a null mutant. The mutants possessing a split phenotype contain amino acid residue alterations within a putative nucleotide binding site of DNA polymerase beta. This approach for the isolation and evaluation of mutants of a mammalian DNA polymerase in E. coli may ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this enzyme and to precisely defining its role in vertebrate cells. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8506308

  13. Sheep heart RNA stimulates myofibril formation and beating in cardiac mutant axolotl hearts in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; LaFrance, Sherrie M; Lemanski, Sharon L; Huang, Xupei; Dube, Dipak K; Lemanski, Larry F

    2003-05-01

    In the Mexican axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, recessive mutant gene c, when homozygous, results in a failure of the heart to form sarcomeric myofibrils and contract normally. Previous studies have shown that purified RNA from normal anterior endoderm or from medium conditioned with anterior endoderm/pre-cardiac mesoderm has the capacity to rescue mutant hearts in organ culture. In the present study, RNA extracted from adult sheep heart was tested for its capacity to promote differentiation in the mutant axolotl hearts. Mutant hearts cultured in the presence of the sheep heart RNA in Steinberg's solution for 48 h displayed rhythmic contractions. Ultrastructural studies showed that the rescued mutant axolotl ventricular myocardial cells contained myofibrils of normal morphology. Mutant hearts cultured in Steinberg's solution alone did not beat throughout their lengths and myofibrils were not observable in the ventricles. Confocal microscopy confirmed the increase of Tropomyosin expression and formation of myofibrils in mutant hearts treated by sheep heart RNA. Thus, sheep heart RNA promotes myofibrillogenesis and the development of contractile function in embryonic cardiac mutant axolotl hearts. PMID:12684761

  14. Neurophysiological defects in temperature-sensitive paralytic mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, O; Benzer, S

    1976-01-01

    A new temperature-sensitive paralytic mutant of Drosophila, comatose, is compared behaviorally and physiologically with the previously known types, para and shi. All three have different properties with respect to kinetics of paralysis at high temperature and recovery from paralysis; com is hypersensitive to paralysis by cooling. Neurophysiological experimeents indicate different mechanisms for paralysis in each of the mutants. PMID:184469

  15. Thirty years of induction, evaluation, and integration of useful mutants in rice genetics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, US Department of Agriculture announces the release of four rice (Oryza sativa L.) genetic stocks: a giant embryo mutant of a long grain rice, designated Genetic Stocks-Oryza (GSOR) 25; albino segregating mutant, GSOR 26; and two indica doubledwarfs, GSOR 27 and 28....

  16. Correction of Hair Shaft Defects through Allele-Specific Silencing of Mutant Krt75.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Snedecor, Elizabeth R; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yanfeng; Huang, Lan; Jones, Evan C; Zhang, Lianfeng; Clark, Richard A; Roop, Dennis R; Qin, Chuan; Chen, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Dominant mutations in keratin genes can cause a number of inheritable skin disorders characterized by intraepidermal blistering, epidermal hyperkeratosis, or abnormalities in skin appendages, such as nail plate dystrophy and structural defects in hair. Allele-specific silencing of mutant keratins through RNA interference is a promising therapeutic approach for suppressing the expression of mutant keratins and related phenotypes in the epidermis. However, its effectiveness on skin appendages remains to be confirmed in vivo. In this study, we developed allele-specific small interfering RNAs capable of selectively suppressing the expression of a mutant Krt75, which causes hair shaft structural defects characterized by the development of blebs along the hair shaft in mice. Hair regenerated from epidermal keratinocyte progenitor cells isolated from mutant Krt75 mouse models reproduced the blebbing phenotype when grafted in vivo. In contrast, mutant cells manipulated with a lentiviral vector expressing mutant Krt75-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) persistently suppressed this phenotype. The phenotypic correction was associated with a significant reduction of mutant Krt75 mRNA in the skin grafts. Thus, data obtained from this study demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing RNA interference to achieve durable correction of hair structural phenotypes through allele-specific silencing of mutant keratin genes. PMID:26763422

  17. Isolation of homozygous mutant mouse embryonic stem cells using a dual selection system

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Pettitt, Stephen J.; Guo, Ge; Liu, Guang; Li, Meng Amy; Yang, Fengtang; Bradley, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Obtaining random homozygous mutants in mammalian cells for forward genetic studies has always been problematic due to the diploid genome. With one mutation per cell, only one allele of an autosomal gene can be disrupted, and the resulting heterozygous mutant is unlikely to display a phenotype. In cells with a genetic background deficient for the Bloom's syndrome helicase, such heterozygous mutants segregate homozygous daughter cells at a low frequency due to an elevated rate of crossover following mitotic recombination between homologous chromosomes. We constructed DNA vectors that are selectable based on their copy number and used these to isolate these rare homozygous mutant cells independent of their phenotype. We use the piggyBac transposon to limit the initial mutagenesis to one copy per cell, and select for cells that have increased the transposon copy number to two or more. This yields homozygous mutants with two allelic mutations, but also cells that have duplicated the mutant chromosome and become aneuploid during culture. On average, 26% of the copy number gain events occur by the mitotic recombination pathway. We obtained homozygous cells from 40% of the heterozygous mutants tested. This method can provide homozygous mammalian loss-of-function mutants for forward genetic applications. PMID:22127858

  18. A rhizobium leguminosarum mutant defective in symbiotic iron acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Nadler, K.D.; Chen, Jing-Wen; John, T.R. ); Johnston, A.W.B. )

    1990-02-01

    Iron acquisition by symbiotic Rhizobium spp. is essential for nitrogen fixation in the legume root nodule symbiosis. Rhizobium leguminosarum 116, an ineffective mutant strain with a defect in iron acquisition, was isolated after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis of the effective strain 1062. The pop-1 mutation in strain 116 imparted to it a complex phenotype, characteristic of iron deficiency. Several iron(III)-solubilizing agents, such as citrate, hydroxyquinoline, and dihydroxybenzoate, stimulated growth of 116 on low-iron solid medium; anthranilic acid, the R. leguminosarum siderophore, inhibited low-iron growth of 116. The initial rate of {sup 55}Fe uptake by suspensions of iron-starved 116 cells was 10-fold less than that of iron-starved wild-type cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed no morphological abnormalities in the small, white nodules induced by 116. Nodule cortical cells were filled with vesicles containing apparently normal bacteroids. No premature degeneration of bacteroids or of plant cell organelles was evident. The authors mapped pop-1 by R plasmid-mediated conjugation and recombination to the ade-27-rib-2 region of the R. leguminosarum chromosome. No segregation of pop-1 and the symbiotic defect was observed among the recombinants from these crosses. Cosmid pKN1, a pLAFR1 derivative containing a 24-kilobase-pair fragment of R. leguminosarum DNA, conferred on 116 the ability to grow on dipyridyl medium and to fix nitrogen symbiotically.

  19. Isolating human DNA repair genes using rodent-cell mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.H.; Weber, C.A.; Brookman, K.W.; Salazar, E.P.; Stewart, S.A.; Mitchell, D.L.

    1987-03-23

    The DNA repair systems of rodent and human cells appear to be at least as complex genetically as those in lower eukaryotes and bacteria. The use of mutant lines of rodent cells as a means of identifying human repair genes by functional complementation offers a new approach toward studying the role of repair in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. In each of six cases examined using hybrid cells, specific human chromosomes have been identified that correct CHO cell mutations affecting repair of damage from uv or ionizing radiations. This finding suggests that both the repair genes and proteins may be virtually interchangeable between rodent and human cells. Using cosmid vectors, human repair genes that map to chromosome 19 have cloned as functional sequences: ERCC2 and XRCC1. ERCC1 was found to have homology with the yeast excision repair gene RAD10. Transformants of repair-deficient cell lines carrying the corresponding human gene show efficient correction of repair capacity by all criteria examined. 39 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Bacteriophage-insensitive mutants for high quality Crescenza manufacture

    PubMed Central

    Chirico, Donatella; Gorla, Arianna; Verga, Viola; Pedersen, Per D.; Polgatti, Eliseo; Cava, Antonio; Dal Bello, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used as starter culture for the manufacture of fermented dairy products. For the production of Crescenza and other soft cheeses, Sacco has developed and provides dairies with three different defined blends of S. thermophilus strains. Each blend contains two different S. thermophilus strains. The strains were selected based on their unique technological properties as well as different phage profiles. Analysis of 133 whey samples collected in 2009–2010 from Italian dairies showed a high prevalence (about 50%) of bacteriophage attacks on the blend ST020. More specifically, the strain S. thermophilus ST1A was found to be the preferred target of the bacteriophages. A bacteriophage insensitive mutant (BIM5) of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A was successfully developed and used to substitute strain ST1A in the Crescenza starter culture ST020. The strain BIM5 showed identical technological and industrial traits as those of the phage-sensitive strain ST1A. The improved resistance of the modified Crescenza starter culture ST020R was confirmed at Italian dairies, and its effectiveness monitored on 122 whey samples collected in 2011–2012. Compared to the previous values (2009–2010), the use of the phage-hardened blend ST020R allowed reducing of frequency of phage attacks from about 50 to less than 5% of the whey samples investigated. PMID:24834065

  1. Producing Conditional Mutants for Studying Plant Microtubule Function

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Cyr

    2009-09-29

    The cytoskeleton, and in particular its microtubule component, participates in several processes that directly affect growth and development in higher plants. Normal cytoskeletal function requires the precise and orderly arrangement of microtubules into several cell cycle and developmentally specific arrays. One of these, the cortical array, is notable for its role in directing the deposition of cellulose (the most prominent polymer in the biosphere). An understanding of how these arrays form, and the molecular interactions that contribute to their function, is incomplete. To gain a better understanding of how microtubules work, we have been working to characterize mutants in critical cytoskeletal genes. This characterization is being carried out at the subcellular level using vital microtubule gene constructs. In the last year of funding colleagues have discovered that gamma-tubulin complexes form along the lengths of cortical microtubules where they act to spawn new microtubules at a characteristic 40 deg angle. This finding complements nicely the finding from our lab (which was funded by the DOE) showing that microtubule encounters are angle dependent; high angles encounters results in catastrophic collisions while low angle encounters result in favorable zippering. The finding of a 40 deg spawn of new microtubules from extant microtubule, together with aforementioned rules of encounters, insures favorable co-alignment in the array. I was invited to write a New and Views essay on this topic and a PDF is attached (News and Views policy does not permit funding acknowledgments and so I was not allowed to acknowledge support from the DOE).

  2. Mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with elevated vir gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Pazour, G.J.; Ta, C.N.; Das, A. )

    1991-08-15

    Expression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence (vir) genes requires virA, virG, and a plant-derived inducing compound such as acetosyringone. To identify the critical functional domains of virA and virG, a mutational approach was used. Agrobacterium A136 harboring plasmid pGP159, which contains virA, virG, and a reporter virB:lacZ gene fusion, was mutagenized with UV light or nitrosoguanidine. Survivors that formed blue colonies on a plate containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl beta-D-galactoside were isolated and analyzed. Quantification of beta-galactosidase activity in liquid assays identified nine mutant strains. By plasmid reconstruction and other procedures, all mutations mapped to the virA locus. These mutations caused an 11- to 560-fold increase in the vegetative level of virB:lacZ reporter gene expression. DNA sequence analysis showed that the mutations are located in four regions of VirA: transmembrane domain one, the active site, a glycine-rich region with homology to ATP-binding sites, and a region at the C terminus that has homology to the N terminus of VirG.

  3. Dystonia and Cerebellar Degeneration in the Leaner Mouse Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Raike, Robert S.; Hess, Ellen J.; Jinnah, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar degeneration is traditionally associated with ataxia. Yet, there are examples of both ataxia and dystonia occurring in individuals with cerebellar degeneration. There is also substantial evidence suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction alone may cause dystonia. The types of cerebellar defects that may cause ataxia, dystonia, or both have not been delineated. In the current study, we explored the relationship between cerebellar degeneration and dystonia using the leaner mouse mutant. Leaner mice have severe dystonia that is associated with dysfunctional and degenerating cerebellar Purkinje cells. Whereas the density of Purkinje cells was not significantly reduced in 4 week-old leaner mice, approximately 50% of the neurons were lost by 34 weeks of age. On the other hand, the dystonia and associated functional disability became significantly less severe during this same interval. In other words, dystonia improved as Purkinje cells were lost, suggesting that dysfunctional Purkinje cells, rather than Purkinje cell loss, contribute to the dystonia. These results provide evidence that distorted cerebellar function may cause dystonia and support the concept that different types of cerebellar defects can have different functional consequences. PMID:25791619

  4. Plasmodium yoelii: induction of attenuated mutants by irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-12-01

    When erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, which is invariably fatal in mice, were exposed to X rays, the dose to reduce surviving parasites to one millionth was 100 gray (10 Krad). A suspension of 5 X 10(6) per ml of parasitized erythrocyte was irradiated at 100 gray, and 0.2 ml aliquots were inoculated into 22 mice. Eleven mice showed patent parasitemia, and in these the growth curves were less steep than that found in nonirradiated parasites. The infections of 8 mice of the 11 were self-resolving, and the attenuated feature of the parasites maintained following a limited number of blood passages. The parasites were slowly growing even in nude mice and cause self-resolving infections in intact mice. BALB/c mice immunized with the attenuated parasites were protected against subsequent challenge infections with the original virulent erythrocytic and sporogonic forms. These findings indicate that attenuated mutants of malaria parasites can be readily induced by this method.

  5. Agravitropic mutant for the study of hydrotropism in seedling roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Takano, M.; Fujii, N.; Higashitani, A.; Yamashita, M.; Hirasawa, T.; Nishitani, K.

    1999-01-01

    Roots have been shown to respond to a moisture gradient by positive hydrotropism. Agravitropic mutant plants are useful for the study of the hydrotropism in roots because on Earth hydrotropism is obviously altered by the gravity response in the roots of normally gravitropic plants. The roots are able to sense water potential gradient as small as 0.5 MPa mm-1. The root cap includes the sensing apparatus that causes a differential growth at the elongation region of roots. A gradient in apoplastic calcium and calcium influx through plasmamembrane in the root cap is somehow involved in the signal transduction mechanism in hydrotropism, which may cause a differential change in cell wall extensibility at the elongation region. We have isolated an endoxy loglucan transferase (EXGT) gene that is strongly expressed in pea roots and appears to be involved in the differential growth in hydrotropically responding roots. Thus, it is now possible to study hydrotropism in roots by comparing with or separate from gravitropism. These results also imply that microgravity conditions in space are useful for the study of hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism.

  6. Isolation and characterization of Salmonella typhimurium glyoxylate shunt mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R B; Maloy, S R

    1987-01-01

    Growth of Salmonella typhimurium on acetate as a sole carbon source requires expression of the glyoxylate shunt; however, the genes for the glyoxylate shunt enzymes have not been previously identified in S. typhimurium. In this study, we isolated transposon insertions in the genes for the two unique enzymes of this pathway, aceA (isocitrate lyase) and aceB (malate synthase). The aceA and aceB genes were located at 89.5 min on the S. typhimurium genetic map. Genetic linkage to nearby loci indicated that the relative gene order is purDJ metA aceB aceA. Transposon insertions in aceB were polar on aceA, suggesting that the genes form an operon transcribed from aceB to aceA. Transcriptional regulation of the aceBA operon was studied by constructing mini-Mu d(lac Kan) operon fusions. Analysis of these fusions indicated that expression of the aceBA operon is regulated at the level of transcription; the aceBA genes were induced when acetate was present and repressing carbon sources were absent. Although glucose represses expression of the aceBA operon, repression does not seem to be mediated solely by cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein complex. Mutants with altered regulation of the aceBA operon were isolated. PMID:3298210

  7. Spontaneous transitions in the synchronisation states of a Chlamydomonas mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Kirsty; Leptos, Kyriacos; Polin, Marco; Tuval, Idan; Goldstein, Raymond

    2011-03-01

    The mechanisms by which eukaryotic flagella are found to synchronise is poorly understood; the origins being dependent upon the hydrodynamics, as well as the underlying molecular biochemistry. Exemplifying how available phenotypic variations in a species may be exploited to extend our mathematical models for flagellar coupling, we turn to ptx1 - a non-phototactic mutant strain of the biflagellated alga Chlamydomonas with seemingly intact flagellar apparatus, which does not exhibit any gross motility defects. Intriguingly however, our high-speed imaging analysis of flagellar dynamics in ptx1 have revealed that rather unlike their wildtype predecessors, which beat mostly in synchrony interrupted by brief periods of drifts or slip, the two flagella of ptx1 are observed to consistently revert from synchrony to a state of stable, coupled, anti-phase beating dynamics. Incorporating the interpretation of the flagella pair as coupled noisy oscillators, we show how such behaviour corroborates readily with a secondary contribution to the coupling, which is further conjectured to be inherent in the wildtype.

  8. Mutant deoxynucleotide carrier is associated with congenital microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Marjorie J; Agarwala, Richa; Bouffard, Gerard; Davis, Joie; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Hilliard, Mark S; Koch, Thorsten; Kalikin, Linda M; Makalowska, Izabela; Morton, D Holmes; Petty, Elizabeth M; Weber, James L; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Kelley, Richard I; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2002-09-01

    The disorder Amish microcephaly (MCPHA) is characterized by severe congenital microcephaly, elevated levels of alpha-ketoglutarate in the urine and premature death. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and has been observed only in Old Order Amish families whose ancestors lived in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Here we show, by using a genealogy database and automated pedigree software, that 23 nuclear families affected with MCPHA are connected to a single ancestral couple. Through a whole-genome scan, fine mapping and haplotype analysis, we localized the gene affected in MCPHA to a region of 3 cM, or 2 Mb, on chromosome 17q25. We constructed a map of contiguous genomic clones spanning this region. One of the genes in this region, SLC25A19, which encodes a nuclear mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier (DNC), contains a substitution that segregates with the disease in affected individuals and alters an amino acid that is highly conserved in similar proteins. Functional analysis shows that the mutant DNC protein lacks the normal transport activity, implying that failed deoxynucleotide transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane causes MCPHA. Our data indicate that mitochondrial deoxynucleotide transport may be essential for prenatal brain growth.

  9. scyllo-Inositol promotes robust mutant Huntingtin protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Lai, Aaron Y; Lan, Cynthia P; Hasan, Salwa; Brown, Mary E; McLaurin, Joanne

    2014-02-01

    Huntington disease is characterized by neuronal aggregates and inclusions containing polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin protein and peptide fragments (polyQ-Htt). We have used an established cell-based assay employing a PC12 cell line overexpressing truncated exon 1 of Htt with a 103-residue polyQ expansion that yields polyQ-Htt aggregates to investigate the fate of polyQ-Htt-drug complexes. scyllo-Inositol is an endogenous inositol stereoisomer known to inhibit accumulation and toxicity of the amyloid-β peptide and α-synuclein. In light of these properties, we investigated the effect of scyllo-inositol on polyQ-Htt accumulation. We show that scyllo-inositol lowered the number of visible polyQ-Htt aggregates and robustly decreased polyQ-Htt protein abundance without concomitant cellular toxicity. We found that scyllo-inositol-induced polyQ-Htt reduction was by rescue of degradation pathways mediated by the lysosome and by the proteasome but not autophagosomes. The rescue of degradation pathways was not a direct result of scyllo-inositol on the lysosome or proteasome but due to scyllo-inositol-induced reduction in mutant polyQ-Htt protein levels.

  10. Construction of murine coronavirus mutants containing interspecies chimeric nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, D; Koetzner, C A; McMahon, T; Zhu, Y; Masters, P S

    1995-01-01

    Targeted RNA recombination was used to construct mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) mutants containing chimeric nucleocapsid (N) protein genes in which segments of the bovine coronavirus N gene were substituted in place of their corresponding MHV sequences. This defined portions of the two N proteins that, despite evolutionary divergence, have remained functionally equivalent. These regions included most of the centrally located RNA-binding domain and two putative spacers that link the three domains of the N protein. By contrast, the amino terminus of N, the acidic carboxy-terminal domain, and a serine- and arginine-rich segment of the central domain could not be transferred from bovine coronavirus to MHV, presumably because these parts of the molecule participate in protein-protein interactions that are specific for each virus (or, possibly, each host). Our results demonstrate that targeted recombination can be used to make extensive substitutions in the coronavirus genome and can generate recombinants that could not otherwise be made between two viruses separated by a species barrier. The implications of these findings for N protein structure and function as well as for coronavirus RNA recombination are discussed. PMID:7636993

  11. An Inactive Geminin Mutant That Binds Cdt1

    PubMed Central

    Suchyta, Marissa; Miotto, Benoit; McGarry, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of DNA replication is tightly regulated in order to ensure that the genome duplicates only once per cell cycle. In vertebrate cells, the unstable regulatory protein Geminin prevents a second round of DNA replication by inhibiting the essential replication factor Cdt1. Cdt1 recruits mini-chromosome maintenance complex (MCM2-7), the replication helicase, into the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) at origins of DNA replication. The mechanism by which Geminin inhibits MCM2-7 loading by Cdt1 is incompletely understood. The conventional model is that Geminin sterically hinders a direct physical interaction between Cdt1 and MCM2-7. Here, we describe an inactive missense mutant of Geminin, GemininAWA, which binds to Cdt1 with normal affinity yet is completely inactive as a replication inhibitor even when added in vast excess. In fact, GemininAWA can compete with GemininWT for binding to Cdt1 and prevent it from inhibiting DNA replication. GemininAWA does not inhibit the loading of MCM2-7 onto DNA in vivo, and in the presence of GemininAWA, nuclear DNA is massively over-replicated within a single S phase. We conclude that Geminin does not inhibit MCM loading by simple steric interference with a Cdt1-MCM2-7 interaction but instead works by a non-steric mechanism, possibly by inhibiting the histone acetyltransferase HBO1. PMID:25988259

  12. Alzheimer-associated mutant ubiquitin impairs spatial reference memory.

    PubMed

    van Tijn, Paula; Hobo, Barbara; Verhage, Marian C; Oitzl, Melly S; van Leeuwen, Fred W; Fischer, David F

    2011-02-01

    UBB(+1) is a mutant ubiquitin which accumulates in the hallmarks of tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease. Transgenic mice expressing high levels of neuronal UBB(+1) exhibit moderately decreased proteasome activity and spatial reference memory deficits at 9months of age. In the present study, we characterized the behavioral phenotype of male UBB(+1) transgenic mice at different ages. We show that UBB(+1) transgenic mice displayed an age-related functional decline similar to wild-type littermates, without gross neurological abnormalities or alterations in procedural motor-learning and motor coordination. At 15months of age, a transgene-specific spatial learning deficit was dependent on the period of training in the Morris watermaze. This deficit could be eliminated after additional training. We conclude that the previously reported spatial reference memory deficits of UBB(+1) transgenic mice persist during aging. In addition, our results demonstrate that the subtle defect in spatial reference memory formation, caused by a decrease in forebrain proteasome activity, is a persistent defect and not a structural defect.

  13. Analysis of normal and mutant iduronate-2-sulphatase conformation.

    PubMed

    Parkinson-Lawrence, Emma; Turner, Christopher; Hopwood, John; Brooks, Doug

    2005-03-01

    Mammalian sulphatases (EC 3.1.6) are a family of enzymes that have a high degree of similarity in amino acid sequence, structure and catalytic mechanism. IDS (iduronate-2-sulphatase; EC 3.1.6.13) is a lysosomal exo-sulphatase that belongs to this protein family and is involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. An IDS deficiency causes the lysosomal storage disorder MPS II (mucopolysaccharidosis type II). To examine the structural alterations in heat-denatured and mutant IDS, a panel of four monoclonal antibodies was raised to the denatured protein and used as probes of protein conformation. The linear sequence epitope reactivity of a polyclonal antibody raised against the native protein and the monoclonal antibodies were defined and mapped to distinct regions on the IDS protein. The antigenicity of native IDS was higher in regions without glycosylation, but reactivity was not restricted to protein surface epitopes. One monoclonal epitope was relatively surface accessible and in close proximity to an N-linked glycosylation site, while three others required additional thermal energy to expose the epitopes. The monoclonal antibodies demonstrated the capacity to differentiate progressive structural changes in IDS and could be used to characterize the severity of MPS type II in patients based on variable denatured microstates.

  14. Clinical significance of hepatitis B surface antigen mutants

    PubMed Central

    Coppola, Nicola; Onorato, Lorenzo; Minichini, Carmine; Di Caprio, Giovanni; Starace, Mario; Sagnelli, Caterina; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in many countries, with nearly 300 million people worldwide carrying HBV chronic infection and over 1 million deaths per year due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Several hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations have been described, most frequently due to a single amino acid substitution and seldom to a nucleotide deletion. The majority of mutations are located in the S region, but they have also been found in the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions. Single amino acid substitutions in the major hydrophilic region of HBsAg, called the “a” determinant, have been associated with immune escape and the consequent failure of HBV vaccination and HBsAg detection, whereas deletions in the pre-S1 or pre-S2 regions have been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review article will focus on the HBsAg mutants and their biological and clinical implications. PMID:26644816

  15. Proteomic and Genomic Analyses of Antimony Resistant Leishmania infantum Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Leprohon, Philippe; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G.; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimonials remain the primary antileishmanial drugs in most developing countries. However, drug resistance to these compounds is increasing and our understanding of resistance mechanisms is partial. Methods/Principal Findings In the present study, quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and genome next generation sequencing were used in order to better characterize in vitro generated Leishmania infantum antimony resistant mutant (Sb2000.1). Using the proteomic method, 58 proteins were found to be differentially regulated in Sb2000.1. The ABC transporter MRPA (ABCC3), a known marker of antimony resistance, was observed for the first time in a proteomic screen. Furthermore, transfection of its gene conferred antimony resistance in wild-type cells. Next generation sequencing revealed aneuploidy for 8 chromosomes in Sb2000.1. Moreover, specific amplified regions derived from chromosomes 17 and 23 were observed in Sb2000.1 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was detected in a protein kinase (LinJ.33.1810-E629K). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that differentially expressed proteins, chromosome number variations (CNVs), specific gene amplification and SNPs are important features of antimony resistance in Leishmania. PMID:24312377

  16. Natural Variation of Model Mutant Phenotypes in Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Euan R.; Leccia, Nicola I.; Squarzoni, Paola; Tarallo, Raffaella; Alfano, Christian; Caputi, Luigi; D'Ambrosio, Palmira; Daniele, Paola; D'Aniello, Enrico; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Maiella, Sylvie; Miraglia, Valentina; Russo, Monia Teresa; Sorrenti, Gerarda; Branno, Margherita; Cariello, Lucio; Cirino, Paola; Locascio, Annamaria; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Zanetti, Laura; Ristoratore, Filomena

    2008-01-01

    Background The study of ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata) has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of the origin and evolution of basal chordates. To provide further information to support forward genetics in Ciona intestinalis, we used a combination of natural variation and neutral population genetics as an approach for the systematic identification of new mutations. In addition to the significance of developmental variation for phenotype-driven studies, this approach can encompass important implications in evolutionary and population biology. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report a preliminary survey for naturally occurring mutations in three geographically interconnected populations of C. intestinalis. The influence of historical, geographical and environmental factors on the distribution of abnormal phenotypes was assessed by means of 12 microsatellites. We identified 37 possible mutant loci with stereotyped defects in embryonic development that segregate in a way typical of recessive alleles. Local populations were found to differ in genetic organization and frequency distribution of phenotypic classes. Conclusions/Significance Natural genetic polymorphism of C. intestinalis constitutes a valuable source of phenotypes for studying embryonic development in ascidians. Correlating genetic structure and the occurrence of abnormal phenotypes is a crucial focus for understanding the selective forces that shape natural finite populations, and may provide insights of great importance into the evolutionary mechanisms that generate animal diversity. PMID:18523552

  17. The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Ternette, Nicola; Su, Huizhong; Dabiri, Raliat; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Adam, Julie; Teh, Bin Tean; Pollard, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC. PMID:25105836

  18. Identification of Arabidopsis mutants with altered freezing tolerance.

    PubMed

    Perea-Resa, Carlos; Salinas, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature is an important determinant in the configuration of natural plant communities and defines the range of distribution and growth of important crops. Some plants, including Arabidopsis, have evolved sophisticated adaptive mechanisms to tolerate low and freezing temperatures. Central to this adaptation is the process of cold acclimation. By means of this process, many plants from temperate regions are able to develop or increase their freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures. The identification and characterization of factors involved in freezing tolerance are crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the cold acclimation response and have a potential interest to improve crop tolerance to freezing temperatures. Many genes implicated in cold acclimation have been identified in numerous plant species by using molecular approaches followed by reverse genetic analysis. Remarkably, however, direct genetic analyses have not been conveniently exploited in their capacity for identifying genes with pivotal roles in that adaptive response. In this chapter, we describe a protocol for evaluating the freezing tolerance of both non-acclimated and cold-acclimated Arabidopsis plants. This protocol allows the accurate and simple screening of mutant collections for the identification of novel factors involved in freezing tolerance and cold acclimation.

  19. The Succinated Proteome of FH-Mutant Tumours.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Ternette, Nicola; Su, Huizhong; Dabiri, Raliat; Kessler, Benedikt M; Adam, Julie; Teh, Bin Tean; Pollard, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH) predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). Loss of FH activity in HLRCC tumours causes accumulation of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate to high levels, which may act as an oncometabolite through various, but not necessarily mutually exclusive, mechanisms. One such mechanism, succination, is an irreversible non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues by fumarate, to form S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Previous studies have demonstrated that succination of proteins including glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO2) can have profound effects on cellular metabolism. Furthermore, immunostaining for 2SC is a sensitive and specific biomarker for HLRCC tumours. Here, we performed a proteomic screen on an FH-mutant tumour and two HLRCC-derived cancer cell lines and identified 60 proteins where one or more cysteine residues were succinated; 10 of which were succinated at cysteine residues either predicted, or experimentally proven, to be functionally significant. Bioinformatic enrichment analyses identified most succinated targets to be involved in redox signaling. To our knowledge, this is the first proteomic-based succination screen performed in human tumours and cancer-derived cells and has identified novel 2SC targets that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLRCC. PMID:25105836

  20. Gibberella fujikuroi mutants obtained with UV radiation and N-methyl-N'-nitro-nitrosoguanidine

    SciTech Connect

    Avalos, J.; Casadesus, J.; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    1985-01-01

    N-methyl-N'-nitrosoguanidine and to a lesser extent UV radiation are very mutagenic for Gibberella microconidia. The recommended nitrosoguanidine doses lead to much higher frequencies of mutants than are found in other microorganisms. The frequency of mutants among the survivors increases linearly with the nitrosoguanidine dose (molar concentration x time); the absolute number of viable mutants in a given population reaches a maximum for a dose of ca. 0.7 M x s. The microconidia are uninucleate. The onset of germination brings about increased lethality of nitrosoguanidine, but it does not modify the action of UV radiation. Mycelia are more resistant than spores to both agents. Visible illumination effectively prevents lethality when given immediately after UV irradiation. Auxotrophs and color mutants are very easily obtained. Pink adenine auxotrophs and several classes of color mutants are affected in the biosynthesis of the carotenoid pigment, neurosporaxanthin.

  1. Transposon Mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Altered in Attachment to Host Roots †

    PubMed Central

    Vesper, Stephen J.; Malik, Nasir S. A.; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1987-01-01

    Transposon mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum 110 ARS were produced and screened for changes in attachment ability. Mutant CFK4 produced twice as many piliated cells, attached in 2.5-fold-higher numbers to soybean root segments, and colonized roots in about 2-fold-higher numbers than did the parental strain, 110 ARS. Mutants CFK35 and CFK38 were reduced in their attachment about 2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively. This corresponded to reductions in piliated cells in their populations, reduced reaction with anti-pilus antiserum, and reduced hydrophobic attachment. Mutants CFK4 and CFK38 nodulated soybeans at about the same level as the parent strain, but CFK35 induced only pseudonodules. Two-dimensional gel analyses of the proteins from the mutants showed relatively few changes in proteins. PMID:16347421

  2. DNA repair mutants defining G2 checkpoint pathways in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    al-Khodairy, F; Carr, A M

    1992-01-01

    We have tested mutants corresponding to 20 DNA repair genes of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe for their ability to arrest in G2 after DNA damage. Of the mutants tested, four are profoundly defective in this damage dependent G2 arrest. In addition, these four mutants are highly sensitive to a transient inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea. This suggests that the pathway responsible for the recognition of DNA damage and the subsequent mitotic arrest, shares many functions with the mechanism that controls the dependency of mitosis on the completion of S phase. The phenotype of these checkpoint rad mutants in wee mutant backgrounds indicate that the G2 arrest response is mediated either through, or in parallel with, the activity of the cdc2 gene product. Images PMID:1563350

  3. Mutant strains of Tetrahymena thermophila defective in thymidine kinase activity: Biochemical and genetic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, K.V.; Pearlman, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Three mutant strains, one conditional, of Tetrahymena thermophila were defective in thymidine phosphorylating activity in vivo and in thymidine kinase activity in vitro. Nucleoside phosphotransferase activity in mutant cell extracts approached wild-type levels, suggesting that thymidine kinase is responsible for most, if not all, thymidine phosphorylation in vivo. Thymidine kinase activity in extracts of the conditional mutant strain was deficient when the cells were grown or assayed or both at the permissive temperature, implying a structural enzyme defect. Analysis of the reaction products from in vitro assays with partially purified enzymes showed that phosphorylation by thymidine kinase and nucleoside phosphotransferase occurred at the 5' position. Genetic analyses showed that the mutant phenotype was recessive and that mutations in each of the three mutant strains did not complement, suggesting allelism.

  4. Reverse genetic screening reveals poor correlation between morpholino-induced and mutant phenotypes in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kok, Fatma O; Shin, Masahiro; Ni, Chih-Wen; Gupta, Ankit; Grosse, Ann S; van Impel, Andreas; Kirchmaier, Bettina C; Peterson-Maduro, Josi; Kourkoulis, George; Male, Ira; DeSantis, Dana F; Sheppard-Tindell, Sarah; Ebarasi, Lwaki; Betsholtz, Christer; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Wolfe, Scot A; Lawson, Nathan D

    2015-01-12

    The widespread availability of programmable site-specific nucleases now enables targeted gene disruption in the zebrafish. In this study, we applied site-specific nucleases to generate zebrafish lines bearing individual mutations in more than 20 genes. We found that mutations in only a small proportion of genes caused defects in embryogenesis. Moreover, mutants for ten different genes failed to recapitulate published Morpholino-induced phenotypes (morphants). The absence of phenotypes in mutant embryos was not likely due to maternal effects or failure to eliminate gene function. Consistently, a comparison of published morphant defects with the Sanger Zebrafish Mutation Project revealed that approximately 80% of morphant phenotypes were not observed in mutant embryos, similar to our mutant collection. Based on these results, we suggest that mutant phenotypes become the standard metric to define gene function in zebrafish, after which Morpholinos that recapitulate respective phenotypes could be reliably applied for ancillary analyses.

  5. Functional analysis of 150 deletion mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Entian, K D; Schuster, T; Hegemann, J H; Becher, D; Feldmann, H; Güldener, U; Götz, R; Hansen, M; Hollenberg, C P; Jansen, G; Kramer, W; Klein, S; Kötter, P; Kricke, J; Launhardt, H; Mannhaupt, G; Maierl, A; Meyer, P; Mewes, W; Munder, T; Niedenthal, R K; Ramezani Rad, M; Röhmer, A; Römer, A; Hinnen, A

    1999-12-01

    In a systematic approach to the study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes of unknown function, 150 deletion mutants were constructed (1 double, 149 single mutants) and phenotypically analysed. Twenty percent of all genes examined were essential. The viable deletion mutants were subjected to 20 different test systems, ranging from high throughput to highly specific test systems. Phenotypes were obtained for two-thirds of the mutants tested. During the course of this investigation, mutants for 26 of the genes were described by others. For 18 of these the reported data were in accordance with our results. Surprisingly, for seven genes, additional, unexpected phenotypes were found in our tests. This suggests that the type of analysis presented here provides a more complete description of gene function.

  6. Temperature-sensitive mutants of frog virus 3: biochemical and genetic characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Chinchar, V G; Granoff, A

    1986-01-01

    Nineteen frog virus 3 temperature-sensitive mutants were isolated after mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and assayed for viral DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, as well as assembly site formation at permissive (25 degrees C) and nonpermissive (30 degrees C) temperatures. In addition, mutants were characterized for complementation by both quantitative and qualitative assays. Based on the genetic and biochemical data, the 19 mutants, along with 9 mutants isolated earlier, were ordered into four phenotypic classes which define defects in virion morphogenesis (class I), late mRNA synthesis (class II), viral assembly site formation (class III), and viral DNA synthesis (class IV). In addition, we used two-factor crosses to order 11 mutants, comprising 7 complementation groups, onto a linkage map spanning 77 recombination units. Images PMID:3951023

  7. Eucaryotic RNA polymerase conditional mutant that rapidly ceases mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M; Scafe, C; Sexton, J; Young, R

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated a yeast conditional mutant which rapidly ceases synthesis of mRNA when subjected to the nonpermissive temperature. This mutant (rpb1-1) was constructed by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II with one mutagenized in vitro. The rapid cessation of mRNA synthesis in vivo and the lack of RNA polymerase II activity in crude extracts indicate that the mutant possesses a functionally defective, rather than an assembly-defective, RNA polymerase II. The shutdown in mRNA synthesis in the rpb1-1 mutant has pleiotropic effects on the synthesis of other RNAs and on the heat shock response. This mutant provides direct evidence that the RPB1 protein has a functional role in mRNA synthesis. Images PMID:3299050

  8. Erythritol production with minimum by-product using Candida magnoliae mutant.

    PubMed

    Ghezelbash, G R; Nahvi, I; Malekpour, A

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance erythritol production, mutants of Candida magnoliae DSM70638 were generated by ultraviolet and chemical mutagenesis. Erythritol productivity of samples was analyzed by TLC and HPLC with the refractive index detector. One of the mutants named mutant 12-2 gave a 2.4-fold increase in erythritol (20.32 g/L) and a 5.5-fold decrease in glycerol production compared to the wild strain. A sequence-based map of erythrose reductase gene in this mutant showed a replacement of the A321 by G321 that did not cause any amino acid exchange in protein structure. Therefore, the reason of higher erythritol production in C. magnoliae mutant 12-2 is probably the increase in expression of the open reading frame gene. This study revealed that a mutation or minor change in the sequence of genes involved in a production pathway can lead to a significant increase in protein translation.

  9. Oxysterol-binding protein ORP3 rescues the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-linked mutant VAPB phenotype.

    PubMed

    Darbyson, Angie; Ngsee, Johnny K

    2016-02-01

    A mutation in VAPB causes a familial form of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. The mutant protein (VAPB-P56S) is aggregate prone and blocks retrograde traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) including trafficking to the nuclear envelope (NE). Here we report a morphological screen where overexpression of oxysterol binding protein-related protein-3 (ORP3) rescued the mutant VAPB phenotype. It resolved the mutant VAPB-induced membrane expansions, restored solubility of the mutant protein in non-ionic detergent, and restored trafficking of Emerin to the NE. Knockdown of ORP3 or VAPB increased the intracellular level of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P). Decreasing PtdIns4P levels by inhibiting its synthesis reduced the severity of the mutant VAPB-induced membrane expansions and restored Emerin trafficking to the NE. Thus, VAPB and its interacting partners cooperatively regulate protein trafficking through the ERGIC by modulating PtdIns4P levels.

  10. Reverse genetic screening reveals poor correlation between Morpholino-induced and mutant phenotypes in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A.; Grosse, A. S.; van Impel, A.; Kirchmaier, B. C.; Peterson-Maduro, J.; Kourkoulis, G.; Male, I.; DeSantis, D.F.; Sheppard-Tindell, S.; Ebarasi, L.; Betsholtz, C.; Schulte-Merker, S.; Wolfe, S. A.; Lawson, N. D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The widespread availability of programmable site-specific nucleases now enables targeted gene disruption in the zebrafish. In this study, we applied site-specific nucleases to generate zebrafish lines bearing individual mutations in more than twenty genes. We found that mutations in only a small proportion of genes caused defects in embryogenesis. Moreover, mutants for ten different genes failed to recapitulate published Morpholino-induced phenotypes (morphants). The absence of phenotypes in mutant embryos was not likely due to maternal effects or failure to eliminate gene function. Consistently, a comparison of published morphant defects with the Sanger Zebrafish Mutation Project revealed that approximately eighty percent of morphant phenotypes were not observed in mutant embryos, similar to our mutant collection. Based on these results, we suggest that mutant phenotypes become the standard metric to define gene function in zebrafish, after which Morpholinos that recapitulate respective phenotypes could be reliably applied for ancillary analyses. PMID:25533206

  11. Autosomal mutants of proton-exposed kidney cells display frequent loss of heterozygosity on nonselected chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Grygoryev, Dmytro; Dan, Cristian; Gauny, Stacey; Eckelmann, Bradley; Ohlrich, Anna P; Connolly, Marissa; Lasarev, Michael; Grossi, Gianfranco; Kronenberg, Amy; Turker, Mitchell S

    2014-05-01

    High-energy protons found in the space environment can induce mutations and cancer, which are inextricably linked. We hypothesized that some mutants isolated from proton-exposed kidneys arose through a genome-wide incident that causes loss of heterozygosity (LOH)-generating mutations on multiple chromosomes (termed here genomic LOH). To test this hypothesis, we examined 11 pairs of nonselected chromosomes for LOH events in mutant cells isolated from the kidneys of mice exposed to 4 or 5 Gy of 1 GeV protons. The mutant kidney cells were selected for loss of expression of the chromosome 8-encoded Aprt gene. Genomic LOH events were also assessed in Aprt mutants isolated from isogenic cultured kidney epithelial cells exposed to 5 Gy of protons in vitro. Control groups were spontaneous Aprt mutants and clones isolated without selection from the proton-exposed kidneys or cultures. The in vivo results showed significant increases in genomic LOH events in the Aprt mutants from proton-exposed kidneys when compared with spontaneous Aprt mutants and when compared with nonmutant (i.e., nonselected) clones from the proton-exposed kidneys. A bias for LOH events affecting chromosome 14 was observed in the proton-induced Aprt mutants, though LOH for this chromosome did not confer increased radiation resistance. Genomic LOH events were observed in Aprt mutants isolated from proton-exposed cultured kidney cells; however the incidence was fivefold lower than in Aprt mutants isolated from exposed intact kidneys, suggesting a more permissive environment in the intact organ and/or the evolution of kidney clones prior to their isolation from the tissue. We conclude that proton exposure creates a subset of viable cells with LOH events on multiple chromosomes, that these cells form and persist in vivo, and that they can be isolated from an intact tissue by selection for a mutation on a single chromosome.

  12. Ipsen 5i is a Novel Potent Pharmacoperone for Intracellularly Retained Melanocortin-4 Receptor Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Ya-Xiong; Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) cause early-onset severe obesity in humans. Comprehensive functional studies show that most of the inactivating mutants of the MC4R are retained intracellularly. In the present study, we investigated whether a small molecule inverse agonist of the MC4R, Ipsen 5i, could act as a pharmacoperone and correct the cell surface expression and function of intracellularly retained mutant MC4Rs using multiple cell lines, including HEK293 and two neuronal cell lines. We showed that Ipsen 5i rescued the cell surface expression of all 11 intracellularly retained mutant MC4Rs studied herein in at least one cell line. Ipsen 5i functionally rescued seven mutants in all cell lines used. One mutant (Y157S) was functionally rescued in HEK293 cells but not in the two neuronal cell lines. Ipsen 5i increased cell surface expression of three mutants (S58C, G98R, and F261S) but did not affect signaling. Ipsen 5i had no effect on mutant MC4Rs with other defects (Δ88-92, D90N, I102S) or no defect (N274S). It also did not affect trafficking of a misrouted MC3R mutant (I335S). Cell impermeable peptide ligands of the MC4R or cell permeable small molecule ligand of δ opioid receptor could not rescue misrouted mutant MC4R. In summary, we demonstrated that Ipsen 5i was a novel potent pharmacoperone of the MC4R, correcting trafficking and signaling of a significant portion (73%) of intracellularly retained mutants. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy. PMID:25136332

  13. Enhanced anti-angiogenic effect of a deletion mutant of plasminogen kringle 5 on neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weibin; Ma, Jianfang; Li, Chaoyang; Yang, Zhonghan; Yang, Xia; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Mintao; Gao, Guoquan

    2005-12-15

    Kringle 5 (K5), a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, has been proved to be an angiogenic inhibitor. Previously, we have evaluated the effect of K5 on the vascular leakage and neovascularization in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. In this study, we expressed K5 and a deletion mutant of K5 (K5 mutant) in a prokaryocyte expression system and purified them by affinity chromatography. K5 mutant was generated by deleting 11 amino acids from K5 while retaining the three disulfide bonds. The anti-angiogenic activity of intact K5 and K5 mutant were compared in endothelial cells and retinal neovascularization rat model. K5 mutant inhibited the proliferation of primary human retinal capillary endothelial cells (HRCEC) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an apparent EC50 of approximate 35 nmol/L, which is twofold more potent than intact K5. In the even higher concentration range, K5 mutant did not inhibit pericytes from the same origin of HRCEC, which suggested an endothelial cell-specific inhibition. K5 mutant had no effect on normal liver cells and Bel7402 hepatoma cells even at high concentration range either. Intravitreal injection of the K5 and mutant in the oxygen-induced retinopathy rat model both resulted in significantly fewer neovascular tufts and nonperfusion area than controls with PBS injection, as shown by fluorescein angiography. Furthermore, K5 mutant exhibited more strong inhibition effect on neovascularization than intact K5 by quantification of vascular cells. These results suggest that this K5 deletion mutant is a more potent angiogenic inhibitor than intact K5 and may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of those disorders with neovascularization, such as solid tumor, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, and hyperplasia of prostate. PMID:16167344

  14. Transposon-Derived Brucella abortus Rough Mutants Are Attenuated and Exhibit Reduced Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Chris A.; Adams, L. Garry; Ficht, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The O antigen of Brucella abortus has been described as a major virulence determinant based on the attenuated survival of fortuitously isolated rough variants. However, the lack of genetic definition of these mutants and the virulence of naturally occurring rough species, Brucella ovis and Brucella canis, has confused interpretation. To better characterize the role of O antigen in virulence and survival, transposon mutagenesis was used to generate B. abortus rough mutants defective in O-antigen presentation. Sequence analysis of DNA flanking the site of Tn5 insertion was used to verify insertion in genes encoding lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthetic functions. Not surprisingly, each of the rough mutants was attenuated for survival in mice, but unexpected differences among the mutants were observed. In an effort to define the basis for the observed differences, the structure of the rough LPS and the sensitivity of these mutants to individual killing mechanisms were examined in vitro. All of the B. abortus rough mutants exhibited a 4- to 5-log-unit increase, compared to the smooth parental strain, in sensitivity to complement-mediated lysis. Little change was evident in the sensitivity of these organisms to hydrogen peroxide, consistent with an inability of O antigen to exclude relatively small molecules. Sensitivity to polymyxin B, which was employed as a model cationic, amphipathic peptide similar to defensins found in phagocytic cells, revealed survival differences among the rough mutants similar to those observed in the mouse. One mutant in particular exhibited hypersensitivity to polymyxin B and reduced survival in mice. This mutant was characterized by a truncated rough LPS. DNA sequence analysis of this mutant revealed a transposon interruption in the gene encoding phosphomannomutase (pmm), suggesting that this activity may be required for the synthesis of a full-length core polysaccharide in addition to O antigen. B. abortus O antigen appears to be essential

  15. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Lotus japonicus mutants specifically defective in arbuscular mycorrhizal formation.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Katsuharu; Oba, Hirosuke; Yoshida, Yuma; Terasawa, Junya; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Ohtomo, Ryo

    2014-05-01

    Several symbiotic mutants of legume plants defective in nodulation have also been shown to be mutants related to arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. The origin of the AM symbiosis can be traced back to the early land plants. It has therefore been postulated that the older system of AM symbiosis was partially incorporated into the newer system of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. To unravel the genetic basis of the establishment of AM symbiosis, we screened about 34,000 plants derived from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized Lotus japonicus seeds by microscopic observation. As a result, three lines (ME778, ME966 and ME2329) were isolated as AM-specific mutants that exhibit clear AM-defective phenotypes but form normal effective root nodules with rhizobial infection. In the ME2329 mutant, AM fungi spread their hyphae into the intercellular space of the cortex and formed trunk hyphae in the cortical cells, but the development of fine branches in the arbuscules was arrested. The ME2329 mutant carried a nonsense mutation in the STR-homolog gene, implying that the line may be an str mutant in L. japonicus. On the ME778 and ME966 mutant roots, the entry of AM fungal hyphae was blocked between two adjacent epidermal cells. Occasionally, hyphal colonization accompanied by arbuscules was observed in the two mutants. The genes responsible for the ME778 and ME966 mutants were independently located on chromosome 2. These results suggest that the ME778 and ME966 lines are symbiotic mutants involved in the early stage of AM formation in L. japonicus.

  16. Two types of RAS mutants that dominantly interfere with activators of RAS.

    PubMed Central

    Jung, V; Wei, W; Ballester, R; Camonis, J; Mi, S; Van Aelst, L; Wigler, M; Broek, D

    1994-01-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, ras1 regulates both sexual development (conjugation and sporulation) and cellular morphology. Two types of dominant interfering mutants were isolated in a genetic screen for ras1 mutants that blocked sexual development. The first type of mutation, at Ser-22, analogous to the H-rasAsn-17 mutant (L. A. Feig and G. M. Cooper, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:3235-3243, 1988), blocked only conjugation, whereas a second type of mutation, at Asp-62, interfered with conjugation, sporulation, and cellular morphology. Analogous mutations at position 64 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAS2 or position 57 of human H-ras also resulted in dominant interfering mutants that interfered specifically and more profoundly than mutants of the first type with RAS-associated pathways in both S. pombe or S. cerevisiae. Genetic evidence indicating that both types of interfering mutants function upstream of RAS is provided. Biochemical evidence showing that the mutants are altered in their interaction with the CDC25 class of exchange factors is presented. We show that both H-rasAsn-17 and H-rasTyr-57, compared with wild-type H-ras, are defective in their guanine nucleotide-dependent release from human cdc25 and that this defect is more severe for the H-rasTyr-57 mutant. Such a defect would allow the interfering mutants to remain bound to, thereby sequestering RAS exchange factors. The more severe interference phenotype of this novel interfering mutant suggests that it functions by titrating out other positive regulators of RAS besides those encoded by ste6 and CDC25. Images PMID:8196614

  17. Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. )

    1994-10-01

    Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Kinetic characterization of human butyrylcholinesterase mutants for hydrolysis of cocaethylene

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shurong; Zhan, Max; Zheng, Xirong; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Zheng, Fang

    2015-01-01

    It is known that majority of cocaine users also consume alcohol. Alcohol can react with cocaine to produce a significantly more cytotoxic compound, cocaethylene. Hence, a truly valuable cocaine-metabolizing enzyme for cocaine abuse/overdose treatment should be efficient for not only cocaine itself, but also cocaethylene. The catalytic parameters (kcat and KM) of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and two mutants (known as cocaine hydrolases E14-3 and E12-7) for cocaethylene have been characterized in the present study, for the first time, in comparison with those for cocaine. Based on the obtained kinetic data, wild-type human BChE has a lower catalytic activity for cocaethylene (kcat = 3.3 min−1, KM = 7.5 μM, and kcat/KM = 4.40 × 105 M−1 min−1) compared to its catalytic activity for (−)-cocaine. E14-3 and E12-7 have a considerably improved catalytic activity against cocaethylene compared to the wild-type BChE. E12-7 is identified as the most efficient enzyme for hydrolyzing cocaethylene in addition to its high activity for (−)-cocaine. E12-7 has an 861-fold improved catalytic efficiency for cocaethylene (kcat = 3600 min−1, KM = 9.5 μM, and kcat/KM = 3.79 × 108 M−1 min−1). It has been demonstrated that E12-7 as an exogenous enzyme can indeed rapidly metabolize cocaethylene in rats. Further kinetic modeling has suggested that E12-7 with an identical concentration as that of the endogenous BChE in human plasma can effectively eliminate (−)-cocaine, cocaethylene, and norcocaine in simplified kinetic models of cocaine abuse and overdose associated with the concurrent use of cocaine and alcohol. PMID:24870023

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant displaying beta-glucans on cell surface.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yumiko; Azuma, Masayuki; Takada, Yuki; Umeyama, Takashi; Kaneko, Aki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Koichi; Ooshima, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    The deletion of MCD4 leads to an increase in beta-1,6-glucan level and a decrease in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and mannan levels in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that mcd4 deletion mutant (mcd4Delta) displays beta-glucans on the cell surface without a mannan cover. An observation of the cell surface of mcd4Delta cells and an examination of the effect of contact between mcd4Delta cells and mouse macrophages indicated that macrophages were activated by contact with mcd4Delta cells displaying beta-glucans on the cell surface. We further examined the effect of intraperitoneal ethanol-fixed mcd4Delta cells on the survival period of mice infected with Candida albicans. mcd4Delta cells prolonged the survival period, implying that mcd4Delta cells may enhance the immune function of mice via macrophage activation. Moreover, we examined the structures of beta-glucans (i.e., alkali- and acetic acid-insoluble beta-glucans) extracted from mcd4Delta with (13)C-NMR and the effect of extracted beta-glucans on TNF-alpha secretion from macrophages. The structures of the beta-glucans from mcd4Delta differed from those of wild type (WT); however, there was no difference in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion level between beta-glucans from mcd4Delta and those from WT. The yield of purified beta-glucans obtained from dry cells of mcd4Delta was higher than that obtained from dry cells of WT. mcd4Delta may be a superior strain for the preparation of beta-glucans. PMID:17368399

  20. Apical branching in a temperature sensitive mutant of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Reynaga-Peña, C G; Bartnicki-Garcia, S

    1997-12-01

    An apical branching, temperature-sensitive, mutant of Aspergillus niger (ramosa-1) was isolated by UV mutagenesis. Ramosa-1 has a wild type morphology at 23 degrees C, but branches apically when shifted to 34 degrees C. The cytological events leading to apical branching were recorded by video-enhanced phase contrast microscopy. The first event was a momentary, localized, cytoplasmic contraction lasting approximately 1 s. This contraction was seen as a sudden unidirectional movement of visible organelles (mitochondria, spheroid bodies) toward the hyphal apex. During the contraction, there was a transitory sharp increase in refractive index in a localized area of cytoplasm in the apex or subapex of the cell. Within 5 s, the Spitzenkörper retracted from its normal position next to the apical pole and disappeared from view 20 to 50 s later. Hyphal elongation rate diminished sharply, and the typical distribution of organelles at the hyphal tip was disturbed. After 210-240 s, organelle distribution returned to normal, polarized growth resumed, but instead of one Spitzenkörper two new Spitzenkörper appeared, each giving rise to an apical branch. The second branch Spitzenkörper appeared with a 60- to 100-s delay. We did not observe the original Spitzenkörper dividing in two; instead, the new Spitzenkörper arose de novo from vesicle clouds that formed in the apical region next to the future site of branch emergence. In all instances that we examined, the dislocation and disappearance of the Spitzenkörper was preceded by cytoplasmic contractions. We therefore suspect the existence of an intimate connection between the cytoskeletal network and the Spitzenkörper. Accordingly, we propose that the apical branching phenotype in ramosa-1 is triggered by a molecular event that induces a transient alteration in cytoskeleton organization.

  1. Genetics of Peripheral Vestibular Dysfunction: Lessons from Mutant Mouse Strains

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of research has been published about genetic hearing impairment. Fifty to sixty percent of hearing loss is thought to have a genetic cause. Genes may also play a significant role in acquired hearing loss due to aging, noise exposure, or ototoxic medications. Between 1995 and 2012, over 100 causative genes have been identified for syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of hereditary hearing loss (see Hereditary Hearing Loss Homepage http://hereditaryhearingloss.org). Mouse models have been extremely valuable in facilitating the discovery of hearing loss genes, and in understanding inner ear pathology due to genetic mutations or elucidating fundamental mechanisms of inner ear development. Purpose Whereas much is being learned about hereditary hearing loss and the genetics of cochlear disorders, relatively little is known about the role genes may play in peripheral vestibular impairment. Here we review the literature with regard to genetics of vestibular dysfunction and discuss what we have learned from studies using mutant mouse models and direct measures of peripheral vestibular neural function. Results Several genes are considered that when mutated lead to varying degrees of inner ear vestibular dysfunction due to deficits in otoconia, stereocilia, hair cells, or neurons. Behavior often does not reveal the inner ear deficit. Many of the examples presented are also known to cause human disorders. Conclusions Knowledge regarding the roles of particular genes in the operation of the vestibular sensory apparatus is growing and it is clear that gene products co-expressed in the cochlea and vestibule may play different roles in the respective end organs. The discovery of new genes mediating critical inner ear vestibular function carries the promise of new strategies in diagnosing, treating and managing patients as well as predicting the course and level of morbidity in human vestibular disease. PMID:25032973

  2. Proton Sensing of CLC-0 Mutant E166D

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Sonia; Zifarelli, Giovanni; Aiello, Rita; Pusch, Michael

    2006-01-01

    CLC Cl− channels are homodimers in which each subunit has a proper pore and a (fast) gate. An additional slow gate acts on both pores. A conserved glutamate (E166 in CLC-0) is a major determinant of gating in CLC-0 and is crucially involved in Cl−/H+ antiport of CLC-ec1, a CLC of known structure. We constructed tandem dimers with one wild-type (WT) and one mutant subunit (E166A or E166D) to show that these mutations of E166 specifically alter the fast gate of the pore to which they belong without effect on the fast gate of the neighboring pore. In addition both mutations activate the common slow gate. E166A pores have a large, voltage-independent open probability of the fast gate (popen), whereas popen of E166D pores is dramatically reduced. Similar to WT, popen of E166D was increased by lowering pHint. At negative voltages, E166D presents a persistent inward current that is blocked by p-chlorophenoxy-acetic acid (CPA) and increased at low pHext. The pHext dependence of the persistent current is analogous to a similar steady inward current in WT CLC-0. Surprisingly, however, the underlying unitary conductance of the persistent current in E166D is about an order of magnitude smaller than that of the transient deactivating inward Cl− current. Collectively, our data support the possibility that the mutated CLC-0 channel E166D can assume two distinct open states. Voltage-independent protonation of D166 from the outside favors a low conductance state, whereas protonation from the inside favors the high conductance state. PMID:16380443

  3. Catalytic properties of thimet oligopeptidase H600A mutant

    SciTech Connect

    Machado, Mauricio F.M.; Marcondes, Marcelo F.; Rioli, Vanessa; Ferro, Emer S.; Juliano, Maria A.; Juliano, Luiz; Oliveira, Vitor

    2010-04-02

    Thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15, TOP) is a metallo-oligopeptidase that participates in the intracellular metabolism of peptides. Predictions based on structurally analogous peptidases (Dcp and ACE-2) show that TOP can present a hinge-bend movement during substrate hydrolysis, what brings some residues closer to the substrate. One of these residues that in TOP crystallographic structure are far from the catalytic residues, but, moves toward the substrate considering this possible structural reorganization is His{sup 600}. In the present work, the role of His{sup 600} of TOP was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. TOP H600A mutant was characterized through analysis of S{sub 1} and S{sub 1}' specificity, pH-activity profile and inhibition by JA-2. Results showed that TOP His{sup 600} residue makes important interactions with the substrate, supporting the prediction that His{sup 600} moves toward the substrate due to a hinge movement similar to the Dcp and ACE-2. Furthermore, the mutation H600A affected both K{sub m} and k{sub cat}, showing the importance of His{sup 600} for both substrate binding and/or product release from active site. Changes in the pH-profile may indicate also the participation of His{sup 600} in TOP catalysis, transferring a proton to the newly generated NH{sub 2}-terminus or helping Tyr{sup 605} and/or Tyr{sup 612} in the intermediate oxyanion stabilization.

  4. A Small Indel Mutant Mouse Model of Epidermolytic Palmoplantar Keratoderma and Its Application to Mutant-specific shRNA Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ya-Su; Shi, Pei-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Liu, Rong-Rong; Luan, Xiao-Rui; Fang, Yu; Mei, Ru-Huan; Du, Zhen-Fang; Ke, Hai-Ping; Matro, Erik; Li, Ling-En; Lin, Zhao-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-03-22

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is a relatively common autosomal-dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), with few therapeutic options for the affected so far. Here, we report a knock-in transgenic mouse model that carried a small insertion-deletion (indel) mutant of Krt9, c.434delAinsGGCT (p.Tyr144delinsTrpLeu), corresponding to the human mutation KRT9/c.500delAinsGGCT (p.Tyr167delinsTrpLeu), which resulted in a human EPPK-like phenotype in the weight-stress areas of the fore- and hind-paws of both Krt9(+/mut) and Krt9(mut/mut) mice. The phenotype confirmed that EPPK is a dominant-negative condition, such that mice heterozygotic for the K9-mutant allele (Krt9(+/mut)) showed a clear EPPK-like phenotype. Then, we developed a mutant-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) therapy for EPPK mice. Mutant-specific shRNAs were systematically identified in vitro using a luciferase reporter gene assay and delivered into Krt9(+/mut) mice. shRNA-mediated knockdown of mutant protein resulted in almost normal morphology and functions of the skin, whereas the same shRNA had a negligible effect in wild-type K9 mice. Our results suggest that EPPK can be treated by gene therapy, and this has significant implications for future clinical application.

  5. A Small Indel Mutant Mouse Model of Epidermolytic Palmoplantar Keratoderma and Its Application to Mutant-specific shRNA Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Ya-Su; Shi, Pei-liang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Liu, Rong-Rong; Luan, Xiao-Rui; Fang, Yu; Mei, Ru-Huan; Du, Zhen-Fang; Ke, Hai-Ping; Matro, Erik; Li, Ling-En; Lin, Zhao-Yu; Zhao, Jing; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK) is a relatively common autosomal-dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the keratin 9 gene (KRT9), with few therapeutic options for the affected so far. Here, we report a knock-in transgenic mouse model that carried a small insertion–deletion (indel) mutant of Krt9, c.434delAinsGGCT (p.Tyr144delinsTrpLeu), corresponding to the human mutation KRT9/c.500delAinsGGCT (p.Tyr167delinsTrpLeu), which resulted in a human EPPK-like phenotype in the weight-stress areas of the fore- and hind-paws of both Krt9+/mut and Krt9mut/mut mice. The phenotype confirmed that EPPK is a dominant-negative condition, such that mice heterozygotic for the K9-mutant allele (Krt9+/mut) showed a clear EPPK-like phenotype. Then, we developed a mutant-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) therapy for EPPK mice. Mutant-specific shRNAs were systematically identified in vitro using a luciferase reporter gene assay and delivered into Krt9+/mut mice. shRNA-mediated knockdown of mutant protein resulted in almost normal morphology and functions of the skin, whereas the same shRNA had a negligible effect in wild-type K9 mice. Our results suggest that EPPK can be treated by gene therapy, and this has significant implications for future clinical application. PMID:27003758

  6. Psoralen-sensitive mutant pso9-1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a mutant allele of the DNA damage checkpoint gene MEC3.

    PubMed

    Cardone, J M; Revers, L F; Machado, R M; Bonatto, D; Brendel, M; Henriques, J A P

    2006-02-01

    Complementation analysis of the pso9-1 yeast mutant strain sensitive to photoactivated mono- and bifunctional psoralens, UV-light 254 nm, and nitrosoguanidine, with pso1 to pso8 mutants, confirmed that it contains a novel pso mutation. Molecular cloning via the reverse genetics complementation approach using a yeast genomic library suggested pso9-1 to be a mutant allele of the DNA damage checkpoint control gene MEC3. Non-complementation of several sensitivity phenotypes in pso9-1/mec3Delta diploids confirmed allelism. The pso9-1 mutant allele contains a -1 frameshift mutation (deletion of one A) at nucleotide position 802 (802delA), resulting in nine different amino acid residues from that point and a premature termination. This mutation affected the binding properties of Pso9-1p, abolishing its interactions with both Rad17p and Ddc1p. Further interaction assays employing mec3 constructions lacking the last 25 and 75 amino acid carboxyl termini were also not able to maintain stable interactions. Moreover, the pso9-1 mutant strain could no longer sense DNA damage since it continued in the cell cycle after 8-MOP + UVA treatment. Taken together, these observations allowed us to propose a model for checkpoint activation generated by photo-induced adducts. PMID:16202664

  7. Identification of amylase inhibitor deficient mutants in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millisp.).

    PubMed

    Chougule, N P; Giri, A P; Hivrale, V K; Chhabda, P J; Kachole, M S

    2004-06-01

    We have developed and analyzed several mutant lines (M6 generation) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) for the content of defensive proteins and antinutritional factors. Inhibitors of proteinase and of amylase, lectins, and raffinose family oligosaccharides were analyzed in mature seeds of different pigeonpea accessions (untreated) and compared with mutant lines. Proteinase inhibitor profiles were similar in terms of number and intensities of activity bands but they differ marginally in the activity units in pigeonpea accessions and mutants. Pigeonpea mutants showed significant differences in amylase inhibitor profiles as well as activity units from those of pigeonpea accessions. Interestingly, two mutants (A6-5-1 and A7-3-2) were identified to have absence of amylase inhibitor isoforms. Hemagglutinating activity and raffinose family oligosaccharides content were found to be significantly higher in mutants than in accessions. It is evident from the results that proteinase inhibitors of pigeonpea are stable while amylase inhibitors, lectins, and raffinose family oligosaccharides show altered expression upon mutagen treatments. These mutants will be ideal candidates for further evaluation. PMID:15260142

  8. A Genetic Screen for Mutants with Supersized Lipid Droplets in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shiwei; Xu, Shibin; Ma, Yanli; Wu, Shuang; Feng, Yu; Cui, Qingpo; Chen, Lifeng; Zhou, Shuang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yu, Jialei; Wu, Mengdi; Zhang, Shaobing O.

    2016-01-01

    To identify genes that regulate the dynamics of lipid droplet (LD) size, we have used the genetically tractable model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, whose wild-type LD population displays a steady state of size with an upper limit of 3 μm in diameter. From a saturated forward genetic screen of 6.7 × 105 mutagenized haploid genomes, we isolated 118 mutants with supersized intestinal LDs often reaching 10 μm. These mutants define nine novel complementation groups, in addition to four known genes (maoc-1, dhs-28, daf-22, and prx-10). The nine groups are named drop (lipid droplet abnormal) and categorized into four classes. Class I mutants drop-5 and drop-9, similar to prx-10, are up-regulated in ACS-22-DGAT-2-dependent LD growth, resistant to LD hydrolysis, and defective in peroxisome import. Class II mutants drop-2, drop-3, drop-6, and drop-7 are up-regulated in LD growth, are resistant to LD hydrolysis, but are not defective in peroxisome import. Class III mutants drop-1 and drop-8 are neither up-regulated in LD growth nor resistant to LD hydrolysis, but seemingly up-regulated in LD fusion. Class IV mutant drop-4 is cloned as sams-1 and, different to the other three classes, is ACS-22-independent and hydrolysis-resistant. These four classes of supersized LD mutants should be valuable for mechanistic studies of LD cellular processes including growth, hydrolysis, and fusion. PMID:27261001

  9. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus tea tree oil-reduced susceptibility mutants.

    PubMed

    Cuaron, Jesus A; Dulal, Santosh; Cooke, Peter H; Torres, Nathanial J; Gustafson, John E

    2014-08-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO)-reduced susceptibility (TTORS) mutants of two Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strains were isolated utilizing TTO gradient plates. Attempts to isolate TTORS mutants employing agar plates containing single TTO concentrations failed. All TTORS mutants demonstrated a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype and produced cells with a smaller diameter, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of SCV auxotrophic supplements to media did not lead to an increase in TTORS mutant colony size. Revertants were also isolated from the TTORS mutants following growth in drug-free media, and all revertant strains demonstrated phenotypes similar to their respective parent strains. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that an SH1000 TTORS mutant demonstrated a thinner cell wall and novel septal invaginations compared with parent strain SH1000. In addition, comparative genomic sequencing did not reveal any mutations in an SH1000 TTORS mutant previously linked to well-characterized SCV genotypes. This study demonstrates that TTO can select for a unique SCV phenotype.

  10. Scanning probe microscopy characterization of gold-chemisorbed poplar plastocyanin mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andolfi, L.; Bonanni, B.; Canters, G. W.; Verbeet, M. Ph.; Cannistraro, S.

    2003-05-01

    Two poplar plastocyanin mutants adsorbed onto gold electrodes have been characterized at single molecule level by scanning probe microscopy. Immobilization of the two redox metalloprotein mutants on Au(1 1 1) surface was achieved by either a disulphide bridge (PCSS) or a single thiol (PCSH), both the anchoring groups having been introduced by site-directed mutagenesis. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis gives evidence of a stable and robust binding of both mutants to gold. The lateral dimensions, as estimated by STM, and the height above the gold substrate, as evaluated by AFM, of the two mutants well agree with crystallographic sizes. A narrower height distribution is observed for PCSS compared to PCSH, corresponding to a more homogeneous orientation of the former mutant adsorbed onto gold. Major differences between the mutants are observed by electrochemical STM. In particular, the image contrast of adsorbed PCSS is affected by tuning the external electrochemical potential to the redox levels of the mutant, consistent with some involvement of copper active site in the tunneling process. On the contrary, no contrast variation is observed in electrochemical STM of adsorbed PCSH. Moreover, scanning tunneling spectroscopy experiments reveal asymmetric I- V characteristics for single PCSS proteins, reminiscent of a rectifying-like behaviour, whereas an almost symmetric I- V relation is observed for PCSH.

  11. Analysis of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from a BRCA1 Mutant Family

    PubMed Central

    Soyombo, Abigail A.; Wu, Yipin; Kolski, Lauren; Rios, Jonathan J.; Rakheja, Dinesh; Chen, Alice; Kehler, James; Hampel, Heather; Coughran, Alanna; Ross, Theodora S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Understanding BRCA1 mutant cancers is hampered by difficulties in obtaining primary cells from patients. We therefore generated and characterized 24 induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from fibroblasts of eight individuals from a BRCA1 5382insC mutant family. All BRCA1 5382insC heterozygous fibroblasts, iPSCs, and teratomas maintained equivalent expression of both wild-type and mutant BRCA1 transcripts. Although no difference in differentiation capacity was observed between BRCA1 wild-type and mutant iPSCs, there was elevated protein kinase C-theta (PKC-theta) in BRCA1 mutant iPSCs. Cancer cell lines with BRCA1 mutations and hormone-receptor-negative breast cancers also displayed elevated PKC-theta. Genome sequencing of the 24 iPSC lines showed a similar frequency of reprogramming-associated de novo mutations in BRCA1 mutant and wild-type iPSCs. These data indicate that iPSC lines can be derived from BRCA1 mutant fibroblasts to study the effects of the mutation on gene expression and genome stability. PMID:24319668

  12. In Vivo Studies of Temperature-Sensitive recB and recC Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Sidney R.

    1974-01-01

    Some in vivo properties of Escherichia coli K-12 strains carrying recB270 (formerly recBts1) and recC271 (formerly recCts1) mutations have been determined. Single recB270 and recC271 mutants appear normal at 30 C with regard to ultraviolet and mitomycin C sensitivity, recombination proficiency, and viability. At 43 C these strains become sensitive to ultraviolet and mitomycin C, while showing only a slight decrease in recombination proficiency. The viable titers of the single mutants are somewhat reduced at 43 C. Double mutant strains carrying polA1 and recB270 or recC271 are inviable at 43 C. The double mutant strain (recB270 recC271) is sensitive to both UV and mitomycin C at 30 C, but shows only slightly reduced recombination proficiency. At 43 C the strain resembles absolute recB and recC mutants in all respects. In addition, the double mutant strain exhibits a temperature-induced drop in viable titer. The triple mutant polA1 recB270 recC271 is viable at 30 C. Two hypotheses are advanced to explain these results. PMID:4612007

  13. Functional rescue of a kidney anion exchanger 1 trafficking mutant in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chu, Carmen Y S; King, Jennifer C; Berrini, Mattia; Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC4A1 gene encoding the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) can cause distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), a disease often due to mis-trafficking of the mutant protein. In this study, we investigated whether trafficking of a Golgi-retained dRTA mutant, G701D kAE1, or two dRTA mutants retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, C479W and R589H kAE1, could be functionally rescued to the plasma membrane of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. Treatments with DMSO, glycerol, the corrector VX-809, or low temperature incubations restored the basolateral trafficking of G701D kAE1 mutant. These treatments had no significant rescuing effect on trafficking of the mis-folded C479W or R589H kAE1 mutants. DMSO was the only treatment that partially restored G701D kAE1 function in the plasma membrane of MDCK cells. Our experiments show that trafficking of intracellularly retained dRTA kAE1 mutants can be partially restored, and that one chemical treatment rescued both trafficking and function of a dRTA mutant. These studies provide an opportunity to develop alternative therapeutic solutions for dRTA patients. PMID:23460825

  14. A Medicago truncatula mutant hyper-responsive to mycorrhiza and defective for nodulation.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Dominique; le Signor, Christine; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Duc, Gérard

    2009-08-01

    One key strategy for the identification of plant genes required for mycorrhizal development is the use of plant mutants affected in mycorrhizal colonisation. In this paper, we report a new Medicago truncatula mutant defective for nodulation but hypermycorrhizal for symbiosis development and response. This mutant, called B9, presents a poor shoot and, especially, root development with short laterals. Inoculation with Glomus intraradices results in significantly higher root colonisation of the mutant than the wild-type genotype A17 (+20% for total root length, +16% for arbuscule frequency in the colonised part of the root, +39% for arbuscule frequency in the total root system). Mycorrhizal effects on shoot and root biomass of B9 plants are about twofold greater than in the wild-type genotype. The B9 mutant of M. truncatula is characterised by considerably higher root concentrations of the phytoestrogen coumestrol and by the novel synthesis of the coumestrol conjugate malonyl glycoside, absent from roots of wild-type plants. In conclusion, this is the first time that a hypermycorrhizal plant mutant affected negatively for nodulation (Myc(++), Nod (-/+) phenotype) is reported. This mutant represents a new tool for the study of plant genes differentially regulating mycorrhiza and nodulation symbioses, in particular, those related to autoregulation mechanisms.

  15. An Indexed, Mapped Mutant Library Enables Reverse Genetics Studies of Biological Processes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaobo; Zhang, Ru; Patena, Weronika; Gang, Spencer S; Blum, Sean R; Ivanova, Nina; Yue, Rebecca; Robertson, Jacob M; Lefebvre, Paul A; Fitz-Gibbon, Sorel T; Grossman, Arthur R; Jonikas, Martin C

    2016-02-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a leading unicellular model for dissecting biological processes in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, its usefulness has been limited by difficulties in obtaining mutants in specific genes of interest. To allow generation of large numbers of mapped mutants, we developed high-throughput methods that (1) enable easy maintenance of tens of thousands of Chlamydomonas strains by propagation on agar media and by cryogenic storage, (2) identify mutagenic insertion sites and physical coordinates in these collections, and (3) validate the insertion sites in pools of mutants by obtaining >500 bp of flanking genomic sequences. We used these approaches to construct a stably maintained library of 1935 mapped mutants, representing disruptions in 1562 genes. We further characterized randomly selected mutants and found that 33 out of 44 insertion sites (75%) could be confirmed by PCR, and 17 out of 23 mutants (74%) contained a single insertion. To demonstrate the power of this library for elucidating biological processes, we analyzed the lipid content of mutants disrupted in genes encoding proteins of the algal lipid droplet proteome. This study revealed a central role of the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LCS2 in the production of triacylglycerol from de novo-synthesized fatty acids. PMID:26764374

  16. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered responses to auxins and gravity.

    PubMed

    Maher, E P; Martindale, S J

    1980-12-01

    Auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis have been induced and isolated by screening for survivors on a medium containing the herbicide 2,4-D. Thirty independently arisen mutants have been isolated in this way and one of them, P 83, has been investigated in detail. When wild type and P 83 are compared in concentration/response curves, where the response is the inhibition of root growth, the ED50 values of the auxins, 2,4-D and IAA, are 14-fold higher for the mutant. The mutant also responds differently to gravity: its roots do not show positive geotropism, but tend to grow with a clockwise curvature on agar surfaces. The seedling roots of the mutant also grow more rapidly than those of the wild type in the absence of 2,4-D, following faster germination. The F1 between P 83 and wild type is similar to the latter, but has a slightly increased resistance to 2,4-D. Results obtained from the F2, F3 and backcross generations suggest monofactorial inheritance. Most of the other 29 mutants have the P 83 phenotype, but at least five are different. Four have lower levels of resistance to 2,4-D and P 83, and their roots appear to respond normally to gravity. One mutant has an abnormal georesponse and a much higher level of resistance to 2,4-D than P 83.

  17. Starvation Induced Cell Death in Autophagy-Defective Yeast Mutants Is Caused by Mitochondria Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sho W.; Onodera, Jun; Ohsumi, Yoshinori

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly-conserved cellular degradation and recycling system that is essential for cell survival during nutrient starvation. The loss of viability had been used as an initial screen to identify autophagy-defective (atg) mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the mechanism of cell death in these mutants has remained unclear. When cells grown in a rich medium were transferred to a synthetic nitrogen starvation media, secreted metabolites lowered the extracellular pH below 3.0 and autophagy-defective mutants mostly died. We found that buffering of the starvation medium dramatically restored the viability of atg mutants. In response to starvation, wild-type (WT) cells were able to upregulate components of the respiratory pathway and ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging enzymes, but atg mutants lacked this synthetic capacity. Consequently, autophagy-defective mutants accumulated the high level of ROS, leading to deficient respiratory function, resulting in the loss of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA). We also showed that mtDNA deficient cells are subject to cell death under low pH starvation conditions. Taken together, under starvation conditions non-selective autophagy, rather than mitophagy, plays an essential role in preventing ROS accumulation, and thus in maintaining mitochondria function. The failure of response to starvation is the major cause of cell death in atg mutants. PMID:21364763

  18. Characterization of the ERAD process of the L444P mutant glucocerebrosidase variant.

    PubMed

    Bendikov-Bar, Inna; Ron, Idit; Filocamo, Mirella; Horowitz, Mia

    2011-01-15

    A large number of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA gene), encoding the lysosomal acid hydrolase glucocerebrosidase (GCase), lead to Gaucher disease (GD). The second most prevalent GD causing mutation, carried by 38% of non-Jewish patients, is L444P, resulting from a T to C transition in nucleotide 6092 of the GBA gene. It is a severe mutation that, in homozygosity, leads to neuropathic type 3 GD. We have previously shown that mutant GCase variants present variable degrees of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention and undergo ER associated degradation (ERAD). However, ERAD of the L444P mutant variant of GCase has never been tested. In the current study, we present results indicating that the L444P mutant protein undergoes extensive ERAD. In skin fibroblasts, originated from GD patients homozygous for L444P mutation, the level of GCase is 12%-21% of normal and at least 50% of it is in the ER. The mutant protein undergoes polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Recently Ambroxol, a known expectorant, was identified as a pharmacological chaperone for mutant GCase. We tested the effect of Ambroxol on the L444P mutant GCase and found that it enhances the removal of the mutant enzyme from the ER. In some cases, this removal leads to a concomitant increase in enzymatic activity. PMID:21106416

  19. Molecular analysis of mutant and wild type alcohol dehydrogenase alleles from Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Wild type alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides (ADH) from Drosophila melanogaster transformants were examined using western blots and polyclonal antiserum specific for Drosophila melanogaster ADH. Mutants induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus using X-rays, 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were characterized using genetic complementation tests, western blots, Southern blots, northern blots and enzymatic amplification of the Adh locus. Genetic complementation tests showed that 22/30 X-ray-induced mutants, and 3/13 ENU and EMS induced mutants were multi-locus deficiencies. Western blot analysis of the intragenic mutations showed that 4/7 X-ray-induced mutants produced detectable polypeptides, one of which was normal in molecular weight and charge. In contrast 8/10 intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants produced normal polypeptides. Southern blot analysis showed that 5/7 intragenic X-ray induced mutants and all 10 of the intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants were normal with respect to the alleles they were derived from.

  20. Alginic acid synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants defective in carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, P C; Vanags, R I; Chakrabarty, A M; Maitra, P K

    1983-01-01

    Mutant cells of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients were examined for their ability to synthesize alginic acid in resting cell suspensions. Unlike the wild-type strain which synthesizes alginic acid from glycerol, fructose, mannitol, glucose, gluconate, glutamate, or succinate, mutants lacking specific enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism are uniquely impaired. A phosphoglucose isomerase mutant did not synthesize the polysaccharide from mannitol, nor did a glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutant synthesize the polysaccharide from mannitol or glucose. Mutants lacking the Entner-Doudoroff pathway dehydrase or aldolase failed to produce alginate from mannitol, glucose, or gluconate, as a 3-phosphoglycerate kinase or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutant failed to produce from glutamate or succinate. These results demonstrate the primary role of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway enzymes in the synthesis of alginate from glucose, mannitol, or gluconate and the role of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction for the synthesis from gluconeogenic precursors such as glutamate. The virtual absence of any activity of phosphomannose isomerase in cell extracts of several independent mucoid bacteria and the impairment of alginate synthesis from mannitol in mutants lacking phosphoglucose isomerase or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase rule out free mannose 6-phosphate as an intermediate in alginate biosynthesis. PMID:6408061