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Sample records for ia supernova light

  1. Infrared Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew Samuel

    2012-05-01

    This thesis presents the CfAIR2 data set, which includes over 4000 near-Infrared (NIR) JHK8-band measurements of 104 Type Ia Supernovae (SN Ia) observed from 2005-2011 using PAIRITEL, the 1.3-m Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. While the discovery of dark energy and most subsequent supernova cosmology has been performed using optical and Ultraviolet wavelength observations of SN Ia, a growing body of evidence suggests that NIR SN Ia observations will be crucial for future cosmological studies. Whereas SN Ia observed at optical wavelengths have been shown to be excellent standardizeable candles, using empirical correlations between luminosity, light curve shape, and color, the CfAIR2 data set strengthens the evidence that SN Ia at NIR wavelengths are essentially standard candles, even without correction for light-curve shape or for reddening. CfAIR2 was obtained as part of the CfA Supernova Program, an ongoing multi-wavelength follow-up effort at FLWO designed to observe high-quality, densely sampled light curves and spectra of hundreds of low-redshift SN Ia. CfAIR2 is the largest homogeneously observed and processed NIR data set of its kind to date, nearly tripling the number of individual JHK8-band observations and nearly doubling the set of SN Ia with published NIR light curves in the literature. Matched only by the recently published Carnegie Supernova Project sample, CfAIR2 complements the large and growing set of low-redshift optical and NIR SN Ia observations obtained by the CfA and other programs, making this data set a unique and particularly valuable local universe anchor for future supernova cosmology.

  2. Light Curves of Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, C. H.; Herbst, W.; Balonek, T. J.; Benson, P. J.; Chromey, F. R.; Ratcliff, S. J.

    1992-05-01

    VRI light curves of five Type Ia supernovae (1991B, 1991N, 1991T, 1991bg, and 1992G) have been obtained with CCDs attached to small telescopes at northeastern sites. The data have been carefully transformed to the standard system using images obtained with the 0.9m telescope at KPNO. The first three supernovae have faded sufficiently that we can carefully correct for the galactic background and, in particular, its effect on the determination of fade rates at late times. SN 1991bg clearly demonstrates that there can be gross differences among Type Ia's in the shape (and maximum brightness) of their light curves (Filippenko et al., preprint). We investigate whether a single "template" can be devised which fits the R and I light curve shapes of the other four supernovae in our sample, and the degree to which each fits the V template of Leibundgut (1988, Ph.D. thesis, U. of Basel). The distinctive secondary maximum seen in I (about 18 days after primary maximum; Balonek et al., preprint) should be useful for distinguishing peculiar Type Ia's like SN 1991bg, and for establishing the time of maximum brightness for supernovae that were discovered up to three weeks afterwards. We thank the W. M. Keck Foundation for their support of the Keck Northeast Astronomy Consortium. This project is an outgrowth of that support.

  3. Infrared Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Wood-Vasey, M.; Bloom, J. S.; Mandel, K.; Challis, P.; Hicken, M.; Narayan, G.; Foley, R.; Rest, A.; Modjaz, M.; Starr, D.; Blondin, S.; Blake, C.; CfA Supernova Group; PAIRITEL Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    For my Astronomy Ph.D. thesis at Harvard University, I used the PAIRITEL 1.3m robotic telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona to observe Near-Infrared (NIR) JHKs band light curves of over 100 Type Ia Supernovae (SN Ia) in nearby galaxies, compiling a data set that will more than quintuple the number of NIR SN Ia light curves in the literature. With this data, we confirm and strengthen the claim that SN Ia are more standard in NIR luminosity, less sensitive to dust extinction, and crucial to reducing systematic distance errors due to the degeneracy between intrinsic color variation and reddening of light by dust, arguably the most dominant systematic error in SN Ia cosmology. Uncertainty in our knowledge of the distributions of host galaxy dust properties is a major obstacle to obtaining consistent dark energy constraints with different SN Ia cosmological analysis methods. As such, I develop a color curve model using optical and NIR data to estimate the most probable amount of dust extinction and the properties of the host galaxy dust for each SN Ia. Continuing a comprehensive ground based optical and NIR program to observe low redshift SN Ia is one of the best ways to improve the precision and accuracy of SN Ia as standardizeable candles and cosmological distance indicators moving forward. Such data will critically inform the design of the NASA/DOE Joint Dark Energy Mission, and indeed any future cosmology experiment designed to measure cosmic acceleration and dark energy with a sample of high redshift SN Ia. This work has been supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship and a NASA GSRP Fellowship.

  4. CfA Nearby Supernova Ia Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicken, Malcolm; Berlind, P.; Blondin, S.; Calkins, M.; Challis, P.; Esquerdo, G.; Everett, M.; Fernandez, J.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Latham, D.; Modjaz, M.; Rest, A.; Wood-Vasey, M.

    2007-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are central in measuring the accelerated expansion of the Universe and the properties of the underlying dark energy. Nearby SN Ia are compared with distant ones to establish the history of cosmic expansion. In fact, current efforts in SN Ia cosmology are constrained by the limited number of well-observed nearby SN Ia. A significantly improved sample of nearby SN Ia, fully covering the space of Ia properties, is needed to maximize the utility of high-redshift SN Ia. Our ongoing project at the CfA has collected such a set of 170 SN Ia. We have used the FLWO 1.2m telescope. About half of our objects were observed in UBVRI with the 4Shooter camera and have an average of 10 epochs each while the other half was taken in UBVr'i' with the Keplercam instrument and have an average of 17 epochs each. We have now reduced this sample of over 25000 images and present calibrated light curves of these SN Ia along with an analysis of their properties. The CfA Supernova program is supported in part by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0606772 to Harvard University.

  5. Light Echoes as Probes of Supernova Type Ia Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin

    2009-07-01

    Environmental factors of Type Ia supernovae are key in understanding their nature, lightcurve evolution, and utility as cosmological standard candles. The progenitor ages {and many other properties} are bimodal, differing by roughly an order of magnitude. Is this reflected as well in the differences in their immediate surroundings in terms of gas and dust? The most powerful and direct way to address this issue is by imaging the reflected light from the dust itself via a light echo. In order for this approach to work, however, one must start imaging the vicinity of the supernova frequently and soon after the explosion is seen. We propose to maintain the imaging sequences crucial for understanding the three-dimensional dust distribution of two recent and key Type Ia supernovae, in a timely manner that will prevent otherwise significant holes in our knowledge. These observations are likely to be important in determining if the interstellar versus the circumstellar environments are more important in determining the appearance of Type Ia explosions, and thereby offer a clue as to the poorly-understood mass-loss history of SN Ia progenitors.JUSTIFICATION FOR VISIT TIME CONSTRAINTS:We have requested "Before" conditions

  6. Adaptively Stretched Templates for Normal Type Ia Supernova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strovink, Mark

    2007-12-01

    Individual BVRI light-curve templates have been determined for 22 unusually well-observed literature Type Ia supernovae by the newly developed template builder AQUAA. This tool uses light-curve functions that are smooth, flexible, and free of potential bias from externally derived templates and other prior assumptions. In the B filter, to high accuracy 19 of these light curves may be represented by a single master template that is stretched adaptively along the time axis. The usual parameter describing average linear stretch is supplemented by two new nonlinear parameters that characterize transitions between regions of different time dilation. The distribution of these parameter values is related to the observed diversity of supernova rise times (Strovink, M., ApJ in press, astro-ph/07050726). Major portions of the VRI light curves, including the pre-maximum and peak regions, may be represented by corresponding master templates that similarly are stretched. When the dependence of absolute supernova luminosity on the limited number of stretch parameters is established, the use of Type Ia supernovae as cosmological distance indicators will be simplified and may be sharpened. This work is supported by the Director, Office of Science, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  7. RADIOACTIVELY POWERED RISING LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-11-10

    The rising luminosity of the recent, nearby supernova 2011fe shows a quadratic dependence with time during the first Almost-Equal-To 0.5-4 days. In addition, studies of the composite light curves formed from stacking together many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have found similar power-law indices for the rise, but may also show some dispersion that may indicate diversity. I explore what range of power-law rises are possible due to the presence of radioactive material near the surface of the exploding white dwarf (WD). I summarize what constraints such a model places on the structure of the progenitor and the distribution and velocity of ejecta. My main conclusion is that for the inferred explosion time for SN 2011fe, its rise requires an increasing mass fraction X {sub 56} Almost-Equal-To (4-6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} of {sup 56}Ni distributed between a depth of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} and 0.3 M {sub Sun} below the WD's surface. Radioactive elements this shallow are not found in simulations of a single C/O detonation. Scenarios that may produce this material include helium-shell burning during a double-detonation ignition, a gravitationally confined detonation, and a subset of deflagration to detonation transition models. In general, the power-law rise can differ from quadratic depending on the details of the velocity, density, and radioactive deposition gradients in a given event. Therefore, comparisons of this work with observed bolometric rises of SNe Ia would place strong constraints on the properties of the shallow outer layers, providing important clues for identifying the elusive progenitors of SNe Ia.

  8. The effect of background galaxy contamination on the absolute magnitude and light curve speed class of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boisseau, John R.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    1991-01-01

    Observational data are presented in support of the hypothesis that background galaxy contamination is present in the photometric data of Ia supernovae and that this effect can account for the observed dispersion in the light curve speeds of most of Ia supernovae. The implication is that the observed dispersion in beta is artificial and that most of Ia supernovae have nearly homogeneous light curves. The result supports the notion that Ia supernovae are good standard candles.

  9. The effect of background galaxy contamination on the absolute magnitude and light curve speed class of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Boisseau, J.R.; Wheeler, J.C. )

    1991-04-01

    Observational data are presented in support of the hypothesis that background galaxy contamination is present in the photometric data of Ia supernovae and that this effect can account for the observed dispersion in the light curve speeds of most of Ia supernovae. The implication is that the observed dispersion in beta is artificial and that most of Ia supernovae have nearly homogeneous light curves. The result supports the notion that Ia supernovae are good standard candles. 26 refs.

  10. Constraining Type Ia supernovae progenitor parameters via light curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Benjamin

    I study thermonuclear explosions of White Dwarf (WD) stars, or so-called Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Higher precision is needed to determine the nature of the dark energy and to accomplish this we turn to secondary parameters of LC variation. I have devised a general scheme and developed a code to analyze large sets of LC data for these secondary parameter variations which is based on a combination of theoretical model template fitting and Principal Component Analysis. Novel methods for finding statistical trends in sparsely-sampled and non-coincidental light curve data are explored and utilized. In practice, data sets for different supernovae are inhomogeneous in time, time coverage and accuracy, but I have developed a method to remap these inhomogeneous data sets of large numbers of individual objects to a homogeneous data set centered in time and magnitude space from which we can obtain the external, primary, and secondary LC parameters of individual objects. The set of external parameters of a given SN include the time of its maximum light in various bands, its distance modulus, the extinction along the light path, and redshift corrections (K-corrections) due to cosmic expansion. I investigate the intrinsic primary parameter variation of SNe Ia via template fitting, and then probe the secondary LC variations using monochromatic differential analysis in the UBV bands. We use photometry from 25 SNe Ia which were recently and precisely observed by the Carnegie Supernova Project to analyze the presence of theoretical model-based differential LC signatures of Main-Sequence mass variation of the progenitor stars when they formed, central density variation of the WD at the time of the explosion, and metallicity Z variation in the progenitors. The light curves in the V band are found to provide the highest accuracy in determining the distance modulus, K-corrections, extinction, main-sequence mass and central density

  11. Analysis of Nearby Supernova Factory Type Ia Spectra with SYNAPPS: Maximum-Light Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiatti, Caroline; Thomas, R.; Aldering, G. S.; Bailey, S.; Birchall, D.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H.; Hayden, B.; Kim, A. G.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Suzuki, N.; Weaver, B.; Pecontal, E.; Buton, C.; Copin, Y.; Chotard, N.; Gangler, E.; Pereira, R.; Rigault, M.; Smadja, G.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Canto, A.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J.; Pain, R.; Chen, J.; Tao, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a preliminary study of absorption features in the maximum-light spectra of 68 Type Ia supernovae. These spectra are a subset of spectrophotometric time series obtained by the Nearby Supernovae Factory using the SuperNova Integral Field Spectrograph (SNIFS). To extract ion signatures - strengths and velocities - from these absorption features we use the automated parameterized direct spectroscopic analysis code SYNAPPS. Trends in ion signatures as a function of spectroscopic sub-classification, photometric properties, and host galaxy stellar environment are considered. A new and experimental aspect of our approach is uncertainty quantification for SYNAPPS and calibration of its model inadequacy as a function of wavelength (for Type Ia supernovae near maximum light) using the Nearby Supernova Factory as a training sample. With further development and extension to other phases, this information could be used as a pre-processing step for SYNAPPS fitting, or it could be directly incorporated into SYNAPPS itself.

  12. Preliminary NIR Late Light Curve of the Type Ia Supernova SN2009nr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Jonathan; Bryngelson, G.

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important in determining the expansion of the universe based on the uniformity of their light curves. It is essential to understand the behavior of these supernovae in order to strengthen our confidence in their use as standard candles. A small, but increasing number of SNe Ia have been observed later than the 200 day epoch in the near-infrared (NIR). Most of these exhibit a flattening of the NIR power, even as the visible light declines at a steady rate. It is unclear as to exactly what causes this behavior, and how typical it is. In order to characterize the late behavior of SNe Ia, images of the supernova SN2009nr were analyzed using the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF). These images were taken with the 4m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National-Observatory using the FLAMINGOS IR Imaging Spectrometer. The supernova’s magnitude was normalized with respect to the magnitudes of known stars so that traits related to the supernova may be compared to others. We present preliminary NIR (J, H, K) light curves of the observed supernova and compare them to other SNe Ia observed at these epochs.

  13. Type Ia supernovae: Pulsating delayed detonation models, IR light curves, and the formation of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, Peter; Khokhlov, A.; Wheeler, C.

    1995-01-01

    We computed optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). It is demonstrated that observations of the IR light curves can be used to identify subluminous SNe Ia by testing whether secondary maxima occur in the IR. Our pulsating delayed detonation models are in agreement with current observations both for subluminous and normal bright SN Ia, namely SN1991bg, SN1992bo, and SN1992bc. Observations of molecular bands provide a test to distinguish whether strongly subluminous supernovae are a consequence of the pulsating mechanism occurring in a high-mass white dwarf (WD) or, alternatively, are formed by the helium detonation in a low-mass WD as was suggested by Woosley. In the latter case, no carbon is left after the explosion of low-mass WDs whereas a log of C/O-rich material is present in pulsating delayed detonation models.

  14. Type Ia supernovae: Pulsating delayed detonation models, IR light curves, and the formation of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, Peter; Khokhlov, A.; Wheeler, C.

    1995-01-01

    We computed optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). It is demonstrated that observations of the IR light curves can be used to identify subluminous SNe Ia by testing whether secondary maxima occur in the IR. Our pulsating delayed detonation models are in agreement with current observations both for subluminous and normal bright SN Ia, namely SN1991bg, SN1992bo, and SN1992bc. Observations of molecular bands provide a test to distinguish whether strongly subluminous supernovae are a consequence of the pulsating mechanism occurring in a high-mass white dwarf (WD) or, alternatively, are formed by the helium detonation in a low-mass WD as was suggested by Woosley. In the latter case, no carbon is left after the explosion of low-mass WDs whereas a log of C/O-rich material is present in pulsating delayed detonation models.

  15. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS15bzz as a type-Ia supernova at maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Miszalski, B.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS15bzz on 2015 Aug 16.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 360-820 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS15bzz is a type-Ia supernova within a few days of maximum light.

  16. RESULTS OF THE LICK OBSERVATORY SUPERNOVA SEARCH FOLLOW-UP PHOTOMETRY PROGRAM: BVRI LIGHT CURVES OF 165 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Anderson, Carmen; Foster, Griffin; Griffith, Christopher V.; Joubert, Niels; Leja, Joel; Macomber, Brent; Pritchard, Tyler; Thrasher, Patrick; Winslow, Dustin; Gates, Elinor L.; Grigsby, Bryant J.; Lowe, Thomas B.

    2010-10-15

    We present BVRI light curves of 165 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search follow-up photometry program from 1998 through 2008. Our light curves are typically well sampled (cadence of 3-4 days) with an average of 21 photometry epochs. We describe our monitoring campaign and the photometry reduction pipeline that we have developed. Comparing our data set to that of Hicken et al., with which we have 69 overlapping supernovae (SNe), we find that as an ensemble the photometry is consistent, with only small overall systematic differences, although individual SNe may differ by as much as 0.1 mag, and occasionally even more. Such disagreement in specific cases can have significant implications for combining future large data sets. We present an analysis of our light curves which includes template fits of light-curve shape parameters useful for calibrating SNe Ia as distance indicators. Assuming the B - V color of SNe Ia at 35 days past maximum light can be presented as the convolution of an intrinsic Gaussian component and a decaying exponential attributed to host-galaxy reddening, we derive an intrinsic scatter of {sigma} = 0.076 {+-} 0.019 mag, consistent with the Lira-Phillips law. This is the first of two papers, the second of which will present a cosmological analysis of the data presented herein.

  17. Light Echoes and Late-Time Emissions of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Dina

    2016-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae have many applications in astronomy, yet with fundamental properties still not fully understood, new methods for investigating the environment of a supernova need to be developed. A light echo is produced from the scattering of light from a bright source and can be used to analyze the dust in the vicinity of the supernova and learn invaluable information about the source. These techniques can put constraints on explosion and progenitor models. Although light echo detections from Type Ia supernovae are rare, with only seven total extragalactic detections, this could be due to the lack of thorough late-epoch monitoring. Since key information is determined from even a single light echo detection, light echo searches should be undertaken in the future to supplement our understanding of supernovae. As part of our collaborative campaign for studying the emission of supernovae at late epochs, we have added two light echoes to a small sample size of Type Ia supernova light echo detections: SN 2009ig in NGC 1015 and a dual echo from SN 2007af in NGC 5584. Both echoes were observed with the Hubble Space Telescope and allow for the most detailed images of Type Ia supernova light echoes to date. Three filters (F555W, F814W, and F350LP) captured the echoes obtained with the Wide Field Camera 3, and since both host galaxies were imaged as part of the same observing program, these cases will be the best comparable light echo pairs. We also further investigate the light echoes from SN 2006X in NGC 4321 and SN 1998bu in NGC 3368 from Hubble Space Telescope archival images. Analyses performed on the images gives crucial insight into the dusty environment of the host galaxy and the surroundings of the supernova. The outer echo from SN 2007af was created from an interstellar dust sheet located ~800 pc in front of the supernova, while the inner echo could be from interstellar or circumstellar origin. A circumstellar light echo could imply a single degenerate

  18. Type Ia Supernova Light-Curve Inference: Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis in the Near-Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2009-10-01

    We present a comprehensive statistical analysis of the properties of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves in the near-infrared using recent data from Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope and the literature. We construct a hierarchical Bayesian framework, incorporating several uncertainties including photometric error, peculiar velocities, dust extinction, and intrinsic variations, for principled and coherent statistical inference. SN Ia light-curve inferences are drawn from the global posterior probability of parameters describing both individual supernovae and the population conditioned on the entire SN Ia NIR data set. The logical structure of the hierarchical model is represented by a directed acyclic graph. Fully Bayesian analysis of the model and data is enabled by an efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm exploiting the conditional probabilistic structure using Gibbs sampling. We apply this framework to the JHKs SN Ia light-curve data. A new light-curve model captures the observed J-band light-curve shape variations. The marginal intrinsic variances in peak absolute magnitudes are σ(MJ ) = 0.17 ± 0.03, σ(MH ) = 0.11 ± 0.03, and σ(MKs ) = 0.19 ± 0.04. We describe the first quantitative evidence for correlations between the NIR absolute magnitudes and J-band light-curve shapes, and demonstrate their utility for distance estimation. The average residual in the Hubble diagram for the training set SNe at cz > 2000kms-1 is 0.10 mag. The new application of bootstrap cross-validation to SN Ia light-curve inference tests the sensitivity of the statistical model fit to the finite sample and estimates the prediction error at 0.15 mag. These results demonstrate that SN Ia NIR light curves are as effective as corrected optical light curves, and, because they are less vulnerable to dust absorption, they have great potential as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  19. CfA3: 185 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FROM THE CfA

    SciTech Connect

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Cho, Richard; Contreras, Maria; Jha, Saurabh; Matheson, Tom; Modjaz, Maryam; Rest, Armin; Michael Wood-Vasey, W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Bragg, Ann; Briceno, Cesar; Ciupik, Larry; Dendy, Kristi-Concannon E-mail: kirshner@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-07-20

    We present multiband photometry of 185 type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with over 11,500 observations. These were acquired between 2001 and 2008 at the F. L. Whipple Observatory of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). This sample contains the largest number of homogeneously observed and reduced nearby SNe Ia (z {approx}< 0.08) published to date. It more than doubles the nearby sample, bringing SN Ia cosmology to the point where systematic uncertainties dominate. Our natural system photometry has a precision of {approx}<0.02 mag in BVRIr'i' and {approx}<0.04 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag. We also estimate a systematic uncertainty of 0.03 mag in our SN Ia standard system BVRIr'i' photometry and 0.07 mag for U. Comparisons of our standard system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars, where available for the same SN, reveal agreement at the level of a few hundredths mag in most cases. We find that 1991bg-like SNe Ia are sufficiently distinct from other SNe Ia in their color and light-curve-shape/luminosity relation that they should be treated separately in light-curve/distance fitter training samples. The CfA3 sample will contribute to the development of better light-curve/distance fitters, particularly in the few dozen cases where near-infrared photometry has been obtained and, together, can help disentangle host-galaxy reddening from intrinsic supernova color, reducing the systematic uncertainty in SN Ia distances due to dust.

  20. Improved Distances to Type Ia Supernovae withMulticolor Light Curve Shapes: MLCS2k2

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Saurabh; Riess, Adam G.; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2007-01-05

    We present an updated version of the Multicolor Light Curve Shape method to measure distances to type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), incorporating new procedures for K-correction and extinction corrections. We also develop a simple model to disentangle intrinsic color variations and reddening by dust, and expand the method to incorporate U-band light curves and to more easily accommodate prior constraints on any of the model parameters. We apply this method to 133 nearby SN Ia, including 95 objects in the Hubble flow (cz {ge} 2500 km s{sup -1}), which give an intrinsic dispersion of less than 7% in distance. The Hubble flow sample, which is of critical importance to all cosmological uses of SN Ia, is the largest ever presented with homogeneous distances. We find the Hubble flow supernovae with H{sub 0}d{sub SN} {ge} 7400 km s{sup -1} yield an expansion rate that is 6.5 {+-} 1.8% lower than the rate determined from supernovae within that distance, and this can have a large effect on measurements of the dark energy equation of state with SN Ia. Peculiar velocities of SN Ia host galaxies in the rest frame of the Local Group are consistent with the dipole measured in the Cosmic Microwave Background. Direct fits of SN Ia that are significantly reddened by dust in their host galaxies suggest their mean extinction law may be described by R{sub V} {approx_equal} 2.7, but optical colors alone provide weak constraints on R{sub V}.

  1. CfAIR2: Near-infrared Light Curves of 94 Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Andrew S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Marion, G. H.; Challis, Peter; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Modjaz, Maryam; Narayan, Gautham; Hicken, Malcolm; Foley, Ryan J.; Klein, Christopher R.; Starr, Dan L.; Morgan, Adam; Rest, Armin; Blake, Cullen H.; Miller, Adam A.; Falco, Emilio E.; Wyatt, William F.; Mink, Jessica; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2015-09-01

    CfAIR2 is a large, homogeneously reduced set of near-infrared (NIR) light curves (LCs) for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained with the 1.3 m Peters Automated InfraRed Imaging TELescope. This data set includes 4637 measurements of 94 SNe Ia and 4 additional SNe Iax observed from 2005 to 2011 at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. CfAIR2 includes {{JHK}}s photometric measurements for 88 normal and 6 spectroscopically peculiar SN Ia in the nearby universe, with a median redshift of z ˜ 0.021 for the normal SN Ia. CfAIR2 data span the range from -13 days to +127 days from B-band maximum. More than half of the LCs begin before the time of maximum, and the coverage typically contains ˜13-18 epochs of observation, depending on the filter. We present extensive tests that verify the fidelity of the CfAIR2 data pipeline, including comparison to the excellent data of the Carnegie Supernova Project. CfAIR2 contributes to a firm local anchor for SN cosmology studies in the NIR. Because SN Ia are more nearly standard candles in the NIR and are less vulnerable to the vexing problems of extinction by dust, CfAIR2 will help the SN cosmology community develop more precise and accurate extragalactic distance probes to improve our knowledge of cosmological parameters, including dark energy and its potential time variation.

  2. THE FIRST MAXIMUM-LIGHT ULTRAVIOLET THROUGH NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRUM OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.; Marion, G. Howie; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Berta, Zachory K.; Kromer, Markus; Taubenberger, Stefan; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang; Roepke, Friedrich K.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, Franco; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Pignata, Giuliano; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Folatelli, Gaston; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Simcoe, Robert A.; and others

    2012-07-01

    We present the first maximum-light ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared (NIR) Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectrum. This spectrum of SN 2011iv was obtained nearly simultaneously by the Hubble Space Telescope at UV/optical wavelengths and the Magellan Baade telescope at NIR wavelengths. These data provide the opportunity to examine the entire maximum-light SN Ia spectral energy distribution. Since the UV region of an SN Ia spectrum is extremely sensitive to the composition of the outer layers of the explosion, which are transparent at longer wavelengths, this unprecedented spectrum can provide strong constraints on the composition of the SN ejecta, and similarly the SN explosion and progenitor system. SN 2011iv is spectroscopically normal, but has a relatively fast decline ({Delta}m{sub 15}(B) = 1.69 {+-} 0.05 mag). We compare SN 2011iv to other SNe Ia with UV spectra near maximum light and examine trends between UV spectral properties, light-curve shape, and ejecta velocity. We tentatively find that SNe with similar light-curve shapes but different ejecta velocities have similar UV spectra, while those with similar ejecta velocities but different light-curve shapes have very different UV spectra. Through a comparison with explosion models, we find that both a solar-metallicity W7 and a zero-metallicity delayed-detonation model provide a reasonable fit to the spectrum of SN 2011iv from the UV to the NIR.

  3. Near-infrared light curves of Type Ia supernovae: studying properties of the second maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Maguire, K.

    2015-04-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been proposed to be much better distance indicators at near-infrared (NIR) compared to optical wavelengths - the effect of dust extinction is expected to be lower and it has been shown that SNe Ia behave more like `standard candles' at NIR wavelengths. To better understand the physical processes behind this increased uniformity, we have studied the Y, J and H-filter light curves of 91 SNe Ia from the literature. We show that the phases and luminosities of the first maximum in the NIR light curves are extremely uniform for our sample. The phase of the second maximum, the late-phase NIR luminosity and the optical light-curve shape are found to be strongly correlated, in particular more luminous SNe Ia reach the second maximum in the NIR filters at a later phase compared to fainter objects. We also find a strong correlation between the phase of the second maximum and the epoch at which the SN enters the Lira law phase in its optical colour curve (epochs ˜ 15 to 30 d after B-band maximum). The decline rate after the second maximum is very uniform in all NIR filters. We suggest that these observational parameters are linked to the nickel and iron mass in the explosion, providing evidence that the amount of nickel synthesized in the explosion is the dominating factor shaping the optical and NIR appearance of SNe Ia.

  4. Constraining spacetime variations of nuclear decay rates from light curves of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpikov, Ivan; Piskunov, Maxim; Sokolov, Anton; Troitsky, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    The luminosity of fading type Ia supernovae is governed by radioactive decays of Ni 56 and Co 56 . The decay rates are proportional to the Fermi coupling constant GF and, therefore, are determined by the vacuum expectation value v of the Brout-Englert-Higgs field. We use publicly available sets of light curves of type Ia supernova at various redshifts to constrain possible spacetime variations of the Ni 56 decay rate. The resulting constraint is not very tight; however, it is the only direct bound on the variation of the decay rate for redshifts up to z ˜1 . We discuss potential applications of the result to searches for nonconstancy of GF and v .

  5. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, Brian T.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Kessler, Richard; Frieman, Joshua A.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Kasen, Daniel; Marriner, John; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble residuals in our

  6. COMPARING THE LIGHT CURVES OF SIMULATED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH OBSERVATIONS USING DATA-DRIVEN MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kessler, Richard; Graziani, Carlo; Jordan, George C. IV; Lamb, Donald Q.; Long, Min; Van Rossum, Daniel R.

    2013-08-20

    We propose a robust, quantitative method to compare the synthetic light curves of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion model with a large set of observed SNe Ia, and derive a figure of merit for the explosion model's agreement with observations. The synthetic light curves are fit with the data-driven model SALT2 which returns values for stretch, color, and magnitude at peak brightness, as well as a goodness-of-fit parameter. Each fit is performed multiple times with different choices of filter bands and epoch range in order to quantify the systematic uncertainty on the fitted parameters. We use a parametric population model for the distribution of observed SN Ia parameters from large surveys, and extend it to represent red, dim, and bright outliers found in a low-redshift SN Ia data set. We discuss the potential uncertainties of this population model and find it to be reliable given the current uncertainties on cosmological parameters. Using our population model, we assign each set of fitted parameters a likelihood of being observed in nature, and a figure of merit based on this likelihood. We define a second figure of merit based on the quality of the light curve fit, and combine the two measures into an overall figure of merit for each explosion model. We compute figures of merit for a variety of one-, two-, and three-dimensional explosion models and show that our evaluation method allows meaningful inferences across a wide range of light curve quality and fitted parameters.

  7. Cosmological Parameter Uncertainties from SALT-II Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Models

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Guy, J.; Kessler, R.; Astier, P.; Marriner, J.; Betoule, M.; Sako, M.; El-Hage, P.; Biswas, R.; Pain, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Regnault, N.; Frieman, J. A.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-08-29

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ~120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ~255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ~290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w (input) – w (recovered)) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty, the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  8. Cosmological parameter uncertainties from SALT-II type Ia supernova light curve models

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, J.; Sako, M.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Betoule, M.; El-Hage, P.; Pain, R.; Regnault, N.; Marriner, J.; Biswas, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schneider, D. P.

    2014-09-20

    We use simulated type Ia supernova (SN Ia) samples, including both photometry and spectra, to perform the first direct validation of cosmology analysis using the SALT-II light curve model. This validation includes residuals from the light curve training process, systematic biases in SN Ia distance measurements, and a bias on the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Using the SN-analysis package SNANA, we simulate and analyze realistic samples corresponding to the data samples used in the SNLS3 analysis: ∼120 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia, ∼255 Sloan Digital Sky Survey SNe Ia (z < 0.4), and ∼290 SNLS SNe Ia (z ≤ 1). To probe systematic uncertainties in detail, we vary the input spectral model, the model of intrinsic scatter, and the smoothing (i.e., regularization) parameters used during the SALT-II model training. Using realistic intrinsic scatter models results in a slight bias in the ultraviolet portion of the trained SALT-II model, and w biases (w {sub input} – w {sub recovered}) ranging from –0.005 ± 0.012 to –0.024 ± 0.010. These biases are indistinguishable from each other within the uncertainty; the average bias on w is –0.014 ± 0.007.

  9. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVE INFERENCE: HIERARCHICAL MODELS IN THE OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Narayan, Gautham; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2011-04-20

    We have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves spanning optical through near-infrared (NIR) data. A hierarchical framework coherently models multiple random and uncertain effects, including intrinsic supernova (SN) light curve covariances, dust extinction and reddening, and distances. An improved BAYESN Markov Chain Monte Carlo code computes probabilistic inferences for the hierarchical model by sampling the global probability density of parameters describing individual SNe and the population. We have applied this hierarchical model to optical and NIR data of 127 SNe Ia from PAIRITEL, CfA3, Carnegie Supernova Project, and the literature. We find an apparent population correlation between the host galaxy extinction A{sub V} and the ratio of total-to-selective dust absorption R{sub V} . For SNe with low dust extinction, A{sub V} {approx}< 0.4, we find R{sub V} {approx} 2.5-2.9, while at high extinctions, A{sub V} {approx}> 1, low values of R{sub V} < 2 are favored. The NIR luminosities are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction. They exhibit low correlation with optical peak luminosities, and thus provide independent information on distances. The combination of NIR and optical data constrains the dust extinction and improves the predictive precision of individual SN Ia distances by about 60%. Using cross-validation, we estimate an rms distance modulus prediction error of 0.11 mag for SNe with optical and NIR data versus 0.15 mag for SNe with optical data alone. Continued study of SNe Ia in the NIR is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.

  10. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-10-20

    An explanation is given of the low value of R lambda triple bond A lambda/E(B - V), the ratio of absolute to selective extinction deduced from Type Ia supernova observations. The idea involves scattering by dust clouds located in the circumstellar environment, or at the highest velocity shells of the supernova ejecta. The scattered light tends to reduce the effective R lambda in the optical, but has an opposite effect in the ultraviolet. The presence of circumstellar dust can be tested by ultraviolet to near infrared observations and by multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SNe Ia.

  11. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017azk (= PS17bii) as a type-Ia supernova near maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Vaisanen, P.

    2017-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017azk (= PS17bii) on 2017 Feb 24.0 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows SN 2017azk is a type-Ia supernova near maximum light.

  12. SALT spectroscopic classification of SN 2017erp as a type-Ia supernova well before maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Camacho, Y.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Skelton, R.

    2017-06-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of SN 2017erp (discovered by K. Itagaki) on 2017 Jun 13.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-940 nm. Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows SN 2017erp is a type-Ia supernova before maximum light.

  13. Tycho Brahe's 1572 supernova as a standard typeIa as revealed by its light-echo spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Oliver; Tanaka, Masaomi; Usuda, Tomonori; Hattori, Takashi; Goto, Miwa; Birkmann, Stephan; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-12-01

    TypeIa supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars in close binary systems. They play an important role as cosmological distance indicators and have led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Among the most important unsolved questions about supernovae are how the explosion actually proceeds and whether accretion occurs from a companion or by the merging of two white dwarfs. Tycho Brahe's supernova of 1572 (SN1572) is thought to be one of the best candidates for a typeIa supernova in the Milky Way. The proximity of the SN1572 remnant has allowed detailed studies, such as the possible identification of the binary companion, and provides a unique opportunity to test theories of the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. The determination of the hitherto unknown spectroscopic type of this supernova is crucial in relating these results to the diverse population of typeIa supernovae. Here we report an optical spectrum of Tycho's supernova near maximum brightness, obtained from a scattered-light echo more than four centuries after the direct light from the explosion swept past the Earth. We find that SN1572 belongs to the majority class of normal typeIa supernovae.

  14. Tycho Brahe's 1572 supernova as a standard type Ia as revealed by its light-echo spectrum.

    PubMed

    Krause, Oliver; Tanaka, Masaomi; Usuda, Tomonori; Hattori, Takashi; Goto, Miwa; Birkmann, Stephan; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2008-12-04

    Type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars in close binary systems. They play an important role as cosmological distance indicators and have led to the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Among the most important unsolved questions about supernovae are how the explosion actually proceeds and whether accretion occurs from a companion or by the merging of two white dwarfs. Tycho Brahe's supernova of 1572 (SN 1572) is thought to be one of the best candidates for a type Ia supernova in the Milky Way. The proximity of the SN 1572 remnant has allowed detailed studies, such as the possible identification of the binary companion, and provides a unique opportunity to test theories of the explosion mechanism and the nature of the progenitor. The determination of the hitherto unknown spectroscopic type of this supernova is crucial in relating these results to the diverse population of type Ia supernovae. Here we report an optical spectrum of Tycho's supernova near maximum brightness, obtained from a scattered-light echo more than four centuries after the direct light from the explosion swept past the Earth. We find that SN 1572 belongs to the majority class of normal type Ia supernovae.

  15. Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    1992-01-01

    Spectral calculations show that a model based on the thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon/oxygen white dwarf provides excellent agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae. Identification of suitable evolutionary progenitors remains a severe problem. General problems with estimation of supernova rates are outlined and the origin of Type Ia supernovae from double degenerate systems are discussed in the context of new rates of explosion per H band luminosity, the lack of observed candidates, and the likely presence of H in the vicinity of some SN Ia events. Re-examination of the problems of triggering Type Ia by accretion of hydrogen from a companion shows that there may be an avenue involving cataclysmic variables, especially if extreme hibernation occurs. Novae may channel accreting white dwarfs to a unique locus in accretion rate/mass space. Systems that undergo secular evolution to higher mass transfer rates could lead to just the conditions necessary for a Type Ia explosion. Tests involving fluorescence or absorption in a surrounding circumstellar medium and the detection of hydrogen stripped from a companion, which should appear at low velocity inside the white dwarf ejecta, are suggested. Possible observational confirmation of the former is described.

  16. Measuring Type Ia Supernova Distances and Redshifts From TheirMulti-band Light Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alex G.; Miquel, Ramon

    2007-08-12

    The distance and redshift of a type Ia supernova can bedetermined simultaneously through its multi-band light curves. This factmay beused for imaging surveys that discover and obtain photometry forlarge numbers of supernovae; so many that it would be difficult to obtaina spectroscopic redshift for each. Using available supernova-analysistools we find that there are several conditions in which a viabledistance--redshift can be determined. Uncertainties in the effectivedistance at z~;0.3 are dominated by redshift uncertainties coupled withthe steepness of the Hubble law. By z~;0.5 the Hubble law flattens outand distance-modulus uncertainties dominate. Observations that giveS/N=50 at peak brightness and a four-day observer cadence in each ofgriz-bands are necessary to match the intrinsic supernova magnitudedispersion out to z=1.0. Lower S/N can be tolerated with the addition ofredshift priors (e.g., from a host-galaxy photometric redshift),observationsin an additional redder band, or by focusing on supernovaredshifts that have particular leverage for this measurement. Morestringent S/N requirements are anticipated as improved systematicscontrol over intrinsic color, metallicity, and dust is attempted to bedrawn from light curves.

  17. Light and Color Curve Properties of Type Ia Supernovae: Theory Versus Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeflich, P.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Ashall, C.; Burns, C. R.; Diamond, T. R.; Phillips, M. M.; Sand, D.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Suntzeff, N.; Contreras, C.; Krisciunas, K.; Morrell, N.; Wang, L.

    2017-09-01

    We study the optical light curve (LC) relations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for their use in cosmology using high-quality photometry published by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP-I). We revisit the classical luminosity decline rate (Δm 15) relation and the Lira relation, as well as investigate the time evolution of the (B ‑ V) color and B(B ‑ V), which serves as the basis of the color–stretch relation and Color–MAgnitude Intercept Calibrations (CMAGIC). Our analysis is based on explosion and radiation transport simulations for spherically symmetric delayed-detonation models (DDT) producing normal-bright and subluminous SNe Ia. Empirical LC relations can be understood as having the same physical underpinnings, i.e., opacities, ionization balances in the photosphere, and radioactive energy deposition changing with time from below to above the photosphere. Some three to four weeks past maximum, the photosphere recedes to 56Ni-rich layers of similar density structure, leading to a similar color evolution. An important secondary parameter is the central density ρ c of the WD because at higher densities, more electron-capture elements are produced at the expense of 56Ni production. This results in a Δm 15 spread of 0.1 mag in normal-bright and 0.7 mag in subluminous SNe Ia and ≈0.2 mag in the Lira relation. We show why color–magnitude diagrams emphasize the transition between physical regimes and enable the construction of templates that depend mostly on Δm 15 with little dispersion in both the CSP-I sample and our DDT models. This allows intrinsic SN Ia variations to be separated from the interstellar reddening characterized by E(B ‑ V) and R B . Invoking different scenarios causes a wide spread in empirical relations, which may suggest one dominant scenario.

  18. IMPROVED DARK ENERGY CONSTRAINTS FROM {approx}100 NEW CfA SUPERNOVA TYPE Ia LIGHT CURVES

    SciTech Connect

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Blondin, Stephane; Jha, Saurabh; Kelly, Patrick L.; Rest, Armin E-mail: kirshner@cfa.harvard.edu

    2009-08-01

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013{sup +0.066} {sub -0.068} (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 < {delta} < 1.2. MLCS2k2 with R{sub V} = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R{sub V} {approx} 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2{sigma}, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  19. Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Hicken, Malcolm; Wood-Vasey, W.Michael; Blondin, Stephane; Challis, Peter; Jha, Saurabh; Kelly, Patrick L.; Rest, Armin; Kirshner, Robert P.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-04-06

    We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski et al. to form the Constitution set and, combined with a BAO prior, produces 1 + w = 0.013{sub -0.068}{sup +0.066} (0.11 syst), consistent with the cosmological constant. The CfA3 addition makes the cosmologically useful sample of nearby SN Ia between 2.6 and 2.9 times larger than before, reducing the statistical uncertainty to the point where systematics play the largest role. We use four light-curve fitters to test for systematic differences: SALT, SALT2, MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 3.1), and MLCS2k2 (R{sub V} = 1.7). SALT produces high-redshift Hubble residuals with systematic trends versus color and larger scatter than MLCS2k2. MLCS2k2 overestimates the intrinsic luminosity of SN Ia with 0.7 < {Delta} < 1.2. MLCS2k2 with R{sub V} = 3.1 overestimates host-galaxy extinction while R{sub V} {approx} 1.7 does not. Our investigation is consistent with no Hubble bubble. We also find that, after light-curve correction, SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts are intrinsically fainter than those in E/S0 hosts by 2{sigma}, suggesting that they may come from different populations. We also find that SN Ia in Scd/Sd/Irr hosts have low scatter (0.1 mag) and reddening. Current systematic errors can be reduced by improving SN Ia photometric accuracy, by including the CfA3 sample to retrain light-curve fitters, by combining optical SN Ia photometry with near-infrared photometry to understand host-galaxy extinction, and by determining if different environments give rise to different intrinsic SN Ia luminosity after correction for light-curve shape and color.

  20. CfA4: LIGHT CURVES FOR 94 TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Hicken, Malcolm; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Bakos, Gaspar; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Calkins, Mike; Falco, Emilio; Fernandez, Jose; Friedman, Andrew S.; Groner, Ted; Hartman, Joel; Rest, Armin; Cramer, Claire E.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Currie, Thayne; De Kleer, Kathy; Esquerdo, Gil; Everett, Mark; and others

    2012-06-01

    We present multi-band optical photometry of 94 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.0055-0.073, obtained between 2006 and 2011. There are a total of 5522 light-curve points. We show that our natural-system SN photometry has a precision of {approx}< 0.03 mag in BVr'i', {approx}< 0.06 mag in u', and {approx}< 0.07 mag in U for points brighter than 17.5 mag and estimate that it has a systematic uncertainty of 0.014, 0.010, 0.012, 0.014, 0.046, and 0.073 mag in BVr'i'u'U, respectively. Comparisons of our standard-system photometry with published SN Ia light curves and comparison stars reveal mean agreement across samples in the range of {approx}0.00-0.03 mag. We discuss the recent measurements of our telescope-plus-detector throughput by direct monochromatic illumination by Cramer et al. This technique measures the whole optical path through the telescope, auxiliary optics, filters, and detector under the same conditions used to make SN measurements. Extremely well characterized natural-system passbands (both in wavelength and over time) are crucial for the next generation of SN Ia photometry to reach the 0.01 mag accuracy level. The current sample of low-z SNe Ia is now sufficiently large to remove most of the statistical sampling error from the dark-energy error budget. But pursuing the dark-energy systematic errors by determining highly accurate detector passbands, combining optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry and spectra, using the nearby sample to illuminate the population properties of SNe Ia, and measuring the local departures from the Hubble flow will benefit from larger, carefully measured nearby samples.

  1. SUPER-CHANDRASEKHAR-MASS LIGHT CURVE MODELS FOR THE HIGHLY LUMINOUS TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009dc

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Yasuomi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Blinnikov, Sergei I.; Sorokina, Elena I.; Suzuki, Tomoharu

    2012-09-10

    Several highly luminous Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been discovered. Their high luminosities are difficult to explain with the thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs (WDs). In the present study, we estimate the progenitor mass of SN 2009dc, one of the extremely luminous SNe Ia, using the hydrodynamical models as follows. Explosion models of super-Chandrasekhar-mass (super-Ch-mass) WDs are constructed, and multi-color light curves (LCs) are calculated. The comparison between our calculations and the observations of SN 2009dc suggests that the exploding WD has a super-Ch mass of 2.2-2.4 M{sub Sun }, producing 1.2-1.4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni, if the extinction by its host galaxy is negligible. If the extinction is significant, the exploding WD is as massive as {approx}2.8 M{sub Sun }, and {approx}1.8 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni is necessary to account for the observations. Whether the host-galaxy extinction is significant or not, the progenitor WD must have a thick carbon-oxygen layer in the outermost zone (20%-30% of the WD mass), which explains the observed low expansion velocity of the ejecta and the presence of carbon. Our estimate of the mass of the progenitor WD, especially for the extinction-corrected case, is challenging to the current scenarios of SNe Ia. Implications for the progenitor scenarios are also discussed.

  2. Timescale stretch parameterization of Type Ia supernova B-band light curves

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhaber, G.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Irwin, M.; Kim, M.; Knop, R.A.; Lidman, C.; McMahon, R.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Panagia, N.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.; York, T.

    2001-04-01

    R-band intensity measurements along the light curve of Type Ia supernovae discovered by the Cosmology Project (SCP) are fitted in brightness to templates allowing a free parameter the time-axis width factor w identically equal to s times (1+z). The data points are then individually aligned in the time-axis, normalized and K-corrected back to the rest frame, after which the nearly 1300 normalized intensity measurements are found to lie on a well-determined common rest-frame B-band curve which we call the ''composite curve.'' The same procedure is applied to 18 low-redshift Calan/Tololo SNe with Z < 0.11; these nearly 300 B-band photometry points are found to lie on the composite curve equally well. The SCP search technique produces several measurements before maximum light for each supernova. We demonstrate that the linear stretch factor, s, which parameterizes the light-curve timescale appears independent of z, and applies equally well to the declining and rising parts of the light curve. In fact, the B band template that best fits this composite curve fits the individual supernova photometry data when stretched by a factor s with chi 2/DoF {approx} 1, thus as well as any parameterization can, given the current data sets. The measurement of the data of explosion, however, is model dependent and not tightly constrained by the current data. We also demonstrate the 1 + z light-cure time-axis broadening expected from cosmological expansion. This argues strongly against alternative explanations, such as tired light, for the redshift of distant objects.

  3. SALT spectroscopic classification of ASASSN-17bu (= SN 2017yv) as a type-Ia supernova before maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Kotze, M.

    2017-02-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of ASASSN-17bu (= SN 2017yv; ATel #10033) on 2017 Feb 3.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-940 nm. Cross-correlation of the supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows ASASSN-17bu is a type-Ia supernova several days before maximum light.

  4. SALT spectroscopic classification of DLT17ar (= SN 2017cyy) as a type-Ia supernova before maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Sand, D.; Tartaglia, L.; Valenti, S.; Kuhn, R.

    2017-04-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of DLT17ar (= SN 2017cyy) on 2017 Apr 12.8 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-725 nm under cloudy conditions. Cross-correlation of the noisy supernova spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows DLT17ar is a type-Ia supernova before maximum light.

  5. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P. A.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2011-12-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s-1) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22+10 - 6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as -5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a "carbon blobs" hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  6. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS16atu (SN 2016atv) as a type-Ia supernova after maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-03-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS16atu (SN 2016atv) on 2016 Mar 10.1 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows PS16atu is a type-Ia supernova approximately a week past maximum light.

  7. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II: Photometry and Supernova Ia Light Curves from the 2005 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, Jon A.; Marriner, John; Kessler, Richard; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Ben; Frieman, Joshua A.; Schneider, Donald P.; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Cinabro, David; DeJongh, Fritz; Depoy, Darren L.; Doi, Mamoru; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Jha, Saurabh; Konishi, Kohki; Lampeitl, Hubert; Marshall, Jennifer L.; McGinnis, David; Miknaitis, Gajus; /KICP, Chicago /Portsmouth U., ICG /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Rochester Inst. Tech. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Portsmouth U., ICG /Tokyo U., Inst. Astron. /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U. /Tokyo U., ICRR /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-08-26

    We present ugriz light curves for 146 spectroscopically confirmed or spectroscopically probable Type Ia supernovae from the 2005 season of the SDSS-II Supernova survey. The light curves have been constructed using a photometric technique that we call scene modeling, which is described in detail here; the major feature is that supernova brightnesses are extracted from a stack of images without spatial resampling or convolution of the image data. This procedure produces accurate photometry along with accurate estimates of the statistical uncertainty, and can be used to derive photometry taken with multiple telescopes. We discuss various tests of this technique that demonstrate its capabilities. We also describe the methodology used for the calibration of the photometry, and present calibrated magnitudes and fluxes for all of the spectroscopic SNe Ia from the 2005 season.

  8. Exploring the Potential Diversity of Early Type Ia Supernova Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2016-07-01

    During the first several days after explosion, Type Ia supernova light curves probe the outer layers of the exploding star, and therefore provide important clues for identifying their progenitors. We investigate how both the shallow 56Ni distribution and the presence of circumstellar material shape these early light curves. This is performed using a series of numerical experiments with parameterized properties for systematic exploration. Although not all of the considered models may be realized in nature (and indeed there are arguments why some of them should not occur), the spirit of this work is to provide a broader exploration of the diversity of possibilities. We find that shallower 56Ni leads to steeper, bluer light curves. Differences in the shape of the rise can introduce errors in estimating the explosion time, and thus impact efforts to infer upper limits on the progenitor or companion radius from a lack of observed shock cooling emission. Circumstellar material can lead to significant luminosity during the first few days, but its presence can be difficult to identify depending on the degree of nickel mixing. In some cases, the hot emission of circumstellar material may even lead to a signature similar to an interaction with a companion, and thus in the future additional diagnostics should be gathered for properly assessing early light curves.

  9. The late-time light curve of the Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriadis, G.; Sullivan, M.; Kerzendorf, W.; Ruiter, A. J.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Taubenberger, S.; Doran, G. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Laher, R. R.; Maguire, K.; Nugent, P.; Ofek, E. O.; Surace, J.

    2017-07-01

    We present late-time optical R-band imaging data from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) for the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe. The stacked PTF light curve provides densely sampled coverage down to R ≃ 22 mag over 200-620 d past explosion. Combining with literature data, we estimate the pseudo-bolometric light curve for this event from 200 to 1600 d after explosion, and constrain the likely near-infrared (Near-IR) contribution. This light curve shows a smooth decline consistent with radioactive decay, except over ˜450 to ˜600 d where the light curve appears to decrease faster than expected based on the radioactive isotopes presumed to be present, before flattening at around 600 d. We model the 200-1600 d pseudo-bolometric light curve with the luminosity generated by the radioactive decay chains of 56Ni, 57Ni and 55Co, and find it is not consistent with models that have full positron trapping and no infrared catastrophe (IRC); some additional energy escape other than optical/near-IR photons is required. However, the light curve is consistent with models that allow for positron escape (reaching 75 per cent by day 500) and/or an IRC (with 85 per cent of the flux emerging in non-optical wavelengths by day 600). The presence of the 57Ni decay chain is robustly detected, but the 55Co decay chain is not formally required, with an upper mass limit estimated at 0.014 M⊙. The measurement of the 57Ni/56Ni mass ratio is subject to significant systematic uncertainties, but all of our fits require a high ratio >0.031 (>1.3 in solar abundances).

  10. Progenitor's Signatures in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiotellis, A.; Kosenko, D.; Schure, K. M.; Vink, J.

    2013-01-01

    The remnants of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can provide important clues about their progenitor histories. We discuss two well-observed supernova remnants (SNRs) that are believed to have resulted from SNe Ia, and use various tools to shed light on the possible progenitor histories. We find that Kepler's SNR is consistent with a symbiotic binary progenitor consisting of a white dwarf and an AGB star. Our hydrosimulations can reproduce the observed kinematic and morphological properties. For Tycho's remnant we use the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum and kinematics to show that the ejecta has likely interacted with dense circumstellar gas.

  11. Defining photometric peculiar type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    González-Gaitán, S.; Pignata, G.; Förster, F.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Bufano, F.; Galbany, L.; Hamuy, M.; De Jaeger, T.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Anderson, J. P.

    2014-11-10

    We present a new photometric identification technique for SN 1991bg-like type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), i.e., objects with light curve characteristics such as later primary maxima and the absence of a secondary peak in redder filters. This method is capable of selecting this sub-group from the normal type Ia population. Furthermore, we find that recently identified peculiar sub-types such as SNe Iax and super-Chandrasekhar SNe Ia have photometric characteristics similar to 91bg-like SNe Ia, namely, the absence of secondary maxima and shoulders at longer wavelengths, and can also be classified with our technique. The similarity of these different SN Ia sub-groups perhaps suggests common physical conditions. This typing methodology permits the photometric identification of peculiar SNe Ia in large upcoming wide-field surveys either to study them further or to obtain a pure sample of normal SNe Ia for cosmological studies.

  12. Against the Wind: Radio Light Curves of Type Ia Supernovae Interacting with Low-density Circumstellar Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasen, Daniel N.

    2016-06-01

    For decades a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the X-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, because shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we model the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low-density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves. We also identify a fiducial set of models that obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for an interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial models can be used to deduce CSM properties from radio observations; we demonstrate this by applying them to the nondetections of SN 2011fe and SN 2014J. Finally, we explore a multiple shell CSM configuration and describe its more complicated dynamics and the resultant radio light curves.

  13. Against the Wind: Radio Light Curves of Type IA Supernovae Interacting with Low-Density Circumstellar Shells

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasen, Daniel N.

    2016-05-26

    For decades a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the X-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, because shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we model the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low-density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves. We also identify a fiducial set of models that obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for an interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial models can be used to deduce CSM properties from radio observations; we demonstrate this by applying them to the nondetections of SN 2011fe and SN 2014J. Finally, we explore a multiple shell CSM configuration and describe its more complicated dynamics and the resultant radio light curves.

  14. Against the Wind: Radio Light Curves of Type IA Supernovae Interacting with Low-Density Circumstellar Shells

    DOE PAGES

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kasen, Daniel N.

    2016-05-26

    For decades a wide variety of observations spanning the radio through optical and on to the X-ray have attempted to uncover signs of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). The goal of these studies is to constrain the nature of the hypothesized SN Ia mass-donor companion. A continuous CSM is typically assumed when interpreting observations of interaction. However, while such models have been successfully applied to core-collapse SNe, the assumption of continuity may not be accurate for SNe Ia, because shells of CSM could be formed by pre-supernova eruptions (novae). In this work, we modelmore » the interaction of SNe with a spherical, low-density, finite-extent CSM and create a suite of synthetic radio synchrotron light curves. We find that CSM shells produce sharply peaked light curves. We also identify a fiducial set of models that obey a common evolution and can be used to generate radio light curves for an interaction with an arbitrary shell. The relations obeyed by the fiducial models can be used to deduce CSM properties from radio observations; we demonstrate this by applying them to the nondetections of SN 2011fe and SN 2014J. Finally, we explore a multiple shell CSM configuration and describe its more complicated dynamics and the resultant radio light curves.« less

  15. ESTIMATING THE FIRST-LIGHT TIME OF THE TYPE IA SUPERNOVA 2014J IN M82

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, WeiKang; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Fox, Ori D.; Graham, Melissa L.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Mauerhan, Jon C.; Itagaki, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2014J in M82 (d ≈ 3.5 Mpc) was serendipitously discovered by S. Fossey's group on 2014 January 21 UT and has been confirmed to be the nearest known SN Ia since at least SN 1986G. Although SN 2014J was not discovered until ∼7 days after first light, both the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope at Lick Observatory and K. Itagaki obtained several prediscovery observations of SN 2014J. With these data, we are able to constrain the object's time of first light to be January 14.75 UT, only 0.82 ± 0.21 days before our first detection. Interestingly, we find that the light curve is well described by a varying power law, much like SN 2013dy, which makes SN 2014J the second example of a changing power law in early-time SN Ia light curves. A low-resolution spectrum taken on January 23.388 UT, ∼8.70 days after first light, shows that SN 2014J is a heavily reddened but otherwise spectroscopically normal SN Ia.

  16. THE AGES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Timothy D.; Aubourg, Eric; Strauss, Michael A.; Tojeiro, Rita; Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul

    2010-09-15

    Using light curves and host galaxy spectra of 101 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with redshift z {approx}< 0.3 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Supernova Survey (SDSS-SN), we derive the SN Ia rate as a function of progenitor age (the delay time distribution, DTD). We use the VESPA stellar population synthesis algorithm to analyze the SDSS spectra of all galaxies in the field searched by SDSS-SN, giving us a reference sample of 77,000 galaxies for our SN Ia hosts. Our method does not assume any a priori shape for the DTD and is therefore minimally parametric. We present the DTD in physical units for high-stretch (luminous, slow declining) and low-stretch (subluminous, fast declining) supernovae in three progenitor age bins. We find strong evidence of two progenitor channels: one that produces high-stretch SNe Ia {approx}<400 Myr after the birth of the progenitor system, and one that produces low-stretch SNe Ia with a delay {approx}>2.4 Gyr. We find that each channel contributes roughly half of the Type Ia rate in our reference sample. We also construct the average spectra of high-stretch and low-stretch SN Ia host galaxies, and find that the difference of these spectra looks like a main-sequence B star with nebular emission lines indicative of star formation. This supports our finding that there are two populations of SNe Ia, and indicates that the progenitors of high-stretch supernovae are at the least associated with very recent star formation in the last few tens of Myr. Our results provide valuable constraints for models of Type Ia progenitors and may help improve the calibration of SNe Ia as standard candles.

  17. An Empirical Fitting Method for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves: A Case Study of SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2017-03-01

    We present a new empirical fitting method for the optical light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We find that a variant broken-power-law function provides a good fit, with the simple assumption that the optical emission is approximately the blackbody emission of the expanding fireball. This function is mathematically analytic and is derived directly from the photospheric velocity evolution. When deriving the function, we assume that both the blackbody temperature and photospheric velocity are constant, but the final function is able to accommodate these changes during the fitting procedure. Applying it to the case study of SN 2011fe gives a surprisingly good fit that can describe the light curves from the first-light time to a few weeks after peak brightness, as well as over a large range of fluxes (∼5 mag, and even ∼7 mag in the g band). Since SNe Ia share similar light-curve shapes, this fitting method has the potential to fit most other SNe Ia and characterize their properties in large statistical samples such as those already gathered and in the near future as new facilities become available.

  18. PSN J11290437+1714095 is a Type Ia supernova (91T-like) near maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, M.; Owen, C.; Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B.; Tucker, B.

    2013-12-01

    We report spectroscopic classification of PSN J11290437+1714095 with the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS - Dopita et al., 2007, ApSS, 310, 255) on the ANU 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, NSW Australia, using the B3000/R3000 gratings (3500-9800 A, 1 A resolution). PSN J11290437+1714095 was discovered by TAROT on 2013 Dec 11.09 at mag 15.9 in UGC 6483. A 20 minute spectrum of the SN on 2013 Dec 12.72 shows this to be a Type Ia supernova of the SN 1991T subclass near maximum light.

  19. Light curves of 213 Type Ia supernovae from the Essence survey

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, G.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Foley, R. J.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Challis, P.; Stubbs, C.; Kirshner, R. P.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A. C.; Blondin, S.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Damke, G.; Davis, T. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Garg, A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Hicken, M.; Jha, S. W.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Prieto, J. L.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.; Silverman, J. M.; Smith, R. C.; Sollerman, J.; Spyromilio, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Tonry, J. L.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-05-06

    The ESSENCE survey discovered 213 Type Ia supernovae at redshifts $0.1\\lt z\\lt 0.81$ between 2002 and 2008. We present their R- and I-band photometry, measured from images obtained using the MOSAIC II camera at the CTIO Blanco, along with rapid-response spectroscopy for each object. We use our spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine an accurate, quantitative classification, and precise redshift. Through an extensive calibration program we have improved the precision of the CTIO Blanco natural photometric system. We use several empirical metrics to measure our internal photometric consistency and our absolute calibration of the survey. Here, we assess the effect of various potential sources of systematic bias on our measured fluxes, and estimate the dominant term in the systematic error budget from the photometric calibration on our absolute fluxes is ~1%.

  20. Light curves of 213 Type Ia supernovae from the Essence survey

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, G.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Foley, R. J.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Challis, P.; Stubbs, C.; Kirshner, R. P.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A. C.; Blondin, S.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Damke, G.; Davis, T. M.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Garg, A.; Garnavich, P. M.; Hicken, M.; Jha, S. W.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Prieto, J. L.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.; Silverman, J. M.; Smith, R. C.; Sollerman, J.; Spyromilio, J.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Tonry, J. L.; Zenteno, A.

    2016-05-06

    The ESSENCE survey discovered 213 Type Ia supernovae at redshifts $0.1\\lt z\\lt 0.81$ between 2002 and 2008. We present their R- and I-band photometry, measured from images obtained using the MOSAIC II camera at the CTIO Blanco, along with rapid-response spectroscopy for each object. We use our spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine an accurate, quantitative classification, and precise redshift. Through an extensive calibration program we have improved the precision of the CTIO Blanco natural photometric system. We use several empirical metrics to measure our internal photometric consistency and our absolute calibration of the survey. Here, we assess the effect of various potential sources of systematic bias on our measured fluxes, and estimate the dominant term in the systematic error budget from the photometric calibration on our absolute fluxes is ~1%.

  1. Light curves of 213 Type Ia supernovae from the Essence survey

    DOE PAGES

    Narayan, G.; Rest, A.; Tucker, B. E.; ...

    2016-05-06

    The ESSENCE survey discovered 213 Type Ia supernovae at redshiftsmore » $$0.1\\lt z\\lt 0.81$$ between 2002 and 2008. We present their R- and I-band photometry, measured from images obtained using the MOSAIC II camera at the CTIO Blanco, along with rapid-response spectroscopy for each object. We use our spectroscopic follow-up observations to determine an accurate, quantitative classification, and precise redshift. Through an extensive calibration program we have improved the precision of the CTIO Blanco natural photometric system. We use several empirical metrics to measure our internal photometric consistency and our absolute calibration of the survey. Here, we assess the effect of various potential sources of systematic bias on our measured fluxes, and estimate the dominant term in the systematic error budget from the photometric calibration on our absolute fluxes is ~1%.« less

  2. The Union3 Supernova Ia Compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, David; Aldering, Greg Scott; Amanullah, Rahman; Barbary, Kyle H.; Bruce, Adam; Chappell, Greta; Currie, Miles; Dawson, Kyle S.; Deustua, Susana E.; Doi, Mamoru; Fakhouri, Hannah; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Gibbons, Rachel A.; Goobar, Ariel; Hsiao, Eric; Huang, Xiaosheng; Ihara, Yutaka; Kim, Alex G.; Knop, Robert A.; Kowalski, Marek; Krechmer, Evan; Lidman, Chris; Linder, Eric; Meyers, Joshua; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nordin, Jakob; Perlmutter, Saul; Ripoche, Pascal; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Rykoff, Eli S.; Saunders, Clare; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Suzuki, Nao; Takanashi, Naohiro; Yasuda, Naoki; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2016-01-01

    High-redshift supernovae observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are crucial for constraining any time variation in dark energy. In a forthcoming paper (Rubin+, in prep), we will present a cosmological analysis incorporating existing supernovae with improved calibrations, and new HST-observed supernovae (six above z=1). We combine these data with current literature data, and fit them using SALT2-4 to create the Union3 Supernova compilation. We build on the Unified Inference for Type Ia cosmologY (UNITY) framework (Rubin+ 2015b), incorporating non-linear light-curve width and color relations, a model for unexplained dispersion, an outlier model, and a redshift-dependent host-mass correction.

  3. Type Ia supernovae as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, David; Miller, Douglas L.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of absolute blue magnitudes among Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) is studied. Supernovae were used with well determined apparent magnitudes at maximum light and parent galaxies with relative distances determined by the Tully-Fisher or Dn - sigma techniques. The mean absolute blue magnitude is given and the observational dispersion is only sigma(MB) 0.36, comparable to the expected combined errors in distance, apparent magnitude, and extinction. The mean (B-V) color at maximum light is 0.03 +/- 0.04, with a dispersion sigma(B-V) = 0.20. The Cepheid-based distance to IC 4182, the parent galaxy of the normal and unextinguished Type Ia SN 1937C, leads to a Hubble constant of H(0) + 51 +/- 12 km/s Mpc. The existence of a few SNs Ia that appear to have been reddened and dimmed by dust in their parent galaxies does not seriously compromise the use of SNs Ia as distance indicators.

  4. Type Ia supernovae as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, David; Miller, Douglas L.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of absolute blue magnitudes among Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) is studied. Supernovae were used with well determined apparent magnitudes at maximum light and parent galaxies with relative distances determined by the Tully-Fisher or Dn - sigma techniques. The mean absolute blue magnitude is given and the observational dispersion is only sigma(MB) 0.36, comparable to the expected combined errors in distance, apparent magnitude, and extinction. The mean (B-V) color at maximum light is 0.03 +/- 0.04, with a dispersion sigma(B-V) = 0.20. The Cepheid-based distance to IC 4182, the parent galaxy of the normal and unextinguished Type Ia SN 1937C, leads to a Hubble constant of H(0) + 51 +/- 12 km/s Mpc. The existence of a few SNs Ia that appear to have been reddened and dimmed by dust in their parent galaxies does not seriously compromise the use of SNs Ia as distance indicators.

  5. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Claeys, J.; Mennekens, N.; Ruiter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  6. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE STUDIES OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: THE MEAN MAXIMUM LIGHT ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRUM AND ITS DISPERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Jeff; Ellis, Richard S.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Ofek, Eran O.; Quimby, Robert M.; Sullivan, Mark; Nugent, Peter; Howell, D. Andrew; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Lidman, Chris; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Law, Nicholas M.

    2011-02-01

    We present the first results of an ongoing campaign using the STIS spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), whose primary goal is the study of near-ultraviolet (UV) spectra of local Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Using events identified by the Palomar Transient Factory and subsequently verified by ground-based spectroscopy, we demonstrate the ability to locate and classify SNe Ia as early as 16 days prior to maximum light. This enables us to trigger HST in a non-disruptive mode to obtain near UV spectra within a few days of maximum light for comparison with earlier equivalent ground-based spectroscopic campaigns conducted at intermediate-redshifts, z-bar {approx_equal}0.5. We analyze the spectra of 12 SNe Ia located in the Hubble flow with 0.01 < z < 0.08. Although a fraction of our eventual sample, these data, together with archival data, already provide a substantial advance over that previously available. Restricting samples to those of similar phase and stretch, the mean UV spectrum agrees reasonably closely with that at intermediate redshift, although some differences are found in the metallic absorption features. A larger sample will determine whether these differences reflect possible biases or are a genuine evolutionary effect. Significantly, the wavelength-dependent dispersion, which is larger in the UV, follows similar trends to those observed at intermediate redshift and is driven, in part, by differences in the various metallic features. While the origin of the UV dispersion remains uncertain, our comparison suggests that it may reflect compositional variations among our sample rather than being predominantly an evolutionary effect.

  7. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA DISTANCE MODULUS BIAS AND DISPERSION FROM K-CORRECTION ERRORS: A DIRECT MEASUREMENT USING LIGHT CURVE FITS TO OBSERVED SPECTRAL TIME SERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Childress, M.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kim, A. G.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; and others

    2015-02-10

    We estimate systematic errors due to K-corrections in standard photometric analyses of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae. Errors due to K-correction occur when the spectral template model underlying the light curve fitter poorly represents the actual supernova spectral energy distribution, meaning that the distance modulus cannot be recovered accurately. In order to quantify this effect, synthetic photometry is performed on artificially redshifted spectrophotometric data from 119 low-redshift supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory, and the resulting light curves are fit with a conventional light curve fitter. We measure the variation in the standardized magnitude that would be fit for a given supernova if located at a range of redshifts and observed with various filter sets corresponding to current and future supernova surveys. We find significant variation in the measurements of the same supernovae placed at different redshifts regardless of filters used, which causes dispersion greater than ∼0.05 mag for measurements of photometry using the Sloan-like filters and a bias that corresponds to a 0.03 shift in w when applied to an outside data set. To test the result of a shift in supernova population or environment at higher redshifts, we repeat our calculations with the addition of a reweighting of the supernovae as a function of redshift and find that this strongly affects the results and would have repercussions for cosmology. We discuss possible methods to reduce the contribution of the K-correction bias and uncertainty.

  8. SPECTROSCOPY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE BY THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Folatelli, Gaston; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hsiao, Eric; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Castellon, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Hamuy, Mario; Anderson, Joseph P.; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Persson, S. E.; Prieto, Jose L.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Krisciunas, Kevin; and others

    2013-08-10

    This is the first release of optical spectroscopic data of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) by the Carnegie Supernova Project including 604 previously unpublished spectra of 93 SNe Ia. The observations cover a range of phases from 12 days before to over 150 days after the time of B-band maximum light. With the addition of 228 near-maximum spectra from the literature, we study the diversity among SNe Ia in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, spectroscopic parameters are employed such as expansion velocities from spectral line blueshifts and pseudo-equivalent widths (pW). The values of those parameters at maximum light are obtained for 78 objects, thus providing a characterization of SNe Ia that may help to improve our understanding of the properties of the exploding systems and the thermonuclear flame propagation. Two objects, namely, SNe 2005M and 2006is, stand out from the sample by showing peculiar Si II and S II velocities but otherwise standard velocities for the rest of the ions. We further study the correlations between spectroscopic and photometric parameters such as light-curve decline rate and color. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the pW of Si II absorption features are very good indicators of light-curve decline rate. Furthermore, we demonstrate that parameters such as pW2 (Si II 4130) and pW6 (Si II 5972) provide precise calibrations of the peak B-band luminosity with dispersions of Almost-Equal-To 0.15 mag. In the search for a secondary parameter in the calibration of peak luminosity for SNe Ia, we find a Almost-Equal-To 2{sigma}-3{sigma} correlation between B-band Hubble residuals and the velocity at maximum light of S II and Si II lines.

  9. Multidimensional Simulations of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, A. C.; Ricker, P. M.; Dursi, L. J.; Truran, J. W.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Timmes, F. X.; Tufo, H. M.; Zingale, M.; Olson, K.; MacNeice, P.

    2001-12-01

    We present results from two- and three-dimensional simulations of Type Ia supernovae carried out from first principles using the adaptive-mesh code FLASH. Considering off-center prompt detonations in Chandrasekhar-mass carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, we observe temperature and abundance inhomogeneities with a cell-like structure behind the detonation front. We discuss these results in light of the commonly accepted view that prompt detonation models cannot reproduce the abundances of intermediate-mass elements observed in Type Ia supernovae, considering in general the observability of multidimensional structure in carbon detonations under conditions present in a white dwarf. This research has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant no. B341495 to the ASCI Flash Center at the University of Chicago.

  10. Ultraviolet diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Brown, P.; Filippenko, A. V.; Fox, O. D.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Marion, G. H.; Milne, P. A.; Parrent, J. T.; Pignata, G.; Stritzinger, M. D.

    2016-09-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) probe the outermost layers of the explosion, and UV spectra of SNe Ia are expected to be extremely sensitive to differences in progenitor composition and the details of the explosion. Here, we present the first study of a sample of high signal-to-noise ratio SN Ia spectra that extend blueward of 2900 Å. We focus on spectra taken within 5 d of maximum brightness. Our sample of 10 SNe Ia spans, the majority of the parameter space of SN Ia optical diversity. We find that SNe Ia have significantly more diversity in the UV than in the optical, with the spectral variance continuing to increase with decreasing wavelengths until at least 1800 Å (the limit of our data). The majority of the UV variance correlates with optical light-curve shape, while there are no obvious and unique correlations between spectral shape and either ejecta velocity or host-galaxy morphology. Using light-curve shape as the primary variable, we create a UV spectral model for SNe Ia at peak brightness. With the model, we can examine how individual SNe vary relative to expectations based on only their light-curve shape. Doing this, we confirm an excess of flux for SN 2011fe at short wavelengths, consistent with its progenitor having a subsolar metallicity. While most other SNe Ia do not show large deviations from the model, ASASSN-14lp has a deficit of flux at short wavelengths, suggesting that its progenitor was relatively metal rich.

  11. Improvements to type Ia supernova models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Clare M.

    Type Ia Supernovae provided the first strong evidence of dark energy and are still an important tool for measuring the accelerated expansion of the universe. However, future improvements will be limited by systematic uncertainties in our use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles. Using Type Ia supernovae for cosmology relies on our ability to standardize their absolute magnitudes, but this relies on imperfect models of supernova spectra time series. This thesis is focused on using data from the Nearby Supernova Factory both to understand current sources of uncertainty in standardizing Type Ia supernovae and to develop techniques that can be used to limit uncertainty in future analyses. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  12. Search for Type Ia supernova NUV-optical subclasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinabro, David; Scolnic, Daniel; Kessler, Richard; Li, Ashley; Miller, Jake

    2017-04-01

    In response to a recently reported observation of evidence for two classes of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) distinguished by their brightness in the rest-frame near-ultraviolet (NUV), we search for the phenomenon in publicly available light-curve data. We use the SNANA supernova analysis package to simulate SN Ia light curves in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Supernova Search and the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) with a model of two distinct ultraviolet classes of SNe Ia and a conventional model with a single broad distribution of SN-Ia ultraviolet brightnesses. We compare simulated distributions of rest-frame colours with these two models to those observed in 158 SNe Ia in the SDSS and SNLS data. The SNLS sample of 99 SNe Ia is in clearly better agreement with a model with one class of SN Ia light curves and shows no evidence for distinct NUV sub-classes. The SDSS sample of 59 SNe Ia with poorer colour resolution does not distinguish between the two models.

  13. Type Ia supernova rate studies from the SDSS-II Supernova Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    The author presents new measurements of the type Ia SN rate from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. The SDSS-II Supernova Survey was carried out during the Fall months (Sept.-Nov.) of 2005-2007 and discovered ~ 500 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia with densely sampled (once every ~ 4 days), multi-color light curves. Additionally, the SDSS-II Supernova Survey has discovered several hundred SNe Ia candidates with well-measured light curves, but without spectroscopic confirmation of type. This total, achieved in 9 months of observing, represents ~ 15-20% of the total SNe Ia discovered worldwide since 1885. The author describes some technical details of the SN Survey observations and SN search algorithms that contributed to the extremely high-yield of discovered SNe and that are important as context for the SDSS-II Supernova Survey SN Ia rate measurements.

  14. The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tout, C. A.

    2005-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae are identified as exploding degenerate stars. Their luminosity is due to the radioactive decay of about a solar mass of 56Ni through 56Co to 56Fe. As such they are a major source of iron in the inter-stellar medium. Although it is generally accepted that a degenerate carbon/oxygen white dwarf explodes as it accretes material from a binary companion, the progenitors of type Ia supernovae have not been categorically identified. We discuss the various possible progenitors in detail and indicate theoretical and observational difficulties with each possibility. It may well be that the true nature of the progenitors has not yet even been conceived of. We look at why population synthesis fails to help distinguish and consider how the advent of population nucleosynthesis may change this. When used as universal standard candles SNe Ia are calibrated with the Phillips relation between absolute luminosity and light curve shape. This must therefore be valid at all redshifts and so both the absolute luminosity and the light curve decay must only depend on a single major property of the progenitors. We report on the latest understanding of this relation and find little to justify its universality beyond the local empirical evidence. A major effect on the absolute luminosities is the neutron to proton ratio at the time of the explosion because this determines the fraction of iron group elements made up of 56Ni.

  15. Luminosity distributions of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P.; Sasdelli, M.; Prentice, S. J.

    2016-08-01

    We have assembled a data set of 165 low redshift, z < 0.06, publicly available Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). We produce maximum light magnitude (MB and MV) distributions of SNe Ia to explore the diversity of parameter space that they can fill. Before correction for host galaxy extinction we find that the mean MB and MV of SNe Ia are -18.58 ± 0.07 and -18.72 ± 0.05 mag, respectively. Host galaxy extinction is corrected using a new method based on the SN spectrum. After correction, the mean values of MB and MV of SNe Ia are -19.10 ± 0.06 and -19.10 ± 0.05 mag, respectively. After correction for host galaxy extinction, `normal' SNe Ia (Δm15(B) < 1.6 mag) fill a larger parameter space in the width-luminosity relation than previously suggested, and there is evidence for luminous SNe Ia with large Δm15(B). We find a bimodal distribution in Δm15(B), with a pronounced lack of transitional events at Δm15(B) = 1.6 mag. We confirm that faster, low-luminosity SNe tend to come from passive galaxies. Dividing the sample by host galaxy type, SNe Ia from star-forming (S-F) galaxies have a mean MB = -19.20 ± 0.05 mag, while SNe Ia from passive galaxies have a mean MB = -18.57 ± 0.24 mag. Even excluding fast declining SNe, `normal' (MB < -18 mag) SNe Ia from S-F and passive galaxies are distinct. In the V band, there is a difference of 0.4 ± 0.13 mag between the median (MV) values of the `normal' SN Ia population from passive and S-F galaxies. This is consistent with (˜15 ± 10) per cent of `normal' SNe Ia from S-F galaxies coming from an old stellar population.

  16. Rates and progenitors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, William Michael

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable uniformity of Type Ia supernovae has allowed astronomers to use them as distance indicators to measure the properties and expansion history of the Universe. However, Type Ia supernovae exhibit intrinsic variation in both their spectra and observed brightness. The brightness variations have been approximately corrected by various methods, but there remain intrinsic variations that limit the statistical power of current and future observations of distant supernovae for cosmological purposes. There may be systematic effects in this residual variation that evolve with redshift and thus limit the cosmological power of SN Ia luminosity-distance experiments. To reduce these systematic uncertainties, we need a deeper understanding of the observed variations in Type Ia supernovae. Toward this end, the Nearby Supernova Factory has been designed to discover hundreds of Type Ia supernovae in a systematic and automated fashion and study them in detail. This project will observe these supernovae spectrophotometrically to provide the homogeneous high-quality data set necessary to improve the understanding and calibration of these vital cosmological yardsticks. From 1998 to 2003, in collaboration with the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a systematic and automated searching program was conceived and executed using the computing facilities at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Energy Research Supercomputing Center. An automated search had never been attempted on this scale. A number of planned future large supernovae projects are predicated on the ability to find supernovae quickly, reliably, and efficiently in large datasets. A prototype run of the SNfactory search pipeline conducted from 2002 to 2003 discovered 83 SNe at a final rate of 12 SNe/month. A large, homogeneous search of this scale offers an excellent opportunity to measure the rate of Type Ia supernovae. This thesis presents a new method for

  17. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    SciTech Connect

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  18. SALT spectroscopic classification of LSQ16acz (= PS16bby = SN 2016bew) as a type-Ia supernova approaching maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-03-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of LSQ16acz (= PS16bby = SN 2016bew; Baltay et al. 2013, PASP, 125, 683) on 2016 Mar 14.9 UT, covering the wavelength range 340-920 nm. Cross-correlation of the spectrum with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows LSQ16acz is a type-Ia supernova a few days before maximum light.

  19. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Intrinsic colors of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Christopher R.; Persson, S. E.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Castellón, Sergio; Morrell, Nidia; Salgado, Francisco; Folatelli, Gaston; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2014-07-01

    We present an updated analysis of the intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) using the latest data release of the Carnegie Supernova Project. We introduce a new light-curve parameter very similar to stretch that is better suited for fast-declining events, and find that these peculiar types can be seen as extensions to the population of 'normal' SNe Ia. With a larger number of objects, an updated fit to the Lira relation is presented along with evidence for a dependence on the late-time slope of the B – V light-curves with stretch and color. Using the full wavelength range from u to H band, we place constraints on the reddening law for the sample as a whole and also for individual events/hosts based solely on the observed colors. The photometric data continue to favor low values of R{sub V} , though with large variations from event to event, indicating an intrinsic distribution. We confirm the findings of other groups that there appears to be a correlation between the derived reddening law, R{sub V} , and the color excess, E(B – V), such that larger E(B – V) tends to favor lower R{sub V} . The intrinsic u-band colors show a relatively large scatter that cannot be explained by variations in R{sub V} or by the Goobar power-law for circumstellar dust, but rather is correlated with spectroscopic features of the supernova and is therefore likely due to metallicity effects.

  20. Turbulence in Type Ia Supernovae Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Type Ia supernovae are among the most energetic explosions in the known universe, releasing 10^51 ergs of kinetic energy in their ejecta, with 0.7 solar masses of radioactive Ni-56 synthesized during the explosion. The discovery of the Phillips relation enabled the use of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) as standardizable cosmological candles, and has ushered in a new era of astronomy leading to the discovery of the acceleration of the universe, leading to the 2011 Nobel Prize in physics. The nature of the Type Ia progenitors, as well as their precise explosion mechanism, remains a subject of active investigation, both observationally as well as theoretically. It is known that the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae are near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs in binary systems, though competing models suggest the companion is either a red giant or main sequence star (the so-called ``single-degenerate channel'') or another white dwarf (the ``double-degenerate channel''). In this talk, I will present recent results of three -dimensional models of the single-degenerate channel of Type Ia supernovae. I will also discuss prospects for modeling the double-degenerate channel of Type Ia supernovae, which have recently enjoyed increased favor from observers and theorists.

  1. Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bours, Madelon; Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that Type Ia supernovae correspond to the thermonuclear runaway of a white dwarf (WD) in a compact binary. The details of these progenitor systems are still unclear. Using the population synthesis code SeBa and several assumption for the WD retention efficiency, we estimate the delay times and supernova rates for the single degenerate scenario.

  2. Could there be a hole in type Ia supernovae?

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter; Thomas, R.C.; Wang, Lifan

    2004-04-23

    In the favored progenitor scenario, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) arise from a white dwarf accreting material from a non-degenerate companion star. Soon after the white dwarf explodes, the ejected supernova material engulfs the companion star; two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Marietta et al. (2001) show that, in the interaction, the companion star carves out a conical hole of opening angle 30-40 degrees in the supernova ejecta. In this paper we use multi-dimensional Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations to explore the observable consequences of an ejecta-hole asymmetry. We calculate the variation of the spectrum, luminosity, and polarization with viewing angle for the aspherical supernova near maximum light. We find that the supernova looks normal from almost all viewing angles except when one looks almost directly down the hole. In the latter case, one sees into the deeper, hotter layers of ejecta. The supernova is relatively brighter and has a peculiar spectrum characterized by more highly ionized species, weaker absorption features, and lower absorption velocities. The spectrum viewed down the hole is comparable to the class of SN 1991T-like supernovae. We consider how the ejecta-hole asymmetry may explain the current spectropolarimetric observations of SNe Ia, and suggest a few observational signatures of the geometry. Finally, we discuss the variety currently seen in observed SNe Ia and how an ejecta-hole asymmetry may fit in as one of several possible sources of diversity.

  3. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.

    2008-02-13

    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  4. Near-Infrared Properties of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, M. M.

    2012-02-01

    The photometric properties of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the near-infrared as garnered from observations made over the last 30 years are reviewed. During this period, light curves for more than 120 nearby SNe Ia have been published, revealing considerable homogeneity but also some fascinating differences. These data have confirmed that, for all but the fastest declining objects, SNe Ia are essentially perfect standard candles in the near-infrared, displaying only a slight dependence of peak luminosity on decline rate and color.

  5. Type Ia Supernovae: Colors, Rates, and Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heringer, Epson; Pritchet, Chris; Kezwer, Jason; Graham, Melissa L.; Sand, David; Bildfell, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The rate of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in a galaxy depends not only on stellar mass, but also on star formation history (SFH). Here we show that two simple observational quantities (g ‑ r or u ‑ r host galaxy color, and r-band luminosity), coupled with an assumed delay time distribution (DTD) (the rate of SNe Ia as a function of time for an instantaneous burst of star formation), are sufficient to accurately determine a galaxy’s SN Ia rate, with very little sensitivity to the precise details of the SFH. Using this result, we compare observed and predicted color distributions of SN Ia hosts for the MENeaCS cluster supernova survey, and for the SDSS Stripe 82 supernova survey. The observations are consistent with a continuous DTD, without any cutoff. For old progenitor systems, the power-law slope for the DTD is found to be -{1.50}-0.15+0.19. This result favors the double degenerate scenario for SN Ia, though other interpretations are possible. We find that the late-time slopes of the DTD are different at the 1σ level for low and high stretch supernova, which suggest a single degenerate (SD) scenario for the latter. However, due to ambiguity in the current models’ DTD predictions, SD progenitors can neither be confirmed as causing high stretch supernovae nor ruled out from contributing to the overall sample.

  6. Type Ia Supernova Rate from SDSS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krughoff, K. Simon; Connolly, A. J.; Scranton, R.; Frieman, J.; SubbaRao, M.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the evolution of the Type Ia supernova rate is essential to our understanding of the star formation history of the Universe. Lately, high redshift measurements of the Type Ia rate have been receiving a lot of publicity, but understanding supernovae in the local universe is also important.In particular, comparison of detection methods and the associated rate measurements at low redshift can improve methods at higher redshift. We present a novel approach for detecting Type Ia supernovae in single epoch spectroscopic observations. Application of this method to the SDSS spectroscopic sample finds 100 supernovae resulting in a luminosity weighted rate of 0.24±0.01 SNu at z=0.1. Our measurement is in good agreement with others at low redshift. We discuss the application of this method to high redshift spectroscopic samples. This work was funded by the NSF through grant 0851007.

  7. SHOCK BREAKOUT FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.; Chang, Philip; Weinberg, Nevin N. E-mail: pchang@astro.berkeley.ed

    2010-01-01

    The mode of explosive burning in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains an outstanding problem. It is generally thought to begin as a subsonic deflagration, but this may transition into a supersonic detonation (the delayed detonation transition, DDT). We argue that this transition leads to a breakout shock, which would provide the first unambiguous evidence that DDTs occur. Its main features are a hard X-ray flash (approx20 keV) lasting approx10{sup -2} s with a total radiated energy of approx10{sup 40} erg, followed by a cooling tail. This creates a distinct feature in the visual light curve, which is separate from the nickel decay. This cooling tail has a maximum absolute visual magnitude of M{sub V} approx -9 to -10 at approx1 day, which depends most sensitively on the white dwarf radius at the time of the DDT. As the thermal diffusion wave moves in, the composition of these surface layers may be imprinted as spectral features, which would help to discern between SN Ia progenitor models. Since this feature should accompany every SNe Ia, future deep surveys (e.g., m = 24) will see it out to a distance of approx80 Mpc, giving a maximum rate of approx60 yr{sup -1}. Archival data sets can also be used to study the early rise dictated by the shock heating (at approx20 days before maximum B-band light). A similar and slightly brighter event may also accompany core bounce during the accretion-induced collapse to a neutron star, but with a lower occurrence rate.

  8. Polarisation Spectral Synthesis For Type Ia Supernova Explosion Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, Mattia

    2017-02-01

    Despite their relevance across a broad range of astrophysical research topics, Type Ia supernova explosions are still poorly understood and answers to the questions of when, why and how these events are triggered remain unclear. In this respect, polarisation offers a unique opportunity to discriminate between the variety of possible scenarios. The observational evidence that Type Ia supernovae are associated with rather low polarisation signals (smaller than a few per cent) places strong constraints for models and calls for modest asphericities in the progenitor system and/or explosion mechanism.The goal of this thesis is to assess the validity of contemporary Type Ia supernova explosion models by testing whether their predicted polarisation signatures can account for the small signals usually observed. To this end, we have implemented and tested an innovative Monte Carlo scheme in the radiative transfer code artis. Compared to previous Monte Carlo approaches, this technique produces synthetic observables (light curves, flux and polarisation spectra) with a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise and therefore in the required computing time. This improvement is particularly crucial for our study as we aim to extract very weak polarisation signals, comparable to those detected in Type Ia supernovae. We have also demonstrated the applicability of this method to other classes of supernovae via a preliminary study of the first spectropolarimetry observations of superluminous supernovae.Using this scheme, we have calculated synthetic spectropolarimetry for three multi-dimensional explosion models recently proposed as promising candidates to explain Type Ia supernovae. Our findings highlight the power of spectropolarimetry in testing and discriminating between different scenarios. While all the three models predict light curves and flux spectra that are similar to each others and reproduce those observed in Type Ia supernovae comparably well, polarisation does

  9. Finding Distances to Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Type Ia supernovae are known as standard candles due to their consistency, allowing us to measure distances based on their brightness. But what if these explosions arent quite as consistent as we thought? Due scientific diligence requires careful checks, so a recent study investigates whether the metallicity of a supernovas environment affects the peak luminosity of the explosion.Metallicity Dependence?Type Ia supernovae are incredibly powerful tools for determining distances in our universe. Because these supernovae are formed by white dwarfs that explode when they reach a uniform accreted mass, the supernova peak luminosity is thought to be very consistent. This consistency allows these supernovae to be used as standard candles to measure distances to their host galaxies.But what if that peak luminosity is affected by a factor that we havent taken into account? Theorists have proposed that the luminosities of Type Ia supernovae might depend on the metallicity of their environments with high-metallicity environments suppressing supernova luminosities. If this is true, then we could be systematically mis-measuring cosmological distances using these supernovae.Testing AbundancesSupernova brightnesses vs. the metallicity of their environments. Low-metallicity supernovae (blue shading) and high-metallicity supernovae (red shading) have an average magnitude difference of ~0.14. [Adapted from Moreno-Raya et al. 2016]A team led by Manuel Moreno-Raya, of the Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT) in Spain, has observed 28 Type Ia supernovae in an effort to test for such a metallicity dependence. These supernovae each have independent distance measurements (e.g., from Cepheids or the Tully-Fisher relation).Moreno-Raya and collaborators used spectra from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope to estimate oxygen abundances in the region where each of these supernovae exploded. They then used these measurements to determine if metallicity of the local region

  10. DARK MATTER ADMIXED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M. E-mail: mcchu@phy.cuhk.edu.hk

    2015-10-20

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a 19-isotope nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core M {sub DM}: a larger M {sub DM} generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 M {sub ⊙} as M {sub DM} increases from 0.01 to 0.03 M {sub ⊙}. We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous Type Ia supernovae.

  11. Thermonuclear supernova models, and observations of Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, E.; Garcia-Senz, D.; Badenes, C.

    2005-10-21

    In this paper, we review the present state of theoretical models of thermonuclear supernovae, and compare their predictions with the constraints derived from observations of Type Ia supernovae. The diversity of explosion mechanisms usually found in one-dimensional simulations is a direct consequence of the impossibility to resolve the flame structure under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Spherically symmetric models have been successful in explaining many of the observational features of Type Ia supernovae, but they rely on two kinds of empirical models: one that describes the behaviour of the flame on the scales unresolved by the code, and another that takes account of the evolution of the flame shape. In contrast, three-dimensional simulations are able to compute the flame shape in a self-consistent way, but they still need a model for the propagation of the flame in the scales unresolved by the code. Furthermore, in three dimensions the number of degrees of freedom of the initial configuration of the white dwarf at runaway is much larger than in one dimension. Recent simulations have shown that the sensitivity of the explosion output to the initial conditions can be extremely large. New paradigms of thermonuclear supernovae have emerged from this situation, as the Pulsating Reverse Detonation. The resolution of all these issues must rely on the predictions of observational properties of the models, and their comparison with current Type Ia supernova data, including X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants.

  12. A common explosion mechanism for type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Röpke, Friedrich K; Benetti, Stefano; Hillebrandt, Wolfgang

    2007-02-09

    Type Ia supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars composed of carbon and oxygen, were instrumental as distance indicators in establishing the acceleration of the universe's expansion. However, the physics of the explosion are debated. Here we report a systematic spectral analysis of a large sample of well-observed type Ia supernovae. Mapping the velocity distribution of the main products of nuclear burning, we constrain theoretical scenarios. We find that all supernovae have low-velocity cores of stable iron-group elements. Outside this core, nickel-56 dominates the supernova ejecta. The outer extent of the iron-group material depends on the amount of nickel-56 and coincides with the inner extent of silicon, the principal product of incomplete burning. The outer extent of the bulk of silicon is similar in all supernovae, having an expansion velocity of approximately 11,000 kilometers per second and corresponding to a mass of slightly over one solar mass. This indicates that all the supernovae considered here burned similar masses and suggests that their progenitors had the same mass. Synthetic light-curve parameters and three-dimensional explosion simulations support this interpretation. A single explosion scenario, possibly a delayed detonation, may thus explain most type Ia supernovae.

  13. High Velocity White Dwarfs from Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.

    2002-12-01

    The single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae predicts the post-supernova release of the donor star with a space velocity determined by the original binary orbital velocity. The mass transfer criteria for successful supernova ignition also place constraints on the mass of the donor. The combination of these two factors means that the great majority of high velocity donor remnants will be white dwarfs. We present models of the Type Ia supernova progenitors and antecedents in the Galaxy, and examine the donor remnant white dwarf population in the light of the current interest in high velocity white dwarfs. One potential discriminant between donor remnants and normal high velocity white dwarfs (from a thick disk or spheroid stellar population) is a determination of the binary fraction. White dwarfs which have their origin in disrupted close binaries will always be single.

  14. Cosmological Inference from Host-Selected Type Ia Supernova Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uddin, Syed A.; Mould, Jeremy; Lidman, Chris; Ruhlmann-Kleider, Vanina; Hardin, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    We compare two Type Ia supernova samples that are drawn from a spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernova sample: a host-selected sample in which SNe Ia are restricted to those that have a spectroscopic redshift from the host; and a broader, more traditional sample in which the redshift could come from either the SN or the host. The host-selected sample is representative of SN samples that will use the redshift of the host to infer the SN redshift, long after the SN has faded from view. We find that SNe Ia that are selected on the availability of a redshift from the host differ from SNe Ia that are from the broader sample. The former tend to be redder, have narrower light curves, live in more massive hosts, and tend to be at lower redshifts. We find that constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, w, and the matter density, ΩM, remain consistent between these two types of samples. Our results are important for ongoing and future supernova surveys, which unlike previous supernova surveys, will have limited real-time follow-up to spectroscopically classify the SNe they discover. Most of the redshifts in these surveys will come from the hosts.

  15. Dark Matter Ignition of Type Ia Supernovae.

    PubMed

    Bramante, Joseph

    2015-10-02

    Recent studies of low redshift type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) indicate that half explode from less than Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs, implying ignition must proceed from something besides the canonical criticality of Chandrasekhar mass SN Ia progenitors. We show that 1-100 PeV mass asymmetric dark matter, with imminently detectable nucleon scattering interactions, can accumulate to the point of self-gravitation in a white dwarf and collapse, shedding gravitational potential energy by scattering off nuclei, thereby heating the white dwarf and igniting the flame front that precedes SN Ia. We combine data on SN Ia masses with data on the ages of SN Ia-adjacent stars. This combination reveals a 2.8σ inverse correlation between SN Ia masses and ignition ages, which could result from increased capture of dark matter in 1.4 vs 1.1 solar mass white dwarfs. Future studies of SN Ia in galactic centers will provide additional tests of dark-matter-induced type Ia ignition. Remarkably, both bosonic and fermionic SN Ia-igniting dark matter also resolve the missing pulsar problem by forming black holes in ≳10  Myr old pulsars at the center of the Milky Way.

  16. Supernova Acceleration Probe: Studying Dark Energy with Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, J.; Aldering, G.; Allam, S.; Althouse, W.; Amanullah, R.; Annis, J.; Astier, P.; Aumeunier, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bebek, C.; Bergstom, L.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Besuner, B.; Bigelow, B.; Blandford, R.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; /Caltech /LBL, Berkeley /Fermilab /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Paris, IN2P3 /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. /Yale U. /Pennsylvania U. /UC, Berkeley /Michigan U. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Indiana U. /Caltech, JPL /Australian Natl. U., Canberra /American Astron. Society /Chicago U. /Cambridge U. /Saclay /Lyon, IPN

    2005-08-08

    The Supernova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will use Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as distance indicators to measure the effect of dark energy on the expansion history of the Universe. (SNAP's weak-lensing program is described in a separate White Paper.) The experiment exploits supernova distance measurements up to their fundamental systematic limit; strict requirements on the monitoring of each supernova's properties leads to the need for a space-based mission. Results from pre-SNAP experiments, which characterize fundamental SN Ia properties, will be used to optimize the SNAP observing strategy to yield data, which minimize both systematic and statistical uncertainties. With early R&D funding, we have achieved technological readiness and the collaboration is poised to begin construction. Pre-JDEM AO R&D support will further reduce technical and cost risk. Specific details on the SNAP mission can be found in Aldering et al. (2004, 2005). The primary goal of the SNAP supernova program is to provide a dataset which gives tight constraints on parameters which characterize the dark-energy, e.g. w{sub 0} and w{sub a} where w(a) = w{sub 0} + w{sub a}(1-a). SNAP data can also be used to directly test and discriminate among specific dark energy models. We will do so by building the Hubble diagram of high-redshift supernovae, the same methodology used in the original discovery of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe that established the existence of dark energy (Perlmutter et al. 1998; Garnavich et al. 1998; Riess et al. 1998; Perlmutter et al. 1999). The SNAP SN Ia program focuses on minimizing the systematic floor of the supernova method through the use of characterized supernovae that can be sorted into subsets based on subtle signatures of heterogeneity. Subsets may be defined based on host-galaxy morphology, spectral-feature strength and velocity, early-time behavior, inter alia. Independent cosmological analysis of each subset of ''like'' supernovae can be

  17. Ideal bandpasses for type Ia supernova cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Tamara M.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2005-10-24

    To use type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmologywe need accurate broadband magnitudes. In practice the observed magnitudemay differ from the ideal magnitude-redshift relationship either throughintrinsic inhomogeneities in the type Ia supernova population or throughobservational error. Here we investigate how we can choose filterbandpasses to reduce the error caused by both these effects. We find thatbandpasses with large integral fluxes and sloping wings are best able tominimise several sources of observational error, and are also leastsensitive to intrinsic differences in type Ia supernovae. The mostimportant feature of a complete filter set for type Ia supernovacosmology is that each bandpass be a redshifted copy of the first. Wedesign practical sets of redshifted bandpasses that are matched totypical high resistivity CCD and HgCdTe infra-red detector sensitivities.These are designed to minimise systematic error in well observedsupernovae, final designs for specific missions should also considersignal-to-noise requirements and observing strategy. In addition wecalculate how accurately filters need to be calibrated in order toachieve the required photometric accuracy of future supernova cosmologyexperiments such as the SuperNova-Acceleration-Probe (SNAP), which is onepossible realisation of the Joint Dark-Energy mission (JDEM). We considerthe effect of possible periodic miscalibrations that may arise from theconstruction of an interference filter.

  18. Spectral Properties of Type Ia Supernovae and Implications for Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Jakob

    Type Ia supernovae can, for a short period of time, reach the same brightness as an entire galaxy. They are responsible for the creation of a large fraction of all heavy elements and can be used, as standard candles, to prove that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Yet, we do not fully understand them. A basic picture where Type Ia supernovae are caused by thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs is generally accepted, but the details are still debated. These unknowns propagate into systematic uncertainties in the estimates of cosmological parameters. A Monte Carlo framework, SMOCK, designed to model this error propagation, is presented. Evolution with time/distance and the nature of reddening are studied as the dominant astrophysical uncertainties. Optical spectra of Type Ia supernovae contain a wealth of information regarding the nature of these events, and can be used both to understand supernovae and to limit the systematic uncertainties in cosmological parameter estimates. We have reduced spectra observed with the Nordic Optical Telescope and the New Technology Telescope in conjunction with the SDSS-II supernova survey, and compared spectral properties (pseudo-Equivalent Widths and line velocities) of this sample with local supernovae.We have further studied possible systematic difficulties in such comparisons between nearby and distant supernovae, caused by noise and host galaxy contamination.Taking such uncertainties into account, we find a tentative evolution in supernova properties with redshift, compatible with expected demographic changes. Correlations with light curve shape found by other studies are confirmed. A tentative correlation with light curve colour is also presented. The latter could indicate an intrinsic component of the observed reddening, i.e. independent of interstellar dust in the host galaxy.

  19. The Distant Type Ia Supernova Rate

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R. S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Irwin, M. J.; Kim, A. G.; Kim, M. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Lee, J. C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N. A.

    2002-05-28

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample, which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  20. The distant type Ia supernova rate

    SciTech Connect

    Pain, R.; Fabbro, S.; Sullivan, M.; Ellis, R.S.; Aldering, G.; Astier, P.; Deustua, S.E.; Fruchter, A.S.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Irwin, M.J.; Kim, A.G.; Kim, M.Y.; Knop, R.A.; Lee, J.C.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schaefer, B.; Walton, N.A.

    2002-05-20

    We present a measurement of the rate of distant Type Ia supernovae derived using 4 large subsets of data from the Supernova Cosmology Project. Within this fiducial sample,which surveyed about 12 square degrees, thirty-eight supernovae were detected at redshifts 0.25--0.85. In a spatially flat cosmological model consistent with the results obtained by the Supernova Cosmology Project, we derive a rest-frame Type Ia supernova rate at a mean red shift z {approx_equal} 0.55 of 1.53 {sub -0.25}{sub -0.31}{sup 0.28}{sup 0.32} x 10{sup -4} h{sup 3} Mpc{sup -3} yr{sup -1} or 0.58{sub -0.09}{sub -0.09}{sup +0.10}{sup +0.10} h{sup 2} SNu(1 SNu = 1 supernova per century per 10{sup 10} L{sub B}sun), where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second includes systematic effects. The dependence of the rate on the assumed cosmological parameters is studied and the redshift dependence of the rate per unit comoving volume is contrasted with local estimates in the context of possible cosmic star formation histories and progenitor models.

  1. Berkeley Supernova Ia Program - I. Observations, data reduction and spectroscopic sample of 582 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Barth, Aaron J.; Chornock, Ryan; Griffith, Christopher V.; Kong, Jason J.; Lee, Nicholas; Leonard, Douglas C.; Matheson, Thomas; Miller, Emily G.; Steele, Thea N.; Barris, Brian J.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cobb, Bethany E.; Coil, Alison L.; Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Gates, Elinor L.; Ho, Luis C.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kandrashoff, Michael T.; Li, Weidong; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Modjaz, Maryam; Moore, Matthew R.; Mostardi, Robin E.; Papenkova, Marina S.; Park, Sung; Perley, Daniel A.; Poznanski, Dovi; Reuter, Cassie A.; Scala, James; Serduke, Franklin J. D.; Shields, Joseph C.; Swift, Brandon J.; Tonry, John L.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wong, Diane S.

    2012-09-01

    In this first paper in a series, we present 1298 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.2) optical spectra of 582 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed from 1989 to 2008 as part of the Berkeley Supernova Ia Program (BSNIP). 584 spectra of 199 SNe Ia have well-calibrated light curves with measured distance moduli, and many of the spectra have been corrected for host-galaxy contamination. Most of the data were obtained using the Kast double spectrograph mounted on the Shane 3 m telescope at Lick Observatory and have a typical wavelength range of 3300-10 400 Å, roughly twice as wide as spectra from most previously published data sets. We present our observing and reduction procedures, and we describe the resulting SN Database, which will be an online, public, searchable data base containing all of our fully reduced spectra and companion photometry. In addition, we discuss our spectral classification scheme (using the SuperNova IDentification code, SNID; Blondin & Tonry), utilizing our newly constructed set of SNID spectral templates. These templates allow us to accurately classify our entire data set, and by doing so we are able to reclassify a handful of objects as bona fide SNe Ia and a few other objects as members of some of the peculiar SN Ia subtypes. In fact, our data set includes spectra of nearly 90 spectroscopically peculiar SNe Ia. We also present spectroscopic host-galaxy redshifts of some SNe Ia where these values were previously unknown. The sheer size of the BSNIP data set and the consistency of our observation and reduction methods make this sample unique among all other published SN Ia data sets and complementary in many ways to the large, low-redshift SN Ia spectra presented by Matheson et al. and Blondin et al. In other BSNIP papers in this series, we use these data to examine the relationships between spectroscopic characteristics and various observables such as photometric and host-galaxy properties.

  2. SPECTRA AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE LIGHT CURVES OF SIX TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE AT 0.511 < z < 1.12 AND THE UNION2 COMPILATION

    SciTech Connect

    Amanullah, R.; Garavini, G.; Goobar, A.; Lidman, C.; Rubin, D.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Faccioli, L.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Goldhaber, G.; Astier, P.; Burns, M. S.; Conley, A.; Dawson, K. S.; Deustua, S. E.; Fruchter, A. S.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Folatelli, G.; Furusawa, H.

    2010-06-10

    We report on work to increase the number of well-measured Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at high redshifts. Light curves, including high signal-to-noise Hubble Space Telescope data, and spectra of six SNe Ia that were discovered during 2001, are presented. Additionally, for the two SNe with z > 1, we present ground-based J-band photometry from Gemini and the Very Large Telescope. These are among the most distant SNe Ia for which ground-based near-IR observations have been obtained. We add these six SNe Ia together with other data sets that have recently become available in the literature to the Union compilation. We have made a number of refinements to the Union analysis chain, the most important ones being the refitting of all light curves with the SALT2 fitter and an improved handling of systematic errors. We call this new compilation, consisting of 557 SNe, the Union2 compilation. The flat concordance {Lambda}CDM model remains an excellent fit to the Union2 data with the best-fit constant equation-of-state parameter w = -0.997{sup +0.050} {sub -0.054}(stat){sup +0.077} {sub -0.082}(stat + sys together) for a flat universe, or w = -1.038{sup +0.056} {sub -0.059}(stat){sup +0.093} {sub -0.097}(stat + sys together) with curvature. We also present improved constraints on w(z). While no significant change in w with redshift is detected, there is still considerable room for evolution in w. The strength of the constraints depends strongly on redshift. In particular, at z {approx_gt} 1, the existence and nature of dark energy are only weakly constrained by the data.

  3. Breaking the colour-reddening degeneracy in Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Ishida, E. E. O.; Hillebrandt, W.; Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Prentice, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    A new method to study the intrinsic colour and luminosity of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is presented. A metric space built using principal component analysis on a spectral series for SNe Ia between -12.5 and +17.5 d from the B maximum is used as a set of predictors. This metric space is built to be insensitive to reddening. Hence, it does not predict the part of the colour excess due to dust extinction. At the same time, the rich variability of SN Ia spectra is a good predictor of a large fraction of the intrinsic colour variability. Such a metric space is a good predictor of the epoch when the maximum in the B - V colour curve is reached. Multivariate partial least-squares regression predicts the intrinsic B-band light curve and the intrinsic B - V colour curve up to a month after the maximum. This allows us to study the relation between the light curves of SNe Ia and their spectra. The total-to-selective extinction ratio RV in the host galaxy of SNe Ia is found, on average, to be consistent with typical Milky Way values. This analysis shows the importance of collecting spectra to study SNe Ia, even with a large sample publicly available. Future automated surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, will provide a large number of light curves. The analysis shows that observing accompanying spectra for a significant number of SNe will be important even for normal SNe Ia.

  4. The Union3 Supernova Ia Compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, David; Aldering, Greg Scott; Amanullah, Rahman; Barbary, Kyle H.; Bruce, Adam; Chappell, Greta; Currie, Miles; Dawson, Kyle S.; Deustua, Susana E.; Doi, Mamoru; Fakhouri, Hannah; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Gibbons, Rachel A.; Goobar, Ariel; Hsiao, Eric; Huang, Xiaosheng; Ihara, Yutaka; Kim, Alex G.; Knop, Robert A.; Kowalski, Marek; Krechmer, Evan; Lidman, Chris; Linder, Eric; Meyers, Joshua; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nordin, Jakob; Perlmutter, Saul; Ripoche, Pascal; Rykoff, Eli S.; Saunders, Clare; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Suzuki, Nao; Takanashi, Naohiro; Yasuda, Naoki; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2015-01-01

    High-redshift supernovae observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are crucial for constraining any time variation in dark energy. In a forthcoming paper (Rubin+, in prep), we will present a cosmological analysis incorporating existing supernovae with improved calibrations, and new HST-observed supernovae. We combine these data with most of the world's current literature data, and fit using SALT2-4 to create the Union3 Supernova compilation. We present a new analysis framework that allows non-linear light-curve width and color corrections, direct modeling of color dispersion, and a redshift-dependent host-mass correction.

  5. THE ULTRAVIOLET BRIGHTEST TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2011de

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.

    2014-11-20

    We present and discuss the ultraviolet (UV)/optical photometric light curves and absolute magnitudes of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011de from the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. We find it to be the UV brightest SN Ia yet observed—more than a factor of 10 brighter than normal SNe Ia in the mid-ultraviolet. We find that the UV/optical brightness and broad light curve evolution can be modeled with additional flux from the shock of the ejecta hitting a relatively large red giant companion separated by 6 × 10{sup 13} cm. However, the post-maximum behavior of other UV-bright SNe Ia can also be modeled in a similar manner, including objects with UV spectroscopy or pre-maximum photometry which is inconsistent with this model. This suggests that similar UV luminosities can be intrinsic or caused by other forms of shock interaction. The high velocities reported for SN 2011de make it distinct from the UV-bright ''super-Chandrasekhar'' SNe Ia and the NUV-blue group of normal SNe Ia. SN 2011de is an extreme example of the UV variations in SNe Ia.

  6. The progenitors of supernovae Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia

    2014-09-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. SNeIa are generally thought to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen (CO) white dwarfs (WDs). The canonical scenarios involve white dwarfs reaching the Chandrasekhar mass, either by accretion from a non-degenerate companion (single-degenerate channel, SD) or by a merger of two CO WDs (double-degenerate channel, DD). The study of SNeIa progenitors is a very active field of research for binary population synthesis (BPS) studies. The strength of the BPS approach is to study the effect of uncertainties in binary evolution on the macroscopic properties of a binary population, in order to constrain binary evolutionary processes. I will discuss the expected SNeIa rate from the BPS approach and the uncertainties in their progenitor evolution, and compare with current observations. I will also discuss the results of the POPCORN project in which four BPS codes were compared to better understand the differences in the predicted SNeIa rate of the SD channel. The goal of this project is to investigate whether differences in the simulated populations are due to numerical effects or whether they can be explained by differences in the input physics. I will show which assumptions in BPS codes affect the results most and hence should be studied in more detail.

  7. Theoretical Clues to the Ultraviolet Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Baron, E.; Milne, Peter; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Lifan

    2015-08-01

    The effect of metallicity on the observed light of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could lead to systematic errors as the absolute magnitudes of local and distant SNe Ia are compared to measure luminosity distances and determine cosmological parameters. The UV light may be especially sensitive to metallicity, though different modeling methods disagree as to the magnitude, wavelength dependence, and even the sign of the effect. The outer density structure, 56Ni, and to a lesser degree asphericity, also impact the UV. We compute synthetic photometry of various metallicity-dependent models and compare to UV/optical photometry from the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope. We find that the scatter in the mid-UV to near-UV colors is larger than predicted by changes in metallicity alone and is not consistent with reddening. We demonstrate that a recently employed method to determine relative abundances using UV spectra can be done using UVOT photometry, but we warn that accurate results require an accurate model of the cause of the variations. The abundance of UV photometry now available should provide constraints on models that typically rely on UV spectroscopy for constraining metallicity, density, and other parameters. Nevertheless, UV spectroscopy for a variety of supernova explosions is still needed to guide the creation of accurate models. A better understanding of the influences affecting the UV is important for using SNe Ia as cosmological probes, as the UV light may test whether SNe Ia are significantly affected by evolutionary effects.

  8. THEORETICAL CLUES TO THE ULTRAVIOLET DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Wang, Lifan; Baron, E.; Milne, Peter; Roming, Peter W. A.

    2015-08-10

    The effect of metallicity on the observed light of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) could lead to systematic errors as the absolute magnitudes of local and distant SNe Ia are compared to measure luminosity distances and determine cosmological parameters. The UV light may be especially sensitive to metallicity, though different modeling methods disagree as to the magnitude, wavelength dependence, and even the sign of the effect. The outer density structure, {sup 56}Ni, and to a lesser degree asphericity, also impact the UV. We compute synthetic photometry of various metallicity-dependent models and compare to UV/optical photometry from the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope. We find that the scatter in the mid-UV to near-UV colors is larger than predicted by changes in metallicity alone and is not consistent with reddening. We demonstrate that a recently employed method to determine relative abundances using UV spectra can be done using UVOT photometry, but we warn that accurate results require an accurate model of the cause of the variations. The abundance of UV photometry now available should provide constraints on models that typically rely on UV spectroscopy for constraining metallicity, density, and other parameters. Nevertheless, UV spectroscopy for a variety of supernova explosions is still needed to guide the creation of accurate models. A better understanding of the influences affecting the UV is important for using SNe Ia as cosmological probes, as the UV light may test whether SNe Ia are significantly affected by evolutionary effects.

  9. Radiation Transport in Type IA Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, R

    1999-11-16

    It has been said more than once that the critical link between explosion models and observations is the ability to accurately simulate cooling and radiation transport in the expanding ejecta of Type Ia supernovae. It is perhaps frustrating to some of the theorists who study explosion mechanisms, and to some of the observers too, that more definitive conclusions have not been reached about the agreement, or lack thereof, between various Type Ia supernova models and the data. Although claims of superlative accuracy in transport simulations are sometimes made, I will argue here that there are outstanding issues of critical importance and in need of addressing before radiation transport calculations are accurate enough to discriminate between subtly different explosion models.

  10. Dark matter admixed Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Shing Chi; Chu, Ming Chung; Lin, Lap Ming

    2015-04-01

    We perform two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations for the thermonuclear explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs with dark matter (DM) cores in Newtonian gravity. We include a detailed nuclear reaction network and make use of the pure turbulent deflagration model as the explosion mechanism in our simulations. Our numerical results show that the general properties of the explosion depend quite sensitively on the mass of the DM core MDM. A larger MDM generally leads to a weaker explosion and a lower mass of synthesized iron-peaked elements. In particular, the total mass of 56 Ni produced can drop from about 0.3 to 0.03 Msun as MDM increases from 0.01 to 0.03 Msun. We have also constructed the bolometric light curves obtained from our simulations and found that our results match well with the observational data of sub-luminous type Ia supernovae. This work is partially supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 400910).

  11. High-velocity features in Type Ia supernova spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, Michael J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Schmidt, Brian P.

    2014-01-01

    We use a sample of 58 low-redshift (z ≤ 0.03) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) having well-sampled light curves and spectra near maximum light to examine the behaviour of high-velocity features (HVFs) in SN Ia spectra. We take advantage of the fact that Si II λ6355 is free of HVFs at maximum light in all SNe Ia, while HVFs are still strong in the Ca II near-infrared feature in many SNe, allowing us to quantify the strength of HVFs by comparing the structure of these two lines. We find that the average HVF strength increases with decreasing light-curve decline rate, and rapidly declining SNe Ia (Δm15(B) ≥ 1.4 mag) show no HVFs in their maximum-light spectra. Comparison of HVF strength to the light-curve colour of the SNe Ia in our sample shows no evidence of correlation. We find a correlation of HVF strength with the velocity of Si II λ6355 at maximum light (vSi), such that SNe Ia with lower vSi have stronger HVFs, while those SNe Ia firmly in the `high-velocity' (i.e. vSi ≥ 12 000 km s-1) subclass exhibit no HVFs in their maximum-light spectra. While vSi and Δm15(B) show no correlation in the full sample of SNe Ia, we find a significant correlation between these quantities in the subset of SNe Ia having weak HVFs. In general, we find that slowly declining (low Δm15(B)) SNe Ia, which are more luminous and more energetic than average SNe Ia, tend to produce either high photospheric ejecta velocities (i.e. high vSi) or strong HVFs at maximum light, but not both. Finally, we examine the evolution of HVF strength for a sample of SNe Ia having extensive pre-maximum spectroscopic coverage and find significant diversity of the pre-maximum HVF behaviour.

  12. Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, J. T.; Guffanti, A.; Sarkar, S.

    2016-01-01

    The ‘standard’ model of cosmology is founded on the basis that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating at present — as was inferred originally from the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. There exists now a much bigger database of supernovae so we can perform rigorous statistical tests to check whether these ‘standardisable candles’ indeed indicate cosmic acceleration. Taking account of the empirical procedure by which corrections are made to their absolute magnitudes to allow for the varying shape of the light curve and extinction by dust, we find, rather surprisingly, that the data are still quite consistent with a constant rate of expansion. PMID:27767125

  13. Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J. T.; Guffanti, A.; Sarkar, S.

    2016-10-01

    The ‘standard’ model of cosmology is founded on the basis that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating at present — as was inferred originally from the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. There exists now a much bigger database of supernovae so we can perform rigorous statistical tests to check whether these ‘standardisable candles’ indeed indicate cosmic acceleration. Taking account of the empirical procedure by which corrections are made to their absolute magnitudes to allow for the varying shape of the light curve and extinction by dust, we find, rather surprisingly, that the data are still quite consistent with a constant rate of expansion.

  14. Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J T; Guffanti, A; Sarkar, S

    2016-10-21

    The 'standard' model of cosmology is founded on the basis that the expansion rate of the universe is accelerating at present - as was inferred originally from the Hubble diagram of Type Ia supernovae. There exists now a much bigger database of supernovae so we can perform rigorous statistical tests to check whether these 'standardisable candles' indeed indicate cosmic acceleration. Taking account of the empirical procedure by which corrections are made to their absolute magnitudes to allow for the varying shape of the light curve and extinction by dust, we find, rather surprisingly, that the data are still quite consistent with a constant rate of expansion.

  15. The Effect of Host Galaxies on Type Ia Supernovae in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Nichol, Robert C.; Bassett, Bruce; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Benjamin; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter M.; Goobar, Ariel; Im, Myungshin; /Seoul Natl. U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of the host galaxy dependencies of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) from the full three year sample of the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. We re-discover, to high significance, the strong correlation between host galaxy type and the width of the observed SN light curve, i.e., fainter, quickly declining SNe Ia favor passive host galaxies, while brighter, slowly declining Ia's favor star-forming galaxies. We also find evidence (at between 2 to 3{sigma}) that SNe Ia are {approx_equal} 0.1 magnitudes brighter in passive host galaxies, than in star-forming hosts, after the SN Ia light curves have been standardized using the light curve shape and color variations: This difference in brightness is present in both the SALT2 and MCLS2k2 light curve fitting methodologies. We see evidence for differences in the SN Ia color relationship between passive and star-forming host galaxies, e.g., for the MLCS2k2 technique, we see that SNe Ia in passive hosts favor a dust law of R{sub V} {approx_equal} 1, while SNe Ia in star-forming hosts require R{sub V} {approx} 2. The significance of these trends depends on the range of SN colors considered. We demonstrate that these effects can be parameterized using the stellar mass of the host galaxy (with a confidence of > 4{sigma}) and including this extra parameter provides a better statistical fit to our data. Our results suggest that future cosmological analyses of SN Ia samples should include host galaxy information.

  16. Type Ia supernovae yielding distances with 3-4% precision

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Patrick L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Burke, David L.; Hicken, Malcolm; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Zheng, Weikang

    2015-01-26

    The luminosities of Type Ia supernovae (SN), the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and light-curve decline rate. These relationships have been used to calibrate their luminosities to within ~0.14–0.20 mag from broadband optical light curves, yielding individual distances accurate to ~7–10%. Here we identify a subset of SN Ia that erupt in environments having high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, these SN can be calibrated to within ~0.065–0.075 mag, corresponding to ~3–4% in distance — the best yet with SN Ia by a substantial margin. The small scatter suggests that variations in only one or two progenitor properties account for their light-curve-width/color/luminosity relation.

  17. On the environments of Type Ia supernovae within host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; James, P. A.; Förster, F.; González-Gaitán, S.; Habergham, S. M.; Hamuy, M.; Lyman, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    We present constraints on Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors through an analysis of the environments found at the explosion sites of 102 events within star-forming host galaxies. Hα and Galaxy Evolution Explorer near-ultraviolet (UV) images are used to trace on-going and recent star formation (SF), while broad-band B, R, J, K imaging is also analysed. Using pixel statistics we find that SNe Ia show the lowest degree of association with Hα emission of all supernova (SN) types. It is also found that they do not trace near-UV emission. As the latter traces SF on time-scales less than 100 Myr, this rules out any extreme `prompt' delay times as the dominant progenitor channel of SNe Ia. SNe Ia best trace the B-band light distribution of their host galaxies. This implies that the population within star-forming galaxies is dominated by relatively young progenitors. Splitting SNe by their (B - V) colours at maximum light, `redder' events show a higher degree of association with H II regions and are found more centrally within hosts. We discuss possible explanations of this result in terms of line-of-sight extinction and progenitor effects. No evidence for correlations between SN stretch and environment properties is observed.

  18. Host stellar population properties and the observational selection function of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Elsa M.

    2010-12-01

    Supernovae Ia are viable standard candles for measuring cosmological distances because of their enormous light output and similar intrinsic brightness. However, dispersion in intrinsic brightness casts doubt on the overall reliability of supernovae as cosmological distance indicators. Moreover, as shown in this thesis, the dependence of peak brightness on host galaxy properties significantly contributes to this dispersion. As a result, there is good reason to doubt that the nearby sample of supernovae Ia is identical to the distant samples, which occur in host galaxies that are billions of years younger. This study explores the validity of supernovae Ia as standard candles by examining regions of nearby galaxies that hosted supernovae and modeling their observational selection function. The approach is two-fold. First, photometry is performed on the stellar population environment of supernovae to characterize that region as a function of supernova type. Then, the observational selection function is simulated to determine the true supernovae production rate of the z < 0.1 redshift limit. We find that, on average, type Ia events occur in redder and older populations; underluminous supernovae Ia occur in regions that seem to be preferentially dusty, whereas normal Ia coming from the same galaxy type occur in a wide range of extinction environments. Furthermore, redder peak colors correspond to redder underlying population colors. This finding implies that dust extinction effects can cause systematic errors in the luminosity calibration of Ia events Finally, a single supernova rate does not adequately describe all supernovae Ia within z < 0.1. A rate of 0.25 SNu describes the population up to z < 0.03, and a much smaller rate, 0.1 SNu or less, describes supernovae past this distance. This finding indicates that observed supernova rates per galaxy remain biased by sample selection effects and that the intrinsic rate is likely uncertain by a factor of 2 to 3.

  19. The Young and Bright Type Ia Supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, Early-time Observations, First-light Time, Distance to NGC 4666, and Progenitor Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Contreras, C.; Itagaki, K.; Burns, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Alper, E.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Dong, Subo; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Morrell, N.; Nicolas, J.; Phillips, M. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G.; Stritzinger, M.; Szczygieł, D. M.; Taddia, F.; Thompson, T. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Wagner, M. R.; Woźniak, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or “Assassin”) discovered ASASSN-14lp just ˜2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve ({{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.80+/- 0.05), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of {16.94}-0.10+0.11 days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction (E{(B-V)}{host}=0.33+/- 0.06). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of μ =30.8+/- 0.2, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Finally, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 {R}⊙ .

  20. The young and bright Type Ia supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, early-time observations, first-light time, distance to NGC 4666, and progenitor constraints

    DOE PAGES

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W. -S.; ...

    2016-07-27

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") discovered ASASSN-14lp just ~2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve (more » $${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{15}(B)=0.80\\pm 0.05$$), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of $${16.94}_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$$ days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction ($$E{(B-V)}_{\\mathrm{host}}=0.33\\pm 0.06$$). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of $$\\mu =30.8\\pm 0.2$$, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Lastly, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 $${R}_{\\odot }$$.« less

  1. The young and bright Type Ia supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, early-time observations, first-light time, distance to NGC 4666, and progenitor constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W. -S.; Prieto, J. L.; Contreras, C.; Itagaki, K.; Burns, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Alper, E.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Dong, Subo; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Morrell, N.; Nicolas, J.; Phillips, M. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G.; Stritzinger, M.; Szczygieł, D. M.; Taddia, F.; Thompson, T. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Wagner, M. R.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-07-27

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") discovered ASASSN-14lp just ~2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve (${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{15}(B)=0.80\\pm 0.05$), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of ${16.94}_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$ days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction ($E{(B-V)}_{\\mathrm{host}}=0.33\\pm 0.06$). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of $\\mu =30.8\\pm 0.2$, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Lastly, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 ${R}_{\\odot }$.

  2. The young and bright Type Ia supernova ASASSN-14lp: Discovery, early-time observations, first-light time, distance to NGC 4666, and progenitor constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Shappee, B. J.; Piro, A. L.; Holoien, T. W. -S.; Prieto, J. L.; Contreras, C.; Itagaki, K.; Burns, C. R.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Alper, E.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Bersier, D.; Brimacombe, J.; Conseil, E.; Danilet, A. B.; Dong, Subo; Falco, E.; Grupe, D.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kiyota, S.; Morrell, N.; Nicolas, J.; Phillips, M. M.; Pojmanski, G.; Simonian, G.; Stritzinger, M.; Szczygieł, D. M.; Taddia, F.; Thompson, T. A.; Thorstensen, J.; Wagner, M. R.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-07-27

    On 2014 December 9.61, the All-sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin") discovered ASASSN-14lp just ~2 days after first light using a global array of 14 cm diameter telescopes. ASASSN-14lp went on to become a bright supernova (V = 11.94 mag), second only to SN 2014J for the year. We present prediscovery photometry (with a detection less than a day after first light) and ultraviolet through near-infrared photometric and spectroscopic data covering the rise and fall of ASASSN-14lp for more than 100 days. We find that ASASSN-14lp had a broad light curve (${\\rm{\\Delta }}{m}_{15}(B)=0.80\\pm 0.05$), a B-band maximum at 2457015.82 ± 0.03, a rise time of ${16.94}_{-0.10}^{+0.11}$ days, and moderate host-galaxy extinction ($E{(B-V)}_{\\mathrm{host}}=0.33\\pm 0.06$). Using ASASSN-14lp, we derive a distance modulus for NGC 4666 of $\\mu =30.8\\pm 0.2$, corresponding to a distance of 14.7 ± 1.5 Mpc. However, adding ASASSN-14lp to the calibrating sample of Type Ia supernovae still requires an independent distance to the host galaxy. Lastly, using our early-time photometric and spectroscopic observations, we rule out red giant secondaries and, assuming a favorable viewing angle and explosion time, any nondegenerate companion larger than 0.34 ${R}_{\\odot }$.

  3. Near-infrared absolute magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelino, Arturo; Friedman, Andrew S.; Mandel, Kaisey; Kirshner, Robert; Challis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia Supernovae light curves (SN Ia) in the near infrared (NIR) exhibit low dispersion in their peak luminosities and are less vulnerable to extinction by interstellar dust in their host galaxies. The increasing number of high quality NIR SNe Ia light curves, including the recent CfAIR2 sample obtained with PAIRITEL, provides updated evidence for their utility as standard candles for cosmology. Using NIR YJHKs light curves of ~150 nearby SNe Ia from the CfAIR2 and CSP samples, and from the literature, we determine the mean value and dispersion of the absolute magnitude in the range between -10 to 50 rest-frame days after the maximum luminosity in B band. We present the mean light-curve templates and Hubble diagram for YJHKs bands. This work contributes to a firm local anchor for supernova cosmology studies in the NIR which will help to reduce the systematic uncertainties due to host galaxy dust present in optical-only studies. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-156854, AST-1211196, Fundacion Mexico en Harvard, and CONACyT.

  4. Study of the influence of Type Ia supernovae environment on the Hubble diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    The observational cosmology with distant Type Ia supernovae as standard candles claims that the Universe is in accelerated expansion, caused by a large fraction of dark energy. In this report we investigated SNe Ia environment, studying the impact of the nature of their host galaxies and their distance to the host galactic center on the Hubble diagram fitting. The supernovae used in the analysis were extracted from Joint-Light-curves-Analysis compilation of high-redshift and nearby supernovae. The analysis are based on the empirical fact that SN Ia luminosities depend on their light curve shapes and colors. No conclusive correlation between SN Ia light curve parameters and galocentric distance were identified. Concerning the host morphology, we showed that the stretch parameter of Type Ia supernovae is correlated with the host galaxy type. The supernovae with lower stretch mainly exploded in elliptical and lenticular galaxies. The studies show that into old star population and low dust environment, supernovae are fainter. We did not find any significant correlation between Type Ia supernovae color and host morphology. We confirm that supernova properties depend on their environment and propose to incorporate a host galaxy term into the Hubble diagram fit in the future cosmological analysis.

  5. Type Ia supernovae: explosions and progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang Eitel

    2011-08-01

    Supernovae are the brightest explosions in the universe. Supernovae in our Galaxy, rare and happening only every few centuries, have probably been observed since the beginnings of mankind. At first they were interpreted as religious omens but in the last half millennium they have increasingly been used to study the cosmos and our place in it. Tycho Brahe deduced from his observations of the famous supernova in 1572, that the stars, in contrast to the widely believe Aristotelian doctrine, were not immutable. More than 400 years after Tycho made his paradigm changing discovery using SN 1572, and some 60 years after supernovae had been identified as distant dying stars, two teams changed the view of the world again using supernovae. The found that the Universe was accelerating in its expansion, a conclusion that could most easily be explained if more than 70% of the Universe was some previously un-identified form of matter now often referred to as `Dark Energy'. Beyond their prominent role as tools to gauge our place in the Universe, supernovae themselves have been studied well over the past 75 years. We now know that there are two main physical causes of these cataclysmic events. One of these channels is the collapse of the core of a massive star. The observationally motivated classes Type II, Type Ib and Type Ic have been attributed to these events. This thesis, however is dedicated to the second group of supernovae, the thermonuclear explosions of degenerate carbon and oxygen rich material and lacking hydrogen - called Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). White dwarf stars are formed at the end of a typical star's life when nuclear burning ceases in the core, the outer envelope is ejected, with the degenerate core typically cooling for eternity. Theory predicts that such stars will self ignite when close to 1.38 Msun (called the Chandrasekhar Mass). Most stars however leave white dwarfs with 0.6 Msun, and no star leaves a remnant as heavy as 1.38 M! sun, which suggests

  6. FIXING THE U-BAND PHOTOMETRY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Bastola, Deepak; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Espinoza, Juan; Gonzalez, David; Gonzalez, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Hamuy, Mario E-mail: suntzeff@physics.tamu.edu E-mail: hsiao@lco.cl E-mail: mmp@lco.cl

    2013-01-01

    We present previously unpublished photometry of supernovae 2003gs and 2003hv. Using spectroscopically derived corrections to the U-band photometry, we reconcile U-band light curves made from imagery with the Cerro Tololo 0.9 m, 1.3 m, and Las Campanas 1 m telescopes. Previously, such light curves showed a 0.4 mag spread at one month after maximum light. This gives us hope that a set of corrected ultraviolet light curves of nearby objects can contribute to the full utilization of rest-frame U-band data of supernovae at redshift {approx}0.3-0.8. As pointed out recently by Kessler et al. in the context of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey supernova search, if we take the published U-band photometry of nearby Type Ia supernovae at face value, there is a 0.12 mag U-band anomaly in the distance moduli of higher redshift objects. This anomaly led the Sloan survey to eliminate from their analyses all photometry obtained in the rest-frame U-band. The Supernova Legacy Survey eliminated observer frame U-band photometry, which is to say nearby objects observed in the U-band, but they used photometry of high-redshift objects no matter in which band the photons were emitted.

  7. Turbulent Combustion in Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Aaron P.; Townsley, D. M.; Calder, A. C.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their use as standardizable candles that led to the (Nobel-prize winning) discovery of the accelerating Universe, we still do not understand the mechanism by which type Ia supernovae explode. Some of the most successful proposed scenarios involve a centrally-ignited deflagration of a massive C-O white dwarf. Due to vigorous convection prior to ignition and the subsequent fluid instabilities that develop, the details of turbulent combustion are critically important to capture the evolution of the explosion. The relatively slow and extremely non-linear progression of the deflagration phase provides a link between expected ignition conditions and gross properties of the supernova. In order to provide a physical understanding of how variations in the properties of the white dwarf (or host galaxy) affect the explosion outcome, numerical investigations must be performed in 3D with a detailed treatment of turbulence-flame interaction (TFI). We present initial results from incorporating a new treatment of TFI in 3D simulations of type Ia supernovae. This work was supported in part by NASA under grant No. NNX09AD19G. The author's present address is at the Naval Research Laboratory.

  8. Merging white dwarfs and Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yungelson, L. R.; Kuranov, A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Using population synthesis, we study a double-degenerate (DD) scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), aiming to estimate the maximum possible contribution to the rate of SNe from this scenario and the dependence of the delay-time distribution (DTD) on it. We make an extreme assumption that all mergers of super-Chandrasekhar pairs of CO white dwarfs (WDs) and mergers of CO WDs more massive than 0.47 M⊙ with hybrid or helium WDs more massive than 0.37 M⊙ produce SNe Ia. The models are parametrized by the product of the common envelope efficiency and the parameter of binding energy of stellar envelopes, αce λ, which we vary between 0.25 and 2. The best agreement with observations is obtained for αce λ = 2. A substantial contribution to the rate of SNe Ia is provided by the pairs with a hybrid WD. The estimated Galactic rate of SNe Ia is 6.5 × 10-3 yr-1 (for the mass of the bulge and thin disc equal to 7.2 × 1010 M⊙), which is comparable to the observational estimate (5.4 ± 0.12) × 10-3 yr-1. The model DTD for 1 ≤ t ≤ 8 Gyr satisfactorily fits the DTD for SNe Ia in the field galaxies (Maoz, Mannucci & Brandt). For this epoch, the model DTD is ∝t-1.64. At earlier and later epochs, our DTD has a deficit of events, as in other studies. Marginal agreement with the observational DTD is achieved even if only CO+CO WDs with M1 ≥ 0.8 M⊙ and M2 ≥ 0.6 M⊙ produce SNe Ia. A better agreement of observed and modelled DTD may be obtained if tidal effects are weaker than assumed and/or the metallicity of the population is much lower than solar.

  9. K-corrections and spectral templates of Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter E; Hsiao, E.Y.; Conley, A.; Howell, D.A.; Sullivan, M.; Pritchet, C.J.; Carlberg, R.G.; Nugent, P.E.; Phillips, M.M.

    2007-03-20

    With the advent of large dedicated Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) surveys, K-corrections of SNe Ia and their uncertainties have become especially important in the determination of cosmological parameters. While K-corrections are largely driven by SN Ia broadband colors, it is shown here that the diversity in spectral features of SNe Ia can also be important. For an individual observation, the statistical errors from the inhomogeneity in spectral features range from 0.01 (where the observed and rest-frame filters are aligned) to 0.04 (where the observed and rest-frame filters are misaligned). To minimize the systematic errors caused by an assumed SN Ia spectral energy distribution (SED), we outline a prescription for deriving a mean spectral template time series that incorporates a large and heterogeneous sample of observed spectra. We then remove the effects of broadband colors and measure the remaining uncertainties in the K-corrections associated with the diversity in spectral features. Finally, we present a template spectroscopic sequence near maximum light for further improvement on the K-correction estimate. A library of ~;;600 observed spectra of ~;;100 SNe Ia from heterogeneous sources is used for the analysis.

  10. Spectrum synthesis of the Type Ia supernovae SN 1992A and SN 1981B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nugent, Peter; Baron, E.; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Branch, David

    1995-01-01

    We present non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) synthetic spectra for the Type Ia supernovae SN 1992A and SN 1981B, near maximum light. At this epoch both supernovae were observed from the UV through the optical. This wide spectral coverage is essential for determining the density structure of a SN Ia. Our fits are in good agreement with observation and provide some insight as to the differences between these supernovae. We also discuss the application of the expanding photosphere method to SNe Ia which gives a distance that is independent of those based on the decay of Ni-56 and Cepheid variable stars.

  11. QUANTIFYING SPECTRAL FEATURES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Wagers, A.; Wang, L.; Asztalos, S.

    2010-03-10

    We introduce a new technique to quantify highly structured spectra for which the definition of continua or spectral features in the observed flux spectra is difficult. The method employs wavelet transformations to decompose the observed spectra into different scales. A procedure is formulated to define the strength of spectral features so that the measured spectral indices are independent of the flux levels and are insensitive to the definition of continuum and also to reddening. This technique is applied to Type Ia supernovae (SNe) spectra, where correlations are revealed between luminosity and spectral features. The current technique may allow for luminosity corrections based on spectral features in the use of Type Ia SNe as cosmological probe.

  12. PULSATING REVERSE DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, Eduardo; Garcia-Senz, Domingo; Cabezon, Ruben M.; DomInguez, Inmaculada E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu E-mail: inma@ugr.es

    2009-04-20

    Observational evidences point to a common explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf (WD). However, all attempts to find a convincing ignition mechanism based on a delayed detonation in a destabilized, expanding, white dwarf have been elusive so far. One of the possibilities that has been invoked is that an inefficient deflagration leads to pulsation of a Chandrasekhar-mass WD, followed by formation of an accretion shock that confines a carbon-oxygen rich core, while transforming the kinetic energy of the collapsing halo into thermal energy of the core, until an inward moving detonation is formed. This chain of events has been termed Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD). In this work, we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of PRD models from the time of detonation initiation up to homologous expansion. Different models characterized by the amount of mass burned during the deflagration phase, M {sub defl}, give explosions spanning a range of kinetic energies, K {approx} (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 51} erg, and {sup 56}Ni masses, M({sup 56}Ni) {approx} 0.6-0.8 M {sub sun}, which are compatible with what is expected for typical Type Ia supernovae. Spectra and light curves of angle-averaged spherically symmetric versions of the PRD models are discussed. Type Ia supernova spectra pose the most stringent requirements on PRD models.

  13. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: FIRST PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, Gaston; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Boldt, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Hamuy, Mario; Maureira, MarIa Jose; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Persson, S. E.; Burns, Christopher R.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F.; Murphy, David; Wyatt, Pamela

    2010-02-15

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) is a five-year survey being carried out at the Las Campanas Observatory to obtain high-quality light curves of {approx}100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in a well-defined photometric system. Here we present the first release of photometric data that contains the optical light curves of 35 SNe Ia, and near-infrared light curves for a subset of 25 events. The data comprise 5559 optical (ugriBV) and 1043 near-infrared (Y JHK{sub s} ) data points in the natural system of the Swope telescope. Twenty-eight SNe have pre-maximum data, and for 15 of these, the observations begin at least 5 days before B maximum. This is one of the most accurate data sets of low-redshift SNe Ia published to date. When completed, the CSP data set will constitute a fundamental reference for precise determinations of cosmological parameters, and serve as a rich resource for comparison with models of SNe Ia.

  14. The Nuclear Physics of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the thermonuclear incineration of white dwarfs, which are the evolutionary terminus of low-mass stars; these supernovae are a primary source of iron in the universe and the premier distance indicator for cosmological studies. Current and future observational surveys are uncovering tantalizing clues about the as-yet-unknown progenitors of these explosions. In this talk, I shall review the nuclear physics of the explosion, with a particular emphasis on the role of weak interactions. Electron captures during the pre-explosive ``simmering'' and the explosion make the nucleosynthetic yields more neutron-rich. This provides in principle a way to constrain the nature of the progenitor from observations. I shall also highlight recent experimental constraints on electron-capture rates and prospects for further experimental studies, such as at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. Support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements) is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.

  16. Near-Infrared Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marion, G. H.; Hoeflich, P.; Vacca, W. D.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of 12 'branch-normal' Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that cover the wavelength region from 0.8 to 2.5 microns. Our sample more than doubles the number of SNe Ia with published NIR spectra within 3 weeks of maximum light. The epochs of observation range from 13 days before maximum light to 18 days after maximum light. A detailed model for a Type Ia supernovae is used to identify spectral features. The Doppler shifts of lines are measured to obtain the velocity and thus the radial distribution of elements. The NIR is an extremely useful tool to probe the chemical structure in the layers of SNe Ia ejecta. This wavelength region is optimal for examining certain products of the SNe Ia explosion that may be blended or obscured in other spectral regions. We identify spectral features from Mg II, Ca II, Si II, Fe II, Co II, Ni II, and possibly Mn II. We find no indications for hydrogen, helium, or carbon in the spectra. The spectral features reveal important clues about the physical characteristics of SNe Ia. We use the features to derive upper limits for the amount of unburned matter, to identify the transition regions from explosive carbon to oxygen burning and from partial to complete silicon burning, and to estimate the level of mixing during and after the explosion. Elements synthesized in the outer layers during the explosion appear to remain in distinct layers. That provides strong evidence for the presence of a detonation phase during the explosion as it occurs in delayed detonation or merger models. Mg II velocities are found to exceed 11,000 - 15,000 km/s, depending on the individual SNe Ia. That result suggests that burning during the explosion reaches the outermost layers of the progenitor and limits the amount of unburned material to less than 10% of the mass of the progenitor. Small residuals of unburned material are predicted by delayed detonation models but are inconsistent with pure deflagration or

  17. Near-Infrared Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marion, G. H.; Hoeflich, P.; Vacca, W. D.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    We report near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of 12 'branch-normal' Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that cover the wavelength region from 0.8 to 2.5 microns. Our sample more than doubles the number of SNe Ia with published NIR spectra within 3 weeks of maximum light. The epochs of observation range from 13 days before maximum light to 18 days after maximum light. A detailed model for a Type Ia supernovae is used to identify spectral features. The Doppler shifts of lines are measured to obtain the velocity and thus the radial distribution of elements. The NIR is an extremely useful tool to probe the chemical structure in the layers of SNe Ia ejecta. This wavelength region is optimal for examining certain products of the SNe Ia explosion that may be blended or obscured in other spectral regions. We identify spectral features from Mg II, Ca II, Si II, Fe II, Co II, Ni II, and possibly Mn II. We find no indications for hydrogen, helium, or carbon in the spectra. The spectral features reveal important clues about the physical characteristics of SNe Ia. We use the features to derive upper limits for the amount of unburned matter, to identify the transition regions from explosive carbon to oxygen burning and from partial to complete silicon burning, and to estimate the level of mixing during and after the explosion. Elements synthesized in the outer layers during the explosion appear to remain in distinct layers. That provides strong evidence for the presence of a detonation phase during the explosion as it occurs in delayed detonation or merger models. Mg II velocities are found to exceed 11,000 - 15,000 km/s, depending on the individual SNe Ia. That result suggests that burning during the explosion reaches the outermost layers of the progenitor and limits the amount of unburned material to less than 10% of the mass of the progenitor. Small residuals of unburned material are predicted by delayed detonation models but are inconsistent with pure deflagration or

  18. The diversity of type Ia supernovae from broken symmetries.

    PubMed

    Kasen, D; Röpke, F K; Woosley, S E

    2009-08-13

    Type Ia supernovae result when carbon-oxygen white dwarfs in binary systems accrete mass from companion stars, reach a critical mass and explode. The near uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae good 'standard candles' for measuring cosmic expansion, but a correction must be applied to account for the fact that the brighter ones have broader light curves. One-dimensional modelling, with a certain choice of parameters, can reproduce this general trend in the width-luminosity relation; but the processes of ignition and detonation have recently been shown to be intrinsically asymmetric, so parameterization must have its limits. Here we report multi-dimensional modelling of the explosion physics and radiative transfer, which reveals that the breaking of spherical symmetry is a critical factor in determining both the width-luminosity relation and the observed scatter about it. The deviation from spherical symmetry can also explain the finite polarization detected in the light from some supernovae. The slope and normalization of the width-luminosity relation has a weak dependence on certain properties of the white dwarf progenitor, in particular the trace abundances of elements other than carbon and oxygen. Failing to correct for this effect could lead to systematic overestimates of up to 2 per cent in the distance to remote supernovae.

  19. Type Ia supernovae from merging white dwarfs. I. Prompt detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, R.; Woosley, S. E.; Raskin, C.; Kasen, D.

    2014-04-20

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such prompt detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase, and generating synthetic light curves and spectra. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 M {sub ☉}, 1.06 M {sub ☉}, and 1.20 M {sub ☉}. Of these, the 0.96 M {sub ☉} dwarf merging with a 0.81 M {sub ☉} companion, with an {sup 56}Ni yield of 0.58 M {sub ☉}, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to 'super-Chandrasekhar' mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemble observed SNe Ia, the significant asymmetry of the ejecta leads to large orientation effects. The peak bolometric luminosity varies by more than a factor of two with the viewing angle, and the velocities of the spectral absorption features are lower when observed from angles where the light curve is brightest. The largest orientation effects are seen in the ultraviolet, where the flux varies by more than an order of magnitude. The set of three models roughly obeys a width-luminosity relation, with the brighter light curves declining more slowly in the B band. Spectral features due to unburned carbon from the secondary star are also seen in some cases.

  20. Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals and Host-Galaxy Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Nearby Supernova Factory; Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Feindt, U.; Fleury, M.; Gangler, E.; Greskovic, P.; Guy, J.; Kowalski, M.; Lombardo, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Saunders, C.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.

    2014-01-17

    Kim et al. (2013) [K13] introduced a new methodology for determining peak- brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spec- trophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ? 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at ? 1?, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement the Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.045 ? 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch param- eters: Steps at> 2? significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light- curve width and color around peak (similar to the∆m15 and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20 to 30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  1. Type Ia supernova Hubble residuals and host-galaxy properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A. G.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Fleury, M.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Feindt, U.; Greskovic, P.; Kowalski, M.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Université de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon; Université de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne; CNRS and others

    2014-03-20

    Kim et al. introduced a new methodology for determining peak-brightness absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae from multi-band light curves. We examine the relation between their parameterization of light curves and Hubble residuals, based on photometry synthesized from the Nearby Supernova Factory spectrophotometric time series, with global host-galaxy properties. The K13 Hubble residual step with host mass is 0.013 ± 0.031 mag for a supernova subsample with data coverage corresponding to the K13 training; at <<1σ, the step is not significant and lower than previous measurements. Relaxing the data coverage requirement of the Hubble residual step with the host mass is 0.045 ± 0.026 mag for the larger sample; a calculation using the modes of the distributions, less sensitive to outliers, yields a step of 0.019 mag. The analysis of this article uses K13 inferred luminosities, as distinguished from previous works that use magnitude corrections as a function of SALT2 color and stretch parameters: steps at >2σ significance are found in SALT2 Hubble residuals in samples split by the values of their K13 x(1) and x(2) light-curve parameters. x(1) affects the light-curve width and color around peak (similar to the Δm {sub 15} and stretch parameters), and x(2) affects colors, the near-UV light-curve width, and the light-curve decline 20-30 days after peak brightness. The novel light-curve analysis, increased parameter set, and magnitude corrections of K13 may be capturing features of SN Ia diversity arising from progenitor stellar evolution.

  2. Photometric properties of intermediate-redshift Type Ia supernovae observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanashi, N.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, N.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Konishi, K.; Schneider, D. P.; Cinabro, D.; Marriner, J.

    2017-02-01

    We have analysed multiband light curves of 328 intermediate-redshift (0.05 ≤ z < 0.24) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The multiband light curves were parametrized by using the multiband stretch method, which can simply parametrize light-curve shapes and peak brightness without dust extinction models. We found that most of the SNe Ia that appeared in red host galaxies (u - r > 2.5) do not have a broad light-curve width and the SNe Ia that appeared in blue host galaxies (u - r < 2.0) have a variety of light-curve widths. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the colour distribution of SNe Ia appearing in red/blue host galaxies is different (a significance level of 99.9 per cent). We also investigate the extinction law of host galaxy dust. As a result, we find that the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia with medium light-curve widths is consistent with the standard Galactic value, whereas the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia that appear in red host galaxies becomes significantly smaller. These results indicate that there may be two types of SNe Ia with different intrinsic colours, and that they are obscured by host galaxy dust with two different properties.

  3. Photometric properties of intermediate-redshift Type Ia supernovae observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Takanashi, N.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, N.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Konishi, K.; Schneider, D. P.; Cinabro, D.; Marriner, J.

    2016-12-06

    We have analyzed multi-band light curves of 328 intermediate redshift (0.05 <= z < 0.24) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). The multi-band light curves were parameterized by using the Multi-band Stretch Method, which can simply parameterize light curve shapes and peak brightness without dust extinction models. We found that most of the SNe Ia which appeared in red host galaxies (u - r > 2.5) don't have a broad light curve width and the SNe Ia which appeared in blue host galaxies (u - r < 2.0) have a variety of light curve widths. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the colour distribution of SNe Ia appeared in red / blue host galaxies is different (significance level of 99.9%). We also investigate the extinction law of host galaxy dust. As a result, we find the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia with medium light curve width is consistent with the standard Galactic value. On the other hand, the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia that appeared in red host galaxies becomes significantly smaller. Furthermore, these results indicate that there may be two types of SNe Ia with different intrinsic colours, and they are obscured by host galaxy dust with two different properties.

  4. Photometric properties of intermediate-redshift Type Ia supernovae observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey

    DOE PAGES

    Takanashi, N.; Doi, M.; Yasuda, N.; ...

    2016-12-06

    We have analyzed multi-band light curves of 328 intermediate redshift (0.05 <= z < 0.24) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey (SDSS-II SN Survey). The multi-band light curves were parameterized by using the Multi-band Stretch Method, which can simply parameterize light curve shapes and peak brightness without dust extinction models. We found that most of the SNe Ia which appeared in red host galaxies (u - r > 2.5) don't have a broad light curve width and the SNe Ia which appeared in blue host galaxies (u - r < 2.0) havemore » a variety of light curve widths. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test shows that the colour distribution of SNe Ia appeared in red / blue host galaxies is different (significance level of 99.9%). We also investigate the extinction law of host galaxy dust. As a result, we find the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia with medium light curve width is consistent with the standard Galactic value. On the other hand, the value of Rv derived from SNe Ia that appeared in red host galaxies becomes significantly smaller. Furthermore, these results indicate that there may be two types of SNe Ia with different intrinsic colours, and they are obscured by host galaxy dust with two different properties.« less

  5. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    clear until now how similar such an event would appear to observers who view it from different directions. All eggs look similar and indistinguishable from each other when viewed from the same angle, but the side view (oval) is obviously different from the end view (round). And indeed, if Type Ia supernova explosions were asymmetric, they would shine with different brightness in different directions. Observations of different supernovae - seen under different angles - could therefore not be directly compared. Not knowing these angles, however, the astronomers would then infer incorrect distances and the precision of this fundamental method for gauging the structure of the Universe would be in question. Polarimetry to the rescue A simple calculation shows that even to the eagle eyes of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI), all supernovae at cosmological distances will appear as unresolved points of light; they are simply too far. But there is another way to determine the angle at which a particular supernova is viewed: polarimetry is the name of the trick! Polarimetry works as follows: light is composed of electromagnetic waves (or photons) which oscillate in certain directions (planes). Reflection or scattering of light favours certain orientations of the electric and magnetic fields over others. This is why polarising sunglasses can filter out the glint of sunlight reflecting off a pond. When light scatters through the expanding debris of a supernova, it retains information about the orientation of the scattering layers. If the supernova is spherically symmetric, all orientations will be present equally and will average out, so there will be no net polarisation . If, however, the gas shell is not round, a slight net polarisation will be imprinted on the light. " Even for quite noticable asymmetries, however, the polarisation is very small and barely exceeds the level of one percent ", says Dietrich Baade, ESO astronomer and a member of the team that performed the observations

  6. Polarization spectral synthesis for Type Ia supernova explosion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, M.; Sim, S. A.; Kromer, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present a Monte Carlo radiative transfer technique for calculating synthetic spectropolarimetry for multidimensional supernova explosion models. The approach utilizes `virtual-packets' that are generated during the propagation of the Monte Carlo quanta and used to compute synthetic observables for specific observer orientations. Compared to extracting synthetic observables by direct binning of emergent Monte Carlo quanta, this virtual-packet approach leads to a substantial reduction in the Monte Carlo noise. This is not only vital for calculating synthetic spectropolarimetry (since the degree of polarization is typically very small) but also useful for calculations of light curves and spectra. We first validate our approach via application of an idealized test code to simple geometries. We then describe its implementation in the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code ARTIS and present test calculations for simple models for Type Ia supernovae. Specifically, we use the well-known one-dimensional W7 model to verify that our scheme can accurately recover zero polarization from a spherical model, and to demonstrate the reduction in Monte Carlo noise compared to a simple packet-binning approach. To investigate the impact of aspherical ejecta on the polarization spectra, we then use ARTIS to calculate synthetic observables for prolate and oblate ellipsoidal models with Type Ia supernova compositions.

  7. Spectra of High-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae and a Comparison withtheir Low-Redshift Counterparts

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, I.M.; Howell, D.A.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Burns,M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S.E.; Ellis, R.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Folatelli, G.; Garavini, G.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.E.; Kim, A.G.; Knop, R.A.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Nobili, S.; Nugent, P.E.; Pain, R.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruiz-Lapuente,P.; Sainton, G.; Schaefer, B.E.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A.L.; Stanishev,V.; Thomas, R.C.; Walton, N.A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W.M.

    2005-07-20

    We present spectra for 14 high-redshift (0.17 < z < 0.83) supernovae, which were discovered by the Supernova Cosmology Project as part of a campaign to measure cosmological parameters. The spectra are used to determine the redshift and classify the supernova type, essential information if the supernovae are to be used for cosmological studies. Redshifts were derived either from the spectrum of the host galaxy or from the spectrum of the supernova itself. We present evidence that these supernovae are of Type Ia by matching to spectra of nearby supernovae. We find that the dates of the spectra relative to maximum light determined from this fitting process are consistent with the dates determined from the photometric light curves, and moreover the spectral time-sequence for SNe Type Ia at low and high redshift is indistinguishable. We also show that the expansion velocities measured from blueshifted Ca H&K are consistent with those measured for low-redshift Type Ia supernovae. From these first-level quantitative comparisons we find no evidence for evolution in SNIa properties between these low- and high-redshift samples. Thus even though our samples may not be complete, we conclude that there is a population of SNe Ia at high redshift whose spectral properties match those at low redshift.

  8. Fixing the U-band Photometry of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Bastola, Deepak; Espinoza, Juan; Gonzalez, David; Gonzalez, Luis; Gonzalez, Sergio; Hamuy, Mario; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    We present previously unpublished photometry of supernovae 2003gs and 2003hv. Using spectroscopically derived corrections to the U-band photometry, we reconcile U-band light curves made from imagery with the Cerro Tololo 0.9 m, 1.3 m, and Las Campanas 1 m telescopes. Previously, such light curves showed a 0.4 mag spread at one month after maximum light. This gives us hope that a set of corrected ultraviolet light curves of nearby objects can contribute to the full utilization of rest-frame U-band data of supernovae at redshift ~0.3-0.8. As pointed out recently by Kessler et al. in the context of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey supernova search, if we take the published U-band photometry of nearby Type Ia supernovae at face value, there is a 0.12 mag U-band anomaly in the distance moduli of higher redshift objects. This anomaly led the Sloan survey to eliminate from their analyses all photometry obtained in the rest-frame U-band. The Supernova Legacy Survey eliminated observer frame U-band photometry, which is to say nearby objects observed in the U-band, but they used photometry of high-redshift objects no matter in which band the photons were emitted. Based in part on observations taken at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  9. THE CARNEGIE SUPERNOVA PROJECT: SECOND PHOTOMETRY DATA RELEASE OF LOW-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Phillips, M. M.; Campillay, Abdo; Morrell, Nidia; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Roth, Miguel; Boldt, Luis N.; Burns, Chris; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Persson, Sven E.; Contreras, Carlos; Gonzalez, Sergio; Salgado, Francisco; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Hamuy, Mario E-mail: max@dark-cosmology.dk

    2011-11-15

    The Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) was a five-year observational survey conducted at Las Campanas Observatory that obtained, among other things, high-quality light curves of {approx}100 low-redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Presented here is the second data release of nearby SN Ia photometry consisting of 50 objects, with a subset of 45 having near-infrared follow-up observations. Thirty-three objects have optical pre-maximum coverage with a subset of 15 beginning at least five days before maximum light. In the near-infrared, 27 objects have coverage beginning before the epoch of B-band maximum, with a subset of 13 beginning at least five days before maximum. In addition, we present results of a photometric calibration program to measure the CSP optical (uBgVri) bandpasses with an accuracy of {approx}1%. Finally, we report the discovery of a second SN Ia, SN 2006ot, similar in its characteristics to the peculiar SN 2006bt.

  10. Type Ia Supernova Color Curves: Disentangling Intrinsic Variations from Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzid, Samia; McCully, C.; Jha, S.

    2012-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are important cosmological tools based on their use as "standard candles": as objects of similar intrinsic luminosity, their variations in apparent brightness are a reliable indication of relative distance. The more accurately we can measure and correct for variations in SN Ia brightness, the more precisely we can determine cosmological distances and place constraints on cosmological parameters including the Hubble constant and the nature of dark energy. Corrections for dust along the line of sight to the SN are usually based on its reddening effect; however, recent studies have shown that the relationship between extinction and reddening of SN light curves does not match canonical values for standard, Milky Way-like dust. It is likely that color variations intrinsic to the SNe themselves are confounding our ability to independently determine the dust extinction and reddening. Using ground-based photometry of several hundred SNe from the published literature, we present an analysis that attempts to disentangle the effects of dust and intrinsic color variations by looking at the time dependence of SNe Ia colors, controlling for light curve shape properties by empirically matching similar objects.

  11. Type Ia Supernova Spectral Line Ratios as LuminosityIndicators

    SciTech Connect

    Bongard, Sebastien; Baron, E.; Smadja, G.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.

    2005-12-07

    Type Ia supernovae have played a crucial role in thediscovery of the dark energy, via the measurement of their light curvesand the determination of the peak brightness via fitting templates to theobserved lightcurve shape. Two spectroscopic indicators are also known tobe well correlated with peak luminosity. Since the spectroscopicluminosity indicators are obtained directly from observed spectra, theywill have different systematic errors than do measurements usingphotometry. Additionally, these spectroscopic indicators may be usefulfor studies of effects of evolution or age of the SNe~;Ia progenitorpopulation. We present several new variants of such spectroscopicindicators which are easy to automate and which minimize the effects ofnoise. We show that these spectroscopic indicators can be measured byproposed JDEM missions such as snap and JEDI.

  12. Critical ingredients of Type Ia supernova radiative-transfer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Blondin, Stéphane; Khokhlov, Alexei

    2014-07-01

    We explore the physics of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves and spectra using the 1D non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) time-dependent radiative-transfer code CMFGEN. Rather than adjusting ejecta properties to match observations, we select as input one `standard' 1D Chandrasekhar-mass delayed-detonation hydrodynamical model, and then explore the sensitivity of radiation and gas properties of the ejecta on radiative-transfer modelling assumptions. The correct computation of SN Ia radiation is not exclusively a solution to an `opacity problem', characterized by the treatment of a large number of lines. We demonstrate that the key is to identify and treat important atomic processes consistently. This is not limited to treating line blanketing in non-LTE. We show that including forbidden-line transitions of metals, and in particular Co, is increasingly important for the temperature and ionization of the gas beyond maximum light. Non-thermal ionization and excitation are also critical since they affect the colour evolution and the ΔM15 decline rate of our model. While impacting little the bolometric luminosity, a more complete treatment of decay routes leads to enhanced line blanketing, e.g. associated with 48Ti in the U and B bands. Overall, we find that SN Ia radiation properties are influenced in a complicated way by the atomic data we employ, so that obtaining converged results is a real challenge. Nonetheless, with our fully fledged CMFGEN model, we obtain good agreement with the golden standard Type Ia SN 2005cf in the optical and near-IR, from 5 to 60 d after explosion, suggesting that assuming spherical symmetry is not detrimental to SN Ia radiative-transfer modelling at these times. Multi-D effects no doubt matter, but they are perhaps less important than accurately treating the non-LTE processes that are crucial to obtain reliable temperature and ionization structures.

  13. Tycho Brahe's Supernova: Light from Centuries Past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

    2004-09-01

    The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572-1574 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that within the SN Ia family, the event should have been an SN Ia with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being s~0.9. The visual light curve near maximum, late-time decline, and color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova as observed at maximum is found to be MV=-19.24-5log(D/3.0kpc)+/-0.42. From stretch fitting of the overall light curve, the maximum in V would imply a luminosity difference of +0.17+/-0.1 mag, with the maximum brightness of an s=1 SN Ia. The quantity MV is consistent with a distance of 2.8+/-0.4 kpc for the scale of H0=65 km s-1 Mpc-1.

  14. Berkeley Supernova Ia Program - III. Spectra near maximum brightness improve the accuracy of derived distances to Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2012-09-01

    In this third paper in a series we compare spectral feature measurements to photometric properties of 108 low-redshift (z < 0.1, ≈ 0.023) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for which we have optical spectra within 5 d of maximum brightness. The spectral data were obtained from 1989 to the end of 2008 as part of the Berkeley Supernova Ia Program (BSNIP) and are presented in BSNIP I by Silverman et al., and the photometric data come mainly from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search and are published by Ganeshalingam et al. The spectral measurements are presented and discussed in BSNIP II by Silverman, Kong & Filippenko, and the light-curve fits and photometric parameters can be found in Ganeshalingam et al. (in preparation). A variety of previously proposed correlations between spectral and photometric parameters are investigated using the large and self-consistent BSNIP data set. We find the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the Si II λ4000 line to be a good indicator of light-curve width, and the pEWs of the Mg II and Fe II complexes are relatively good proxies for SN colour. We also employ a combination of light-curve parameters (specifically the Spectral Adaptive Light-curve Template 2 stretch and colour parameters x1 and c, respectively) and spectral measurements to calculate distance moduli. The residuals from these models are then compared to the standard model which uses only light-curve stretch and colour. Our investigations show that a distance model that uses x1, c and the velocity of the Si II λ6355 feature does not lead to a decrease in the Hubble residuals. We also find that distance models with flux ratios alone or in conjunction with light-curve information rarely perform better than the standard (x1, c) model. However, when adopting a distance model which combines the ratio of fluxes near ˜3750 and 4550 Å with both x1 and c, the Hubble residuals are decreased by ˜10 per cent, which is found to be significant at about the 2σ level. The weighted

  15. Do Single-Degenerate Type Ia Supernovae Generally Lead to Normal Type Ia Supernovae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical progress has favored merging and helium-accreting sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs (WDs) in the double-degenerate and the double-detonation channels, respectively, as the dominant progenitors of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Thus the fate of rapidly-accreting Chandrasekhar mass WDs in the single-degenerate channel remains more mysterious then ever. In this talk, I will clarify the nature of ignition in Chandrasekhar-mass single-degenerate SNe Ia and demonstrate that the overwhelming majority of ignition events within Chandrasekhar-mass WDs in the single-degenerate channel are generally expected to be buoyancy-driven, and consequently lack a vigorous deflagration phase. I will show, using both analytic criteria and multidimensional numerical simulations, that the single-degenerate channel is inherently stochastic and leads to a variety of outcomes from failed SN 2002cx-like events through overluminous SN 1991T-like events. I will also demonstrate how the rates predicted from both the population of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) and binary population synthesis models of the single-degenerate channel can be brought into agreement with single-degenerate SNe Ia. I will further demonstrate that the single-degenerate channel contribution to the normal and failed 2002cx-like rates is not likely to exceed 1% of the total SNe Ia rate. I will conclude with a range of observational tests which will either support or strongly constrain the single-degenerate scenario.

  16. A Model-independent Photometric Redshift Estimator for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2007-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as cosmological standard candles is fundamental in modern observational cosmology. In this Letter, we derive a simple empirical photometric redshift estimator for SNe Ia using a training set of SNe Ia with multiband (griz) light curves and spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This estimator is analytical and model-independent it does not use spectral templates. We use all the available SNe Ia from SNLS with near-maximum photometry in griz (a total of 40 SNe Ia) to train and test our photometric redshift estimator. The difference between the estimated redshifts zphot and the spectroscopic redshifts zspec, (zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec), has rms dispersions of 0.031 for 20 SNe Ia used in the training set, and 0.050 for 20 SNe Ia not used in the training set. The dispersion is of the same order of magnitude as the flux uncertainties at peak brightness for the SNe Ia. There are no outliers. This photometric redshift estimator should significantly enhance the ability of observers to accurately target high-redshift SNe Ia for spectroscopy in ongoing surveys. It will also dramatically boost the cosmological impact of very large future supernova surveys, such as those planned for the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe for Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Asteroids (ALPACA) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

  17. Estimating Type Ia Supernova Metallicities Using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, V. Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe) can be used as standardizable candles because their progenitors, white dwarfs, are a fairly homogenous class of objects. However, intrinsic variability in these events arise from a number of factors, including metallicity. Recent studies have investigated the effects of metallicity on Type Ia SNe observables from both a theoretical approach, by tuning model metallicity to analyze spectral features, and an observational approach, by studying the effect of host metallicity on light curves. In this work, we take a new, data-driven approach to the problem. Inspired by the success of neural networks in the field of image processing, we aim to estimate the metallicities of Type Ia SNe progenitors from their near-maximum spectra using feed-forward neural networks. We first collect a sample of near-maximum Type Ia SNe spectra from the literature to be smoothed and down-sampled. We then estimate the metallicities of the SNe hosts using the B-band magnitudes. We build a multilayer perceptron to generate a model that takes as input the down-sampled spectra and returns a scalar metallicity. Finally, we discuss basic considerations to be taken when working with spectral (as opposed to image) data using neural networks.

  18. Photometric classification of type Ia supernovae in the SuperNova Legacy Survey with supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, A.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Leloup, C.; Neveu, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Rich, J.; Carlberg, R.; Lidman, C.; Pritchet, C.

    2016-12-01

    In the era of large astronomical surveys, photometric classification of supernovae (SNe) has become an important research field due to limited spectroscopic resources for candidate follow-up and classification. In this work, we present a method to photometrically classify type Ia supernovae based on machine learning with redshifts that are derived from the SN light-curves. This method is implemented on real data from the SNLS deferred pipeline, a purely photometric pipeline that identifies SNe Ia at high-redshifts (0.2 < z < 1.1). Our method consists of two stages: feature extraction (obtaining the SN redshift from photometry and estimating light-curve shape parameters) and machine learning classification. We study the performance of different algorithms such as Random Forest and Boosted Decision Trees. We evaluate the performance using SN simulations and real data from the first 3 years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), which contains large spectroscopically and photometrically classified type Ia samples. Using the Area Under the Curve (AUC) metric, where perfect classification is given by 1, we find that our best-performing classifier (Extreme Gradient Boosting Decision Tree) has an AUC of 0.98.We show that it is possible to obtain a large photometrically selected type Ia SN sample with an estimated contamination of less than 5%. When applied to data from the first three years of SNLS, we obtain 529 events. We investigate the differences between classifying simulated SNe, and real SN survey data. In particular, we find that applying a thorough set of selection cuts to the SN sample is essential for good classification. This work demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of machine learning classification in a high-z SN survey with application to real SN data.

  19. EARLY EMISSION FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli; Livne, Eli

    2012-09-20

    A unique feature of deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) white dwarf explosion models of supernovae of type Ia is the presence of a strong shock wave propagating through the outer envelope. We consider the early emission expected in such models, which is produced by the expanding shock-heated outer part of the ejecta and precedes the emission driven by radioactive decay. We expand on earlier analyses by considering the modification of the pre-detonation density profile by the weak shocks generated during the deflagration phase, the time evolution of the opacity, and the deviation of the post-shock equation of state from that obtained for radiation pressure domination. A simple analytic model is presented and shown to provide an acceptable approximation to the results of one-dimensional numerical DDT simulations. Our analysis predicts a {approx}10{sup 3} s long UV/optical flash with a luminosity of {approx}1 to {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. Lower luminosity corresponds to faster (turbulent) deflagration velocity. The luminosity of the UV flash is predicted to be strongly suppressed at t > t{sub drop} {approx} 1 hr due to the deviation from pure radiation domination.

  20. Type Ia supernovae as stellar endpoints and cosmological tools.

    PubMed

    Howell, D Andrew

    2011-06-14

    Empirically, Type Ia supernovae are the most useful, precise, and mature tools for determining astronomical distances. Acting as calibrated candles they revealed the presence of dark energy and are being used to measure its properties. However, the nature of the Type Ia explosion, and the progenitors involved, have remained elusive, even after seven decades of research. But now, new large surveys are bringing about a paradigm shift--we can finally compare samples of hundreds of supernovae to isolate critical variables. As a result of this, and advances in modelling, breakthroughs in understanding all aspects of these supernovae are finally starting to happen.

  1. NIR Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae: High-Cadence Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, Howie H.; Hsiao, E.; Vinko, J.; Parrent, J. T.; Silverman, J. M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Phillips, M.; Wheeler, J. C.; Burns, C. R.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Challis, P.; Supernova Project, Carnegie, II; CfA Supernova Group

    2014-01-01

    New observing resources and coordinated scheduling make it possible to obtain sequences of NIR spectra from individual supernovae on a regular basis. In the past three years the Carnegie Supernova Project II and the CfA Supernova Group have obtained 350 NIR spectra of 78 supernovae. Here we describe eight series of NIR spectra from Type Ia supernovae for which there are ten or more observations with 4 or more of the spectra obtained before Mg II becomes undetectable at about six days post-maximum. NIR spectra are particularly useful for tracing the burning history of the outer layers in SN Ia and the presence of Mg II defines the limit of the carbon burning region. Recent analysis suggests that all significant absorption features in spectra of SN Ia are blends of two or more lines. Data sets with higher spectral cadence are more successful at breaking line-identification degeneracies and consequently provide more accurate information about line profiles and velocity measurements. Three of the eight spectral series in this sample include more than 20 observations and in two cases, there are 12 spectra between -12d and +6d with respect to B-max. The eight SN Ia vary from -18.0 to -19.5 in absolute magnitude and we explore the differences between the supernovae in the timing and strength of spectral features. We make qualitative comparisons of these results to theoretical models for the chemical distribution of materials in SN Ia.

  2. The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae in the Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Ciardullo, Robin; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Gehrels, Neil; Gronwall, Caryl; Hicken, Malcolm; Holland, Stephen T.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Immler, Stefan; Kirshner, Robert P.; Li, Weidong; Mazzali, Paolo; Phillips, Mark M.; Pritchard, Tyler; Still, Martin; Turatto, Massimo; Vanden Berk, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1 rc covering ~2600-3300 Å after removing optical light, and u ≈ 3000-4000 Å) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 ≈2000-2400 Å). The uvw1 rc - b colors show a scatter of ~0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 Å. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, ~1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  3. THE ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE ULTRAVIOLET

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Hoversten, Erik A.; Pritchard, Tyler; Milne, Peter; Bufano, Filomena; Mazzali, Paolo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Foley, Ryan J.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Gehrels, Neil; Holland, Stephen T.; Immler, Stefan; Phillips, Mark M.; Still, Martin

    2010-10-01

    We examine the absolute magnitudes and light-curve shapes of 14 nearby (redshift z = 0.004-0.027) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the ultraviolet (UV) with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. Colors and absolute magnitudes are calculated using both a standard Milky Way extinction law and one for the Large Magellanic Cloud that has been modified by circumstellar scattering. We find very different behavior in the near-UV filters (uvw1{sub rc} covering {approx}2600-3300 A after removing optical light, and u {approx} 3000-4000 A) compared to a mid-UV filter (uvm2 {approx}2000-2400 A). The uvw1{sub rc} - b colors show a scatter of {approx}0.3 mag while uvm2-b scatters by nearly 0.9 mag. Similarly, while the scatter in colors between neighboring filters is small in the optical and somewhat larger in the near-UV, the large scatter in the uvm2 - uvw1 colors implies significantly larger spectral variability below 2600 A. We find that in the near-UV the absolute magnitudes at peak brightness of normal SNe Ia in our sample are correlated with the optical decay rate with a scatter of 0.4 mag, comparable to that found for the optical in our sample. However, in the mid-UV the scatter is larger, {approx}1 mag, possibly indicating differences in metallicity. We find no strong correlation between either the UV light-curve shapes or the UV colors and the UV absolute magnitudes. With larger samples, the UV luminosity might be useful as an additional constraint to help determine distance, extinction, and metallicity in order to improve the utility of SNe Ia as standardized candles.

  4. Circumstellar material in type Ia supernovae via sodium absorption features.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, A; Gal-Yam, A; Simon, J D; Leonard, D C; Quimby, R M; Phillips, M M; Morrell, N; Thompson, I B; Ivans, I; Marshall, J L; Filippenko, A V; Marcy, G W; Bloom, J S; Patat, F; Foley, R J; Yong, D; Penprase, B E; Beeler, D J; Allende Prieto, C; Stringfellow, G S

    2011-08-12

    Type Ia supernovae are key tools for measuring distances on a cosmic scale. They are generally thought to be the thermonuclear explosion of an accreting white dwarf in a close binary system. The nature of the mass donor is still uncertain. In the single-degenerate model it is a main-sequence star or an evolved star, whereas in the double-degenerate model it is another white dwarf. We show that the velocity structure of absorbing material along the line of sight to 35 type Ia supernovae tends to be blueshifted. These structures are likely signatures of gas outflows from the supernova progenitor systems. Thus, many type Ia supernovae in nearby spiral galaxies may originate in single-degenerate systems.

  5. A strong ultraviolet pulse from a newborn type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, S R; Howell, D Andrew; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Valenti, Stefano; Johansson, J; Amanullah, R; Goobar, A; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Horesh, Assaf; Sagiv, Ilan; Cenko, S Bradley; Nugent, Peter E; Arcavi, Iair; Surace, Jason; Woźniak, P R; Moody, Daniela I; Rebbapragada, Umaa D; Bue, Brian D; Gehrels, Neil

    2015-05-21

    Type Ia supernovae are destructive explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs. Although they are used empirically to measure cosmological distances, the nature of their progenitors remains mysterious. One of the leading progenitor models, called the single degenerate channel, hypothesizes that a white dwarf accretes matter from a companion star and the resulting increase in its central pressure and temperature ignites thermonuclear explosion. Here we report observations with the Swift Space Telescope of strong but declining ultraviolet emission from a type Ia supernova within four days of its explosion. This emission is consistent with theoretical expectations of collision between material ejected by the supernova and a companion star, and therefore provides evidence that some type Ia supernovae arise from the single degenerate channel.

  6. SALT spectroscopic classification of PS16eho (= SN 2016gcr) as a type-Ia supernova after maximum light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S. W.; Dettman, K.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Kotze, M.

    2016-09-01

    We obtained SALT (+RSS) spectroscopy of PS16eho (= SN 2016gcr) on 2016 Sep 12.0 UT, covering the wavelength range 350-930 nm. The spectrum is significantly contaminated with host galaxy light, and we confirm the redshift of the host galaxy 2MASX J22321713-2342106 z = 0.065 (Colless et al. 2003, 2dFGRS, arXiv:astroph/0306581; via NED) with numerous absorption and emission lines.

  7. Supernova Legacy Survey: using spectral signatures to improve Type Ia supernovae as distance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, E. S.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Howell, D. A.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Bronder, T. J.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Aldering, G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Kronborg, T.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perlmutter, S.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Zhang, T.

    2011-01-01

    Optical long-slit spectroscopy at the Gemini-North telescope using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) was used to classify targets from the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS) from 2005 July and 2006 May-2008 May. During this time, 95 objects were observed. Where possible, the objects' redshifts (z) were measured from narrow emission or absorption features in the host galaxy spectrum, otherwise they were measured from the broader supernova features. We present spectra of 68 confirmed or probable SNe Ia from SNLS with redshifts in the range 0.17 ≤z≤ 1.02. In combination with earlier SNLS Gemini and VLT spectra, we used these new observations to measure pseudo-equivalent widths (EWs) of three spectral features - Ca II H&K, Si II and Mg II- in 144 objects and compared them to the EWs of low-redshift SNe Ia from a sample drawn from the literature. No signs of changes with z are seen for the Ca II H&K and Mg II features. Systematically lower EW Si II is seen at high redshift, but this can be explained by a change in demographics of the SNe Ia population within a two-component model combined with an observed correlation between EW Si II and photometric light-curve stretch.

  8. Type Ia Supernova Rates Near and Far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagia, Nino; Della Valle, Massimo; Mannucci, Filippo

    2007-08-01

    Recently, three important observational results were established: (a) The evolution of the SNIa rate with redshift is now measured up to z~1.6 and the results at the highest redshifts, derived by the GOODS collaboration show that the SN rate rises up to z~0.8, when the Universe was 6.5 Gyr old, and decreases afterward. (b) The rate of supernova explosions of the different types as a function of the galaxy (B-K) and the galaxy mass have been determined. It is found that the rates of all SN types, including Ia, Ib/c and II, show a marked increase with the star formation activity. (c) An analysis of SNIa events in early-type galaxies has provided conclusive evidence that the rate of SNIa in radio-loud galaxies is much higher than the rate measured in radio-quiet galaxies. This result suggests that repeated episodes of interaction and/or mergers of early-type galaxies with dwarf companions are responsible for supplying an adequate number of SNIa progenitors to the stellar population of elliptical galaxies. On this basis we have discussed the distribution of the delay time (DTD) between the formation of a SNIa progenitor star and its explosion as a SNIa. Our analysis finds: i) models with long delay times, say 3-4 Gyr, cannot reproduce the dependence of the SNIa rate on the colors and on the radio-luminosity of the parent galaxies; ii) the dependence of the SNIa rate on the parent galaxy colors requires models with a wide DTD, spanning the interval 100 Myr to 10 Gyr; iii) the dependence on the parent galaxy radio-luminosity requires substantial production of SNIa at epochs earlier than 100 Myr after the birth of a given stellar generation; iv) the comparison between observed SN rates and a grid of theoretical ``single-population'' DTDs shows that only a few of them are marginally consistent with all observations; v) the present data are best matched by a bimodal DTD, in which about 50% of type Ia SNe (``prompt'' SNIa) explode soon after their stellar birth, in a time of

  9. Optimizing the WFIRST Type Ia Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan

    Observations of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) led to the discovery that the Universe's expansion is currently accelerating. WFIRST-AFTA is well positioned to provide a generation-defining measurement of the nature of dark energy through its multiple probes, with the WFIRST SN survey projected to have twice the impact as its other probes. Our experienced team includes some of the original discoverers of the accelerating universe, two of the selected ROSES WFIRST preparatory science teams, and the key scientific expertise for the most current and precise SN cosmology results. Our expertise in SN cosmology, SN physics, space-based imaging and spectroscopy, and calibration provide the best foundation upon which a WFIRST SN SIT can be formed. As dark energy is central to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, we directly address major objectives of NASA's science program. Moreover, WFIRST is NASA's top priority in the next decade, and preparations now are critical for its eventual success. We present a comprehensive plan to investigate multiple strategies for both optimization and risk mitigation. We have built a simulation framework based on publicly available tools for these evaluations at no cost to this program. Our team has produced the first realistic, full end-to-end simulation of the DRM SN survey, finding that it is suboptimal. After a cursory search of the available parameter space, we were able to find alternative strategies that are significantly better than the DRM strategy. Of course the most optimal strategy will depend on (1) our ability to properly calibrate our data, (2) the data analysis tools available, and (3) our understanding of astrophysical systematic uncertainties. We plan to use much of the next five years to develop strategies to properly calibrate our data, generate software to analyze data from the pixel level to cosmology, and further understand all systematic uncertainties. With the results of these investigations combined with an expanded

  10. Selections from 2015: Two Kinds of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-03-01

    Editors Note:In these last two weeks of 2015, well be looking at a few selections from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.The Changing Fractions of Type Ia Supernova NUVOptical Subclasses with RedshiftPublished April2015Main takeaway:A team of scientists led by Peter Milne (University of Arizona) used ultraviolet observations from the Swift spacecraft to determine that type Ia supernovae, stellar explosions previously thought to all belong in the same class, actually fall into two subgroups: those that are slightly redder in NUV wavelengths and those that are slightly bluer.Plot of the percentage of supernovae that are NUV-blue (rather than NUV-red), as a function of redshift. NUV-blue supernovae dominate at higher redshifts. [Milne et al. 2015]Why its interesting:It turns out that the fraction of supernovae in each of these two groups is redshift-dependent. At low redshifts (i.e., nearby), the population of type Ia supernovae is dominated by NUV-red supernovae. At high redshifts (i.e., far away), the population is dominated by NUV-blue supernovae. Since cosmological distances are measured using Type Ia supernovae as standard candles, the fact that weve been modeling these supernovae all the same way (rather than treating them as two separate subclasses) means we may have been systematically misinterpreting distances.What this means for the universes expansion:This seemingly simple discovery carries hefty repercussions in fact, our estimates of the expansion rate of the universe may be incorrect! The authors believe that if we correct for this error, well find that the universe is not expanding as quickly as we thought.CitationPeter A. Milne et al 2015 ApJ 803 20. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/20

  11. Burning Thermals in Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Dong, S.; Woosley, S. E.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a one-dimensional theoretical model for thermals burning in Type Ia supernovae based on the entrainment assumption of Morton, Taylor, and Turner. Extensions of the standard model are required to account for the burning and for the expansion of the thermal due to changes in the background stratification found in the full star. The model is compared with high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations, both in a uniform environment and a full-star setting. The simulations in a uniform environment present compelling agreement with the predicted power laws and provide model constants for the full-star model, which then provides excellent agreement with the full-star simulation. The importance of the different components in the model is compared, and are all shown to be relevant. An examination of the effect of initial conditions was then conducted using the one-dimensional model, which would have been infeasible in three dimensions. More mass was burned when the ignition kernel was larger and closer to the center of the star. The turbulent flame speed was found to be important during the early-time evolution of the thermal, but played a diminished role at later times when the evolution is dominated by the large-scale hydrodynamics responsible for entrainment. However, a higher flame speed effectively gave a larger initial ignition kernel and so resulted in more mass burned. This suggests that future studies should focus on the early-time behavior of these thermals (in particular, the transition to turbulence), and that the choice of turbulent flame speed does not play a significant role in the dynamics once the thermal has become established.

  12. BURNING THERMALS IN TYPE ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Dong, S.; Woosley, S. E.

    2011-09-01

    We develop a one-dimensional theoretical model for thermals burning in Type ia supernovae based on the entrainment assumption of Morton, Taylor, and Turner. Extensions of the standard model are required to account for the burning and for the expansion of the thermal due to changes in the background stratification found in the full star. The model is compared with high-resolution three-dimensional numerical simulations, both in a uniform environment and a full-star setting. The simulations in a uniform environment present compelling agreement with the predicted power laws and provide model constants for the full-star model, which then provides excellent agreement with the full-star simulation. The importance of the different components in the model is compared, and are all shown to be relevant. An examination of the effect of initial conditions was then conducted using the one-dimensional model, which would have been infeasible in three dimensions. More mass was burned when the ignition kernel was larger and closer to the center of the star. The turbulent flame speed was found to be important during the early-time evolution of the thermal, but played a diminished role at later times when the evolution is dominated by the large-scale hydrodynamics responsible for entrainment. However, a higher flame speed effectively gave a larger initial ignition kernel and so resulted in more mass burned. This suggests that future studies should focus on the early-time behavior of these thermals (in particular, the transition to turbulence), and that the choice of turbulent flame speed does not play a significant role in the dynamics once the thermal has become established.

  13. Spectroscopic classification of AT 2017cfd as a young Type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2017-03-01

    We report the spectroscopic observation of AT 2017cfd, a transient discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) on 2017-03-16. A spectrum (range 3700-9300 Angstroms), taken with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by Steve Odewahn on 2017-03-18.16 UT, is similar to that of a Type Ia supernova before maximum light.

  14. Unburned Material in the Ejecta of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folatelli, Gastón; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Burns, Christopher R.; Hamuy, Mario; Mazzali, Paolo; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; González, Sergio; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, Barry F.; Persson, S. E.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of unburned material in the ejecta of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is investigated using early-time spectroscopy obtained by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The tell-tale signature of pristine material from a C+O white dwarf progenitor star is the presence of carbon, as oxygen is also a product of carbon burning. The most prominent carbon lines in optical spectra of SNe Ia are expected to arise from C II. We find that at least 30% of the objects in the sample show an absorption at ≈6300 Å which is attributed to C II λ6580. An alternative identification of this absorption as Hα is considered to be unlikely. These findings imply a larger incidence of carbon in SNe Ia ejecta than previously noted. We show how observational biases and physical conditions may hide the presence of weak C II lines, and account for the scarcity of previous carbon detections in the literature. This relatively large frequency of carbon detections has crucial implications on our understanding of the explosive process. Furthermore, the identification of the 6300 Å absorptions as carbon would imply that unburned material is present at very low expansion velocities, merely ≈1000 km s-1 above the bulk of Si II. Based on spectral modeling, it is found that the detections are consistent with a mass of carbon of 10-3 to 10-2 M ⊙. The presence of this material so deep in the ejecta would imply substantial mixing, which may be related to asymmetries of the flame propagation. Another possible explanation for the carbon absorptions may be the existence of clumps of unburned material along the line of sight. However, the uniformity of the relation between C II and Si II velocities is not consistent with such small-scale asymmetries. The spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia with and without carbon signatures are compared. A trend toward bluer color and lower luminosity at maximum light is found for objects which show carbon. This paper includes data gathered with

  15. Searching for the Progenitors of Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2011-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmic probes. To understand and eliminate systematic uncertainties, it is important to know the nature and characteristics of their progenitors. I will talk about recent progress that may allow us to search for and identify progenitors within our own Galaxy, using data from wide-field surveys such as SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and LSST. We will consider the nuclear-burning phase that is expected to occur in both single-degenerate and double-degenerate models. We will also consider the expected characteristics just prior to explosion in the new class of spin-up/spin-down models. Finally, we will discuss the prospects for finding the progenitors in external galaxies, in light of the fact that most do not appear as x-ray sources, or else have a low duty cycle of x-ray activity.

  16. Photometry of variable dust-enshrouded stars. Supernovae Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krügel, E.

    2015-02-01

    We study the time evolution of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a transient star surrounded by a spatially unresolved spherical dust envelope. We perform radiative transfer calculations following the Monte Carlo method of Bjorkman & Wood (2001, ApJ, 554, 615) which we extend to include time variability. In a preparatory step, we compute the SED of sources whose intrinsic light curve is a step function. Although the stellar spectrum is constant while the star is switched on, the SED, the extinction curve and the colors are variable. In a second step, we model dust-embedded, distant and therefore spatially unresoved supernovae Ia because of the profound cosmological consequences of their photometric data. As before, the colors, the extinction curve and the SED develop in time. The peak bolometric luminosity is much reduced compared to an unreddend SN. The maximum brightness at wavelengths where grains do not radiate (λ< 2 μm) is also substantially reduced relative to a non-variable star of the same luminosity. The light curves in optical bands are broadened and the time of maximum emission delayed, the extinction curves vary with time. All this is caused by the stochastic travel times of interacting photons. The dust temperature in the dust shell is remarkably constant. In the SED, the emission changes from mainly optical to predominantly mid IR. Changing the scattering properties of dust, without changing its extinction coefficient can lead to an underestimate of the supernova peak brightness.

  17. The Carnegie Supernova Project: Analysis of the First Sample of Low-Redshift Type-Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folatelli, Gaston; Phillips, M. M.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; Hamuy, M.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E.; Stritzinger, M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Krisciunas, K.; Boldt, L.; Gonzalez, S.; Krzeminski, W.; Morrell, N.; Roth, M.; Salgado, F.; Madore, B. F.; Murphy, D.; Wyatt, P.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2009-05-01

    We present the analysis of the first set of 35 low-redshift (z<0.08) Type Ia supernovae studied by the Carnegie Supernova Project. The data consist of densely-sampled, high-precision light curves obtained with a uniform, well-characterized photometric system comprising the ugriBVYJHKs bands. We use these data to derive light-curve parameters and to build template light curves that are applicable for fitting other Type-Ia supernova data. We calibrate the intrinsic colors at maximum light. This is used to derive color excesses and thus study the properties of the reddening law in the host galaxies, with the advantage of combining optical and NIR bands. We study the calibration of absolute peak magnitudes in all bands using a two-parameter bilinear fit to decline rates and colors or, alternatively, color excesses. We obtain dispersions of 0.1_ 0.2 mag, depending on the filter--color combinations, and low values of the reddening-law parameter RV 1_ 2. We further investigate the validity of Type-Ia supernovae as true standard candles in the NIR, requiring no correction for decline rate.

  18. 3D non-LTE spectrum synthesis for Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2009-05-01

    Despite the importance of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology and to the chemical evolution of the Universe, we still have no consistent picture of the nature of these events. Much progress has been made in the hydrodynamical explosion modelling of supernovae Ia in the last few years and fully 3-D explosion models are now available. However those simulations are not directly comparable to observations: to constrain explosion models, radiative transfer calculations must be carried out. We present a new 3-D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code which allows forward modelling of the spectral evolution of Type Ia supernovae from first principles, using hydrodynamical explosion models as input. Here, as a first application, we calculate line-of-sight dependent colour light curves for a toy model of an off-centre explosion.

  19. Light echoes from ancient supernovae in the Large Magellanic Cloud.

    PubMed

    Rest, Armin; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Olsen, Knut; Prieto, Jose Luis; Smith, R Chris; Welch, Douglas L; Becker, Andrew; Bergmann, Marcel; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Cook, Kem; Garg, Arti; Huber, Mark; Miknaitis, Gajus; Minniti, Dante; Nikolaev, Sergei; Stubbs, Christopher

    2005-12-22

    The light from historical supernovae could in principle still be visible as scattered-light echoes centuries after the explosion. The detection of light echoes could allow us to pinpoint the supernova event both in position and age and, most importantly, permit the acquisition of spectra to determine the 'type' of the supernova centuries after the direct light from the explosion first reached Earth. Although echoes have been discovered around some nearby extragalactic supernovae, targeted searches have not found any echoes in the regions of historical Galactic supernovae. Here we report three faint variable-surface-brightness complexes with high apparent proper motions pointing back to three of the six smallest (and probably youngest) previously catalogued supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which are believed to have been thermonuclear (type Ia) supernovae. Using the distance and apparent proper motions of these echo arcs, we estimate ages of 610 and 410 years for two of them.

  20. Generalized Spectral Correlations of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Stephen J.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigaudier, G.; Ripoche, P.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R.; Wu, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized correlation analysis of type Ia supernova spectra with a focus on spectral features that correlate with absolute magnitude in ways that are not already accounted for by color and lightcurve stretch. The results reveal new spectral correlations beyond those of the classic metrics of feature ratios (RSi, RSiS, RCa, EDCa). These new correlations could be used to improve the calibration of type Ia supernovae for cosmology measurements beyond what is possible with stretch and color alone.

  1. Prospective Type Ia Supernova Surveys From Dome A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J.L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.; /Texas A-M /Purple Mountain Observ.

    2010-02-01

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over five years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of {approx}1000 z < 0.08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture ({approx}>4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z {approx} 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  2. Prospective Type Ia supernova surveys from Dome A

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.; Bonissent, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ealet, A.; Faccioli, L.; Gladney, L.; Kushner, G.; Linder, E.; Stoughton, C.; Wang, L.

    2010-03-10

    Dome A, the highest plateau in Antarctica, is being developed as a site for an astronomical observatory. The planned telescopes and instrumentation and the unique site characteristics are conducive toward Type Ia supernova surveys for cosmology. A self-contained search and survey over 5 years can yield a spectro-photometric time series of ~;; 1000 z< 0:08 supernovae. These can serve to anchor the Hubble diagram and quantify the relationship between luminosities and heterogeneities within the Type Ia supernova class, reducing systematics. Larger aperture (>=4-m) telescopes are capable of discovering supernovae shortly after explosion out to z ~;; 3. These can be fed to space telescopes, and can isolate systematics and extend the redshift range over which we measure the expansion history of the universe.

  3. Progenitors of type Ia supernovae in elliptical galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfanov, M.; Bogdan, A.

    2011-09-21

    Although there is a nearly universal agreement that type Ia supernovae are associated with the thermonuclear disruption of a CO white dwarf, the exact nature of their progenitors is still unknown. The single degenerate scenario envisages a white dwarf accreting matter from a non-degenerate companion in a binary system. Nuclear energy of the accreted matter is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation or gives rise to numerous classical nova explosions prior to the supernova event. We show that combined X-ray output of supernova progenitors and statistics of classical novae predicted in the single degenerate scenario are inconsistent with X-ray and optical observations of nearby early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. White dwarfs accreting from a donor star in a binary system and detonating at the Chandrasekhar mass limit can account for no more than {approx}5% of type Ia supernovae observed in old stellar populations.

  4. THE FAST DECLINING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2003gs, AND EVIDENCE FOR A SIGNIFICANT DISPERSION IN NEAR-INFRARED ABSOLUTE MAGNITUDES OF FAST DECLINERS AT MAXIMUM LIGHT

    SciTech Connect

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Marion, G. H.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B. E-mail: suntzeff@physics.tamu.edu

    2009-12-15

    We obtained optical photometry of SN 2003gs on 49 nights, from 2 to 494 days after T(B {sub max}). We also obtained near-IR photometry on 21 nights. SN 2003gs was the first fast declining Type Ia SN that has been well observed since SN 1999by. While it was subluminous in optical bands compared to more slowly declining Type Ia SNe, it was not subluminous at maximum light in the near-IR bands. There appears to be a bimodal distribution in the near-IR absolute magnitudes of Type Ia SNe at maximum light. Those that peak in the near-IR after T(B {sub max}) are subluminous in the all bands. Those that peak in the near-IR prior to T(B {sub max}), such as SN 2003gs, have effectively the same near-IR absolute magnitudes at maximum light regardless of the decline rate {delta}m {sub 15}(B). Near-IR spectral evidence suggests that opacities in the outer layers of SN 2003gs are reduced much earlier than for normal Type Ia SNe. That may allow {gamma} rays that power the luminosity to escape more rapidly and accelerate the decline rate. This conclusion is consistent with the photometric behavior of SN 2003gs in the IR, which indicates a faster than normal decline from approximately normal peak brightness.

  5. The Peculiar SN 2005hk: Do Some Type Ia Supernovae Explode As Deflagrations?

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.M.; Li, W.; Frieman, J.A.; Blinnikov, S.I.; DePoy, D.; Prieto, J.L.; Milne, P.; Contreras, C.; Folatelli, Gaston; Morrell, N.; Hamuy, M.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Roth, M.; Gonzalez, S.; Krzeminski, W.; Filippenko, A.V.; Freedman, W.L.; Chornock, R.; Jha, S.; Madore, B.F.; Persson, S.E.; /Las Campanas Observ. /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago /Fermilab /Moscow, ITEP /Garching, Max Planck Inst. /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron. /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Chile U., Santiago /Texas A-M /Carnegie Inst. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Caltech, IPAC /Notre Dame U. /South African Astron. Observ. /Cape Town U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /New Mexico State U. /Chicago U., FLASH /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.

    2006-11-14

    We present extensive u{prime}g{prime}r{prime}i{prime} BV RIY JHK{sub s} photometry and optical spectroscopy of SN 2005hk. These data reveal that SN 2005hk was nearly identical in its observed properties to SN 2002cx, which has been called 'the most peculiar known type Ia supernova'. Both supernovae exhibited high ionization SN 1991T-like pre-maximum spectra, yet low peak luminosities like SN 1991bg. The spectra reveal that SN 2005hk, like SN 2002cx, exhibited expansion velocities that were roughly half those of typical type Ia supernovae. The R and I light curves of both supernovae were also peculiar in not displaying the secondary maximum observed for normal type Ia supernovae. Our Y JH photometry of SN 2005hk reveals the same peculiarity in the near-infrared. By combining our optical and near-infrared photometry of SN 2005hk with published ultraviolet light curves obtained with the Swift satellite, we are able to construct a bolometric light curve from {approx} 10 days before to {approx}60 days after B maximum. The shape and unusually low peak luminosity of this light curve, plus the low expansion velocities and absence of a secondary maximum at red and near-infrared wavelengths, are all in reasonable agreement with model calculations of a 3D deflagration which produces {approx} 0.25 M{sub {circle_dot}} of {sup 56}Ni.

  6. Type Ia Supernova Modeling with Spectrophotometric Data from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Clare; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernova cosmology is currently limited by dispersion in standardized magnitudes, driven by a combination of calibration uncertainty and so-called ‘intrinsic dispersion.' This intrinsic dispersion is caused by supernova behavior that the current lightcurve fitters do not account for, and it can involve systematic trends. Using data from the Nearby Supernova Factory, we have developed an empirical model that captures a wider range of Type Ia supernova behavior and can be used to improve standardized magnitude dispersion. To do this, Gaussian Processes and Expectation Maximization Factor Analysis are used to generate spectral time series templates that can be combined linearly. Variations of this model are optimized, alternatively for supernova standardization or for maximum accuracy in the description of supernova spectral features. We present these models along with interpretation of the model components. Methods are discussed for the most efficient application of the models in cosmological surveys.

  7. Evidence for two distinct populations of type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Lifan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhao, Xulin

    2013-04-12

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used as excellent standardizable candles for measuring cosmic expansion, but their progenitors are still elusive. Here, we report that the spectral diversity of SNe Ia is tied to their birthplace environments. We found that those with high-velocity ejecta are substantially more concentrated in the inner and brighter regions of their host galaxies than are normal-velocity SNe Ia. Furthermore, the former tend to inhabit larger and more luminous hosts. These results suggest that high-velocity SNe Ia likely originate from relatively younger and more metal-rich progenitors than do normal-velocity SNe Ia and are restricted to galaxies with substantial chemical evolution.

  8. The cosmic gamma-ray background from Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    The, Lih-Sin; Leising, Mark D.; Clayton, Donald D.

    1993-01-01

    We present an improved calculation of the cumulative gamma-ray spectrum of Type Ia supernovae during the history of the universe. We follow Clayton & Ward (1975) in using a few Friedmann models and two simple histories of the average galaxian nucleosynthesis rate, but we improve their calculation by modeling the gamma-ray scattering in detailed numerical models of SN Ia's. The results confirm that near 1 MeV the SN Ia background may dominate, and that it is potentially observable, with high scientific importance. A very accurate measurement of the cosmic background spectrum between 0.1 and 1.0 MeV may reveal the turn-on time and the evolution of the rate of Type Ia supernova nucleosynthesis in the universe.

  9. LINKING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITORS AND THEIR RESULTING EXPLOSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Simon, Joshua D.; Burns, Christopher R.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Hamuy, Mario; Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Shields, Gregory A.; Sternberg, Assaf

    2012-06-20

    Comparing the ejecta velocities at maximum brightness and narrow circumstellar/interstellar Na D absorption line profiles of a sample of 23 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we determine that the properties of SN Ia progenitor systems and explosions are intimately connected. As demonstrated by Sternberg et al., half of all SNe Ia with detectable Na D absorption at the host-galaxy redshift in high-resolution spectroscopy have Na D line profiles with significant blueshifted absorption relative to the strongest absorption component, which indicates that a large fraction of SN Ia progenitor systems have strong outflows. In this study, we find that SNe Ia with blueshifted circumstellar/interstellar absorption systematically have higher ejecta velocities and redder colors at maximum brightness relative to the rest of the SN Ia population. This result is robust at a 98.9%-99.8% confidence level, providing the first link between the progenitor systems and properties of the explosion. This finding is further evidence that the outflow scenario is the correct interpretation of the blueshifted Na D absorption, adding additional confirmation that some SNe Ia are produced from a single-degenerate progenitor channel. An additional implication is that either SN Ia progenitor systems have highly asymmetric outflows that are also aligned with the SN explosion or SNe Ia come from a variety of progenitor systems where SNe Ia from systems with strong outflows tend to have more kinetic energy per unit mass than those from systems with weak or no outflows.

  10. Neutrino event counts from Type Ia supernova models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Gautam; Scholberg, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Core collapse supernovae (SNe) are widely known to be among the universe's primary neutrino factories, releasing ˜99% of their energy, or ˜1053 ergs, in the form of the tiny leptons. On the other hand, less than 4% of the energy of Type Ia SNe is released via neutrinos, hence making Ia SNe impossible to detect (through neutrino observations) at typical supernova distances. For this reason, neutrino signatures from these explosions have very rarely been modeled. We ran time-sliced fluences from non-oscillation pure deflagration and delayed detonation (DDT) Ia models by Odrzywolek and Plewa (2011) through SNOwGLoBES, a software that calculates event rates and other observed quantities of supernova neutrinos in various detectors. We determined Ia neutrino event rates in Hyper-K, a proposed water Cherenkov detector, JUNO, a scintillator detector under construction, and DUNE, a proposed argon detector, and identified criteria to distinguish between the two models (pure deflagration and DDT) based on data from a real supernova (statistically represented by a Poisson distribution around the expected result). We found that up to distances of 8.00, 1.54, and 2.37 kpc (subject to change based on oscillation effects and modified detector efficiencies), we can discern the explosion mechanism with ≥90% confidence in Hyper-K, JUNO, and DUNE, respectively, thus learning more about Ia progenitors.

  11. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E. E-mail: pmricker@illinois.edu E-mail: taam@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-09-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  12. Search for Surviving Companions in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Ricker, Paul M.; Taam, Ronald E.

    2014-09-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  13. Type Ia Supernovae Keep Memory of their Progenitor Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersanti, Luciano; Bravo, Eduardo; Cristallo, Sergio; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Straniero, Oscar; Tornambé, Amedeo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    The ultimate understanding of SNe Ia diversity is one of the most urgent issues to exploit thermonuclear explosions of accreted White Dwarfs (WDs) as cosmological yardsticks. In particular, we investigate the impact of the progenitor system metallicity on the physical and chemical properties of the WD at the explosion epoch. We analyze the evolution of CO WDs through the accretion and simmering phases by using evolutionary models based on time-dependent convective mixing and an extended nuclear network including the most important electron captures, beta decays, and URCA processes. We find that, due to URCA processes and electron-captures, the neutron excess and density at which the thermal runaway occurs are substantially larger than previously claimed. Moreover, we find that the higher the progenitor metallicity, the larger the neutron excess variation during the accretion and simmering phases and the higher the central density and the convective velocity at the explosion. Hence, the simmering phase acts as an amplifier of the differences existing in SNe Ia progenitors. When applying our results to the neutron excess estimated for the Tycho and Kepler young supernova remnants, we derive that the metallicity of the progenitors should be in the range Z=0.030{--}0.032, close to the average metallicity value of the thin disk of the Milky Way. As the amount of {}56{Ni} produced in the explosion depends on the neutron excess and central density at the thermal runaway, our results suggest that the light curve properties depend on the progenitor metallicity.

  14. The Curious Case of SN 2011dn: Was It A Peculiar Type Ia Supernova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachubo, Alisa; Salvo, Chris; Leonard, Douglas C.; Duong, Nhieu; Horst, Chuck; Khandrika, Harish G.; Sumandal, Julienne; Moustakas, John

    2014-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are excellent cosmological distance indicators due to the uniformity in their light curves. This led to the major discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe (Riess et al. 1998, Perlmutter et al. 1999). However, SNe Ia are not so uniform as one may expect, as there are many ‘peculiar’ SNe Ia that exhibit differences in photometry and spectroscopy from normal SNe Ia. One of the goals of supernova cosmology today is to produce a cleaner sample of SNe Ia by removing the peculiar SNe Ia from the sample. A useful parameter for identifying peculiar SNe Ia based on photometry is Δm15(B), which measures the decrease in B-band magnitude 15 days after the peak of the light curve (Phillips et al. 1993). For typical SNe Ia the standard value is Δm15(B) = 1.1. Peculiar SNe Ia of the overluminous type show a slower decline, with its prototypical member SN 1991T having Δm15(B) = 0.80 (Hicken et al. 2009), while peculiar SNe Ia of the subluminous type show a faster decline, with its prototypical member SN 1991bg having Δm15(B) = 1.87 (Hicken et al. 2009). Here we present optical photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2011dn, which were obtained as part of the MOunt LAguna SUpernova Survey (MOLASUS). Based on its pre-maximum spectrum, which showed strong absorption lines of Fe III λ4404 and Fe III λ5129, along with a weak Si II λ6355 absorption line, SN 2011dn was classified as a SN 1991T-like event (Koff et al. 2011). However, in an earlier preliminary analysis of the light curves - based on point-spread-function photometry - we proposed that SN 2011dn might have had a higher than expected Δm15(B) value of 1.08 (Salvo et al. 2012). Since SN 2011dn is embedded in its host galaxy UGC 11501, it is possible that some of the light from the host galaxy was measured, which may have influenced the measured Δm15(B) value. Here, we employ galaxy-subtraction techniques to isolate the supernova light from its host galaxy, and generate more

  15. How to Find Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2016-12-29

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts (z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H0, w, and Ωm via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts' photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z-band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. Finally, we also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R-band search - despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  16. How to Find Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia supernovae

    DOE PAGES

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2016-12-29

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts (z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H0, w, and Ωm via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hostedmore » by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts' photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z-band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. Finally, we also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R-band search - despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.« less

  17. How to Find Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts (z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H0, w, and Ωm via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z-band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R-band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  18. THE SUBLUMINOUS AND PECULIAR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PTF 09dav

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Ofek, E. O.; Blake, S.; Podsiadlowski, P.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cooke, J.; Quimby, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Thomas, R. C.; Poznanski, D.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hook, I. M.; Mazzali, P.; Bildsten, L.; Bloom, J. S.; Cenko, S. B.; Law, N.

    2011-05-10

    PTF 09dav is a peculiar subluminous Type Ia supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Spectroscopically, it appears superficially similar to the class of subluminous SN1991bg-like SNe, but it has several unusual features which make it stand out from this population. Its peak luminosity is fainter than any previously discovered SN1991bg-like SN Ia (M{sub B} {approx} -15.5), but without the unusually red optical colors expected if the faint luminosity were due to extinction. The photospheric optical spectra have very unusual strong lines of Sc II and Mg I, with possible Sr II, together with stronger than average Ti II and low velocities of {approx}6000 km s{sup -1}. The host galaxy of PTF09dav is ambiguous. The SN lies either on the extreme outskirts ({approx}41 kpc) of a spiral galaxy or in an very faint (M{sub R} {>=} -12.8) dwarf galaxy, unlike other 1991bg-like SNe which are invariably associated with massive, old stellar populations. PTF 09dav is also an outlier on the light-curve-width-luminosity and color-luminosity relations derived for other subluminous SNe Ia. The inferred {sup 56}Ni mass is small (0.019 {+-} 0.003 M{sub sun}), as is the estimated ejecta mass of 0.36 M{sub sun}. Taken together, these properties make PTF 09dav a remarkable event. We discuss various physical models that could explain PTF 09dav. Helium shell detonation or deflagration on the surface of a CO white dwarf can explain some of the features of PTF 09dav, including the presence of Sc and the low photospheric velocities, but the observed Si and Mg are not predicted to be very abundant in these models. We conclude that no single model is currently capable of explaining all of the observed signatures of PTF 09dav.

  19. Asymmetric Explosion of Type Ia Supernovae and Their Observational Signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2010-06-01

    The nature of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions has not yet been clarified, despite their importance in astrophysics and cosmology. Recent theoretical investigations suggest that asymmetric distribution of initial thermonuclear sparks may be a key in the SN Ia explosion mechanism. In this paper, the first observational evidence of the asymmetry in SN Ia explosions is presented: We have found that late-time nebular spectra of various SNe Ia show a diversity in wavelengths of emission lines. This feature is inconsistent with any spherically symmetric explosion models, and indicates that the innermost region, a likely product of the deflagration wave propagation, shows an off-set with respect to the explosion center. The diversity in the emission-line wavelengths could naturally be explained by a combination of different viewing angles.

  20. Testing the Standardizability of Type Ia Supernovae with the Cepheid Distance of a Twin Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Having nearly identical optical light-curve shapes, colors, and spectra, SN 2011by and 2011fe are "twin" Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia). As such, these "standardizable candles" should have identical luminosities. But using independent distance measurements to these SN, their peak luminosity differs by 0.6 mag --- significantly larger than the typical scatter amongst all SN Ia. Differences in their UV spectra indicate that the SN have different metallicities, which could account for the luminosity difference. On the other hand, the distance to SN 2011by, from a Tully-Fisher measurement, may be wrong. We propose to measure a Cepheid distance to SN 2011by to determine if metallicity or an imprecise measurement is causing this large difference.The implications are far reaching for SN cosmology. If the current distance is correct, changing progenitor metallicity could cause large distance biases with redshift. If the distance is revised to bring SN 2011by in line with SN 2011fe, we will infer that metallicity differences are not a large bias for SN cosmology.In the latter case, these data will also provide an additional SN with which we can measure the Hubble constant. Since the number of SN calibrators (only 8 published) limits the precision of our measurement of the Hubble constant, these observations can have a large impact on this measurement.

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Eric; Phillips, Mark; Burns, Christopher R.; Contreras, Carlos; Gall, Christa; Hoeflich, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Marion, Howie H.; Morrell, Nidia; Sand, David J.; Stritzinger, Maximillian; Carnegie Supernova Project

    2016-01-01

    Improving the cosmological experiments with Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is now not simply a question of observing more supernovae, since any survey, no matter how large, will ultimately be limited by the systematic errors. It has been clearly demonstrated in a number of studies that SNe Ia are better distance indicators in the near-infrared compared to the optical. As exciting as these new results are, SNe Ia in the NIR are expected to be even better than these studies indicate. A key ingredient for improving SN Ia in the NIR as distance indicators is to obtain NIR spectroscopy to determine precise k-corrections, which account for the effect of cosmological expansion upon the measured magnitudes. Better knowledge of the NIR spectroscopic behaviors, akin to that in the optical, is necessary to reach the distance precision required to identify viable models for dark energy. Carnegie Supernova Project II has built a definitive data set, much improved from previous samples, both in size and quality. With this previously unavailable window, we are also beginning to gain new insight on the physics of these events.

  2. Detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Patat, F; Chandra, P; Chevalier, R; Justham, S; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Wolf, C; Gal-Yam, A; Pasquini, L; Crawford, I A; Mazzali, P A; Pauldrach, A W A; Nomoto, K; Benetti, S; Cappellaro, E; Elias-Rosa, N; Hillebrandt, W; Leonard, D C; Pastorello, A; Renzini, A; Sabbadin, F; Simon, J D; Turatto, M

    2007-08-17

    Type Ia supernovae are important cosmological distance indicators. Each of these bright supernovae supposedly results from the thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf star that, after accreting material from a companion star, exceeds some mass limit, but the true nature of the progenitor star system remains controversial. Here we report the spectroscopic detection of circumstellar material in a normal type Ia supernova explosion. The expansion velocities, densities, and dimensions of the circumstellar envelope indicate that this material was ejected from the progenitor system. In particular, the relatively low expansion velocities suggest that the white dwarf was accreting material from a companion star that was in the red-giant phase at the time of the explosion.

  3. On the Nebular-Phase Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sahana; Graham, Melissa; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2017-01-01

    Here we present nebular-phase spectra of 8 Type Ia supernovae. These objects have large host-galaxy offsets and have been observed and studied at early times by LCOGT and KAIT. The nebular-phase spectra presented here were obtained using the Gemini South and Keck telescopes. By analyzing early-time observations and verifying previous predictions for the nebular phase, we hope to gain insights into the progenitor systems and determine the accuracy of early-time subclassifications of these objects. Several of our supernovae exhibit double-peaked spectral lines, which may indicate a violent merger progenitor system. We also remark on interesting spectral features and compare our sample of objects to other well-observed Type Ia supernovae presented in other papers.

  4. REVEALING TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PHYSICS WITH COSMIC RATES AND NUCLEAR GAMMA RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Beacom, John F. E-mail: beacom@mps.ohio-state.ed

    2010-11-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain mysterious despite their central importance in cosmology and their rapidly increasing discovery rate. The progenitors of SNe Ia can be probed by the delay time between progenitor birth and explosion as SNe Ia. The explosions and progenitors of SNe Ia can be probed by MeV nuclear gamma rays emitted in the decays of radioactive nickel and cobalt into iron. We compare the cosmic star formation and SN Ia rates, finding that their different redshift evolution requires a large fraction of SNe Ia to have large delay times. A delay-time distribution of the form t {sup -}{alpha} with {alpha} = 1.0 {+-} 0.3 provides a good fit, implying that 50% of SNe Ia explode more than {approx}1 Gyr after progenitor birth. The extrapolation of the cosmic SN Ia rate to z = 0 agrees with the rate we deduce from catalogs of local SNe Ia. We investigate prospects for gamma-ray telescopes to exploit the facts that escaping gamma rays directly reveal the power source of SNe Ia and uniquely provide tomography of the expanding ejecta. We find large improvements relative to earlier studies by Gehrels et al. in 1987 and Timmes and Woosley in 1997 due to larger and more certain SN Ia rates and advances in gamma-ray detectors. The proposed Advanced Compton Telescope, with a narrow-line sensitivity {approx}60 times better than that of current satellites, would, on an annual basis, detect up to {approx}100 SNe Ia (3{sigma}) and provide revolutionary model discrimination for SNe Ia within 20 Mpc, with gamma-ray light curves measured with {approx}10{sigma} significance daily for {approx}100 days. Even more modest improvements in detector sensitivity would open a new and invaluable astronomy with frequent SN Ia gamma-ray detections.

  5. Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

  6. The Type Ia supernovae rate with Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Jun E.; Ihara, Yutaka; Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Pain, Reynald; Totani, Tomonori; Barbary, Kyle; Takanashi, Naohiro; Yasuda, Naoki; Aldering, Greg; Dawson, Kyle; Goldhaber, Gerson; Hook, Isobel; Lidman, Chris; Perlmutter, Saul; Spadafora, Anthony; Suzuki, Nao; Wang, Lifan

    2014-04-01

    We present measurements of the rates of high-redshift Type Ia supernovae derived from the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS). We carried out repeated deep imaging observations with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope, and detected 1040 variable objects over 0.918 deg2 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field. From the imaging observations, light curves in the observed i ' band are constructed for all objects, and we fit the observed light curves with template light curves. Out of the 1040 variable objects detected by the SXDS, 39 objects over the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.4 are classified as Type Ia supernovae using the light curves. These are among the most distant SN Ia rate measurements to date. We find that the Type Ia supernova rates increase up to z ˜ 0.8 and may then flatten at higher redshift. The rates can be fitted by a simple power law, rV(z) = r0(1 + z)α with r_0=0.20^{+0.52}_{-0.16}(stat.)^{+0.26}_{-0.07}(syst.) × 10-4 yr-1 Mpc-3, and α =2.04^{+1.84}_{-1.96}(stat.)^{+2.11}_{-0.86}(syst.).

  7. What sodium absorption lines tell us about Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2014-10-01

    We propose that the sodium responsible for the variable Na ID absorption lines in some Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) originate mainly from dust residing at ˜1 pc from the supernovae. In this Na-from-dust absorption (NaDA) model, the process by which the SN Ia peak luminosity releases sodium from dust at ˜1 pc from the SN is similar to the processes by which solar radiation releases sodium from cometary dust when comets approach a distance of ≲ 1 au from the Sun. The dust grains are not sublimated but rather stay intact, and release sodium by photon-stimulated desorption (or photosputtering). Some of the Na might start in the gas phase before the explosion. Weakening in absorption strength is caused by Na-ionizing radiation of the SN. We apply the NaDA model to SN 2006X and SN 2007le, and find it to comply better with the observed time variability of the Na ID absorption lines than the Na recombination model. The mass in the dusty shell of the NaDA model is much too high to be accounted for in the single-degenerate scenario for SN Ia. Therefore, the presence of variable Na ID lines in some SN Ia further weakens the already very problematic single-degenerate scenario for SN Ia.

  8. Spectral Sequences of Type Ia Supernovae. I. Connecting Normal and Subluminous SNe Ia and the Presence of Unburned Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heringer, E.; van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Sim, S. A.; Kerzendorf, W. E.

    2017-09-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are generally agreed to arise from thermonuclear explosions of carbon–oxygen white dwarfs. The actual path to explosion, however, remains elusive, with numerous plausible parent systems and explosion mechanisms suggested. Observationally, SNe Ia have multiple subclasses, distinguished by their light curves and spectra. This raises the question of whether these indicate that multiple mechanisms occur in nature or that explosions have a large but continuous range of physical properties. We revisit the idea that normal and 91bg-like SNe can be understood as part of a spectral sequence in which changes in temperature dominate. Specifically, we find that a single ejecta structure is sufficient to provide reasonable fits of both the normal SN Ia SN 2011fe and the 91bg-like SN 2005bl, provided that the luminosity and thus temperature of the ejecta are adjusted appropriately. This suggests that the outer layers of the ejecta are similar, thus providing some support for a common explosion mechanism. Our spectral sequence also helps to shed light on the conditions under which carbon can be detected in premaximum SN Ia spectra—we find that emission from iron can “fill in” the carbon trough in cool SNe Ia. This may indicate that the outer layers of the ejecta of events in which carbon is detected are relatively metal-poor compared to events in which carbon is not detected.

  9. Detection of the gravitational lens magnifying a type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Robert M; Oguri, Masamune; More, Anupreeta; More, Surhud; Moriya, Takashi J; Werner, Marcus C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Folatelli, Gaston; Bersten, Melina C; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2014-04-25

    Objects of known brightness, like type Ia supernovae (SNIa), can be used to measure distances. If a massive object warps spacetime to form multiple images of a background SNIa, a direct test of cosmic expansion is also possible. However, these lensing events must first be distinguished from other rare phenomena. Recently, a supernova was found to shine much brighter than normal for its distance, which resulted in a debate: Was it a new type of superluminous supernova or a normal SNIa magnified by a hidden gravitational lens? Here, we report that a spectrum obtained after the supernova faded away shows the presence of a foreground galaxy-the first found to strongly magnify a SNIa. We discuss how more lensed SNIa can be found than previously predicted.

  10. An Accelerated Radioactive Decay (ARD) Model for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, Bert W.; Leventhal, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    In 1975, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 255, 690-692] presented a radioactive decay model 56N i --> 56Co --> 56Fe for the post-peak luminosity decay of Type I supernovae light curves, in which the two decay rates are both accelerated by a common factor. In 1976, Rust, Leventhal and McCall [Nature, 262, 118-120] used sums of exponentials fitting to confirm the acceleration hypothesis, but their result was nevertheless rejected by the astronomical community. Here, we model Type Ia light curves with a system of ODEs (describing the nuclear decays) forced by a Ni-deposition pulse modelled by a 3-parameter Weibull pdf, with all of this occuring in the center of a pre-existing, optically thick, spherical shell which thermalizes the emitted gamma rays. Fitting this model to observed light curves routinely gives fits which account for 99.9+% of the total variance in the observed record. The accelerated decay rates are so stable, for such a long time, that they must occur in an almost unchanging environment -- not it a turbulent expanding atmosphere. The amplitude of the Ni-deposition pulse indicates that its source is the fusion of hydrogen. Carbon and oxygen could not supply the large energy/nucleon that is observed. The secondary peak in the infrared light curve can be easily modelled as a light echo from dust in the back side of the pre-existing shell, and the separation between the peaks indicates a radius of ≈15 light days for the shell. The long-term stability of the acceleration suggests that it is a kinematic effect arising because the nuclear reactions occur either on the surface of a very rapidly rotating condensed object, or in a very tight orbit around such an object, like the fusion pulse in a tokomak reactor.

  11. GAMMA RAYS FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA SN 2014J

    SciTech Connect

    Churazov, E.; Sunyaev, R.; Grebenev, S.; Bikmaev, I.; Bravo, E.; Chugai, N.; Jean, P.; Knödlseder, J.; Lebrun, F.

    2015-10-10

    The whole set of INTEGRAL observations of Type Ia supernova SN 2014J, covering the period 19–162 days after the explosion, has been analyzed. For spectral fitting the data are split into early and late periods covering days 19–35 and 50–162, respectively, optimized for {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co lines. As expected for the early period, much of the gamma-ray signal is confined to energies below ∼200 keV, while for the late period it is strongest above 400 keV. In particular, in the late period, {sup 56}Co lines at 847 and 1248 keV are detected at 4.7σ and 4.3σ, respectively. The light curves in several representative energy bands are calculated for the entire period. The resulting spectra and light curves are compared with a subset of models. We confirm our previous finding that the gamma-ray data are broadly consistent with the expectations for canonical one-dimensional models, such as delayed detonation or deflagration models for a near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf. Late optical spectra (day 136 after the explosion) show rather symmetric Co and Fe line profiles, suggesting that, unless the viewing angle is special, the distribution of radioactive elements is symmetric in the ejecta.

  12. Twin Supernova Studies with SNe Ia from SNfactory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, Hannah; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Hsiao, E.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Runge, K.; Thomas, R. C.; Antilogous, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Pain, R.; Wu, C.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E.; Pereira, R.; Smadja, G.; Pecontal, E.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Scalzo, R.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Paech, K.; Tao, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of twin supernovae with spectrophotometric timeseries of nearby Type Ia supernova from the Nearby Supernova Factory (Aldering, et al. 2002). One advantage of "twins” is they offer the best opportunity for having objects with the same intrinsic luminosities and colors, ostensibly leaving only extrinsic factors such as dust to explain any observed differences in brightness and color. Using well-sampled timeseries data for over 100 nearby Hubble-flow SNe Ia, we study the impact of dust on the brightness differences of SN Ia twins in order to improve the standardization of these standardizable candles that have been and will continue to be a primary tool in the determination of cosmological parameters. Specifically we are able to solve for the relative extinction and RV needed to bring the twins into near-perfect agreement. We will present a study of the resulting distribution of RV. In searching for twin supernovae we have found groups of SNe, again differing only by a dust law that accounts for the brightness differences. These groups allow us to look for similarities in subsets of SNe and explore spectrophotometric differences from group to group.

  13. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES AND HUBBLE RESIDUALS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon; Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne; CNRS and others

    2013-06-20

    We examine the relationship between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and the properties of their host galaxies using a sample of 115 SNe Ia from the Nearby Supernova Factory. We use host galaxy stellar masses and specific star formation rates fitted from photometry for all hosts, as well as gas-phase metallicities for a subset of 69 star-forming (non-active galactic nucleus) hosts, to show that the SN Ia Hubble residuals correlate with each of these host properties. With these data we find new evidence for a correlation between SN Ia intrinsic color and host metallicity. When we combine our data with those of other published SN Ia surveys, we find the difference between mean SN Ia brightnesses in low- and high-mass hosts is 0.077 {+-} 0.014 mag. When viewed in narrow (0.2 dex) bins of host stellar mass, the data reveal apparent plateaus of Hubble residuals at high and low host masses with a rapid transition over a short mass range (9.8 {<=} log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) {<=} 10.4). Although metallicity has been a favored interpretation for the origin of the Hubble residual trend with host mass, we illustrate how dust in star-forming galaxies and mean SN Ia progenitor age both evolve along the galaxy mass sequence, thereby presenting equally viable explanations for some or all of the observed SN Ia host bias.

  14. Constraining Type Ia Supernova Physics with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, David; Valenti, Stefano; Howell, Andy; Graham, Melissa; Parrent, Jerod

    2014-08-01

    Despite their success as standardizable candles, relatively little is known about the exact progenitor(s) and explosion physics of type Ia supernovae -- a potential source of systematic uncertainty for future dark energy surveys, and a hole in our knowledge about stellar end-states. One promising route forward is the combination of dense optical time series and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data sets. Recent work has suggested that the NIR can discern unburned carbon from the progenitor white dwarf more cleanly than in the optical, and its unique access to relatively unblended magnesium lines also probes the inner edge of carbon burning. Both measures provide a direct constraint for SN Ia explosion models, but only a handful of appropriate NIR spectroscopic time series exist. We propose to continue our campaign to roughly double the sample of SN Ia with such data (leveraging our access to a worldwide network of 1m imaging telescopes and twin robotic optical spectrographs) in order to begin to tackle our understanding of NIR spectral diagnostics and how they vary from supernova to supernova. During our 2014A time thus far, we have been intensely following the nearest SN Ia in a generation -- SN 2014J -- and have already submitted our initial results.

  15. Four papers by the Supernova Cosmology Project: (1) Scheduled discoveries of 7+ high-redshift supernovae -- First cosmology results and bounds on q{sub 0}; (2) K corrections for Type Ia supernovae and a test for spatial variation of the Hubble constant; (3) Observation of cosmological time dilation using Type Ia supernovae as clocks; (4) The Type Ia supernova rate at z {approximately} 0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S.; Deustua, S.; Gabi, S. |

    1995-06-01

    The search for high-redshift Type Ia supernovae discovered, in its first years, a sample of seven supernovae. Using a ``batch`` search strategy, almost all were discovered before maximum light and were observed over the peak of their light curves. The spectra and light curves indicate that almost all were Type Ia supernovae at redshifts z = 0.35--0.5. These high-redshift supernovae can provide a distance indicator and ``standard clock`` to study the cosmological parameters q{sub 0}, {Lambda}, {Omega}{sub 0}, and H{sub 0}. These four presentations discuss observation strategies and rates, analysis and calibration issues, the sources of measurement uncertainty, and the cosmological implications, including bounds on q{sub 0}, of these first high-redshift supernovae from the ongoing search.

  16. CIRCUMSTELLAR ABSORPTION IN DOUBLE DETONATION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.; Guillochon, James; Foley, Ryan J.

    2013-06-20

    Upon formation, degenerate He core white dwarfs are surrounded by a radiative H-rich layer primarily supported by ideal gas pressure. In this Letter, we examine the effect of this H-rich layer on mass transfer in He+C/O double white dwarf binaries that will eventually merge and possibly yield a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in the double detonation scenario. Because its thermal profile and equation of state differ from the underlying He core, the H-rich layer is transferred stably onto the C/O white dwarf prior to the He core's tidal disruption. We find that this material is ejected from the binary system and sweeps up the surrounding interstellar medium hundreds to thousands of years before the SN Ia. The close match between the resulting circumstellar medium profiles and values inferred from recent observations of circumstellar absorption in SNe Ia gives further credence to the resurgent double detonation scenario.

  17. Type Ia supernova explosion mechanism and implications for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.

    Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf, and are one of the most mature cosmological standardized candles. However, the explosion mechanism has not yet been fully clarified. Furthermore, they show observational diversities which may be a consequence of either the diversity in the explosion physics and/or surrounding environments, an issue yet to be clarified. In this paper, it is argued that an asymmetry in the explosion is likely a generic feature, and that the diversity arising from various viewing angles can be an origin of observational diversities of SNe Ia seen in their spectral features (suspected possible biases in cosmology) and colors (related to the extinction estimate in cosmology). These findings indicate that at least a part of observational diversities are intrinsic, rather than caused by environment effects, and open up a possibility of using SNe Ia as more precise distance indicators than currently employed.

  18. Properties of SN Ia progenitors from light curves and spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, P.; Dragulin, P.; Mitchell, J.; Penney, B.; Sadler, B.; Diamond, T.; Gerardy, C.

    2013-04-01

    With recent advances in theory and observations, direct connections emerge between the progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) and the observed light curves and spectra. A direct link is important for our understanding of the supernovae physics, the diversity of SNe Ia and the use of SNe Ia for high-precision cosmology because the details of the explosion depends sensitively on the initial conditions and the explosion scenario(s) realized in nature. Do SNe Ia originate from SD- or DD systems, and do they lead to M Ch mass explosions or dynamical mergers? Does the statistical distribtion of SNe Ia depend on their environment which can be expected to change with redshift? In this contribution, we will exam from the theoretical point of view the tell-tails for this connection, their consistency with the observations, and future directions. In a first section, we present the physics of the explosion, light curves and spectral formation in a nutshell to help understanding the connection. For details of the progenitor evolution and explosion physics, we refer to reviews and the other contributions in this issue. Each of the topical sections starts with a brief general review followed by a more detailed discussion of specific results. Because the youth of the field, some bias is unavoidable towards results obtained within our collaborations (and FSU). The imprint of the metallicity, progenitor stars and properties such as the central density of the exploding WD are presented. IR spectroscopy, polarimetry and imaging of SNR remnants are discussed as a tool to test for the WD properties, magnetic fields and asymmetries. We discuss different classes of Type Ia supernovae, and their environment. Possible correlations between the spectroscopic and light curve properties of SN Ia are discussed. Finally, the overall emerging picture and future developments are discussed.

  19. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Mazzali, Paolo A; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-04

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models-the helium-ignition branch-does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  20. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken’Ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J.; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion–ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models—the helium-ignition branch—does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  1. ON IDENTIFYING THE PROGENITORS OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, Mario; Pringle, J. E.

    2011-10-10

    We propose two new means of identifying the main class of progenitors of Type Ia supernovae-single or double degenerate: (1) if the range of supernova properties is significantly determined by the range of viewing angles of non-spherically symmetric explosions, then the nature of the correlation between polarization and another property (for example, the velocity gradient) can be used to determine the geometry of the asymmetry and hence the nature of the progenitor, and (2) in the double- but not in the single-degenerate case, the range in the observed properties (e.g., velocity gradients) is likely to increase with the amount of carbon seen in the ejecta.

  2. Spectroscopic Classification of AT2016cvw as a normal Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, D. C.; Sheehan, P.; McCarthy, D.; Follette, K.; Moustakas, J.; Alaniz, M.; Beaumont, C.; Batterman, T.; Black, E.; Bowers, T.; Cryder, M.; Davis, C.; Dawsey, R.; Douglas, E.; Gordon, S.; Gramze, S.; Greiner, M.; Hart, K.; Holt, A.; Hu, J.; Ingebretsen, C.; Iyer, D.; Josephson, R.; Kapko, A.; Keane, J.; Kimberlin, T.; Kinman, S.; Klusmeyer, J.; Kolderup, E.; Kresina, K.; Madden, M.; Meiman, E.; Miniconi, S.; Morton, A.; Neumann, K.; Noguerra, T.; Regester, B.; Regester, J.; Rosenthal, M.; Schlingman, A.; Schlingman, W.; Schlingman, W.; Smith, A.; Svoboda, B.; Watson, L.; Whitesell, R.

    2016-06-01

    We report spectroscopic classification of AT2016cvw (also known as PTSS-16ipw), discovered 2016 June 18.813 UT by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) in MCG +02-58-008 (z=0.038877; Huchra et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 26, via NED), through inspection of an optical spectrum (range 370-690 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) obtained with the 2.3-m Bok telescope (+ Boller & Chivens spectrograph) at Kitt Peak on 2016 June 20.423 UT. Cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and GELATO (Harutyunyan et al. 2008, A & A, 488, 383) finds convincing spectral matches with a number of normal Type-Ia supernovae roughly 3 days before maximum light.

  3. Spectroscopic Classification of AT2016cvv as a normal Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, D. C.; Sheehan, P.; McCarthy, D.; Follette, K.; Moustakas, J.; Alaniz, M.; Beaumont, C.; Batterman, T.; Black, E.; Bowers, T.; Cryder, M.; Davis, C.; Dawsey, R.; Douglas, E.; Gordon, S.; Gramze, S.; Greiner, M.; Hart, K.; Holt, A.; Hu, J.; Ingebretsen, C.; Iyer, D.; Josephson, R.; Kapko, A.; Keane, J.; Kimberlin, T.; Kinman, S.; Klusmeyer, J.; Kolderup, E.; Kresina, K.; Madden, M.; Meiman, E.; Miniconi, S.; Morton, A.; Neumann, K.; Noguerra, T.; Regester, B.; Regester, J.; Rosenthal, M.; Schlingman, A.; Schlingman, W.; Schlingman, W.; Smith, A.; Svoboda, B.; Watson, L.; Whitesell, R.

    2016-06-01

    We report spectroscopic classification of AT2016cvv (also known as PTSS-16ijc), discovered 2016 June 16.709 UT by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS) in CGCG 280-024 (z=0.044571; Falco et al. 1999, PASP 111, 438, via NED), through inspection of an optical spectrum (range 370-690 nm, resolution 0.8 nm) obtained with the 2.3-m Bok telescope (+ Boller & Chivens spectrograph) at Kitt Peak on 2016 June 19.347 UT. Cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and GELATO (Harutyunyan et al. 2008, A & A, 488, 383) finds convincing spectral matches with a number of normal Type-Ia supernovae a few days before maximum light.

  4. DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IMPRINTED IN CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2012-12-01

    A time delay of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosions hinders the imprint of their nucleosynthesis on stellar abundances. However, some occasional cases give birth to stars that avoid enrichment of their chemical compositions by massive stars and thereby exhibit an SN-Ia-like elemental feature including a very low [Mg/Fe] ( Almost-Equal-To - 1). We highlight the elemental feature of Fe-group elements for two low-Mg/Fe objects detected in nearby galaxies, and propose the presence of a class of SNe Ia that yield the low abundance ratios of [Cr, Mn, Ni/Fe]. Our novel models of chemical evolution reveal that our proposed class of SNe Ia (slow SNe Ia) is associated with ones exploding on a long timescale after their stellar birth and give a significant impact on the chemical enrichment in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). In the Galaxy, on the other hand, this effect is unseen due to the overwhelming enrichment by the major class of SNe Ia that explode promptly (prompt SNe Ia) and eject a large amount of Fe-group elements. This nicely explains the different [Cr, Mn, Ni/Fe] features between the two galaxies as well as the puzzling feature seen in the LMC stars exhibiting very low Ca but normal Mg abundances. Furthermore, the corresponding channel of slow SN Ia is exemplified by performing detailed nucleosynthesis calculations in the scheme of SNe Ia resulting from a 0.8 + 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf merger.

  5. Type IA supernova spectroscopy analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chen

    2009-06-01

    Supernovae (SNe) have played an important role in the recent dramatic development of observational cosmology. They possess homogeneous observable properties, and thus approximate "standard candles", allowing them to be precise, luminosity distance indicators. Over the last decade, the observed sample of supernovae (SNe) has increased by more than an order of magnitude. Further advances will no longer be limited by statistical errors, but rather by the control of systematic uncertainties, associated with source diversity and evolution. Over 500 SNe Ia have been discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) -- II SN Survey during the three fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. We combine spectroscopic and photometric data to explore reducing these systematic errors. One challenge is to remove accurately the host galaxy light from the observed spectra. We have developed an effective host-subtraction tool using a composite color-constrained PCA+template-fitting program. We have applied this technique to more than 700 spectra from SNe with redshifts up to 0.4 obtained from the SDSS-II SN Survey and more than 200 spectra from low-z SNe at redshifts less than 0.01 obtained from the Center for Astrophysics (CfA) SN archive. We have also developed an automatic method to quantify spectral features of SNe Ia and applied it to the CfA and SDSS-II samples. By comparing the time series of the spectral features between these two samples, we have found no sign of cosmological evolution. We have, however, found evidence for luminosity-dependent differences in the Mg II 4300, Si II 4000, Si II 5800, and Si II 6150 lines. This should be useful for cosmological studies.

  6. Predicting polarization signatures for double-detonation and delayed-detonation models of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, M.; Sim, S. A.; Kromer, M.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Fink, M.; Ciaraldi-Schoolmann, F.; Röpke, F. K.; Hillebrandt, W.; Pakmor, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Taubenberger, S.

    2016-10-01

    Calculations of synthetic spectropolarimetry are one means to test multidimensional explosion models for Type Ia supernovae. In a recent paper, we demonstrated that the violent merger of a 1.1 and 0.9 M⊙ white dwarf binary system is too asymmetric to explain the low polarization levels commonly observed in normal Type Ia supernovae. Here, we present polarization simulations for two alternative scenarios: the sub-Chandrasekhar mass double-detonation and the Chandrasekhar mass delayed-detonation model. Specifically, we study a 2D double-detonation model and a 3D delayed-detonation model, and calculate polarization spectra for multiple observer orientations in both cases. We find modest polarization levels (<1 per cent) for both explosion models. Polarization in the continuum peaks at ˜0.1-0.3 per cent and decreases after maximum light, in excellent agreement with spectropolarimetric data of normal Type Ia supernovae. Higher degrees of polarization are found across individual spectral lines. In particular, the synthetic Si II λ6355 profiles are polarized at levels that match remarkably well the values observed in normal Type Ia supernovae, while the low degrees of polarization predicted across the O I λ7774 region are consistent with the non-detection of this feature in current data. We conclude that our models can reproduce many of the characteristics of both flux and polarization spectra for well-studied Type Ia supernovae, such as SN 2001el and SN 2012fr. However, the two models considered here cannot account for the unusually high level of polarization observed in extreme cases such as SN 2004dt.

  7. Learning from the scatter in type ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Vallinotto, Alberto; /Fermilab /Chicago U.

    2005-11-01

    Type Ia Supernovae are standard candles so their mean apparent magnitude has been exploited to learn about the redshift-distance relationship. Besides intrinsic scatter in this standard candle, additional scatter is caused by gravitational magnification by large scale structure. Here they probe the dependence of this dispersion on cosmological parameters and show that information about the amplitude of clustering, {sigma}{sub s}, is contained in the scatter. In principle, it will be possible to constrain {sigma}{sub s} to within 5% with observations of 2000 Type Ia Supernovae. They identify three sources of systematic error--evolution of intrinsic scatter, baryon contributions to lensing, and non-Gaussianity of lensing--which will make this measurement difficult.

  8. Learning from the scatter in type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Dodelson, Scott; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2006-09-15

    Type Ia Supernovae are standard candles so their mean apparent magnitude has been exploited to learn about the redshift-distance relationship. Besides intrinsic scatter in this standard candle, additional scatter is caused by gravitational magnification by large scale structure. Here we probe the dependence of this dispersion on cosmological parameters and show that information about the amplitude of clustering, {sigma}{sub 8}, is contained in the scatter. In principle, it will be possible to constrain {sigma}{sub 8} to within 5% with observations of 2000 Type Ia Supernovae. We identify three sources of systematic error - evolution of intrinsic scatter, baryon contributions to lensing, and non-Gaussianity of lensing - which will make this measurement difficult.

  9. A new hydrodynamics code for Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, S.-C.; Chu, M.-C.; Lin, L.-M.

    2015-12-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamics code for Type Ia supernova (SNIa) simulations is presented. The code includes a fifth-order shock-capturing scheme WENO, detailed nuclear reaction network, flame-capturing scheme and sub-grid turbulence. For post-processing, we have developed a tracer particle scheme to record the thermodynamical history of the fluid elements. We also present a one-dimensional radiative transfer code for computing observational signals. The code solves the Lagrangian hydrodynamics and moment-integrated radiative transfer equations. A local ionization scheme and composition dependent opacity are included. Various verification tests are presented, including standard benchmark tests in one and two dimensions. SNIa models using the pure turbulent deflagration model and the delayed-detonation transition model are studied. The results are consistent with those in the literature. We compute the detailed chemical evolution using the tracer particles' histories, and we construct corresponding bolometric light curves from the hydrodynamics results. We also use a GPU to speed up the computation of some highly repetitive subroutines. We achieve an acceleration of 50 times for some subroutines and a factor of 6 in the global run time.

  10. Gravitational lensing of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goliath, M.; Mörtsell, E.

    2000-08-01

    Recently, Holz and Wald [Phys. Rev. D 58 (1998) 063501] have presented a method for determining gravitational lensing effects in inhomogeneous universes. Their use of realistic galaxy models has been limited to the singular, truncated isothermal sphere with a fixed mass. In this paper, their method is generalized to allow for matter distributions more accurately describing the actual properties of galaxies, as derived from observations and /N-body simulations. This includes the density profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk and White, as well as a distribution of galaxy masses. As an example of the possible applications of the method, we consider lensing effects on supernova luminosity distributions. We find that results for different mass distributions of smooth dark matter halos are very similar, making lensing effects predictable for a broad range of halo profiles. We also note, in agreement with other investigations, that one should be able to discriminate smooth halos from a dominant component of dark matter in compact objects. For instance, a sample of 100 supernovae at redshift /z=1 can, with 99% certainty, discriminate the case where all matter is in compact objects from the case where matter is in smooth halos.

  11. No evidence for bulk velocity from type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Huterer, Dragan; Shafer, Daniel L.; Schmidt, Fabian E-mail: dlshafer@umich.edu

    2015-12-01

    We revisit the effect of peculiar velocities on low-redshift type Ia supernovae. Velocities introduce an additional guaranteed source of correlations between supernova magnitudes that should be considered in all analyses of nearby supernova samples but has largely been neglected in the past. Applying a likelihood analysis to the latest compilation of nearby supernovae, we find no evidence for the presence of these correlations, although, given the significant noise, the data is also consistent with the correlations predicted for the standard ΛCDM model. We then consider the dipolar component of the velocity correlations—the frequently studied ''bulk velocity''—and explicitly demonstrate that including the velocity correlations in the data covariance matrix is crucial for drawing correct and unambiguous conclusions about the bulk flow. In particular, current supernova data is consistent with no excess bulk flow on top of what is expected in ΛCDM and effectively captured by the covariance. We further clarify the nature of the apparent bulk flow that is inferred when the velocity covariance is ignored. We show that a significant fraction of this quantity is expected to be noise bias due to uncertainties in supernova magnitudes and not any physical peculiar motion.

  12. Cosmological constraints from type ia supernovae peculiar velocity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C; Land, K; Slosar, A

    2007-08-24

    We detect the correlated peculiar velocities of nearby type Ia supernovae (SNe), while highlighting an error in some of the literature. We find sigma8 = 0.79 +/- 0.22 from SNe, and examine the potential of this method to constrain cosmological parameters in the future. We demonstrate that a survey of 300 low-z SNe (such as the nearby SNfactory) will underestimate the errors on w by approximately 35% if the coherent peculiar velocities are not included.

  13. Incorporating Astrophysical Systematics into a Generalized Likelihood for Cosmology with Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponder, Kara A.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2016-07-01

    Traditional cosmological inference using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have used stretch- and color-corrected fits of SN Ia light curves and assumed a resulting fiducial mean and symmetric intrinsic dispersion for the resulting relative luminosity. As systematics become the main contributors to the error budget, it has become imperative to expand supernova cosmology analyses to include a more general likelihood to model systematics to remove biases with losses in precision. To illustrate an example likelihood analysis, we use a simple model of two populations with a relative luminosity shift, independent intrinsic dispersions, and linear redshift evolution of the relative fraction of each population. Treating observationally viable two-population mock data using a one-population model results in an inferred dark energy equation of state parameter w that is biased by roughly 2 times its statistical error for a sample of N\\quad ≳ \\quad 2500 SNe Ia. Modeling the two-population data with a two-population model removes this bias at a cost of an approximately ˜ 20 % increase in the statistical constraint on w. These significant biases can be realized even if the support for two underlying SNe Ia populations, in the form of model selection criteria, is inconclusive. With the current observationally estimated difference in the two proposed populations, a sample of N\\quad ≳ \\quad 10,000 SNe Ia is necessary to yield conclusive evidence of two populations.

  14. 3D non-LTE time-dependent spectrum synthesis for type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2009-09-01

    Despite the importance of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology and to the chemical evolution of the Universe, it is still not completely understood how these explosions take place and which are the progenitor systems. In this contribution we present a Monte Carlo code for modelling the time-dependent 3D radiative transfer problem in chemically inhomogeneous models of supernova ejecta. We avoid free parameters so that a direct comparison between synthetic spectra and light curves calculated from hydrodynamic explosion models and observations becomes feasible. Calculations for the well known W7 explosion model and first applications to multidimensional toy models are shown.

  15. Spectroscopic Classification of SN 2017ghm as a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinko, J.; Wheeler, J. C.; Wang, X.; Li, W.; Li, Z.; Xiang, D.; Rui, L.; Lin, H.; Xu, Z.; Li, B.; Zhao, H.; Wang, L.; Tan, H.; Zhang, J.

    2017-09-01

    An optical spectrum (range 360-680 nm) of SN 2017ghm (=PTSS-17uyml), discovered by the PMO-Tsinghua Supernova Survey (PTSS, http://www.cneost.org/ptss/), was obtained with the new "Low Resolution Spectrograph-2" (LRS2) on the 10m Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory by S. Rostopchin on 2017 Aug 31.17 UT. The spectrum is consistent with that of a heavily reddened Type Ia supernova (with Av > 2.3 mag) around maximum light.

  16. Constraining Type Ia Supernova Physics with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, David; Valenti, Stefano; Howell, Andy; Graham, Melissa; Parrent, Jerod

    2014-02-01

    Despite their success as standardizable candles, relatively little is known about the exact progenitor(s) and explosion physics of type Ia supernovae -- a potential source of systematic uncertainty for future dark energy surveys, and a hole in our knowledge about stellar end-states. One promising route forward is the combination of dense optical time series and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data sets. Recent work has suggested that the NIR can discern unburned carbon from the progenitor white dwarf more cleanly than in the optical, and its unique access to relatively unblended magnesium lines also probes the inner edge of carbon burning. Both measures provide a direct constraint for SN Ia explosion models, but only a handful of appropriate NIR spectroscopic time series exist. We propose to continue our campaign to roughly double the sample of SN Ia with such data (leveraging our access to a worldwide network of 1m imaging telescopes and twin robotic optical spectrographs) in order to begin to tackle our understanding of NIR spectral diagnostics and how they vary from supernova to supernova. Note that we were allocated time with Gemini South Flamingos-2 in 2013B, but have not triggered any ToO time yet, partially due to the persistent alignment issues with the On-Instrument Wave Front Sensor.

  17. Testing the single degenerate channel for supernova Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Steven

    2014-10-01

    The progenitors of supernova Ia are close binaries containing white dwarfs. Of crucial importance to the evolution of these systems is how much material the white dwarf can stably accrete and hence grow in mass. This occurs during a short-lived intense phase of mass transfer known as the super soft source (SSS) phase. The short duration of this phase and large extinction to soft X-rays means that only a handful are known in our Galaxy. Far more can be learned from the underlying SSS progenitor population of close white dwarf plus FGK type binaries. Unfortunately, these systems are hard to find since the main-sequence stars completely outshine the white dwarfs at optical wavelengths. Because of this, there are currently no known close white dwarf binaries with F, G or early K type companions, making it impossible to determine the contribution of the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia. Using the GALEX and RAVE surveys we have now identified the first large sample of FGK stars with UV excesses, a fraction of which are these illusive, close systems. Following an intense ground based spectroscopic investigation of these systems, we have identified 5 definite close binaries, with periods of less than a few days. Here we apply for COS spectroscopic observations to measure the mass and temperature of the white dwarfs in order to determine the future evolution of these systems. This will provide a crucial test for the single degenerate channel towards supernova Ia.

  18. Starting Models in FLASH for Calculations of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Caceres, A.; Calder, A. C.; Dursi, L. J.; Fryxell, B.; MacNeice, P.; Olson, K.; Plewa, T.; Ricker, P.; Riley, K.; Rosner, R.; Siegel, A.; Timmes, F. X.; Truran, J. W.; Vladimirova, N.; Wiers, G.; Zingale, M.

    2003-05-01

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be the result of a thermonuclear explosion in a white dwarf that is approaching the Chandrasekhar mass limit. The properties of the supernova explosion, including its energy, depends significantly on the way in which the thermonuclear runaway begins. Where in the white dwarf ignition takes place, and how many ignition points there are, are important unsolved questions. We discuss the challenges of modeling Type Ia supernova during the several hours before thermonuclear runaway using the FLASH code. In three-dimensional hydrodynamic codes, the pre-supernova white dwarf can exhibit ``ringing'' at the fundamental frequency of the star that is driven by numerical noise. These solutions manifest themselves as undamped velocity waves (the white dwarf "breathes in and out") that reach peak amplitudes of about 200 km s-1. We show the results of several methods aimed at reducing the amplitude of these undamped waves in FLASH. We also discuss some of our experiments in mapping spherically symmetric models, which suggest large scale convective motions of 50 km s-1 a few hours prior to ignition, onto a three-dimensional mesh. This work was supported in part by the DOE under the ASCI/Alliance program.

  19. The influence of host galaxy morphology on the properties of Type Ia supernovae from the JLA compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, V.; Pruzhinskaya, M. V.; Rosnet, P.; Léget, P.-F.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Ciulli, A.; Gris, P.; Says, L.-P.; Gangler, E.

    2017-02-01

    The observational cosmology with distant Type Ia supernovae (SNe) as standard candles claims that the Universe is in accelerated expansion, caused by a large fraction of dark energy. In this paper we investigate the SN Ia environment, studying the impact of the nature of their host galaxies on the Hubble diagram fitting. The supernovae (192 SNe) used in the analysis were extracted from Joint-Light-curves-Analysis (JLA) compilation of high-redshift and nearby supernovae which is the best one to date. The analysis is based on the empirical fact that SN Ia luminosities depend on their light curve shapes and colors. We confirm that the stretch parameter of Type Ia supernovae is correlated with the host galaxy type. The supernovae with lower stretch are hosted mainly in elliptical and lenticular galaxies. No significant correlation between SN Ia colour and host morphology was found.   We also examine how the luminosities of SNe Ia change depending on host galaxy morphology after stretch and colour corrections. Our results show that in old stellar populations and low dust environments, the supernovae are slightly fainter. SNe Ia in elliptical and lenticular galaxies have a higher α (slope in luminosity-stretch) and β (slope in luminosity-colour) parameter than in spirals. However, the observed shift is at the 1-σ uncertainty level and, therefore, can not be considered as significant.   We confirm that the supernova properties depend on their environment and that the incorporation of a host galaxy term into the Hubble diagram fit is expected to be crucial for future cosmological analyses.

  20. Recurrent Novae as a progenitor system of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2002-11-01

    Theoretical light curves of 8 recurrent novae in outburst are modeled to obtain various physical parameters. Light curve calculation includes reflection effects of the companion star and the accretion disk by the photosphere of the white dwarf (WD). We also include a radiation-induced warping instability of the accretion disk in order to reproduce the second peak of T CrB outbursts. The early visual light curves are well reproduced with an expanded WD photosphere of a thermonuclear runaway model on a very massive WD close to the Chandrasekhar mass limit, i.e., MWD = 1.35 - 1.37 Msolar except for CI Aql. The white dwarf mass of CI Aql is estimated to be MWD = 1.2 +/- 0.05 Msolar. Optically thick winds, which blow from the WDs during the outbursts, play a key role in determining the nova duration and the speed of decline because the wind quickly reduces the envelope mass on the WD. Each envelope mass at the optical maximum is estimated, which indicates an average mass accretion rate on to the WDs during the quiescent phase before the last outburst. Although a large part of the envelope mass is blown in the wind, each WD can retain a substantial part of the envelope mass after hydrogen burning ends. Thus, we have obtained net mass-increasing rates of the WDs. These obtained values strongly indicate that the WDs in the recurrent novae have now grown up to near the Chandrasekhar mass limit and will soon explode as a Type Ia supernova if the WDs consist of carbon and oxygen. We have also clarified the reason why only T CrB shows a secondary maximum.

  1. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on

  2. NORMAL TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM VIOLENT MERGERS OF WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Pakmor, R.; Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Sim, S. A.; Roepke, F. K.

    2012-03-15

    One of the most important questions regarding the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is whether mergers of two white dwarfs can lead to explosions that reproduce observations of normal events. Here we present a fully three-dimensional simulation of a violent merger of two carbon-oxygen white dwarfs with masses of 0.9 M{sub Sun} and 1.1 M{sub Sun} combining very high resolution and exact initial conditions. A well-tested combination of codes is used to study the system. We start with the dynamical inspiral phase and follow the subsequent thermonuclear explosion under the plausible assumption that a detonation forms in the process of merging. We then perform detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and radiative transfer simulations to predict synthetic observables from the homologously expanding supernova ejecta. We find that synthetic color light curves of our merger, which produces about 0.62 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni, show good agreement with those observed for normal SNe Ia in all wave bands from U to K. Line velocities in synthetic spectra around maximum light also agree well with observations. We conclude that violent mergers of massive white dwarfs can closely resemble normal SNe Ia. Therefore, depending on the number of such massive systems available these mergers may contribute at least a small fraction to the observed population of normal SNe Ia.

  3. New Limits on the Nature of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Tyrone; Gilfanov, Marat

    2012-09-01

    To date, the question of which progenitor channel can reproduce the observed rate of type Ia supernovae (Sn Ia) remains unresolved. The single degenerate scenario posits that a white dwarf accretes stably from a companion star until reaching the Chandrasekhar mass. This requires that nuclear burning process at least 0.3 solar masses of hydrogen, the resulting energy release from which easily dominates the total luminosity of the WD (while nuclear burning is steady). In elliptical galaxies, measurements of the total observed soft X-ray emission have already placed strong upper limits on how much of this luminosity may be radiated in X-rays, limiting the possible contribution of "supersoft sources" to the Sn Ia rate. However, a population of single degenerate progenitors large enough to reproduce the Sn Ia rate would also easily provide among the dominant sources of ionizing photons, dramatically hardening the local ionizing UV background. This opens a new avenue for constraining the progenitors of Sn Ia, through consideration of the nebular emission now found in many early-type galaxies by large spectroscopic surveys such as SAURON. Modeling the predicted line ratios using the photoionization code MAPPINGS III, and demanding that they be consistent with those observed, allows us to place new constraints on the total contribution of the single degenerate channel to the Sn Ia rate in elliptical galaxies.

  4. IS THERE A HIDDEN HOLE IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS?

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Senz, D.; Badenes, C.; Serichol, N. E-mail: carles@astro.tau.ac.il

    2012-01-20

    In this paper, we report on the bulk features of the hole carved by the companion star in the material ejected during a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) explosion. In particular we are interested in the long-term evolution of the hole as well as in its fingerprint in the geometry of the supernova remnant (SNR) after several centuries of evolution, which is a hot topic in current SN Ia studies. We use an axisymmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics code to characterize the geometric properties of the SNR resulting from the interaction of this ejected material with the ambient medium. Our aim is to use SNR observations to constrain the single degenerate scenario for SN Ia progenitors. Our simulations show that the hole will remain open during centuries, although its partial or total closure at later times due to hydrodynamic instabilities is not excluded. Close to the edge of the hole, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability grows faster, leading to plumes that approach the edge of the forward shock. We also discuss other geometrical properties of the simulations, like the evolution of the contact discontinuity.

  5. Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Guy, J.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Thomas, R. C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.

    2013-06-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and Hα-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M */M ⊙) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  6. HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, M.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kim, A. G.; Loken, S.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Canto, A.; Cellier-Holzem, F.; Guy, J.; Baltay, C.; Buton, C.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Gangler, E. [Universite de Lyon, F-69622, Lyon; Universite de Lyon 1, Villeurbanne; CNRS and others

    2013-06-20

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of galaxies hosting Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Nearby Supernova Factory. Combining Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) UV data with optical and near-infrared photometry, we employ stellar population synthesis techniques to measure SN Ia host galaxy stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and reddening due to dust. We reinforce the key role of GALEX UV data in deriving accurate estimates of galaxy SFRs and dust extinction. Optical spectra of SN Ia host galaxies are fitted simultaneously for their stellar continua and emission lines fluxes, from which we derive high-precision redshifts, gas-phase metallicities, and H{alpha}-based SFRs. With these data we show that SN Ia host galaxies present tight agreement with the fiducial galaxy mass-metallicity relation from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) for stellar masses log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) > 8.5 where the relation is well defined. The star formation activity of SN Ia host galaxies is consistent with a sample of comparable SDSS field galaxies, though this comparison is limited by systematic uncertainties in SFR measurements. Our analysis indicates that SN Ia host galaxies are, on average, typical representatives of normal field galaxies.

  7. NO STRIPPED HYDROGEN IN THE NEBULAR SPECTRA OF NEARBY TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2011fe

    SciTech Connect

    Shappee, Benjamin J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Pogge, R. W.; Garnavich, P. M. E-mail: kstanek@astronomy.ohio-state.edu E-mail: pgarnavi@nd.edu

    2013-01-01

    A generic prediction of the single-degenerate model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is that a significant amount of material will be stripped from the donor star ({approx}0.5 M{sub Sun} for a giant donor and {approx}0.15 M{sub Sun} for a main-sequence donor) by the supernova ejecta. This material, excited by gamma-rays from radioactive decay, would then produce relatively narrow ({approx}<1000 km s{sup -1}) emission features observable once the supernova enters the nebular phase. Such emission has never been detected, which already provides strong constraints on Type Ia progenitor models. In this Letter, we report the deepest limit yet on the presence of H{alpha} emission originating from the stripped hydrogen in the nebular spectrum of an SN Ia obtained using a high signal-to-noise spectrum of the nearby normal SN Ia 2011fe 274 days after B-band maximum light with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph. We put a conservative upper limit on the H{alpha} flux of 3.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, which corresponds to a luminosity of 1.57 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} erg s{sup -1}. By scaling models from the literature, our flux limit translates into an upper limit of {approx}<0.001 M{sub Sun} of stripped material. This is an order of magnitude stronger than previous limits. SN 2011fe was a typical SN Ia, special only in its proximity, and we argue that lack of hydrogen emission in its nebular spectrum adds yet another strong constraint on the single-degenerate class of models for SNe Ia.

  8. The Type Ia supernova 1989B in NGC 3627 (M66)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Lisa A.; Phillips, M. M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Heathcote, S. R.; Hamuy, Mario; Navarrete, M.; Fernandez, M.; Weller, W. G.; Schommer, R. A.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    1994-01-01

    We report extensive optical photometry and spectroscopy of the Type Ia supernova 1989B. Maximum light in B occurred approximately seven days after discovery on JD 2447565.3 +/- 1.0 (1989 February 7.8 +/- 1.0) at a magnitude of 12.34 +/- 0.05. The UBV light curves of this supernova were very similar to those of other well observed Type Ia events such as SN 1981B and SN 1980N. From a comparison of the UBVRIJHK photometry, we derive an extinction for SN 1989B of E(B-V) = 0.37 +/- 0.03 mags relative to the unobscured Type Ia SN 1980N. The properties of the dust responsible for the reddening of SN 1989B appear to have been similar to those of normal dust in the Milky Way. In particular, we find no evidence for an unusually low value of the ratio of the total to selective absorption. We derive a distance modulus of delta mu(sub 0) = -1.62 +/- 0.03 mag relative to the Type Ia SN 1980N. We present optical spectra which provide essentially continuous coverage of the spectral evolution of SN 1989B over the first month following B maximum. These data show the transition from the maximum-light spectrum, in which lines of elements such as Ca, Si, S, Mg, and O are most prominent, to the Fe-dominated spectrum observed a few weeks after maximum. This transition occurred quite smoothly over a two-week period following B maximum. Comparison of the spectra of SN 1989B with data for two other well observed Type Ia supernovae -- 1981B and 1986G -- reveals subtle differences in the relative strengths of the S II and Si II absorption lines at maximum light. However, these differences disappeared within a week or so after maximum with the onset of the Fe-dominated phase.

  9. Optical and NIR observations of the nearby type Ia supernova SN 2014J

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastav, Shubham; Ninan, J. P.; Kumar, B.; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2016-03-01

    Optical and NIR observations of the Type Ia supernova SN 2014J in M82 are presented. The observed light curves are found to be similar to normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), with a decline rate parameter Δm15(B) = 1.08 ± 0.03. The supernova reached B-band maximum on JD 2456690.14, at an apparent magnitude mB(max) = 11.94. The optical spectra show a red continuum with deep interstellar Na I absorption, but otherwise resemble those of normal SNe Ia. The Si II λ6355 feature indicates a velocity of ˜12 000 km s-1 at B-band maximum, which places SN 2014J at the border of the normal velocity and high velocity group of SNe Ia. The velocity evolution of SN 2014J places it in the Low Velocity Gradient subclass, whereas the equivalent widths of Si II features near B-band maximum place it at the border of the core normal and Broad Line subclasses of SNe Ia. An analytic model fit to the bolometric light curve indicates that a total of ˜1.3 M⊙ was ejected in the explosion, and the ejected 56Ni mass MNi ˜ 0.6 M⊙. The low [Fe III] λ4701 to [Fe II] λ5200 ratio in the nebular spectra of SN 2014J hints towards clumpiness in the ejecta. Optical broad-band, linear polarimetric observations of SN 2014J obtained on four epochs indicate an almost constant polarization (PR ˜2.7 per cent; θ ˜ 37°), which suggests that the polarization signal is of interstellar origin.

  10. Type Ia supernova host galaxies as seen with IFU spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanishev, V.; Rodrigues, M.; Mourão, A.; Flores, H.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been widely used in cosmology as distance indicators. However, to fully exploit their potential in cosmology, a better control over systematic uncertainties is required. Some of the uncertainties are related to the unknown nature of the SN Ia progenitors. Aims: We aim to test the use of integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy for correlating the properties of nearby SNe Ia with the properties of their host galaxies at the location of the SNe. The results are to be compared with those obtained from an analysis of the total host spectrum. The goal is to explore this path of constraining the nature of the SN Ia progenitors and further improve the use of SNe Ia in cosmology. Methods: We used the wide-field IFU spectrograph PMAS/PPAK at the 3.5 m telescope of Calar Alto Observatory to observe six nearby spiral galaxies that hosted SNe Ia. Spatially resolved 2D maps of the properties of the ionized gas and the stellar populations were derived. Results: Five of the observed galaxies have an ongoing star formation rate of 1-5 M⊙ yr-1 and mean stellar population ages ~5 Gyr. The sixth galaxy shows no star formation and has an about 12 Gyr old stellar population. All galaxies have stellar masses larger than 2 × 1010 M⊙ and metallicities above solar. Four galaxies show negative radial metallicity gradients of the ionized gas up to -0.058 dex kpc-1 and one has nearly uniform metallicity with a possible shallow positive slope. The stellar components show shallower negative metallicity gradients up to -0.03 dex kpc-1. We find no clear correlation between the properties of the galaxy and those of the supernovae, which may be because of the small ranges spanned by the galaxy parameters. However, we note that the Hubble residuals are on average positive while negative Hubble residuals are expected for SNe Ia in massive hosts such as the galaxies in our sample. Conclusions: The IFU spectroscopy on 4-m telescopes is a viable technique for

  11. SINGLE-DEGENERATE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE PREFERENTIALLY OVERLUMINOUS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Robert; Jumper, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Recent observational and theoretical progress has favored merging and helium-accreting sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs (WDs) in the double-degenerate and the double-detonation channels, respectively, as the most promising progenitors of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Thus the fate of rapidly accreting Chandrasekhar mass WDs in the single-degenerate channel remains more mysterious then ever. In this paper, we clarify the nature of ignition in Chandrasekhar-mass single-degenerate SNe Ia by analytically deriving the existence of a characteristic length scale which establishes a transition from central ignitions to buoyancy-driven ignitions. Using this criterion, combined with data from three-dimensional simulations of convection and ignition, we demonstrate that the overwhelming majority of ignition events within Chandrasekhar-mass WDs in the single-degenerate channel are buoyancy-driven, and consequently lack a vigorous deflagration phase. We thus infer that single-degenerate SNe Ia are generally expected to lead to overluminous 1991T-like SNe Ia events. We establish that the rates predicted from both the population of supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs) and binary population synthesis models of the single-degenerate channel are broadly consistent with the observed rates of overluminous SNe Ia, and suggest that the population of SSSs are the dominant stellar progenitors of SNe 1991T-like events. We further demonstrate that the single-degenerate channel contribution to the normal and failed 2002cx-like rates is not likely to exceed 1% of the total SNe Ia rate. We conclude with a range of observational tests of overluminous SNe Ia which will either support or strongly constrain the single-degenerate scenario.

  12. Spectroscopic Properties of Star-Forming Host Galaxies and Type Ia Supernova Hubble Residuals in a Nearly Unbiased Sample

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; et al.

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova host galaxy properties and their residuals on the Hubble diagram. We use supernovae discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II - Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M_r < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star-formation rates from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of ~ 40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve corrected Type Ia supernovae are ~ 0.1 magnitudes brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (> 3{\\sigma}) correlation between the Hubble residuals of Type Ia supernovae and the specific star-formation rate of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of supernova/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep supernova surveys.

  13. Cosmology with Photometrically Classified Type Ia Supernovae from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B.; Nichol, Robert C.; Sako, Masao; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Bassett, Bruce; Biswas, Rahul; Brown, Peter; Cinabro, David; Dawson, Kyle S.; Dilday, Ben; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kuhlmann, Steve; Kunz, Martin; Marriner, John; Miquel, Ramon; Richmond, Michael; Riess, Adam; Schneider, Donald P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Taylor, Matt; Zhao, Gong-Bo

    2013-02-01

    We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN classification technique of Sako et al., aided by host-galaxy redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.55). SuperNova ANAlysis simulations of our methodology estimate that we have an SN Ia classification efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e.g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives Ω m = 0.24+0.07 -0.05 (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint statistical constraints on Ω m and ΩΛ, comparable to those derived from the spectroscopically confirmed Three-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3). Using only our data, the statistics-only result favors an accelerating universe at 99.96% confidence. Assuming a constant wCDM cosmological model, and combining with H 0, cosmic microwave background, and luminous red galaxy data, we obtain w = -0.96+0.10 -0.10, Ω m = 0.29+0.02 -0.02, and Ω k = 0.00+0.03 -0.02 (statistical errors only), which is competitive with similar spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia analyses. Overall this comparison is reassuring, considering the lower redshift leverage of the SDSS-II SN sample (z < 0.55) and the lack of spectroscopic confirmation used herein. These results demonstrate the potential of photometrically classified SN Ia samples in improving cosmological constraints.

  14. SN 1991bg - A type Ia supernova with a difference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibundgut, Bruno; Kirshner, Robert P.; Phillips, Mark M.; Wells, Lisa A.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Hamuy, Mario; Schommer, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Gonzalez, L.; Ugarte, P.

    1993-01-01

    While SN 1991bg is an unusual type Ia SN in such a feature as the brief duration of the photospheric phase, which ended only two weeks after maximum, it shares with other Ia SNs strong Si II and Ca II lines near maximum light. In addition, the light and color curve slopes are almost identical with the templates at late times. The spectral evolution of SN 1991bg is also unique but not unrecognizable; nevertheless, the peculiarities associated with this event complicate the fundamental question as to whether the Ia SNs make good standard candles.

  15. Observational Evidence for High Neutronization in Supernova Remnants: Implications for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Badenes, Carles; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Bravo, Eduardo; Timmes, F. X.; Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M.; Piro, Anthony L.; Mori, Hideyuki; Andrews, Brett; Park, Sangwook

    2017-07-01

    The physical process whereby a carbon-oxygen white dwarf explodes as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) remains highly uncertain. The degree of neutronization in SN Ia ejecta holds clues to this process because it depends on the mass and the metallicity of the stellar progenitor, and on the thermodynamic history prior to the explosion. We report on a new method to determine ejecta neutronization using Ca and S lines in the X-ray spectra of Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs). Applying this method to Suzaku data of Tycho, Kepler, 3C 397, and G337.2-0.7 in the Milky Way, and N103B in the Large Magellanic Cloud, we find that the neutronization of the ejecta in N103B is comparable to that of Tycho and Kepler, which suggests that progenitor metallicity is not the only source of neutronization in SNe Ia. We then use a grid of SN Ia explosion models to infer the metallicities of the stellar progenitors of our SNRs. The implied metallicities of 3C 397, G337.2-0.7, and N103B are major outliers compared to the local stellar metallicity distribution functions, indicating that progenitor metallicity can be ruled out as the origin of neutronization for these SNRs. Although the relationship between ejecta neutronization and equivalent progenitor metallicity is subject to uncertainties stemming from the 12C + 16O reaction rate, which affects the Ca/S mass ratio, our main results are not sensitive to these details.

  16. Exploring the spectral diversity of low-redshift Type Ia supernovae using the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, K.; Sullivan, M.; Pan, Y.-C.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Nugent, P. E.; Mazzali, P.; Chotard, N.; Clubb, K. I.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kandrashoff, M. T.; Poznanski, D.; Saunders, C. M.; Silverman, J. M.; Walker, E.; Xu, D.

    2014-11-01

    We present an investigation of the optical spectra of 264 low-redshift (z < 0.2) Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory, an untargeted transient survey. We focus on velocity and pseudo-equivalent width measurements of the Si II 4130, 5972, and 6355 Å lines, as well those of the Ca II near-infrared (NIR) triplet, up to +5 days relative to the SN B-band maximum light. We find that a high-velocity component of the Ca II NIR triplet is needed to explain the spectrum in ˜95 per cent of SNe Ia observed before -5 days, decreasing to ˜80 per cent at maximum. The average velocity of the Ca II high-velocity component is ˜8500 km s-1 higher than the photospheric component. We confirm previous results that SNe Ia around maximum light with a larger contribution from the high-velocity component relative to the photospheric component in their Ca II NIR feature have, on average, broader light curves and lower Ca II NIR photospheric velocities. We find that these relations are driven by both a stronger high-velocity component and a weaker contribution from the photospheric Ca II NIR component in broader light curve SNe Ia. We identify the presence of C II in very-early-time SN Ia spectra (before -10 days), finding that >40 per cent of SNe Ia observed at these phases show signs of unburnt material in their spectra, and that C II features are more likely to be found in SNe Ia having narrower light curves.

  17. Neutronization During Carbon Simmering In Type Ia Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Héctor; Piro, Anthony L.; Schwab, Josiah; Badenes, Carles

    2016-07-01

    When a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor first ignites carbon in its core, it undergoes ˜103-104 years of convective burning prior to the onset of thermonuclear runaway. This carbon simmering phase is important for setting the thermal profile and composition of the white dwarf. Using the MESA stellar evolution code, we follow this convective burning and examine the production of neutron-rich isotopes. The neutron content of the SN fuel has important consequences for the ensuing nucleosynthesis, and in particular, for the production of secondary Fe-peak nuclei like Mn and stable Ni. These elements have been observed in the X-ray spectra of SN remnants like Tycho, Kepler, and 3C 397, and their yields can provide valuable insights into the physics of SNe Ia and the properties of their progenitors. We find that weak reactions during simmering can at most generate a neutron excess of ≈ 3 × 10-4. This is ≈ 70% lower than that found in previous studies that do not take the full density and temperature profile of the simmering region into account. Our results imply that the progenitor metallicity is the main contributor to the neutron excess in SN Ia fuel for Z ≳ 1/3 Z ⊙. Alternatively, at lower metallicities, this neutron excess provides a floor that should be present in any centrally-ignited SN Ia scenario.

  18. SINGLE-DEGENERATE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITHOUT HYDROGEN CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Justham, Stephen

    2011-04-01

    The lack of hydrogen in spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is often seen as troublesome for single-degenerate (SD) progenitor models. We argue that, since continued accretion of angular momentum can prevent explosion of the white dwarf, it may be natural for the donor stars in SD progenitors of SNe Ia to exhaust their envelopes and shrink rapidly before the explosion. This outcome seems most likely for SD SN Ia progenitors where mass transfer begins from a giant donor star and might extend to other SD systems. Not only is the amount of hydrogen left in such a system below the current detection limit, but the donor star is typically orders of magnitude smaller than its Roche lobe by the point when an SD SN Ia occurs, in which case attempts to observe collisions between SN shocks and giant donor stars seem unlikely to succeed. We consider the constraints on this model from the circumstellar structures seen in spectra of SN 2006X and suggest a novel explanation for the origin of this material.

  19. Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Pre-Maximum Type Ia Supernova from SkyMapper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalzo, R.; Yuan, F.; Childress, M.; Tucker, B.; Schmidt, B.

    2013-12-01

    We report the discovery of SMTJ03253351-5344190, a Type Ia SN, as part of the SkyMapper supernova search (see Scalzo et al., ATEL #5480). The SN was discovered at RA = 03:25:33.51, DEC = -53:44:19.0 at magnitude r = 19.0, g = 19.1 in SkyMapper images taken 2013 Dec 01.63 UT. A spectrum was obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS; Dopita et al. 2007, ApSS, 310, 255) on 2013 Dec 06 UT. Classification with SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) gives good matches to Type Ia supernovae before maximum light, including SN 2006kf at -3 days and SN 2005df at -6 days.

  20. Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The gravitationally confined detonation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Warren P.; Kneller, James P.; Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.; Scholberg, Kate; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.

    2017-02-01

    Despite their use as cosmological distance indicators and their importance in the chemical evolution of galaxies, the unequivocal identification of the progenitor systems and explosion mechanism of normal type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remains elusive. The leading hypothesis is that such a supernova is a thermonuclear explosion of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, but the exact explosion mechanism is still a matter of debate. Observation of a galactic SN Ia would be of immense value in answering the many open questions related to these events. One potentially useful source of information about the explosion mechanism and progenitor is the neutrino signal because the neutrinos from the different mechanisms possess distinct spectra as a function of time and energy. In this paper, we compute the expected neutrino signal from a gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) explosion scenario for a SN Ia and show how the flux at Earth contains features in time and energy unique to this scenario. We then calculate the expected event rates in the Super-K, Hyper-K, JUNO, DUNE, and IceCube detectors and find both Hyper-K and IceCube will see a few events for a GCD supernova at 1 kpc or closer, while Super-K, JUNO, and DUNE will see events if the supernova is closer than ˜0.3 kpc . The distance and detector criteria needed to resolve the time and spectral features arising from the explosion mechanism, neutrino production, and neutrino oscillation processes are also discussed. The neutrino signal from the GCD is then compared with the signal from a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) explosion model computed previously. We find the overall event rate is the most discriminating feature between the two scenarios followed by the event rate time structure. Using the event rate in the Hyper-K detector alone, the DDT can be distinguished from the GCD at 2 σ if the distance to the supernova is less than 2.3 kpc for a normal mass ordering and 3.6 kpc for an inverted ordering.

  1. Hydrogen and helium in the spectra of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Peter; Mattila, Seppo; Sollerman, Jesper; Kozma, Cecilia; Baron, E.; Cox, Nick L. J.; Fransson, Claes; Leibundgut, Bruno; Spyromilio, Jason

    2013-10-01

    We present predictions for hydrogen and helium emission line luminosities from circumstellar matter around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using time dependent photoionization modelling. Early high-resolution ESO/Very Large Telescope (VLT) optical echelle spectra of the SN Ia 2000cx were taken before and up to ˜70 d after maximum to probe the existence of such narrow emission lines from the supernova. We detect no such lines, and from our modelling place an upper limit on the mass-loss rate for the putative wind from the progenitor system, dot{M}≲ 1.3× 10^{-5} M_{⊙} yr^{-1}, assuming a speed of 10 km s-1 and solar abundances for the wind. If the wind would be helium-enriched and/or faster, the upper limit on dot{M} could be significantly higher. In the helium-enriched case, we show that the best line to constrain the mass-loss would be He I λ10 830. In addition to confirming the details of interstellar Na I and Ca II absorption towards SN 2000cx as discussed by Patat et al., we also find evidence for 6613.56 Å diffuse interstellar band absorption in the Milky Way. We also discuss measurements of the X-ray emission from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the wind and we re-evaluate observations of SN 1992A obtained ˜16 d after maximum by Schlegel & Petre. We find an upper limit of dot{M}˜ 1.3× 10^{-5} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} which is significantly higher than that estimated by Schlegel & Petre. These results, together with the previous observational work on the normal SNe Ia 1994D and 2001el, disfavour a symbiotic star in the upper mass-loss rate regime (so-called Mira-type systems) from being the likely progenitor scenario for these SNe. Our model calculations are general, and can also be used for the subclass of SNe Ia that do show circumstellar interaction, e.g. the recent PTF 11kx. To constrain hydrogen in late-time spectra, we present ESO/VLT and ESO/New Technology Telescope optical and infrared observations of SNe Ia 1998bu and 2000cx in the

  2. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE STRONGLY INTERACTING WITH THEIR CIRCUMSTELLAR MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Nugent, Peter E.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Arcavi, Iair; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Sullivan, Mark; Howell, D. Andrew; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Chornock, Ryan; Foley, Ryan J.; Coil, Alison L.; Griffith, Christopher V.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; and others

    2013-07-01

    Owing to their utility for measurements of cosmic acceleration, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are perhaps the best-studied class of SNe, yet the progenitor systems of these explosions largely remain a mystery. A rare subclass of SNe Ia shows evidence of strong interaction with their circumstellar medium (CSM), and in particular, a hydrogen-rich CSM; we refer to them as SNe Ia-CSM. In the first systematic search for such systems, we have identified 16 SNe Ia-CSM, and here we present new spectra of 13 of them. Six SNe Ia-CSM have been well studied previously, three were previously known but are analyzed in depth for the first time here, and seven are new discoveries from the Palomar Transient Factory. The spectra of all SNe Ia-CSM are dominated by H{alpha} emission (with widths of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1}) and exhibit large H{alpha}/H{beta} intensity ratios (perhaps due to collisional excitation of hydrogen via the SN ejecta overtaking slower-moving CSM shells); moreover, they have an almost complete lack of He I emission. They also show possible evidence of dust formation through a decrease in the red wing of H{alpha} 75-100 days past maximum brightness, and nearly all SNe Ia-CSM exhibit strong Na I D absorption from the host galaxy. The absolute magnitudes (uncorrected for host-galaxy extinction) of SNe Ia-CSM are found to be -21.3 mag {<=} M{sub R} {<=} -19 mag, and they also seem to show ultraviolet emission at early times and strong infrared emission at late times (but no detected radio or X-ray emission). Finally, the host galaxies of SNe Ia-CSM are all late-type spirals similar to the Milky Way, or dwarf irregulars like the Large Magellanic Cloud, which implies that these objects come from a relatively young stellar population. This work represents the most detailed analysis of the SN Ia-CSM class to date.

  3. Propagation of the First Flames in Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursi, L. J.; Zingale, M.

    2006-12-01

    While the `big picture' of how Type Ia supernovae explode is growing clearer, how it unfolds remains a mystery, and may be responsible for the observed diversity of Type Ia explosions. Understanding and constraining this diversity is necessary if we need to depend on the uniform nature of Type Ia supernovae over cosmological distances. Here we present recent analytic and numerical work aimed at understanding the early-time burning of the Type Ia which may also play an unexpected role in the late type burning -understanding the balance between local burning, turbulence, and bouyancy. Even in the vigorously turbulent conditions of a convecting white dwarf, thermonuclear burning that begins at a point near the center (within 100 km) of the star is dominated simply by the spherical laminar expansion of the flame, until the burning region reaches kilometers in size. Only once the bubble grows quite large---indeed, resolvable by large-scale simulations of the global system---does significant motion or deformation occur. As a result, any hot-spot that successfully ignites into a flame can burn a significant amount of white dwarf material. This potentially increases the stochastic nature of the explosion compared to a scenario where a simmering progenitor can have small early hot-spots float harmlessly away. Further, the size where the laminar flame speed dominates other relevant velocities sets a characteristic scale for fragmentation of larger flame structures, as nothing---by definition---can easily break the burning region into smaller volumes. This allows for simple< semi-analytic models of burning, which potentially allows for a rapid speedup of burning when degeneracy begins to lift. A rapid increase of burning at this point has long been thought necessary to explain observations of Type Ia, although where it would come from has been poorly understood.

  4. PROSPECT OF STUDYING HARD X- AND GAMMA-RAYS FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.; Terada, Y.; Kasen, D.; Roepke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Bamba, A.; Diehl, R.; Kromer, M.; Hillebrandt, W.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tamagawa, T.

    2012-11-20

    We perform multi-dimensional, time-dependent radiation transfer simulations for hard X-ray and {gamma}-ray emissions, following radioactive decays of {sup 56}Ni and {sup 56}Co, for two-dimensional delayed-detonation models of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The synthetic spectra and light curves are compared with the sensitivities of current and future observatories for an exposure time of 10{sup 6} s. The non-detection of the {gamma}-ray signal from SN 2011fe at 6.4 Mpc by SPI on board INTEGRAL places an upper limit on the mass of {sup 56}Ni of {approx}< 1.0 M {sub Sun }, independently from observations in any other wavelengths. Signals from the newly formed radioactive species have not yet been convincingly measured from any SN Ia, but future X-ray and {gamma}-ray missions are expected to deepen the observable horizon to provide high energy emission data for a significant SN Ia sample. We predict that the hard X-ray detectors on board NuStar (launched in 2012) or ASTRO-H (scheduled for launch in 2014) will reach to SNe Ia at {approx}15 Mpc, i.e., one SN every few years. Furthermore, according to the present results, the soft {gamma}-ray detector on board ASTRO-H will be able to detect the 158 keV line emission up to {approx}25 Mpc, i.e., a few SNe Ia per year. Proposed next-generation {gamma}-ray missions, e.g., GRIPS, could reach to SNe Ia at {approx}20-35 Mpc by MeV observations. Those would provide new diagnostics and strong constraints on explosion models, detecting rather directly the main energy source of supernova light.

  5. IMPROVING COSMOLOGICAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENTS USING TWIN TYPE IA SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Fakhouri, H. K.; Boone, K.; Aldering, G.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Fagrelius, P.; Antilogus, P.; Bongard, S.; Fleury, M.; Baltay, C.; Barbary, K.; Baugh, D.; Chen, J.; Buton, C.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Feindt, U.; Fouchez, D. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS Gangler, E. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS Collaboration: Nearby Supernova Factory; and others

    2015-12-10

    We introduce a method for identifying “twin” Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and using them to improve distance measurements. This novel approach to SN Ia standardization is made possible by spectrophotometric time series observations from the Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory). We begin with a well-measured set of SNe, find pairs whose spectra match well across the entire optical window, and then test whether this leads to a smaller dispersion in their absolute brightnesses. This analysis is completed in a blinded fashion, ensuring that decisions made in implementing the method do not inadvertently bias the result. We find that pairs of SNe with more closely matched spectra indeed have reduced brightness dispersion. We are able to standardize this initial set of SNfactory SNe to 0.083 ± 0.012 mag, implying a dispersion of 0.072 ± 0.010 mag in the absence of peculiar velocities. We estimate that with larger numbers of comparison SNe, e.g., using the final SNfactory spectrophotometric data set as a reference, this method will be capable of standardizing high-redshift SNe to within 0.06–0.07 mag. These results imply that at least 3/4 of the variance in Hubble residuals in current SN cosmology analyses is due to previously unaccounted-for astrophysical differences among the SNe.

  6. Measurements of the Rate of Type Ia Supernovae at Redshift z < ~0.3 from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Dilday, Benjamin; Smith, Mathew; Bassett, Bruce; Becker, Andrew; Bender, Ralf; Castander, Francisco; Cinabro, David; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Galbany, Lluis; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate based on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. The adopted sample of supernovae (SNe) includes 516 SNe Ia at redshift z {approx}< 0.3, of which 270 (52%) are spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The remaining 246 SNe Ia were identified through their light curves; 113 of these objects have spectroscopic redshifts from spectra of their host galaxy, and 133 have photometric redshifts estimated from the SN light curves. Based on consideration of 87 spectroscopically confirmed non-Ia SNe discovered by the SDSS-II SN Survey, we estimate that 2.04{sub -0.95}{sup +1.61}% of the photometric SNe Ia may be misidentified. The sample of SNe Ia used in this measurement represents an order of magnitude increase in the statistics for SN Ia rate measurements in the redshift range covered by the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. If we assume a SN Ia rate that is constant at low redshift (z < 0.15), then the SN observations can be used to infer a value of the SN rate of r{sub V} = (2.69{sub -0.30-0.01}{sup +0.34+0.21}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} at a mean redshift of {approx} 0.12, based on 79 SNe Ia of which 72 are spectroscopically confirmed. However, the large sample of SNe Ia included in this study allows us to place constraints on the redshift dependence of the SN Ia rate based on the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data alone. Fitting a power-law model of the SN rate evolution, r{sub V} (z) = A{sub p} x ((1+z)/(1+z{sub 0})){sup {nu}}, over the redshift range 0.0 < z < 0.3 with z{sub 0} = 0.21, results in A{sub p} = (3.43{sub -0.15}{sup +0.15}) x 10{sup -5} SNe yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} (H{sub 0}/(70 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1})){sup 3} and {nu} = 2.04{sub -0.89}{sup +0.90}.

  7. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-degenerate Binary Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Brown, Peter J.; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sand, David J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Camacho, Yssavo; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Graham, Melissa L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M.; Maeda, Keiichi; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Pandya, Viraj; Rines, Kenneth J.; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-04-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova (Sn Ia) SN 2012cg at 15 and 16 days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN 2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected {M}B=-19.62+/- 0.02 mag and {{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.86+/- 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in seven filters from five independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity vSi = -10,500 km s-1. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen favors a main-sequence companion of about six solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-sequence companions that have eluded detection because the emission from the impact is fleeting and faint.

  8. Quantitative comparison between Type Ia supernova spectra at low and high redshifts: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Supernova Cosmology Project; Nugent, Peter E; Garavini, G.; Folatelli, G.; Nobili, S.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Blanc, G.; Bronder, J.; Burns, M.S.; Conley, A.; Deustua, S. E.; Doi, M.; Fabbro, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D. E.; Hook, I.; Howell, D. A.; Kashikawa, N.; Kim, A. G.; Kowalski, M.; Kuznetsova, N.; Lee, B. C.; Lidman, C.; Mendez, J.; Morokuma, T.; Motohara, K.; Nugent, P. E.; Pain, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Quimby, R.; Raux, J.; Regnault, N.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Sainton, G.; Schahmaneche, K.; Smith, E.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stanishev, V.; Thomas, R. C.; Walton, N. A.; Wang, L.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Yasuda, N.

    2008-03-24

    We develop a method to measure the strength of the absorption features in type Ia supernova (SN Ia) spectra and use it to make a quantitative comparisons between the spectra of type Ia supernovae at low and high redshifts. In this case study, we apply the method to 12 high-redshift (0.212 = z = 0.912) SNe Ia observed by the Supernova Cosmology Project. Through measurements of the strengths of these features and of the blueshift of theabsorption minimum in Ca ii H&K, we show that the spectra of the high-redshift SNe Ia are quantitatively similar to spectra of nearby SNe Ia (z< 0.15). One supernova in our high redshift sample, SN 2002fd at z = 0.279, is found to have spectral characteristics that are associated with peculiar SN 1991T/SN 1999aa-like supernovae.

  9. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MOST DISTANT KNOWN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.914

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David O.; Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Mobasher, Bahram; Dahlen, Tomas; Casertano, Stefano; Koekemoer, Anton; McCully, Curtis; Keeton, Charles R.; Patel, Brandon; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Hjorth, Jens; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Wiklind, Tommy G.; Challis, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Garnavich, Peter; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; and others

    2013-05-10

    We present the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN) at redshift z = 1.914 from the CANDELS multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This SN was discovered in the infrared using the Wide-Field Camera 3, and it is the highest-redshift Type Ia SN yet observed. We classify this object as a SN Ia by comparing its light curve and spectrum with those of a large sample of Type Ia and core-collapse SNe. Its apparent magnitude is consistent with that expected from the {Lambda}CDM concordance cosmology. We discuss the use of spectral evidence for classification of z > 1.5 SNe Ia using HST grism simulations, finding that spectral data alone can frequently rule out SNe II, but distinguishing between SNe Ia and SNe Ib/c can require prohibitively long exposures. In such cases, a quantitative analysis of the light curve may be necessary for classification. Our photometric and spectroscopic classification methods can aid the determination of SN rates and cosmological parameters from the full high-redshift CANDELS SN sample.

  10. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA COLORS AND EJECTA VELOCITIES: HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN REGRESSION WITH NON-GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2014-12-20

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B – V and B – R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B – V and B – R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of –0.021 ± 0.006 and –0.030 ± 0.009 mag (10{sup 3} km s{sup –1}){sup –1} for intrinsic B – V and B – R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to A{sub V} extinction estimates as large as –0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances.

  11. Type Ia Supernova Colors and Ejecta Velocities: Hierarchical Bayesian Regression with Non-Gaussian Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the statistical dependence of the peak intrinsic colors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) on their expansion velocities at maximum light, measured from the Si II λ6355 spectral feature. We construct a new hierarchical Bayesian regression model, accounting for the random effects of intrinsic scatter, measurement error, and reddening by host galaxy dust, and implement a Gibbs sampler and deviance information criteria to estimate the correlation. The method is applied to the apparent colors from BVRI light curves and Si II velocity data for 79 nearby SNe Ia. The apparent color distributions of high-velocity (HV) and normal velocity (NV) supernovae exhibit significant discrepancies for B - V and B - R, but not other colors. Hence, they are likely due to intrinsic color differences originating in the B band, rather than dust reddening. The mean intrinsic B - V and B - R color differences between HV and NV groups are 0.06 ± 0.02 and 0.09 ± 0.02 mag, respectively. A linear model finds significant slopes of -0.021 ± 0.006 and -0.030 ± 0.009 mag (103 km s-1)-1 for intrinsic B - V and B - R colors versus velocity, respectively. Because the ejecta velocity distribution is skewed toward high velocities, these effects imply non-Gaussian intrinsic color distributions with skewness up to +0.3. Accounting for the intrinsic-color-velocity correlation results in corrections to AV extinction estimates as large as -0.12 mag for HV SNe Ia and +0.06 mag for NV events. Velocity measurements from SN Ia spectra have the potential to diminish systematic errors from the confounding of intrinsic colors and dust reddening affecting supernova distances.

  12. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goobar, A.; Amanullah, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Nugent, P. E.; Johansson, J.; Steidel, C.; Law, D.; Mörtsell, E.; Quimby, R.; Blagorodnova, N.; Brandeker, A.; Cao, Y.; Cooray, A.; Ferretti, R.; Fremling, C.; Hangard, L.; Kasliwal, M.; Kupfer, T.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F.; Miller, A. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Neill, J. D.; Ofek, E. O.; Papadogiannakis, S.; Petrushevska, T.; Ravi, V.; Sollerman, J.; Sullivan, M.; Taddia, F.; Walters, R.; Wilson, D.; Yan, L.; Yaron, O.

    2017-04-01

    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.

  13. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Goobar, A; Amanullah, R; Kulkarni, S R; Nugent, P E; Johansson, J; Steidel, C; Law, D; Mörtsell, E; Quimby, R; Blagorodnova, N; Brandeker, A; Cao, Y; Cooray, A; Ferretti, R; Fremling, C; Hangard, L; Kasliwal, M; Kupfer, T; Lunnan, R; Masci, F; Miller, A A; Nayyeri, H; Neill, J D; Ofek, E O; Papadogiannakis, S; Petrushevska, T; Ravi, V; Sollerman, J; Sullivan, M; Taddia, F; Walters, R; Wilson, D; Yan, L; Yaron, O

    2017-04-21

    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy. We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply close alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. The relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. iPTF16geu: A multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova

    DOE PAGES

    Goobar, A.; Amanullah, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.; ...

    2017-04-21

    We report the discovery of a multiply imaged, gravitationally lensed type Ia supernova, iPTF16geu (SN 2016geu), at redshift z = 0.409. This phenomenon was identified because the light from the stellar explosion was magnified more than 50 times by the curvature of space around matter in an intervening galaxy.We used high-spatial-resolution observations to resolve four images of the lensed supernova, approximately 0.3 arc seconds from the center of the foreground galaxy. The observations probe a physical scale of ~1 kiloparsec, smaller than is typical in other studies of extragalactic gravitational lensing. The large magnification and symmetric image configuration imply closemore » alignment between the lines of sight to the supernova and to the lens. In conclusion, the relative magnifications of the four images provide evidence for substructures in the lensing galaxy.« less

  15. Turbulence-Flame Interactions in Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, A. J.; Bell, J. B.; Day, M. S.; Woosley, S. E.; Zingale, M.

    2008-12-01

    The large range of time and length scales involved in Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) requires the use of flame models. As a prelude to exploring various options for flame models, we consider in this paper high-resolution, three-dimensional simulations of the small-scale dynamics of nuclear flames in the supernova environment in which the details of the flame structure are fully resolved. The range of densities examined, (1-8) × 107 g cm-3, spans the transition from the laminar flamelet regime to the distributed burning regime where small-scale turbulence disrupts the flame. The use of a low Mach number algorithm facilitates the accurate resolution of the thermal structure of the flame and the inviscid turbulent kinetic energy cascade, while implicitly incorporating kinetic energy dissipation at the grid-scale cutoff. For an assumed background of isotropic Kolmogorov turbulence with an energy characteristic of SNe Ia, we find a transition density between 1 and 3 × 107 g cm-3, where the nature of the burning changes qualitatively. By 1 × 107 g cm-3, energy diffusion by conduction and radiation is exceeded, on the flame scale, by turbulent advection. As a result, the effective Lewis number approaches unity. That is, the flame resembles a laminar flame but is turbulently broadened with an effective diffusion coefficient, DT ~ u'l, where u' is the turbulent intensity and l is the integral scale. For the larger integral scales characteristic of a real supernova, the flame structure is predicted to become complex and unsteady. Implications for a possible transition to detonation are discussed.

  16. The Diffuse Gamma-Ray Background from Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lien, Amy; Fields, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) has been intensively studied but remains unsettled. Current popular source candidates include unresolved star-forming galaxies, starburst galaxies, and blazars. In this paper we calculate the EGB contribution from the interactions of cosmic rays accelerated by Type Ia supernovae, extending earlier work which only included core-collapse supernovae. We consider Type Ia events in star-forming galaxies, but also in quiescent galaxies that lack star formation. In the case of star-forming galaxies, consistently including Type Ia events makes little change to the star-forming EGB prediction, so long as both supernova types have the same cosmic-ray acceleration efficiencies in star-forming galaxies. Thus our updated EGB estimate continues to show that star-forming galaxies can represent a substantial portion of the signal measured by Fermi. In the case of quiescent galaxies, conversely, we find a wide range of possibilities for the EGB contribution. The dominant uncertainty we investigated comes from the mass in hot gas in these objects, which provides targets for cosmic rays: total gas masses are as yet poorly known, particularly at larger radii. Additionally, the EGB estimation is very sensitive to the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency and confinement, especially in quiescent galaxies. In the most optimistic allowed scenarios, quiescent galaxies can be an important source of the EGB. In this case, star-forming galaxies and quiescent galaxies together will dominate the EGB and leave little room for other contributions. If other sources, such as blazars, are found to have important contributions to the EGB, then either the gas mass or cosmic-ray content of quiescent galaxies must be significantly lower than in their star-forming counterparts. In any case, improved Fermi EGB measurements will provide important constraints on hot gas and cosmic rays in quiescent galaxies.

  17. THE RELATION BETWEEN EJECTA VELOCITY, INTRINSIC COLOR, AND HOST-GALAXY MASS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Ryan J.

    2012-04-01

    Recently, using a large low-redshift sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), we discovered a relation between SN Ia ejecta velocity and intrinsic color that improves the distance precision of SNe Ia and reduces potential systematic biases related to dust reddening. No SN Ia cosmological results have yet made a correction for the 'velocity-color' relation. To test the existence of such a relation and constrain its properties at high redshift, we examine a sample of 75 SNe Ia discovered and observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey and Supernova Legacy Survey. From each spectrum, we measure ejecta velocities at maximum brightness for the Ca H and K and Si II {lambda}6355 features, v{sup 0}{sub CaHandK} and v{sup 0}{sub SiII}, respectively. Using SN light curve parameters, we determine the intrinsic B{sub max} - V{sub max} for each SN. Similar to what was found at low redshift, we find that SNe Ia with higher ejecta velocity tend to be intrinsically redder than SNe Ia with lower ejecta velocity. The distributions of ejecta velocities for SNe Ia at low and high redshift are similar, indicating that current cosmological results should have little bias related to the velocity-color relation. Additionally, we find a slight (2.4{sigma} significant) trend between SN Ia ejecta velocity and host-galaxy mass such that SNe Ia in high-mass host galaxies tend to have lower ejecta velocities as probed by v{sup 0}{sub CaHandK}. These results emphasize the importance of spectroscopy for SN Ia cosmology.

  18. Berkeley Supernova Ia Program - IV. Carbon detection in early-time optical spectra of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    2012-09-01

    While O is often seen in spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as both unburned fuel and a product of C burning, C is only occasionally seen at the earliest times and represents the most direct way of investigating primordial white dwarf material and its relation to SN Ia explosion scenarios and mechanisms. In this paper, we search for C absorption features in 188 optical spectra of 144 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia with ages ≲3.6 d after maximum brightness. These data were obtained as part of the Berkeley Supernova Ia Program (BSNIP) and represent the largest set of SNe Ia in which C has ever been searched. We find that ˜11 per cent of the SNe studied show definite C absorption features, while ˜25 per cent show some evidence for C II in their spectra. Also, if one obtains a spectrum at ≲ -5 d, then there is a better than 30 per cent chance of detecting a distinct absorption feature from C II. SNe Ia that show C are found to resemble those without C in many respects, but objects with C tend to have bluer optical colours than those without C. The typical expansion velocity of the C II λ6580 feature is measured to be 12 000-13 000 km s-1, and the ratio of the C II λ6580 to Si II λ6355 velocities is remarkably constant with time and among different objects with a median value of ˜1.05. While the pseudo-equivalent widths (pEWs) of the C II λλ6580 and 7234 features are found mostly to decrease with time, we see evidence of a significant increase in pEW between ˜12 and 11 d before maximum brightness, which is actually predicted by some theoretical models. The range of pEWs measured from the BSNIP data implies a range of C masses in SN Ia ejecta of about (2-30) × 10-3 M⊙.

  19. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano; Brown, Peter; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Kasen, Daniel; Arcavi, Iair; Azalee Bostroem, K.; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.

    2017-08-01

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U, B, and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R ⊙ from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ6580) absorption up through day -13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  20. Lensed Type Ia supernovae as probes of cluster mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, J.; Rubin, D.; Richard, J.; Rykoff, E.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Atek, H.; Barbary, K.; Deustua, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fruchter, A. S.; Goobar, A.; Hook, I.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Huang, X.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lidman, C.; Meyers, J.; Perlmutter, S.; Saunders, C.; Spadafora, A. L.; Suzuki, N.; Supernova Cosmology Project

    2014-05-01

    Using three magnified Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detected behind CLASH (Cluster Lensing and Supernovae with Hubble) clusters, we perform a first pilot study to see whether standardizable candles can be used to calibrate cluster mass maps created from strong lensing observations. Such calibrations will be crucial when next-generation Hubble Space Telescope cluster surveys (e.g. Frontier) provide magnification maps that will, in turn, form the basis for the exploration of the high-redshift Universe. We classify SNe using combined photometric and spectroscopic observations, finding two of the three to be clearly of Type Ia and the third probable. The SNe exhibit significant amplification, up to a factor of 1.7 at ˜5σ significance (SN-L2). We conducted this as a blind study to avoid fine-tuning of parameters, finding a mean amplification difference between SNe and the cluster lensing models of 0.09 ± 0.09stat ± 0.05sys mag. This impressive agreement suggests no tension between cluster mass models and high-redshift-standardized SNe Ia. However, the measured statistical dispersion of σμ = 0.21 mag appeared large compared to the dispersion expected based on statistical uncertainties (0.14). Further work with the SN and cluster lensing models, post-unblinding, reduced the measured dispersion to σμ = 0.12. An explicit choice should thus be made as to whether SNe are used unblinded to improve the model, or blinded to test the model. As the lensed SN samples grow larger, this technique will allow improved constraints on assumptions regarding e.g. the structure of the dark matter halo.

  1. The Unification of Asymmetry Signatures of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maund, Justyn R.; Höflich, Peter; Patat, Ferdinando; Wheeler, J. Craig; Zelaya, Paula; Baade, Dietrich; Wang, Lifan; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Quinn, Jason

    2010-12-01

    We present a compilation of the geometry measures acquired using optical and IR spectroscopy and optical spectropolarimetry to probe the explosion geometry of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Polarization measurements are sensitive to asymmetries in the plane of the sky, whereas line profiles in nebular phase spectra are expected to trace asymmetries perpendicular to the plane of the sky. The combination of these two measures can overcome their respective projection effects, completely probing the structures of these events. For nine normal SNe Ia, we find that the polarization of Si II λ6355 at 5 days before maximum (p Si II ) is well correlated with its velocity evolution (\\dot{v}_Si II), implying that \\dot{v}_Si II is predominantly due to the asymmetry of the SNe. We find only a weak correlation between the polarization of Si II and the reported velocities (v neb) for peak emission of optical Fe II and Ni II lines in nebular spectra. Our sample is biased, with polarization measurements being only available for normal SNe that subsequently exhibited positive (i.e., redshifted) v neb. In unison these indicators are consistent with an explosion in which the outer layers are dominated by a spherical oxygen layer, mixed with an asymmetric distribution of intermediate-mass elements. The combination of spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric indicators suggests a single geometric configuration for normal SNe Ia, with some of the diversity of observed properties arising from orientation effects.

  2. Nucleosynthesis in type Ia supernovae driven by asymmetric thermonuclear ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2012-11-01

    Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf. They can be used as mature cosmological standardized candles, leading to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. However, the explosion mechanism has not yet been fully clarified. In this paper, we first present nucleosynthetic features of a leading explosion scenario, namely a delayed-detonation scenario. Based on this, we propose a new and strong observational constraint on the explosion mechanism through emission lines from neutron-rich Fe-peaks. Especially, we show that an asymmetry in the explosion is likely a generic feature. We further argue that the diversity arising from various viewing angles can be an origin of observational diversities of SNe Ia seen in their spectral features (suspected possible biases in cosmology) and colors (related to the extinction estimate in cosmology). Using these new insights could open up a possibility of using SNe Ia as more precise distance indicators than currently employed.

  3. Nucleosynthesis in type Ia supernovae driven by asymmetric thermonuclear ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2012-11-12

    Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are believed to be thermonuclear explosions of a white dwarf. They can be used as mature cosmological standardized candles, leading to the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. However, the explosion mechanism has not yet been fully clarified. In this paper, we first present nucleosynthetic features of a leading explosion scenario, namely a delayed-detonation scenario. Based on this, we propose a new and strong observational constraint on the explosion mechanism through emission lines from neutron-rich Fe-peaks. Especially, we show that an asymmetry in the explosion is likely a generic feature. We further argue that the diversity arising from various viewing angles can be an origin of observational diversities of SNe Ia seen in their spectral features (suspected possible biases in cosmology) and colors (related to the extinction estimate in cosmology). Using these new insights could open up a possibility of using SNe Ia as more precise distance indicators than currently employed.

  4. Verifying the Cosmological Utility of Type Ia Supernovae: Implications of a Dispersion in the Ultraviolet Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter E; Ellis, R.S.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P.E.; Howell, D.A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Astier, P.; Balam, D.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C.J.; Regnault, N.

    2008-02-28

    We analyze the mean rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe) and its dispersion using high signal-to-noise ratio Keck-I/LRIS-B spectroscopy for a sample of 36 events at intermediate redshift (z=0.5) discovered by the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). We introduce a new method for removing host galaxy contamination in our spectra, exploiting the comprehensive photometric coverage of the SNLS SNe and their host galaxies, thereby providing the first quantitative view of the UV spectral properties of a large sample of distant SNe Ia. Although the mean SN Ia spectrum has not evolved significantly over the past 40percent of cosmic history, precise evolutionary constraints are limited by the absence of a comparable sample of high-quality local spectra. The mean UV spectrum of our z~;;=0.5 SNe Ia and its dispersion is tabulated for use in future applications. Within the high-redshift sample, we discover significant UV spectral variations and exclude dust extinction as the primary cause by examining trends with the optical SN color. Although progenitor metallicity may drive some of these trends, the variations we see are much larger than predicted in recent models and do not follow expected patterns. An interesting new result is a variation seen in the wavelength of selected UV features with phase. We also demonstrate systematic differences in the SN Ia spectral features with SN light curve width in both the UV and the optical. We show that these intrinsic variations could represent a statistical limitation in the future use of high-redshift SNe Ia for precision cosmology. We conclude that further detailed studies are needed, both locally and at moderate redshift where the rest-frame UV can be studied precisely, in order that future missions can confidently be planned to fully exploit SNe Ia as cosmological probes.

  5. The Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Sullivan, M.; McGuire, K.; Hook, I. M.; Nugent, P. E.; Howell, D. A.; Arcavi, I.; Botyanszki, J.; Cenko, Stephen Bradley; DeRose, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of the host galaxies of 82 low-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We determine star-formation rates, gas-phase stellar metallicities, and stellar masses and ages of these objects. As expected, strong correlations between the SN Ia light-curve width (stretch) and the host age mass metallicity are found: fainter, faster-declining events tend to be hosted by older massive metal-rich galaxies. There is some evidence that redder SNe Ia explode in higher metallicity galaxies, but we found no relation between the SN colour and host galaxy extinction based on the Balmer decrement, suggesting that the colour variation of these SNe does not primarily arise from this source. SNe Ia in higher-mass metallicity galaxies also appear brighter after stretch colour corrections than their counterparts in lower mass hosts, and the stronger correlation is with gas-phase metallicity suggesting this may be the more important variable. We also compared the host stellar mass distribution to that in galaxy targeted SN surveys and the high-redshift untargeted Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). SNLS has many more low mass galaxies, while the targeted searches have fewer. This can be explained by an evolution in the galaxy stellar mass function, coupled with a SN delay-time distribution proportional to t1. Finally, we found no significant difference in the mass--metallicity relation of our SN Ia hosts compared to field galaxies, suggesting any metallicity effect on the SN Ia rate is small.

  6. N103B: A Type Ia Supernova with Circumstellar Interaction and Kepler's Older Cousin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Long, Knox S.; Winkler, P. Frank; Raymond, John C.; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean Patrick; Blair, William P.

    2014-06-01

    A small but growing subclass of Type Ia supernovae shows signs of interaction with material in a circumstellar medium (CSM). Among Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), only the remnant of Kepler's supernova has been shown to be interacting with a dense CSM, likely the result of significant pre-supernova mass loss from the progenitor system. Wereport here on Spitzer infrared observations of N103B, a Type Ia remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud approximately 1,000 years old, that also shows signs of a dense CSM. Spectroscopy of the remnant shows a continuum from warm dust heated in the post-shockenvironment. Model fits to the data give a post-shock gas density of 45 cm$^{-3}$, virtually identical to what is seen in Kepler. The dust spectrum is dominated by silicate grains, implying an oxygen-rich environment in the stellar atmosphere of at least one star in the progenitor system. In light of the densities we derive from IR fits, we examine X-ray spectra and find that while a significant amount of oxygen is present, the oxygen is consistent with an origin in the CSM, not the ejecta. Detailed morphological comparisons with X-ray images show a connection between dust emission and oxygen-rich material, while optical comparisons clearly show that dust originates in the fast, non-radiative, Balmer-dominated shocks, and not the slower, radiative shocks. We see no obvious evidence for freshly formed ejecta dust. Again, N103B shares all of these characteristics with Kepler. We conclude that N103B is an older analog of Kepler, and thus only the second known member of the subclass of Type Ia SNRs interacting with dense CSM material long after their explosion.

  7. Type Ia supernovae from merging white dwarfs. II. Post-merger detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Kasen, Daniel; Moll, Rainer; Woosley, Stan; Schwab, Josiah

    2014-06-10

    Merging carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs are a promising progenitor system for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), but the underlying physics and timing of the detonation are still debated. If an explosion occurs after the secondary star is fully disrupted, the exploding primary will expand into a dense CO medium that may still have a disk-like structure. This interaction will decelerate and distort the ejecta. Here we carry out multidimensional simulations of 'tamped' SN Ia models, using both particle and grid-based codes to study the merger and explosion dynamics and a radiative transfer code to calculate synthetic spectra and light curves. We find that post-merger explosions exhibit an hourglass-shaped asymmetry, leading to strong variations in the light curves with viewing angle. The two most important factors affecting the outcome are the scale height of the disk, which depends sensitively on the binary mass ratio, and the total {sup 56}Ni yield, which is governed by the central density of the remnant core. The synthetic broadband light curves rise and decline very slowly, and the spectra generally look peculiar, with weak features from intermediate mass elements but relatively strong carbon absorption. We also consider the effects of the viscous evolution of the remnant and show that a longer time delay between merger and explosion probably leads to larger {sup 56}Ni yields and more symmetrical remnants. We discuss the relevance of this class of aspherical 'tamped' SN Ia for explaining the class of 'super-Chandrasekhar' SN Ia.

  8. SN 2015bp: adding to the growing population of transitional Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastav, Shubham; Anupama, G. C.; Sahu, D. K.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2017-04-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic observations of Type Ia supernova 2015bp are presented, spanning ˜-6 to ˜+141 d since B-band maximum. Also presented are unpublished HCT spectra of type Ia iPTF13ebh between -11 and +34 d since B-band maximum. SN 2015bp shows rapidly declining light curves with Δm15(B) = 1.72 ± 0.04. The I-band light curve shows a clear secondary maximum and peaks before the B-band maximum, placing SN 2015bp in the transitional category of SNe Ia. The spectral evolution of SN 2015bp resembles other transitional SNe Ia rather than 1991bg-like events. The C II λ6580 feature is detected in both SN 2015bp and iPTF13ebh, though it is present till the epoch of B-band maximum in the case of SN 2015bp. The velocity gradients of Si II λ6355 place SN 2015bp and iPTF13ebh in the FAINT subclass, whereas pseudo-equivalent widths of Si II features place them in the Cool (CL) subclass of SNe Ia. The bolometric light curve of SN 2015bp indicates that ˜0.2 M⊙ of 56Ni was synthesized in the explosion, with a total ejected mass of ˜0.9 M⊙, suggesting a sub-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf progenitor.

  9. Type Ia Supernovae from Merging White Dwarfs. II. Post-merger Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, Cody; Kasen, Daniel; Moll, Rainer; Schwab, Josiah; Woosley, Stan

    2014-06-01

    Merging carbon-oxygen (CO) white dwarfs are a promising progenitor system for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), but the underlying physics and timing of the detonation are still debated. If an explosion occurs after the secondary star is fully disrupted, the exploding primary will expand into a dense CO medium that may still have a disk-like structure. This interaction will decelerate and distort the ejecta. Here we carry out multidimensional simulations of "tamped" SN Ia models, using both particle and grid-based codes to study the merger and explosion dynamics and a radiative transfer code to calculate synthetic spectra and light curves. We find that post-merger explosions exhibit an hourglass-shaped asymmetry, leading to strong variations in the light curves with viewing angle. The two most important factors affecting the outcome are the scale height of the disk, which depends sensitively on the binary mass ratio, and the total 56Ni yield, which is governed by the central density of the remnant core. The synthetic broadband light curves rise and decline very slowly, and the spectra generally look peculiar, with weak features from intermediate mass elements but relatively strong carbon absorption. We also consider the effects of the viscous evolution of the remnant and show that a longer time delay between merger and explosion probably leads to larger 56Ni yields and more symmetrical remnants. We discuss the relevance of this class of aspherical "tamped" SN Ia for explaining the class of "super-Chandrasekhar" SN Ia.

  10. Variable selection for modeling the absolute magnitude at maximum of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, Koji S.; Ikeda, Shiro; Maeda, Keiichi

    2015-06-01

    We discuss what is an appropriate set of explanatory variables in order to predict the absolute magnitude at the maximum of Type Ia supernovae. In order to have a good prediction, the error for future data, which is called the "generalization error," should be small. We use cross-validation in order to control the generalization error and a LASSO-type estimator in order to choose the set of variables. This approach can be used even in the case that the number of samples is smaller than the number of candidate variables. We studied the Berkeley supernova database with our approach. Candidates for the explanatory variables include normalized spectral data, variables about lines, and previously proposed flux ratios, as well as the color and light-curve widths. As a result, we confirmed the past understanding about Type Ia supernovae: (i) The absolute magnitude at maximum depends on the color and light-curve width. (ii) The light-curve width depends on the strength of Si II. Recent studies have suggested adding more variables in order to explain the absolute magnitude. However, our analysis does not support adding any other variables in order to have a better generalization error.

  11. EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. EVIDENCE FOR DOWNSIZING

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yijung; Kim, Young-Lo; Lim, Dongwook; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-03-15

    Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology provides the most direct evidence for the presence of dark energy. This result is based on the assumption that the lookback time evolution of SN Ia luminosity, after light curve corrections, would be negligible. Recent studies show, however, that the Hubble residual (HR) of SN Ia is correlated with the mass and morphology of host galaxies, implying the possible dependence of SN Ia luminosity on host galaxy properties. In order to investigate this more directly, we have initiated a spectroscopic survey for early-type host galaxies, for which population age and metallicity can be more reliably determined from the absorption lines. In this first paper of the series, we present here the results from high signal-to-noise ratio (≳100 per pixel) spectra for 27 nearby host galaxies in the southern hemisphere. For the first time in host galaxy studies, we find a significant (∼3.9σ) correlation between host galaxy mass (velocity dispersion) and population age, which is consistent with the “downsizing” trend among non-host early-type galaxies. This result is rather insensitive to the choice of population synthesis models. Since we find no correlation with metallicity, our result suggests that stellar population age is mainly responsible for the relation between host mass and HR. If confirmed, this would imply that the luminosity evolution plays a major role in the systematic uncertainties of SN Ia cosmology.

  12. The Structure of Carbon Detonation in Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryxell, B.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; Dursi, L. J.; Ricker, P.; Olson, K.; Calder, A. C.; Tufo, H.; Truran, J. W.; Rosner, R.; MacNeice, P.

    2000-12-01

    Type Ia Supernova explosions are thought to begin as deflagrations in the center of accreting white dwarfs. Observations suggest that at some point, the burning undergoes a transition from a deflagration to a detonation front. We describe high-resolution three-dimensional simulations of the structure of such a detonation. The pre-detonation material is assumed to be pure C12 at a density of 107 g cm-3. A cellular structure develops behind the front, leaving pockets of unburned fuel. The cellular instability is unlikely to have any observational consequences at this density, since the cell size is only a few centimeters. However, as the detonation approaches the surface, the cell size will become comparable to the radius of the star, leaving a nonspherical distribution of reaction products and modifying the spectral signature of the explosion. The calculations were performed on 1000 processors of ASCI Blue Pacific at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the Flash Code developed at the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. They represent by far the largest simulations ever carried out on the detailed structure of burning fronts in Type Ia supernovae. This work was supported in part by the Department of Energy Grant No. B341495 to the Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago under the ASCI Strategic Alliances Program and by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  13. Measuring weak lensing correlations of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scovacricchi, D.; Nichol, R. C.; Macaulay, E.; Bacon, D.

    2017-03-01

    We study the feasibility of detecting weak lensing spatial correlations between supernova (SN) Type Ia magnitudes with present (Dark Energy Survey, DES) and future (Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, LSST) surveys. We investigate the angular auto-correlation function of SN magnitudes (once the background cosmology has been subtracted) and cross-correlation with galaxy catalogues. We examine both analytical and numerical predictions, the latter using simulated galaxy catalogues from the MICE Grand Challenge Simulation. We predict that we will be unable to detect the SN auto-correlation in DES, while it should be detectable with the LSST SN deep fields (15 000 SNe on 70 deg2) at ≃6σ level of confidence (assuming 0.15 mag of intrinsic dispersion). The SN-galaxy cross-correlation function will deliver much higher signal to noise, being detectable in both surveys with an integrated signal to noise of ∼100 (up to 30 arcmin separations). We predict joint constraints on the matter density parameter (Ωm) and the clustering amplitude (σ8) by fitting the auto-correlation function of our mock LSST deep fields. When assuming a Gaussian prior for Ωm, we can achieve a 25 per cent measurement of σ8 from just these LSST supernovae (assuming 0.15 mag of intrinsic dispersion). These constraints will improve significantly if the intrinsic dispersion of SNe Ia can be reduced.

  14. The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae and the Related Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are good cosmological distance indicators due to their high luminosities and remarkable uniformity, and thus are used for determining cosmological parameters. However, several key issues related to the nature of their progenitor systems are still not well understood. In this thesis, the progenitors of SNe Ia and the related objects are systematically investigated. Some main results are obtained as follows: (1) Recent observations implicate that about half of SNe Ia explode soon after starburst, with delay times less than 100 Myr, but previous models do not predict the young populations of SNe Ia. The WD + He model is proposed to solve this mystery. In this model, a carbon-oxygen WD (CO WD) accretes material from a He main sequence (MS) star or a He subgiant to increase its mass to the Chandrasekhar mass limit. It is found that this scenario can explain SNe Ia with short delay times (<100 Myr). (2) The progenitor model of SNe Ia with long delay times is systematically studied. It is found that SNe Ia from the WD + MS and WD + RG channels can contribute to the old populations (>1 Gyr) of SNe Ia, in which the WD + MS channel may be the main contributor. (3) It is found that the Galactic SN Ia birthrate from the double-degenerate (DD) model is close to those inferred from observations, while the birthrate from the single-degenerate (SD) model (including the contribution from the WD + MS, WD + RG and WD+He star channels) accounts for only about 1/2~2/3 of the observations. In these SD models, the WD + He star channel produces 14% of all SNe Ia, which constitutes the weak bimodality suggested by recent observations. (4) The companions in these SD models would survive after SN explosion. However, there has been no conclusive proof yet that any individual object is the surviving companion of a SN Ia. We show the distributions of many properties of the surviving companion stars of these SD models at the moment of SN explosion in the Galaxy. The

  15. THE VERY YOUNG TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2013dy: DISCOVERY, AND STRONG CARBON ABSORPTION IN EARLY-TIME SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Li, Weidong; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Howie Marion, G.; Kasen, Daniel; Wang, Xiaofeng; Valenti, Stefano; Howell, D. Andrew; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Cenko, S. Bradley; Balam, Dave; Hsiao, Eric; Sand, David; and others

    2013-11-20

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R {sub 0} ≲ 0.25 R {sub ☉}, consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of M{sub B} = –18.72 ± 0.03 mag ∼17.7 days after first light.

  16. The Very Young Type Ia Supernova 2013dy: Discovery, and Strong Carbon Absorption in Early-time Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kasen, Daniel; Nugent, Peter E.; Graham, Melissa; Wang, Xiaofeng; Valenti, Stefano; Ciabattari, Fabrizio; Kelly, Patrick L.; Fox, Ori D.; Shivvers, Isaac; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Balam, Dave; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric; Li, Weidong; Marion, G. Howie; Sand, David; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Zhang, JuJia

    2013-11-01

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2013dy in NGC 7250 (d ≈ 13.7 Mpc) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Combined with a prediscovery detection by the Italian Supernova Search Project, we are able to constrain the first-light time of SN 2013dy to be only 0.10 ± 0.05 days (2.4 ± 1.2 hr) before the first detection. This makes SN 2013dy the earliest known detection of an SN Ia. We infer an upper limit on the radius of the progenitor star of R 0 <~ 0.25 R ⊙, consistent with that of a white dwarf. The light curve exhibits a broken power law with exponents of 0.88 and then 1.80. A spectrum taken 1.63 days after first light reveals a C II absorption line comparable in strength to Si II. This is the strongest C II feature ever detected in a normal SN Ia, suggesting that the progenitor star had significant unburned material. The C II line in SN 2013dy weakens rapidly and is undetected in a spectrum 7 days later, indicating that C II is detectable for only a very short time in some SNe Ia. SN 2013dy reached a B-band maximum of MB = -18.72 ± 0.03 mag ~17.7 days after first light.

  17. Multidimensional Simulations of Type Ia Supernovae and Classical Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Brendan Kurt

    Explosive astrophysical phenomena have historically played a significant role in understanding the universe and our place within it. Stellar explosions are important distance indicators, allowing exploration of the structure and evolution of the universe. They also form and disperse heavy elements that are recycled into new astrophysical objects. Stellar explosions are not a uniform group; the progenitors and mechanisms of stellar explosions vary tremendously. I used multidimensional simulations to study two distinct types of explosions that are believed to result from similar progenitor systems: compact white dwarf stars that accrete matter from stellar companions. The two types of explosions I studied are type Ia supernovae and classical novae. Type Ia supernovae are thought to arise from a thermonuclear explosion originating in the core of an accreting white dwarf and leave no remnant. These events are the premier distance indicators in cosmological studies, but questions remain about systematic biases and intrinsic scatter. My investigation centered on the systematic impact of the central density of the progenitor on the brightness of the supernova. Relating the progenitor's central density to its age provided a theoretical explanation of the observed trend that type Ia supernovae from older stars are dimmer. I also demonstrated the importance of a statistical study of such problems, due to the strongly nonlinear evolution during the explosion. Classical novae are important for the study of circumstellar dust formation and are significant contributors of specific isotopes found in our galaxy. They result from a thermonuclear runaway occurring in the accreted envelope on a white dwarf. Only the envelope is consumed, so the white dwarf remains and the event may recur on time scales of 104 to 10 5 years. My study made use of a new simulation code specialized for low-Mach number flows, such as convection just prior to the explosion. I developed hydrostatic initial

  18. The surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Qing; Meng, Xiang-Cun; Han, Zhan-Wen

    2017-08-01

    The single-degenerate (SD) model is one of the most popular progenitor models of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), in which the companion star can survive after an SN Ia explosion and show peculiar properties. Therefore, searching for the surviving companion in type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) is a potential method to verify the SD model. In the SN 1604 remnant (Kepler’s SNR), although Chandra X-ray observation suggests that the progenitor is most likely a WD+AGB system, a the surviving companion has not been found. One possible reason is rapid rotation of the white dwarf (WD), causing explosion of the WD to be delayed for a spin-down timescale, and then the companion evolved into a WD before the supernova explosion, so the companion is too dim to be detected. We aim to verify this possible explanation by carrying out binary evolution calculations. In this paper, we use Eggleton’s stellar evolution code to calculate the evolution of binaries consisting of a WD+red giant (RG). We assume that the rapidly rotating WD can continuously increase its mass when its mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar mass limit ({M}{{Ch}}=1.378 {M}⊙ ) until the mass-transfer rate decreases to be lower than a critical value. Eventually, we obtain the final masses of a WD in the range 1.378 M ⊙ to 2.707 M ⊙. We also show that if the spin-down time is less than 106 yr, the companion star will be very bright and easily observed; but if the spin-down time is as long as ˜ 107 yr, the luminosities of the surviving companion would be lower than the detection limit. Our simulation provides guidance in hunting for the surviving companion stars in SNRs, and the fact that no surviving companion has been found in Kepler’s SNR may not be definite evidence disfavoring the SD origin of Kepler’s SN.

  19. On silicon group elements ejected by supernovae type IA

    SciTech Connect

    De, Soma; Timmes, F. X.; Brown, Edward F.; Calder, Alan C.; Townsley, Dean M.; Athanassiadou, Themis; Chamulak, David A.; Hawley, Wendy; Jack, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that the peak brightness of a Type Ia supernova is affected by the electron fraction Y {sub e} at the time of the explosion. The electron fraction is set by the aboriginal composition of the white dwarf and the reactions that occur during the pre-explosive convective burning. To date, determining the makeup of the white dwarf progenitor has relied on indirect proxies, such as the average metallicity of the host stellar population. In this paper, we present analytical calculations supporting the idea that the electron fraction of the progenitor systematically influences the nucleosynthesis of silicon group ejecta in Type Ia supernovae. In particular, we suggest the abundances generated in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium are preserved during the subsequent freeze-out. This allows potential recovery of Y {sub e} at explosion from the abundances recovered from an observed spectra. We show that measurement of {sup 28}Si, {sup 32}S, {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 54}Fe abundances can be used to construct Y {sub e} in the silicon-rich regions of the supernovae. If these four abundances are determined exactly, they are sufficient to recover Y {sub e} to 6%. This is because these isotopes dominate the composition of silicon-rich material and iron-rich material in quasi-nuclear statistical equilibrium. Analytical analysis shows the {sup 28}Si abundance is insensitive to Y {sub e}, the {sup 32}S abundance has a nearly linear trend with Y {sub e}, and the {sup 40}Ca abundance has a nearly quadratic trend with Y {sub e}. We verify these trends with post-processing of one-dimensional models and show that these trends are reflected in the model's synthetic spectra.

  20. Asymmetric Type Ia Supernovae from Detonating Failed Deflagrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plewa, T.; Kasen, D.; Brown, E. F.

    2005-05-01

    Despite four decades of vigorous research and substantial progress made in studying thermonuclear supernovae, the origins and nature of these objects remain a mystery. From a modeler's point of view, Type Ia supernovae are one of the most demanding and complex supercomputer applications. The final stages of their lives involve the slow evolution under conditions close to a hydrostatic equilibrium followed by a strongly dynamical phase with the possible transition from a subsonic to supersonic mode of thermonuclear combustion. The explosion dynamics involve instabilities on scales from centimeters to hundreds of kilometers, and are accompanied by thermonuclear reactions releasing sufficient energy to unbind the white dwarf. Numerical models of thermonuclear supernovae must also include realistic initial conditions, an element that may prove crucial in our quest to explain the nature of those fascinating objects. We are presently studying the incineration of a massive white dwarf following the mild ignition of a thermonuclear flame close to the stellar center. In this scenario, the initial off-center deflagration only consumes a small amount of the stellar fuel and fails to unbind the star. This deflagration does, however, expand the stellar material and accelerates the outer layers of the white dwarf. These flows interact and then trigger a detonation. The overall evolution resembles that of the previously discussed gravitationally confined detonation model and shares many of its properties. The present numerical model features a revised energy delivery scheme resulting in a weaker deflagration, longer evolutionary timescales, and stronger preexpansion of the stellar material.

  1. Circumstellar Dust in the Remnant of Kepler's Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Blair, W. P.; Borkowski, K. J.; Ghavamian, P.; Long, K. S.; Reynolds, S. P.; Sankrit, R.

    2012-01-01

    Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the remains of the supernova of 1604, is widely believed to be the result of a Type Ia supernova, and shows IR, optical, and X-ray evidence for an interaction of the blast wave with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM). We present low-resolution 7.5-38 μm IR spectra of selected regions within the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Spectra of those regions where the blast wave is encountering circumstellar material show strong features at 10 and 18 μm. These spectral features are most consistent with various silicate particles, likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution. While it is possible that some features may arise from freshly formed ejecta dust, morphological evidence suggests that it is more likely that they originate from dust in the CSM. We isolate the dust grain absorption efficiencies for several regions in Kepler and compare them to laboratory data for dust particles of various compositions. The hottest dust in the remnant originates in the regions of dense, radiatively shocked clumps of gas, identified in optical images. Models of collisionally heated dust show that such shocks are capable of heating grains to temperatures of > 150 K. We confirm the finding that Kepler's SNR is still interacting with CSM in at least part of the remnant after 400 years. The significant quantities of silicate dust are consistent with a relatively massive progenitor.

  2. Unified One-Dimensional Simulations of Gamma-Ray Line Emission from Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, P. A.; Hungerford, A. L.; Fryer, C. L.; Evans, T. M.; Urbatsch, T. J.; Boggs, S. E.; Isern, J.; Bravo, E.; Hirschmann, A.; Kumagai, S.; Pinto, P. A.; The, L.-S.

    2004-10-01

    The light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powered by gamma rays emitted by the decay of radioactive elements such as 56Ni and its decay products. These gamma rays are downscattered, absorbed, and eventually reprocessed into the optical emission that makes up the bulk of all SN observations. Detection of the gamma rays that escape the expanding star provide the only direct means to study this power source for SN Ia light curves. Unfortunately, disagreements between calculations for the gamma-ray lines have made it difficult to interpret any gamma-ray observations. Here we present a detailed comparison of the major gamma-ray line transport codes for a series of one-dimensional SN Ia models. Discrepancies in past results were due to errors in the codes, and the corrected versions of the seven different codes yield very similar results. This convergence of the simulation results allows us to infer more reliable information from the current set of gamma-ray observations of SNe Ia. The observations of SN 1986G, SN 1991T, and SN 1998bu are consistent with explosion models based on their classification: subluminous, superluminous, and normally luminous, respectively.

  3. The Type Ia Supernova Rate and Delay-Time Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graur, Or

    2013-11-01

    The nature of the progenitor stellar systems of thermonuclear, or Type Ia, supernovae (SNe Ia) remains unknown. Unlike core-collapse (CC) SNe, which have been successfully linked, at least partially, to various types of massive stars, the progenitors of SNe Ia are to date undetected in pre-explosion images and the nature of these progenitors can only be probed using indirect methods. In this thesis, I present three SN surveys aimed at measuring the rates at which SNe Ia explode at different times throughout the Universe's history and in different types of galaxies. I use these rates to re-construct the SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD), a function that connects between the star-formation history (SFH) of a specific stellar environment and its SN Ia rate, and I use it to constrain different progenitor models. In Chapter 1, I provide a brief introduction of the field. This is followed, in Chapter 2, by a description of the Subaru Deep Field (SDF) SN Survey. Over a period of three years between 2005-2008, the SDF was observed on four independent epochs with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope, with two nights of exposure per epoch, in the R, i', and z' bands. In this survey, I discover 150 SNe out to redshift z ~ 2, including 27 SNe Ia in the range 1.0 < z < 1.5 and 10 in the range 1.5 < z < 2.0. The SN Ia rate measurements from this sample are consistent with those derived from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GOODS sample, but the overall uncertainty of the 1.5 < z < 2.0 measurement is a factor of 2 smaller, of 35-50%. Based on this sample, we find that the SN Ia rate evolution levels off at 1.0 < z < 2.0, but shows no sign of declining. Combining our SN Ia rate measurements and those from the literature, and comparing to a wide range of possible SFHs, the best-fitting DTD is a power law of the form Psi(t) ~ t^beta, with index beta = -1.1 ± 0.1 (statistical) ± 0.17 (systematic). By combining the contribution from CC SNe, based on the wide range of SFHs

  4. CARBON DEFLAGRATION IN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA. I. CENTRALLY IGNITED MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.; Woosley, S. E.; Malone, C. M.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.

    2013-07-01

    A leading model for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) begins with a white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar mass that ignites a degenerate thermonuclear runaway close to its center and explodes. In a series of papers, we shall explore the consequences of ignition at several locations within such dwarfs. Here we assume central ignition, which has been explored before, but is worth revisiting, if only to validate those previous studies and to further elucidate the relevant physics for future work. A perturbed sphere of hot iron ash with a radius of {approx}100 km is initialized at the middle of the star. The subsequent explosion is followed in several simulations using a thickened flame model in which the flame speed is either fixed-within the range expected from turbulent combustion-or based on the local turbulent intensity. Global results, including the explosion energy and bulk nucleosynthesis (e.g., {sup 56}Ni of 0.48-0.56 M{sub Sun }) turn out to be insensitive to this speed. In all completed runs, the energy released by the nuclear burning is adequate to unbind the star, but not enough to give the energy and brightness of typical SNe Ia. As found previously, the chemical stratification observed in typical events is not reproduced. These models produce a large amount of unburned carbon and oxygen in central low velocity regions, which is inconsistent with spectroscopic observations, and the intermediate mass elements and iron group elements are strongly mixed during the explosion.

  5. Signatures of a companion star in type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Keiichi; Kutsuna, Masamichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu

    2014-10-10

    Although type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been used as precise cosmological distance indicators, their progenitor systems remain unresolved. One of the key questions is whether there is a nondegenerate companion star at the time of a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf. In this paper, we investigate whether an interaction between the SN ejecta and the companion star may result in observable footprints around the maximum brightness and thereafter, by performing multidimensional radiation transfer simulations based on hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction. We find that such systems result in variations in various observational characteristics due to different viewing directions, and the predicted behaviors (redder and fainter for the companion direction) are the opposite of what were suggested by the previous study. The variations are generally modest and within observed scatters. However, the model predicts trends between some observables different from those observationally derived, so a large sample of SNe Ia with small calibration errors may be used to constrain the existence of such a companion star. The variations in different colors in optical band passes can be mimicked by external extinctions, so such an effect could be a source of scatter in the peak luminosity and derived distance. After the peak, hydrogen-rich materials expelled from the companion will manifest themselves in hydrogen lines, but Hα is extremely difficult to identify. Alternatively, we find that P{sub β} in postmaximum near-infrared spectra can potentially provide a powerful diagnostic.

  6. COSMOLOGY WITH PHOTOMETRICALLY CLASSIFIED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Heather; D'Andrea, Chris B; Nichol, Robert C.; Smith, Mathew; Lampeitl, Hubert; Sako, Masao; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Brown, Peter; Dawson, Kyle S.; Bassett, Bruce; Biswas, Rahul; Kuhlmann, Steve; Cinabro, David; Dilday, Ben; Foley, Ryan J.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Garnavich, Peter; Hlozek, Renee; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kunz, Martin; and others

    2013-02-15

    We present the cosmological analysis of 752 photometrically classified Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained from the full Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova (SN) Survey, supplemented with host-galaxy spectroscopy from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. Our photometric-classification method is based on the SN classification technique of Sako et al., aided by host-galaxy redshifts (0.05 < z < 0.55). SuperNova ANAlysis simulations of our methodology estimate that we have an SN Ia classification efficiency of 70.8%, with only 3.9% contamination from core-collapse (non-Ia) SNe. We demonstrate that this level of contamination has no effect on our cosmological constraints. We quantify and correct for our selection effects (e.g., Malmquist bias) using simulations. When fitting to a flat {Lambda}CDM cosmological model, we find that our photometric sample alone gives {Omega} {sub m} = 0.24{sup +0.07} {sub -0.05} (statistical errors only). If we relax the constraint on flatness, then our sample provides competitive joint statistical constraints on {Omega} {sub m} and {Omega}{sub {Lambda}}, comparable to those derived from the spectroscopically confirmed Three-year Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS3). Using only our data, the statistics-only result favors an accelerating universe at 99.96% confidence. Assuming a constant wCDM cosmological model, and combining with H {sub 0}, cosmic microwave background, and luminous red galaxy data, we obtain w = -0.96{sup +0.10} {sub -0.10}, {Omega} {sub m} = 0.29{sup +0.02} {sub -0.02}, and {Omega} {sub k} = 0.00{sup +0.03} {sub -0.02} (statistical errors only), which is competitive with similar spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia analyses. Overall this comparison is reassuring, considering the lower redshift leverage of the SDSS-II SN sample (z < 0.55) and the lack of spectroscopic confirmation used herein. These results demonstrate the potential of photometrically classified SN Ia samples in improving

  7. Rates and Delay Times of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiter, Ashley J.; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Fryer, Chris

    2009-07-01

    We analyze the evolution of binary stars to calculate synthetic rates and delay times of the most promising Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) progenitors. We present and discuss evolutionary scenarios in which a white dwarf (WD) reaches the Chandrasekhar mass and potentially explodes in a SNe Ia. We consider Double Degenerate (DDS; merger of two WDs), Single Degenerate (SDS; WD accreting from H-rich companion), and AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn; WD accreting from He-rich companion) scenarios. The results are presented for two different star formation histories: burst (elliptical-like galaxies) and continuous (spiral-like galaxies). It is found that delay times for the DDS in our standard model (with common envelope efficiency αCE = 1) follow a power-law distribution. For the SDS we note a wide range of delay times, while AM CVn progenitors produce a short burst of SNe Ia at early times. The DDS median delay time falls between ~0.5 and 1 Gyr the SDS between ~2 and 3 Gyr and the AM CVn between ~0.8 and 0.6 Gyr depending on the assumed αCE. For a Milky-Way-like (MW-like) galaxy, we estimate the rates of SNe Ia arising from different progenitors as: ~10-4 yr-1 for the SDS and AM CVn, and ~10-3 yr-1 for the DDS. We point out that only the rates for two merging carbon-oxygen WDs, the only systems found in the DDS, are consistent with the observed rates for typical MW-like spirals. We also note that DDS progenitors are the dominant population in elliptical galaxies. The fact that the delay time distribution for the DDS follows a power law implies more SNe Ia (per unit mass) in young rather than in aged populations. Our results do not exclude other scenarios, but strongly indicate that the DDS is the dominant channel generating SNe Ia in spiral galaxies, at least in the framework of our adopted evolutionary models. Since it is believed that WD mergers cannot produce a thermonuclear explosion given the current understanding of accreting WDs, either the evolutionary calculations

  8. Asymmetric Circumstellar Matter in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Blondin, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are not well understood, but are likely to be of diverse origin, including single- and double-degenerate binary systems. Among single-degenerate progenitors, substantial amounts of circumstellar material (CSM) are expelled prior to the SN explosions by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companions to the accreting white dwarfs. A subsequent collision of SN ejecta with the dense AGB wind has been detected among several distant SNe such as SN 2002ic, SN 2008J, and more recently PTF11kx. Dense CSM ejected by an AGB companion is present in the remnant of Kepler's SN of 1604, a Type Ia event. Observations of distant SNe hint at strongly asymmetric CSM distributions. A recent study of the CSM in Kepler's SNR by Burkey et al. indicates a large (factor of 10) density contrast between the dense, disk-like equatorial outflow and the more tenuous AGB wind above the orbital plane. A significant fraction of mature Type Ia SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) shows the presence of dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors that cannot be explained by standard models of Type Ia explosions in a uniform ambient interstellar medium. We explore the hypothesis that these remnants originated in Type Ia explosions with strongly asymmetric CSM distributions such as found in Kepler's SNR. We present results of 2-D hydrodynamical simulations of the interaction of SN ejecta with asymmetric, disk-like AGB winds throughout the whole adiabatic stage of SNR evolution. Dense, asymmetric, and highly-ionized Fe-rich ejecta are indeed present in the simulated remnants, while the blast wave assumes a spherical shape shortly after passage through the ambient CSM. We also present simulated X-ray images and spectra and compare them with X-ray observations of selected remnants in the LMC. These remnants include DEM L238 and L249, recently observed by Suzaku, whose X-ray emission is strongly dominated by dense Fe-rich ejecta in their interiors. We contrast these

  9. Distances with <4% precision from type Ia supernovae in young star-forming environments.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Patrick L; Filippenko, Alexei V; Burke, David L; Hicken, Malcolm; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Zheng, WeiKang

    2015-03-27

    The luminosities of type Ia supernovae (SNe), the thermonuclear explosions of white-dwarf stars, vary systematically with their intrinsic color and the rate at which they fade. From images taken with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), we identified SNe Ia that erupted in environments that have high ultraviolet surface brightness and star-formation surface density. When we apply a steep model extinction law, we calibrate these SNe using their broadband optical light curves to within ~0.065 to 0.075 magnitude, corresponding to <4% in distance. The tight scatter, probably arising from a small dispersion among progenitor ages, suggests that variation in only one progenitor property primarily accounts for the relationship between their light-curve widths, colors, and luminosities. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS

    SciTech Connect

    Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Jones, David O.; Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Casertano, Stefano; Grogin, Norman A.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Hjorth, Jens; Frederiksen, Teddy F.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Mobasher, Bahram; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Hayden, Brian; Graur, Or; Jha, Saurabh W.; and others

    2012-02-10

    We report the discovery of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at redshift z = 1.55 with the infrared detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3-IR) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This object was discovered in CANDELS imaging data of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and followed as part of the CANDELS+CLASH Supernova project, comprising the SN search components from those two HST multi-cycle treasury programs. This is the highest redshift SN Ia with direct spectroscopic evidence for classification. It is also the first SN Ia at z > 1 found and followed in the infrared, providing a full light curve in rest-frame optical bands. The classification and redshift are securely defined from a combination of multi-band and multi-epoch photometry of the SN, ground-based spectroscopy of the host galaxy, and WFC3-IR grism spectroscopy of both the SN and host. This object is the first of a projected sample at z > 1.5 that will be discovered by the CANDELS and CLASH programs. The full CANDELS+CLASH SN Ia sample will enable unique tests for evolutionary effects that could arise due to differences in SN Ia progenitor systems as a function of redshift. This high-z sample will also allow measurement of the SN Ia rate out to z Almost-Equal-To 2, providing a complementary constraint on SN Ia progenitor models.

  11. Velocity distributions of surviving companion stars of type Ia supernovae in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, S.; Wang, B.; Han, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The companion stars of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) would survive the explosions and show peculiar properties in the single-degenerate (SD) scenario. Whit different SD SN Ia channels, we obtained the velocity distributions of the surviving companion stars in the Milky Way. All properties presented may be verified by future observations.

  12. Measuring the Growth Rate of Structure with Type IA Supernovae from LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howlett, Cullan; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Kim, Alex G.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the peculiar motions of galaxies up to z = 0.5 using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and predict the subsequent constraints on the growth rate of structure. We consider two cases. Our first is based on measurements of the volumetric SNe Ia rate and assumes we can obtain spectroscopic redshifts and light curves for varying fractions of objects that are detected pre-peak luminosity by LSST (some of which may be obtained by LSST itself, and others that would require additional follow-up observations). We find that these measurements could produce growth rate constraints at z< 0.5 that significantly outperform those found using Redshift Space Distortions (RSD) with DESI or 4MOST, even though there are ∼ 4× fewer objects. For our second case, we use semi-analytic simulations and a prescription for the SNe Ia rate as a function of stellar mass and star-formation rate to predict the number of LSST SNe IA whose host redshifts may already have been obtained with the Taipan+WALLABY surveys or with a future multi-object spectroscopic survey. We find ∼18,000 and ∼160,000 SNe Ia with host redshifts for these cases, respectively. While this is only a fraction of the total LSST-detected SNe Ia, they could be used to significantly augment and improve the growth rate constraints compared to only RSD. Ultimately, we find that combining LSST SNe Ia with large numbers of galaxy redshifts will provide the most powerful probe of large-scale gravity in the z< 0.5 regime over the coming decades.

  13. Early observations of the nearby Type Ia supernova SN 2015F

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, R.; Sullivan, M.; Firth, R. E.; Pignata, G.; Mazzali, P.; Maguire, K.; Childress, M. J.; Arcavi, I.; Ashall, C.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S. M.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Inserra, C.; Johansson, J.; Kasai, E. K.; McCully, C.; Prajs, S.; Prentice, S.; Schulze, S.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Smith, M.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.

    2017-02-01

    We present photometry and time series spectroscopy of the nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2015F over -16 d to +80 d relative to maximum light, obtained as part of the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects. SN 2015F is a slightly sub-luminous SN Ia with a decline rate of Δm15(B) = 1.35 ± 0.03 mag, placing it in the region between normal and SN 1991bg-like events. Our densely sampled photometric data place tight constraints on the epoch of first light and form of the early-time light curve. The spectra exhibit photospheric C II λ6580 absorption until -4 days, and high-velocity Ca II is particularly strong at <-10 d at expansion velocities of ≃23 000 km s-1. At early times, our spectral modelling with SYN++ shows strong evidence for iron-peak elements (Fe II, Cr II, Ti II, and V II) expanding at velocities >14 000 km s-1, suggesting mixing in the outermost layers of the SN ejecta. Although unusual in SN Ia spectra, including V II in the modelling significantly improves the spectral fits. Intriguingly, we detect an absorption feature at ˜6800 Å that persists until maximum light. Our favoured explanation for this line is photospheric Al II, which has never been claimed before in SNe Ia, although detached high-velocity C II material could also be responsible. In both cases, the absorbing material seems to be confined to a relatively narrow region in velocity space. The nucleosynthesis of detectable amounts of Al II would argue against a low-metallicity white dwarf progenitor. We also show that this 6800 Å feature is weakly present in other normal SN Ia events and common in the SN 1991bg-like sub-class.

  14. ON THE LIRA LAW AND THE NATURE OF EXTINCTION TOWARD TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, Francisco; Gonzalez-Gaitan, Santiago; Folatelli, Gaston; Morrell, Nidia

    2013-07-20

    We have studied the relation between the color evolution of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from maximum light to the Lira law regime and the presence of narrow absorption features. Based on a nearby sample of 89 SNe Ia, we have found that the rate of change of B - V colors at late phases (between 35 and 80 days after maximum) varies significantly among different SNe Ia. At maximum light, faster Lira law B - V decliners have significantly higher equivalent widths of blended Na I D1 and D2 narrow absorption lines, redder colors, and lower R{sub V} reddening laws. We do not find faster Lira law B - V decliners to have a strong preference for younger galaxy environments, where higher interstellar material (ISM) column densities would be expected. We interpret these results as evidence for the presence of circumstellar material. The differences in colors and reddening laws found at maximum light are also present 55 days afterward, but unlike the colors at maximum they show a significant variation among different host galaxy morphological types. This suggests that the effect of ISM on the colors is more apparent at late times. Finally, we discuss how the transversal expansion of the ejecta in an inhomogeneous ISM could mimic some of these findings.

  15. NEBULAR SPECTRA AND EXPLOSION ASYMMETRY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, K.; Nomoto, K.; Taubenberger, S.; Mazzali, P.A.; Sollerman, J.; Leloudas, G.; Motohara, K.

    2010-01-10

    The spectral signatures of asymmetry in Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) explosions are investigated, using a sample of late-time nebular spectra. First, a kinematical model is constructed for SN Ia 2003hv, which can account for the main features in its optical, Near-Infrared (NIR), and Mid-Infrared (Mid-IR) late-time spectra. It is found that an asymmetric off-center model can explain the observed characteristics of SN 2003hv. This model includes a relatively high-density, Fe-rich region which displays a large velocity off-set, and a relatively low density, extended {sup 56}Ni-rich region which is more spherically distributed. The high-density region consists of the inner stable Fe-Ni region and outer {sup 56}Ni-rich region. Such a distribution may be the result of a delayed-detonation explosion, in which the first deflagration produces the global asymmetry in the innermost ejecta, while the subsequent detonation can lead to the bulk spherical symmetry. This configuration, if viewed from the direction of the off-set, can consistently explain the blueshift in some of the emission lines and virtually no observed shift in other lines in SN 2003hv. For this model, we then explore the effects of different viewing angles and the implications for SNe Ia in general. The model predicts that a variation of the central wavelength, depending on the viewing angle, should be seen in some lines (e.g., [Ni II] lambda7378), while the strongest lines (e.g., [Fe III] blend at approx4700 A) will not show this effect. By examining optical nebular spectra of 12 SNe Ia, we have found that such a variation indeed exists. We suggest that the global asymmetry in the innermost ejecta, as likely imprint of the deflagration flame propagation, is a generic feature of SNe Ia. It is also shown that various forbidden lines in the NIR and Mid-IR regimes provide strong diagnostics to further constrain the explosion geometry and thus the explosion mechanism.

  16. Type Ia supernova diversity: Studies of SN 2007qd, SN 2008Q and SN 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClelland, Colin M.

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) have proven to be incredibly useful as distance indicators and in nuclear astrophysics, but there remain many unanswered questions as to their nature. We examine three particular SN Ia at length in an attempt to provide constraints on both their theory and their application to cosmology. We first present SN 2007qd, one of the lowest-luminosity SN Ia ever discovered. It appears to belong to the SN 2002cx-like subclass of peculiar SN Ia. We observe and analyze the photospheric-phase spectra and photometry for this event and determine that, despite its extreme nature, it still appears to be a thermonuclear event rather than a core-collapse SN Ic. We also discover a possible relation between the luminosity and the low expansion velocities (2000˜7000 km/s) of similar events, and determine that they constitute a well-defined group of SN Ia. From the explosion kinematics and the content of the spectra, we argue that SN 2007qd was likely caused by a pure deflagration of a carbon and oxygen white dwarf. We then consider SN 2008Q, a SN Ia that exploded in the same early-type host galaxy as the peculiar SN 2000cx. This provided a chance for a direct comparison of two SN Ia at the same distance, extinction and host environment. We combine photometry from the ultraviolet through to the mid-infrared (MIR) and create a picture of how this SN evolved bolometrically over a span of two years. We discover that SN 2008Q was relatively bright in the ultraviolet, and characterize the possible existence of a class of SN Ia with similar UV excesses. We identify intrinsic differences between SN 2008Q and SN 2000cx, and discuss what this means for the variation in explosion and nebular physics in SN Ia events. We present next the mid-infrared and optical decay of SN 2011fe. This SN Ia exploded in the nearby galaxy M101, allowing observations of high signal-to-noise during the later phases. We examine this SN with Spitzer/IRAC MIR photometry and discover that the

  17. Supernova 2014J at M82 - II. Direct analysis of a middle-class Type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallely, Patrick; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Baron, E.; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Domínguez, I.; Galbany, Lluís; González Hernández, J. I.; Méndez, J.; Hamuy, M.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Catalán, S.; Cooke, E.; Fariña, C.; Génova-Santos, R.; Karjalainen, R.; Lietzen, H.; McCormac, J.; Riddick, F.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Skillen, I.; Tudor, V.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2016-08-01

    We analyse a time series of optical spectra of SN 2014J from almost two weeks prior to maximum to nearly four months after maximum. We perform our analysis using the SYNOW code, which is well suited to track the distribution of the ions with velocity in the ejecta. We show that almost all of the spectral features during the entire epoch can be identified with permitted transitions of the common ions found in normal supernovae (SNe) Ia in agreement with previous studies. We show that 2014J is a relatively normal SN Ia. At early times the spectral features are dominated by Si II, S II, Mg II, and Ca II. These ions persist to maximum light with the appearance of Na I and Mg I. At later times iron-group elements also appear, as expected in the stratified abundance model of the formation of normal Type Ia SNe. We do not find significant spectroscopic evidence for oxygen, until 100 d after maximum light. The +100 d identification of oxygen is tentative, and would imply significant mixing of unburned or only slight processed elements down to a velocity of 6000 kms-1. Our results are in relatively good agreement with other analyses in the infrared. We briefly compare SN 2011fe to SN 2014J and conclude that the differences could be due to different central densities at ignition or differences in the C/O ratio of the progenitors.

  18. Type Ia Supernova as Standard Candles in the Near Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood-Vasey, Michael; Garnavich, Peter; Matheson, Thomas; Jha, Saurabh; Rest, Armin; Allen, Lori

    2011-08-01

    We propose to observe 15 SNeIa in the near infrared (NIR) with WHIRC on the WIYN telescope during 12 nights of bright time in 2011B. These observations will create an infrared Hubble diagram extending to z~0.1 to verify recent evidence that SNIa are excellent standard candles in the NIR. We will observe 15 SNeIa at 0.02Ia to obtain detailed late-time light curves to measure SNIa color evolution in the near infrared where dust extinction is significantly reduced. In addition these NIR data will allow us to (1) explore the recent correlation between optical luminosity and host galaxy mass; (2) improve our understanding of intrinsic colors of SNeIa, (3) and study the nature of dust in galaxies beyond our Milky Way. Our ideal observing plan would consist of nights spaced every three days in each of four consecutive lunations in 2011B. This is a pilot proposal. If successful, this project will lead to a larger survey to obtain NIR luminosity distances to 100 SNeIa out to z<0.1 to provide a solid anchor for measuring luminosity distances in the Universe. We are not asking for long-term status at this time.

  19. Light-echo spectroscopy of historic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Oliver

    Young Galactic supernova remnants are unique laboratories for supernova physics. Due to their proximity they provide us with the most detailed view of the outcome of a supernova. However, the exact spectroscopic types of their original explosions have been undetermined so far -hindering to link the wealth of multi-wavelength knowledge about their remnants with the diverse population of supernovae. Light echoes, reflektions of the brilliant supernova burst of light by interstellar dust, provide a unique opportunity to reobserve today -with powerful scientific instruments of the 21st century -historic supernova exlosions even after hundreds of years and to conclude on their nature. We report on optical light-echo spectroscopy of two famous Galactic supernovae: Tycho Brahe's SN 1572 and the supernova that created the Cassiopeia A remnant around the year 1680. These observations finally recovered the missing spectroscopic classifications and provide new constraints on explosion models for future studies.

  20. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, R.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Johansson, J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Butler, R. P.; Cao, Y.; Cenko, S. B.; Doran, G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Freeland, E.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Lundqvist, P.; Mattila, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P. E.; Petrushevska, T.; Valenti, S.; Vogt, S.; Wozniak, P.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims: To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods: We have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results: Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions: Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. The nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those distances. Full Tables 2 and 3 are only

  1. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

    SciTech Connect

    Ferretti, R.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Johansson, J.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Butler, R. P.; Cao, Y.; Cenko, S. B.; Doran, G.; Filippenko, A. V.; Freeland, E.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; Lundqvist, P.; Mattila, S.; Nordin, J.; Nugent, P. E.; Petrushevska, T.; Valenti, S.; Vogt, S.; Wozniak, P.

    2016-07-18

    Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all of which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. In this paper, we have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. Finally, the nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those

  2. Time-varying sodium absorption in the Type Ia supernova 2013gh

    DOE PAGES

    Ferretti, R.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; ...

    2016-07-18

    Context. Temporal variability of narrow absorption lines in high-resolution spectra of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is studied to search for circumstellar matter. Time series which resolve the profiles of absorption lines such as Na I D or Ca II H&K are expected to reveal variations due to photoionisation and subsequent recombination of the gases. The presence, composition, and geometry of circumstellar matter may hint at the elusive progenitor system of SNe Ia and could also affect the observed reddening law. Aims. To date, there are few known cases of time-varying Na I D absorption in SNe Ia, all ofmore » which occurred during relatively late phases of the supernova (SN) evolution. Photoionisation, however, is predicted to occur during the early phases of SNe Ia, when the supernovae peak in the ultraviolet. We attempt, therefore, to observe early-time absorption-line variations by obtaining high-resolution spectra of SNe before maximum light. Methods. In this paper, we have obtained photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy of SNe Ia 2013gh and iPTF 13dge, to search for absorption-line variations. Furthermore, we study interstellar absorption features in relation to the observed photometric colours of the SNe. Results. Both SNe display deep Na I D and Ca II H&K absorption features. Furthermore, small but significant variations are detected in a feature of the Na I D profile of SN 2013gh. The variations are consistent with either geometric effects of rapidly moving or patchy gas clouds or photoionisation of Na I gas at R ≈ 1019 cm from the explosion. Conclusions. Our analysis indicates that it is necessary to focus on early phases to detect photoionisation effects of gases in the circumstellar medium of SNe Ia. Different absorbers such as Na I and Ca II can be used to probe for matter at different distances from the SNe. Finally, the nondetection of variations during early phases makes it possible to put limits on the abundance of the species at those

  3. Constraining f (T ,T ) gravity models using type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sáez-Gómez, Diego; Carvalho, C. Sofia; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Tereno, Ismael

    2016-07-01

    We present an analysis of an f (T ,T ) extension of the Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity, where T denotes the torsion and T denotes the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. This extension includes nonminimal couplings between torsion and matter. In particular, we construct two specific models that recover the usual continuity equation, namely, f (T ,T )=T +g (T ) and f (T ,T )=T ×g (T ). We then constrain the parameters of each model by fitting the predicted distance modulus to that measured from type Ia supernovae and find that both models can reproduce the late-time cosmic acceleration. We also observe that one of the models satisfies well the observational constraints and yields a goodness-of-fit similar to the Λ CDM model, thus demonstrating that f (T ,T ) gravity theory encompasses viable models that can be an alternative to Λ CDM .

  4. Type Ia Supernovae: Burning and Detonation in the Distributed Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    2007-10-01

    A simple, semianalytic representation is developed for nuclear burning in Type Ia supernovae in the special case where turbulent eddies completely disrupt the flame. The speed and width of the ``distributed'' flame front are derived. For the conditions considered, the burning front can be considered as a turbulent flame brush composed of corrugated sheets of well-mixed flames. These flames are assumed to have a quasi-steady state structure similar to the laminar flame structure, but controlled by turbulent diffusion. Detonations cannot appear in the system as long as distributed flames are still quasi-steady state, but this condition is violated when the distributed flame width becomes comparable to the size of the largest turbulent eddies. When this happens, a transition to detonation may occur. For current best estimates of the turbulent energy, the most likely density for the transition to detonation is in the range (0.5-1.5)×107 g cm-3.

  5. Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Filippenko, Alexei Vladimir

    2014-05-09

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; exploding white-dwarf stars) were the key to the Nobel-worthy 1998 discovery and subsequent verification that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, driven by the effects of dark energy. Understanding the nature of this mysterious, yet dominant, component of the Universe is at the forefront of research in cosmology and fundamental physics. SNe Ia will continue to play a leading role in this enterprise, providing precise cosmological distances that improve constraints on the nature of dark energy. However, for this effort to succeed, we need to more thoroughly understand relatively nearby SNe Ia, because our conclusions come only from comparisons between them and distant (high-redshift) SNe Ia. Thus, detailed studies of relatively nearby SNe Ia are the focus of this research program. Many interesting results were obtained during the course of this project; these were published in 32 refereed research papers that acknowledged the grant. A major accomplishment was the publication of supernova (SN) rates derived from about a decade of operation of the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) with the 0.76-meter Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope (KAIT). We have determined the most accurate rates for SNe of different types in large, nearby galaxies in the present-day Universe, and these can be compared with SN rates far away (and hence long ago in the past) to set constraints on the types of stars that explode. Another major accomplishment was the publication of the light curves (brightness vs. time) of 165 SNe Ia, along with optical spectroscopy of many of these SNe as well as other SNe Ia, providing an extensive, homogeneous database for detailed studies. We have conducted intensive investigations of a number of individual SNe Ia, including quite unusual examples that allow us to probe the entire range of SN explosions and provide unique insights into these objects and the stars before they explode. My team's studies have also led

  6. Ultraviolet observations of Super-Chandrasekhar mass type Ia supernova candidates with swift UVOT

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter J.; Smitka, Michael T.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Wang, Lifan; Kuin, Paul; De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Scalzo, Richard; Holland, Stephen; Milne, Peter

    2014-05-20

    Among Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a class of overluminous objects exist whose ejecta mass is inferred to be larger than the canonical Chandrasekhar mass. We present and discuss the UV/optical photometric light curves, colors, absolute magnitudes, and spectra of three candidate Super-Chandrasekhar mass SNe—2009dc, 2011aa, and 2012dn—observed with the Swift Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope. The light curves are at the broad end for SNe Ia, with the light curves of SN 2011aa being among the broadest ever observed. We find all three to have very blue colors which may provide a means of excluding these overluminous SNe from cosmological analysis, though there is some overlap with the bluest of 'normal' SNe Ia. All three are overluminous in their UV absolute magnitudes compared to normal and broad SNe Ia, but SNe 2011aa and 2012dn are not optically overluminous compared to normal SNe Ia. The integrated luminosity curves of SNe 2011aa and 2012dn in the UVOT range (1600-6000 Å) are only half as bright as SN 2009dc, implying a smaller {sup 56}Ni yield. While it is not enough to strongly affect the bolometric flux, the early time mid-UV flux makes a significant contribution at early times. The strong spectral features in the mid-UV spectra of SNe 2009dc and 2012dn suggest a higher temperature and lower opacity to be the cause of the UV excess rather than a hot, smooth blackbody from shock interaction. Further work is needed to determine the ejecta and {sup 56}Ni masses of SNe 2011aa and 2012dn and to fully explain their high UV luminosities.

  7. A reddening-free method to estimate the 56Ni mass of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, S.; Leibundgut, B.; Spyromilio, J.; Blondin, S.

    2016-04-01

    The increase in the number of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) has demonstrated that the population shows greater diversity than has been assumed in the past. The reasons (e.g. parent population, explosion mechanism) for this diversity remain largely unknown. We investigated a sample of SNe Ia near-infrared light curves and correlated the phase of the second maximum with the bolometric peak luminosity. The peak bolometric luminosity is related to the time of the second maximum (relative to the B light curve maximum) as follows: Lmax(1043 erg s-1) = (0.039 ± 0.004) × t2(J)(days) + (0.013 ± 0.106). 56Ni masses can be derived from the peak luminosity based on Arnett's rule, which states that the luminosity at maximum is equal to the instantaneous energy generated by the nickel decay. We checked this assumption against recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models and find this assumption is valid to within 10% in recent radiative-transfer calculations of Chandrasekhar-mass delayed detonation models. The Lmax vs. t2 relation is applied to a sample of 40 additional SNe Ia with significant reddening (E(B - V) > 0.1 mag), and a reddening-free bolometric luminosity function of SNe Ia is established. The method is tested with the 56Ni mass measurement from the direct observation of γ-rays in the heavily absorbed SN 2014J and found to be fully consistent. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, in particular SN 2007if, do not follow the relations between peak luminosity and second IR maximum. This may point to an additional energy source contributing at maximum light. The luminosity function of SNe Ia is constructed and is shown to be asymmetric with a tail of low-luminosity objects and a rather sharp high-luminosity cutoff, although it might be influenced by selection effects.

  8. Cepheid Calibration of the Peak Brightness of Type IA Supernovae: Calibration of SN 1990N in NGC 4639 Averaged with Six Earlier Type IA Supernova Calibrations to Give H 0 Directly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Allan; Saha, A.; Tammann, G. A.; Labhardt, Lukas; Panagia, N.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1996-03-01

    Periods and light curves have been measured with the Hubble Space Telescope for 20 Cepheids in NGC 4639, parent galaxy to the Type Ia, prototypical supernova SN 1990N. The periods range from 17 to 69 days. The mean apparent magnitudes, averaged over the light curves, range from = 25.6 to = 27.3. Well-determined period-luminosity relations exist in V and I. Corrected for differential extinction, these give a true modulus for NGC 4639 of (m - M)0 = 32.00 +/- 0.23. Combining the light curves for SN 1990N with this modulus gives MB(max) = -19.30 +/- 0.23 and MV(max) = -19.39 +/- 0.23. This, together with six previous calibrations of Type Ia supernovae, gives the mean calibrations of "Branch normal" supernovae to date as = -19.47 +/- 0.07 and = -19.48 +/- 0.07. The resulting Hubble constants, reading the Type Ia supernova Hubble diagrams at very large redshifts beyond any possible local velocity anomalies, give global values of the Hubble constant of H0(B) = 56 +/- 4 (internal) km s-1 Mpc-1 and H0(V) = 58 +/- 4 (internal) km s-1 Mpc-1.

  9. High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from a Compact Circumstellar Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-05-01

    High-velocity features (HVF) of Ca prior to B-band maximum light are a ubiquitous property of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), but the origin of this high-velocity material is unknown. It may result from ejection of material during the explosion, detonation of material on the surface prior to the supernova or interaction with a companion or material in the nearby environment. Here, we introduce the methods we use to simulate the interaction of SN Ia ejecta with a shell of material surrounding the progenitor at a distance of less than 1 R⊙. Assuming free expansion, constant ion state and excitation temperature, we generate synthetic spectra from the data showing the effect of equation of state, explosion model, and the width, initial density profile and mass of the shell on the appearance and temporal evolution of the Ca ii near-infrared triplet (CaNIR). The Ca abundance of the shell is taken to be a free parameter. We compare the evolution of the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the CaNIR feature resulting from these models to observational results from Silverman et al. We find that the mass of the shell must be less than 0.012 ± 0.004 M⊙. We discuss potential ambiguities in observational methods of determining the pEW of the HVF.

  10. High-Velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from a Compact Circumstellar Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Brian W.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2017-01-01

    High-velocity features (HVF) of Ca prior to B-band maximum light are a ubiquitous property of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), but the origin of this high-velocity material is unknown. It may result from ejection of material during the explosion, detonation of material on the surface prior to the supernova, or interaction with a companion or material in the nearby environment. Here we introduce the methods we use to simulate the interaction of SN Ia ejecta with a shell of material surrounding the progenitor at a distance of less than 1 R⊙. Assuming free expansion, constant ion state and excitation temperature, we generate synthetic spectra from the data showing the effect of equation of state, explosion model, and the width, initial density profile, and mass of the shell on the appearance and temporal evolution of the Ca II near-infrared triplet (CaNIR). The Ca abundance of the shell is taken to be a free parameter. We compare the evolution of the pseudo-equivalent width (pEW) of the CaNIR feature resulting from these models to observational results. We find that the mass of the shell must be less than 0.012 ± 0.004 M⊙. We discuss potential ambiguities in observational methods of determining the pEW of the HVF.

  11. Discovery and Follow-up Observations of the Young Type Ia Supernova 2016coj

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, WeiKang; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Mauerhan, Jon; Graham, Melissa L.; Yuk, Heechan; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Rui, Liming; Arbour, Ron; Foley, Ryan J.; Abolfathi, Bela; Abramson, Louis E.; Arcavi, Iair; Barth, Aaron J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Brandel, Andrew P.; Cooper, Michael C.; Cosens, Maren; Fillingham, Sean P.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Halevi, Goni; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsyu, Tiffany; Kelly, Patrick L.; Kumar, Sahana; Li, Linyi; Li, Wenxiong; Malkan, Matthew A.; Manzano-King, Christina; McCully, Curtis; Nugent, Peter E.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Pei, Liuyi; Scott, Bryan; Sexton, Remington Oliver; Shivvers, Isaac; Stahl, Benjamin; Treu, Tommaso; Valenti, Stefano; Vogler, H. Alexander; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-05-01

    The Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2016coj in NGC 4125 (redshift z = 0.00452 ± 0.00006) was discovered by the Lick Observatory Supernova Search 4.9 days after the fitted first-light time (FFLT; 11.1 days before B-band maximum). Our first detection (prediscovery) is merely 0.6 ± 0.5 days after the FFLT, making SN 2016coj one of the earliest known detections of an SN Ia. A spectrum was taken only 3.7 hr after discovery (5.0 days after the FFLT) and classified as a normal SN Ia. We performed high-quality photometry, low- and high-resolution spectroscopy, and spectropolarimetry, finding that SN 2016coj is a spectroscopically normal SN Ia, but the velocity of Si ii λ6355 around peak brightness (˜12,600 {km} {{{s}}}-1) is a bit higher than that of typical normal SNe. The Si ii λ6355 velocity evolution can be well fit by a broken-power-law function for up to a month after the FFLT. SN 2016coj has a normal peak luminosity ({M}B≈ -18.9+/- 0.2 mag), and it reaches a B-band maximum ˜16.0 days after the FFLT. We estimate there to be low host-galaxy extinction based on the absence of Na i D absorption lines in our low- and high-resolution spectra. The spectropolarimetric data exhibit weak polarization in the continuum, but the Si ii line polarization is quite strong (˜0.9% ± 0.1%) at peak brightness.

  12. Constraints on holographic dark energy from type Ia supernova observations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xin; Wu Fengquan

    2005-08-15

    In this paper, we use the type Ia supernovae data to constrain the holographic dark energy model proposed by Li. We also apply a cosmic age test to this analysis. We consider in this paper a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a matter component and a holographic dark energy component. The fit result shows that the case c<1 (c=0.21) is favored, which implies that the holographic dark energy behaves as a quintom-type dark energy. Furthermore, we also perform a joint analysis of SNe+CMB+LSS to this model; the result is well improved and still upholds the quintom dark energy conclusion. The best fit results in our analysis are c=0.81, {omega}{sub m}{sup 0}=0.28, and h=0.65, which lead to the present equation of state of dark energy w{sub 0}=-1.03 and the deceleration/acceleration transition redshift z{sub T}=0.63. Finally, an expected supernova/acceleration probe simulation using {lambda}CDM as a fiducial model is performed on this model, and the result shows that the holographic dark energy model takes on c<1 (c=0.92) even though the dark energy is indeed a cosmological constant.

  13. An absence of ex-companion stars in the type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Bradley E; Pagnotta, Ashley

    2012-01-11

    A type Ia supernova is thought to begin with the explosion of a white dwarf star. The explosion could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs (a 'double-degenerate' origin), or by mass transfer from a companion star (the 'single-degenerate' path). The identity of the progenitor is still controversial; for example, a recent argument against the single-degenerate origin has been widely rejected. One way to distinguish between the double- and single-degenerate progenitors is to look at the centre of a known type Ia supernova remnant to see whether any former companion star is present. A likely ex-companion star for the progenitor of the supernova observed by Tycho Brahe has been identified, but that claim is still controversial. Here we report that the central region of the supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5 (the site of a type Ia supernova 400 ± 50 years ago, based on its light echo) in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains no ex-companion star to a visual magnitude limit of 26.9 (an absolute magnitude of M(V) = +8.4) within a region of radius 1.43 arcseconds. (This corresponds to the 3σ maximum distance to which a companion could have been 'kicked' by the explosion.) This lack of any ex-companion star to deep limits rules out all published single-degenerate models for this supernova. The only remaining possibility is that the progenitor of this particular type Ia supernova was a double-degenerate system.

  14. An absence of ex-companion stars in the type Ia supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.; Pagnotta, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    A type Ia supernova is thought to begin with the explosion of a white dwarf star. The explosion could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs (a `double-degenerate' origin), or by mass transfer from a companion star (the `single-degenerate' path). The identity of the progenitor is still controversial; for example, a recent argument against the single-degenerate origin has been widely rejected. One way to distinguish between the double- and single-degenerate progenitors is to look at the centre of a known type Ia supernova remnant to see whether any former companion star is present. A likely ex-companion star for the progenitor of the supernova observed by Tycho Brahe has been identified, but that claim is still controversial. Here we report that the central region of the supernova remnant SNR 0509-67.5 (the site of a type Ia supernova 400 +/- 50 years ago, based on its light echo) in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains no ex-companion star to a visual magnitude limit of 26.9 (an absolute magnitude of MV = +8.4) within a region of radius 1.43 arcseconds. (This corresponds to the 3σ maximum distance to which a companion could have been `kicked' by the explosion.) This lack of any ex-companion star to deep limits rules out all published single-degenerate models for this supernova. The only remaining possibility is that the progenitor of this particular type Ia supernova was a double-degenerate system.

  15. Intergalactic Dust and Observations of Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, Anthony

    1999-11-01

    Estimates of the cosmic star formation rate and of cluster metallicities independently imply that at z<~0.5 the gas in the universe has substantial average metallicity: 1/10<~Z/Zsolar<~1/3 for Ωgas=0.05. This metal density probably cannot be contained in known solar-metallicity galaxies of density parameter Ω*~0.004, implying significant enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM) by ejection of metals and dust from galaxies via winds, in mergers or in dust efflux driven by radiation pressure. Galaxies have a dust-to-metal ratio of ~0.5 in their interstellar media, but some fraction (1-f)>0 of this must be destroyed in the IGM or during the ejection process. Assuming the Draine & Lee dust model and preferential destruction of small grains (as destruction by sputtering would provide), I calculate the reddening and extinction of a uniform cosmological dust component in terms of f and the minimum grain size amin. Very small grains provide most of the reddening but less than half of the opacity for optical extinction. For f>~0.3 and amin>~0.1 μm, the intergalactic dust would be too gray to have been detected by its reddening, yet dense enough to be cosmologically important: it could account for the recently observed Type Ia supernova dimming at z~0.5 without cosmic acceleration. It would also have implications for galaxy counts and evolutionary studies and would contribute significantly to the cosmic infrared background (CIB). The importance of gray intergalactic dust of the described type can be tested by observations of z=0.5 supernovae in (rest) R-band or longer wavelengths and by the fluxes of a large sample of supernovae at z>1.

  16. The spherical distribution of Type Ia supernovae in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkhudaryan, L. V.; Hakobyan, A. A.; Karapetyan, A. G.; Mamon, G. A.; Kunth, D.; Adibekyan, V.; Aramyan, L. S.; Turatto, M.

    2017-06-01

    We present an analysis of the distributions of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) in spherical component of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We find that the surface density distributions of SNe in Elliptical (E) and bulges of S0-Sd galaxies is mainly consistent with the both exponential and de Vaucouleurs profiles. Although the statistical insignificance, we see that for E galaxies the consistency is better with de Vaucoulerus profile, while for bulges of S0-Sd galaxies with the exponential profile. In addition, the distributions of projected galactocentric radii of Type Ia SNe in E and in bulges of lenticular (S0-S0/a) galaxies are consistent with each other, while the same distributions in E and in bulges of spiral (Sa-Sd) galaxies are significantly different. These results can be explained by the similar ages of the stellar populations in E and bulges of lenticular galaxies, while the stellar population of E galaxies is significantly older than that of bulges of spiral galaxies.

  17. Type Ia Supernovae as Distance Indicators: From the Ultraviolet to the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, S.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P. M.; Garnavich, P. M.

    2000-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) have proven to be excellent distance indicators, with an overall homogeneity which yields a good standard candle. A quantifiable heterogeneity, in the form of the SN light curve shape, sharpens our cosmological tool, turning a good standard candle into an excellent calibrated candle. The combination of high luminosity and high precision provides many applications of these distance indicators, from precise verification of the Hubble Law and measurement of the Hubble constant to the measurement of the expansion history and geometry of the Universe, with the tantalizing possibility that the Universe is accelerating at the current epoch. Almost all of these results rely on photometric observations of SN Ia in the rest-frame optical B, V, R and I passbands. Through a study at the CfA over the last few years, we have expanded this domain, observing a large sample of nearby SN Ia with attention to the near ultraviolet (U-band) and the near infrared (J, H, K) in an effort to refine our understanding of these stellar explosions as well as refine their use as distance indicators. The rest-frame U-band data is particularly relevant to comparisons with SN Ia at high redshift, where rest-frame B and V shift into the observer-frame infrared. The rest-frame infrared data is excellent for untangling the effects of intrinsic variations of SN Ia luminosity from apparent variations due to extinction along the line of sight. We present results from our study, with applications to SN Ia near and far. This work has been supported in part by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship.

  18. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  19. DUST IN A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR: SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-08-10

    Characterization of the relatively poorly understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's supernova remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 {mu}m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 {mu}m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally heated dust emission from fast shocks (>1000 km s{sup -1}) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are {approx}80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km s{sup -1}) into moderate density material (n{sub 0} {approx} 50-250 cm{sup -3}) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  20. SPIN-UP/SPIN-DOWN MODELS FOR TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefano, R. Di; Voss, R.

    2011-09-01

    In the single-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a white dwarf (WD) must gain a significant amount of matter from a companion star. Because the accreted mass carries angular momentum, the WD is likely to achieve fast spin periods, which can increase the critical mass, M{sub crit}, needed for explosion. When M{sub crit} is higher than the maximum mass achieved by the WD, the central regions of the WD must spin down before it can explode. This introduces super-Chandrasekhar single-degenerate explosions, and a delay between the completion of mass gain and the time of the explosion. Matter ejected from the binary during mass transfer therefore has a chance to become diffuse, and the explosion occurs in a medium with a density similar to that of typical regions of the interstellar medium. Also, either by the end of the WD's mass increase or else by the time of explosion, the donor may exhaust its stellar envelope and become a WD. This alters, generally diminishing, explosion signatures related to the donor star. Nevertheless, the spin-up/spin-down model is highly predictive. Prior to explosion, progenitors can be super-M{sub Ch} WDs in either wide binaries with WD companions or cataclysmic variables. These systems can be discovered and studied through wide-field surveys. Post-explosion, the spin-up/spin-down model predicts a population of fast-moving WDs, low-mass stars, and even brown dwarfs. In addition, the spin-up/spin-down model provides a paradigm which may be able to explain both the similarities and the diversity observed among SNe Ia.

  1. Spin-up/Spin-down Models for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.; Voss, R.; Claeys, J. S. W.

    2011-09-01

    In the single-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a white dwarf (WD) must gain a significant amount of matter from a companion star. Because the accreted mass carries angular momentum, the WD is likely to achieve fast spin periods, which can increase the critical mass, M crit, needed for explosion. When M crit is higher than the maximum mass achieved by the WD, the central regions of the WD must spin down before it can explode. This introduces super-Chandrasekhar single-degenerate explosions, and a delay between the completion of mass gain and the time of the explosion. Matter ejected from the binary during mass transfer therefore has a chance to become diffuse, and the explosion occurs in a medium with a density similar to that of typical regions of the interstellar medium. Also, either by the end of the WD's mass increase or else by the time of explosion, the donor may exhaust its stellar envelope and become a WD. This alters, generally diminishing, explosion signatures related to the donor star. Nevertheless, the spin-up/spin-down model is highly predictive. Prior to explosion, progenitors can be super-M Ch WDs in either wide binaries with WD companions or cataclysmic variables. These systems can be discovered and studied through wide-field surveys. Post-explosion, the spin-up/spin-down model predicts a population of fast-moving WDs, low-mass stars, and even brown dwarfs. In addition, the spin-up/spin-down model provides a paradigm which may be able to explain both the similarities and the diversity observed among SNe Ia.

  2. Optical and Infrared Photometry of the Type Ia Supernovae 1991T, 1991bg, 1999ek, 2001bt, 2001cn, 2001cz, and 2002bo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Phillips, Mark M.; Candia, Pablo; Prieto, José Luis; Antezana, Roberto; Chassagne, Robin; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Espinoza, Juan; Garnavich, Peter M.; González, David; Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamuy, Mario; Ivanov, Vladimir D.; Krzemiński, Wojtek; Kulesa, Craig; McCarthy, Patrick; Moro-Martín, Amaya; Muena, César; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Persson, S. E.; Pinto, Philip A.; Roth, Miguel; Rubenstein, Eric P.; Stanford, S. Adam; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Zapata, Abner; Porter, Alain; Wischnjewsky, Marina

    2004-12-01

    We present optical and/or infrared photometry of the Type Ia supernovae SN 1991T, SN 1991bg, SN 1999ek, SN 2001bt, SN 2001cn, SN 2001cz, and SN 2002bo. All but one of these supernovae have decline rate parameters, Δm15(B), close to the median value of 1.1 for the whole class of Type Ia supernovae. The addition of these supernovae to the relationship between the near-infrared absolute magnitudes and Δm15(B) strengthens the previous relationships we have found in that the maximum light absolute magnitudes are essentially independent of the decline rate parameter. (SN 1991bg, the prototype of the subclass of fast-declining Type Ia supernovae, is a special case.) The dispersion in the Hubble diagram in JHK is only ~0.15 mag. The near-infrared properties of Type Ia supernovae continue to be excellent measures of the luminosity distances to the supernova host galaxies because of the need for only small corrections from the epoch of observation to maximum light, low dispersion in absolute magnitudes at maximum light, and the minimal reddening effects in the near-infrared.

  3. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  4. THE EARLIEST NEAR-INFRARED TIME-SERIES SPECTROSCOPY OF A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Roth, M.; Marion, G. H.; Kirshner, R. P.; Burns, C. R.; Freedman, W. L.; Persson, S. E.; Winge, C.; Gerardy, C. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Im, M.; Jeon, Y.; Pignata, G.; Stanishev, V.; and others

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I {lambda}1.0693 {mu}m is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II {lambda}1.0927 {mu}m velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The prominent break at {approx}1.5 {mu}m is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with {Delta}m{sub 15}(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  5. The Earliest Near-infrared Time-series Spectroscopy of a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Marion, G. H.; Phillips, M. M.; Burns, C. R.; Winge, C.; Morrell, N.; Contreras, C.; Freedman, W. L.; Kromer, M.; Gall, E. E. E.; Gerardy, C. L.; Höflich, P.; Im, M.; Jeon, Y.; Kirshner, R. P.; Nugent, P. E.; Persson, S. E.; Pignata, G.; Roth, M.; Stanishev, V.; Stritzinger, M.; Suntzeff, N. B.

    2013-04-01

    We present ten medium-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio near-infrared (NIR) spectra of SN 2011fe from SpeX on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) and Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) on Gemini North, obtained as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. This data set constitutes the earliest time-series NIR spectroscopy of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), with the first spectrum obtained at 2.58 days past the explosion and covering -14.6 to +17.3 days relative to B-band maximum. C I λ1.0693 μm is detected in SN 2011fe with increasing strength up to maximum light. The delay in the onset of the NIR C I line demonstrates its potential to be an effective tracer of unprocessed material. For the first time in a SN Ia, the early rapid decline of the Mg II λ1.0927 μm velocity was observed, and the subsequent velocity is remarkably constant. The Mg II velocity during this constant phase locates the inner edge of carbon burning and probes the conditions under which the transition from deflagration to detonation occurs. We show that the Mg II velocity does not correlate with the optical light-curve decline rate Δm 15(B). The prominent break at ~1.5 μm is the main source of concern for NIR k-correction calculations. We demonstrate here that the feature has a uniform time evolution among SNe Ia, with the flux ratio across the break strongly correlated with Δm 15(B). The predictability of the strength and the onset of this feature suggests that the associated k-correction uncertainties can be minimized with improved spectral templates.

  6. Optical Photometry of the Type Ia Supernova 1999ee and the Type Ib/c Supernova 1999ex in IC 5179

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stritzinger, Maximilian; Hamuy, Mario; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Smith, R. C.; Phillips, M. M.; Maza, José; Strolger, L.-G.; Antezana, Roberto; González, Luis; Wischnjewsky, Marina; Candia, Pablo; Espinoza, Juan; González, David; Stubbs, Christopher; Becker, A. C.; Rubenstein, Eric P.; Galaz, Gaspar

    2002-10-01

    We present UBVRIz light curves of the Type Ia SN 1999ee and the Type Ib/c SN 1999ex, both located in the galaxy IC 5179. SN 1999ee has an extremely well-sampled light curve spanning from 10 days before Bmax through 53 days after peak. Near maximum, we find systematic differences of ~0.05 mag in photometry measured with two different telescopes, even though the photometry is reduced to the same local standards around the supernova using the specific color terms for each instrumental system. We use models for our bandpasses and spectrophotometry of SN 1999ee to derive magnitude corrections (S-corrections) and remedy this problem. This exercise demonstrates the need of accurately characterizing the instrumental system before great photometric accuracies of Type Ia supernovae can be claimed. It also shows that this effect can have important astrophysical consequences, since a small systematic shift of 0.02 mag in the B-V color can introduce a 0.08 mag error in the extinction-corrected peak B magnitude of a supernova and thus lead to biased cosmological parameters. The data for the Type Ib/c SN 1999ex present us with the first ever observed shock breakout of a supernova of this class. These observations show that shock breakout occurred 18 days before Bmax and support the idea that Type Ib/c supernovae are due to the core collapse of massive stars rather than thermonuclear disruption of white dwarfs.

  7. Spitzer observations of SN 2014J and properties of mid-IR emission in Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, J.; Goobar, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Helou, G.; Masci, F.; Tinyanont, S.; Jencson, J.; Cao, Y.; Fox, O. D.; Kromer, M.; Amanullah, R.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Joshi, V.; Jerkstrand, A.; Kankare, E.; Prince, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    SN 2014J in M 82 is the closest Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) in decades. The proximity allows for detailed studies of supernova physics and provides insights into the circumstellar and interstellar environment. In this work, we analyse Spitzer mid-infrared (mid-IR) data of SN 2014J in the 3.6 and 4.5 μm wavelength range, together with several other nearby and well-studied SNe Ia. We compile the first composite mid-IR light-curve templates from our sample of SNe Ia, spanning the range from before peak brightness well into the nebular phase. Our observations indicate that SNe Ia form a very homogeneous class of objects at these wavelengths. Using the low-reddening supernovae for comparison, we constrain possible thermal emission from circumstellar dust around the highly reddened SN 2014J. We also study SNe 2006X and 2007le, where the presence of matter in the circumstellar environment has been suggested. No significant mid-IR excess is detected, allowing us to place upper limits on the amount of pre-existing dust in the circumstellar environment. For SN 2014J, Mdust ≲ 10- 5 M⊙ within rdust ∼ 1017 cm, which is insufficient to account for the observed extinction. Similar limits are obtained for SNe 2006X and 2007le.

  8. The Light Curve and Distance of the Kepler Supernova: News from Four Centuries Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar

    2017-06-01

    We study the light curve of SN 1604 using the historical data collected at the time of observation of the outburst. Comparing the supernova with recent SNe Ia of various rates of decline after maximum light, we find that this event looks like a normal SN Ia (stretch s close to 0.9 : 0.9 ± 0.13), a fact that is also favored by the late light curve. The supernova is heavily obscured by 2.7 ± 0.1 mag in V. We obtain an estimate of the distance to the explosion with a value of d=5+/- 0.7 {kpc}. This can help to settle ongoing discussions on the distance to the supernova. It also shows that this supernova is of the same kind as those of the SN Ia samples that we now use for cosmology.

  9. Improving Type Ia Supernova Standard Candle Cosmology Measurements Using Observations of Early-Type Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Joshua Evan

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the current standard-bearers for dark energy but face several hurdles for their continued success in future large surveys. For example, spectroscopic classification of the myriad SNe soon to be discovered will not be possible, and systematics from uncertainties in dust corrections and the evolution of SN demographics and/or empirical calibrations used to standardize SNe Ia must be studied. Through the identification of low-dust host galaxies and through increased understanding of both the SN - progenitor connections and empirical calibrations, host galaxy information may offer opportunities to improve the cosmological utility of SNe Ia. The first half of this thesis analyzes the sample of SNe Ia discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. Correlations between properties of SNe and their host galaxies are examined at high redshift. Using galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters, a model is developed to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, 6 early-type cluster member hosts and 11 SN Ia early-type field hosts are identified. For the first time at z > 0.9, the correlation between host galaxy type and the rise and fall time of SN Ia light curves is confirmed. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions of early-type galaxies also enables stellar mass measurements for these hosts. In combination with literature host mass measurements, these measurements are used to show, at z > 0.9, a hint of the correlation between host mass and Hubble residuals reported at lower redshift. By simultaneously fitting cluster galaxy formation histories and dust content to the scatter of the cluster red sequences, it is shown that dust reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely less

  10. Type Ia supernova rate at a redshift of ~;0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, G.; Afonso, C.; Alard, C.; Albert, J.N.; Aldering, G.; Amadon, A.; Andersen, J.; Ansari, R.; Aubourg, E.; Balland, C.; Bareyre,P.; Beaulieu, J.P.; Charlot, X.; Conley, A.; Coutures, C.; Dahlen, T.; Derue, F.; Fan, X.; Ferlet, R.; Folatelli, G.; Fouque, P.; Garavini, G.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Goldman, B.; Goobar, A.; Gould, A.; Graff, D.; Gros,M.; Haissinski, J.; Hamadache, C.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I.M.; deKat, J.; Kent, S.; Kim, A.; Lasserre, T.; LeGuillou, L.; Lesquoy, E.; Loup, C.; Magneville, C.; Marquette, J.B.; Maurice, E.; Maury, A.; Milsztajn, A.; Moniez, M.; Mouchet, M.; Newberg, H.; Nobili, S.; Palanque-Delabrouille,N.; Perdereau, O.; Prevot, L.; Rahal, Y.R.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Spiro, M.; Tisserand, P.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Vigroux,L.; Walton, N.A.; Zylberajch, S.

    2004-05-11

    We present the type Ia rate measurement based on two EROS supernova search campaigns (in 1999 and 2000). Sixteen supernovae identified as type Ia were discovered. The measurement of the detection efficiency, using a Monte Carlo simulation, provides the type Ia supernova explosion rate at a redshift {approx} 0.13. The result is 0.125{sub -0.034-0.028}{sup +0.044+0.028} h{sub 70}{sup 2} SNu where 1 SNu = 1 SN/10{sup 10} L{sub {circle_dot}}{sup B}/century. This value is compatible with the previous EROS measurement (Hardin et al. 2000), done with a much smaller sample, at a similar redshift. Comparison with other values at different redshifts suggests an evolution of the type Ia supernova rate.

  11. A CATALOG OF NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRA FROM TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, G. H.; Wheeler, J. C.; Robinson, E. L.; Hoeflich, P.; Gerardy, C. L.; Vacca, W. D.

    2009-09-15

    We present 41 near-infrared (NIR, 0.7-2.5 {mu}m) spectra from normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained at epochs ranging from 14 days before to 75 days with respect to the maximum light date in the V band. All data were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility using the SpeX instrument. We identify many spectral features, measure the Doppler velocities, and discuss the chemical distribution of explosion products in SNe Ia. We describe procedures for smoothing data, fitting continua, and measuring absorption features to ensure consistency for measurement and analysis. This sample provides the first opportunity to examine and compare a large number of SNe Ia in this wavelength region. NIR data are a rich source of information about explosion products whose signatures are blended or obscured in other spectral regions and NIR observations probe a greater radial depth than optical wavelengths. We analyze similarities and differences in the spectra and we show that the progressive development of spectral features for normal SNe Ia in the NIR is consistent with time. We confirm the presence of O I, Mg II, Ca II, Si II, Fe II, and Co II in these SNe. Possible identifications are made for S I, Si III, Mn II, and Fe III. There is no evidence in these data for H I, He I, C I, or C II. As the explosion products expand and cool, progressively deeper layers are revealed. Thus, a time sequence of spectra examines the chemical structure and provides direct evidence of the physical properties of SNe Ia from the outer layers to deep inside the SN. Measured Doppler velocities indicate that burning products in SNe Ia are distributed in distinct layers with no large-scale mixing. Carbon is not detected in these data, in agreement with previous results with NIR data establishing very low limits on carbon abundance in SNe Ia. Carbon burning products, O and Mg, are plentiful in the outer layers suggesting that the entire progenitor is burned in the explosion. The data provide a

  12. Whimper of a Bang: Documenting the Final Days of the Nearby Type Ia Supernova 2011fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Garnavich, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Large Binocular Telescope, we followed the evolution of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2011fe for an unprecedented 1840 days past B-band maximum light and over a factor of 7 million in flux. At 1840 days, the 4000-17000 Å quasi-bolometric luminosity is just (420+/- 20) {L}⊙ . By measuring the late-time quasi-bolometric light curve, we present the first confident detection of 57Co decay in a SN Ia light curve and estimate a mass ratio of {log}{(}57{Co}{/}56{Co})=-{1.59}-0.07+0.06. We do not have a clean detection of {}55{Fe}, but find a limit of {}55{Fe}{/}57{Co}< 0.22 with 99% confidence. These abundance ratios provide unique constraints on the progenitor system because the central density of the exploding white dwarf(s) dictates these nucleosynthetic yields. The observed ratios strongly prefer the lower central densities of double-degenerate models ({}55{Fe}{/}57{Co}=0.27) over the higher central densities of near-Chandrasekhar-mass single-degenerate models ({}55{Fe}{/}57{Co}=0.68). However, additional theoretical studies predicting isotopic yields from a broader range of progenitor systems are motivated by these unique observations. We will continue to observe SN 2011fe for another ˜600 days with HST and possibly beyond.

  13. Low mass SN IA and the late light curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgate, S. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Hand, K. P.

    1995-01-01

    The late bolometric light curves of type Ia supernovae, when measured accurately over several years, show an exponential decay with a 56d half-life over a drop in luminosity of 8 magnitudes (10 half-lives). The late-time light curve is thought to be governed by the decay of Co56, whose 77d half-life must then be modified to account for the observed decay time. Two mechanisms, both relying upon the positron fraction of the Co56 decay, have been proposed to explain this modification. One explanation requires a large amount of emission at infra-red wavelengths where it would not be detected. The other explanation has proposed a progressive transparency or leakage of the high energy positrons (Colgate, Petschek and Kriese). For the positrons to leak out of the expanding nebula at the required rate necessary to produce the modified 56d exponential, the mass of the ejecta from a one foe (1051 erg in kinetic energy) explosion must be small, Mejec = 0.4M(circle dot) with Mejec (proportional to) KE0.5. Thus, in this leakage explanation, any reasonable estimate of the total energy of the explosion requires that the ejected mass be very much less than the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4M(circle dot). This is very difficult to explain with the 'canonical' Chandrasekhar-mass thermonuclear explosion that disintegrates the original white dwarf star. This result leads us to pursue alternate mechanisms of type Ia supernovae. These mechanisms include sub-Chandrasekhar thermonuclear explosions and the accretion induced collapse of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We will summarize the advantages and disadvantages of both mechanisms with considerable detail spent on our new accretion induced collapse simulations. These mechanisms lead to lower Ni56 production and hence result in type Ia supernovae with luminosities decreased down to (approximately) 50% that predicted by the 'standard' model.

  14. Determining The Progenitors Of Type Ia Supernovae From Their Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Schuyler; Strolger, L.; Pease, A.; Gott, A.

    2010-01-01

    We present a recalculation of the rates of supernovae in local, low redshift (z<0.1) from the Nearby Galaxies Supernovae Search Project (Strolger, 2003) using improved baselines designed to maximize SNe yield. Approximately 15 additional SNe of various types and ages have been discovered from the dataset and added to the 42 SNe already detected. This sample is sufficient to obtain a more accurate rate of SNe in the local universe. The rates are weighted by volume, total light, and host galaxy type. Further spectroscopic data for the progenitor galaxies of each event will allow us to compare the rates using various galaxy properties. Contributions include an estimate of the precision and depth of the survey with false supernovae, and estimated luminosity function using literature estimates, and determining the control times for the survey to correct for the cadence and sensitivity of the survey. We present a detailed description of the resurveying of the NGSS dataset, the rate calculations, and the preliminary results. This research is supported by the Kentucky Space Grant Consortium, which is funded by a NASA Training Grant as part of the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program.

  15. Measuring Type Ia Supernova Populations of Stretch and Color and Predicting Distance Biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scolnic, D.; Kessler, R.

    2016-05-01

    Simulations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) surveys are a critical tool for correcting biases in the analysis of SNe Ia to infer cosmological parameters. Large-scale Monte Carlo simulations include a thorough treatment of observation history, measurement noise, intrinsic scatter models, and selection effects. In this Letter, we improve simulations with a robust technique to evaluate the underlying populations of SN Ia color and stretch that correlate with luminosity. In typical analyses, the standardized SN Ia brightness is determined from linear “Tripp” relations between the light curve color and luminosity and between stretch and luminosity. However, this solution produces Hubble residual biases because intrinsic scatter and measurement noise result in measured color and stretch values that do not follow the Tripp relation. We find a 10σ bias (up to 0.3 mag) in Hubble residuals versus color and 5σ bias (up to 0.2 mag) in Hubble residuals versus stretch in a joint sample of 920 spectroscopically confirmed SN Ia from PS1, SNLS, SDSS, and several low-z surveys. After we determine the underlying color and stretch distributions, we use simulations to predict and correct the biases in the data. We show that removing these biases has a small impact on the low-z sample, but reduces the intrinsic scatter σ int from 0.101 to 0.083 in the combined PS1, SNLS, and SDSS sample. Past estimates of the underlying populations were too broad, leading to a small bias in the equation of state of dark energy w of Δw = 0.005.

  16. HEAD-ON COLLISIONS OF WHITE DWARFS IN TRIPLE SYSTEMS COULD EXPLAIN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Kushnir, Doron; Katz, Boaz; Dong, Subo; Fernández, Rodrigo; Livne, Eli

    2013-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO-WDs), are currently the best cosmological ''standard candles'', but the triggering mechanism of the explosion is unknown. It was recently shown that the rate of head-on collisions of typical field CO-WDs in triple systems may be comparable to the SNe Ia rate. Here we provide evidence supporting a scenario in which the majority of SNe Ia are the result of such head-on collisions of CO-WDs. In this case, the nuclear detonation is due to a well understood shock ignition, devoid of commonly introduced free parameters such as the deflagration velocity or transition to detonation criteria. By using two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with a fully resolved ignition process, we show that zero-impact-parameter collisions of typical CO-WDs with masses 0.5-1 M {sub ☉} result in explosions that synthesize {sup 56}Ni masses in the range of ∼0.1-1 M {sub ☉}, spanning the wide distribution of yields observed for the majority of SNe Ia. All collision models yield the same late-time (≳ 60 days since explosion) bolometric light curve when normalized by {sup 56}Ni masses (to better than 30%), in agreement with observations. The calculated widths of the {sup 56}Ni-mass-weighted line-of-sight velocity distributions are correlated with the calculated {sup 56}Ni yield, agreeing with the observed correlation. The strong correlation, shown here for the first time, between {sup 56}Ni yield and total mass of the colliding CO-WDs (insensitive to their mass ratio), is suggestive as the source for the continuous distribution of observed SN Ia features, possibly including the Philips relation.

  17. Supernovae: lights in the darkness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Every year, at the end of the summer, the Section of Physics and Technique of the "Institut Menorquí d'Estudis" and the "Societat Catalana de Física" organize the "Trobades Científiques de la Mediterrània" with the support of several academic institutions. The 2007 edition has been devoted to stellar explosions, the true evolutionary engines of galaxies. Whenever a star explodes, it injects into the interstellar medium a kinetic energy of 1051 erg and between one and several solar masses of newly synthesized elements as a result of the thermonuclear reactions that have taken place within the stellar interior. Two mechanisms are able to provide these enormous amounts of energy: one of them thermonuclear and the other, gravitational. Thermonuclear supernovae are the result of the incineration of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf that is the compact star of a binary stellar system. If the two stars are sufficiently close to each other, the white dwarf accretes matter from its companion, approaches the mass of Chandrasekhar, and ends up exploding. The processes previous to the explosion, the explosion itself, as well as the exact nature of the double stellar system that explodes, are still a matter of discussion. This point is particularly important because these explosions, known as Type Ia Supernovae, are very homogenous and can be used to measure cosmological distances. The most spectacular result obtained, is the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, but it still feels uncomfortable that such a fundamental result is based on a "measuring system" whose origin and behaviour in time is unknown. At the end of their lives, massive stars generate an iron nucleus that gets unstable when approaching the Chandrasekhar mass. Its collapse gives rise to the formation of a neutron star or a black hole, and the external manifestation of the energy that is released, about a 1053 erg, consists of a Type II or Ib/c supernova, of a Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) or even of

  18. Optimization of Type Ia Supernovae Selection, Photometric Typing, and Cosmology Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjergo, Eda; Duggan, Jefferson; Cunningham, John; Kuhlmann, Steve; Biswas, Rahul; Kovacs, Eve

    2012-03-01

    We present results of an optimization study of selection criteria and photometric identification of Type Ia supernovae. The optimization study is the first to include detailed constraints on cosmology, including a time-dependent component of accelerated expansion. The study is performed on a simulated sample of Type Ia and core collapse supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey. In the next decade the number of detected Type Ia supernovae will increase dramatically (Bernstein et al. 2011, Abel et al. 2009), surpassing the resources available for spectroscopic confirmation of each supernova. This has produced an increased interest in the photometric identification of Type Ia supernovae. In order to improve the constraints on the accelerated expansion of the universe, discovered with Type Ia supernovae in the 1990's (Ries et al. 1998, Perlmutter et al. 1999), photometric typing of SN must be very robust. In this study we compare the template-based PSNID algorithm (Sako et al. 2010), with two Type Ia models MLCS2k2 (Riess et al. 2009) and SALT2 (Guy et al. 2007). We allow the pre-selection cuts, based on signal-to-noise ratios, to vary for each model. The optimal model plus pre-selection cuts is determined from the best cosmology constraint.

  19. An asymmetric explosion as the origin of spectral evolution diversity in type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Benetti, S; Stritzinger, M; Röpke, F K; Folatelli, G; Sollerman, J; Taubenberger, S; Nomoto, K; Leloudas, G; Hamuy, M; Tanaka, M; Mazzali, P A; Elias-Rosa, N

    2010-07-01

    Type Ia supernovae form an observationally uniform class of stellar explosions, in that more luminous objects have smaller decline-rates. This one-parameter behaviour allows type Ia supernovae to be calibrated as cosmological 'standard candles', and led to the discovery of an accelerating Universe. Recent investigations, however, have revealed that the true nature of type Ia supernovae is more complicated. Theoretically, it has been suggested that the initial thermonuclear sparks are ignited at an offset from the centre of the white-dwarf progenitor, possibly as a result of convection before the explosion. Observationally, the diversity seen in the spectral evolution of type Ia supernovae beyond the luminosity-decline-rate relation is an unresolved issue. Here we report that the spectral diversity is a consequence of random directions from which an asymmetric explosion is viewed. Our findings suggest that the spectral evolution diversity is no longer a concern when using type Ia supernovae as cosmological standard candles. Furthermore, this indicates that ignition at an offset from the centre is a generic feature of type Ia supernovae.

  20. No signature of ejecta interaction with a stellar companion in three type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Olling, Rob P; Mushotzky, Richard; Shaya, Edward J; Rest, Armin; Garnavich, Peter M; Tucker, Brad E; Kasen, Daniel; Margheim, Steve; Filippenko, Alexei V

    2015-05-21

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to be the result of a thermonuclear runaway in carbon/oxygen white dwarfs, but it is uncertain whether the explosion is triggered by accretion from a non-degenerate companion star or by a merger with another white dwarf. Observations of a supernova immediately following the explosion provide unique information on the distribution of ejected material and the progenitor system. Models predict that the interaction of supernova ejecta with a companion star or circumstellar debris lead to a sudden brightening lasting from hours to days. Here we present data for three supernovae that are likely to be type Ia observed during the Kepler mission with a time resolution of 30 minutes. We find no signatures of the supernova ejecta interacting with nearby companions. The lack of observable interaction signatures is consistent with the idea that these three supernovae resulted from the merger of binary white dwarfs or other compact stars such as helium stars.

  1. ASASSN-17be: Discovery of A Type Ia Supernova in 2MASX J02031063-6141105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drout, M. R.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Shappee, B. J.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Thompson, T. A.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.

    2017-01-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new Type Ia supernova in the galaxy 2MASX J02031063-6141105.

  2. KISS: Discovery and Spectroscopic Classification of a Type Ia Supernova KISS15q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Jiang, Ji-an; Shibata, Takumi; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Mitsuda, Kazuma; Doi, Mamoru; Sako, Shigeyuki; Kikuchi, Yuki; Takahashi, Hidenori; Tateuchi, Ken; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Watanabe, Makoto; Nakao, Hikaru; Itoh, Yoichi; Morihana, Kumiko; Honda, Satoshi; Takagi, Yuhei; Takahashi, Jun; Takeishi, Masanori

    2015-05-01

    We report the discovery and spectroscopic identification of a Type Ia supernova, KISS15q. In Kiso Supernova Survey (KISS; Morokuma et al. 2014, PASJ, 66, 118), we found a transient object KISS15q of g=20.6 on May 19.60, 2015 UT in the g-band image.

  3. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  4. Constraining the double-degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae from merger ejected matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Naveh; Soker, Noam; García-Berro, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    We follow the mass expelled during the WD-WD merger process in a particular case of the double-degenerate (DD) scenario for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), and find that the interaction of the SN ejecta with the resulting wind affects the early (first day) light-curve in a way that may be in conflict with some SN Ia observations, if the detonation occurs shortly after the merger, i.e. (103 s ≲ texp ≲ 1 d). The main source of the expelled mass is a disc-wind, or jets that are launched by the accretion disc around the more massive white dwarf (WD) during the viscous phase of the merger. This disc-originated matter will be shocked and heated by the SN ejecta from an explosion, leading to additional radiation in the early light-curve. This enhanced early radiation could then be interpreted as an explosion originating from a progenitor having an inferred radius of one solar radius or more, in conflict with observations of SN 2011fe.

  5. A metric space for Type Ia supernova spectra: a new method to assess explosion scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasdelli, Michele; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.; Ishida, E. E. O.; Röpke, F. K.; Sim, S. A.; Pakmor, R.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Fink, M.

    2017-04-01

    Over the past years, Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have become a major tool to determine the expansion history of the Universe, and considerable attention has been given to, both, observations and models of these events. However, until now, their progenitors are not known. The observed diversity of light curves and spectra seems to point at different progenitor channels and explosion mechanisms. Here, we present a new way to compare model predictions with observations in a systematic way. Our method is based on the construction of a metric space for SN Ia spectra by means of linear principal component analysis, taking care of missing and/or noisy data, and making use of partial least-squares regression to find correlations between spectral properties and photometric data. We investigate realizations of the three major classes of explosion models that are presently discussed: delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass explosions, sub-Chandrasekhar-mass detonations and double-degenerate mergers, and compare them with data. We show that in the principal component space, all scenarios have observed counterparts, supporting the idea that different progenitors are likely. However, all classes of models face problems in reproducing the observed correlations between spectral properties and light curves and colours. Possible reasons are briefly discussed.

  6. Late-time Photometry of Type Ia Supernova SN 2012cg Reveals the Radioactive Decay of 57 Co

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graur, Or; Zurek, David; Shara, Michael M.; Riess, Adam G.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Rest, Armin

    2016-03-01

    Seitenzahl et al. have predicted that roughly three years after its explosion, the light we receive from a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) will come mostly from reprocessing of electrons and X-rays emitted by the radioactive decay chain 57Co → 57Fe, instead of positrons from the decay chain 56Co → 56Fe that dominates the SN light at earlier times. Using the Hubble Space Telescope, we followed the light curve of the SN Ia SN 2012cg out to 1055 days after maximum light. Our measurements are consistent with the light curves predicted by the contribution of energy from the reprocessing of electrons and X-rays emitted by the decay of 57Co, offering evidence that 57Co is produced in SN Ia explosions. However, the data are also consistent with a light echo ∼14 mag fainter than SN 2012cg at peak. Assuming no light-echo contamination, the mass ratio of 57Ni and 56Ni produced by the explosion, a strong constraint on any SN Ia explosion models, is {0.043}-0.011+0.012, roughly twice Solar. In the context of current explosion models, this value favors a progenitor white dwarf with a mass near the Chandrasekhar limit.

  7. SN 2007ir is a Type Ia supernova, M31 2007-10a is a FeII Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Quimby, Robert

    2007-10-01

    We observed SN 2007ir (Thrasher et al., CBET 1067; Silverman et al., CBET 1077) with the Double Beam Spectrograph (DBSP) on the Palomar 200" telescope on Oct. 9.48, UT. Comparison to archival supernova spectra via the Superfit package (Howell et al. 2005, ApJ, 634, 1190), shows that SN 2007ir is a Type Ia. The spectra are quite similar to SN 1994D at 25 days after maximum light (Patat et al., 1996, MNRAS, 278, 111).

  8. Low Mach Number Modeling of Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Zingale,Michael

    2005-08-05

    We introduce a low Mach number equation set for the large-scale numerical simulation of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs experiencing a thermonuclear deflagration. Since most of the interesting physics in a Type Ia supernova transpires at Mach numbers from 0.01 to 0.1, such an approach enables both a considerable increase in accuracy and savings in computer time compared with frequently used compressible codes. Our equation set is derived from the fully compressible equations using low Mach number asymptotics, but without any restriction on the size of perturbations in density or temperature. Comparisons with simulations that use the fully compressible equations validate the low Mach number model in regimes where both are applicable. Comparisons to simulations based on the more traditional an elastic approximation also demonstrate the agreement of these models in the regime for which the anelastic approximation is valid. For low Mach number flows with potentially finite amplitude variations in density and temperature, the low Mach number model overcomes the limitations of each of the more traditional models and can serve as the basis for an accurate and efficient simulation tool.

  9. Deflagrating white dwarfs: a Type Ia supernova model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, A. C.; Plewa, T.; Vladimirova, N.; Brown, E. F.; Lamb, D. Q.; Robinson, K.; Truran, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    We present multidimensional simulations of deflagrating Chandrasekhar-mass C/O white dwarfs for both centered and off-centered ignition. Type Ia supernovae are thought to be thermonuclear explosions of Chandrasekhar-mass C/O white dwarfs. These events are used as ``standard candles" for investigating the structure of the Universe and play a fundamental role in galactic chemical evolution. Despite their importance, the exact nature of the explosion mechanism remains unsolved. Observations of intermediate mass elements such as Si, S, Mg indicate that the explosion begins as a deflagration. Our simulations utilize a custom implementation of the ``thick flame" model of Khokhlov for the sub-grid-scale nuclear flame. We present results of an extensive 1- and 2-dimensional parameter study of these events. We present three-dimensional whole-star deflagrations investigating the effect of centered vs. off-center ignition. Our results indicate that a slightly off-center ignition leads to a result that is not compatible with observations, providing constraints on conditions in the central region of the white dwarf prior to ignition. This work was supported by the DOE ASCI/Alliances program at the University of Chicago under grant No. B341495.

  10. Implications of two type IA supernova populations for cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Holz, Daniel; Sarkar, Devdeep; Amelard, Alexandre; Cooray, Asantha

    2008-01-01

    Recent work suggests that Type Ia supernovae (SNe) are composed of two distinct populations: prompt and delayed. By explicitly incorporating properties of host galaxies, it may be possible to target and eliminate systematic differences between the putative prompt and delayed populations. However, any resulting post-calibration shift in luminosity between the components will cause a redshift-dependent systematic shift in the Hubble diagram. Utilizing an existing sample of 192 SNe, they find that the post-calibration average luminosity difference between prompt and delayed SNe is constrained to be (4.5 {+-} 8.9)%. If the absolute magnitude difference between the two populations is 0.025 and ignored when fitting for cosmological parameters with 2300 SNe, then the dark energy equation of state (EOS) is biased around 0.9{sigma}. This bias is reduced once the systematic effect is marginalized over, but with an increase in the uncertainty of the EOS. In the case no prior on the two population systematic is introduced, the EOS uncertainty is increased by a factor of 2.5 from that without the two population systematic effect in the SNe sample.

  11. Cosmic flows in the nearby universe from Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Stephen J.; Hudson, Michael J.; Feldman, Hume A.; Hicken, Malcolm; Kirshner, Robert P.; Watkins, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Peculiar velocities are one of the only probes of very large scale mass density fluctuations in the nearby Universe. We present new 'minimal variance' bulk flow measurements based upon the 'First Amendment' compilation of 245 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) peculiar velocities and find a bulk flow of 249 ± 76 km s-1 in the direction l= 319°± 18°, b= 7°± 14°. The SNe bulk flow is consistent with the expectations of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). However, it is also marginally consistent with the bulk flow of a larger compilation of non-SNe peculiar velocities. By comparing the SNe peculiar velocities to predictions of the IRAS Point Source Catalogue Redshift Survey (PSCz) galaxy density field, we find Ω0.55mσ8,lin= 0.40 ± 0.07, which is in agreement with ΛCDM. However, we also show that the PSCz density field fails to account for 150 ± 43 km s-1 of the SNe bulk motion.

  12. BAHAMAS: New Analysis of Type Ia Supernovae Reveals Inconsistencies with Standard Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Hikmatali; Jiao, Xiyun; Trotta, Roberto; van Dyk, David A.

    2016-08-01

    We present results obtained by applying our BAyesian HierArchical Modeling for the Analysis of Supernova cosmology (BAHAMAS) software package to the 740 spectroscopically confirmed supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia) from the “Joint Light-curve Analysis” (JLA) data set. We simultaneously determine cosmological parameters and standardization parameters, including corrections for host galaxy mass, residual scatter, and object-by-object intrinsic magnitudes. Combining JLA and Planck data on the cosmic microwave background, we find significant discrepancies in cosmological parameter constraints with respect to the standard analysis: we find {{{Ω }}}{{m}}=0.399+/- 0.027, 2.8σ higher than previously reported, and w=-0.910+/- 0.045, 1.6σ higher than the standard analysis. We determine the residual scatter to be {σ }{{res}}=0.104+/- 0.005. We confirm (at the 95% probability level) the existence of two subpopulations segregated by host galaxy mass, separated at {{log}}10(M/{M}⊙ )=10, differing in mean intrinsic magnitude by 0.055 ± 0.022 mag, lower than previously reported. Cosmological parameter constraints, however, are unaffected by the inclusion of corrections for host galaxy mass. We find ˜ 4σ evidence for a sharp drop in the value of the color correction parameter, β (z), at a redshift {z}t=0.662+/- 0.055. We rule out some possible explanations for this behavior, which remains unexplained.

  13. A New Approach for Obtaining Cosmological Constraints from Type Ia Supernovae using Approximate Bayesian Computation

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Elise; Wolf, Rachel; Sako, Masao

    2016-11-09

    Cosmological parameter estimation techniques that robustly account for systematic measurement uncertainties will be crucial for the next generation of cosmological surveys. We present a new analysis method, superABC, for obtaining cosmological constraints from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) without any likelihood assumptions. The ABC method works by using a forward model simulation of the data where systematic uncertainties can be simulated and marginalized over. A key feature of the method presented here is the use of two distinct metrics, the `Tripp' and `Light Curve' metrics, which allow us to compare the simulated data to the observed data set. The Tripp metric takes as input the parameters of models fit to each light curve with the SALT-II method, whereas the Light Curve metric uses the measured fluxes directly without model fitting. We apply the superABC sampler to a simulated data set of $\\sim$1000 SNe corresponding to the first season of the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program. Varying $\\Omega_m, w_0, \\alpha$ and $\\beta$ and a magnitude offset parameter, with no systematics we obtain $\\Delta(w_0) = w_0^{\\rm true} - w_0^{\\rm best \\, fit} = -0.036\\pm0.109$ (a $\\sim11$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Tripp metric and $\\Delta(w_0) = -0.055\\pm0.068$ (a $\\sim7$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Light Curve metric. Including 1% calibration uncertainties in four passbands, adding 4 more parameters, we obtain $\\Delta(w_0) = -0.062\\pm0.132$ (a $\\sim14$% 1$\\sigma$ uncertainty) using the Tripp metric. Overall we find a $17$% increase in the uncertainty on $w_0$ with systematics compared to without. We contrast this with a MCMC approach where systematic effects are approximately included. We find that the MCMC method slightly underestimates the impact of calibration uncertainties for this simulated data set.

  14. Sweetspot: Near-infrared observations of 13 type Ia supernovae from a new NOAO survey probing the nearby smooth Hubble flow

    SciTech Connect

    Weyant, Anja; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Allen, Lori; Joyce, Richard; Matheson, Thomas; Garnavich, Peter M.; Jha, Saurabh W.

    2014-04-01

    We present 13 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the rest-frame near-infrared (NIR) from 0.02 < z < 0.09 with the WIYN High-resolution Infrared Camera on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope. With only one to three points per light curve and a prior on the time of maximum from the spectrum used to type the object, we measure an H-band dispersion of spectroscopically normal SNe Ia of 0.164 mag. These observations continue to demonstrate the improved standard brightness of SNe Ia in an H band, even with limited data. Our sample includes two SNe Ia at z ∼ 0.09, which represent the most distant rest-frame NIR H-band observations published to date. This modest sample of 13 NIR SNe Ia represent the pilot sample for {sup S}weetSpot{sup —}a 3 yr NOAO Survey program that will observe 144 SNe Ia in the smooth Hubble flow. By the end of the survey we will have measured the relative distance to a redshift of z ∼ 0.05%-1%. Nearby Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations such as these will test the standard nature of SNe Ia in the rest-frame NIR, allow insight into the nature of dust, and provide a critical anchor for future cosmological SN Ia surveys at higher redshift.

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC PROPERTIES OF STAR-FORMING HOST GALAXIES AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA HUBBLE RESIDUALS IN A NEARLY UNBIASED SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Gupta, Ravi R.; Sako, Masao; Morris, Matt; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; Lampeitl, Hubert; Brown, Peter J.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Garnavich, Peter; Jha, Saurabh W.; Marriner, John; Schneider, Donald P.; Smith, Mathew

    2011-12-20

    We examine the correlation between supernova (SN) host-galaxy properties and their residuals in the Hubble diagram. We use SNe discovered during the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey, and focus on objects at a redshift of z < 0.15, where the selection effects of the survey are known to yield a complete Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) sample. To minimize the bias in our analysis with respect to measured host-galaxy properties, spectra were obtained for nearly all hosts, spanning a range in magnitude of -23 < M{sub r} < -17. In contrast to previous works that use photometric estimates of host mass as a proxy for global metallicity, we analyze host-galaxy spectra to obtain gas-phase metallicities and star formation rates (SFRs) from host galaxies with active star formation. From a final sample of {approx}40 emission-line galaxies, we find that light-curve-corrected SNe Ia are {approx}0.1 mag brighter in high-metallicity hosts than in low-metallicity hosts. We also find a significant (>3{sigma}) correlation between the Hubble Residuals of SNe Ia and the specific SFR of the host galaxy. We comment on the importance of SN/host-galaxy correlations as a source of systematic bias in future deep SN surveys.

  16. Sampling the probability distribution of Type Ia Supernova lightcurve parameters in cosmological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Mi; Wang, Yun

    2016-06-01

    In order to obtain robust cosmological constraints from Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data, we have applied Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to SN Ia lightcurve fitting. We develop a method for sampling the resultant probability density distributions (pdf) of the SN Ia lightcuve parameters in the MCMC likelihood analysis to constrain cosmological parameters, and validate it using simulated data sets. Applying this method to the `joint lightcurve analysis (JLA)' data set of SNe Ia, we find that sampling the SN Ia lightcurve parameter pdf's leads to cosmological parameters closer to that of a flat Universe with a cosmological constant, compared to the usual practice of using only the best-fitting values of the SN Ia lightcurve parameters. Our method will be useful in the use of SN Ia data for precision cosmology.

  17. Himalayan Chandra Telescope Observations of Type-Ia Supernova SN 2010at

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Brandon; Anupama, G.; Sahu, D. K.

    2012-01-01

    We present BVRI photometry and spectroscopy of Type Ia Supernova SN 2010at. SN 2010at is located in the MCG+13-09-010 galaxy (z =0.04) and was discovered on 03-19-2010. Our analysis focuses on the follow up observations taken with the 2-meter Himalayan Chandra Telescope from 2010-03-21 to 2010-05-24. We present the light curve and color evolution of SN 2010at, along with MLCS2k2 and SALT-II light curve fits. We find that SN 2010at's color and photometric evolution are similar to SN 1999ac, but SN 2010at is brighter at maximum. Spectroscopically, SN 2010at appears to be normal at early times. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation's Office of International Science and Education, Grant Number 0854436: International Research Experience for Students, and managed by the National Solar Observatory's Global Oscillation Network.

  18. An asymptotic-giant-branch star in the progenitor system of a type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, M M; Suntzeff, Nicholas B; Maza, José; González, L E; Roth, Miguel; Krisciunas, Kevin; Morrell, Nidia; Green, E M; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J

    2003-08-07

    Stars that explode as supernovae come in two main classes. A type Ia supernova is recognized by the absence of hydrogen and the presence of elements such as silicon and sulphur in its spectrum; this class of supernova is thought to produce the majority of iron-peak elements in the Universe. They are also used as precise 'standard candles' to measure the distances to galaxies. While there is general agreement that a type Ia supernova is produced by an exploding white dwarf star, no progenitor system has ever been directly observed. Significant effort has gone into searching for circumstellar material to help discriminate between the possible kinds of progenitor systems, but no such material has hitherto been found associated with a type Ia supernova. Here we report the presence of strong hydrogen emission associated with the type Ia supernova SN2002ic, indicating the presence of large amounts of circumstellar material. We infer from this that the progenitor system contained a massive asymptotic-giant-branch star that lost several solar masses of hydrogen-rich gas before the supernova explosion.

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Rate at z~0.5 from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, J. D.; Sullivan, M.; Balam, D.; Pritchet, C. J.; Howell, D. A.; Perrett, K.; Astier, P.; Aubourg, E.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fabbro, S.; Fouchez, D.; Guy, J.; Hook, I.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Taillet, R.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Arsenijevic, V.; Balland, C.; Baumont, S.; Bronder, J.; Ellis, R. S.; Filiol, M.; Gonçalves, A. C.; Hardin, D.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Lusset, V.; Mouchet, M.; Mourao, A.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Schlegel, D.; Tao, C.

    2006-09-01

    We present a measurement of the distant Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate derived from the first 2 yr of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Supernova Legacy Survey. We observed four 1deg×1deg fields with a typical temporal frequency of <Δt>~4 observer-frame days over time spans of 158-211 days per season for each field, with breaks during the full Moon. We used 8-10 m class telescopes for spectroscopic follow-up to confirm our candidates and determine their redshifts. Our starting sample consists of 73 spectroscopically verified SNe Ia in the redshift range 0.2Ia rate of rV(=0.47)=[0.42+0.13-0.09(syst.)+/-0.06(stat.)×10-4 yr-1 Mpc3, assuming h=0.7, Ωm=0.3, and a flat cosmology. Using recently published galaxy luminosity functions derived in our redshift range, we derive a SN Ia rate per unit luminosity of rL(=0.47)=0.154+0.048-0.033(syst.)+0.039-0.031(stat.) SN units. Using our rate alone, we place an upper limit on the component of SN Ia production that tracks the cosmic star formation history of 1 SN Ia per 103 Msolar of stars formed. Our rate and other rates from surveys using spectroscopic sample confirmation display only a modest evolution out to z=0.55. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) and CEA/DAPNIA, at CFHT, which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. This work is also based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Program 171.A-0486), and on observations (programs GN-2004A-Q-19, GS-2004A-Q-11

  20. Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: A Type Ia with CSM Interaction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Sankrit, Ravi; Winkler, P. Frank; Hendrick, Sean Patrick

    2014-08-01

    A small but growing subclass of Type Ia supernovae show signs of interaction with material in a circumstellar medium (CSM), likely the result of significant pre-supernova mass loss from the progenitor system. Among Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs), only the remnant of Kepler's supernova has been shown to be interacting with a dense CSM. We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. Thisdensity is similar to that in Kepler's SNR. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the ``18 $\\mu$m'' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic AGB progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  1. Mid-Infrared Signatures from Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with a Circumstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ori

    2016-08-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use as precise cosmological distance indicators due to a standardizable peak luminosity resulting from a thermonuclear explosion. A growing subset of SNe Ia, however, show evidence for interaction with a dense circumstellar medium during the first year post-explosion, and sometimes longer (SNe Ia-CSM). The origin of this dense CSM is unknown and suggests either a) the less typical single-degenerate progenitor scenario must be considered or b) the exploding star was not a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf at all (i.e., core-collapse). Mid-infrared (IR) observations, in particular, are critical for tracing the density profile of dust (and hence gas) in the surrounding CSM. Yet no Spitzer light curve exists for this subclass within the first year post-expolosion. Here we propose a 'low-impact' (>8 weeks) ToO to obtain 3 epochs of Spitzer imaging of a SN Ia-CSM within 100 Mpc over 1 year post-explosion. The strength of this program is that it will be in conjunction with pre-approved multi-wavelength programs on HST/STIS/UV (GO 13649), Chandra/ASIS-S (17500672), the Keck/LRIS optical spectrograph (U037LA), and the RATIR visible/infrared robotic imager. Requiring only 2.1 hours of observation total, this program will not only distinguish between the SN explosion mechanisms, but also trace CSM interaction, constrain the progenitor mass loss history, and identify late-time heating mechanisms of warm dust.

  2. High-velocity Line Forming Regions in the Type Ia Supernova 2009ig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Foley, Ryan J.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brown, Peter J.; Challis, Peter; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s-1) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between -14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (MB = -19.46 mag and Δm 15(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than "normal" for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v Si = 13,400 km s-1). The -14 days and -13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From -12 days to -6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s-1. After -6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before -10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  3. Mid-Infrared Signatures from Type Ia Supernovae Strongly Interacting with a Circumstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ori

    2015-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are well-known for their use as precise cosmological distance indicators due to a standardizable peak luminosity resulting from a thermonuclear explosion. A growing subset of SNe Ia, however, show evidence for interaction with a dense circumstellar medium during the first year post-explosion, and sometimes longer (SNe Ia-CSM). The origin of this dense CSM is unknown and suggests either a) the less typical single-degenerate progenitor scenario must be considered or b) the exploding star was not a thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf at all (i.e., core-collapse). Mid-infrared (IR) observations, in particular, are critical for tracing the density profile of dust (and hence gas) in the surrounding CSM. Yet no Spitzer light curve exists for this subclass within the first year post-expolosion. Here we propose a 'low-impact' (>8 weeks) ToO to obtain 3 epochs of Spitzer imaging of a SN Ia-CSM within 100 Mpc over 1 year post-explosion. The strength of this program is that it will be in conjunction with pre-approved multi-wavelength programs on HST/STIS/UV (GO 13649), Chandra/ASIS-S (Num: 17500672), the Keck/LRIS optical spectrograph (Num: U037LA), and the RATIR visible/infrared robotic imager. Requiring only 2.1 hours of observation total, this program will not only distinguish between the SN explosion mechanisms, but also trace CSM interaction, constrain the progenitor mass loss history, and identify late-time heating mechanisms of warm dust.

  4. Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Marisa

    2014-03-01

    We live in a Universe that is getting bigger faster. This astonishing discovery of Universal acceleration was made in the late 1990s by two teams who made observations of a special type of exploded star known as a `Supernova Type Ia'. (SNeIa) Since the discovery of the accelerating Universe, one of the biggest questions in modern cosmology has been to determine the cause of that acceleration - the answer to this question will have far reaching implications for our theories of cosmology and fundamental physics more broadly. The two main competing explanations for this apparent late time acceleration of the Universe are modified gravity and dark energy. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) has been designed and commissioned to find to find answers to these questions about the nature of dark energy and modified gravity. The new 570 megapixel Dark Energy Camera is currently operating with the Cerro-Tololo Inter American Observatory's 4m Blanco teleccope, carrying out a systematic search for SNeIa, and mapping out the large scale structure of the Universe by making observations of galaxies. The DES science program program which saw first light in September 2013 will run for five years in total. DES SNeIa data in combination with the other DES observations of large scale structure will enable us to put increasingly accurate constraints on the expansion history of the Universe and will help us distinguish between competing theories of dark energy and modified gravity. As we draw to the close of the first observing season of DES in March 2014, we will report on the current status of the DES supernova survey, presenting first year supernovae data, preliminary results, survey strategy, discovery pipeline, spectroscopic target selection and data quality. This talk will give the first glimpse of the DES SN first year data and initial results as we begin our five year survey in search of dark energy. On behalf of the Dark Energy Survey collaboration.

  5. Tests of the Accelerating Universe with Near-Infrared Observations of a High-Redshift Type IA Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam G.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Liu, Michael C.; Challis, Peter; Clocchiatti, Alejandro; Diercks, Alan; Garnavich, Peter M.; Hogan, Craig J.; Jha, Saurabh; Kirshner, Robert P.; Leibundgut, B.; Phillips, M. M.; Reiss, David; Schmidt, Brian P.; Schommer, Robert A.; Smith, R. Chris; Spyromilio, J.; Stubbs, Christopher; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Tonry, John; Woudt, Patrick; Brunner, Robert J.; Dey, Arjun; Gal, Roy; Graham, James; Larkin, James; Odewahn, Steve C.; Oppenheimer, Ben

    2000-06-01

    We have measured the rest-frame B-, V-, and I-band light curves of a high-redshift type Ia supernova (SN Ia), SN 1999Q (z=0.46), using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based near-infrared detectors. A goal of this study is the measurement of the color excess, EB-I, a sensitive indicator of interstellar or intergalactic dust, which could affect recent cosmological measurements from high-redshift SNe Ia. Our observations disfavor a 30% opacity of SN Ia visual light by dust as an alternative to an accelerating universe. This statement applies to both Galactic-type dust (rejected at the 3.4 σ confidence level) and grayer dust (grain size >0.1 μm, rejected at the 2.3-2.6 σ confidence level) as proposed by Aguirre. The rest-frame I-band light curve shows the secondary maximum 1 month after the B maximum typical of nearby SNe Ia of normal luminosity, providing no indication of evolution as a function of redshift out to z~0.5. An expanded set of similar observations could improve the constraints on any contribution of extragalactic dust to the dimming of high-redshift SNe Ia.

  6. Early and late time VLT spectroscopy of SN 2001el - progenitor constraints for a type Ia supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattila, S.; Lundqvist, P.; Sollerman, J.; Kozma, C.; Baron, E.; Fransson, C.; Leibundgut, B.; Nomoto, K.

    2005-11-01

    We present early time high-resolution (VLT/UVES) and late time low-resolution (VLT/FORS) optical spectra of the normal type Ia supernova, SN 2001el. The high-resolution spectra were obtained 9 and 2 days before (B-band) maximum light. This was in order to allow the detection of narrow hydrogen and/or helium emission lines from the circumstellar medium of the supernova. No such lines were detected in our data. We therefore use these spectra together with photoionisation models to derive upper limits of 9×10-6 {M}_⊙ yr-1 and 5×10-5 {M}_⊙ yr-1 for the mass loss rate from the progenitor system of SN 2001el assuming velocities of 10 km s-1 and 50 km s-1, respectively, for a wind extending to outside at least a few × 1015 cm away from the supernova explosion site. So far, these are the best Hα based upper limits obtained for a type Ia supernova, and exclude a symbiotic star in the upper mass loss rate regime (so called Mira type stars) from being the progenitor of SN 2001el. The low-resolution spectrum was obtained in the nebular phase of the supernova, 400 days after the maximum light, to search for any hydrogen rich gas originating from the supernova progenitor system. However, we see no signs of Balmer lines in our spectrum. Therefore, we model the late time spectra to derive an upper limit of 0.03 M⊙ for solar abundance material present at velocities lower than 1000 km s-1 within the supernova explosion site. According to numerical simulations of Marietta et al. (2000) this is less than the expected mass lost by a subgiant, red giant or a main-sequence secondary star at a small binary separation as a result of the SN explosion. Our data therefore exclude these scenarios as the progenitor of SN 2001el. Finally, we discuss the origin of high velocity Ca II lines previously observed in a few type Ia supernovae before the maximum light. We see both the Ca II IR triplet and the H&K lines in our earliest (-9 days) spectrum at a very high velocity of up to 34 000

  7. Neutrino and gravitational wave signal of a delayed-detonation model of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Herzog, Matthias; Ruiter, Ashley J.; Marquardt, Kai; Ohlmann, Sebastian T.; Röpke, Friedrich K.

    2015-12-01

    The progenitor system(s) and the explosion mechanism(s) of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still under debate. Nonelectromagnetic observables, in particular, gravitational waves and neutrino emission, of thermoclear supernovae are a complementary window to light curves and spectra for studying these enigmatic objects. A leading model for SNe Ia is the thermonuclear incineration of a near-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf star in a "delayed detonation." We calculate a three-dimensional hydrodynamic explosion for the N100 delayed-detonation model extensively discussed in the literature, taking the dynamical effects of neutrino emission from all important contributing source terms into account. Although neutrinos carry away 2 ×1049 erg of energy, we confirm the common view that neutrino energy losses are dynamically not very important, resulting in only a modest reduction of final kinetic energy by 2%. We then calculate the gravitational wave signal from the time evolution of the quadrupole moment. Our model radiates 7 ×1039 erg in gravitational waves and the spectrum has a pronounced peak around 0.4 Hz. Depending on viewing angle and polarization, we find that the future space-based gravitational wave missions DECIGO and BBO would be able to detect our source to a distance of ˜1.3 Mpc . We predict a clear signature of the deflagration-to-detonation transition in the neutrino and the gravitational wave signals. If observed, such a feature would be a strong indicator of the realization of delayed detonations in near-Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs.

  8. Exploration of the interaction of type Ia supernovae with the circumstellar environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragulin, Paul

    . The free parameters are: the a) mass loss dot{m}, b) wind velocity v_w, c) density distributions ∝ r. {-s} of theISM, and d)} the duration of the wind prior to the supernova explosion. I discuss the observational signatures with respect to light curves and high resolution spectra as tools to probe the environment of SNe˜Ia. The specific properties and evolution of the progenitor systems are found to leave unique imprints. During the progenitor evolution and with typical parameters in the SD scenario, the winds create a low density bubble surrounding the progenitor system and a high-density shell. It is also found that accretion disk winds dominate the environment formation. Within a distance of several light-years (ly), the densities are smaller by factors of 10. {2...4} compared to theenvironment. This explains the general lack of observed interaction in late time Supernova (SN) light curves for, at least, several years. The overdensities of the shells are between a factor of 4 to several hundred in case of constant density ISM and environments produced by stellar winds, respectively. The expansion velocity and width of the shell are typically 1-10 % of both v_w and the contact discontinuity R_C and may produce narrow spectral lines as observed in some SNe˜Ia. Typically, narrow circumstellar lines of equivalent width ≈ 100 m{Å are found for uniform ISM typical in Spiral galaxies and ≈ 1 m{Å} for wind environments. The outer layers of a SNe˜Ia expands with velocities of 10 to 30 % of the speed of light and we may expect some interaction with the shells several years after the explosion. I apply the analysis to SN2014J and discuss several scenarios. For SN˜2014J, the environment is likely formed by the AD wind running into a region produced by the Red Giant (RG) wind from the progenitor star prior to its WD stage. The delay times between the formation of the WD and the explosion is suggested to be short, ˜ 10. 5˜yr. Finally the same analysis is

  9. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; Strolger, L.-G.; Benitez, N.; Coe, D.; Jouvel, S.; Medezinski, E.; Molino, A.; Nonino, M.; Bradley, L.; Koehemoer, A.; Balestra, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Clubb, K. I.; Dickinson, M. E.; Filippenko, A. V.; Frederiksen, T. F.; Garnavich, P.; Hjorth, J.; Jones, D. O.; Leibundgut, B.; Matheson, T.; Mobasher, B.; Rosati, P.; Silverman, J. M.; U., V.; Jedruszczuk, K.

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  10. Type-Ia supernova rates to redshift 2.4 from clash: The cluster lensing and supernova survey with Hubble

    SciTech Connect

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Riess, A. G.; Medezinski, E.; Maoz, D.; Jha, S. W.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.-G.; Coe, D.; Bradley, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Jouvel, S.; Nonino, M.; Balestra, I.; and others

    2014-03-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ∼13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 < z < 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys. We model these results together with previous measurements at z < 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of −1.00{sub −0.06(0.10)}{sup +0.06(0.09)} (statistical){sub −0.08}{sup +0.12} (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at >99% significance level.

  11. Strong near-infrared carbon in the Type Ia supernova iPTF13ebh

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; Höflich, P.; Sand, D.; Marion, G. H.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Mason, R. E.; Folatelli, G.; Parent, E.; Gall, C.; Amanullah, R.; Anupama, G. C.; Arcavi, I.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Beletsky, Y.; Blanc, G. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Brown, P. J.; Campillay, A.; Cao, Y.; De Cia, A.; Diamond, T.; Freedman, W. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Goobar, A.; Holmbo, S.; Howell, D. A.; Johansson, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Krisciunas, K.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Maguire, K.; Milne, P. A.; Morrell, N.; Nugent, P. E.; Ofek, E. O.; Osip, D.; Palunas, P.; Perley, D. A.; Persson, S. E.; Piro, A. L.; Rabus, M.; Roth, M.; Schiefelbein, J. M.; Srivastav, S.; Sullivan, M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Surace, J.; Woźniak, P. R.; Yaron, O.

    2015-05-22

    We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C I lines, and the C Iλ1.0693 μm line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C II counterparts were found, even though the optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C I compared to the weaker optical C II appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with Δm15(B) = 1.79 ± 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a “transitional” event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest that composition and density of the inner core are similar to that of 91bg-like events, and that it has a deep-reaching carbon burning layer that is not observed in more slowly declining SNe Ia. Furthermore, there is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si II λ0.6355 μm line, implying a long dark phase of ~4 days.

  12. Strong near-infrared carbon in the Type Ia supernova iPTF13ebh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; Höflich, P.; Sand, D.; Marion, G. H.; Phillips, M. M.; Stritzinger, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Mason, R. E.; Folatelli, G.; Parent, E.; Gall, C.; Amanullah, R.; Anupama, G. C.; Arcavi, I.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Beletsky, Y.; Blanc, G. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Brown, P. J.; Campillay, A.; Cao, Y.; De Cia, A.; Diamond, T.; Freedman, W. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Goobar, A.; Holmbo, S.; Howell, D. A.; Johansson, J.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Krisciunas, K.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Maguire, K.; Milne, P. A.; Morrell, N.; Nugent, P. E.; Ofek, E. O.; Osip, D.; Palunas, P.; Perley, D. A.; Persson, S. E.; Piro, A. L.; Rabus, M.; Roth, M.; Schiefelbein, J. M.; Srivastav, S.; Sullivan, M.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Surace, J.; Woźniak, P. R.; Yaron, O.

    2015-06-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C i lines, and the C iλ1.0693 μm line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C ii counterparts were found, even though the optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C i compared to the weaker optical C ii appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with Δm15(B) = 1.79 ± 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a "transitional" event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest that composition and density of the inner core are similar to that of 91bg-like events, and that it has a deep-reaching carbon burning layer that is not observed in more slowly declining SNe Ia. There is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si iiλ0.6355 μm line, implying a long dark phase of ~4 days. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Optical and NIR spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. Strong near-infrared carbon in the Type Ia supernova iPTF13ebh

    DOE PAGES

    Hsiao, E. Y.; Burns, C. R.; Contreras, C.; ...

    2015-05-22

    We present near-infrared (NIR) time-series spectroscopy, as well as complementary ultraviolet (UV), optical, and NIR data, of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) iPTF13ebh, which was discovered within two days from the estimated time of explosion. The first NIR spectrum was taken merely 2.3 days after explosion and may be the earliest NIR spectrum yet obtained of a SN Ia. The most striking features in the spectrum are several NIR C I lines, and the C Iλ1.0693 μm line is the strongest ever observed in a SN Ia. Interestingly, no strong optical C II counterparts were found, even though themore » optical spectroscopic time series began early and is densely cadenced. Except at the very early epochs, within a few days from the time of explosion, we show that the strong NIR C I compared to the weaker optical C II appears to be general in SNe Ia. iPTF13ebh is a fast decliner with Δm15(B) = 1.79 ± 0.01, and its absolute magnitude obeys the linear part of the width-luminosity relation. It is therefore categorized as a “transitional” event, on the fast-declining end of normal SNe Ia as opposed to subluminous/91bg-like objects. iPTF13ebh shows NIR spectroscopic properties that are distinct from both the normal and subluminous/91bg-like classes, bridging the observed characteristics of the two classes. These NIR observations suggest that composition and density of the inner core are similar to that of 91bg-like events, and that it has a deep-reaching carbon burning layer that is not observed in more slowly declining SNe Ia. Furthermore, there is also a substantial difference between the explosion times inferred from the early-time light curve and the velocity evolution of the Si II λ0.6355 μm line, implying a long dark phase of ~4 days.« less

  14. Thermonuclear ignition and runaway in type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J.C. )

    1990-12-01

    Recent theoretical models of type Ia SN explosions are examined analytically. Qualitatively, the process described involves mass transfer to a C/O white dwarf in a binary system, bringing it near the Chandrasekhar limit and initiating runaway carbon burning. Particular attention is given to (1) carbon ignition and the convective Urca process, which acts to delay runaway, (2) detonation and deflagration models of SN dynamics, and (3) the application of observational data (light curves and spectra) to place limits on dynamical models. It is shown that most deflagration-type models do not give good agreement with spectroscopic observations, while those that do fail to explain density profiles deduced from other observations. Further research on damped-detonation models is recommended. 32 refs.

  15. Thermonuclear ignition and runaway in type IA supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    1990-12-01

    Recent theoretical models of type Ia SN explosions are examined analytically. Qualitatively, the process described involves mass transfer to a C/O white dwarf in a binary system, bringing it near the Chandrasekhar limit and initiating runaway carbon burning. Particular attention is given to (1) carbon ignition and the convective Urca process, which acts to delay runaway, (2) detonation and deflagration models of SN dynamics, and (3) the application of observational data (light curves and spectra) to place limits on dynamical models. It is shown that most deflagration-type models do not give good agreement with spectroscopic observations, while those that do fail to explain density profiles deduced from other observations. Further research on damped-detonation models is recommended.

  16. VARIABLE SODIUM ABSORPTION IN A LOW-EXTINCTION TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Joshua D.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gnat, Orly; Quimby, Robert M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Li Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Blondin, Stephane; Patat, Ferdinando; Wheeler, J. Craig; Kirshner, Robert P.; Foley, Ryan J.; Nugent, Peter; Vogt, Steven S.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Sauer, Daniel N. E-mail: avishay.gal-yam@weizmann.ac.il E-mail: quimby@astro.caltech.edu

    2009-09-10

    Recent observations have revealed that some Type Ia supernovae exhibit narrow, time-variable Na I D absorption features. The origin of the absorbing material is controversial, but it may suggest the presence of circumstellar gas in the progenitor system prior to the explosion, with significant implications for the nature of the supernova (SN) progenitors. We present the third detection of such variable absorption, based on six epochs of high-resolution spectroscopy of the Type Ia supernova SN 2007le from the Keck I Telescope and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The data span a time frame of approximately three months, from 5 days before maximum light to 90 days after maximum. We find that one component of the Na I D absorption lines strengthened significantly with time, indicating a total column density increase of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. The data limit the typical timescale for the variability to be more than 2 days but less than 10 days. The changes appear to be most prominent after maximum light rather than at earlier times when the ultraviolet flux from the SN peaks. As with SN 2006X, we detect no change in the Ca II H and K absorption lines over the same time period, rendering line-of-sight effects improbable and suggesting a circumstellar origin for the absorbing material. Unlike the previous two supernovae exhibiting variable absorption, SN 2007le is not highly reddened (E {sub B-V} = 0.27 mag), also pointing toward circumstellar rather than interstellar absorption. Photoionization calculations show that the data are consistent with a dense (10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}) cloud or clouds of gas located {approx}0.1 pc (3 x 10{sup 17} cm) from the explosion. These results broadly support the single-degenerate scenario previously proposed to explain the variable absorption, with mass loss from a nondegenerate companion star responsible for providing the circumstellar gas. We also present possible evidence for narrow H{alpha} emission associated with the SN

  17. The distance duality relation test from the ACT cluster and type Ia supernova data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lin-Hai; Wu, Pu-Xun; Yu, Hong-Wei

    2016-05-01

    The validity of the cosmic distance-duality (DD) relation is investigated by using 91 measurements of the gas mass fraction of galaxy clusters recently reported by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and the luminosity distance from the Union2.1 type Ia supernova (SNIa) sample independent of any cosmological models and the value of the Hubble constant. We consider four different approaches to derive the gas mass function and two different parameterizations of the DD relation, and find that they have very slight influences on the DD relation test and the relation is valid at the 1σ confidence level. We also discuss the constraints on α and β, which represent the effects of the shapes and colors of the light curves of SNIa, respectively. Our results on α and β are different from those obtained from the ΛCDM model and the galaxy cluster plus SNIa data.

  18. PRECISION MEASUREMENT OF THE MOST DISTANT SPECTROSCOPICALLY CONFIRMED SUPERNOVA Ia WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.; Rykoff, E.; Aldering, G.; Barbary, K.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Goldhaber, G.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Knop, R. A.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Burns, M. S.; Conley, A.; Connolly, N.; Deustua, S.; Fruchter, A. S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gibbons, R. A.; Huang, X.; Kowalski, M.; Lidman, C.; Collaboration: Supernova Cosmology Project; and others

    2013-01-20

    We report the discovery of a redshift 1.71 supernova in the GOODS-North field. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS spectrum has almost negligible contamination from the host or neighboring galaxies. Although the rest-frame-sampled range is too blue to include any Si II line, a principal component analysis allows us to confirm it as a Type Ia supernova with 92% confidence. A recent serendipitous archival HST WFC3 grism spectrum contributed a key element of the confirmation by giving a host-galaxy redshift of 1.713 {+-} 0.007. In addition to being the most distant SN Ia with spectroscopic confirmation, this is the most distant Ia with a precision color measurement. We present the ACS WFC and NICMOS 2 photometry and ACS and WFC3 spectroscopy. Our derived supernova distance is in agreement with the prediction of {Lambda}CDM.

  19. Nucleosynthesis of Iron-Peak Elements in Type-Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Shing-Chi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    The observed features of typical Type Ia supernovae are well-modeled as the explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs both near Chandrasekhar mass and sub-Chandrasekhar mass. However, observations in the last decade have shown that Type Ia supernovae exhibit a wide diversity, which implies models for wider range of parameters are necessary. Based on the hydrodynamics code we developed, we carry out a parameter study of Chandrasekhar mass models for Type Ia supernovae. We conduct a series of two-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations of the explosion phase using the turbulent flame model with the deflagration-detonation-transition (DDT). To reconstruct the nucleosynthesis history, we use the particle tracer scheme. We examine the role of model parameters by examining their influences on the final product of nucleosynthesis. The parameters include the initial density, metallicity, initial flame structure, detonation criteria and so on. We show that the observed chemical evolution of galaxies can help constrain these model parameters.

  20. Mind the Gap: Filling the Holes in IR Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnavich, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae are essential tools for cosmology, but to tightly constrain dark energy properties their systematic uncertainties must be controlled. The near-IR appears to be an excellent spectral region for supernova studies because at these wavelengths Type Ia explosions are essentially standard candles and dust extinction is low. One difficulty is that the Earth's atmosphere blocks sections of the 1 to 2 micron spectra range so parts of the spectrum are not well-observed in nearby events while they are included in the photometric measurements at higher redshifts. This creates an uncertainty in IR "k-corrections" for cosmologically interesting supernovae. We propose to fill in these gaps by observing two nearby Type Ia with SOFIA as targets of opportunity.

  1. Type Ia Supernova Cosmology from a Supernova Modeller Point of View

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, I.; Piersanti, L.; Straniero, O.; Tornambe, A.; Bravo, E.; Hoeflich, P.

    2007-08-21

    The accuracy needed to identify the nature of dark energy in the Universe is one order of magnitude smaller than the present scatter in the observed local relation used to calibrate Type Ia SNe as standard candles. In order to reduce this scatter and to identify potential evolutionary effects, we have studied the influence of the physical and chemical properties of progenitors on SNe Ia light curves. First, we considered the mass and composition of WD progenitors and then we took into account rotation during the WD accretion phase, obtaining super-Chandrasekhar mass WDs. Differences in the maximum magnitude are of the same order as the present scatter in the calibration relation. In the context of the one dimensional delayed detonation model we assume the same transition density in all our models, implying that similar amounts of radioactive nickel are synthesized and, thus, similar magnitudes at the maximum epoch of the light curve are obtained. To establish, from a theoretical point of view, the required links between progenitors and outcomes, we have to fully understand the physics of Type Ia SNe, otherwise we may have already reached their limit as a probe of the structure of the Universe.

  2. Light Curve Models of Supernovae and X-ray Spectra of Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinnikov, S. I.; Baklanov, P. V.; Kozyreva, A. V.; Sorokina, E. I.

    2005-12-01

    We compare parameters of well-observed type II SN1999em derived by M. Hamuy and D. Nadyozhin based on tet*{LN85} analytic fits with those found from the simulations using our radiative hydro code STELLA. The same code applied to models of SN1993J allows us to estimate systematic errors of extracting foreground extinction toward SN1993J suggested by tet{Clo95} which is based on the assumption of black body radiation of the supernova envelope near the first maximum light after shock break out. A new implicit two-temperature hydro code code SUPREMNA is introduced which self-consistently takes into account the kinetics of ionization, electron thermal conduction, and radiative losses. Finally, a combination of STELLA and SUPREMNA allows us to use the same Type Ia supernova (SNIa) models both for building their light curves and predicting X-ray spectra of young Supernova remnants such as Tycho and Kepler. For the comparison of theoretical results with the observations we used data on Tycho supernova remnant (SNR) obtained with XMM-Newton space telescope.

  3. Spectroscopic detection of type Ia supernovae in the sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Madgwick, Darren S.; Hewett, Paul C.; Mortlock, Daniel J.; Wang, Lifan

    2003-10-15

    We present the results of a novel new search of the first data-release from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey(SDSS-DR1) for the spectra of supernovae. The use of large spectroscopic galaxy surveys offers the prospect of obtaining improved estimates of the local supernova rate, with the added benefit of a very different selection function to that of conventional photometric surveys. In this Letter we present an overview of our search methodology and the details of 19 Type Ia supernovae found in SDSS-DR1. The supernovae sample is used to make a preliminary estimate Gamma{sub Ia} = 0.4 +- 0.2h2 SNu, of the cosmological SNe rate.

  4. Lightcurves of Type Ia Supernovae from the La Silla-QUEST Survey and the Carnegie Supernova Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Emma S.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D. L.; Mckinnon, R.; Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N.; Campillay, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Seron, J.; Krisciunas, K.; Tucker, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first analysis of Type Ia supernovae found by the La Silla-QUEST (LSQ) survey and followed-up by the Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) using the 1m SWOPE telescope. LSQ uses the 1m ESO Schmidt telescope on La Silla with a wide-band filter (4000-7000 Angstrom) to search for transient events with the aim of discovering and obtaining lightcurves for 500 low-redshift (z<0.1) supernovae over the 5-year lifetime of the project. The supernovae we present here are followed in a number of different filters, selected from BVugri, and will contribute towards the goal of a well-studied local sample for cosmology.

  5. An exploration of heterogeneity in supernova type Ia samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Ujjaini; Lasue, Jeremie

    2017-06-01

    We examine three SNe Type Ia datasets: Union2.1, JLA and Panstarrs to check their consistency using cosmology blind statistical analyses as well as cosmological parameter fitting. We find that the Panstarrs dataset is the most stable of the three to changes in the data, although it does not, at the moment, go to high enough redshifts to tightly constrain the equation of state of dark energy, w. The Union2.1, drawn from several different sources, appears to be somewhat susceptible to changes within the dataset. The JLA reconstructs well for a smaller number of cosmological parameters. At higher degrees of freedom, the dependence of its errors on redshift can lead to varying results between subsets. Panstarrs is inconsistent with the other two datasets at about 2σ confidence level, and JLA and Union2.1 are about 1σ away from each other. For the Ω0m-w cosmological reconstruction, with no additional data, the 1σ range of values in w for selected subsets of each dataset is two times larger for JLA and Union2.1 as compared to Panstarrs. The range in Ω0m for the same subsets remains approximately similar for all three datasets. We find that although there are differences in the fitting and correction techniques used in the different samples, the most important criterion is the selection of the SNe, a slightly different SNe selection can lead to noticeably different results both in the purely statistical analysis and in cosmological reconstruction. We note that a single, high quality low redshift sample could help decrease the uncertainties in the result. We also note that lack of homogeneity in the magnitude errors may bias the results and should either be modeled, or its effect neutralized by using other, complementary datasets. A supernova sample with high quality data at both high and low redshifts, constructed from a few surveys to avoid heterogeneity in the sample, and with homogeneous errors, would result in a more robust cosmological reconstruction.

  6. Pre-explosive observational properties of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornambé, A.; Piersanti, L.

    2013-05-01

    several million years) to attain the explosion after the above mentioned conditions cease to keep stable the WD. Therefore, it is practically impossible to detect the trace of the exploding WD companion in recent pre-explosion frames of even very near Type Ia supernova events.

  7. The core-degenerate scenario for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Zhou, W.-H.; Zuo, Z.-Y.; Li, Y.-B.; Luo, X.; Zhang, J.-J.; Liu, D.-D.; Wu, C.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    The origin of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still uncertain. The core-degenerate (CD) scenario has been proposed as an alternative way for the production of SNe Ia. In this scenario, SNe Ia are formed at the final stage of common-envelope evolution from a merger of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (CO WD) with the CO core of an asymptotic giant branch companion. However, the birthrates of SNe Ia from this scenario are still not well determined. In this work, we performed a detailed investigation on the CD scenario based on a binary population synthesis approach. The SN Ia delay times from this scenario are basically in the range of 90-2500 Myr, mainly contributing to the observed SNe Ia with short and intermediate delay times, although this scenario can also produce some old SNe Ia. Meanwhile, our work indicates that the Galactic birthrates of SNe Ia from this scenario are not more than 20 per cent of total SNe Ia due to more careful treatment of mass transfer. Although the SN Ia birthrates in this work are lower than those in Ilkov & Soker, the CD scenario cannot be ruled out as a viable mechanism for the formation of SNe Ia. Especially, SNe Ia with circumstellar material from this scenario contribute to 0.7-10 per cent of total SNe Ia, which means that the CD scenario can reproduce the observed birthrates of SNe Ia like PTF 11kx. We also found that SNe Ia happen systemically earlier for a high value of metallicity and their birthrates increase with metallicity.

  8. Fermi and Swift as supernova alarms: Alert, localization, and diagnosis of future Galactic Type Ia explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xilu; Fields, Brian D.; Lien, Amy Y.

    2017-01-01

    A Galactic SNIa event could go entirely unnoticed due to the large optical and near-IR extinction in the Milky Way plane, low radio and X-ray luminosities, and a weak neutrino signal. But the recent SN2014J confirms that Type Ia supernovae emit nuclear γ- ray lines, from the 56Ni → 56Co → 56Fe radioactive decay. The energy released in these decays powers the SNIa UVOIR light curve at times after ~1 week, leading to an exponential decline. Importantly for Swift and Fermi, these decays are accompanied by γ-ray line emission, with distinct series of lines for both the 56Ni and 56Co decays, spanning 158 keV to 2.6 MeV. These lines are squarely within the Fermi/GBM energy range, and the 56Ni 158 keV line is detectable by Swift/BAT. The Galaxy is optically thin to γ-rays, so the supernova line flux will suffer negligible extinction. Both GBM and BAT have continuous and nearly all-sky coverage. Thus GBM and BAT are ideal Galactic SNIa monitors and early warning systems. We will illustrate expected GBM and BAT light curves and spectra, based on our model for SNIa γ-ray emission and transfer. We show that the supernova signal emerges as distinct from the GBM background within days after the explosion in the SN2014J shell model. Therefore, if a Galactic SNIa were to explode, there are two possibilities of confirming and sounding the alert: 1) Swift/BAT discovers the SNIa first and localizes it within arcminutes; 2) Fermi/GBM finds the SNIa first and localizes it to within ~1 degree, using the Earth occultation technique, followed up by BAT to localize it within arcminutes. After the alert of either BAT or GBM, Swift localizes it to take spectra in optical, UV, soft and hard X-rays simultaneously with both XRT and UVOT instruments.

  9. Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources as Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.

    1996-01-01

    In some luminous supersoft X-ray sources, hydrogen accretes onto the surface of a white dwarf at rates more-or-less compatible with steady nuclear burning. The white dwarfs in these systems therefore have a good chance to grow in mass. Here we review what is known about the rate of Type la supernovae that may be associated with SSSS. Observable consequences of the conjecture that SSSs can be progenitors of Type Ia supernovae are also discussed.

  10. Gravitational wave emission from the single-degenerate channel of Type Ia supernovae.

    PubMed

    Falta, David; Fisher, Robert; Khanna, Gaurav

    2011-05-20

    The thermonuclear explosion of a C/O white dwarf as a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) generates a kinetic energy comparable to that released by a massive star during a SN II event. Current observations and theoretical models have established that SNe Ia are asymmetric, and therefore--like SNe II--potential sources of gravitational wave (GW) radiation. We perform the first detailed calculations of the GW emission for a SN Ia of any type within the single-degenerate channel. The gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) mechanism predicts a strongly polarized GW burst in the frequency band around 1 Hz. Third-generation spaceborne GW observatories currently in planning may be able to detect this predicted signal from SNe Ia at distances up to 1 Mpc. If observable, GWs may offer a direct probe into the first few seconds of the SNe Ia detonation.

  11. Early UV emission from disc-originated matter (DOM) in Type Ia supernovae in the double-degenerate scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanon, Naveh; Soker, Noam

    2017-09-01

    We show that the blue and UV excess emission in the first few days of some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be accounted in the double-degenerate (DD) scenario by the collision of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter that was blown by the accretion disc formed during the merger process of the two white dwarfs (WDs). We assume that in cases of excess early light, the disc blows the circumstellar matter, that we term disc-originated matter (DOM), hours to days before explosion. To perform our analysis, we first provide a model-based definition for early excess light, replacing the definition of excess light relative to a power-law fit to the rising luminosity. We then examine the light curves of the SNe Ia iPTF14atg and SN 2012cg, and find that the collision of the ejecta with a DOM in the frame of the DD scenario can account for their early excess emission. Thus, early excess light does not necessarily imply the presence of a stellar companion in the frame of the single-degenerate scenario. Our findings further increase the variety of phenomena that the DD scenario can account for, and emphasize the need to consider all different SN Ia scenarios when interpreting observations.

  12. Data compression of measurements of peculiar velocities of supernovae type Ia

    SciTech Connect

    Irsic, Vid; Slosar, Anze

    2011-06-15

    We study the compression of information present in the correlated perturbations to the luminosity distance in the low-redshift (z<0.1) supernovae Ia due to peculiar velocities of these supernovae. We demonstrate that the naieve compression into angular velocity power spectrum does not work efficiently, due to thickness of the spherical shell over which the supernovae are measured. Instead, we show that measurements can be compressed into measurements of f{sup 2}P(k), where f is the logarithmic rate of growth of linear perturbations and P(k) is their power spectrum. We develop an optimal quadratic estimator and show that it recovers all information for {Lambda}CDM models for surveys of N{approx}10,000 or more supernovae. We explicitly demonstrate robustness with respect to the assumed fiducial model and the number of power spectrum bins. Using mock catalogues of supernovae Ia we estimate that future low-redshift surveys will be able to probe {sigma}{sub 8} to 6% accuracy with 10 000 supernovae Ia.

  13. Bayesian comparison of nonstandard cosmologies using type Ia supernovae and BAO data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, B.; Devi, N. Chandrachani; Alcaniz, J. S.

    2017-06-01

    We use the most recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observations to perform a statistical comparison between the standard Λ CDM model and its extensions [w CDM and w (z )CDM ] and some alternative cosmologies: namely, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model, a power-law f (R ) scenario in the metric formalism and an example of vacuum decay [Λ (t )CDM ] cosmology in which the dilution of pressureless matter is attenuated with respect to the usual a-3 scaling due to the interaction of the dark matter and dark energy fields. We perform a Bayesian model selection analysis using the MultiNest algorithm. To obtain the posterior distribution for the parameters of each model, we use the joint light-curve analysis (JLA) SNe Ia compilation containing 740 events in the interval 0.01 light-curve fitter and the model selection is then performed by computing the Bayesian evidence of each model and the Bayes factor of the Λ CDM cosmology related to the other models. The results indicate that the JLA data alone are unable to distinguish the standard Λ CDM model from some of its alternatives but its combination with current measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations shows up an ability to distinguish them. In particular, the DGP model is practically not supported by both the BAO and the joint JLA +BAO data sets compared to the standard scenario. Finally, we provide a rank order for the models considered.

  14. Interpreting the near-infrared spectra of the 'golden standard' Type Ia supernova 2005cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Benetti, S.; Blanc, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2012-12-01

    We present nine near-infrared (NIR) spectra of supernova (SN) 2005cf at epochs from -10 to +42 d with respect to B-band maximum, complementing the existing excellent data sets available for this prototypical Type Ia SN at other wavelengths. The spectra show a time evolution and spectral features characteristic of normal Type Ia SNe, as illustrated by a comparison with SNe 1999ee, 2002bo and 2003du. The broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) of SN 2005cf is studied in combined ultraviolet (UV), optical and NIR spectra at five epochs between ˜8 d before and ˜10 d after maximum light. We also present synthetic spectra of the hydrodynamic explosion model W7, which reproduce the key properties of SN 2005cf not only at UV-optical as previously reported, but also at NIR wavelengths. From the radiative-transfer calculations we infer that fluorescence is the driving mechanism that shapes the SED of SNe Ia. In particular, the NIR part of the spectrum is almost devoid of absorption features, and instead dominated by fluorescent emission of both iron-group material and intermediate-mass elements at pre-maximum epochs, and pure iron-group material after maximum light. A single P-Cygni feature of Mg II at early epochs and a series of relatively unblended Co II lines at late phases allow us to constrain the regions of the ejecta in which the respective elements are abundant. Based on observations collected at European Southern Observatory, Paranal. Program ID 075.D-0823(B).

  15. Low mass SN Ia and the late light curve

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Fryer, C.L.; Hand, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    The late bolometric light curves of type Ia supernovae, when measured accurately over several years, show an exponential decay with a 56d half-life over a drop in luminosity of 8 magnitudes (10 half-lives). The late-time light curve is thought to be governed by the decay of Co{sup 56}, whose 77d half-life must then be modified to account for the observed decay time. Two mechanisms, both relying upon the positron fraction of the Co{sup 56} decay, have been proposed to explain this modification. One explanation requires a large amount of emission at infra-red wavelengths where it would not be detected. The other explanation has proposed a progressive transparency or leakage of the high energy positrons (Colgate, Petschek and Kriese, 1980). For the positrons to leak out of the expanding nebula at the required rate necessary to produce the modified 56d exponential, the mass of the ejecta from a one foe (10{sup 51} erg in kinetic energy) explosion must be small, M{sub ejec} = 0.4M{sub {circle_dot}} with M{sub ejec} {proportional_to} KE{sup 0.5}. Thus, in this leakage explanation, any reasonable estimate of the total energy of the explosion requires that the ejected mass be very much less than the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4M{sub {circle_dot}}. This is very difficult to explain with the ``canonical`` Chandrasekhar-mass thermonuclear explosion that disintegrates the original white dwarf star. This result leads us to pursue alternate mechanisms of type Ia supernovae. These mechanisms include sub-Chandrasekhar thermonuclear explosions and the accretion induced collapse of Chandrasekhar mass white dwarfs. We will summarize the advantages and disadvantages of both mechanisms with considerable detail spent on our new accretion induced collapse simulations. These mechanisms lead to lower Ni{sup 56} production and hence result in type Ia supernovae with luminosities decreased down to {approximately} 50% that predicted by the ``standard`` model.

  16. Spectral Observations and Analyses of Low-Redshift Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    , SNe Ia that show strong evidence for interaction with circumstellar material or an aspherical explosion are found to have the largest near-maximum expansion velocities and pEWs, possibly linking extreme values of spectral observables with specific progenitor or explosion scenarios. The fourth Chapter of this Thesis presents comparisons of spectral feature measurements to photometric properties of 115 low-redshift (z < 0.1) SNe Ia with optical spectra within 5 d of maximum brightness. The spectral data come from the BSNIP sample described in Chapter 2, and the photometric data come mainly from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search (LOSS) and are published by Ganeshalingam et al. (2010). The spectral measurements come from BSNIP II (Chapter 3 of this Thesis) and the light-curve fits and photometric parameters can be found in Ganeshalingam et al. (in preparation). A variety of previously proposed correlations between spectral and photometric parameters are investigated using the large and self-consistent BSNIP dataset. We also use a combination of light-curve parameters (specifically the SALT2 stretch and color parameters x1 and c) and spectral measurements to calculate distance moduli. The residuals from these models is then compared to the standard model which only uses light-curve stretch and color. The pEW of Si II lambda4000 is found to be a good indicator of light-curve width and the pEWs of the Mg II and Fe II complexes are relatively good proxies for color. Chapter 5 presents and analyzes optical photometry and spectra of the extremely luminous and slowly evolving Type Ia SN 2009dc, and offers evidence that it is a super-Chandrasekhar mass (SC) SN Ia and thus had a SC white dwarf (WD) progenitor. I calculate a lower limit to the peak bolometric luminosity of ˜2.4x1043 erg s-1, though the actual value is likely almost 40% larger. The high luminosity and low expansion velocities of SN 2009dc lead to a derived WD progenitor mass of more than 2 MSun and a 56Ni mass

  17. Near-infrared observations of Type Ia supernovae: the best known standard candle for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone-Nugent, R. L.; Lidman, C.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Mould, J.; Howell, D. A.; Hook, I. M.; Sullivan, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Arcavi, I.; Cenko, S. B.; Cooke, J.; Gal-Yam, A.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Maguire, K.; Ofek, E.; Poznanski, D.; Xu, D.

    2012-09-01

    We present an analysis of the Hubble diagram for 12 normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed in the near-infrared (NIR) J and H bands. We select SNe exclusively from the redshift range 0.03 < z < 0.09 to reduce uncertainties coming from peculiar velocities while remaining in a cosmologically well-understood region. All of the SNe in our sample exhibit no spectral or B-band light-curve peculiarities and lie in the B-band stretch range of 0.8-1.15. Our results suggest that SNe Ia observed in the NIR are the best known standard candles. We fit previously determined NIR light-curve templates to new high-precision data to derive peak magnitudes and to determine the scatter about the Hubble line. Photometry of the 12 SNe is presented in the natural system. Using a standard cosmology of (H0, Ωm, ΩΛ) = (70, 0.27, 0.73), we find a median J-band absolute magnitude of MJ = -18.39 with a scatter of σJ = 0.116 and a median H-band absolute magnitude of MH = -18.36 with a scatter of σH = 0.085. The scatter in the H band is the smallest yet measured. We search for correlations between residuals in the J- and H-band Hubble diagrams and SN properties, such as SN colour, B-band stretch and the projected distance from the centre of the host galaxy. The only significant correlation is between the J-band Hubble residual and the J - H pseudo-colour. We also examine how the scatter changes when fewer points in the NIR are used to constrain the light curve. With a single point in the H band taken anywhere from 10 d before to 15 d after B-band maximum light and a prior on the date of H-band maximum set from the date of B-band maximum, we find that we can measure distances to an accuracy of 6 per cent. The precision of SNe Ia in the NIR provides new opportunities for precision measurements of both the expansion history of the universe and peculiar velocities of nearby galaxies.

  18. Constraints on Neutrino Masses from the Lensing Dispersion of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hada, Ryuichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi

    2016-09-01

    We investigate how accurately the total mass of neutrinos is constrained from the magnitude dispersion of SNe Ia due to the effects of gravitational lensing. For this purpose, we use the propagation equation of light bundles in a realistic inhomogeneous universe and propose a sample selection for supernovae to avoid difficulties associated with small-scale effects such as strong lensing or shear effects. With a fitting formula for the nonlinear matter power spectrum taking account of the effects of massive neutrinos, we find that in our model it is possible to obtain the upper limit {{Σ }}{m}ν ≃ 1.0[{{eV}}] for future optical imaging surveys with the Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. Furthermore, we discuss how far we need to observe SNe Ia and to what extent we have to reduce the magnitude error except for lensing in order to realize the current tightest limit {{Σ }}{m}ν \\lt 0.2[{{eV}}].

  19. A Swift Look at SN 2011fe: The Earliest Ultraviolet Observations of a Type Ia Supernova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oates, Samantha; Holland, Stephen; Immler, Stefan; Brown, Peter J.; Dawson, Kyle S.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuin, Paul; Mazzali, Paolo; Miline, Peter; Siegel, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present the earliest ultraviolet (UV) observations of the bright Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe/PTF11kly in the nearby galaxy M101 at a distance of only 6.4 Mpc. It was discovered shortly after explosion by the Palomar Transient Factory and first observed by Swift/UVOT about a day after explosion. The early UV light is well-defined, with approx. 20 data points per filter in the 5 days after explosion. With these early UV observations, we extend the near-UV template of SNe Ia to earlier times for comparison with observations at low and high redshift and report fits from semiempirical models of the explosion. We find the early UV count rates to be well fit by the superposition of two parabolic curves. Finally, we use the early UV flux measurements to examine a possible shock interaction with a non-degenerate companion. We find that even a solar mass companion at a distance of a few solar radii is unlikely at more than 95% confidence.

  20. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey S.; Scolnic, Daniel M.; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan J.; Kirshner, Robert P.

    2017-06-01

    Conventional Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (M B versus B - V) slope {β }{int} differs from the host galaxy dust law R B , this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude versus apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from {β }{int} in the blue tail to R B in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope {β }{app} between {β }{int} and R B . We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a data set of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 248 nearby SNe Ia at z< 0.10. The conventional linear fit gives {β }{app}≈ 3. Our model finds {β }{int}=2.3+/- 0.3 and a distinct dust law of {R}B=3.8+/- 0.3, consistent with the average for Milky Way dust, while correcting a systematic distance bias of ˜0.10 mag in the tails of the apparent color distribution. Finally, we extend our model to examine the SN Ia luminosity-host mass dependence in terms of intrinsic and dust components.

  1. Spectroscopic Determination of the Low Redshift Type Ia Supernova Rate from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Krughoff, K. S.; Connolly, Andrew J.; Frieman, Joshua; SubbaRao, Mark; Kilper, Gary; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-04-10

    Supernova rates are directly coupled to high mass stellar birth and evolution. As such, they are one of the few direct measures of the history of cosmic stellar evolution. In this paper we describe an probabilistic technique for identifying supernovae within spectroscopic samples of galaxies. We present a study of 52 type Ia supernovae ranging in age from -14 days to +40 days extracted from a parent sample of \\simeq 50,000 spectra from the SDSS DR5. We find a Supernova Rate (SNR) of 0.472^{+0.048}_{-0.039}(Systematic)^{+0.081}_{-0.071}(Statistical)SNu at a redshift of = 0.1. This value is higher than other values at low redshift at the 1{\\sigma}, but is consistent at the 3{\\sigma} level. The 52 supernova candidates used in this study comprise the third largest sample of supernovae used in a type Ia rate determination to date. In this paper we demonstrate the potential for the described approach for detecting supernovae in future spectroscopic surveys.

  2. The Type Ia Supernova Color-Magnitude Relation and Host Galaxy Dust: A Simple Hierarchical Bayesian Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Kaisey; Scolnic, Daniel; Shariff, Hikmatali; Foley, Ryan; Kirshner, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Inferring peak optical absolute magnitudes of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) from distance-independent measures such as their light curve shapes and colors underpins the evidence for cosmic acceleration. SN Ia with broader, slower declining optical light curves are more luminous (“broader-brighter”) and those with redder colors are dimmer. But the “redder-dimmer” color-luminosity relation widely used in cosmological SN Ia analyses confounds its two separate physical origins. An intrinsic correlation arises from the physics of exploding white dwarfs, while interstellar dust in the host galaxy also makes SN Ia appear dimmer and redder. Conventional SN Ia cosmology analyses currently use a simplistic linear regression of magnitude versus color and light curve shape, which does not model intrinsic SN Ia variations and host galaxy dust as physically distinct effects, resulting in low color-magnitude slopes. We construct a probabilistic generative model for the dusty distribution of extinguished absolute magnitudes and apparent colors as the convolution of an intrinsic SN Ia color-magnitude distribution and a host galaxy dust reddening-extinction distribution. If the intrinsic color-magnitude (MB vs. B-V) slope βint differs from the host galaxy dust law RB, this convolution results in a specific curve of mean extinguished absolute magnitude vs. apparent color. The derivative of this curve smoothly transitions from βint in the blue tail to RB in the red tail of the apparent color distribution. The conventional linear fit approximates this effective curve near the average apparent color, resulting in an apparent slope βapp between βint and RB. We incorporate these effects into a hierarchical Bayesian statistical model for SN Ia light curve measurements, and analyze a dataset of SALT2 optical light curve fits of 277 nearby SN Ia at z < 0.10. The conventional linear fit obtains βapp ≈ 3. Our model finds a βint = 2.2 ± 0.3 and a distinct dust law of RB = 3.7 ± 0

  3. Grouping Normal Type Ia Supernovae by UV to Optical Color Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-01

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of "NUV-blue" SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger "NUV-red" group. Two minor groups are recognized, "MUV-blue" and "irregular" SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the "MUV-blue" group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u - v and uvw1 - v) to the level of the scatter in b - v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  4. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  5. NLTE models for synthetic spectra of type IA supernovae. The influence of line blocking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauldrach, A. W. A.; Duschinger, M.; Mazzali, P. A.; Puls, J.; Lennon, M.; Miller, D. L.

    1996-08-01

    A method to compute a NLTE model of the atmosphere of a type Ia supernova (SN Ia) near maximum light is presented. The determination of the level populations is carried out using detailed atomic models, and including all important contributions to the rate equations: Thomson scattering, bound-free (from ground and excited levels) and free-free opacities, line absorption and emission processes. Dielectronic recombination is included. The spherical radiation transfer is solved at up to 400 frequency points and 41 depth points. Finally, a synthetic spectrum is computed using a formal integral solution of the transfer equation based on a spatial microgrid. It is found that the SN atmosphere is electron scattering-dominated, and that the high velocity of the apparent photosphere (~8000km/s) is due to the pseudo-continuum opacity created by the thick line forest which blocks the flux in the UV and optical part of the spectrum. Increasingly more sophisticated treatments of the process of flux blocking in the UV (line blocking) are discussed. The necessity of treating the far-UV flux correctly is demonstrated. Line blocking in the region 800-1300A reduces the photoionization from the excited levels of several important ions (e.g. Fe II, Co II, Si II, Ca II), thus decreasing the overall degree of ionization. This effect is clearly seen in the synthetic emergent spectra. Synthetic spectra obtained with the various methods adopted for line blocking are shown, and compared to one another. When line blocking is properly treated, the synthetic spectrum reproduces well the spectrum of the `normal' SN Ia 1992A from the UV to the near-IR.

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2014J WITH FLITECAM ON SOFIA

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, William D.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Savage, Maureen; Shenoy, Sachindev; Becklin, E. E.; Helton, L. A.; McLean, Ian S.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Marion, G. H.; Ashok, N. M.; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Evans, A.; Fox, O. D.; Garnavich, P.; Gehrz, R. D.; Greenhouse, M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Shenoy, D.; Smith, Nathan; Spyromilio, J.; and others

    2015-05-01

    We present medium-resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectra, covering 1.1–3.4 μm, of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN 2014J in M82 obtained with the FLITECAM instrument on board Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) between 17 and 26 days after maximum B light. Our 2.8–3.4 μm spectra may be the first ∼3 μm spectra of an SN Ia ever published. The spectra spanning the 1.5–2.7 μm range are characterized by a strong emission feature at ∼1.77 μm with a FWHM of ∼11,000–13,000 km s{sup −1}. We compare the observed FLITECAM spectra to the recent non-LTE delayed detonation models of Dessart et al. and find that the models agree with the spectra remarkably well in the 1.5–2.7 μm wavelength range. Based on this comparison we identify the ∼1.77 μm emission peak as a blend of permitted lines of Co ii. Other features seen in the 2.0–2.5 μm spectra are also identified as emission from permitted transitions of Co ii. However, the models are not as successful at reproducing the spectra in the 1.1–1.4 μm range or between 2.8 and 3.4 μm. These observations demonstrate the promise of SOFIA, which allows access to wavelength regions inaccessible from the ground, and serve to draw attention to the usefulness of the regions between the standard ground-based NIR passbands for constraining SN models.

  7. On Type IIn/Ia-CSM supernovae as exemplified by SN 2012ca*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Benetti, S.; Chen, T.-W.; Childress, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Howell, D. A.; Kangas, T.; Pignata, G.; Polshaw, J.; Sullivan, M.; Smith, K. W.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.; Parker, S.; Seccull, T.; McCrum, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete set of ultra-violet, optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy for SN 2012ca, covering the period from 6 d prior to maximum light, until 531 d after maximum. The spectroscopic time series for SN 2012ca is essentially unchanged over 1.5 yr, and appear to be dominated at all epochs by signatures of interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM) rather than the underlying supernova (SN). SN 2012ca is a member of the set of type of the ambiguous IIn/Ia-CSM SNe, the nature of which have been debated extensively in the literature. The two leading scenarios are either a Type Ia SN exploding within a dense CSM from a non-degenerate, evolved companion, or a core-collapse SN from a massive star. While some members of the population have been unequivocally associated with Type Ia SNe, in other cases the association is less certain. While it is possible that SN 2012ca does arise from a thermonuclear SN, this would require a relatively high (between 20 and 70 per cent) efficiency in converting kinetic energy to optical luminosity, and a massive (˜2.3-2.6 M⊙) circumstellar medium. On the basis of energetics, and the results of simple modelling, we suggest that SN 2012ca is more likely associated with a core-collapse SN. This would imply that the observed set of similar SNe to SN 2012ca is in fact originated by two populations, and while these are drawn from physically distinct channels, they can have observationally similar properties.

  8. CEPHEID CALIBRATIONS OF MODERN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE HUBBLE CONSTANT

    SciTech Connect

    Riess, Adam G.; Macri, Lucas; Li Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Chornock, Ryan; Ganeshalingham, Mohan; Lampeitl, Hubert; Casertano, Stefano; Ferguson, Henry C.; Mutchler, Max; Jha, Saurabh W.; Greenhill, Lincoln; Hicken, Malcolm

    2009-07-15

    This is the first of two papers reporting measurements from a program to determine the Hubble constant to {approx}5% precision from a refurbished distance ladder. We present new observations of 110 Cepheid variables in the host galaxies of two recent Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), NGC 1309 and NGC 3021, using the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We also present new observations of the hosts previously observed with HST whose SNe Ia provide the most precise luminosity calibrations: SN 1994ae in NGC 3370, SN 1998aq in NGC 3982, SN 1990N in NGC 4639, and SN 1981B in NGC 4536, as well as the maser host, NGC 4258. Increasing the interval between observations enabled the discovery of new, longer-period Cepheids, including 57 with P>60 days, which extend these period-luminosity (P-L) relations. We present 93 measurements of the metallicity parameter, 12 + log[O/H], measured from H II regions in the vicinity of the Cepheids and show these are consistent with solar metallicity. We find the slope of the seven dereddened P-L relations to be consistent with that of the Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheids and with parallax measurements of Galactic Cepheids, and we address the implications for the Hubble constant. We also present multi-band light curves of SN 2002fk (in NGC 1309) and SN 1995al (in NGC 3021) which may be used to calibrate their luminosities. In the second paper, we present observations of the Cepheids in the H band obtained with the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer on HST, further mitigating systematic errors along the distance ladder resulting from dust and chemical variations. The quality and homogeneity of these SN and Cepheid data provide the basis for a more precise determination of the Hubble constant.

  9. X-ray upper limits on the progenitor of the Type Ia supernova 2017cbv

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.

    2017-04-01

    Following the discovery of the Type Ia supernova 2017cbv (ATel #10158), we examined a combined archival Chandra observation of the host galaxy NGC 5643 taken in 2015 May 21 and Dec 26 to search for the X-ray progenitor.

  10. Final Technical Report: Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Saurabh W. Jha

    2012-10-03

    The final technical report from the project "Discovering the Nature of Dark Energy: Towards Better Distances from Type Ia Supernovae" led at Rutgers the State University of New Jersey by Prof. Saurabh W. Jha is presented, including all publications resulting from this award.

  11. Swift X-Ray Upper Limits on Type Ia Supernova Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. R.; Immler, S.

    2012-01-01

    We have considered 53 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observed by the Swift X-Ray Telescope. None of the SNe Ia are individually detected at any time or in stacked images. Using these data and assuming that the SNe Ia are a homogeneous class of objects, we have calculated upper limits to the X-ray luminosity (0.2-10 keV) and mass-loss rate of L(sub 0.2-10) < 1.7 X 10(exp 38) erg/s and M(dot) < l.l X 10(exp -6) solar M/ yr x (V(sub w))/(10 km/s), respectively. The results exclude massive or evolved stars as the companion objects in SN Ia progenitor systems, but allow the possibility of main sequence or small stars, along with double degenerate systems consisting of two white dwarfs, consistent with results obtained at other wavelengths (e.g., UV, radio) in other studies.

  12. TIDALLY ENHANCED STELLAR WIND: A WAY TO MAKE THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL TO TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA VIABLE

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Han, Z.

    2011-07-10

    In the symbiotic (or WD+RG) channel of the single-degenerate scenario for type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), the explosions occur a relatively long time after star formation. The birthrate from this channel would be too low to account for all observed SNe Ia were it not for some mechanism to enhance the rate of accretion on to the white dwarf. A tidally enhanced stellar wind, of the type which has been postulated to explain many phenomena related to giant star evolution in binary systems, can do this. Compared to mass stripping, this model extends the space of SNe Ia progenitors to longer orbital periods and hence increases the birthrate to about 0.0069 yr{sup -1} for the symbiotic channel. Two symbiotic stars, T CrB and RS Oph, considered to be the most likely progenitors of SNe Ia through the symbiotic channel, are well inside the period-companion mass space predicted by our models.

  13. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brown, Peter J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Landsman, Wayne B.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-11-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s{sup –1}) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M{sub B} = –19.46 mag and Δm{sub 15}(B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v{sub Si} = 13,400 km s{sup –1}). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s{sup –1}. After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF.

  14. Observations of the Type Ia Supernova SN2014J with FLITECAM/SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Ryan Thomas; Vacca, William; Shenoy, Sachindev; Savage, Maureen; Becklin, Eric; McLean, Ian; Logsdon, Sarah; ProposersSN2014J SOFIA, DDT

    2015-08-01

    We present near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the normal Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) SN2014J obtained with FLITECAM aboard SOFIA. Spectra were obtained 17 - 25 days after maximum B light, covering wavelengths between 1.1 and 3.4 μm. Our 2.8 - 3.4 μm data represent one of the first ~3 μm spectra of a SN Ia ever published. The first and final sets of spectra, obtained on 2014 Feb. 19 and 2014 Feb. 27 respectively, span the entire 1.5 - 2.7 μm range. The spectra are characterized by a wealth of strong emission features, with the peak near 1.77 μm showing a full width at half maximum of ~12,000 km s-1. This feature is seen to decrease in width and shift by 0.02 μm between the first and last sets. We compare the observations to the recent non-LTE delayed detonation models of Dessart et al. (2014) and find that the models agree with the spectra remarkably well in the 1.5 - 2.7 μm wavelength range. Based on this comparison we identify the ~1.77 μm emission peak as a blend of permitted lines of Co II, with the observed shift resulting from a change of contributions from the various components. Identifications of the prominent lines in the observed spectra suggest that the NIR spectra of normal SNe Ia at this stage of their evolution are dominated by emission lines at the systemic radial velocities, not highly blue-shifted absorption features as has been claimed in the past for other SNe Ia. Although the models match the observed H and K band spectra fairly well, they are not as successful at reproducing the spectra in the J band or between 2.8 μm and 3.4 μm. Additionally, an emission feature at ~2 μm due to [Co III] can be clearly seen on Feb. 27, while the models predict that it should have faded considerably by this time. These observations also demonstrate the promise of SOFIA for future SN observations, by allowing access to wavelength regions inaccessible from the ground, and serve to draw attention to the usefulness of the regions between the standard ground

  15. Sub-millimeter emission from type Ia supernova host galaxies at z=0.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, D. L.; Farrah, D.; Fox, M.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Afonso, J.

    2004-05-01

    We present deep sub-millimetre (sub-mm) observations of sixteen galaxies at z=0.5, selected through being hosts of a type Ia supernova. Two galaxies are detected directly, and the sample, excluding the brightest detected galaxy, is detected statistically with a mean 850 μm flux of 0.92 ± 0.33 mJy. We infer that the mean value of AV in normal galaxies is 0-80% higher than locally, in agreement with galaxy chemical evolution models. The dust in the brightest sub-mm object in our sample is best interpreted as normal `cirrus' dust similar to that seen locally. This result, when combined with local surveys of type Ia supernovae, suggests that dust in supernova host galaxies at z=0.5 could produce a dimming that is comparable to the dimming attributed to accelerated expansion. This emphasizes the need to carefully monitor dust extinction when using type Ia supernovae to measure the cosmological parameters. As supernova surveys push to higher redshifts and to greater precision in extracted cosmological parameters, understanding the role of dust in these objects will become even more important.

  16. Measuring the velocity field from type Ia supernovae in an LSST-like sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odderskov, Io; Hannestad, Steen

    2017-01-01

    In a few years, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will vastly increase the number of type Ia supernovae observed in the local universe. This will allow for a precise mapping of the velocity field and, since the source of peculiar velocities is variations in the density field, cosmological parameters related to the matter distribution can subsequently be extracted from the velocity power spectrum. One way to quantify this is through the angular power spectrum of radial peculiar velocities on spheres at different redshifts. We investigate how well this observable can be measured, despite the problems caused by areas with no information. To obtain a realistic distribution of supernovae, we create mock supernova catalogs by using a semi-analytical code for galaxy formation on the merger trees extracted from N-body simulations. We measure the cosmic variance in the velocity power spectrum by repeating the procedure many times for differently located observers, and vary several aspects of the analysis, such as the observer environment, to see how this affects the measurements. Our results confirm the findings from earlier studies regarding the precision with which the angular velocity power spectrum can be determined in the near future. This level of precision has been found to imply, that the angular velocity power spectrum from type Ia supernovae is competitive in its potential to measure parameters such as σ8. This makes the peculiar velocity power spectrum from type Ia supernovae a promising new observable, which deserves further attention.

  17. The Silicon and Calcium High-velocity Features in Type Ia Supernovae from Early to Maximum Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xulin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Maeda, Keiichi; Sai, Hanna; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhang, Jujia; Huang, Fang; Rui, Liming; Zhou, Qi; Mo, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The high-velocity features (HVFs) in optical spectra of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are examined with a large sample including very early-time spectra (e.g., t < -7 days). Multiple Gaussian fits are applied to examine the HVFs and their evolutions, using constraints on expansion velocities for the same species (i.e., Si ii 5972 and Si ii 6355). We find that strong HVFs tend to appear in SNe Ia with smaller decline rates (e.g., Δm15(B) ≲ 1.4 {mag}), clarifying that the finding by Childress et al. for the Ca-HVFs in near-maximum-light spectra applies both to the Si-HVFs and Ca-HVFs in the earlier phase. The Si-HVFs seem to be more common in rapidly expanding SNe Ia, which is different from the earlier result that Ca-HVFs are associated with SNe Ia that have slower Si ii 6355 velocities at maximum light (i.e., VSimax). Moreover, SNe Ia with both stronger HVFs at early phases and larger VSimax are found to have noticeably redder B-V colors and to occur preferentially in the inner regions of their host galaxies, while those with stronger HVFs but smaller VSimax show opposite tendencies, suggesting that these two subclasses have different explosion environments and their HVFs may have different origins. We further examine the relationships between the absorption features of Si ii 6355 and Ca ii IR lines, and find that their photospheric components are well correlated in velocity and strength but that the corresponding HVFs show larger scatter. These results cannot be explained with ionization and/or thermal processes alone, and different mechanisms are required for the creation of HVF-forming regions in SNe Ia.

  18. An unusual white dwarf star may be a surviving remnant of a subluminous Type Ia supernova.

    PubMed

    Vennes, S; Nemeth, P; Kawka, A; Thorstensen, J R; Khalack, V; Ferrario, L; Alper, E H

    2017-08-18

    Subluminous Type Ia supernovae, such as the Type Iax-class prototype SN 2002cx, are described by a variety of models such as the failed detonation and partial