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Sample records for iaea nobel prize

  1. Nobel prizes: contributions to cardiology.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Marchese, Luana de Decco; Dias, Danielle Warol; Barbeito, Andressa Brasil; Gomes, Jonathan Costa; Muradas, Maria Clara Soares; Lanzieri, Pedro Gemal; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg

    2015-08-01

    The Nobel Prize was created by Alfred Nobel. The first prize was awarded in 1901 and Emil Adolf von Behring was the first laureate in medicine due to his research in diphtheria serum. Regarding cardiology, Nobel Prize's history permits a global comprehension of progress in pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutics of various cardiac diseases in last 120 years. The objective of this study was to review the major scientific discoveries contemplated by Nobel Prizes that contributed to cardiology. In addition, we also hypothesized why Carlos Chagas, one of our most important scientists, did not win the prize in two occasions. We carried out a non-systematic review of Nobel Prize winners, selecting the main studies relevant to heart diseaseamong the laureates. In the period between 1901 and 2013, 204 researches and 104 prizes were awarded in Nobel Prize, of which 16 (15%) studies were important for cardiovascular area. There were 33 (16%) laureates, and two (6%) were women. Fourteen (42%) were American, 15 (45%) Europeans and four (13%) were from other countries. There was only one winner born in Brazil, Peter Medawar, whose career was all in England. Reviewing the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine area made possible to identify which researchers and studies had contributed to advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Most winners were North Americans and Europeans, and male.

  2. Vision and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Morais, Fábio Barreto

    2018-04-01

    The Nobel Prize is the world's foremost honor for scientific advances in medicine and other areas. Founded by Alfred Nobel, the prizes have been awarded annually since 1901. We reviewed the literature on persons who have won or competed for this prize in subjects related to vision and ophthalmology. The topics were divided into vision physiology, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, disease mechanism, and miscellaneous categories. Allvar Gullstrand is the only ophthalmologist to win a Nobel Prize; he is also the only one to receive it for work in ophthalmology. Other ophthalmologists that have been nominated were Hjalmar Schiötz (tonometer), Karl Koller (topical anesthesia), and Jules Gonin (retinal detachment). Other scientists have won the prize for eye-related research: Ragnar Granit, Haldan Hartline and George Wald (chemistry and physiology of vision), and David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel (processing in the visual system). Peter Medawar is the only person born in Brazil to have won the Nobel Prize.

  3. The image of the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Källstrand, Gustav

    2018-05-01

    This article traces the origins of the Nobel Prize as a ubiquitous symbol of excellence in science. The public image of the Nobel Prize was created and became established quickly, which can be explained by it being such a useful phenomenon for the co-production of other values and ideas such as national prestige. Through being an easily recognizable symbol for excellence, the Nobel Prize is an important factor for the public image of science. And the image of the Nobel Prize is co-produced with several other sets of values and images that range from the large and thematic to the local and specific.

  4. Is the Nobel Prize good for science?

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2013-12-01

    The Nobel Prize is arguably the best known and most prestigious award in science. Here we review the effect of the Nobel Prize and acknowledge that it has had many beneficial effects on science. However, ever since its inaugural year in 1901, the Nobel Prize has also been beset by controversy, mostly involving the selection of certain individuals and the exclusion of others. In this regard, the Nobel Prize epitomizes the winner-takes-all economics of credit allocation and distorts the history of science by personalizing discoveries that are truly made by groups of individuals. The limitation of the prize to only 3 individuals at a time when most scientific discovery is the result of collaborative and cooperative research is arguably the major cause of Nobel Prize controversies. A simple solution to this problem would be to eliminate the restriction on the number of individuals who could be awarded the prize, a measure that would recognize all who contribute, from students to senior investigators. There is precedent for such a change in the Nobel Peace Prize, which has often gone to organizations. Changing the Nobel Prize to more fairly allocate credit would reduce the potential for controversy and directly benefit the scientific enterprise by promoting cooperation and collaboration of scientists within a field to reduce the negative consequences of competition between individual scientists.

  5. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  6. [Surgeons and Neurosurgeons as Nobel Prize Winners].

    PubMed

    Chrastina, Jan; Jančálek, Radim; Hrabovský, Dušan; Novák, Zdeněk

    Since 1901 Nobel Prize is awarded for exceptional achievements in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, economy (since 1968) and medicine or physiology. The first aim of the paper is to provide an overview of surgeons - winners of Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology. Although the prominent neurosurgeons were frequently nominated as Nobel Prize candidates, surprisingly no neurosurgeon received this prestigious award so far despite that the results of their research transgressed the relatively narrow limits of neurosurgical speciality.The most prominent leaders in the field of neurosurgery, such as Victor Horsley, Otfrid Foerster, Walter Dandy and Harvey Cushing are discussed from the point of their nominations. The overview of the activity of the Portuguese neurologists and Nobel Prize Winter in 1949 Egas Moniz (occasionally erroneously reported as neurosurgeon) is also provided. Although his work on brain angiography has fundamentally changed the diagnostic possibilities in neurology and neurosurgery, he was eventually awarded Nobel Prize for the introduction of the currently outdated frontal lobotomy.The fact that none of the above mentioned prominent neurosurgeons has not been recognised by Nobel Prize, may be attributed to the fact that their extensive work cannot be captured in a short summary pinpointing its groundbreaking character.

  7. Nominee and nominator, but never Nobel Laureate: Vincenz Czerny and the Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Tuffs, Annette

    2016-12-01

    The Heidelberg surgeon Vincenz Czerny (1842-1916) is remembered as pioneer of innovative operations as well as entrepreneur of interdisciplinary cancer therapy. The purpose of this paper is to describe his role during the early history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Based on documents from the Nobel Archive, this paper investigates how Czerny contributed, both as nominee and nominator, in shaping the early years of Nobel Prize history. Vincenz Czerny was nominated at least three times for the Nobel Prize, but he was never selected. Czerny's own nomination letters pinpoint important trends in medicine around the turn of the century. At least seven of the candidates he put forward, became Nobel Laureates. Czerny-like many other internationally renowned surgeons during the first decades of the twentieth century-missed out on the Nobel Prize, partly because it is not a lifetime award and his work would have to have been more recent. However, with his nominations, Czerny helped to shape the Nobel Prize to become the most important scientific award worldwide.

  8. Synthesis and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I.

    2017-10-01

    The question often arises as to who may have deserved a Nobel Prize but was not awarded one. Rarely is this discussion extended to who should have received more than one Nobel Prize, but in the field of organic synthesis there are some compelling candidates.

  9. The Nobel Peace Prizes as Teaching Tools. Educational Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Irwin

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the Nobel Peace Prize provides a gateway for teaching the critical issue of peace in history courses. Presents an overview of the origin, development, and history of the Nobel Peace Prize, with special focus on U.S. winners. Includes six suggested student projects and a list of U.S. Nobel Peace Prize winners. (CFR)

  10. Polio and Nobel prizes: looking back 50 years.

    PubMed

    Norrby, Erling; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2007-05-01

    In 1954, John Enders, Thomas Weller, and Frederick Robbins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue."5370 This discovery provided for the first time opportunities to produce both inactivated and live polio vaccines. By searching previously sealed Nobel Committee archives, we were able to review the deliberations that led to the award. It appears that Sven Gard, who was Professor of Virus Research at the Karolinska Institute and an adjunct member of the Nobel Committee at the time, played a major role in the events leading to the awarding of the Prize. It appears that Gard persuaded the College of Teachers at the Institute to decide not to follow the recommendation by their Nobel Committee to give the Prize to Vincent du Vigneaud. Another peculiar feature of the 1954 Prize is that Weller and Robbins were included based on only two nominations submitted for the first time that year. In his speech at the Nobel Prize ceremony, Gard mentioned the importance of the discovery for the future production of vaccines, but emphasized the implications of this work for growing many different, medically important viruses. We can only speculate on why later nominations highlighting the contributions of scientists such as Jonas Salk, Hilary Koprowski, and Albert Sabin in the development of poliovirus vaccines have not been recognized by a Nobel Prize.

  11. Department of Energy - Nobel Prize in Chemistry News Release 10/5/2005

    Science.gov Websites

    -Supported Researchers Are Co-Winners of 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman . Grubbs of the California Institute of Technology for co-winning the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. " . Schrock and Yves Chauvin of France for winning the 2005 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their discoveries

  12. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  13. Muller's Nobel Prize Lecture: when ideology prevailed over science.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2012-03-01

    This paper extends and confirms the report of Calabrese (Calabrese, E. J. (2011b). Muller's Nobel Lecture on dose-response for ionizing radiation: Ideology or science? Arch. Toxicol. 85, 1495-1498) that Hermann J. Muller knowingly made deceptive comments in his 1946 Nobel Prize Lecture (Muller, H. J. (1946). Nobel Prize Lecture. Stockholm, Sweden. Available at http://www.nobelprize.org/. Accessed December 12) concerning the dose-response. Supporting a linearity perspective, Muller stated there is "no escape from the conclusion that there is no threshold" while knowing the results of a recent study by Ernst Caspari and Curt Stern contradicted these comments. Recently uncovered private correspondence between Muller and Stern reveals Muller's scientific assessment of the Caspari and Stern manuscript in a letter from Muller to Stern 5 weeks (14 January 1947) after his Nobel Prize Lecture of 12 December 1946. Muller indicated that the manuscript was of acceptable scientific quality; he indicated the manuscript should be published, but the findings needed replication because it significantly challenged the linearity hypothesis. These findings complement the previous letter (12 November 1946 letter from Muller to Stern), which revealed that Muller received the Caspari and Stern manuscript, recognized it as significant, and recommended its replication 5 weeks before his Nobel Prize Lecture. Muller therefore supported this position immediately before and after his Nobel Prize Lecture. Muller's opinions on the Caspari and Stern manuscript therefore had not changed during the time leading up to his Lecture, supporting the premise that his Lecture comments were deceptive. These findings are of historical and practical significance because Muller's comments were a notable contributory factor, changing how risks would be assessed for carcinogens (i.e., changing from a threshold to a linear model) throughout the 20th century to the present.

  14. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Marshall A

    2017-07-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare ("merchant of death") and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel's citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

  15. When a misperception favors a tragedy: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Couto, Lucélio B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-11-20

    Carlos Chagas, the discoverer of Chagas' disease was nominated to the Nobel Prize in 1921, but none did win the prize in that year. As a leader of a young scientist team, he discovered all aspects of the new disease from 1909 to 1920. It is still obscure why he did not win the Nobel Prize in 1921. Chagas was discarded by Gunnar Hedrèn on April 16, 1921. Hedrèn should have made a written report about the details of his evaluation to the Nobel Committee. However, such a document has not been found in the Nobel Committee Archives. No evidence of detractions made by Brazilian scientists on Chagas was found. Since Chagas nomination was consistent with the Nobel Committee requirements, as seen in the presentation letter by until now unknown Cypriano de Freitas, it become clear that Chagas did not win the Nobel Prize exclusively because the Nobel Committee did not perceive the importance of his discovery. Thus, it would be fair a posthumous Nobel Prize of 1921 to Carlos Chagas. A diploma of the Nobel Prize, as precedent with Dogmack in 1947, would recognize the merit of the scientist who made the most complete medical discovery of all times. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ["If Berger had survived the second world war - he certainly would have been a candidate for the Nobel Prize". Hans Berger and the legend of the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Gerhard, U-J; Schönberg, A; Blanz, B

    2005-03-01

    The public opinion pays much attention to the Nobel Prize as an indicator for the scientific efficiency of a university or a country in connection with foundation of so-called elite universities. The former holder of the psychiatric chair in Jena and discoverer of the electroencephalogram Hans Berger (1873 - 1941) came into discussion as candidate for the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. The current medical-historical publications maintain the view that Berger should have received the Nobel Prize in 1936 as well as in 1949. This was prevented in 1936 by an enactment from Hitler, which forbid him to accept the prize, and later in 1949 by Berger's own death. According to documents of the Nobel archives these statements can be disproved. Berger was only nominated three times out of 65 nominations in 1940. Because of his death the other two recommendations in 1942 and 1947 were never evaluated.

  17. Global and local "teachable moments": The role of Nobel Prize and national pride.

    PubMed

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Segev, Elad

    2018-05-01

    This study examined to what extent Nobel Prize announcements and awards trigger global and local searches or "teachable moments" related to the laureates and their discoveries. We examined the longitudinal trends in Google searches for the names and discoveries of Nobel laureates from 2012 to 2017. The findings show that Nobel Prize events clearly trigger more searches for laureates, but also for their respective discoveries. We suggest that fascination with the Nobel prize creates a teachable moment not only for the underlying science, but also about the nature of science. Locality also emerged as playing a significant role in intensifying interest.

  18. Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins Nobel Prize in Physics | Berkeley Lab

    Science.gov Websites

    astrophysics, dark energy, physics Connect twitter instagram LinkedIn facebook youtube This form needs Berkeley Lab's Saul Perlmutter wins Nobel Prize in Physics News Release Paul Preuss 510-486-6249 * October professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, has won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics

  19. How to get the Nobel Prize in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordling, Carl

    1995-01-01

    Every year, on the 10th of December, one piece is added to the history of science. This is the day when the Nobel Prizes are awarded to those scientists who "during the preceding year have conferred the greatest benefit on mankind". The Nobel Prize carries the highest prestige and fame of all distinctions in the world of science. There have been many speculations regarding the prize: What effect does it have on its recipients? Does it boost their research activities or does it kill them? Is it merely an after-the-fact recognition of important steps in the history of science, or does it also create history by changing the directions along which science develops? What role does it play in the sociology of science? Is it a prize for leaders of big research teams or is there a preference for the genius working completely on his own? Are there equal opportunities for men and women, for Swedes and Russians, for black and white? Where does one find the track that leads to Stockholm?

  20. Nobel Prize Honors Autophagy Discovery.

    PubMed

    2016-12-01

    Japanese cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi, PhD, was awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of autophagy. His groundbreaking studies in yeast cells illuminated how cells break down and recycle damaged material, a process that is critical to the survival of both normal cells and some cancer cells. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Alfred Nobel and His Prizes: From Dynamite to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Marshall A.

    2017-01-01

    Alfred Nobel was one of the most successful chemists, inventors, entrepreneurs, and businessmen of the late nineteenth century. In a decision later in life, he rewrote his will to leave virtually all his fortune to establish prizes for persons of any nationality who made the most compelling achievement for the benefit of mankind in the fields of chemistry, physics, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace among nations. The prizes were first awarded in 1901, five years after his death. In considering his choice of prizes, it may be pertinent that he used the principles of chemistry and physics in his inventions and he had a lifelong devotion to science, he suffered and died from severe coronary and cerebral atherosclerosis, and he was a bibliophile, an author, and mingled with the literati of Paris. His interest in harmony among nations may have derived from the effects of the applications of his inventions in warfare (“merchant of death”) and his friendship with a leader in the movement to bring peace to nations of Europe. After some controversy, including Nobel’s citizenship, the mechanisms to choose the laureates and make four of the awards were developed by a foundation established in Stockholm; the choice of the laureate for promoting harmony among nations was assigned to the Norwegian Storting, another controversy. The Nobel Prizes after 115 years remain the most prestigious of awards. This review describes the man, his foundation, and the prizes with a special commentary on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. PMID:28786809

  2. Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Norrby, Erling

    2007-01-01

    In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever—a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine. Recently released Nobel archives now reveal how the advances in the yellow fever vaccine field were evaluated more than 50 years ago, and how this led to a prize for Max Theiler. PMID:18039952

  3. [Posthumous nomination for Medicine Nobel Prizes II. The positivism era (1849-1899)].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1997-06-01

    The author proposes the nomination of great physicians of the second half of the XIX century for a posthumous Medicine Nobel Prize. The valorization given by medical historians Garrison, Lavastine, Castiglioni, Lain Entralgo and Guerra, is used to select the better candidates. One to three names are assigned by year from 1849 to 1899. Four categories of Nobel prizes are assigned: a) Basic biological disciplines, b) Clinical and surgical medicine, pathology and specialties, c) Discoverers of transcendental diseases that are eponyms and d) New medical technologies. A total of 84 nominees for the Nobel Prize are presented. These lists are presented as preliminary and tentative to allow an extensive debate about the history of medicine during the nineteenth century.

  4. Science Underlying 2008 Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Bernadette A.

    2009-01-01

    JCE offers a wealth of materials for teaching and learning chemistry that you can explore online. In the list below, Bernadette Caldwell of the Editorial Staff suggests additional resources that are available through JCE for teaching the science behind some of the 2008 Nobel Prizes . Discovering and Applying the Chemistry of GFP The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP to three scientists: Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, and Roger Y. Tsien. These scientists led the field in discovering and introducing a fluorescing protein from jellyfish into cells and genes under study, which allows researchers to witness biochemistry in action. Now tags are available that emit light in different colors, revealing myriad biological processes and their interactions simultaneously. Identifying HPV and HIV, HIV's Replication Cycle, and HIV Virus-Host Interactions The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to two scientists: Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier; and for his discovery of human papilloma viruses [HPV] causing cervical cancer to one scientist, Harald zur Hausen. Diseases caused by these infectious agents significantly affect global health. While isolating and studying the virus, researchers discovered HIV is an uncommon retrovirus that infects humans and relies on the host to make its viral DNA, infecting and killing the host's white blood cells, ultimately destroying the immune systems of infected humans. Related Resources at JCE Online The Journal has published articles relating to GFP specifically, and more generally to fluorescing compounds applied to biochemistry. The Journal has also published an article and a video on protease inhibition—a strategy to suppress HIV's biological processes. With the video clips, an accompanying guide

  5. Introducing Taiwanese undergraduate students to the nature of science through Nobel Prize stories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshach, Haim; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2013-06-01

    Although there is a broad agreement among scientists and science educators that students should not only learn science, but also acquire some sense of its nature, it has been reported that undergraduate students possess an inadequate grasp of the nature of science (NOS). The study presented here examined the potential and effectiveness of Nobel Prize stories as a vehicle for teaching NOS. For this purpose, a 36-hour course, “Albert Einstein’s Nobel Prize and the Nature of Science,” was developed and conducted in Taiwan Normal University. Ten undergraduate physics students participated in the course. Analysis of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaires completed by the students before and after the course, as well as the students’ own presentations of Nobel Prize stories (with an emphasis on how NOS characteristics are reflected in the story), showed that the students who participated in the course enriched their views concerning all aspects of NOS. The paper concludes with some suggestions for applying the novel idea of using Nobel Prize stories in physics classrooms.

  6. [Commentary on the Nobel Prize that has been granted in Medicine-Physiology, Chemistry and Physics to noteable investigators].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Arturo; Apolinar, Leticia Manuel; Saucedo, Renata; Basurto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize was established by Alfred Nobel in 1901 to award people who have made outstanding achievements in physics, chemistry and medicine. So far, from 852 laureates, 45 have been female. Marie Curie was the first woman to receive the Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics and eight years later also for chemistry It is remarkable that her daughter Irene and her husband also received the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935. Other two married couples, Cori and Moser, have also been awarded the Nobel Prize. The present commentary attempts to show the female participation in the progress of scientific activities.

  7. Chemistry in the News: 1998 Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jennifer B.

    1999-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Walter Kohn (University of California at Santa Barbara) for his development of the density-functional theory and to John A. Pople (Northwestern University at Evanston, Illinois) for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institute has awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine jointly to Robert F. Fuchgott (State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn), Louis J. Ignarro (University of California at Los Angeles), and Ferid Murad (University of Texas Medical School at Houston) for identifying nitric oxide as a key biological signaling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

  8. Herbert A. Simon: Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, 1978.

    PubMed

    Leahey, Thomas H

    2003-09-01

    In 1978, Herbert A. Simon won the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, the same Nobel won by Daniel Kahneman in 2002. Simon's work in fact paved the way for Kahneman's Nobel. Although trained in political science and economics rather than psychology, Simon applied psychological ideas to economic theorizing. Classical and neoclassical economic theories assume that people are perfectly rational and strive to optimize economic outcomes. Simon argued that human rationality is constrained, not perfect, and that people seek satisfactory rather than ideal outcomes. Despite his Nobel, Simon felt isolated in economics and ultimately moved into psychology. Nevertheless, his ideas percolated through the economic community, so that Kahneman, whose research advanced Simon's broad perspective, could be the psychologist who won the Nobel in economics.

  9. [On the Awarding of the First Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine to Emil von Behring].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Enke, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    In his will of 1895, the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel laid the foundation for prizes in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and peace to those who had "conferred the greatest benefit on mankind" during the last year. The Nobel Prize is today widely considered as the most prestigious international symbol of scientific excellence, but it still is an exciting research question how it gained such prestige. Drawing on files from the Emil von Behring Archive in Marburg, Germany, and the Archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Stockholm this essay aims at shedding light on why the first Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1901 was awarded the German immunologist Emil von Behring, and how this decision was viewed at that time. This study is part of a research project that explores mechanisms leading to scientific recognition by using the example of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. ["In Stockholm they apparently had some kind of countermovement" - Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951) and the Nobel prize].

    PubMed

    Hansson, Nils; Schagen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The archive of the Nobel Assembly for Physiology or Medicine in Solna, Sweden, is a remarkable repository that contains reports and dossiers of the Nobel Prize nominations of senior and junior physicians from around the world. Although this archive has begun to be used more by scholars, it has been insufficiently examined by historians of surgery. No other German surgeon was nominated as often as Ferdinand Sauerbruch for the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in the first half of the 20th century. This contribution reconstructs why and by whom Sauerbruch was nominated, and discusses the Nobel committee evaluations of his work. Political factors did not play an obvious role in the Nobel committee discussions, in spite of the fact that Adolf Hitler in 1937 had prohibited all German citizens to accept the Nobel Prize. The main reasons why Sauerbruch ultimately was not considered prize- worthy were that Sauerbruch's achievements were marked by scientific priority disputes, and that his work was not seen as original enough.

  11. Postage Stamps and Peace Education: The Nobel Peace Prize. Peace Education Miniprints No. 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Irwin

    This paper suggests how peace stamps can be used to further understanding of the movement for world peace. In this effort the Nobel Peace Prize, the most prestigious award in the world for peacemaking, is used as a focus. In the prizes from 1901 to the present, the Norwegian Nobel committees have recognized the major paths to peace. This variety…

  12. The Nobel Prize in the Physics Class: Science, History, and Glamour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshach, Haim

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel strategy for teaching physics: using the Nobel Physics Prize as an organizational theme for high school or even first year university physics, bringing together history, social contexts of science, and central themes in modern physics. The idea underlying the strategy is that the glamour and glitter of the Nobel Prize…

  13. [The Nobel Prize for nitric oxide. The unjust exclusion of Dr. Salvador Moncada].

    PubMed

    de Berrazueta, J R

    1999-04-01

    The 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine has been awarded jointly to North-American scientists, Dr Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad, for their discoveries in relation to "nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system". This has raised an important polemic because of the exclusion the South-American scientist, now nationalized British, Dr. Salvador Moncada. This short historical review examines some of the fundamental contributions to the knowledge in this field. It shows the sequence of the discoveries and the communication of them to the scientific community by the rewarded scientists and by Dr. Moncada. It is based on some fundamental publications in order to better understand this story, which does not coincide with the writing in 1996 by the Lasker Prize Committee, and which in 1998 was re-written again by the Nobel Committee of the Swedish Academy. More than 90 universities, academies and societies have acknowledged Dr. Moncada up to now with priority in the discovery of the fact that nitric oxide is released by endothelial cells, and the revealing of its metabolic way. More than 20,000 citations of their fundamental papers endorse in the scientific community his primacy in this field. Even Robert Furchgott, author of the brilliant discovery of the endothelium derived relaxing factor, that opened this field to the science, declared about the award of the 1998 Nobel Prize: "I feel that the Nobel Prize Committee could have made an exception this year and chosen a fourth person, Salvador Moncada (to share the prize)".

  14. Perspectives on the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics for graphene.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Araujo, Paulo T

    2010-11-23

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene. Some personal perspectives about this award are presented.

  15. Scientometric identification of elite 'revolutionary science' research institutions by analysis of trends in Nobel prizes 1947-2006.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Most research is 'normal science' using Thomas Kuhn's term: checking, trial-and-error improvement and incremental extrapolation of already existing paradigms. By contrast, 'revolutionary science' changes the fundamental structures of science by making new theories, discoveries or technologies. Science Nobel prizes (in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology/Medicine and Economics) have the potential to be used as a new metric for measuring revolutionary science. Nobel laureates' nations and research institutions were measured between 1947 and 2006 in 20 year segments. The minimum threshold for inclusion was 3 Nobel prizes. Credit was allocated to each laureate's institution and nation of residence at the time of award. Over 60 years, the USA has 19 institutions which won three-plus Nobel prizes in 20 years, the UK has 4, France has 2 and Sweden and USSR 1 each. Four US institutions won 3 or more prizes in all 20 year segments: Harvard, Stanford, Berkeley and CalTech. The most successful institution in the past 20 years was MIT, with 11 prizes followed by Stanford (9), Columbia and Chicago (7). But the Western United States has recently become the world dominant region for revolutionary science, generating a new generation of elite public universities: University of Colorado at Boulder; University of Washington at Seattle; and the University of California institutions of Santa Barbara, Irvine, UCSF, and UCLA; also the Fred Hutchinson CRC in Seattle. Since 1986 the USA has 16 institutions which have won 3 plus prizes, but elsewhere in the world only the College de France has achieved this. In the UK Cambridge University, Cambridge MRC unit, Oxford and Imperial College have declined from 17 prizes in 1967-86 to only 3 since then. Harvard has also declined as a revolutionary science university from being the top Nobel-prize-winning institution for 40 years, to currently joint sixth position. Although Nobel science prizes are sporadically won by numerous nations and institutions

  16. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Following Zahka: Using Nobel Prize Winners' Speeches and Ideas to Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Martin P.; Wilson, John K.; Becker, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, the late William Zahka (1990, 1998) outlined how the acceptance speeches of those who received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science could be used to teach undergraduates. This article updates and expands Zahka's work, identifying some of the issues discussed by recent Nobel Laureates, classifying their speeches by topic…

  18. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and the JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2007-01-01

    I will describe the history of the universe, from the Big Bang to 2013, when the JWST is to be launched to look back towards our beginnings. I will discuss how the COBE results led to the Nobel Prize, how the COBE results have been confirmed and extended, and their implications for future observations. The James Webb Space Telescope will be used to examine every part of our history from the first stars and galaxies to the formation of individual stars and planets and the delivery of life-supporting materials to the Earth. I will describe the plans for the JWST and how observers may use it. With luck, the JWST may produce a Nobel Prize for some discovery we can only guess today.

  19. [The 69th Congress-urologists nominated for the Nobel Prize : Not everyone got a prize: four biographical sketches].

    PubMed

    Moll, F H; Halling, T; Krischel, M; Hansson, N; Fangerau, H

    2017-09-01

    Our research group has reconstructed why the board certified urologists Werner Forssmann (1904-1979) and Charles Huggins (1901-1997) received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine (1956, and 1966, respectively). But the history of "Urology and the Nobel Prize" is in fact more multifaceted than the success stories of these two laureates suggest. James Israel (1848-1926), Berlin, Félix Guyon (1831-1920), Paris, Peter J. Freyer (1852-1921), London and Edwin Beer (1876-1938), New York were nominated for the award during the first three decades of the 20th century. Their candidacies mirror trends among leading urologists during the time when urology became a specialty in its own right.

  20. Modular Curriculum: English, American Nobel Prize Winners in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James A.

    This independent study module treats those Americans who have been awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. They include Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O'Neill, T. S. Eliot, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, and Pearl Buck. Selections from the writings of these authors are included. Their works represent many literary genres and also…

  1. Maria Goeppert Mayer and the Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Karen E.

    2013-04-01

    When Maria Goeppert Mayer was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963, she was only the second woman to receive that award and there have been no additional female physics laureates since. Mayer was uniquely prepared to carry out her prize-winning work on the nuclear shell model. Furthermore, she worked with some of the most well-known figures in mid-twentieth century physics, and her award came at a time when American science was in ascendance. Why, then, is her name so little known beyond the physics community? There are several possible answers to this question, ranging from the personal (her modest reaction to public acclaim) and the scientific (the mathematically abstract nature of her prize-winning work), to the national (the nature of the issues commanding public attention in the 1960s). In this talk I will present an overview of the circumstances that enabled Mayer to make exceptional contributions to nuclear physics, and then examine some of the possible reasons why her exceptional status is not more widely known.

  2. The History of Molecular Structure Determination Viewed through the Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, William P.; Palenik, Gus J.; Suh, Il-Hwan

    2003-07-01

    For the past 100 years, with only a few exceptions during war times, Nobel Prizes have been awarded annually to men and women who have made exceptionally important discoveries in science. In thirteen of those years, prizes were awarded to individuals whose contributions helped explain the molecular world of matter through interactions of waves or particles with atoms. From William C. Röntgen, who received the very first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901 for his work with X-rays, to von Laue and the father-and-son Bragg team in the second decade of the century, who used X-rays to understand atomic arrangements, much progress had been made revealing secrets at the molecular level of matter. In the 1930s Debye, Davisson, and Thomson revealed further information using, among other techniques, diffraction of electrons by matter. In the 1960s Crick, Watson, Wilkins, Perutz, Kendrew, and Hodgkin received Nobel Prizes for revealing structures of significantly more complex molecules including the DNA double helix, myoglobin, hemoglobin, and vitamin B12. In the 1970s and 1980s Lipscomb would be recognized for organizing our picture of boron hydrides, Klug would use electron diffraction to determine structures of important nucleic acid protein complexes, Hauptman and Karle would bring us a powerful new way to solve structures, and Deisenhofer, Huber, and Michel would determine the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center. Finally, in 1994 Brockhouse and Shull were recognized for their work with neutrons. Crystallography has been used to answer increasingly complex questions in the past, and will certainly remain an important tool in the future.

  3. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance…

  4. An Elusive Honor: Psychology, Behavior, and the Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickren, Wade E.

    2003-01-01

    Apart from economics, the human sciences have not generally been rewarded with high honors from the world community. Psychology has been awarded the distinction of a Nobel Prize only when it has served a role in explicating human behavior in relation to economics. Yet psychological science has played no small part in the work of a number of Nobel…

  5. Eppur Si Muove! The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Roux, Benoit

    2013-12-03

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been awarded to Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt, and Arieh Warshel for their work on developing computational methods to study complex chemical systems. Hence, their work has led to mechanistic critical insights into chemical systems both large and small and has enabled progress in a number of different fields, including structural biology.

  6. How Robert A. Millikan Got the Physics Nobel Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panusch, Martin; Heering, Peter; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    In 1923, R.A. Millikan was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect. Recently, historical research had a focus on Millikan's publication practice, as well as on the role of his assistant, Harvey Fletcher. Several studies have raised doubts on whether Millikan can…

  7. Fullerene discoverers win nobel prize

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-10-16

    Two Rice University (Houston) chemists, Robert F. Curl and Richard E. Smalley, and a scientist at the University of Sussex (Brighton, U.K.), Harold W. Kroto, have won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the joint discovery of buckminsterfullerenes - soccer ball-shaped carbon molecules. The novel form of carbon, which was initially synthesized by the scientists in 1985 as C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} has led to the development of {open_quotes}an entirely new branch of chemistry... with consequences in such diverse areas as astrochemistry, superconductivity, and material chemistry/physics,{close_quotes} according to the Swedish Academy of Sciences (Stockholm). For chemists, the structuremore » is {open_quotes}uniquely beautiful and satisfying,{close_quotes} the academy says.« less

  8. Values most extolled in Nobel Peace Prize speeches.

    PubMed

    Kinnier, Richard T; Kernes, Jerry L; Hayman, Jessie Wetherbe; Flynn, Patricia N; Simon, Elia; Kilian, Laura A

    2007-11-01

    The authors randomly selected 50 Nobel Peace Prize speeches and content analyzed them to determine which values the speakers extolled most frequently. The 10 most frequently mentioned values were peace (in 100% of the speeches), hope (92%), security (86%), justice (85%), responsibility (81%), liberty (80%), tolerance (79%), altruism (75%), God (49%), and truth (38%). The authors discuss the interplay of these values in the modern world and implications regarding the search for universal moral values.

  9. Why there should be more science Nobel prizes and laureates - And why proportionate credit should be awarded to institutions.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    The four science Nobel prizes (physics, chemistry, medicine/physiology and economics) have performed extremely well as a method of recognizing the highest level of achievement. The prizes exist primarily to honour individuals but also have a very important function in science generally. In particular, the institutions and nations which have educated, nurtured or supported many Nobel laureates can be identified as elite in world science. However, the limited range of subjects and a maximum of 12 laureates per year mean that many major scientific achievements remain un-recognized; and relatively few universities can gather sufficient Nobel-credits to enable a precise estimate of their different levels of quality. I advocate that the Nobel committee should expand the number of Nobel laureates and Prize categories as a service to world science. (1) There is a large surplus of high quality prize candidates deserving of recognition. (2) There has been a vast expansion of research with a proliferation of major sub-disciplines in the existing categories. (3) Especially, the massive growth of the bio-medical sciences has created a shortage of Nobel recognition in this area. (4) Whole new fields of major science have emerged. I therefore suggest that the maximum of three laureates per year should always be awarded in the categories of physics, chemistry and economics, even when these prizes are for diverse and un-related achievements; that the number of laureates in the 'biology' category of physiology or medicine should be increased to six or preferably nine per year; and that two new Prize categories should be introduced to recognize achievements in mathematics and computing science. Together, these measures could increase the science laureates from a maximum of 12 to a minimum of 24, and increase the range of scientific coverage. In future, the Nobel committee should also officially allocate proportionate credit to institutions for each laureate, and a historical task

  10. [The Nobel Prize database as an indicator of the internationalization of Brazilian science from 1901 to 1966].

    PubMed

    Pittella, José Eymard Homem

    2018-01-01

    Working with the Nobel Prize database, covering 1901-1966, the article examines the analytical potential of the participation of Brazilians both as nominees for the world's most prestigious award in science, the Nobel Prize, and also as invited nominators. Of the 18 Brazilians nominated for the Nobel, nine were in the category Peace, four in Literature, four in Physiology or Medicine, and one in Physics. The article comments on the nominations of Brazilian scientists in the categories of Physics and Physiology or Medicine, as well as on nominations by Brazilian nominators in these same two categories. It also discusses the process of science evaluation, based on the information attained through analysis of these data on the Nobel award.

  11. On the Human Aspect of Nobel Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, G.

    1990-10-01

    One night, Nico invited for dinner all his postdoc and graduate students, in a German restaurant close to Harvard Square. Just before we were to pay for our meal, he told us: "Tomorrow, we shall know the Nobel prize winner. Can you people make a guess on his name?" All my colleagues nominated great physicists. In my turn, I suggested naively (and perhaps nationalistically) the name of Alfred Kastler who had been my thesis adviser. "Come on," joked Nico, "I know a lot of physicists who would deserve it much better.."

  12. Sources of funding for Nobel Prize-winning work: public or private?

    PubMed

    Tatsioni, Athina; Vavva, Effie; Ioannidis, John P A

    2010-05-01

    Funding is important for scientists' work and may contribute to exceptional research outcomes. We analyzed the funding sources reported in the landmark scientific papers of Nobel Prize winners. Between 2000 and 2008, 70 Nobel laureates won recognition in medicine, physics, and chemistry. Sixty five (70%) of the 93 selected papers related to the Nobel-awarded work reported some funding source including U.S. government sources in 53 (82%), non-U.S. government sources in 19 (29%), and nongovernment sources in 33 (51%). A substantial portion of this exceptional work was unfunded. We contacted Nobel laureates whose landmark papers reported no funding. Thirteen Nobel laureates responded and offered their insights about the funding process and difficulties inherent in funding. Overall, very diverse sources amounting to a total of 64 different listed sponsors supported Nobel-related work. A few public institutions, in particular the U.S. National Institutes of Health (with n=26 funded papers) and the National Science Foundation (with n=17 papers), stood out for their successful record for funding exceptional research. However, Nobel-level work arose even from completely unfunded research, especially when institutions offered a protected environment for dedicated scientists.

  13. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    ScienceCinema

    Thiel, Pat

    2018-05-07

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  14. Pat Thiel talks about attending the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    2012-01-01

    Pat Thiel, Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry, was invited to be a guest at the ceremony on December 10th, in Stockholm, Sweden, where Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory scientist, received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Following her return to the Lab, Thiel shared some of her recollections of the momentous event.

  15. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, Saul

    2012-01-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: Howmore » DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter]« less

  16. X-ray Studies Key to Nobel Prize Winning Work on Protein Receptors

    ScienceCinema

    Janet Smith; Robert Fischetti

    2018-05-08

    It was the advent of the first micro X-ray beam for structural biology at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory that enabled the research that earned the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and lays the groundwork for countless new pharmaceuticals.

  17. X-ray Studies Key to Nobel Prize Winning Work on Protein Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Janet Smith; Robert Fischetti

    2013-02-04

    It was the advent of the first micro X-ray beam for structural biology at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory that enabled the research that earned the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry and lays the groundwork for countless new pharmaceuticals.

  18. Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize

    ScienceCinema

    Perlmutter, Saul; Chu, Steven

    2018-05-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) hosted an event Friday, January 13, with 2011 Physics Nobel Laureate Saul Perlmutter. Dr. Perlmutter, a physicist at the Department’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley, won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae.” DOE’s Office of Science has supported Dr. Perlmutter’s research at Berkeley Lab since 1983. After the introduction from Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Dr. Perlmutter delivered a presentation entitled "Supernovae, Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe: How DOE Helped to Win (yet another) Nobel Prize." [Copied with editing from DOE Media Advisory issued January 10th, found at http://energy.gov/articles/energy-department-host-event-2011-physics-nobel-laureate-saul-perlmutter

  19. Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1913: The Highest Honor for the Lowest Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif-Acherman, Simón

    2013-12-01

    One century ago this year the Dutch experimental physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work in low-temperature physics, in particular for his production of liquid helium. I trace the route to his Nobel Prize within the context of his and his colleagues' research in his laboratory at the University of Leiden, and in light of his nominators and the nominations he received in the five years 1909-1913.

  20. Multiscale modeling of nerve agent hydrolysis mechanisms: a tale of two Nobel Prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Martin J.; Wymore, Troy W.

    2014-10-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems, whereas the 2013 Peace Prize was given to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons for their efforts to eliminate chemical warfare agents. This review relates the two by introducing the field of multiscale modeling and highlighting its application to the study of the biological mechanisms by which selected chemical weapon agents exert their effects at an atomic level.

  1. Nobel Prize Literature; A Selection of the Works of Forty-Four Nobel Prize Winning Authors in the Library of Dutchess Community College, with Biographical and Critical Sketches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Terry E., Comp.

    This bibliography is a compilation of works by 44 Nobel Prize winning authors presently available at the Dutchess Community College library. Each entry describes the piece of literature for which the author received an award, provides a brief sketch of the writer, includes a commentary on the themes of major works, and lists the writer's works. An…

  2. In vitro fertilization, the Nobel Prize, and human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gearhart, John; Coutifaris, Christos

    2011-01-07

    Robert Edwards was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the development of human in vitro fertilization. His work not only provided the means to overcome many forms of infertility, but it also enabled research on early stages of human embryos and the derivation of human embryonic stem cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. DOE-Supported Physicists are Co-Winners of 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics

    Science.gov Websites

    in Physics WASHINGTON, DC -- "On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, I congratulate Frank Wilczek, H. David Politzer and David J. Gross for winning the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics," said agencies, have been the leading Federal supporter of research in physics, enabling vital advances and

  4. Nobel Prize In Physics Awarded To Astronomer For NASA-Funded Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Riccardo Giacconi, the "father of X-ray astronomy," has received the Nobel Prize in physics for "pioneering contributions to astrophysics," which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources. Giaconni, president of the Associated Universities Inc., in Washington, and Research Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, discovered the first X-ray stars and the X-ray background in the 1960s and conceived of and led the implementation of the Uhuru and High Energy Astronomy Observatory-2 (HEAO-2) X-ray observatories in the 1970s. With funding from NASA, he also detected sources of X-rays that most astronomers now consider to contain black holes. Giacconi said that receiving the award confirms the importance of X-ray astronomy. "I think I'm one of the first to get the Nobel prize for work with NASA, so that's good for NASA and I think it's also good for the field," he said. "It's also nice for all the other people who've worked in this field. I recognize that I was never alone. I'm happy for me personally, I'm happy for my family, and I'm happy for the field and for NASA," Giacconi added. In 1976, Giacconi along with Harvey Tananbaum of the Harvard- Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass., submitted a proposal letter to NASA to initiate the study and design of a large X-ray telescope. In 1977 work began on the program, which was then known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and in 1998 renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory. "Partnerships with universities and scientists are essential in our quest to answer the fundamental questions of the universe," said Dr. Ed Weiler, NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science, Headquarters, Washington. "Dr. Giacconi's achievements are a brilliant example of this synergy among NASA, universities and their community of scientists and students," he said. Giacconi is Principal Investigator for the ultradeep survey with Chandra - the "Chandra Deep Field South" - that has

  5. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: cryo-EM comes of age.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peter S

    2018-03-01

    The 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank, and Richard Henderson for "developing cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution." This feature article summarizes some of the major achievements leading to the development of cryo-EM and recent technological breakthroughs that have transformed the method into a mainstream tool for structure determination.

  6. John Bardeen: The Only Person to Win Two Nobel Prizes in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddeson, L.

    2011-01-01

    John Bardeen worked on the theory of solids throughout his physics career, winning two Nobel Prizes: the first in 1956 for the invention of the transistor with Walter Brattain and William Shockley; and the second in 1972 for the development with Leon Cooper and J Robert Schrieffer of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity.…

  7. Chronobiology --2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Li, Yi-Rou; Xu, Xiao-Dong

    2018-01-20

    Chronobiology is a field of biology that examines the generation of biological rhythms in various creatures and in many parts of body, and their adaptive fitness to solar- and lunar-related periodic phenomena. The synchronization of internal circadian clocks with external timing signals confers accurate phase response and tissue homeostasis. Herein we state a series of studies on circadian rhythms and introduce the brief history of chronobiology. We also present a detailed timeline of the discoveries on molecular mechanisms controlling circadian rhythm in Drosophila, which was awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. The latest findings and new perspectives are further summarized to indicate the significance of circadian research.

  8. The Nobel Legacy: A Journey through Chemistry Inspired by the Achievements of Nobel Laureates.

    PubMed

    Novara, Francesca Rita; Ross, Haymo

    2018-03-15

    The Prize is right! Chemistry-A European Journal will start an exciting journey exploring the significance of Nobel Prize awards in Chemistry in the corresponding contemporary chemistry fields. In this new journal feature called "The Nobel Legacy", a recurring series of invited Review-type articles each one connected to a particular Nobel Prize in Chemistry will be published. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dissecting slander and crying for justice: Carlos Chagas and the Nobel Prize of 1921.

    PubMed

    Bestetti, Reinaldo B; Cardinalli-Neto, Augusto

    2013-10-03

    Chagas disease was discovered by Carlos Chagas in 1909. Chagas worked at Oswaldo Cruz Institute, where the bases of experimental medicine were settled in Brazil, and that had no connection with the Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro. Chagas had several enemies at Oswaldo Cruz Institute mainly because of his election to Head of Service in 1910, and for the position of Oswaldo Cruz Directorship in 1917. Furthermore, Chagas gained enemies at Faculty of Medicine of Rio de Janeiro, which did not like to see the economical political autonomy of Oswaldo Cruz Institute. This allowed the Institute not only to perform top experimental research, but also to take the leadership of research in the country. Chagas was nominated to the Nobel Prize of 1921 in December, 1920. None was awarded the Nobel Prize in that year. He seems to have been evaluated by the Noble Committee of Karolinska Institute from March to May of 1921. At that time, his enemies were denying his discovery of Trypanosoma cruzi, a key point in Chagas' nomination by Karolinska Institute, and giving no epidemiological importance for the disease. By the same way, the obligation of small pox vaccination was tarnishing his public image. Having taken into account the epidemiologic importance of Chagas disease, the strong historical mistake in the process of Chagas evaluation, and the inequity behind all these facts, we insist on a posthumous Nobel Prize for the man who made the most complete medical-scientist discovery of all time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The 1973 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: recognition for behavioral science?

    PubMed

    Dewsbury, Donald A

    2003-09-01

    The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for 1973 was awarded to 3 ethologists: Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz, and Nikolaas Tinbergen. This was a landmark event in the history of the field of ethology and potentially for the behavioral sciences more broadly. For the first time, the prize was awarded for research of a purely behavioral nature. The language used in making the award emphasized the implications of ethological work for human health and appeared to suggest that more such awards might be forthcoming; few were. The author provides an overview of the 3 men, their work, the events surrounding the award, the controversy that arose, and the significance of the award as viewed in contemporary perspective.

  11. How Citation Boosts Promote Scientific Paradigm Shifts and Nobel Prizes

    PubMed Central

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-01-01

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the “boosting effect” of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying “boost factor” is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract. PMID:21573229

  12. How citation boosts promote scientific paradigm shifts and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Mazloumian, Amin; Eom, Young-Ho; Helbing, Dirk; Lozano, Sergi; Fortunato, Santo

    2011-05-04

    Nobel Prizes are commonly seen to be among the most prestigious achievements of our times. Based on mining several million citations, we quantitatively analyze the processes driving paradigm shifts in science. We find that groundbreaking discoveries of Nobel Prize Laureates and other famous scientists are not only acknowledged by many citations of their landmark papers. Surprisingly, they also boost the citation rates of their previous publications. Given that innovations must outcompete the rich-gets-richer effect for scientific citations, it turns out that they can make their way only through citation cascades. A quantitative analysis reveals how and why they happen. Science appears to behave like a self-organized critical system, in which citation cascades of all sizes occur, from continuous scientific progress all the way up to scientific revolutions, which change the way we see our world. Measuring the "boosting effect" of landmark papers, our analysis reveals how new ideas and new players can make their way and finally triumph in a world dominated by established paradigms. The underlying "boost factor" is also useful to discover scientific breakthroughs and talents much earlier than through classical citation analysis, which by now has become a widespread method to measure scientific excellence, influencing scientific careers and the distribution of research funds. Our findings reveal patterns of collective social behavior, which are also interesting from an attention economics perspective. Understanding the origin of scientific authority may therefore ultimately help to explain how social influence comes about and why the value of goods depends so strongly on the attention they attract.

  13. Paul Ehrlich: the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine 1908.

    PubMed

    Piro, Anna; Tagarelli, Antonio; Tagarelli, Giuseppe; Lagonia, Paolo; Quattrone, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    We wish to commemorate Paul Ehrlich on the centennial of his being awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908. His studies are now considered as milestones in immunology: the morphology of leukocytes; his side-chain theory where he defined the cellular receptor for first time; and his clarification of the difference between serum therapy and chemotherapy. Ehrlich also invented the first chemotherapeutic drug: compound 606, or Salvarsan. We have used some original documents from the Royal Society of London, where Ehrlich was a fellow, and from Leipzig University, where he took a degree in medicine.

  14. The Beatles, the Nobel Prize, and CT scanning of the chest.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lawrence R

    2010-01-01

    From its first test scan on a mouse, in 1967, to current medical practice, the CT scanner has become a core imaging tool in thoracic diagnosis. Initially financed by money from Beatles' record sales, the first patient scan was performed in 1971. Only 8 years later, a Nobel Prize in Physics and Medicine was awarded to Hounsfield and Cormack for their discovery. This article traces the history of CT scanner development and how each technical advance expanded chest diagnostic frontiers. Chest imaging now accounts for 30% of all CT scanning.

  15. Gender and Science: Women Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; Elliott, John O.; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Woodard, Jeness L.; DeDios, Samantha

    2011-01-01

    Women and their creativity are underrepresented in science. To date, few women have been awarded the Nobel Prize in science. Eleven female Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry and physiology/medicine between 1901 and 2006 were compared with 37 males who received the Nobel Prize in the same area one year prior and one year after the women. Data…

  16. The 2014 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: a spatial model for cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Neil

    2014-12-17

    Understanding how the cognitive functions of the brain arise from its basic physiological components has been an enticing final frontier in science for thousands of years. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014 was awarded one half to John O'Keefe, the other half jointly to May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser "for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain." This prize recognizes both a paradigm shift in the study of cognitive neuroscience, and some of the amazing insights that have followed from it concerning how the world is represented within the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990: simple statistics for physics teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weijia; Fuller, Robert G.

    1998-05-01

    A demographic database for the 139 Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990 has been created from a variety of sources. The results of our statistical study are discussed in the light of the implications for physics teaching.

  18. Special Issue on "Neutrino Oscillations: Celebrating the Nobel Prize in Physics 2015" in Nuclear Physics B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlsson, Tommy

    2016-07-01

    In 2015, the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Takaaki Kajita from the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration and Arthur B. McDonald from the SNO Collaboration ;for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass;. Furthermore, the Daya Bay, K2K and T2K, KamLAND, SNO, and Super-Kamiokande Collaborations shared the Fundamental Physics Breakthrough Prize the same year. In order to celebrate this successful and fruitful year for neutrino oscillations, the editors and the publisher of Nuclear Physics B decided to publish a Special Issue on neutrino oscillations. We invited prominent scientists in the area of neutrino physics that relates to neutrino oscillations to write contributions for this Special Issue, which was open to both original research articles as well as review articles. The authors of this Special Issue consist of e.g. the two Nobel Laureates, International Participants of the Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics at Haga Slott in Enköping, Sweden (August 19-24, 2004), selected active researchers, and members from large experimental collaborations with major results in the last ten years. In total, this Special Issue consists of 28 contributions. Please note that the cover of this Special Issue contains a figure from each of the 26 contributions that have figures included.

  19. Selman A. Waksman, winner of the 1952 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, H Boyd

    2014-01-01

    The history of the discovery and development of streptomycin is reviewed here from the personal standpoint of a member of Dr. Selman Waksman's antibiotic screening research team. The team approach of eight individuals illustrates how the gradual enhancement of the screening methodology was developed. I illustrate three study periods with key aspects in the development of streptomycin which led to a Nobel Prize being granted to Professor Waksman. One item not previously emphasized is the employment of a submerged culture technique for large-scale production of streptomycin, thus enabling rapid animal testing and human clinical trials with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another is that purified streptomycin was shown by Dr. Waksman to be distinctly different from the substances called natural products, which are no longer patentable in the United States; therefore, streptomycin was found to be patentable. A third item not previously emphasized is his emphasis on the screening of actinomycetes, including the newly named Streptomyces genus. All of these factors contributed to the success of streptomycin in the treatment of tuberculosis. In combination, their successes led to Dr. Waksman's department becoming a new pharmacological research area, specializing in drug discovery. These unique accomplishments all burnish the prior rationales used by the Karolinska Institute in granting Dr. Waksman alone the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

  20. The Nobel Prize as a Reward Mechanism in the Genomics Era: Anonymous Researchers, Visible Managers and the Ethics of Excellence

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Human Genome Project (HGP) is regarded by many as one of the major scientific achievements in recent science history, a large-scale endeavour that is changing the way in which biomedical research is done and expected, moreover, to yield considerable benefit for society. Thus, since the completion of the human genome sequencing effort, a debate has emerged over the question whether this effort merits to be awarded a Nobel Prize and if so, who should be the one(s) to receive it, as (according to current procedures) no more than three individuals can be selected. In this article, the HGP is taken as a case study to consider the ethical question to what extent it is still possible, in an era of big science, of large-scale consortia and global team work, to acknowledge and reward individual contributions to important breakthroughs in biomedical fields. Is it still viable to single out individuals for their decisive contributions in order to reward them in a fair and convincing way? Whereas the concept of the Nobel prize as such seems to reflect an archetypical view of scientists as solitary researchers who, at a certain point in their careers, make their one decisive discovery, this vision has proven to be problematic from the very outset. Already during the first decade of the Nobel era, Ivan Pavlov was denied the Prize several times before finally receiving it, on the basis of the argument that he had been active as a research manager (a designer and supervisor of research projects) rather than as a researcher himself. The question then is whether, in the case of the HGP, a research effort that involved the contributions of hundreds or even thousands of researchers worldwide, it is still possible to “individualise” the Prize? The “HGP Nobel Prize problem” is regarded as an exemplary issue in current research ethics, highlighting a number of quandaries and trends involved in contemporary life science research practices more broadly. PMID:20730106

  1. Nobel Prize Recipient Eric Betzig Presents Lecture on Efforts to Improve High-Resolution Microscopy | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Eric Betzig, Ph.D., a 2014 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and a scientist at Janelia Research Campus (JRC), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, in Ashburn, Va., visited NCI at Frederick on Sept. 10 to present a Distinguished Scientist lecture and discuss the latest high-resolution microscopy techniques. Betzig co-invented photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM)

  2. [From apprenticeship to Nobel Prize: Henri Moissan's fabulous destiny].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2008-01-01

    Born in Paris on September 28, 1852, son of an eastern railways' employee and of a dressmaker, Henri Moissan's secondary schooling in Meaux did not allow him to get access to the sesame diploma "baccalauréat" (GCE). In 1869, he did obtain a special certificate of secondary schooling so that he could become an apprentice in watch making. That could have been the end of the story, but dreadful event for France appeared to have beneficial effects for Moissan. Under the threat of the Prussian army, Moissan's family took refuge near Paris. This gave the young Henri the opportunity to register as a student for the second-class pharmacy diploma, which did not need, at the time, the GCE. Moissan became then a trainee in pharmacy in 1871. Meanwhile, he followed the special schooling of "Ecole de chimie" founded by E. Frémy, and then joined the laboratory of Dehérain at the Museum, where he worked in plant physiology. He finally obtained the famous "baccalauréat" (GCE) and could register as a student in first-class pharmacy. He became a pharmacist as well as a doctor in sciences. In 1883, Moissan was named professor at the school of pharmacy in Paris. In 1886, he isolated fluorine by electrolysis of fluorhydric acid, in the presence of potassium fluoride, at a low temperature. He then studied diamond synthesis and gave a start to high temperature chemistry, designing his famous furnace. These findings and many others allowed Moissan to rise to membership in many learned academies around the world. Crowning achievement, Moissan won the Nobel Prize in 1906. A man of culture, collector of autographs and paintings, he died in 1907. Nothing of that would have been possible if there had not been a second-class pharmacist diploma. The history of Henri Moissan is one of a rise from apprenticeship to the Nobel Prize.

  3. Nanoscopy—imaging life at the nanoscale: a Nobel Prize achievement with a bright future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Hans; Bates, Mark

    2015-10-01

    A grand scientific prize was awarded last year to three pioneering scientists, for their discovery and development of molecular ‘ON-OFF’ switching which, when combined with optical imaging, can be used to see the previously invisible with light microscopy. The Royal Swedish Academy of Science announced on October 8th their decision and explained that this achievement—rooted in physics and applied in biology and medicine—was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for controlling fluorescent molecules to create images of specimens smaller than anything previously observed with light. The story of how this noble switch in optical microscopy was achieved and how it was engineered to visualize life at the nanoscale is highlighted in this invited comment.

  4. Another Nobel Prize linked to synchrotron radiation work

    SciTech Connect

    Hasnain, S.

    The 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry went to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Tsien 'for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP'. This year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry rewards the initial discovery of GFP and a series of important developments which have led to its use as a tagging tool in bioscience. By using DNA technology, researchers can now connect GFP to other interesting, but otherwise invisible, proteins. This glowing marker allows the movements, positions and interactions of the tagged proteins to be monitored. Osamu Shimomura was the first to isolate GFP from the jellyfish Aequoreamore » victoria, found off the west coast of North America, and discovered the protein's green glow [Shimomura et al. (1962). J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59, 223-240]. Martin Chalfie demonstrated the value of GFP as a luminous genetic tag. In one of his first experiments he coloured six individual cells in the transparent roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with the aid of GFP. He had obtained the GFP gene (gfp) clone from Prasher [Prasher et al. (1992). Gene, 111, 229-233] and expressed it in E. coli. The GFP protein displayed a bright green fluorescence in this heterologous organism, suggesting that it could indeed serve as a versatile genetic marker in virtually all organisms. Chalfie transformed C. elegans with gfp under the control of a promoter regulating the expression of {beta}-tubulin, abundant in six touch receptor neurons in C. elegans. The organism subsequently expressed GFP from distinct positions in its body and at distinct times in its development [Chalfie et al. (1994). Science, 263, 802-805]. Roger Tsien contributed to the general understanding of how GFP glows by determining the formation of the GFP chromophore, a chemical group that absorbs and emits light. Tsien is best known for extending the colour palette of GFP beyond green, allowing researchers to follow several different biological processes at the same time. According to

  5. Reflections on the Nobel Prize for Medicine 2015--The Public Health Legacy and Impact of Avermectin and Artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Molyneux, David H; Ward, Steve A

    2015-12-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize to Dr Bill Campbell and Professor Satoshi Ōmura for their role in the discovery of avermectin and Professor Youyou Tu for her work on the development of artemisinin has been universally welcomed by the International Health community for what the Nobel Committee described as 'The discoveries of Avermectin and Artemisinin have revolutionized therapy for patients suffering from devastating parasitic diseases. Campbell, Ōmura and Tu have transformed the treatment of parasitic diseases. The global impact of their discoveries and the resulting benefit to mankind are immeasurable'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation risk and nuclear medicine: An interview with a Nobel Prize winner

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1995-12-01

    In a speech given years ago at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY, Rosalyn S. Yalow, 1977 Nobel Prize recipient for her invention of radioimmunoassay, made several salient points on the perception of fear or hazards from exposure to low-level radiation and low-level radioactive wastes. For the past three years, Yalow has been concerned with the general fear of radiation. In this interview, Newsline solicited Yalow`s views on public perceptions on radiation risk and what the nuclear medicine community can do to emphasize the fact that, if properly managed, the use of isotopes in medicine and other cases ismore » not dangerous.« less

  7. [The 2009 Nobel Prize in Medicine and its surprising message: lifestyle is associated with telomerase activity].

    PubMed

    Falus, András; Marton, István; Borbényi, Erika; Tahy, Adám; Karádi, Pál; Aradi, János; Stauder, Adrienne; Kopp, Mária

    2010-06-13

    The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine was awarded to three scientists for their pioneer research on telomeres - and the enzyme that forms them - telomerase. Their work highlighted the considerable connection between the length of telomeres and intensive changes in lifestyle and nutrition (Ornish method) as well as behavioral and psychological factors. In this review the various elements of molecular, cell biological, nutritional and lifestyle changes are introduced and discussed.

  8. Nobel prize winner trading card (CIRCA 1952). Elie Metchnikoff.

    PubMed

    Hammerschmidt, Dale E

    2003-03-01

    Russian doctor and bacteriologist, born in Ivanowca in 1845. He began his studies in Kharkov, continuing them at the Universities of Giessen, Gothingen, and Munich, later being named Professor of Zoology in Odessa in 1870. In the Canary Islands, he completed some anthropological works, but dedicated himself especially to studies of marine fauna. In 1887, much taken by the work of Pasteur, he wrote to him asking for a position in his laboratories; in a short time he became one of the principal collaborators with the master, especially in works concerning bacteriology. These were an inspiration to him, and led him to his famous theory of phagocytosis, the defensive act whereby white blood cells protect an organism against pathogenic microbes. Metchnikoff supposed that old age was avoidable, and subscribed to the materialistic school of thought. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1908. (With the complements of the Jose Lopez Luis Cigarillo Factory, Tenerife).

  9. Youyou Tu: significance of winning the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenxiu; Liu, Yue

    2016-02-01

    Youyou Tu, a female scientist at the China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing, is the first Chinese winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Based on the study of recipes which had been used for thousands of years to treat fever, Tu's group discovered that the plant artemesia annua, sweet wormwood, showed substantial inhibition of rodent malaria parasites. Her achievement and experience have inspired other researchers and emphasized the development of traditional Chinese medicine. Her award has led to a heated discussion about scientific research investment, fair treatment of research staff, and intellectual property right (IPR) protection in China.

  10. Pavlov and Cajal: Two different pathways to a Nobel Prize.

    PubMed

    Rozo, Jairo A; Andrade-Talavera, Yuniesky; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) and Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) were two contemporary scientists who not only had a great impact on Russian and Spanish science but also on the international stage. Both shared several common features in their life and work, yet they followed fundamentally different paths during their training as scientists. While Pavlov received his laboratory training under the guidance of Ilya Tsion (1843-1912), Cajal did not receive any formal training within a particular laboratory nor did he have a mentor in the traditional sense, rather he was mainly self-taught, although he was supported by key figures like Maestre de San Juan (1828-1890) and Luis Simarro (1851-1921). In this article, we compare the scientific training of these two Nobel Prize laureates and the influences they received during their scientific lives.

  11. Nobel Connection to the Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Edward W.; Nash, Rebecca

    2007-09-01

    The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics was heralded by some in the press as the "First Nobel Prize for Space Exploration." Indeed the Nobel Foundation's announcement specifically cited the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite launched by NASA in 1989 as the prime-enabling instrument It elaborated further, "The COBE results provided increased support for the Big Bang scenario for the origin of the Universe... These measurements also marked the inception of cosmology as a precise science." NASA also seized this unique moment of fame to honor its favorite son, the first Nobel scientist of the agency, John Mather, of the Goddard Space Flight Center, who shared the honor with Professor G. Smoot of the University of California, the Principal Investigator of the COBE measurement. It is without any dispute that the Nobel Prize is the highest scientific honor and best-known award of admiration and inspiration to the public and educational sectors. Unfortunately in the American culture, youths are mostly exposed to success icons in the sports, entertainment, and business domains. Science icons (of either gender) are largely unknown to them. We sincerely hope that success stories of Nobel scientists will become part of the learning curriculum in the K-16 educational experience. In this paper, we examine the pedigree of a number of Nobel Prizes over the years, and discuss their interactions with, and connections to, the space program. It is advantageous for the context of educational and public outreach to see such connections, because in a number of public surveys, one important customer expectation for the space program is the search for new knowledge, to which the Nobel Prize is a prominent benchmark. We have organized this paper into nine, fairly independent sections for ease of reading: I. "Michael Jordan or Mia Hamm" - Introduction and Background II. "Connecting the Dots Between the Heavens and Earth" - From Newton to Bethe III. "From Cosmic Noise to the Big Bang" - The

  12. An Astrosocial Observation: The Nobel Connection to the Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Edward W.; Nash, Rebecca L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics was heralded by some in the press as the 'First Nobel Prize for Space Exploration.' Indeed the Nobel Foundation's announcement specifically cited the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite launched by NASA in 1989 as the prime-enabling instrument It elaborated further, 'The COBE results provided increased support for the Big Bang scenario for the origin of the Universe... These measurements also marked the inception of cosmology as a precise science.' NASA also seized this unique moment of fame to honor its favorite son, the first Nobel scientist of the agency, John Mather, of the Goddard Space Flight Center, who shared the honor with Professor G. Smoot of the University of California, the Principal Investigator of the COBE measurement. It is without any dispute that the Nobel Prize is the highest scientific honor and best-known award of admiration and inspiration to the public and educational sectors. Unfortunately in the American culture, youths are mostly exposed to success icons in the sports, entertainment, and business domains. Science icons (of either gender) are largely unknown to them. We sincerely hope that success stories of Nobel scientists will become part of the learning curriculum in the K-16 educational experience. In this paper, we examine the pedigree of a number of Nobel Prizes over the years, and discuss their interactions with, and connections to, the space program. It is advantageous for the context of educational and public outreach to see such connections, because in a number of public surveys, one important customer expectation for the space program is the search for new knowledge, to which the Nobel Prize is a prominent benchmark.

  13. Werner Forssmann, Eberswalde, the 1956 Nobel Prize for medicine.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, Wildor

    2006-10-27

    Since October 1949 Werner Forssmann was a regular guest of Prof. Dr. Hugo Wilhelm Knipping in the Medical University Clinic of Cologne. Established himself as urologist in Bad Kreuznach, Werner Forssmann had read about the American further development of heart catherization, which was invented by himself. Prof. Wilhelm Bolt, who was one of the medical station doctors of the Cologne Clinic, had already learned the technique of heart catherization in 1947. Thus, it was routinely performed in patients at the Cologne University Hospital. A close collaboration between Werner Forssmann and our research group (Hugo Wilhelm Knipping, Wilhelm Bolt, Helmut Valentin, Helmut Venrath, Hans Rink, Wildor Hollmann) was established. After the notification that Werner Forssmann had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1956, Hugo Wilhelm Knipping instructed me to help Werner Forssmann with the preparation of his lecture. Details of events in the year 1956 are illustrated. One of the important developments in which Werner Forssmann participated with the Medical University Clinic of Cologne was the selective pulmonary angiography.

  14. The mantle of the heavens: Reflections on the 2014 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard G M

    2015-06-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology in 2014 for the discovery of place and grid cells was both a personal award to three great scientists and also a mark of the maturity of systems neuroscience as a discipline. This article offers both personal and scientific reflections on these discoveries, detailing both how getting to know all three winners had an impact on my life and the research questions that we shared in common work together. It ends with brief reflections on three important outstanding questions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Revisiting the 1981 Nobel Prize to Roger Sperry, David Hubel, and Torsten Wiesel on the occasion of the centennial of the Prize to Golgi and Cajal.

    PubMed

    Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2006-12-01

    In 1981 the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology was awarded to Roger Sperry for his work on the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, and to David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel for their work on information processing in the visual system. The present paper points to some important links between the work of Sperry and that of Hubel and Wiesel and to their influences on neuroscience in the best tradition going back to Cajal.

  16. Scientific Productivity and Idea Acceptance in Nobel Laureates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charyton, Christine; DeDios, Samantha Lynn; Nygren, Thomas Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how new ideas become accepted for Nobel laureates in science. Archival data were collected for 204 Nobel laureates from 1980 to 2009 in physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology. Acceptance was evaluated for Nobel laureates by Prize area and three key publications in the Nobel laureates' publishing careers: (a) first…

  17. The Nobel Connection to the Space Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, E. N.; Nash, R. L.

    2007-09-01

    The 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics was heralded by some in the press as the "First Nobel Prize for Space Exploration." Indeed the Nobel Foundation's announcement specifically cited the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite launched by NASA in 1989 as the prime-enabling instrument It elaborated further, "The COBE results provided increased support for the Big Bang scenario for the origin of the Universe. These measurements also marked the inception of cosmology as a precise science." NASA also seized this unique moment of fame to honor its favorite son, the first Nobel scientist of the agency, John Mather, of the Goddard Space Flight Center, who shared the honor with Professor G. Smoot of the University of California, the Principal Investigator of the COBE measurement. It is without any dispute that the Nobel Prize is the highest scientific honor and best-known award of admiration and inspiration to the public and educational sectors. Unfortunately in the American culture, youths are mostly exposed to success icons in the sports, entertainment, and business domains. Science icons are largely unknown to them. We sincerely hope that success stories of Nobel scientists will become part of the learning curriculum in the K-16 educational experience. In this paper, we examine the pedigree of a number of Nobel Prizes over the years, and discuss their interactions with, and connections to, the space program. It is advantageous for the context of educational and public outreach to see such connections, because in a number of public surveys, one important customer expectation for the space program is the search for new knowledge, to which the Nobel Prize is a prominent benchmark. We have organized this lengthy paper into nine, fairly independent sections for ease of reading:1."Michael Jordan or Mia Hamm" - Introduction and Background2."Connecting the Dots Between the Heavens and Earth" - From Newton to Bethe3."From Cosmic Noise to the Big Bang" - The First Nobel

  18. Written on the Writer's Face: Facial Width-to-Height Ratio among Nominees and Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebuda, Izabela; Karwowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), an established marker of testosterone level and dominance, and eminent writers' achievement. The fWHR of laureates (N = 39) and nominees (N = 247) of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1901-1950 was measured together with historiometric data. It was demonstrated that…

  19. Asteroid Named for Nobel Prize Winner Joins Historic Lineup

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-15

    An asteroid discovered by NASA NEOWISE spacecraft has been given the formal designation 316201 Malala, in honor of Malala Yousafzai of Pakistan, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 2014. The asteroid previous appellation was 2010 ML48. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) renamed the asteroid as the request of Amy Mainzer of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California. Mainzer is the principal investigator of NASA's NEOWISE space telescope. The IAU is the sole worldwide organization recognized by astronomers everywhere to designate names for astronomical bodies. So far, Mainzer and the NEOWISE team have focused on pioneers in civil rights, science and the arts for the astronomical honor. Among the strong women of history who have already had NEOWISE-discovered asteroids named for them are civil rights activist Rosa Parks, conservationist Wangari Maathai, abolitionists Sojourner Truth and Harriet Tubman, and singer Aretha Franklin. Asteroid Malala is in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter and orbits the sun every five-and-a-half years. It is about two-and-a-half miles (four kilometers) in diameter, and its surface is very dark, the color of printer toner. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19362

  20. From engaged citizen to lone hero: Nobel Prize laureates on British television, 1962-2004.

    PubMed

    Gouyon, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-05-01

    Between 1962 and 2004, Nobel Prize laureates appear in the British television science programme Horizon in various roles, denoting differing understandings of science in relation to society and culture. These representations are the outcome of an interplay of cultural and institutional factors. They vary with the broadcasting environment. Notably, the article establishes that the choice of presenting scientists as heroic characters in strongly determined storylines from the late-1990s onwards originates in a reaction to institutional imperatives as a means to preserve the existence of the Horizon series. The article shows that exigencies of the institutional context in which media professionals operate are major factors influencing the representation of science in public.

  1. Nobel laureates in fiction: From La fin du monde to The Big Bang Theory.

    PubMed

    Brodesco, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    The history of the Nobel Prize, since its establishment, interlaces with the history of the public image of science. The aim of this article is to illustrate cinematic scientists, portrayed precisely in their moment of maximum glory. The films and television shows upon which the study is based compose a corpus of 189 media texts. The article identifies three main areas that concern the relation between the Nobel Prize and its audiovisual representations: biopics of real Nobel laureates, the presence of real or fictional Nobel laureates in the film or the show plot, and films and TV series that depict the Nobel ceremony. The article then focuses on four texts that deserve a detailed examination: La fin du monde, The Prize, The Simpsons and The Big Bang Theory. The conclusion compares the representation of the Nobel scientist with general changes in the image of the scientist conveyed by cinema and television.

  2. Shirin Ebadi: A Muslim Woman Nobel Peace Laureate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2004-01-01

    The Nobel Peace Prize is recognized as one of the most prestigious global awards. Each year the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which is appointed by Norway's parliament to select the winner, receives many nominations from around the world. Shirin Ebadi, who is from Iran, became the eleventh female Nobel Peace laureate in 2003. Ebadi is the third…

  3. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-07-01

    A review is given of the crucial work performed by Paul C. Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield that lead to their being awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2003. Lauterbur first expounded the idea of mapping spatial information from spectral data in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) through the application of magnetic field gradients (P. C. Lauterbur, Nature 1973 , 242, 190-191). One year later Mansfield and co-workers introduced the idea of selective excitation to NMR imaging (A. N. Garroway, P. K. Grannell, and P. Mansfield. J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1974 , 7, L457-L462). A major step in making the technique useful for clinical imaging came with Mansfield's publication of the method known as echo planar imaging (P. Mansfield, J. Phys. C: Solid State Physics 1977, 10 (3) , L55-L58). Lauterbur's and Mansfield's work captured the essence of scientific discovery, collaboration, and concerted effort to overcome significant technical issues, and were key to the development of the technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Examples of how MRI technology can be extended to chemical research are given, and limitations of the technique in this regard are discussed. Discussion of how to use commonly available NMR spectrometers for chemical imaging is also provided.

  4. A great honor and a huge challenge for China: You-you TU getting the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Da; Yang, Xue; Guo, Jun-Chao

    2016-05-01

    Public excitement over the award of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to the Chinese medical scientist You-you TU for the discovery of a herbal anti-malarial, may mislead the Chinese people into believing that traditional Chinese herbal medi-cine can be used to cure all disease without any ad-verse effects. The aim of this paper is to explain the advantages and disadvantages of herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) objectively.

  5. The 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Thomas A. Steitz and the structure of the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Over the past 200 years, there have been countless groundbreaking discoveries in biology and medicine at Yale University. However, one particularly noteworthy discovery with profoundly important and broad consequences happened here in just the past two decades. In 2009, Thomas Steitz, the Sterling Professor of Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "studies of the structure and function of the ribosome," along with Venkatraman Ramakrishnan of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Ada E. Yonath of the Weizmann Institute of Science. This article covers the historical context of Steitz's important discovery, the techniques his laboratory used to study the ribosome, and the impact that this research has had, and will have, on the future of biological and medical research.

  6. Nobel Prize Recipient Eric Betzig Presents Lecture on Efforts to Improve High-Resolution Microscopy | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Eric Betzig, Ph.D., a 2014 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and a scientist at Janelia Research Campus (JRC), Howard Hughes Medical Institute, in Ashburn, Va., visited NCI at Frederick on Sept. 10 to present a Distinguished Scientist lecture and discuss the latest high-resolution microscopy techniques. Betzig co-invented photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) in collaboration with scientists at NIH. PALM achieves 10-fold improvement in spatial resolution of cells, going from the resolution limit of approximately 250 nm in standard optical microscopy down to approximately 20 nm, thus producing a so-called “super-resolution” image. Spatial resolution refers to the clarity of an image or, in other words, the smallest details that can be observed from an image.

  7. Was Muller's 1946 Nobel Prize research for radiation-induced gene mutations peer-reviewed?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2018-06-06

    This historical analysis indicates that it is highly unlikely that the Nobel Prize winning research of Hermann J. Muller was peer-reviewed. The published paper of Muller lacked a research methods section, cited no references, and failed to acknowledge and discuss the work of Gager and Blakeslee (PNAS 13:75-79, 1927) that claimed to have induced gene mutation via ionizing radiation six months prior to Muller's non-data Science paper (Muller, Science 66(1699):84-87, 1927a). Despite being well acclimated into the scientific world of peer-review, Muller choose to avoid the peer-review process on his most significant publication. It appears that Muller's actions were strongly influenced by his desire to claim primacy for the discovery of gene mutation. The actions of Muller have important ethical lessons and implications today, when self-interest trumps one's obligations to society and the scientific culture that supports the quest for new knowledge and discovery.

  8. Gerhard Ertl, Nobel Laureate for Chemistry 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Maki

    In year 2007, Nobel prize for Chemistry was awarded to Prof. Gerhard Ertl, former director of Fritz Haber Institute, Berlin. The article is to introduce the brilliant achievement of Prof. Ertl in part.

  9. The meaning of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize. Microcredit evangelism, health, and social policy.

    PubMed

    Bond, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    The awarding of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize to Muhammad Yunus, founder of the Grameen Bank, provides an opportunity to consider the use and abuse of microfinancing, especially because credit continues to be touted as a poverty-reduction strategy associated with health education and health care financing strategies. Not only is the Grameen diagnosis of poverty dubious, but many structural problems also plague the model, ranging from financial accounting to market failures. In Southern Africa, to illustrate, microcredit schemes for peasants and small farmers have been attempted for more than 70 years, on the basis that modem capitalism and peasant/informal system gaps can be bridged by an expanded financial system. The results have been disappointing. A critical reading of political economy posits an organic linkage between the "developed" and "underdeveloped" economies that is typically not mitigated by capitalist financial markets, but instead is often exacerbated. When applied to health and social policy, microcredit evangelism becomes especially dangerous.

  10. Nobel Laureate Mohamed ElBaradei: Preventing Nuclear Proliferation Peacefully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufour, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The 2005 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded 60 years after the first atomic bombs fell on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing more than 200,000 people; the peace prize raises the hopes of those working to rejuvenate global efforts to prevent the spread and development of nuclear arms. This article profiles the International Atomic…

  11. The 2015 Nobel Prize in Chemistry The Discovery of Essential Mechanisms that Repair DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Tomas; Modrich, Paul; Sancar, Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2015 to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar for their discoveries in fundamental mechanisms of DNA repair. This pioneering research described three different essential pathways that correct DNA damage, safeguard the integrity of the genetic code to ensure its accurate replication through generations, and allow proper cell division. Working independently of each other, Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar delineated the mechanisms of base excision repair, mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair, respectively. These breakthroughs challenged and dismissed the early view that the DNA molecule was very stable, paving the way for the discovery of human hereditary diseases associated with distinct DNA repair deficiencies and a susceptibility to cancer. It also brought a deeper understanding of cancer as well as neurodegenerative or neurological diseases, and let to novel strategies to treat cancer.

  12. The character of scientists in the Nobel Prize speeches.

    PubMed

    Condit, Celeste M

    2018-05-01

    This essay describes the ethos (i.e. the character projected to specific audiences) of the 25 Nobel Lectures in Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology or Medicine given in 2013-2015 and the 15 Presentation Speeches given at the Nobel Banquets between 2011 and 2015. A thematically focused qualitative analysis grounded in theories of epideictic discourse indicates the Nobel speakers demonstrated a range of strategies for and degrees of success in negotiating the tensions created by the implicit demands of ceremonial speeches, the scientific emphasis on didactic style and research content, and the different potential audiences (scientific experts and interested publics). Relatively few speeches explicitly displayed goodwill toward humanity instead of primarily toward the scientific community. Some speakers emphasized qualities of goodness in line with social values shared by broad audiences, but some reinforced stereotypes of scientists as anti-social. Speakers were variable in their ability to bridge the substantial gaps in resources for shared good sense.

  13. Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovic Pavlov: their parallel scientific lives, schools and nobel prizes.

    PubMed

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal was not only a great scientist but he was also a dedicated teacher who managed to create his own School in Spain. Cajal was active at the end of the XIX and the beginning of the XX century, a period in which Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, another great contemporary scientist, also established a strong School in Russia. While these two acclaimed scientists shared a similar vision on science, a view they also conveyed to their disciples, they applied quite distinct criteria in the way they dealt with their followers. Interestingly, despite the geographic and idiomatic barriers that had to be overcome, the paths of these two great figures of XX century science crossed at least three times. First when they competed for the City of Moscow Prize, second when they both attended the "Congreso Internacional de Medicina de Madrid" (Medicine International Congress in Madrid) in 1903 and finally, they competed on four consecutive occasions for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Here we discuss their scientific vision, their different attitudes in the interaction with disciples and the distinct circumstances in which their paths crossed.

  14. Tadeus Reichstein, co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: on the occasion of the 110th anniversary of his birth in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wincewicz, Andrzej; Sulkowska, Mariola; Sulkowski, Stanislaw

    2007-01-01

    Tadeus Reichstein (1897-1996) was the first scientist born in Poland to receive the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology (1950) for the "discovery of hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects", as stated by the Nobel Prize Committee. His family being deeply devoted to Polish cultural and historical heritage, his first name was given to him after Tadeus Kosciuszko, a chief commander of the 18th century Polish uprising named the Kosciuszko Insurrection. As a child, he emigrated with his family to Switzerland, where he was much later to become involved in numerous research studies on steroids on an international scale. It was Tadeus Reichstein who isolated and synthesized desoxycorticosterone, which still remains the drug of first choice in the treatment of Addison's disease. Additionally, thanks to his strategy for the mass production of Vitamin C, the cost of this agent was drastically reduced thus enabling its widespread therapeutic use. In our divided world so often torn by tremendous conflicts, there is a great need to both remember and commemorate such distinguished people as Tadeus Reichstein who, despite the apparent "borders" between different nationalities and cultures, have demonstrated through their work the huge need for harmonious collaboration in the development of science.

  15. [Ilya Ilich Metchnikov and Paul Ehrlich: 1908 Nobel Prize winners for their research on immunity].

    PubMed

    Lokaj, J; John, C

    2008-11-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1908 was awarded to Ilya I. Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich for recognition of their work on immunity. Mechnikov have discovered phagocytes and phagocytosis as the basis of natural cellular immunity. His ,,phagocytic theory" is the principle of immunological concept "self and not self" as the prerequisition of physiological inflammation, and selfmaintaining of organism. Ehrlich developed the methods for standardization of antibody activity in immune sera, described neutralizing and complement-depending effect of antibodies and enunciated the ,"ide-chain" theory of the formation of antibodies. Their concept of the key-stone of immunity was different, but they expressed the basic paradigma of immunology: immunity imply the protection of identity and guarantee the integrity of organism. Both are the founders of immunology as the scientific discipline. Discoveries and conceptions of I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich exceedingly influenced development of immunology and are also applicable, instructive and suggestive in contemporary immunology and microbiology.

  16. Autophagy wins the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Breakthroughs in baker's yeast fuel advances in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Beth; Klionsky, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Autophagy is an ancient pathway in which parts of eukaryotic cells are self-digested within the lysosome or vacuole. This process has been studied for the past seven decades; however, we are only beginning to gain a molecular understanding of the key steps required for autophagy. Originally characterized as a hormonal and starvation response, we now know that autophagy has a much broader role in biology, including organellar remodeling, protein and organelle quality control, prevention of genotoxic stress, tumor suppression, pathogen elimination, regulation of immunity and inflammation, maternal DNA inheritance, metabolism, and cellular survival. Although autophagy is usually a degradative pathway, it also participates in biosynthetic and secretory processes. Given that autophagy has a fundamental role in many essential cellular functions, it is not surprising that autophagic dysfunction is associated with a wide range of human diseases. Genetic studies in various fungi, particularly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provided the key initial breakthrough that led to an explosion of research on the basic mechanisms and the physiological connections of autophagy to health and disease. The Nobel Committee has recognized this breakthrough by the awarding of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for research in autophagy. PMID:28039434

  17. [Tuberculosis 110 years after the Nobel Prize awarded to Koch].

    PubMed

    Ritacco, Viviana; Kantor, Isabel N

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1905 to Robert Koch "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis (TB)". He discovered the causal agent of TB, described the four principles that since then have guided research in communicable diseases and also prepared the old tuberculin, a bacillary extract that failed as a healing element but allowed the early diagnosis of TB infection and promoted the understanding of cellular immunity. After his death, the most conspicuous achievements against TB were the BCG vaccine, and the discovery of streptomycin, the antibiotic that launched the era of the effective treatment of TB. Drug-resistance soon appeared. In Argentina, studies on drug resistance began in the 60s. In the 70s, shortened anti-TB drug schemes were introduced consisting in two-month treatment with four drugs, followed by four months with two drugs. The incidence of TB decreased worldwide, but the immune depression associated with awarded together with the misuse of anti-TB drugs allowed the emergence of multidrug resistance and extensive resistance, with the emergence of nosocomial outbreaks worldwide, including Argentina. New rapid diagnostic methods based on molecular biology were developed and also new drugs, but the treatment of multidrug resistant and extensively resistant TB is still difficult and expensive. TB research has marked several milestones in medical sciences, including the monumental Koch postulates, the tuberculin skin test that laid the basis for understanding cell-mediated immunity, the first design of randomized clinical trials and the use of combined multi-drug treatments.

  18. Nobel Lecture: Topological quantum matter*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldane, F. Duncan M.

    2017-10-01

    Nobel Lecture, presented December 8, 2016, Aula Magna, Stockholm University. I will describe the history and background of three discoveries cited in this Nobel Prize: The "TKNN" topological formula for the integer quantum Hall effect found by David Thouless and collaborators, the Chern insulator or quantum anomalous Hall effect, and its role in the later discovery of time-reversal-invariant topological insulators, and the unexpected topological spin-liquid state of the spin-1 quantum antiferromagnetic chain, which provided an initial example of topological quantum matter. I will summarize how these early beginnings have led to the exciting, and currently extremely active, field of "topological matter."

  19. How molecular motors work – insights from the molecular machinist's toolbox: the Nobel prize in Chemistry 2016

    PubMed Central

    Astumian, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    The Nobel prize in Chemistry for 2016 was awarded to Jean Pierre Sauvage, Sir James Fraser Stoddart, and Bernard (Ben) Feringa for their contributions to the design and synthesis of molecular machines. While this field is still in its infancy, and at present there are no commercial applications, many observers have stressed the tremendous potential of molecular machines to revolutionize technology. However, perhaps the most important result so far accruing from the synthesis of molecular machines is the insight provided into the fundamental mechanisms by which molecular motors, including biological motors such as kinesin, myosin, FoF1 ATPase, and the flagellar motor, function. The ability to “tinker” with separate components of molecular motors allows asking, and answering, specific questions about mechanism, particularly with regard to light driven vs. chemistry driven molecular motors. PMID:28572896

  20. ECONOMICS NOBEL: Dealing With Biases and Discrete Choices.

    PubMed

    Seife, C

    2000-10-20

    This year's Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences, given in honor of Alfred Nobel, goes to two researchers who gave the field of microeconomics--the study of individuals' economic behavior--new tools to help draw conclusions from imperfect data. James Heckman of the University of Chicago wins half of this year's prize for coming up with ways to deal with selection biases. Daniel McFadden of the University of California, Berkeley, tackled a different conundrum: how to quantify discrete choices rather than continuous ones.

  1. Water channel proteins: from their discovery in 1985 in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, to the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Benga, Gh

    2006-10-30

    small indeed, of The New Land was Columbus; later, others, including Amerigo Vespucci (from whom the name derived), have better "seen" and in the subsequent years many explorers discovered the complexity of the Americas. Consequently, the initial discovery of the first water channel by Benga's group must be properly credited; the omission of Gheorghe Benga from the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (half of which was awarded to Peter Agre "for the discovery of the water channels") was a new mistake in the award of Nobel Prizes. Benga's claim is presented on the web site of the Ad Astra Association (www.ad-astra.ro/benga). As can be seen on this site his recognition as a discoverer of the first water channel protein from the human RBC membrane is growing. Thousands of science-related professionals from hundreds of academic and research units, as well as participants in several international scientific events, have signed as supporters of Benga; his priority is also mentioned in several comments on the 2003 Nobel Prize as presented on the site.

  2. ["When all of you will be forgotten, the name Israel will still be shining" : James Israel (1848-1926): a career in the German Empire and his nomination for the Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Moll, Friedrich H; Halling, Thorsten; Hansson, Nils; Fangerau, Heiner

    2017-03-01

    In 1902, the Berlin Jewish urologist James Israel was nominated for the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. Taking scholar, social, and political aspects into consideration, this biographical essay traces how James Israel gained a sound scientific reputation especially in kidney surgery within Imperial Germany and its antisemitic attitude and how he promoted urology to become a specialty in its own right.

  3. The structure of Lippmann heliochromes: Cajal and the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physics.

    PubMed

    Triarhou, Lazaros C; del Cerro, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    The 1908 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Luxembourgeois Gabriel Lippmann (1848-1921), Professor of Mathematical and Experimental Physics at la Sorbonne, for his method of reproducing colors photographically based on the theory of wave interference. In the preceding several years, the eminent neurohistologist - and avid photographer - Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) had been experimenting with Lippmann heliochromes, studying under the microscope the structure of the laminae of Zenker that produce mixed colors, and especially white. Those studies led to a series of technical papers by Cajal, the culmination being an article published 100 years ago in the Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC. A few years later, Cajal published Photography in Colors, his classic monograph on the physicochemical principles of the 'art of Daguerre,' bearing further testimony to his exuberant productivity, far-reaching interests, and scientific genius. The present article reflects on the workings of the mind of Cajal and his fundamental knowledge that was a precondition for his success in neurohistology. It highlights the links between the early photographic studies of Cajal and Lippmann, masters of the biological and physical sciences, respectively. Special emphasis is placed on Lippmann's discovery of heliochromes and the microscopic analyses performed on them by Cajal, including elements from relevant contemporary studies and discoveries.

  4. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  5. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  6. The discoveries of molecular mechanisms for the circadian rhythm: The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong-Chi

    2018-02-01

    Circadian clocks evolved to allow plants and animals to adapt their behaviors to the 24-hr change in the external environment due to the Earth's rotation. While the first scientific observation of circadian rhythm in the plant leaf movement may be dated back to the early 18th century, it took 200 years to realize that the leaf movement is controlled by an endogenous circadian clock. The cloning and characterization of the first Drosophila clock gene period in the early 1980s, independently by Jeffery C. Hall and Michael Rosbash at Brandeis University and Michael Young at Rockefeller University, paved the way for their further discoveries of additional genes and proteins, culminating in establishing the so-called transcriptional translational feedback loop (TTFL) model for the generation of autonomous oscillator with a period of ∼24 h. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to honor their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm. Copyright © 2018 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2008-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now. and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein's biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the univerre, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA's plans for the next great telescope in space, the Jarnes Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where rtars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  8. From the Big Bang to the Nobel Prize and on to James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    The history of the universe in a nutshell, from the Big Bang to now, and on to the future - John Mather will tell the story of how we got here, how the Universe began with a Big Bang, how it could have produced an Earth where sentient beings can live, and how those beings are discovering their history. Mather was Project Scientist for NASA s Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, which measured the spectrum (the color) of the heat radiation from the Big Bang, discovered hot and cold spots in that radiation, and hunted for the first objects that formed after the great explosion. He will explain Einstein s biggest mistake, show how Edwin Hubble discovered the expansion of the universe, how the COBE mission was built, and how the COBE data support the Big Bang theory. He will also show NASA s plans for the next great telescope in space, the James Webb Space Telescope. It will look even farther back in time than the Hubble Space Telescope, and will look inside the dusty cocoons where stars and planets are being born today. Planned for launch in 2013, it may lead to another Nobel Prize for some lucky observer.

  9. [An illustrious unknown. Giuseppe Levi among science, anti-fascism and Nobel Prizes].

    PubMed

    Grignolio, Andrea; De Sio, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The anatomist Giuseppe Levi (1872-1965) is unanimously considered one of the major figures of Italian biomedical sciences in the 20th century. His fame, however, is mainly derived from having nurtured three Nobel Prize winners, namely Salvador E. Luria, Rita Levi Montalcini and Renato Dulbecco. In reappraising Levi's role in the development of Italian science and culture in general, this article aims at questioning both the narrowness of earlier accounts and a certain kind of genealogical approach to the history of scientific disciplines and academic schools. We will here consider Giuseppe Levi as an instance of two major cultural phenomena: the development of experimental biology in Italy and continental Europe and the anti-fascist socialist culture expressed by a part of the Italian intellectuals. In so doing, we will reassess the historical specificity of the scientific maturation of Levi's three famous students, on the one hand, while on the other we will consider in some depth the cultural and moral environment in which Levi thrived and his role as a moral example for his students. Such revision, we will argue, have a direct bearing on more general historiographical issues, namely, the need for a stronger contextualization of the birth and consolidation of research traditions, implying a rejection of simplistic genealogical reconstructions, and the role of academic schools and institutional settings in the definition of novel, multidisciplinary scientific approaches. Finally, the following will highlight the importance of a more careful outlook on the master-pupil relationship in academic context, addressing issues of both continuity and rupture. The article is subdivided in two main sections, the first devoted to Levi as a scientist, the second to his Anti-fascism.

  10. [Maria Skłodowska-Curie--her chemistry at the centenary of the second Nobel Prize].

    PubMed

    Zagórski, Zbigniew Paweł; Kornacka, Ewa Maria

    2012-01-01

    The article presents from the perspective of one hundred years the work of Maria Curie-Skłodowska, which in many cases was ahead of the state of knowledge of the time. It opened new horizons and for this reason we made many digressions. The fact of awarding her the Nobel Prize twice is a sensation enough to present the values of careful activity of the Nobel Prize Committee that emphasizes the importance of Maria's achievements. A significant element of Maria Skłodowska-Curie's achievements was still mysterious character of the radiation in her time, and only chemical approach made it possible to organise the phenomena and explain the origin of the radiation. The essence of the research was an arduous separation of components following the track of growing radiation of successive fractions of preparations. This research was a start of the technology of educement of dispersed elements in great mass of materials. We underline the paramount role of the chemical research Maria Skłodowska conducted while still in Warsaw in the laboratories of the Museum of Industry and Agriculture under the guidance of an excellent chemist Józef Jerzy Boguski. Her research in Paris was the origin of the semi-commercial scale in chemistry and setting aside a special shed outside the university building was the beginning of the institutes that now function beyond universities and are key element of scientific and technical progress. Technology of splitting developed by Maria Skłodowska-Curie was applied also by other radiochemists, e.g. By Otto Hahn. Lively movement in radiochemistry of her lifetime resulted in Maria's disputes with e.g. German chemist Marckwald, who questioned the originality of polonium. The scientific disputes like this one Maria won triumphantly although in several others she had to accept opponents' argument, as in the case of radon. Her experiments were planned with utmost rationality as it was with the rejection of the hypothesis saying that radioactivity was

  11. Citations Prize 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon; Ruffle, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat, a Nobel Prize winner who also was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winner of the 2013 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous five years (2008-2012) is Figure. Figure. Four of the prize winning authors. From left to right: Thomas Istel (Philips), Jens-Peter Schlomka (with medal, MorphoDetection), Ewald Roessl (Philips), and Gerhard Martens (Philips). Title: Experimental feasibility of multi-energy photon-counting K-edge imaging in pre-clinical computed tomography Authors: Jens Peter Schlomka1, Ewald Roessl1, Ralf Dorscheid2, Stefan Dill2, Gerhard Martens1, Thomas Istel1, Christian Bäumer3, Christoph Herrmann3, Roger Steadman3, Günter Zeitler3, Amir Livne4 and Roland Proksa1 Institutions: 1 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Hamburg, Germany 2 Philips Research Europe, Engineering & Technology, Aachen, Germany 3 Philips Research Europe, Sector Medical Imaging Systems, Aachen, Germany 4 Philips Healthcare, Global Research and Advanced Development, Haifa, Israel Reference: Schlomka et al 2008 Phys. Med. Biol. 53 4031-47 This paper becomes the first to win both this citations prize and also the PMB best paper prize (The Roberts Prize), which it won for the year 2008. Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found in this medicalphysicsweb article from the time of the Roberts Prize win (http://medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/39907). The author's enthusiasm for their prototype spectral CT system has certainly been reflected in the large number of citations the paper subsequently has

  12. Birth of neutrino astrophysics (Nobel Lecture).

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Masatoshi

    2003-07-14

    The KamiokaNDE experiment for the observation of proton decay, an array of photomultipliers containing over 3000 tons of water, allowed the observation of charged particles travelling faster than the velocity of light in water. The subsequently developed Super-KamiokaNDE could be used to measure the amounts, the path, the energies, and the oscillation parameters of neutrinos, generated either by supernova explosions in the sun, or in the atmosphere. This work was awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics.

  13. Sources of Financial Support for Research Prize Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The principal objective of this study was to determine the organizational sources of support for the scientists and engineers who have received the Nobel and other major scientific prizes. A secondary objective was to determine what role the National Science Foundation (NSF) may have played in the recipients' research careers. The results of the…

  14. EDITORIAL: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003 awarded to Paul Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield for discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, Martin O.

    2004-02-01

    The award of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine recognizes discoveries concerning the use of magnetic resonance to visualize different structures. The Assembly's decision to recognize the discoveries underpinning efficient spatial mapping of biological properties reflects the singular importance of imaging to the medical application of this technique. Without this, abnormalities in morphology cannot be recognized. Equally, the wealth of physiological information that can be obtained by manipulation of the magnetic resonance signal is of little value unless localized to identified organs, pathology or areas of tissue. Based on these early discoveries, a wide range of imaging and measurement techniques, together with enabling instrumentation, have been developed over the last 30 years. Commercial equipment became available in the early 1980s, and some 60 million MRI examinations are now performed each year. The power of the technique, and the range of applications, continues to develop rapidly. The full text of this editorial is given in the PDF file below.

  15. Abraham Pais Prize Lecture: Shifting Problems and Boundaries in the History of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, Mary-Jo

    A long established category of study in the history of science is the ``history of physical sciences.'' It is a category that immediately begs the question of disciplinary boundaries for the problems and subjects addressed in historical inquiry. As a historian of the physical sciences, I often have puzzled over disciplinary boundaries and the means used to create or justify them. Scientists most often have been professionally identified with specific institutionalized fields since the late 19th century, but the questions they ask and the problems they solve are not neatly carved up by disciplinary perimeters. Like institutional departments or professorships, the Nobel Prizes in the 20th century often have delineated the scope of ``Physics'' or ``Chemistry'' (and ``Physiology or Medicine''), but the Prizes do not reflect disciplinary rigidity, despite some standard core subjects. In this paper I examine trends in Nobel Prize awards that indicate shifts in problem solving and in boundaries in twentieth century physics, tying those developments to changing themes in the history of physics and physical science in recent decades.

  16. The laureate as celebrity genius: How Scientific American's John Horgan profiled Nobel Prize winners.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Declan

    2018-05-01

    When scientists become Nobel laureates, they become famous in science and public life, but few studies have examined the nature of their scientific celebrity. This article examines how Scientific American portrayed laureates in order to identify and explain core features of Nobel fame. It examines the portrayals of seven laureates - Francis Crick, Linus Pauling, Hans Bethe, Murray Gell-Mann, Brian Josephson, Philip Anderson and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar - in magazine profiles written between 1992 and 1995 by science writer John Horgan. Its textual analysis finds the scientists are portrayed as combining the sociological characteristics of genius, including enormous productivity and lasting impact, with the representational characteristics of celebrities, such as the merging of public and private lives. Their form of scientific celebrity is grounded in their field-changing research, which is presented as a product of their idiosyncratic personalities. Nobel science is presented as knowledge created by an ultra-elite of exceptional individuals.

  17. From fission to fusion: a perspective on the research that won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2013.

    PubMed

    Ray, Krishanu

    2014-03-01

    Secretion is widespread in all eukaryotic cells: all of us experience this in the course of daily life--saliva, mucus, sweat, tears, bile juice, adrenalin, etc.--the list is extremely long. How does a cell manage to repeatedly spit out some stuff without losing the rest? The answer is: through regulated vesicle trafficking within the cell. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 was awarded to Drs Randy Schekman, James E Rothman and Thomas C Südhof for their 'discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells'. Dr Randy Schekman and his colleagues discovered a number of genes required for vesicle trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi; the James E Rothman group unravelled the protein machinery that allows vesicles to bud off from the membrane and fuse to their targets; and Dr Thomas C Südhof along with his colleagues revealed how calcium ions could instruct vesicles to fuse and discharge their contents with precision. These enabled the biotechnology industry to produce a variety of pharmaceutical and industrial products like insulin and hepatitis B vaccines, in a cost-efficient manner, using yeast and tissue cultured cells.

  18. Gore's Nobel May Bring Even More Attention on Campuses to Environmental Issues: Award for Combating Climate Change Implicitly Honors the Work of Academic Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Richard; Monastersky, Richard

    2007-01-01

    When the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced that the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize would be shared by Al Gore, the former U.S. vice president, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the award implicitly celebrated a third party--academic institutions. Much of the research on global warming has come from university scientists, and higher…

  19. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  20. [The first three Nordic Nobel laureates in physiology or medicine].

    PubMed

    Pernow, B

    1997-01-01

    Among all the Nobel Laureates in physiology or medicine there are five from Denmark and seven from Sweden. The first three Laureates are presented in this paper. Over 50 years have elapsed since they were awarded and the Nobel archives are now open for scrutiny, providing insight into how the Nobel committee interpreted the instruction given in Nobel's will at that time. Niels Finsen (1860-1904, Nobel Laureate 1903) devoted his short life to a continuous study of the biological effects of sunshine, which resulted in a method aimed at utilizing the bacteriocide properties of sun rays in the treatment of various skin diseases and especially tuberculosis. Finsen published his first paper on this topic in 1896 and his method revolutionized the current treatment of this disease. Approximately forty Finsen Institutes were established in Europe and the USA within the subsequent five years. Alvar Gullstrand (1869-1930, Nobel Laureate 1911) was an ophthalmologist but his main interest was mathematical physics, where he achieved results of utmost importance for clinical opthalmology. He systematically studied the optical system, from the physical properties of light rays to optimal images in different media of the eye. He formulated general laws if image, which he extrapolated to the human eye. He also devised several techniques, some of which still used in ophthalmology. August Krogh (1874-1949, Nobel Laureate 1920) was a zoological physiologist, actively involved in various fields, including human muscle physiology and metabolism, capillary circulation in the frog, water regulation in the desert rat and the jumping capacity of the grasshopper. He was the founder of modern human exercise physiology and sport medicine. Krogh received the Nobel prize the year after he published his first paper on the regulation of the motor activity of capillaries, which reflected the Nobel committee's desire at that time to support a young scientist in the most successul period of his career

  1. Climate Change Draws World Attention: The 2007 Nobel Peace Award Goes to Gore and IPCC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisland, Beverly Milner; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    In the fall of 2007, the Nobel Committee awarded their Peace Prize to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization and by the United Nations Environment Program) and to former Vice-President Al Gore, Jr. The committee praised the United Nations panel for creating…

  2. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  3. 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech

    DOE PAGES

    Goldston, R. J.

    2016-12-19

    This is the 2015 Nuclear Fusion Prize acceptance speech of R.J. Goldston: It is a great pleasure to receive the 2015 Nuclear Fusion award for my work developing a heuristic drift-based model for the power scrape-off width in tokamaks. I was particularly pleased to receive the award from IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, whose thoughtful leadership has advanced the cause of nuclear non-proliferation mightily.

  4. Smoot Group Cosmology

    Science.gov Websites

    __________________________________________________ Nobel Prize funds will be donated to Fellowships: Berkeley Nobel laureates donate prize money to charity SF Gate New Nobel Laureate Donates Prize Money to Local Charity The Daily Californian Nobel laureate

  5. LHC Nobel Symposium Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelöf, Tord

    2013-12-01

    In the summer of 2012, a great discovery emerged at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva. A plethora of new precision data had already by then been collected by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at LHC, providing further extensive support for the validity of the Standard Model of particle physics. But what now appeared was the first evidence for what was not only the last unverified prediction of the Standard Model, but also perhaps the most decisive one: the prediction made already in 1964 of a unique scalar boson required by the theory of François Englert and Peter Higgs on how fundamental particles acquire mass. At that moment in 2012, it seemed particularly appropriate to start planning a gathering of world experts in particle physics to take stock of the situation and try to answer the challenging question: what next? By May 2013, when the LHC Nobel Symposium was held at the Krusenberg Mansion outside Uppsala in Sweden, the first signs of a great discovery had already turned into fully convincing experimental evidence for the existence of a scalar boson of mass about 125 GeV, having properties compatible with the 50-year-old prediction. And in October 2013, the evidence was deemed so convincing that the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Englert and Higgs for their pioneering work. At the same time the search at the LHC for other particles, beyond those predicted by the Standard Model, with heavier masses up to—and in some cases beyond—1 TeV, had provided no positive result. The triumph of the Standard Model seems resounding, in particular because the mass of the discovered scalar boson is such that, when identified with the Higgs boson, the Standard Model is able to provide predictions at energies as high as the Planck mass, although at the price of accepting that the vacuum would be metastable. However, even if there were some feelings of triumph, the ambience at the LHC Nobel Symposium was more one of

  6. The 2008 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Robert Huber, Chemistry 1988

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Robert Huber and his colleagues, Johann Deisenhofer and Hartmut Michel, elucidated the three-dimensional structure of the Rhodopseudomonas viridis photosynthetic reaction center. This membrane protein complex is a basic component of photosynthesis – a process fundamental to life on Earth – and for their work, Huber and his colleagues received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Because structural information is central to understanding virtually any biological process, Huber likens their discovery to “switching on the light” for scientists trying to understand photosynthesis. Huber marvels at the growth of structural biology since the time he entered the field, when crystallographers worked with hand-made instruments and primitive computers, and only “a handful” of crystallographers would meet annually in the Bavarian Alps. In the “explosion” of structural biology since his early days of research, Huber looks to the rising generation of scientists to solve the remaining mysteries in the field – such as the mechanisms that underlie protein folding. A strong proponent of science mentorship, Huber delights in meeting young researchers at the annual Nobel Laureate Meetings in Lindau, Germany. He hopes that among these young scientists is an “Einstein of biology” who, he says with a twinkle in his eye, “doesn’t know it yet.” The interview was conducted by JoVE co-founder Klaus J. Korak at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting 2008 in Lindau, Germany. PMID:19066525

  7. Robert F. Furchgott, Nobel laureate (1916–2009) – a personal reflection

    PubMed Central

    Martin, William

    2009-01-01

    Robert F. Furchgott, pharmacologist and joint winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology (1998) died on the 12th of May 2009 aged 92. By unlocking the astonishingly diverse biological actions of nitric oxide, Furchgott leaves behind a rich legacy that has both revolutionized our understanding of human physiology and stimulated new and exciting opportunities for drug development in a wide range of pathological conditions. In this article, William Martin, who worked with Furchgott for 2 years (1983–1985), following the exciting discovery of endothelium-derived relaxing factor/nitric oxide, pays tribute to his close friend and colleague. PMID:19681890

  8. Nobel Chemistry in the Laboratory: Synthesis of a Ruthenium Catalyst for Ring-Closing Olefin Metathesis--An Experiment for the Advanced Inorganic or Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, George E.

    2007-01-01

    An experiment for the upper-level undergraduate laboratory is described in which students synthesize a ruthenium olefin metathesis catalyst, then use the catalyst to carry out the ring-closing metathesis of diethyl diallylmalonate. The olefin metathesis reaction was the subject of the 2005 Nobel Prize in chemistry. The catalyst chosen for this…

  9. Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz, Ada E. Yonath, and Ribosome

    Science.gov Websites

    'studies of the structure and function of the ribosome", the 2009 Nobel Prize in Chemistry has been ORNL Researcher Wins Nobel Prize Oak Ridge National Laboratory Ex-ORNL Researcher Wins Nobel Prize

  10. Vascular access: an historical perspective from Sir William Harvey to the 1956 Nobel prize to André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, and Dickinson W. Richards.

    PubMed

    Sette, Piersandro; Dorizzi, Romolo M; Azzini, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Harvey (1578-1657), who had many precursors, discovered blood circulation in 1628 after a significant number of anatomic dissection of cadavers; his studies were continued by Sir Christopher Wren and Daniel Johann Major. The first central vein catheterization was performed on a horse by Stephen Hales, an English Vicar. In 1844, a century later, the French biologist Claude Bernard attempted the first carotid artery cannulation and repeated the procedure in the jugular vein, again on a horse. He was first to report the complications now well known to be associated with this maneuver. In 1929 Werner Forssmann tried cardiac catheterization on himself, but could not investigate the procedure further since his findings were rejected and ridiculed by colleagues. His work was continued by André Frédéric Cournand and Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr in the United States. In 1956 the three physicians shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their studies on vascular and cardiac systems. The genius and the perseverance of the three physicians paved the way towards peripheral and central catheter vein placement, one of the most frequently performed maneuvers in hospitals. Its history still remains unknown to most and deserves a short description.

  11. Neuron theory, the cornerstone of neuroscience, on the centenary of the Nobel Prize award to Santiago Ramón y Cajal.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Boya, Jesús; Alamo, Cecilio

    2006-10-16

    Exactly 100 years ago, the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Santiago Ramón y Cajal, "in recognition of his meritorious work on the structure of the nervous system". Cajal's great contribution to the history of science is undoubtedly the postulate of neuron theory. The present work makes a historical analysis of the circumstances in which Cajal formulated his theory, considering the authors and works that influenced his postulate, the difficulties he encountered for its dissemination, and the way it finally became established. At the time when Cajal began his neurohistological studies, in 1887, Gerlach's reticular theory (a diffuse protoplasmic network of the grey matter of the nerve centres), also defended by Golgi, prevailed among the scientific community. In the first issue of the Revista Trimestral de Histología Normal y Patológica (May, 1888), Cajal presented the definitive evidence underpinning neuron theory, thanks to staining of the axon of the small, star-shaped cells of the molecular layer of the cerebellum of birds, whose collaterals end up surrounding the Purkinje cell bodies, in the form of baskets or nests. He thus demonstrated once and for all that the relationship between nerve cells was not one of continuity, but rather of contiguity. Neuron theory is one of the principal scientific conquests of the 20th century, and which has withstood, with scarcely any modifications, the passage of more than a 100 years, being reaffirmed by new technologies, as the electron microscopy. Today, no neuroscientific discipline could be understood without recourse to the concept of neuronal individuality and nervous transmission at a synaptic level, as basic units of the nervous system.

  12. The Underpinnings of American Foreign Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    speeches , those given in December 2009, first at the United States Military Academy at West Point and later as he accepted his Nobel Peace Prize... speeches , those given in December 2009, first at the United States Military Academy at West Point and later as he accepted his Nobel Peace Prize...Nobel Acceptance Speech , December 10th, 2009. President Obama’s Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech in December, 2009, dismayed many of his

  13. Researcher Supported by Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of

    Science.gov Websites

    Energy is Co-Winner Of 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics October 7, 2008 Researcher Supported by Atomic Energy Commission and U.S. Department of Energy is Co-Winner Of 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics -winning the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for their theoretical insights that provide a deeper understanding

  14. The 2008 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Robert Huber, Chemistry 1988. Interview by Klaus J. Korak.

    PubMed

    Huber, Robert

    2008-11-25

    Robert Huber and his colleagues, Johann Deisenhofer and Hartmut Michel, elucidated the three-dimensional structure of the Rhodopseudomonas viridis photosynthetic reaction center. This membrane protein complex is a basic component of photosynthesis - a process fundamental to life on Earth - and for their work, Huber and his colleagues received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Because structural information is central to understanding virtually any biological process, Huber likens their discovery to "switching on the light" for scientists trying to understand photosynthesis. Huber marvels at the growth of structural biology since the time he entered the field, when crystallographers worked with hand-made instruments and primitive computers, and only "a handful" of crystallographers would meet annually in the Bavarian Alps. In the "explosion" of structural biology since his early days of research, Huber looks to the rising generation of scientists to solve the remaining mysteries in the field - such as the mechanisms that underlie protein folding. A strong proponent of science mentorship, Huber delights in meeting young researchers at the annual Nobel Laureate Meetings in Lindau, Germany. He hopes that among these young scientists is an "Einstein of biology" who, he says with a twinkle in his eye, "doesn't know it yet." The interview was conducted by JoVE co-founder Klaus J. Korak at the Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting 2008 in Lindau, Germany.

  15. Nobel prize for the artemisinin and ivermectin discoveries: a great boost towards elimination of the global infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Khater, Emad I M; Chen, Jun-Hu; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-12-28

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) made a marked transformation for neglected and vulnerable communities in the developing countries from the start, but infectious diseases of poverty (IDoPs) continue to inflict a disproportionate global public health burden with associated consequences, thereby contributing to the vicious cycle of poverty and inequity. However, the effectiveness and large-scale coverage of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) have revolutionized malaria treatment just as the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis have benefitted from harnessing the broad-spectrum effect of avermectin-based derivatives. The paradigm shift in therapeutic approach, effected by these two drugs and their impact on community-based interventions of parasitic diseases plaguing the endemic low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), led to the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015. However, the story would not be complete without mentioning praziquantel. The huge contribution of this drug in modernizing the control of schistosomiasis and also some intestinal helminth infections had already shifted the focus from control to potential elimination of this disease. Together, these new drugs have provided humankind with powerful new tools for the alleviation of infectious diseases that humans have lived with since time immemorial. These drugs all have broad-spectrum effects, yet they are very safe and can even be packaged together in various combinations. The strong effect on so many of the great infectious scourges in the developing countries has not only had a remarkable influence on many endemic diseases, but also contributed to improving the cost structure of healthcare. Significant benefits include improved quality of preventive and curative medicine, promotion of community-based interventions, universal health coverage and the fostering of global partnerships. The laudable progress and benefits achieved are indispensable in championing

  16. An interview with Nobel laureate Roy Glauber, Physics 2005.

    PubMed

    Glauber, Roy

    2009-06-26

    The field of quantum optics rests on the work of Roy Glauber, who helped elucidate the nature of light as both particles and waves. According to Glauber, quantum optics allowed "all sorts of experiments...that never could have been done before." He suggests that it was not his "small revelation" that the Nobel Committee awarded, but rather the decades of research that followed his own. Nonetheless, Glauber received one-half of the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence" while the other half was shared by John Hall and Theodor Hänsch for their work on laser-based precision spectroscopy. Glauber admits that the behavior of light seems strange and unintuitive--yet the phenomena that Einstein called "spooky action at a distance" may have many practical applications. In this candid interview, Glauber shares his thoughts about working at Los Alamos National Laboratory--his shock to learn that he was helping to build The Bomb, and his dismay about how it was used. At Los Alamos, Glauber met two of his major influences: Julian Schwinger, who was Glauber's thesis advisor at Harvard, and Los Alamos scientific director Robert Oppenheimer, who facilitated his early post-doctoral research. Glauber also tells a poignant account of how his marriage fell victim to the social upheaval of the 1960's, and how he was left to raise two children alone. Despite the difficulties of reconciling academia with family, Glauber is amused to find himself revered by women as "someone who has raised children and nonetheless had a successful academic career."

  17. Play the Mosquito Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  18. Vitamin B1

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  19. Play the Immune System Defender Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  20. Play the MRI Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  1. Play the Blood Typing Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  2. Play the Tuberculosis Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  3. Play the Electrocardiogram Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Quick Facts Nomination Nomination Physics Prize Chemistry ... Medicine Prize Literature Prize Peace Prize Prize in Economic Sciences Nomination Archive Ceremonies Ceremonies Ceremony Archive Nobel ...

  4. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Science.gov Websites

    . Interview with 2006 Nobel Laureates in Physics: George Smoot and John Mather Interview excerpt with 2006 Nobel Prize Laureates in Physics John Mather and George Smoot answer a question from the public on how has their research effects everyday life. Nobel Prize in Physics, 2006 Cosmologist George F. Smoot led

  5. William Henry Bragg, man and scientist, Nobel Laureate and First Professor of Physics, University of Adelaide 1886-1909.

    PubMed

    Patterson, John; George, Robert

    2018-03-01

    In London, November 1915, a telegram was received at the home of William Henry Bragg from the secretary of the Academy of Science in Stockholm announcing the award of the Nobel Prize in Physics for "the analysis of crystal structures by means of X-rays". A second similar telegram was addressed to his 25 year old son William Lawrence Bragg (Jenkin, 2008). This article commemorates the centenary of that event and the unveiling of a bust of Sir William Bragg alongside that of his son, Sir Lawrence Bragg, on North Terrace in Adelaide where he spent 23 years of his early career. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The 2009 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Sir Harold Kroto, Chemistry 1996.

    PubMed

    Kroto, Harold

    2010-04-07

    English Chemist Harold Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Robert Curl and Richard Smalley for their discovery of Fullerenes (C(60;)), molecules composed completely of carbon (C(60;)) that form hollow spheres (also known as Buckyballs), tubes, or ellipsoids. These structures hold the potential for use in future technologies ranging from drug development and antimicrobial agents, to armor and superconductors. Harold Kroto was born in Wisbech, Cambridgeshire in 1939 and grew up in Bolton. Educated at Bolton School, he entered Sheffield University in 1958 to study Chemistry. During his time there he played tennis for the university team, illustrated the university's magazine covers, and played folk music with other students. Enjoying his time at Sheffield very much, he chose to stay on and complete a Ph.D. in Chemistry under Richard Dixon. Following graduation in 1964, Kroto went on to post doc at the National Research Council (NRC) in Ottowa, Canada where microwave spectroscopy became his specialty. After two years of study at the NRC he spent a year at Bell Laboratories. He then accepted a position as a tutorial fellow at the University of Sussex, where he was soon offered a permanent position. There, he applied his expertise in microwave spectroscopy to the field of astronomy and spent several fruitful years detecting long carbon chains in the interstellar medium. Upon hearing of the work of Richard Smalley at Rice, who developed a laser that could vaporize graphite, Kroto thought they could use Smalley's instrument to see carbon chains similar to those they had observed in interstellar matter. He suggested his idea for an experiment to Bob Curl, also at Rice. In 1985 he traveled to Rice to perform the experiment (and also to visit a half-price bookstore he'd heard about in Houston). Although he felt certain that the apparatus would create the carbon chains, the experiment revealed a totally unexpected result: the spontaneous formation of spherical

  7. Recognizing the Achievements of Women in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dujari, Anuradha

    2000-01-01

    Lists the women Nobel Prize laureates and questions why, with the exception of Marie Curie, all these women scientists are not well known by the public. Explains why so few women have won the Nobel Prize in science and medicine as compared to other fields. (Contains 18 references.) (YDS)

  8. The citation wake of publications detects nobel laureates' papers.

    PubMed

    Klosik, David F; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    For several decades, a leading paradigm of how to quantitatively assess scientific research has been the analysis of the aggregated citation information in a set of scientific publications. Although the representation of this information as a citation network has already been coined in the 1960s, it needed the systematic indexing of scientific literature to allow for impact metrics that actually made use of this network as a whole, improving on the then prevailing metrics that were almost exclusively based on the number of direct citations. However, besides focusing on the assignment of credit, the paper citation network can also be studied in terms of the proliferation of scientific ideas. Here we introduce a simple measure based on the shortest-paths in the paper's in-component or, simply speaking, on the shape and size of the wake of a paper within the citation network. Applied to a citation network containing Physical Review publications from more than a century, our approach is able to detect seminal articles which have introduced concepts of obvious importance to the further development of physics. We observe a large fraction of papers co-authored by Nobel Prize laureates in physics among the top-ranked publications.

  9. The History of Cortisone Discovery and Development.

    PubMed

    Burns, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Philip Hench, Edward Kendall, and Tadeus Reichstein received the Nobel Prize in medicine and physiology in 1950 for their "investigations of the hormones of the adrenal cortex." Hench and Kendall took compound E from the laboratory to the clinic to the Nobel Prize in a span of 2 years. This article examines the paths that led to the day when the first rheumatoid arthritis patient received cortisone, and from there to the 1950 Nobel Prize ceremony. The aftermath of this achievement is also discussed. Although there have been significant advances in corticosteroid preparations and use since 1950, the side effects remain daunting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Citations Prize 2010 Citations Prize 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2010 Citations Prize winners The winning authors Fernando Rannou (left), George Alexandrakis (holding the Rotblat Medal) and Arion Chatziioannou (right). The winner of the 2010 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2005-2009) is Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Authors: George Alexandrakis, Fernando R Rannou and Arion F Chatziioannou Reference: George Alexandrakis et al 2005 Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/44334). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  11. Alfred nobel.

    PubMed

    Holmin, L R

    1996-10-01

    Alfred Nobel never spoke publicly about his problems of ill health, but a detailed, subjective record has recently been published in the form of 216 letters written to his mistress during an 18-year period. His descriptions of constant pain, debilitating migraine, and "paralyzing" fatigue permit a hypothesis that he might have had a long struggle with fibromyalgia. This does not preclude his having suffered other illnesses as well. He thought he had heart disease, which his physicians denied until his final years, when he was diagnosed with angina pectoris. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1896 at the age of 63. His letters describe a 30-year search for diagnosis from the best physicians in Europe. He was ridiculed by many people as a hypochondriac, and he never received a diagnosis for "the pain that will not go away." This may well have contributed to the bitterness and depression of his final years. Increasing worldwide interest and research in this elusive syndrome will hopefully prevent a repetition of the Nobel story of a century ago.

  12. Blueprint for an Indian Nobel Laureate in Psychiatry*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajai R.

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of spoofs and light-hearted writings in blogs, journalistic pieces and book form (even from former Nobel Laureates), which attempt at ‘understanding’ the secret of getting a Nobel. This is not one of them. It is more pedantic without necessarily being dry. It first analyses the meaning of the concept, ‘the greatest benefit of mankind’, which is the crux of the Nobel Will and the overarching requirement for a Nobel in Medicine. Further discussion in the paper is divided into 5 parts: (1)General qualities for a Nobel: The need to be really bright is a given; what is necessary is to be sufficiently crazy about a research topic to make it an obsession; be ready to forgo many creature comforts for long stretches of time; and after all this, be ready to accept that the Nobel may never happen, yet continue to do a type of research solely because it is intrinsically worth doing.(2)Nobel in Physiology or Medicine: Here, the key is to do fundamental/basic research to answer persistent, nagging, unanswered questions of medicine which others neglect because they are discomforting. Or, find treatments that change the whole manner a disease has been hitherto treated.(3)Nobel in Psychiatry: There are many Nobels waiting to be won, provided: (a) The branch becomes more precise; (b) Science, quantitative study and biology remain its bedrock; and (c) There is an almost obsessive preoccupation with unravelling the mysteries of the brain. One has to choose wisely where to put in efforts, e.g., fields like fundamental research into the causes of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorders. Or their definitive treatments. Or, work at the cellular or molecular level of the neuron and brain; or, the glandular or genetic level of the systems connected with psychiatric disorders; or, in brain radio imaging. If other, or allied, fields are chosen, to work with finding quantitative data and attempt to pinpoint their precise

  13. The Citation Wake of Publications Detects Nobel Laureates' Papers

    PubMed Central

    Klosik, David F.; Bornholdt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    For several decades, a leading paradigm of how to quantitatively assess scientific research has been the analysis of the aggregated citation information in a set of scientific publications. Although the representation of this information as a citation network has already been coined in the 1960s, it needed the systematic indexing of scientific literature to allow for impact metrics that actually made use of this network as a whole, improving on the then prevailing metrics that were almost exclusively based on the number of direct citations. However, besides focusing on the assignment of credit, the paper citation network can also be studied in terms of the proliferation of scientific ideas. Here we introduce a simple measure based on the shortest-paths in the paper's in-component or, simply speaking, on the shape and size of the wake of a paper within the citation network. Applied to a citation network containing Physical Review publications from more than a century, our approach is able to detect seminal articles which have introduced concepts of obvious importance to the further development of physics. We observe a large fraction of papers co-authored by Nobel Prize laureates in physics among the top-ranked publications. PMID:25437855

  14. In Brief: Trieste Prize nominations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Nominations for the 2008 Trieste Science Prize in Earth, space, ocean, and atmospheric sciences and in engineering sciences are being accepted through 31 January 2008. The prize has been established to give international recognition and visibility to outstanding scientific achievements made by scientists from developing countries. Candidates must be nationals of developing countries, and the prizes will only be awarded to individuals for scientific research of outstanding international merit carried out at institutions in developing countries. The prizes, each of which carries a US$50,000 monetary award, are administered by the Academy of Sciences for the Developing World (TWAS) and funded by Illycaffè in collaboration with the Trieste (Italy) Town Council and the Trieste International Foundation for Scientific Progress and Freedom. For more information, contact the TWAS Secretariat at prizes@twas.org.

  15. Giant-Magnetoresistance(GMR) Siegel KEY FIRST Experimental Discovery Decade-Earlier PRE-``Fert"-``Gruenberg" in Nuc"el"ar ``Super"alloys: Science?;``SEANCE!!!; Ethics?; SHMETHICS!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, R.; Siegel, E.

    2010-03-01

    (So MIScalled) ``Fert"-``Grunberg"[PRL(1988;1989)] GMR 2007 physics Nobel/Wolf/Japan-Prizes VS. decade-earlier(1973-1977) KEY FIRST Siegel at:Westin"kl"ouse/PSEG/IAEA/ABB[google:``Martin Ebner"(94-04) in financial media]/Vattenfall/Wallenbergs/nuc"el"ar-DoE Labs[at flickr.com, search on ``Giant- Magnotoresistance''; find: Intl.Conf.Mag.Alloys & Oxides(ICMAO), Haifa(Aug./1977); J.Mag.Mag.Mtls,(JMMM)7,312(1978)``unavailable: not yet scanned''/modified(last R(H) GMR Figs(7;8) deleted!!!) on JMMM/Reed-Elsevier website until 7/29/08 conveniently one- half-year after last (Nobel)award(12/2007); conveniently effectively deleted!!!; google: ``If Leaks Could Kill''; many APS/MRS Mtgs(1970s)<<<1988/1989] decade-earlier GMR: (1978)<<< (1988); 1988-1978 =10 years = one full decadeprecedence!!!] first experimental discovery in (so MIScalled) ``super''alloys [182/82, Hastelloy-X, 600, 690(!!!), Stainless-Steels: ANY/ALL!!!] generic endemic Wigner's[JAP,17,857(1946)]- disease/Ostwald-ripening/spinodal-decomposition/overageing- embrittlement/ thermo-mechanical-INstability!

  16. Wave Energy Prize - General Information

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scharmen, Wesley

    2016-12-01

    All the informational files, templates, rules and guidelines for Wave Energy Prize (WEP), including the Wave Energy Prize Rules, Participant Terms and Conditions Template, WEC Prize Name, Logo, Branding, WEC Publicity, Technical Submission Template , Numerical Modeling Template, SSTF Submission Template, 1/20th Scale Model Design and Construction Plan Template, Final Report template, and Webinars.

  17. 2016 Lush Science Prize.

    PubMed

    McCann, Jenny; McCann, Terry

    2017-11-01

    The Lush Prize supports animal-free testing by awarding monetary prizes totalling £250,000 to the most effective projects and individuals who have been working toward the goal of replacing animals in product or ingredient safety testing. Prizes are awarded for developments in five strategic areas: Science; Lobbying; Training; Public Awareness; and Young Researchers. In the event of a major breakthrough leading to the replacement of animal tests in the area of 21st Century Toxicology, a Black Box Prize (equivalent to the entire annual fund of £250,000) is awarded. The Science Prize is awarded to the researchers whose work the judging panel believe has made the most significant contribution to the replacement of animal testing in the preceding year. This Background Paper outlines the research projects that were shortlisted and presented to the judging panel as potential candidates for the 2016 Lush Science Prize. This process involved reviewing recent work of the relevant scientific institutions and projects in this area, such as the OECD, CAAT, The Hamner Institutes, ECVAM, UK NC3Rs, and the US Tox21 Programme. Recent developments in toxicity testing research were also identified by searching for relevant published papers in the literature, and analysing abstracts from conferences focusing on animal replacement in toxicity testing that had been held in the preceding 12 months - for example the EUSAAT-Linz, Society of Toxicology, and SEURAT-1 conferences. 2017 FRAME.

  18. Tyler Prize nominations sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    Nominations for the 2013 Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement are being accepted until 21 September. The prize is considered the top international award that honors achievements and contributions in environmental science, protection, energy, and medicine. Among previous recipients are a number of AGU members, including 2012 awardee John Seinfeld, the Louis E. Nohl Professor and professor of chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology, who was recognized for his contributions to the understanding of the origin, chemistry, and evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. For more information about the prize, prior honorees, and nomination requirements, see http://www.tylerprize.usc.edu

  19. Special issue: Culham Thesis Prize winners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Culham Thesis Prize is awarded annually to the nominee who has displayed an excellence in the execution of the scientific method as witnessed by the award of Doctor of Philosophy in Plasma Science from a UK or Irish university. The thesis content should exhibit significant new work and originality, clearly driven by the nominee, be well explained and demonstrate a good understanding of the subject. The prize is awarded at the Institute of Physics Plasma Physics Group Spring Conference and the prize winner gives an invited talk about their thesis work. The prize is sponsored by Culham Centre for Fusion Energy.

  20. Fame or footnote?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-08-01

    The award of a Nobel prize can leave some deserving researchers empty-handed In 1968 the late sociologist Robert Merton published a study in the journal Science in which he addressed how various "psychosocial" factors can affect the attribution of merit in science (159 56). Drawing on insights provided by interviews with Nobel laureates, Merton realized that, contrary to popular perception, good things do not always come to those who scream Eureka!. "They [Nobel-prize winners] repeatedly observe that eminent scientists get disproportionately great credit for their contributions to science," he wrote, "while relatively unknown scientists tend to get disproportionately little credit for comparable contributions".

  1. The Alfred Nobel rocket camera. An early aerial photography attempt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.

    2010-02-01

    Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), mainly known for his invention of dynamite and the creation of the Nobel Prices, was an engineer and inventor active in many fields of science and engineering, e.g. chemistry, medicine, mechanics, metallurgy, optics, armoury and rocketry. Amongst his inventions in rocketry was the smokeless solid propellant ballistite (i.e. cordite) patented for the first time in 1887. As a very wealthy person he actively supported many Swedish inventors in their work. One of them was W.T. Unge, who was devoted to the development of rockets and their applications. Nobel and Unge had several rocket patents together and also jointly worked on various rocket applications. In mid-1896 Nobel applied for patents in England and France for "An Improved Mode of Obtaining Photographic Maps and Earth or Ground Measurements" using a photographic camera carried by a "…balloon, rocket or missile…". During the remaining of 1896 the mechanical design of the camera mechanism was pursued and cameras manufactured. In April 1897 (after the death of Alfred Nobel) the first aerial photos were taken by these cameras. These photos might be the first documented aerial photos taken by a rocket borne camera. Cameras and photos from 1897 have been preserved. Nobel did not only develop the rocket borne camera but also proposed methods on how to use the photographs taken for ground measurements and preparing maps.

  2. Haagen-Smit Prize 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2014 ''Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  3. Haagen-Smit Prize 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2015 ''Haagen-Smit Prize;, designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  4. Haagen-Smit Prize 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Hanwant

    2017-03-01

    The Executive Editors and the Publisher of Atmospheric Environment take great pleasure in announcing the 2016 "Haagen-Smit Prize", designed to recognize outstanding papers published in Atmospheric Environment. The Prize is named in honor of Prof. Arie Jan Haagen-Smit, a pioneer in the field of air pollution and one of the first editors of the International Journal of Air Pollution, a predecessor to Atmospheric Environment.

  5. Light is a Messenger - The Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Graeme K.

    2004-10-01

    Light is a Messenger , is the first biography of William Lawrence Bragg, who was only 25 when he won the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics-the youngest person ever to win a Nobel Prize. It describes how bragg discovered how to use X-rays to determine the arrangement of atoms in crystals and his pivotal role in developing this technique to the point that the structures of the most complex molecules known to man-the proteins and nucelic acids-could be solved. Although Bragg's Nobel Prize was for Physics, his research profoundly affected chemistry and the new field of molecular biology, of which he became a founding figure. This book explains how these revolutionary scientific events occurred while Bragg struggled to emerge from the shadow of his father, Sir William Bragg, and amidst a career-long rivalry with the brilliant American chemist, Linus Pauling.

  6. Nobel physics laureate migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2015-11-01

    The movement of talented researchers across international borders has been the lifeblood of physics for more than a century. In these infographics, Hamish Johnston delves into the archives to discover which countries have gained the most physics Nobel laureates, and which have suffered the worst brain drains.

  7. Prize Recipients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The John Bardeen Prize is awarded for theoretical work that has provided significant insights on the nature of superconductivity and has led to verifiable predictions. It is sponsored by the Dresdner Bank.

  8. 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize Acceptance Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, P. B.

    2015-01-01

    It is a great honor to receive the 2014 Nuclear Fusion Prize, here at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. On behalf of everyone involved in this work, I would like to thank the IAEA, the Nuclear Fusion journal team, the IOP, and specifically Mitsuru Kikuchi, for their support of this important award. I would also like to acknowledge the many important contributions made by the other ten papers nominated for this prize. Our paper investigates the physics of the H-mode pedestal in tokamaks, specifically the development of a predictive understanding of the pedestal structure based on electromagnetic instabilities which constrain it, and the testing of the resulting theoretical model (EPED) against detailed observations on multiple devices. In addition to making pedestal predictions for existing devices, the paper also presents predictions for ITER, including methods for optimizing its pedestal height and fusion performance. What made this work possible, and indeed a pleasure to be involved with, was an extensive set of collaborations, including theory-experiment, multi-institutional, and international collaborations. Many of these collaborations have gone on for over a decade, and have been fostered in part by the ITPA Pedestal Group. The eight authors of this paper, from five institutions, all made important contributions. Rich Groebner, Tom Osborne and Tony Leonard carried out dedicated experiments and data analysis on the DIII-D tokamak, testing the EPED model over a very wide range of parameters. Jerry Hughes led dedicated experiments on Alcator C-Mod which tested the model at high magnetic field and pedestal pressure. Marc Beurskens carried out experiments and data analysis on the JET tokamak, testing the model at large scale. Xueqiao Xu conducted two-fluid studies of diamagnetic stabilization, which enabled a more accurate treatment of this important effect. Finally, Howard Wilson and I have been working together for many years to develop analytic formalism

  9. Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Prize competitions are open innovation tools championed by the America COMPETES ACT that EPA and other federal agencies use to attract fresh thinkers and creative problem solvers from across the country and the world.

  10. Ames Lab 101: Danny Shechtman Returns to the Ames Laboratory

    ScienceCinema

    Shechtman, Danny

    2018-05-07

    Danny Shechtman, Ames Laboratory Scientist and winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011, returned to the Ames Lab on February 14, 2012. During this time, the Nobel Laureate met with the press as well as ISU students.

  11. Prizes for innovation of new medicines and vaccines.

    PubMed

    Love, James; Hubbard, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that prizes can help stimulate medical innovation, control costs and ensure greater access to new medicines and vaccines. The authors explore four increasingly ambitious prize options to reward medical innovation, each addressing flaws in the current patent system. The first option promotes innovation through a large prize fund linked to the impact on health outcomes; the second option rewards the sharing of knowledge, data, and technology with open source dividends; the third option awards prizes for interim benchmarks and discrete technical problems; and the final option removes the exclusive right to use patented inventions in upstream research in favor of prizes. The authors conclude that a system of prizes to reward drug development would break the link between R&D incentives and product prices, and that such a reform is needed to improve innovation and access to new medicines and vaccines.

  12. Artemisinin, a miracle of traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling Yi; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2015-12-19

    The 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared by Professor Youyou Tu, focused worldwide attention on artemisinin, a natural product antimalarial drug inspired by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). This is the first Nobel Prize in natural sciences presented to a Chinese scientist for her impactful research work in China in collaboration with other Chinese scientists. We are delighted to provide the background and implications of the discovery of artemisinin, along with our personal viewpoints toward the affordability of modern medicines from natural products.

  13. Abdus Salam at Imperial College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duff, M. J.

    The death of Abdus Salam in 1996 was a great loss not only to his family and the scientific community; it was a loss to all mankind. For he was not only one of the finest physicists of the twentieth century, having unified two of the four fundamental forces of nature, but he dedicated his life to the betterment of science and education in the developing world. So although he won the Nobel Prize for physics, a Nobel Peace Prize would have been equally appropriate...

  14. 2017 ISCB Overton Prize: Christoph Bock.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) each year recognizes the achievements of an early to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize. This prize honors the untimely death of Dr. G. Christian Overton, an admired computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators who are in the early to middle phases of their careers and are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. ISCB is pleased to recognize Dr. Christoph Bock, Principal Investigator at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, as the 2017 winner of the Overton Prize. Bock will be presenting a keynote presentation at the 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology/European Conference on Computational Biology (ISMB/ECCB) in Prague, Czech Republic being held during July 21-25, 2017.

  15. NASA Ames Hosts 2017 Breakthrough Prize

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-08

    NASA's Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley was the location of the 5th annual Breakthrough Prize ceremony, honoring scientific achievement. Researchers and engineers rubbed shoulders with Hollywood actors, Top-40 musicians, astronauts, sports heroes and Silicon Valley luminaries on the red carpet. Winners were honored with $3 million dollar prizes in the categories of physics, life sciences and mathematics with more than $25 million dollars awarded during the ceremony. The prizes were created by Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google and Anne Wojcicki, founder of 23 and Me; Mark Zuckerberg and Priscilla Chan of Facebook, and Yuri and Julia Milner.

  16. A Simple Index for the High-Citation Tail of Citation Distribution to Quantify Research Performance in Countries and Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional scientometric predictors of research performance such as the number of papers, citations, and papers in the top 1% of highly cited papers cannot be validated in terms of the number of Nobel Prize achievements across countries and institutions. The purpose of this paper is to find a bibliometric indicator that correlates with the number of Nobel Prize achievements. Methodology/Principal Findings This study assumes that the high-citation tail of citation distribution holds most of the information about high scientific performance. Here I propose the x-index, which is calculated from the number of national articles in the top 1% and 0.1% of highly cited papers and has a subtractive term to discount highly cited papers that are not scientific breakthroughs. The x-index, the number of Nobel Prize achievements, and the number of national articles in Nature or Science are highly correlated. The high correlations among these independent parameters demonstrate that they are good measures of high scientific performance because scientific excellence is their only common characteristic. However, the x-index has superior features as compared to the other two parameters. Nobel Prize achievements are low frequency events and their number is an imprecise indicator, which in addition is zero in most institutions; the evaluation of research making use of the number of publications in prestigious journals is not advised. Conclusion The x-index is a simple and precise indicator for high research performance. PMID:21647383

  17. A simple index for the high-citation tail of citation distribution to quantify research performance in countries and institutions.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Conventional scientometric predictors of research performance such as the number of papers, citations, and papers in the top 1% of highly cited papers cannot be validated in terms of the number of Nobel Prize achievements across countries and institutions. The purpose of this paper is to find a bibliometric indicator that correlates with the number of Nobel Prize achievements. This study assumes that the high-citation tail of citation distribution holds most of the information about high scientific performance. Here I propose the x-index, which is calculated from the number of national articles in the top 1% and 0.1% of highly cited papers and has a subtractive term to discount highly cited papers that are not scientific breakthroughs. The x-index, the number of Nobel Prize achievements, and the number of national articles in Nature or Science are highly correlated. The high correlations among these independent parameters demonstrate that they are good measures of high scientific performance because scientific excellence is their only common characteristic. However, the x-index has superior features as compared to the other two parameters. Nobel Prize achievements are low frequency events and their number is an imprecise indicator, which in addition is zero in most institutions; the evaluation of research making use of the number of publications in prestigious journals is not advised. The x-index is a simple and precise indicator for high research performance.

  18. 2017 ISCB Overton Prize: Christoph Bock

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.; Berger, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) each year recognizes the achievements of an early to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize. This prize honors the untimely death of Dr. G. Christian Overton, an admired computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators who are in the early to middle phases of their careers and are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. ISCB is pleased to recognize Dr. Christoph Bock, Principal Investigator at the CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences in Vienna, Austria, as the 2017 winner of the Overton Prize. Bock will be presenting a keynote presentation at the 2017 International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology/European Conference on Computational Biology (ISMB/ECCB) in Prague, Czech Republic being held during July 21-25, 2017. PMID:28713546

  19. A brief history of macromolecular crystallography, illustrated by a family tree and its Nobel fruits.

    PubMed

    Jaskolski, Mariusz; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    As a contribution to the celebration of the year 2014, declared by the United Nations to be 'The International Year of Crystallography', the FEBS Journal is dedicating this issue to papers showcasing the intimate union between macromolecular crystallography and structural biology, both in historical perspective and in current research. Instead of a formal editorial piece, by way of introduction, this review discusses the most important, often iconic, achievements of crystallographers that led to major advances in our understanding of the structure and function of biological macromolecules. We identified at least 42 scientists who received Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry or Medicine for their contributions that included the use of X-rays or neutrons and crystallography, including 24 who made seminal discoveries in macromolecular sciences. Our spotlight is mostly, but not only, on the recipients of this most prestigious scientific honor, presented in approximately chronological order. As a summary of the review, we attempt to construct a genealogy tree of the principal lineages of protein crystallography, leading from the founding members to the present generation. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouchet, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science is awarded annually. Through the Prize, Europlanet aims to recognise achievements in engaging European citizens with planetary science and to raise the profile of outreach within the scientific community. It is awarded to individuals or groups who have developed innovative practices in planetary science communication and whose efforts have significantly contributed to a wider public engagement with planetary science.

  1. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Scriven, Neil

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  2. 1993 Gordon Bell Prize Winners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karp, Alan H.; Simon, Horst; Heller, Don; Cooper, D. M. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The Gordon Bell Prize recognizes significant achievements in the application of supercomputers to scientific and engineering problems. In 1993, finalists were named for work in three categories: (1) Performance, which recognizes those who solved a real problem in the quickest elapsed time. (2) Price/performance, which encourages the development of cost-effective supercomputing. (3) Compiler-generated speedup, which measures how well compiler writers are facilitating the programming of parallel processors. The winners were announced November 17 at the Supercomputing 93 conference in Portland, Oregon. Gordon Bell, an independent consultant in Los Altos, California, is sponsoring $2,000 in prizes each year for 10 years to promote practical parallel processing research. This is the sixth year of the prize, which Computer administers. Something unprecedented in Gordon Bell Prize competition occurred this year: A computer manufacturer was singled out for recognition. Nine entries reporting results obtained on the Cray C90 were received, seven of the submissions orchestrated by Cray Research. Although none of these entries showed sufficiently high performance to win outright, the judges were impressed by the breadth of applications that ran well on this machine, all nine running at more than a third of the peak performance of the machine.

  3. Broad Prize: Do the Successes Spread?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    When the Broad Prize for Urban Education was created in 2002, billionaire philanthropist Eli Broad said he hoped the awards, in addition to rewarding high-performing school districts, would foster healthy competition; boost the prestige of urban education, long viewed as dysfunctional; and showcase best practices. Over the 10 years the prize has…

  4. Citations Prize 2009 Citations Prize 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Photograph of the 2009 Citations Prize winners Some of the winning authors with their certificates, and Christian Morel with the Rotblat Medal, at the award ceremony in Orsay, near Paris. From left to right are Corinne Groiselle, Lydia Maigne, David Brasse, Irène Buvat, Dimitris Visvikis, Giovanni Santin, Uwe Pietrzyk, Pierre-François Honore, Christian Morel, Sébastien Jan and Arion Chatziioannou. The winner of the 2009 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2004-2008) is GATE: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT Authors: S Jan, G Santin, D Strul, S Staelens, K Assié, D Autret, S Avner, R Barbier, M Bardiès, P M Bloomfield, D Brasse, V Breton, P Bruyndonckx, I Buvat, A F Chatziioannou, Y Choi, Y H Chung, C Comtat, D Donnarieix, L Ferrer, S J Glick, C J Groiselle, D Guez, P-F Honore, S Kerhoas-Cavata, A S Kirov, V Kohli, M Koole, M Krieguer, D J van der Laan, F Lamare, G Largeron, C Lartizien, D Lazaro, M C Maas, L Maigne, F Mayet, F Melot, C Merheb, E Pennacchio, J Perez, U Pietrzyk, F R Rannou, M Rey, D R Schaart, C R Schmidtlein, L~Simon, T Y Song, J-M Vieira, D Visvikis, R Van de Walle, E Wieörs and C Morel Reference: S Jan et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 4543-61 Since its publication in 2004 this article has received over 200 citations. This extremely high figure is a testament to the great influence and usefulness of the work to the nuclear medicine community. More discussion of the winning paper can be found on

  5. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  6. Citations Prize 2011 Citations Prize 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Steve; Harris, Simon

    2011-12-01

    Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB) awards its 'Citations Prize' to the authors of the original research paper that has received the most citations in the preceding five years (according to the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI)). The lead author of the winning paper is presented with the Rotblat Medal (named in honour of Professor Sir Joseph Rotblat who was the second—and longest serving—Editor of PMB, from 1961-1972). The winning co-authors each receive a certificate. Susan Hagness (left) receiving the Rotblat Medal from Robert Jeraj of PMB's Editorial Board (right) on behalf of Mariya Lazebnik. The winner of the 2011 Citations Prize for the paper which has received the most citations in the previous 5 years (2006-2010) is A large-scale study of the ultrawideband microwave dielectric properties of normal, benign and malignant breast tissues obtained from cancer surgeries Authors: Mariya Lazebnik, Dijana Popovic, Leah McCartney, Cynthia B Watkins, Mary J Lindstrom, Josephine Harter, Sarah Sewall, Travis Ogilvie, Anthony Magliocco, Tara M Breslin, Walley Temple, Daphne Mew, John H Booske, Michal Okoniewski and Susan C Hagness Reference: Mariya Lazebnik et al 2007 Phys. Med. Biol. 52 6093-115 Discussion of the significance of the winning paper can be found on medicalphysicsweb (medicalphysicsweb.org/cws/article/research/47814). Our congratulations go to the winning authors. Steve Webb Editor-in-Chief Simon Harris Publisher

  7. Does Cometary Panspermia Falsify Dark Energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2011-10-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize for physics has been awarded to Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt, and Adam G. Riess "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae", judged to be the "most important discovery or invention within the field of physics" (Excerpt from the will of Alfred Nobel). Are we forced by this claimed discovery to believe the universe is dominated by anti- gravitational dark energy? Can the discovery be falsified? Because life as we observe it on Earth is virtually impossible by the standard ΛCDMHC model, extraterrestrial life and cometary panspermia may provide the first definitive falsification of a Nobel Prize in Physics since its first award in 1901 to Wilhelm Röntgen for his discovery of X-rays.

  8. Enhancing the public impact of the Higgs discovery and other fundamental physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidstrom, Suzy; Read, Alex; Parke, Stephen; Allen, Roland; Goldfarb, Steven; Mehlhase, Sascha; Ekelof, Tord; Walker, Alan

    2014-03-01

    The recent experimental discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC, together with the awarding of the 2013 Nobel Prize for its theoretical prediction, has presented an exceptional opportunity for public outreach regarding the goals and importance of fundamental research in physics. We discuss novel avenues for further extending this outreach in all areas. These range from tutorial papers addressing students and teachers to internet resources and presentations to unconventional, but captivating, educational materials such as musical videos and LEGO models. Interaction with active scientists can be particularly stimulating. We account how this was encouraged (by means such as badges inviting questions from the public) during Nobel week and afterwards. The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics explained Physica Scripta, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  9. 29 CFR 778.330 - Prizes or contest awards generally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prizes or contest awards generally. 778.330 Section 778.330 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Special Problems Prizes As Bonuses § 778.330 Prizes...

  10. Volatility, house edge and prize structure of gambling games.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nigel E

    2011-12-01

    This study used simulations to examine the effect of prize structure on the outcome volatility and the number of winners of various game configurations. The two most common prize structures found in gambling games are even money payoff games (bet $1; win $2) found on most table games and multilevel prizes structures found in gambling machine games. Simulations were set up to examine the effect of prize structure on the long-term outcomes of these games. Eight different prize structures were compared in terms of the number of winners and volatility. It was found that the standard table game and commercial gambling machines produced fairly high numbers of short term winners (1 h), but few long term winners (50 h). It was found that the typical even money game set up produced the lowest level of volatility. Of the multilevel prize structures examined, the three simulations based on commercial gambling machines were the least volatile. The results are examined in terms of the pragmatics of game design.

  11. EPA Challenges & Prizes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is a government leader in tapping the power of contributions from the public to help solve difficult problems that affect the environment and public health. Prize competitions allow federal agencies to pay only for successful solutions.

  12. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Christiana N.; Kovats, Diane E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School. PMID:27429747

  13. 2016 ISCB Overton Prize awarded to Debora Marks.

    PubMed

    Fogg, Christiana N; Kovats, Diane E

    2016-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) recognizes the achievements of an early- to mid-career scientist with the Overton Prize each year. The Overton Prize was established to honor the untimely loss of Dr. G. Christian Overton, a respected computational biologist and founding ISCB Board member. Winners of the Overton Prize are independent investigators in the early to middle phases of their careers who are selected because of their significant contributions to computational biology through research, teaching, and service. 2016 will mark the fifteenth bestowment of the ISCB Overton Prize.  ISCB is pleased to confer this award the to Debora Marks, Assistant Professor of Systems Biology and director of the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Laboratory for Computational Biology at Harvard Medical School.

  14. Stephen Hawking bags big new 3m physics prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2013-01-01

    A massive 3m in prize money has gone to the British cosmologist Stephen Hawking for his work on black holes, quantum gravity and the early universe. The award is one of two "special fundamental physics prizes" from the Fundamental Physics Prize Foundation, which was set up earlier this year by the Russian physicist-turned-entrepreneur Yuri Milner.

  15. What Chemists Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the varieties of activities that have been recognized in the Nobel Prizes in chemistry. Five different varieties are identified: exploration, description, synthesis, theorizing, and measurement. Prizes in chemistry have been distributed roughly equally among these five categories. The number of awards in each category…

  16. Innovation Inducement Prizes: Connecting Research to Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharov, Douglas J.; Williams, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Innovation inducement prizes have been used for centuries. In the United States, a recent federal policy change--the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2010--clarified and simplified a path by which all federal agencies can offer innovation inducement prizes, thus intensifying interest in how government agencies can most effectively design…

  17. 77 FR 58114 - SunShot Prize: Race to the Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... who can lower the non-hardware installation cost of rooftop solar energy systems. DATES: Registration....energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Teams that wish to enter the competition can register at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html . Questions about the prize competition can be sent to: Email: Sun...

  18. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - SEWEC

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-10-07

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the SEWEC team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners. * Note: During the TG4 judging meeting, the Wave Energy Prize judges reviewed the data collected during the testing of SEWEC's device at Carderock and determined that the data were inconclusive and did not allow an ACE value to be calculated for the device. Consequently, the SEWEC device was deemed ineligible to be considered for the Wave Energy Prize.

  19. Learning by Viewing - Nobel Labs 360

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    First of all, my thanks to the Nobel Lindau Foundation for their inspiration and leadership in sharing the excitement of scientific discovery with the public and with future scientists! I have had the pleasure of participating twice in the Lindau meetings, and recently worked with the Nobel Labs 360 project to show how we are building the world's greatest telescope yet, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). For the future, I see the greatest challenges for all the sciences in continued public outreach and inspiration. Outreach, so the public knows why we are doing what we are doing, and what difference it makes for them today and in the long-term future. Who knows what our destiny may be? It could be glorious, or not, depending on how we all behave. Inspiration, so that the most creative and inquisitive minds can pursue the scientific and engineering discoveries that are at the heart of so much of human prosperity, health, and progress. And, of course, national and local security depend on those discoveries too; scientists have been working with "the government" throughout recorded history. For the Lindau Nobel experiment, we have a truly abundant supply of knowledge and excitement, through the interactions of young scientists with the Nobelists, and through the lectures and the video recordings we can now share with the whole world across the Internet. But the challenge is always to draw attention! With 7 billion inhabitants on Earth, trying to earn a living and have some fun, there are plenty of competing opportunities and demands on us all. So what will draw attention to our efforts at Lindau? These days, word of mouth has become word of (computer) mouse, and ideas propagate as viruses ( or memes) across the Internet according to the interests of the participants. So our challenge is to find and match those interests, so that the efforts of our scientists, photographers, moviemakers, and writers are rewarded by our public. The world changes every day, so there

  20. First Calderón Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundell, William; Somersalo, Erkki

    2008-07-01

    The Inverse Problems International Association (IPIA) awarded the first Calderón Prize to Matti Lassas for his outstanding contributions to the field of inverse problems, especially in geometric inverse problems. The Calderón Prize is given to a researcher under the age of 40 who has made distinguished contributions to the field of inverse problems broadly defined. The first Calderón Prize Committee consisted of Professors Adrian Nachman, Lassi Päivärinta, William Rundell (chair), and Michael Vogelius. William Rundell For the Calderón Prize Committee Prize ceremony The ceremony awarding the Calderón Prize. Matti Lassas is on the left. He and William Rundell are on the right. Photos by P Stefanov. Brief Biography of Matti Lassas Matti Lassas was born in 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, and studied at the University of Helsinki. He finished his Master's studies in 1992 in three years and earned his PhD in 1996. His PhD thesis, written under the supervision of Professor Erkki Somersalo was entitled `Non-selfadjoint inverse spectral problems and their applications to random bodies'. Already in his thesis, Matti demonstrated a remarkable command of different fields of mathematics, bringing together the spectral theory of operators, geometry of Riemannian surfaces, Maxwell's equations and stochastic analysis. He has continued to develop all of these branches in the framework of inverse problems, the most remarkable results perhaps being in the field of differential geometry and inverse problems. Matti has always been a very generous researcher, sharing his ideas with his numerous collaborators. He has authored over sixty scientific articles, among which a monograph on inverse boundary spectral problems with Alexander Kachalov and Yaroslav Kurylev and over forty articles in peer reviewed journals of the highest standards. To get an idea of the wide range of Matti's interests, it is enough to say that he also has three US patents on medical imaging applications. Matti is

  1. 1990 Hydrology Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences awarded its 1990 International Hydrology Prize to Z. Kaczmarek of Warsaw, Poland. The award was presented on March 16 in Paris, France, during Unesco's Commemorative Symposium on 25 Years of the International Hydrological Decade/International Hydrological Program.The IAHS International Hydrology Prize, a silver medal, was first approved in 1979 as an annual award to a person who has made an outstanding contribution to hydrology and gives the candidate universal recognition of his international stature. The IAHS national committees give nominations to the IAHS Secretary General for consideration by a nominating committee, which consists of the IAHS president, the first and second vice presidents and representatives of Unesco and the World Meteorological Organization. The citation for the award to Kaczmarek, which was given by IAHS president Vit Klemes, follows.

  2. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Science.gov Websites

    annually at Nasa Ames Research Center, in the heart of Silicon Valley, for 10 weeks of discussions on how _____________________________________________________________________________________ Hawking, NASA Head, Nobel Winners Visit The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences (AIMS) AIMS Stephen Hawking, the NASA Administrator Michael Griffin, and the winners of the 2004 and 2006 Nobel Prizes

  3. Ralph Bunche's International Legacy: The Middle East, Congo, and United Nations Peacekeeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Princeton N.

    2004-01-01

    Ralph Bunche is remembered most for three major achievements in the international field. His mediation of the end of the first Israel-Arab war, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize; his work in the tumultuous period of independence in the Congo; and his "invention" of United Nations peacekeeping, which itself won the Nobel Peace Prize…

  4. LED firm rejects Nobel laureate's olive branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Nobel laureate Shuji Nakamura says that he is not going to try and improve relations with his former employer, which he sued in 2001 over his development of the blue light-emitting diode (LED), after receiving a snub from them last month.

  5. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  6. Steven Weinberg, Weak Interactions, and Electromagnetic Interactions

    Science.gov Websites

    a professor of physics and astronomy at UT [The University of Texas] Austin and is founding director to physics and cosmology ... Weinberg's work has been honored with numerous prizes, including the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 and the National Medal of Science in 1991. Weinberg is the author of the

  7. The Hermann Weyl Prize - Laudatio for Guilio Chiribella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Olmo, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    The Hermann Weyl Prize was created in 2000 by the Standing Committee of the International Group Theory Colloquium. The purpose of the Weyl Prize is to provide recognition for young scientists (younger than 35) who have performed original work of significant scientific quality in the area of understanding physics through symmetries. The Hermann Weyl Prize consists of a certificate citing the accomplishments of the recipient, prize money of $500 and an allowance towards the attendance of the bi-annual International Group Theory Colloquium at which the award is presented. The previous winners of the award were: Edward Frenkel (2002), Nikita A Nekrasov (2004), Boyko Bakalov (2006) and Mohammad M Sheikh-Jabbari (2008). The Selection Committee of the Weyl Prize 2010 consisted of S T Ali (Concordia University), E Corrigan (Durham Univeristy), P Kulish (St Petersburg Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences), R Mosseri (CNRS Paris) and M A del Olmo (University of Valladolid, chairman). This committee has made the following announcement: The Weyl Prize for the year 2010 was awarded to Dr Giulio Chiribella, in recognition of his pioneering work on the application of group theoretical methods in Quantum Information Theory. In particular, for providing a general solution to the problem of optimal estimation of symmertry transformations based on the notion of quantum entanglement between representation and multiplicity spaces, for the derivation of optimal protocols for the alignment of quantum reference frames, for the characterization of extreme quantum measurements in finite dimensions, for the proof of equivalence between asymptotic cloning and state estimation and for the proof of the optimality of measure-and-reprepare for quantum learning of unitary transformations. The Laudatio of Guilio Chiribella, delivered by M A del Olmo, is included in the PDF.

  8. Effect of implant angulation and impression technique on impressions of NobelActive implants.

    PubMed

    Alexander Hazboun, Gillian Brewer; Masri, Radi; Romberg, Elaine; Kempler, Joanna; Driscoll, Carl F

    2015-05-01

    How the configuration of the NobelActive internal conical connection affects implant impressions is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect in vitro of closed and open tray impression techniques for NobelActive implants placed at various angulations. Six NobelActive implants were placed in a master maxillary cast as follows: 0 degrees of angulation to a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane in the first molar area, 15 degrees of angulation to a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane in the first premolar area, and 30 degrees of angulation to a line drawn perpendicular to the occlusal plane in the lateral incisor area. Twelve open tray and 12 closed tray impressions were made. Occlusal, lateral, and frontal view photographs of the resulting casts were used to measure the linear and angular displacement of implant analogs. Statistical analysis was performed with a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). No significant difference was found in the impressions made of NobelActive implants with the open or closed tray technique (linear displacement: F=0.93, P=.34; angular displacement: F=2.09, P=.15). In addition, implant angulation (0, 15, or 30 degrees) had no effect on the linear or angular displacement of impressions (linear displacement: F=2.72, P=.07; angular displacement: F=0.86, P=.43). Finally, no significant interaction was found between impression technique and implant angulation on NobelActive implants (F=0.25, P=.77; F=1.60, P=.20). Within the limitations of this study, impression technique (open vs closed tray) and implant angulation (0, 15, and 30 degrees) had no significant effect on in vitro impressions of NobelActive implants. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 26 CFR 1.74-1 - Prizes and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prizes and awards. 1.74-1 Section 1.74-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Included in Gross Income § 1.74-1 Prizes and awards. (a) Inclusion in gross income. (1) Section 74(a)...

  10. Single molecules, cells, and super-resolution optics (Presentation Video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betzig, Eric

    2015-03-01

    In this plenary presentation, Eric Betzig talks about his scientific journey that led to the Nobel Prize. He made waves early in his career by helping to develop a technique known as near-field microscopy, which brought into focus structures that scientists had long considered too small to see with a light microscope. Eric Betzig is a group leader at Janelia Research Campus of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) in Ashburn, VA. He recieved a BS in physics from California Institute of Technology and a PhD in applied and engineering physics from Cornell University. Betzig received the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with William Moerner and Stefan Hell, for their development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy.

  11. 78 FR 40132 - Wave Energy Converter Prize Administration Webinar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... any potential FOA to seek input from the public regarding possible approaches to structuring a prize... encourages commenters to provide alternative strategies and approaches for the prize administration. A multi stage-gate challenge structure requires competitors to pass through a series of stage gates based on...

  12. Air Prize Final

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-26

    NASA is working with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) to sponsor the Earth and Space Air Prize competition for a solution that could improve air quality and health in space and on Earth. This project is a technology innovation challenge to promote the development of robust, durable, inexpensive, efficient, lightweight, and easy-to-use aerosol sensors for space and Earth environments.

  13. College portraits, surgeons and the Archibald Prize.

    PubMed

    Royle, John Peterson

    2005-06-01

    The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons is fortunate to have a wonderful collection of portraits, which date from William Cheselden's portrait in the mid 18th century to the latest of immediate past president, Kingsley Faulkner. Many of the portraits are of former College presidents. The presidents have often been painted by the leading artist of the day, many of whom won the Archibald Prize. There are many connections between surgeons and the Archibald Prize, the most prestigious award in Australian art.

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2012 Small Business Award

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2012 award winner, Elevance Renewable Sciences, used Nobel-prize-winning metathesis catalysis to produce high-value difunctional chemicals from renewable feedstocks including natural oils.

  15. Unclaimed Prize Information Biases Perceptions of Winning in Scratch Card Gambling.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexander C; Stange, Madison; Fugelsang, Jonathan A; Koehler, Derek J; Dixon, Mike J

    2018-03-29

    Unclaimed prize information (i.e., the number of prizes still available to be won) is information commonly provided to scratch card gamblers. However, unless the number of tickets remaining to be purchased is also provided, this information is uninformative. Despite its lack of utility in assisting gamblers in choosing the most favourable type of scratch card to play, we hypothesized that unclaimed prize information would bias participants' judgments within a scratch card gambling context. In Experiment 1 (N = 201), we showed that participants are influenced by this information such that they felt more likely to win, were more excited to play, and preferred to hypothetically purchase more of the scratch card with the greatest number of unclaimed prizes. In Experiment 2 (N = 201), we attempted to ameliorate this bias by providing participants with the number of tickets remaining to be purchased and equating the payback percentages of all three games. The bias, although attenuated, still persisted in these conditions. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N = 200), we manipulated the hypothetical scratch cards such that games with the highest number of unclaimed prizes were the least favourable, and vice versa. As in Experiment 2, participants still favoured cards with greater numbers of unclaimed prizes. Possible mechanisms underlying this bias are discussed. In conclusion, across three experiments, we demonstrate that salient unclaimed prize information is capable of exerting a strong effect over judgments related to scratch card games.

  16. The Role of United States Army Special Forces in Operation NOBEL OBELISK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    This thesis will examine U.S. Special Forces contributions to Operation NOBEL OBELISK, a Marine- led joint NEO in Sierra Leone in 1997. It is further...success of Joint Task Force NOBEL OBELISK. This operation led to the eventual safety of in excess of 2,500 civilians. Many of those civilians were... led many observers, both within and outside the country, to be optimistic about the future of democracy and the rule of law.”6 Unfortunately, twenty

  17. First AGU Climate Communication Prize awarded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    Gavin Schmidt, a climate scientist at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and cofounder of the RealClimate blog (http://www.realclimate.org/), received the first AGU Climate Communication Prize at the honors ceremony. The prize recognizes excellence in climate communication as well as the promotion of scientific literacy, clarity of messaging, and efforts to foster respect and understanding for science-based values related to climate change. Sponsored by Nature's Own—a Boulder, Colo.-based company specializing in the sale of minerals, fossils, and decorative stone specimens—the prize comes with a $25,000 cash award. "AGU created this award to raise the visibility of climate change as a critical issue facing the world today, to demonstrate our support for scientists who commit themselves to the effective communication of climate change science, and to encourage more scientists to engage with the public and policy makers on how climate research can contribute to the sustainability of our planet," said AGU president Michael Mc Phaden. "That's why we are so pleased to recognize Gavin for his dedicated leadership and outstanding scientific achievements. We hope that his work will serve as an inspiration for others."

  18. Cigarette makers pioneered many of our black arts of disinformation, including the funding of research to distract from the hazards of smoking. Ten Nobel prizes were the result. By funding distraction research, the cigarette industry became an important source of academic corruption, helping also to forge other forms of denialism on a global scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, R. N.

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette Disinformation: Origins and Global Impact Robert N. Proctor The cigarette is the deadliest artifact in the history of human civilization. And whereas "only" a hundred million people died in the 20th century from smoking, we are presently on a pace to have several times that toll in the present century. Much of that catastrophe would not be possible without a massive campaign of disinformation. The cigarette industry pioneered many of the black arts of disinformation, cleverly exploiting the inherent skepticism of science to claim that "more research" was needed to resolve a purported "cigarette controversy." Cigarette makers funded hundreds of millions of dollars worth of "distraction research," most of which was solid empirical science but off topic, focusing on basic biology and biochemistry, viral and genetic causes of disease, and other "cigarette friendly" topics. At least ten Nobel prizes were the result. Cigarette skepticism was thus more complex than we normally imagine: the tobacco industry corrupted science by funding "alternative causation," meaning anything that could be used to draw attention away from cigarettes as a source of disease. The cigarette industry by this means became the most important source of academic corruption since the Nazi era. That corruption has also helped forge other forms of denialism and corruption on a global scale.

  19. SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Pat

    Ames Laboratory senior scientist and Iowa State University Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Pat Thiel talks about her friend and colleague Dan Shechtman who received the 2011 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

  20. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in May each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 40 (2007) or 41 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  1. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  2. PUBLISHER'S ANNOUNCEMENT: Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-10-01

    We are delighted to announce the launch of the Journal of Physics A Best Paper Prize. There will be three prizes worth £250 each awarded annually for well written papers that make an outstanding contribution to the field. All articles published during the two years prior to the award, including Fast Track Communications, regular papers, topical reviews and special issue papers, can be considered for a prize. The papers will be judged in late Spring each year using the criteria of novelty, achievement, impact and presentation. We would now like to welcome nominations for prizes to be awarded in 2009. Eligible articles must have been published in volume 39 (2007) or 40 (2008). Papers can be nominated by our Editorial Board members (who are exempt from the competition) or by readers of the journal. Please send an email to the journal editorial office (jphysa@iop.org) giving the publication details of the paper and stating (in no more than 1000 words) how it meets the criteria listed above. Authors cannot nominate their own papers. The closing date for nominations is 31 January 2009. The first set of awards will be announced following the 2009 Editorial Board meeting and winners will receive their prizes shortly thereafter. The winners' articles will be featured on the journal homepage and showcased in IOPSelect (http://www.iop.org/Select/). For further information please contact the editorial office (jphysa@iop.org). Carl M Bender Editor-in-Chief Neil Scriven Publisher

  3. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Most Affordable Rooftop Solar for public comment. Interested persons are encouraged to learn about the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html.... Department of Energy, Office of Solar, 1000 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585 FOR FURTHER...

  4. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 1993 Research Highlights.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    used to describe the behavior of critical point phenomena by Nobel laureate Dr. Kenneth Wilson. Their research has produced useful engineering...40 years of its existence, AFOSR has supported the work of about two dozen scientists who, later, have been awarded the Nobel prize as well as a...locations and types of sensor or actuator elements that are suitable for structurally- integrated nondestructive evaluation ( NDE ) systems. The basic

  5. NASA STS-132 Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-26

    Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientist and Nobel Laureate, center, presents Gen. John R. “Jack” Dailey, director of the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, left, with a a replica of Mather’s Nobel Prize medal that flew in space aboard STS-132, as astronaut Piers Sellers looks on, during a ceremony at the museum, Tuesday, July 27, 2010, in Washington. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  6. The 2010 Broad Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A new data analysis, based on data collected as part of The Broad Prize process, provides insights into which large urban school districts in the United States are doing the best job of educating traditionally disadvantaged groups: African-American, Hispanics, and low-income students. Since 2002, The Eli and Edythe Broad Foundation has awarded The…

  7. Pennies from heaven? Conceptions and earmarking of lottery prize money.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The source of money has been shown to be important for how money is spent. In addition, sudden wealth is often associated with social and psychological risks. This article investigates if conceptions of lottery prize money--as a special kind of money--imply restrictions on how it can be spent. Analysis of interviews with lottery winners shows that interviewees use earmarking of the prize money as a strategy for avoiding the pitfalls associated with a lottery win. Conceptions of lottery prize money as 'a lot' or as 'a little', as shared or personal, and as an opportunity or a risk, influences the ends for which it is earmarked: for self-serving spending, a 'normal' living standard, paying off loans, saving for designated purposes, or for economic security and independence. Clearly defining and earmarking lottery prize money thus helps lottery winners construe their sudden wealth, not as a risk, but as 'pennies from heaven.' © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  8. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-07-01

    2006 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following ten articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2006 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: D W Mundy et al 2006 Radiation binary targeted therapy for HER-2 positive breast cancers: assumptions, theoretical assessment and future directions Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1377-91 Y Yang et al 2006 Investigation of optical coherence tomography as an imaging modality in tissue engineering Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1649-59 M Krämer and M Scholz 2006 Rapid calculation of biological effects in ion radiotherapy Phys. Med. Biol. 51 1959-70 P Crespo et al 2006 On the detector arrangement for in-beam PET for hadron therapy monitoring Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2143-63 R J Senden et al 2006 Polymer gel dosimeters with reduced toxicity: a preliminary investigation of the NMR and optical dose-response using different monomers Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3301-14 J Wang et al 2006 FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4119-27 C A T Van den Berg et al 2006 The use of MR B+1 imaging for validation of FDTD electromagnetic simulations of human anatomies Phys. Med. Biol. 51 4735-46 S Qin and K W Ferrara 2006 Acoustic response of compliable microvessels containing ultrasound contrast agents Phys. Med. Biol. 51 5065-88 R Kramer et al 2006 Skeletal dosimetry in the MAX06 and the FAX06 phantoms for external exposure to photons based on vertebral 3D-microCT images Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6265-89 R Leiderman et al 2006 Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging Phys. Med. Biol. 51 6291-313 An IPEM college of jurors then assessed and rated these papers in order to choose a winner. We have much

  9. Corrections corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Arthur I.; Shanklin, Jon

    2015-09-01

    In your otherwise informative article on “Curing the Curie complex” (Features, August pp25-28), you wrote “Albert Einstein was awarded a Nobel prize for his discovery of the photoelectric effect”.

  10. Students' participation in Hult Prize and their decision for entrepreneurship: Data gathered from Hult Prize 2018 regional finals in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwatobi, Stephen; Oshokoya, Damilare; Atayero, Aderemi; Oludayo, Olumuyiwa; Nsofor, Colette; Oyebode, Adeola

    2018-08-01

    This data article is an expression of data that reflects how students' participation in the Hult Prize 2018 regional finals affects their decision to become entrepreneurs. The primary data was sourced using a questionnaire developed with Google doc form. Out of 120 students that participated in the Hult Prize 2018 regional finals in Nigeria, 103 of them responded. Their responses are as presented in this article. Such will be relevant to researchers who want to find out why students desire to become entrepreneurs and the best approach and timing to enable them.

  11. Corrections and clarifications.

    PubMed

    1994-01-21

    The Research News article by Faye Flam about the 1993 physics Nobel Prize ("A prize for patient listening," 22 Oct., p. 507), awarded to Joseph Taylor and Russell Hulse for the discovery of a binary pulsar, incorrectly attributed key observations. The measurements implying that the pulsar is emitting gravitational waves were made by Taylor in collaboration with Joel Weisberg, Lee Fowler, and Peter McCulloch, not by Taylor and Hulse.

  12. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Snapshot of Adult & Family Health Advances NICHD Nobel Prize Winners Leadership & Other Staff Profiles Leadership Biosketches Get ... health care providers won't schedule a visit any earlier unless you have a medical condition, have ...

  13. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Advances NICHD Nobel Prize Winners Leadership & Other Staff Profiles Leadership Biosketches Get to Know NICHD Budget & ... Listservs About NICHD Organization History Accomplishments Leadership & Other Staff Profiles Budget & Appropriations Advisory Groups Jobs at NICHD ...

  14. Towards Producing Black Nobel Laureates Affiliated with ``African Universities''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenneth, Jude

    While Africa has produced a handful Nobel laureate in literature and peace, it has continued to shy away from producing any in the other categories. The reason is not farfetched; our university system is not up to standard. It is saddening that in this century, African countries place emphasis on certificates and not on knowledge. This has made the continent produce students that lack the intellectual capability, experimental ability, fundamental training, creativity, and motivation to excel except they get a foreign training. It is this backdrop that precipitated the research into the methods of teaching and research in universities across Africa. The study is designed to identify the problems and proffer solution to them. Two important questions immediately come to mind. (1) What factors account for the difficulty in producing Nobel laureates affiliated with African universities? (2) What strategies could be adopted to improve teaching and research in African universities? Several factors were investigated which revolve around funding, the competence of the lecturers, quality of students admitted, attitude of the students, parents and government. Nigerian universities were investigated and important deductions were made. During the study an inquiry was made on the method of instruction at various universities, from result obtained, the study therefore concluded that adequate funding, the presence of erudite scholars and brilliant minds will produce future Nobel laureate affiliated with the continent. The study therefore recommended admission and employment of only students and lecturers who have got a thing for academics into the universities and adequate funding of universities and research centres.

  15. Message from the Worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mirza Masroor

    2008-07-01

    Abdus Salam was an Ahmadi Muslim from Pakistan, a renowned theoretical physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1979 for his work in electroweak theory. Although he was the first Muslim Nobel Laureate, Pakistan's military dictator at that time could not admit that its brilliant scientist was a Muslim citizen. Dr Salam's entire award was devoted to the furtherance of education: he did not spend a penny on himself or his family...

  16. Physics GRE Scores of Prize Postdoctoral Fellows in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Bezanson, Rachel; Tremblay, Grant

    2017-01-01

    The Physics GRE has long been a required element of the graduate admissions process in many U.S. astronomy programs; however, its predictive power and utility as a means of selection "successful" applicants had not been quantitatively examined until recently. In the fall of 2015 we circulated a short questionnaire to 271 people who have held U.S. prize postdoctoral fellowships in astrophysics between 2010-2015, asking them to report their Physics GRE scores. The response rate was 64%, and the responding sample was unbiased with respect to the overall gender distribution of prize fellows. The responses revealed that the Physics GRE scores of prize fellows do not adhere to any minimum percentile score and show no statistically significant correlation with the number of first author papers published. As an example, a Physics GRE percentile cutoff of 60% would have eliminated 44% of 2010-2015 U.S. prize postdoctoral fellows, including 60% of the female fellows. From these data, we found no evidence that the Physics GRE could be used as an effective predictor of "success" either in or beyond graduate school. Following this work and last year's official recommendation from the AAS, several astronomy departments have recently decided to eliminate the Physics GRE as a requirement for graduate applicants.

  17. Fisher Center for Alzheimer's Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... We are making a major impact on Alzheimer’s research. Our scientific discoveries are featured in top publications ... is vetted by scientists for accuracy. Explore Our Research Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Paul Greengard leads our ...

  18. The EJ Curriculum Catalog: A Directory of Units and Electives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Susan, comp.

    1977-01-01

    Describes fourteen innovative high school English units dealing with such subjects as literature (e.g., "Nobel Prize Winning World Literature,""The Eskimo and His Literature," and "Women's Literature"), the mass media, and Greek mythology. (DD)

  19. GSFC_20170308_2017-8679_041

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-08

    Lt. Governor Rutherford and staff visited Goddard on March 8, 2017. They toured James Webb Space Telescope with Bill Ochs and Robotics Operations Center with Ben Reed. They also met John Mather, Nobel Prize winner.

  20. GSFC_20170308_2017-8679_036

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-08

    Lt. Governor Rutherford and staff visited Goddard on March 8, 2017. They toured James Webb Space Telescope with Bill Ochs and Robotic Operations Center with Ben Reed. They also met John Mather, Nobel Prize winner.

  1. GSFC_20170308_2017-8679_015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-08

    Lt. Governor Rutherford and staff visited Goddard on March 8, 2017. They toured James Webb Space Telescope with Bill Ochs and Robotic Operations Center with Ben Reed. They also met John Mather, Nobel Prize winner.

  2. X-Ray Crystallography: One Century of Nobel Prizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galli, Simona

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the United Nations General Assembly declared 2014 the International Year of Crystallography. Throughout the year 2014 and beyond, all the crystallographic associations and societies active all over the world are organizing events to attract the wider public toward crystallography and the numerous topics to which it is deeply interlinked.…

  3. Nuclear cloning and direct reprogramming: the long and the short path to Stockholm.

    PubMed

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2012-12-07

    The two winners of the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine share more than just this honor; they are both also fearless adventurers, in science and beyond. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Roger D. Kornberg Polymerase, DNA, RNA, and Transcription

    Science.gov Websites

    D. Kornberg was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his studies of the molecular transcription works at a molecular level in the important group of organisms called eukaryotes (organisms whose

  5. Introducing the Benson Prize for Discovery Methods of Near Earth Objects by Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, J. W.

    1997-05-01

    The Benson Prize Sponsored by Space Development Corporation The Benson Prize for Discovery Methods of Near Earth Objects by Amateurs is an annual competition which awards prizes to the best proposed methods by which amateur astronomers may discover such near earth objects as asteroids and comet cores. The purpose of the Benson Prize is to encourage the discovery of near earth objects by amateur astronomers. The utilization of valuable near earth resources can provide many new jobs and economic activities on earth, while also creating many new opportunities for opening up the space frontier. The utilization of near earth resources will significantly contribute to the lessening of environmental degradation on the Earth caused by mining and chemical leaching operations required to exploit the low grade ores now remaining on Earth. In addition, near earth objects pose grave dangers for life on earth. Discovering and plotting the orbits of all potentially dangerous near earth objects is the first and necessary step in protecting ourselves against the enormous potential damage possible from near earth objects. With the high quality, large size and low cost of todays consumer telescopes, the rapid development of powerful, high resolution and inexpensive CCD cameras, and the proliferation of inexpensive software for todays powerful home computers, the discovery of near earth objects by amateur astronomers is more attainable than ever. The Benson Prize is sponsored by the Space Development Corporation, a space resource exploration and utilization company. In 1997 one prize of \\500 will be awarded to the best proposed method for the amateur discovery of NEOs, and in each of the four following years, Prizes of \\500, \\250 and \\100 will be awarded. Prizes for the actual discovery of Near Earth Asteroids will be added in later years.

  6. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  7. George Hoyt Whipple and the Impact of Liver on Anemia

    Science.gov Websites

    Nobel Prize for his discovery that liver fed to anemic dogs reverses the effects of the anemia. This Effects of Ionizing Radiation Cycle, DOE Technical Report, 1952 Top Additional Web Pages: George H

  8. Looking Back on Books and Other Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Carl D.

    1981-01-01

    Presents 11 responses received from U.S. scientists who have won Nobel Prizes (physics or physics-related work) indicating what books, discoveries, people, or issues of the last 50 years have most decisively influenced them. (Author/JN)

  9. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - AquaHarmonics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scharmen, Wesley

    2016-09-02

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the AquaHarmonics team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  10. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - Waveswing America

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scharmen, Wesley

    2016-08-19

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Waveswing America team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  11. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - Sea Potential

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scharmen, Wesley

    2016-09-23

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Sea Potential team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  12. EDITORIAL: Annual prizes for best papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    2005 Roberts Prize The publishers of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) in association with the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) jointly award an annual prize for an article published in PMB during the previous year. The following 14 articles, listed below in chronological order, were rated the best of 2005 based on the (two or three) referees' assessments: P Kundrát et al 2005 Probabilistic two-stage model of cell inactivation by ionizing particles Phys. Med. Biol. 50 1433-47 D Arora et al 2005 Direct thermal dose control of constrained focused ultrasound treatments: phantom and in vivo evaluation Phys. Med. Biol. 50 1919-35 J S Dysart et al 2005 Characterization of Photofrin photobleaching for singlet oxygen dose estimation during photodynamic therapy of MLL cells in vitro Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2597-616 M Defrise et al 2005 Fourier rebinning of time-of-flight PET data Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2749-63 Z Su et al 2005 Systematic investigation of the signal properties of polycrystalline HgI2 detectors under mammographic, radiographic, fluoroscopic and radiotherapy irradiation conditions Phys. Med. Biol. 50 2907-28 E Bräuer-Krisch et al 2005 New irradiation geometry for microbeam radiation therapy Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3103-11 H C Pyo et al 2005 Identification of current density distribution in electrically conducting subject with anisotropic conductivity distribution Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3183-96 R P Findlay et al 2005 Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body Phys. Med. Biol. 50 3825-35 G Alexandrakis et al 2005 Tomographic bioluminescence imaging by use of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system: a computer simulation feasibility study Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4225-41 J Keshvari et al 2005 Comparison of radio frequency energy absorption in ear and eye region of children and adults at 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz Phys. Med. Biol. 50 4355-69 J Laufer et al 2005 In vitro measurements of absolute blood

  13. [From the Scrapie syndrome of sheep and goat to the mad cow disease - the history of the discovery of prion].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Weng, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Since the discovery of Scrapie Syndrome in sheep and goats in 1730, there emerged a series of diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc. In the research of kuru disease, the American scientist D. Carlteton Gajdusek found a new virus without the characteristic of DNA and RNA, which was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology in 1976. Since then another American scientist, Stanley B. Prusiner, found a new virus-prion, taking protein as the genetic medium, which was awarded the Nobel prize in physiology and medicine in 1997. The discovery of prion is a great landmark in the research of life science, which laid a theoretical foundation for people to conquer a series of diseases such as Scrapie syndrome in sheep and goats, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru disease and mad cow disease etc.

  14. Julius Wagner-Jauregg and the Legacy of Malarial Therapy for the Treatment of General Paresis of the Insane

    PubMed Central

    Tsay, Cynthia J.

    2013-01-01

    Julius Wagner-Jauregg, a preeminent Austrian psychiatrist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1927 for the development of malaria therapy for the treatment of neurosyphilis, or general paresis of the insane. Despite being only one of three psychiatrists to win a Nobel Prize, he has faded from public consciousness and his name recognition pales in comparison to his contemporary and fellow Austrian, Sigmund Freud. This paper explores his contributions to the field of biological psychiatry and also touches upon reasons, such as the growing bioethics movement, his controversial affiliation with the Nazi Party, and the evolution of neurosyphilis, that explain why Wagner-Jauregg is not more widely celebrated for his contributions to the field of psychiatry, even though his malarial treatment could be considered the earliest triumph of biological psychiatry over psychoanalysis. PMID:23766744

  15. DOE Research and Development Accomplishments Alfred Nobel Laureates

    Science.gov Websites

    Science DOE Nobel Laureates Alphabetical Listing Chronological Listing A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R Politzer Richard P. Feynman 1965 Physics 2003 Val L. Fitch 1980 Physics Alexei A. Abrikosov Physics Paul J 1973 Physics 2000 Donald A. Glaser 1960 Physics Alan Heeger Chemistry Sheldon L. Glashow 1979 Physics

  16. A list of personal perspectives with selected quotations, along with lists of tributes, historical notes, Nobel and Kettering awards related to photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Krogmann, David W

    2002-01-01

    The history of photosynthesis research can be found in original papers and books. However, a special history is available from the prefatory chapters and the personal perspectives of various researchers who published them in several journals over the last 40 years. We have compiled a list of such perspectives published since 1964. Selection is not easy, especially of authors who were not directly engaged in photosynthesis research; some are included for their special insights related to central issues in the study of photosynthesis. Our journal, Photosynthesis Research, contains other valuable historic data in the occasional tributes, obituaries and historical notes, that have been published. Lists of these items are included. This article ends by listing the Nobel prizes related to photosynthesis and the Kettering Awards for Excellence in Photosynthesis Research. Wherever possible, a web page address is provided. The web page addresses have been taken from the article 'Photosynthesis and the Web: 2001' by Larry Orr and Govindjee, available at http://www.life.uiuc.edu/govindjee/photoweb and at http://photoscience.la.asu.edu/photosyn/ photoweb/default.html.When I find a bit of leisureI trifle with my papers.This is one of the lesserfrailities.'- Horace, Satires I, IV.

  17. [Opinions of the participants of 'Quit and Win' competition concerning prizes motivating to refrain from smoking].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Alina; Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Rzeźnicki, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Big antinicotine campaigns both in Poland and worldwide, are finished with a competition with prizes of different value. Psychologists say that a prize significantly motivates a person to certain kinds of behaviour. During educational activities carried out in the time of campaign, it is recommended to use techniques of psychological interaction that would release motives most beneficial to health. The aim of the work was to recognize frequency of being influenced mostly by the possibility of winning a prize before making a decision about quitting smoking and joining the competition, and learning the opinions of prize laureates concerning efficiency of 'Quit and Win' competitions. Empirical material comes from two sources. The first one is the selected fragments of a survey study carried out at Social and Preventive Medicine Department among 1700 participants of 'Quit and Win' competition that finished the 2nd International Antinicotine Campaign in Poland. The correctly filled survey was sent by 1285 people, that is 75.6%. The second source is a fragment of a survey study carried out in 2003 among 54 laureates of 'Quit and Win' competition in Poland. The completed survey was sent by majority of the laureates, that is 34 people (f = 0.63). Possibility of winning a prize as the most important reason for taking up the attempt to stop smoking and joining the competition was pointed to by 56 respondents (4.4%), whereas the remaining people chose other reasons as the most important ones. In the group of 34 respondents who were the laureates of competitions, majority, that is 22 people (f = 0.65) claimed the competition with prizes as a very effective method of reducing smoking. Half of the surveyed (17 people) claimed the possibility of winning a few prizes of high value would be more motivating than winning one of many prizes of smaller value. As the least attractive, prize gifts were pointed to. A prize in the form of a trip or holiday was considered very popular, as

  18. Celebration of DOE's 35th Anniversary and the Secretary of Energy's Honor Awards, Keynote Address: Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu

    ScienceCinema

    Chu, Steven

    2018-05-01

    Dr. Steven Chu gives a keynote address marking the thirty-fifth anniversary of the Department of Energy (DOE). He highlights outstanding achievements of the Department and its scientists. Several of the Department's many Nobel Prize winners over the years are mentioned.

  19. Smoot Cosmology Group

    Science.gov Websites

    Nobel Prize for physics. He led a team that mapped the early universe, revealing its primal form and the said these fifteen billion-year-old fossils are the primordial seeds that grew into the galaxies and

  20. Beyond Themselves: Students Work for Human Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayher, William S.

    1985-01-01

    How students and teachers in a private secondary school started a chapter of Amnesty International, the international human rights organization that received the 1977 Nobel Prize for Peace, is described. The many positive results of the experience are discussed. (RM)

  1. George Smoot, Blackbody, and Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov Websites

    , ... has been awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for physics. He shares the award with John C. Mather of NASA we continue to support him today. In addition, one of the principal instruments for the NASA COBE

  2. A new prize system for drug innovation.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Chernyak, Nadja

    2011-10-01

    We propose a new prize (reward) system for drug innovation which pays a price based on the value of health benefits accrued over time. Willingness to pay for a unit of health benefit is determined based on the cost-effectiveness ratio of palliative/nursing care. We solve the problem of limited information on the value of health benefits by mathematically relating reward size to the uncertainty of information including information on potential drug overuse. The proposed prize system offers optimal incentives to invest in research and development because it rewards the innovator for the social value of drug innovation. The proposal is envisaged as a non-voluntary alternative to the current patent system and reduces excessive marketing of innovators and generic drug producers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  4. Using the Nobel Laureates in Economics to Teach Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.; Greene, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The authors show how the work of Nobel Laureates in economics can enhance student understanding and bring them up to date on topics such as probability, uncertainty and decision theory, hypothesis testing, regression to the mean, instrumental variable techniques, discrete choice modeling, and time-series analysis. (Contains 2 notes.)

  5. Bonner Prize: The Elastic Form Factors of the Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrisat, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    A series of experiments initiated in 1998 at the then new Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator, or CEBAF in Newport News Virginia, resulted in unexpected results, changing significantly our understanding of the structure of the proton. These experiments used a relatively new technique to obtain the ratio of the two form factors of the proton, namely polarization. An intense beam of highly polarized electrons with energy up to 6 GeV was made to interact elastically with un-polarized protons in a hydrogen target. The polarization of the recoiling protons, with energies up to 5 GeV, was measured from a second interaction in a polarimeter consisting of blocs of graphite or CH2 and tracking wire chambers. The scattered electrons were detected in an electromagnetic lead-glass calorimeter, to select elastically scattered events. After a short introduction describing the path which brought me from the University of Geneva to the College of William and Mary in 1966, I will introduce the subject of elastic electron scattering, describe some of the apparatus required for such experiments, and show the results which were unexpected at the time. These results demonstrated unequivocally that the two form factors required to describe elastic ep scattering, electric GE and magnetic GM in the Born approximation, had a drastically different dependence upon the four-momentum squared q2 = q2 -ω2 with q the momentum, and ω the energy transferred in the reaction. The finding, in flagrant disagreement with the data available at the time, which had been obtained dominantly from cross section measurements of the type first used by Nobel Prize R. Hofstadter 60 years ago, have led to a reexamination of the information provided by form factors on the structure of the nucleon, in particular its quark-gluon content. The conclusion will then be a brief outline of several theoretical considerations to put the results in a proper perspective.

  6. The Year in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discover, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights major accomplishments, developments, and research in the sciences during 1982, focusing on the space sciences, astronomy, medicine, biology, psychology, chemistry, physics, environment, and zoology. Includes a brief statement of the 1982 Nobel Prize winners' research in medicine, chemistry, and physics. (JN)

  7. Genetic Engineering: and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Journal of Mental Retardation, 1977

    1977-01-01

    In a transcript from a radio show, Nobel Prize Winner Sir Macfarlane Burnet stresses the critical need for scientists to regulate their own activities in genetic research and cites the potential danger of creating a new form of polio which might escape. (CL)

  8. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals, LLC, Burt, New York

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals, LLC is located in northern Niagara County, south of Lake Ontario. The facility encompasses 350 acres, of which 30 acres are used for the production of organic peroxides. Eighteen Mile Creek is located immediately west of the

  9. Diagnostic value of NobelGuide to minimize the need for reconstructive surgery of jaws before implant placement: a review.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Roberto; Pellegrino, Gerardo; Marchetti, Claudio; Corinaldesi, Guiseppe; Ciocca, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    To test if using a CAD/CAM system might reduce the necessity of bone augmentation in patients with atrophic maxillary arches before implant therapy. Twenty male and female patients consecutively scheduled for bone augmentation of the jaw before implant surgery were included in this study, with a total of 29 jaws (maxillary and mandibular) to analyze for the implant-supported fixed prosthesis group and 19 maxillary arches for the implant-supported removable prosthesis group. NobelGuide System (Nobel Biocare), Autocad System (Autodesk), and routine manual CT measurements of available bone were used in this study. The total results of the mean values of the fixed prosthesis group plus the mean values of the removable prosthesis group showed a statistically significant difference between the NobelGuide intervention score and both manual (P = .004) and Autocad (P = .001) measurements. The NobelGuide System represents a viable diagnostic device to reduce the entity or avoid bone reconstructive surgery before implant placements in the atrophic maxilla and mandible.

  10. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - RTI Wave Power

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scharmen, Wesley

    2016-09-30

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the RTI Wave Power team, including the 1/20th Test Plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  11. Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; Franson, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (OCs) are diverse synthetic chemicals that belong to several groups, based on chemical structure. DDT is the best known of these insecticides. First synthesized in 1874, DDT remained obscure until its insecticidal properties became known in 1939, a discovery that earned a Nobel Prize in 1948. The means of synthesizing the cyclodiene group, the most toxic of the OCs, was discovered in 1928 and resulted in a Nobel Prize in 1950. The insecticidal properties of cyclodienes, which include aldrin, dieldrin, and endrin (Table 40.1), were discovered about 1945. OCs became widely used in the United States following World War II. Their primary uses included broad spectrum applications for agricultural crops and forestry and, to a lesser extent, human health protection by spraying to destroy mosquitoes and other potential disease carriers. These compounds also became widely used to combat insect carriers of domestic animal diseases.

  12. Mega-prizes in medicine: big cash awards may stimulate useful and rapid therapeutic innovation.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Following Horrobin's suggestion of 1986, I argue that offering very large prizes (tens of millions of US dollars, or more) for solving specific therapeutic problems, would be an excellent strategy for promoting the rapid development of effective new treatments. The two mainstream ways of paying for medical research are funding the process with grants or funding the outcome via patent protection. When grants are used to fund the process of research the result tends to be 'pure' science, guided by intrinsic scientific objectives. Practical results, such as useful therapeutic advances, are a by-product. Patent-seeking research, by contrast, is more focused on technology than science. It seeks practical results; and aims to pay for itself (and make a profit) in the long term by generating a patentable product or procedure. Prize-seeking research is subject to different incentives and applicable to different situations than either process-funded or patent-seeking research. Prize seeking researchers have a strong incentive to solve the specified problem as rapidly as possible, but the problem may be solved using old ideas that are scientifically mundane or unpatentable technologies and methods. Prizes therefore seem to generate solutions which are incremental extensions, new applications or novel combinations of already-existing technologies. The main use of mega-prizes in medicine would be to accelerate therapeutic progress in stagnant fields of research and to address urgent problems. For example, medical charities focused on specific diseases should consider accumulating their resources until they can offer a mega-prize for solving a clinical problem of special concern to their patients. Prize money should be big enough to pay for the research and development, the evaluation of the new treatment in a clinical trial, and with a large profit left-over to compensate for the intrinsic risk of competing. Sufficiently large amounts of money, and the prestige and publicity

  13. Prize-based contingency management for the treatment of substance abusers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Benishek, Lois A; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kim C; Matejkowski, Jason; Clements, Nicolle T; Seymour, Brittany L; Festinger, David S

    2014-09-01

    To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). A meta-analysis was conducted on papers published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k = 19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k = nine studies) and long-term outcomes (k = six studies) of prize-based contingency management. The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was 0.46 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37, 0.54]. This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤3-month) post-intervention follow-up to 0.33 (95% CI = 0.12, 0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time-point there was no detectable effect [d = -0.09 (95% CI = -0.28, 0.10)]. Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence, but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. More than Prize Lists: Head Teachers, Student Prize Winners, School Ceremonies and Educational Promotion in Colonial South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    Australian educators now operate in environments that frequently stress marketing activities. This article highlights the ways that colonial school prize ceremonies were deliberately developed to promote teaching activities. These ceremonies were part of carefully considered strategies that helped to boost the status of entrepreneurial teachers…

  15. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - M3 Wave

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-08-12

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the M3 Wave team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  16. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - Harvest Wave Energy

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-08-26

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Harvest Wave Energy team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  17. MIT Clean Energy Prize: Final Technical Report May 12, 2010 - May 11, 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Chris; Campbell, Georgina; Salony, Jason

    2011-08-09

    The MIT Clean Energy Prize (MIT CEP) is a venture creation and innovation competition to encourage innovation in the energy space, specifically with regard to clean energy. The Competition invited student teams from any US university to submit student-led ventures that demonstrate a high potential of successfully making clean energy more affordable, with a positive impact on the environment. By focusing on student ventures, the MIT CEP aims to educate the next generation of clean energy entrepreneurs. Teams receive valuable mentoring and hard deadlines that complement the cash prize to accelerate development of ventures. The competition is a year-long educationalmore » process that culminates in the selection of five category finalists and a Grand Prize winner and the distribution of cash prizes to each of those teams. Each entry was submitted in one of five clean energy categories: Renewables, Clean Non-Renewables, Energy Efficiency, Transportation, and Deployment.« less

  18. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: Remarks from Steve Chu at the Scientific Symposium Held in his Honor

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Steve

    2008-08-30

    Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize, presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium in his honor. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  19. Colloquium P.G.de Gennes

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-18

    Lecture from Professor Pierre Gilles from Gennes, who received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1991, became a professor at the Collège de France in 1971, director of the Ecole de Physique et Chimie (School of Physics and Chemistry) in Paris, etc.

  20. Book Review: Einstein studies in Russia. Yuri Balashov and Vladimir Vizgin (Eds.); Birkhäuser, Basel, 2002, 315pp, US 59.95, ISBN 0-8176-4263-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenkin, A. A.

    Most of the articles included here were first published in Russian in the series Einstein Studies (Einshteinovskii sbornik) (ES) between 1974 and 1990. ES was established in 1966 with support from the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Igor E. Tamm, who became one of the editors,

  1. Credit where credit's due?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargittai, Magdolna

    2012-09-01

    It is often said that physicist Chien-Shiung Wu, who was born 100 years ago, should have received a share in the 1957 Nobel Prize for Physics but missed out as a result of gender discrimination. Magdolna Hargittai investigates the truth of the matter.

  2. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Float Inc

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-15

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for Float Inc. During the testing of its 1/50th-scale device, Float Inc. Berger ABAM was deemed ineligible due to the fact that they brought a device with them to test and did not ship the device by the deadline stipulated in the Wave Energy Prize Rules. Because of this, analysis, results, and judging were not completed for this team/device. This submission included files such as: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents

  3. T-regulatory cells-Triumph of perseverance: The Crafoord Prize for Polyarthritis in 2017.

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2018-02-01

    The Crafoord Prize in Polyarthritis ranks as one of the most prestigious prizes and can be awarded only if the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides the likelihood of prize worthy progress in the field, and at most every 4th year. This has happened only four times since 1982. This year the 5th Laureates were Shimon Sakaguchi, Fred Ramsdell, and Alexander Rudensky with the motivation "for their discoveries relating to regulatory T cells, which counteract harmful immune reactions in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases". Here I review the history of their contributions and its impact in rheumatology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Biomedical applications of green synthesized Nobel metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Khan, Amjad; Chen, Yongmei; Shah, Noor S; Muhammad, Nawshad; Khan, Arif Ullah; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Faheem Ullah; Murtaza, Behzad; Hassan, Sadaf Ul; Qaisrani, Saeed Ahmad; Wan, Pingyu

    2017-08-01

    Synthesis of Nobel metal nanoparticles, play a key role in the field of medicine. Plants contain a substantial number of organic constituents, like phenolic compounds and various types of glycosides that help in synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Synthesis of metal nanoparticles by green method is one of the best and environment friendly methods. The major significance of the green synthesis is lack of toxic by-products produced during metal nanoparticle synthesis. The nanoparticles, synthesized by green method show various significant biological activities. Most of the research articles report the synthesized nanoparticles to be active against gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Some of these bacteria include Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The synthesized nanoparticles also show significant antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum as well as different types of cancer cells such as breast cancer cell line. They also exhibit significant antioxidant activity. The activities of these Nobel metal nano-particles mainly depend on the size and shape. The particles of small size with large surface area show good activity in the field of medicine. The synthesized nanoparticles are also active against leishmanial diseases. This research article explores in detail the green synthesis of the nanoparticles and their uses thereof. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stellar students win fantastic prizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    School students and teachers across Europe and around the world are discovering today who has won fantastic prizes in "Catch a Star", the international astronomical competition run by ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). CAS2008 artwork ESO PR Photo 14/08 One of the winning artworks "We were extremely impressed by the high quality of the entries, and the number of participants was even higher than last year. We wish to congratulate everybody who took part," said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. "'Catch a Star' clearly shows astronomy's power to inspire and excite students of all ages," added Fernand Wagner, President of the EAAE. The top prize, of a week-long trip to Chile to visit the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal, was won by students Roeland Heerema, Liesbeth Schenkels, and Gerben Van Ranst from the Instituut Spijker in Hoogstraten, Belgium, together with their teacher Ann Verstralen. With their "story of aged binary stars... Live and Let Die", they take us on a vivid tour of the amazing zoo of binary stars, and the life and death of stars like our Sun. The students show how state-of-the-art telescopes, particularly those at ESO's sites of La Silla and Paranal, help us understand these stars. They take as an illustrative example the binary star system V390 Velorum. In the last phases of its life, V390 Velorum will shed its outer shell of gas and dust, turning from a celestial chrysalis into a beautiful cosmic butterfly. The students also involved other pupils from their school, showing them how to test their eyesight by observing the binary star system of Alcor and Mizar. But perhaps the most important discovery they made is that, as they write in their report, "Astronomy lives! Discoveries are being made each day and there is still very much to be found and learned by astronomers!" The team will travel to Chile and visit the ESO VLT - the world's most advanced optical/infrared telescope. At Paranal, they

  6. Stress Testing of the Philips 60W Replacement Lamp L Prize Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Poplawski, Michael E.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; Smith, Mark

    2012-04-24

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy, worked with Intertek to develop a procedure for stress testing medium screw-base light sources. This procedure, composed of alternating stress cycles and performance evaluation, was used to qualitatively compare and contrast the durability and reliability of the Philips 60W replacement lamp L Prize entry with market-proven compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) with comparable light output and functionality. The stress cycles applied simultaneous combinations of electrical, thermal, vibration, and humidity stresses of increasing magnitude. Performance evaluations measured relative illuminance, x chromaticity and y chromaticity shifts after each stressmore » cycle. The Philips L Prize entry lamps appear to be appreciably more durable than the incumbent energy-efficient technology, as represented by the evaluated CFLs, and with respect to the applied stresses. Through the course of testing, all 15 CFL samples permanently ceased to function as a result of the applied stresses, while only 1 Philips L Prize entry lamp exhibited a failure, the nature of which was minor, non-destructive, and a consequence of a known (and resolved) subcontractor issue. Given that current CFL technology appears to be moderately mature and no Philips L Prize entry failures could be produced within the stress envelope causing 100 percent failure of the benchmark CFLs, it seems that, in this particular implementation, light-emitting diode (LED) technology would be much more durable in the field than current CFL technology. However, the Philips L Prize entry lamps used for testing were carefully designed and built for the competition, while the benchmark CFLs were mass produced for retail sale—a distinction that should be taken into consideration. Further reliability testing on final production samples would be necessary to judge the extent to which the results of this analysis apply to production

  7. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: A Talk from Eric Cornell

    SciTech Connect

    Cornell, Eric

    2008-08-30

    Eric Cornell presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  8. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: A Talk from Kurt Gibble

    SciTech Connect

    Gibble, Kurt

    2008-08-30

    Kurt Gibble presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  9. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: A Talk from Jay Keasling

    SciTech Connect

    Keasling, Jay

    2008-08-30

    Jay Keasling presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  10. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk by Carl Wieman

    ScienceCinema

    Wieman, Carl

    2017-12-09

    Carl Wieman presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  11. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: A Talk from Eric Cornell

    ScienceCinema

    Cornell, Eric

    2018-02-05

    Eric Cornell presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  12. Toni Morrison: Writing above the Ground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacour, Claudia Brodsky

    1996-01-01

    Discusses and appraises the work of Nobel Prize winning black author Toni Morrison. Locates thematic and stylistic antecedents in the works of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Ernest Hemingway. Compares and contrasts Morrison's work with Ralph Ellison's "Invisible Man" and discusses the critical reception of black authors. (MJP)

  13. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk by Carl Wieman

    SciTech Connect

    Wieman, Carl

    Carl Wieman presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  14. How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Sutton, Mark A.; Galloway, James; Klimont, Zbigniew; Winiwarter, Wilfried

    2008-10-01

    On 13 October 1908, Fritz Haber filed his patent on the ``synthesis of ammonia from its elements'' for which he was later awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. A hundred years on we live in a world transformed by and highly dependent upon Haber-Bosch nitrogen.

  15. The Social Responsibility of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakharov, Andrei

    1981-01-01

    Presents supportive statements from a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and a Nobel Peace Prize winner that the scientific community has an obligation to inform the public fully about the impact of scientific developments. Autobiographical data concerning the author is also included. (CS)

  16. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: A Talk from Jay Keasling

    ScienceCinema

    Keasling, Jay

    2018-02-14

    Jay Keasling presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  17. Secretory products of macrophages: twenty-five years on.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Carl

    2012-04-01

    No longer do scientists look down on macrophages as "garbage men" that act "nonspecifically." Last fall's Nobel Prizes honored two of the few scientists who studied macrophages three decades ago. Now perhaps thousands do, and the subtypes they describe reflect ongoing discoveries of macrophages' extraordinary plasticity.

  18. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  19. Profile of a Peace Historian: Irwin Abrams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OAH Magazine of History, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the significance of Irwin Abrams to the field of peace history. Describes Abrams' personal life, his work with the American Friends Service Committee, his scholarly work, and his leadership in peace history. Concludes by discussing his research on the Nobel Peace Prize and its recipients. (CFR)

  20. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  1. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Energy Science: A Talk from Kurt Gibble

    ScienceCinema

    Gibble, Kurt

    2018-02-05

    Kurt Gibble presents a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  2. Marie Curie's Doctoral Thesis: Prelude to a Nobel Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the life and research techniques of Marie Curie's doctoral dissertation leading to the discovery and purification of radium from ore. Reexamines the discoveries of other scientists that helped lead to this separation. (ML)

  3. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis [Nobel Prize Lecture

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, Melvin

    1961-12-11

    It is almost sixty years since Emil Fischer was describing on a platform such as this one some of the work which led to the basic knowledge of the structure of glucose and its relatives. Today we will be concerned with a description of the experiments which have led to a knowledge of the principal reactions by which those carbohydrate structures are created by photosynthetic organisms from carbon dioxide and water, using the energy of light. The speculations on the way in which carbohydrate was built from carbon dioxide began not long after the recognition of the basic reaction and were carried forward first by Justus von Liebig and then by Adolf von Baeyer and, finally, by Richard Wilstatter and Arthur Stoll into this century. Actually, the route by which animal organisms performed the reverse reaction, that is, the combustion of carbohydrate to carbon dioxide and water with the utilization of the energy resulting from this combination, turned out to be the first one to be successfully mapped, primarily by Otto Meyerhoi and Hans Krebs. Our own interest in the basic process of solar energy conversion by green plants began some time in the years between 1935 and 1937, during my postdoctoral studies with Professor Michael Polanyi at Manchester. It was there I first became conscious of the remarkable properties of coordinated metal compounds, particularly metalloporphyins as represented by heme and chlorophyll. A study was begun at that time, which is still continuing, on the electronic behavior of such metalloporphyrins. It was extended and generalized by the stimulus of Professor Gilbert N. Lewis upon my arrival in Berkeley. I hope these continuing studies may one day contribute to the understanding of the precise way in which chlorophyll and its relatives accomplish the primary quantum conversion into chemical potential which is used to drive the carbohydrate synthesis reaction.

  4. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Dyno Nobel Incorporated in Ulster Park, New York

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dyno Nobel is located on Ulster Avenue in Ulster Park, approximately one mile south of the village of Port Ewen in Ulster County, New York, in a small valley bordered by Hussey Hill on the west and a low lying ridge (adjacent to the Hudson River) to the

  5. L Prize Drives Technology Innovation, Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2014-04-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's L Prize competition, which challenges industry to develop high-quality, high-efficiency SSL products to replace 60W incandescent and PAR38 halogen light bulbs, and highlights the competition's first 60W winner from Philips Lighting North America.

  6. PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CONTAMINATED SLUDGES FROM THE BOFORS-NOBEL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed test program was performed at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) to help determine the effectiveness of incineration in treating two contaminated lagoon sludges from the Bofors-Nobel Superfund site in Mus...

  7. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one ormore » more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.« less

  8. NASA and X PRIZE Announce Winners of Lunar Lander Challenge

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-05

    NASA and the X PRIZE Foundation announced the winners of the Northrop Grumman Lunar Lander Challenge at an awards ceremony at the Rayburn House Office Building, Thursday, Nov. 5, 2009 in Washington, DC. From left to right, George Nield, Associate Administrator of Commercial Space Transportation, FAA; Charles Bolden, NASA Administrator; Doug Comstock, Director, Innovative Partnerships Program, NASA; David Masten, CEO, Masten Space Systems; Phil Eaton, VP, Operations, Armadillo Aerospace; U.S. Rep. Ralph Hall (R-TX); Peter Diamandis, Chairman and CEO, X PRIZE Foundation and Mitch Waldman, VP, Advanced Programs & Technology, Northrop Grumman. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Kevin E. Trenberth Receives 2013 Climate Communication Prize: Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    I am delighted to be recognized with this prize. I want to first thank AGU and the prize committee and, especially, Nature's Own for establishing this prize in a field that has become contentious and highly political. It did not used to be this way. Following the media frenzy with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report, there was hope at the 2009 Conference of Parties meeting in Copenhagen that an international framework agreement on climate change might be achieved. It was not to be. Planned actions to address issues of climate change were undermined by huge funding of misinformation by vested interests. It was not helped by so-called "climategate" in which many emails illegally hacked from a computer server at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom were released, cherry picked, distorted, and misused by climate change deniers. Minor errors in the IPCC report were blown out of all proportion and ineffectively addressed. I was caught up in all this, and one of my many emails went viral: the "travesty" quote in which I bemoaned the inability to close the global energy balance associated with short-term climate variability but which was misinterpreted as saying there was no global warming. These examples highlight failures of communication.

  10. Therapeutic use of "prizing" and its effect on self-concept of elderly clients in nursing homes and group homes.

    PubMed

    Williams-Barnard, C L; Lindell, A R

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of nurse high prizing and nurse low prizing during group therapy in changing the self-concept of institutionalized aged persons. The hypothesis tested was that institutionalized aged clients participating in group therapy who receive nurse high prizing will show an increase in self-concept as measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) when compared with those aged clients in the same settings participating in group therapy who receive nurse low prizing or those aged clients constituting the matched control groups. The study used an existing data source generated from the research of Williams and Lindell to conduct a secondary analysis of a variable not previously investigated. Mean difference scores from the posttest total self-concept score and subscales of the TSCS were analyzed in conjunction with the levels of prizing within the experimental and control groups. Using the Scale for Rating Prizing, two nurse raters judged the degree of prizing on 40 randomly extracted video segments. The findings indicated that 47.1% of those subjects who received low prizing decreased in self-concept; 68.4% of those who received high prizing increased in self-concept. No change in self-concept was noted in the control group. Findings were significant at the .0001 level. Investigating the effect of nurse high and low levels of prizing on client self-concept completes the Rogerian trilogy of therapist-offered conditions with this same sample of subjects. Extension of previous studies adds to the ever-growing body of nursing knowledge and increases the certitude, casualty, and generalizability of such investigations.

  11. INTRODUCTION: Physics of Low-dimensional Systems: Nobel Symposium 73

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundqvist, Stig

    1989-01-01

    The physics of low-dimensional systems has developed in a remarkable way over the last decade and has accelerated over the last few years, in particular because of the discovery of the new high temperature superconductors. The new developments started more than fifteen years ago with the discovery of the unexpected quasi-one-dimensional character of the TTF-TCNQ. Since then the field of conducting quasi-one-dimensional organic systems have been rapidly growing. Parallel to the experimental work there has been an important theoretical development of great conceptual importance, such as charge density waves, soliton-like excitations, fractional charges, new symmetry properties etc. A new field of fundamental importance was the discovery of the Quantum Hall Effect in 1980. This field is still expanding with new experimental and theoretical discoveries. In 1986, then, came the totally unexpected discovery of high temperature superconductivity which started an explosive development. The three areas just mentioned formed the main themes of the Symposium. They do not in any way exhaust the progress in low-dimensional physics. We should mention the recent important development with both two-dimensional and one-dimensional and even zero-dimensional structures (quantum dots). The physics of mesoscopic systems is another important area where the low dimensionality is a key feature. Because of the small format of this Symposium we could unfortunately not cover these areas. A Nobel Symposium provides an excellent opportunity to bring together a group of prominent scientists for a stimulating exchange of new ideas and results. The Nobel Symposia are very small meetings by invitation only and the number of key international participants is typically in the range 25-40. These Symposia are arranged through a special Nobel Symposium Committee after proposal from individuals. This Symposium was sponsored by the Nobel Foundation through its Nobel Symposium Fund with grants from The

  12. Wave Energy Prize - 1/20th Testing - CalWave Power Technologies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Scharmen, Wesley

    2016-09-09

    Data from the 1/20th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the CalWave Power Technologies team, including the 1/20th scale test plan, raw test data, video, photos, and data analysis results. The top level objective of the 1/20th scale device testing is to obtain the necessary measurements required for determining Average Climate Capture Width per Characteristic Capital Expenditure (ACE) and the Hydrodynamic Performance Quality (HPQ), key metrics for determining the Wave Energy Prize (WEP) winners.

  13. Using RNAi in C. "elegans" to Demonstrate Gene Knockdown Phenotypes in the Undergraduate Biology Lab Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful technology used to knock down genes in basic research and medicine. In 2006 RNAi technology using "Caenorhabditis elegans" ("C. elegans") was awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine and thus students graduating in the biological sciences should have experience with this technology. However,…

  14. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk from Leo Holberg and Allen Mills

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, Leo; Mills, Allen

    2008-08-30

    Leo Holberg and Allen Mills present a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  15. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 1: Identifying Proteins Based on Molecular Mass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological mass spectrometry is an important analytical technique in drug discovery, proteomics, and research at the biology-chemistry interface. Currently, few hands-on opportunities exist for undergraduate students to learn about this technique. With the 2002 Nobel Prize being awarded, in part, for the development of biological mass…

  16. Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics, and Enrgy Science: A Talk from Leo Holberg and Allen Mills

    ScienceCinema

    Holberg, Leo; Mills, Allen

    2018-05-07

    Leo Holberg and Allen Mills present a talk at Frontiers in Laser Cooling, Single-Molecule Biophysics and Energy Science, a scientific symposium honoring Steve Chu, director of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and recipient of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Physics. The symposium was held August 30, 2008 in Berkeley.

  17. Richard Schrock, Robert Grubbs, and Metathesis Method in Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov Websites

    Organic Synthesis Resources with Additional Information Richard R. Schrock of the Massachusetts Institute Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis" ] Chauvin, Grubbs and Schrock "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis,"

  18. The Case, If Any, for Economic Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stigler, George J.

    1983-01-01

    This article, which first appeared in the Spring 1970 issue of the "Journal of Economic Education," is reprinted as a tribute to Nobel Memorial Prize winner Stigler with the expectation that it will provoke current discussion about the goals and accomplishments of the economic education movement. (Author/RM)

  19. Smoot Group Cosmology

    Science.gov Websites

    Image: NASA WMAP George F. Smoot and John Mather share the 2006 Nobel prize "for their the Universe About Cosmology Planck Satellite Launched Cosmology Videos Professor George Smoot's group science goals regarding cosmology. George Smoot named Director of Korean Cosmology Institute The GRB

  20. Stories of Discovery Stimulate the Physics Major--A Polemic, with Examples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Alfred

    1980-01-01

    Provides historical examples of intuitive discovery applicable to the teaching of physics for majors. Cites details for the discovery of Coulomb's law, emphasizing the roles of Joseph Priestley and Henry Cavendish. Also discusses the career of Ivar Giaever, a Nobel Prize winner of 1973 in solid state physics. (CS)

  1. Computer Intelligence: Unlimited and Untapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Betsy

    1983-01-01

    Herbert Simon (Nobel prize-winning economist/professor) expresses his views on human and artificial intelligence, problem solving, inventing concepts, and the future. Includes comments on expert systems, state of the art in artificial intelligence, robotics, and "Bacon," a computer program that finds scientific laws hidden in raw data.…

  2. General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center, a NASA field installation, was established at Huntsville, Alabama, in 1960. The Center was named in honor of General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State, and Nobel Prize Wirner for his world-renowned Marshall Plan.

  3. On viruses, discovery, and recognition.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Robin A

    2008-12-12

    This year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine rewards the discoverers of two viruses that cause major afflictions of humankind. Identifying human papilloma virus (HPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) might now appear to have been simple, but the way forward was far from obvious at the time.

  4. The Dispute over Nuclear Fission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    1996-01-01

    Reveals the stormy relationship and ongoing controversy surrounding the scientific collaboration of Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. Discusses the controversial 1944 Nobel Prize award to Hahn (ignoring the equal contribution of Meitner), the reaction of the scientific community, and the post-war years of both Meitner and Hahn. (MJP)

  5. Twentieth-Century Literature in the Survey and in the Special Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Lynda G.

    1980-01-01

    Provides a semester syllabus for a course in twentieth-century world literature and suggests selections to add to a world literature survey based on works of Nobel Prize winners. Includes an annotated bibliography of background information on both the literature and the philosophies of the twentieth century. (MKM)

  6. Origin of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The Marshall Space Flight Center, a NASA field installation, was established at Huntsville, Alabama, in 1960. The Center was named in honor of General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State, and Nobel Prize Wirner for his world-renowned Marshall Plan.

  7. Approaching the Thermodynamic View of Protein Folding through the Reproduction of Anfinsen's Experiment by Undergraduate Physical Biochemistry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Reche, Andres; Cobos, Eva S.; Luque, Irene; Ruiz-Sanz, Javier; Martinez, Jose C.

    2018-01-01

    In 1972 Christian B. Anfinsen received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for "…his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation." The understanding of this principle is crucial for physical biochemistry students, since protein folding studies, bio-computing…

  8. Review: Leon N. Cooper's Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research-specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness?

  9. 201007270004HQ

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-26

    NASA Astrophycist Dr. John Mather speaks, Tuesday, July 27, 2010, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Mather was speaking as part of a ceremony with STS-132 astronaut Piers Sellers who returned a replica of the Nobel Prize that is in the museum's collection and was flown aboard STS-132 Atlantis. The prize was won by Mather and University of California, Berkeley researcher George Smoot in 2006 for their work using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite to understand the big-bang theory of the universe.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. NASA STS-132 Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-26

    STS-132 astronaut Piers Sellers, left, and Dr. John Mather are seen with a replica of Mather's Nobel Prize, Tuesday, July 27, 2010, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Sellers returned the replica that is in the museum's collection and was flown aboard STS-132 Atlantis. The prize was won by Mather and University of California, Berkeley researcher George Smoot in 2006 for their work using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite to understand the big-bang theory of the universe. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  11. It's No Secret: Progress Prized in Brownsville

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    This article features Brownsville Independent School District which was awarded the prestigious 2008 Broad Prize for Urban Education for being the nation's most improved urban school district. The Texas border district sees teacher training and data-based instruction as paths to learning gains--and the $1 million Broad award adds validation. In…

  12. Society News: PhD theses could win prizes; Last chance for IYA2009 grants; New Fellows; RAS Fellows win prizes; Need a job? Need staff? RAS Library Saturdays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-08-01

    Fellows who are PhD student supervisors should be on the lookout for exceptionally good work from research students submitting their theses this year, for nomination for the RAS Michael Penston Astronomy Prize and the RAS Keith Runcorn Prize. The RAS is offering one last chance to apply for grants towards International Year of Astronomy activities, but you'll have to apply soon. The Society sends congratulations to Fellows of the RAS who have recently received prestigious awards for their work.

  13. Microeconomics and Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Steven; Chen, Lanxin; DeAngelo, Greg; Smith, W. James; Zhang, Xieting

    2011-01-01

    Psychologists such as the Nobel Prize-winner Daniel Kahneman challenge the major assumptions of microeconomics: the rational pursuit of self-interest given unchanging tastes. One may explore these issues through a questionnaire that may be distributed in class. How many of your students behave as the psychologists predict? Should economists adapt…

  14. Incorporating Biological Mass Spectrometry into Undergraduate Teaching Labs, Part 2: Peptide Identification via Molecular Mass Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnquist, Isaac J.; Beussman, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine analytical tool in the undergraduate curriculum in the form of GC-MS. While relatively few undergraduate programs have incorporated biological mass spectrometry into their programs, the importance of these techniques, as demonstrated by their recognition with the 2002 Nobel Prize, will hopefully lead to…

  15. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, Robert J

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

  16. Reform, Racism and the Centrality of Whiteness: Assessment, Ability and the "New Eugenics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning scientist James Watson was vilified when his views on the supposedly inherent deficiencies of black people became public. The scientific establishment, mainstream media and politicians joined a chorus of disapproval that would seem to evidence a widespread rejection of the old myths of racially ordered intelligence.…

  17. Martinus Veltman, the Electroweak Theory, and Elementary Particle Physics

    Science.gov Websites

    Particle Physics Resources with Additional Information Martinus Veltman Courtesy University of Michigan Martinus J.G. Veltman, the John D. MacArthur Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Michigan , was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in physics "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak

  18. Upper Secondary and First-Year University Students' Explanations of Animal Behaviour: To What Extent Are Tinbergen's Four Questions about Causation, Ontogeny, Function and Evolution, Represented?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinxten, Rianne; Desclée, Mathieu; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    In 1963, the Nobel Prize-winning ethologist Niko Tinbergen proposed a framework for the scientific study of animal behaviour by outlining four questions that should be answered to have a complete understanding: causation, ontogeny, function and evolution. At present, Tinbergen's framework is still considered the best way to guide animal…

  19. A Global Dialogue on Peace: Creating an International Learning Community through Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Tami; Norvang, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Technology and social media, often seen as counter productive to student learning, can provide intriguing new ways to extend and enhance learning across international borders. This article explores one successful learning project, based on the Nobel Peace Prize, that connected students from Norway, South Africa, and the United States through…

  20. Q&A: Boson beginnings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daphney Bucher, Thifhelimbilu

    2015-10-01

    François Englert shared the 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics with Peter Higgs for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that gives mass to subatomic particles. For this work, he collaborated with Robert Brout, who died in 2011. He looks back on his contribution to science with Thifhelimbilu Daphney Bucher.

  1. Engineers, Development, and Engineering Education: From National to Sustainable Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucena, J.; Schneider, J.

    2008-01-01

    In October 2007, Norman Borlaug wrote in "Science" magazine that "more than 200 science journals throughout the world will simultaneously publish papers on global poverty and human development--a collaborative effort to increase awareness, interest, and research about these important issues of our time". Borlaug, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and…

  2. Robert Hofstadter, Electron Scattering, the Structure of the Nucleons, and

    Science.gov Websites

    , Electron Scattering, the Structure of the Nucleons, and Scintillation Counters Resources with Additional -point particles and therefore possessed structure. For this work Hofstadter was awarded the Nobel Prize structure of the nucleons, and scintillation counters is available in electronic documents and on the Web

  3. 3 CFR 8366 - Proclamation 8366 of April 28, 2009. National Equal Pay Day, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... earned—is not possible. This problem is particularly dire for women who are single and the sole... genetics and earned a Nobel Prize. These and countless other women have broken barriers and changed the course of our history, allowing women and men who followed them the opportunity to reach greater heights...

  4. Fermilab Today

    Science.gov Websites

    go back to my regular existence." The complete interview and Nobel Prize Veltman book Martinus Veltman's book was published in 2003. autobiography are available online. The title of Veltman's colloquium is taken from his recently published book. "Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics

  5. Nex-Gen Space Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-26

    Adam Reiss, recipient of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics and professor of astronomy and physics at Johns Hopkins University speaks at the presentation of the permanent exhibit of the James Webb Space Telescope at the Maryland Science Center on Wednesday, Oct. 26, 2011 in Baltimore. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  6. Collecting Poetry for the Academic Library: An Evaluation of Poetry Prizes as Selection Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golomb, Liorah

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the usefulness of poetry book prizes as a selection tool by evaluating their fairness, meaningfulness, and reliability as an indication of quality. The results of two surveys, one collecting data on poetry book prizes and the other asking librarians about their collecting practices, suggest that selecting on the basis of prizes…

  7. The Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science: three years of honouring outstanding achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heward Fouchet, T.

    2012-09-01

    Europlanet launched an annual Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Sciences at the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in 2009. At EPSC 2012, the prize will be presented for the third time. To date, the prize has been awarded to: • 2010 - Dr Jean Lilensten of the Laboratoire de Planétologie de Grenoble for his development and dissemination of his 'planeterrella' experiment; • 2011 - The Austrian Space Forum for their coordinated programme of outreach activities, which range from simple classroom presentations to space exhibitions reaching 15 000 visitors; • 2012 - Yaël Nazé, for the diverse outreach programme she has individually initiated over the years, carefully tailored to audiences across the spectrum of society, including children, artists and elderly people. These three prizes cover a spectrum of different approaches to outreach and provide inspiration for anyone wishing to become engaged in public engagement, whether at an individual and institutional level.

  8. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the NRC...

  9. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the NRC...

  10. Improving the Transparency of IAEA Safeguards Reporting

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Hayman, Aaron M.; Wyse, Evan T.

    2011-07-17

    In 2008, the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation (SAGSI) indicated that the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) has not kept pace with the evolution of safeguards and provided the IAEA with a set of recommendations for improvement. The SIR is the primary mechanism for providing an overview of safeguards implementation in a given year and reporting on the annual safeguards findings and conclusions drawn by the Secretariat. As the IAEA transitions to State-level safeguards approaches, SIR reporting must adapt to reflect these evolutionary changes. This evolved report will better reflect the IAEA's transition to amore » more qualitative and information-driven approach, based upon State-as-a-whole considerations. This paper applies SAGSI's recommendations to the development of multiple models for an evolved SIR and finds that an SIR repurposed as a 'safeguards portal' could significantly enhance information delivery, clarity, and transparency. In addition, this paper finds that the 'portal concept' also appears to have value as a standardized information presentation and analysis platform for use by Country Officers, for continuity of knowledge purposes, and the IAEA Secretariat in the safeguards conclusion process. Accompanying this paper is a fully functional prototype of the 'portal' concept, built using commercial software and IAEA Annual Report data.« less

  11. Vitamin D and Influenza

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    industrial absenteeism caused by colds and respiratory illness; days of missed work was reduced by 30%. (n=3031) Homes AD, et al. Industrial...greater than ~87nmol/L. Vitamin D from sunlight affects TB The 1903 Nobel prize was awarded for the discovery that vitamin D from sunlight could cure cutaneous TB….

  12. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  13. Globalizing the English Curriculum through Caribbean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoelman, Linda; Thomas, Katherine

    Although Caribbean (English) writers hold differing views on the effectiveness of making connections in an area of so much diversity, Caribbean literature can be connected to the English curriculum to promote diversity and understanding. V. S. Naipaul, Nobel Prize winning author from the region, presents a pessimistic view of Caribbean society in…

  14. Little by Little: Global Citizenship through Local Action Inspired by Wangari Maathai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Erica M.; Montgomery, Sarah E.; Staudt, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Wangari Maathai--"environmentalist, human rights advocate, global peace worker, and community builder"--passed away in 2011. The first African woman to receive the Nobel Peace Prize, Dr. Maathai left a legacy even greater than the 47 million trees that her organization, the Greenbelt Movement, has planted across Kenya since 1977. As…

  15. Problem-Solving Test: Telomere Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2009 was awarded to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider, and Jack W. Szostak for the discovery of "how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase." The discovery has important implications in the processes of cellular aging and carcinogenesis. Telomeres are satellite DNA…

  16. Joseph Rotblat: Influences, Scientific Achievements and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Joseph Rotblat was one of the most distinguished nuclear physicists and peace campaigners of the post Second World War period. His peace activities rank alongside those of Albert Einstein and Bertrand Russell; he won the Nobel Peace Prize, jointly with the Pugwash movement, that he helped found. However, he made significant contributions to…

  17. Viewpoint: 12 Inconvenient Truths about American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedder, Richard

    2012-01-01

    On the surface, America has a great higher education system that works beautifully. Our colleges and universities, we are often told, are the best in the world. They consistently dominate the international rankings. A number of Nobel Prize award winners are closely associated with American institutions. Foreign students flock to our country to…

  18. Nordic Winter and Cold: Their Correspondence with Tomas Tranströmer's Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosian, Mohammad Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize winning poet Tomas Tranströmer was born and bred in Sweden, a remarkably Scandinavian country. Topographically, Scandinavian countries are locations of extreme cold and snowing. This distinguishing climatic condition has had a dominant influence and impact on almost all Scandinavian art and literature, including Tomas Tranströmer's…

  19. Secretory products of macrophages: twenty-five years on

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Carl

    2012-01-01

    No longer do scientists look down on macrophages as “garbage men” that act “nonspecifically.” Last fall’s Nobel Prizes honored two of the few scientists who studied macrophages three decades ago. Now perhaps thousands do, and the subtypes they describe reflect ongoing discoveries of macrophages’ extraordinary plasticity. PMID:22570864

  20. A Celebration of Richard Feynman

    SciTech Connect

    Feynman, Richard

    In honor of the 2005 World Year of Physics, on the birthday of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, BSA sponsored this celebration. Actor Norman Parker reads from Feynman's bestselling books, and Ralph Leighton and Tom Rutishauser, who played bongos with Feynman, reminisce on what it was like to drum with him.

  1. A Celebration of Richard Feynman

    ScienceCinema

    Feynman, Richard

    2018-01-05

    In honor of the 2005 World Year of Physics, on the birthday of Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, BSA sponsored this celebration. Actor Norman Parker reads from Feynman's bestselling books, and Ralph Leighton and Tom Rutishauser, who played bongos with Feynman, reminisce on what it was like to drum with him.

  2. BOS MOrth cases prize 2011.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jigar Vipinchandra

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the orthodontic treatment of two cases awarded the prize by the British Orthodontic Society for best treated cases submitted for the Membership in Orthodontics. The first case reports on the treatment of a class III malocclusion with increased vertical lower anterior facial proportions and dentoalveolar compensation that was treated with orthodontic camouflage. The second case reports on the treatment of a class II division II malocclusion with reduced vertical lower anterior facial proportions and an overbite complete to the palate, which was treated with orthodontic camouflage.

  3. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The making of a physician-scientist--the process has a pattern: lessons from the lives of Nobel laureates in medicine and physiology.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen L

    2007-02-01

    Physician-scientists are catalysts of translational research. With one foot in the practice of medicine and the other in research and discovery, they are uniquely positioned to bridge the gap between laboratory and bedside. In so doing, they enhance patient care, improve medical education, and increase the prosperity of the biomedical enterprise. Although, science has never been more accessible and directly applicable to human health, there is a paradoxical scarcity of physician-scientists. Causes of this shortage include prolonged training and the associated debt-load, the corporatization of medicine, inadequate research funding, and the complexity of a dual career. While striving to reduce these obstacles, we should inspire the next generation by celebrating the physician-scientist career track as one of Medicine's most rewarding. To this end, life lessons from five groups of Nobel laureates in medicine and physiology have been distilled, revealing the essence of the practices and philosophies that allowed these 'ordinary' people to achieve the extraordinary. The common threads in their stories guide young physician-scientists to seek out training and employment where a culture of research is embraced, to find a dedicated mentor who will help identify worthy research questions and guide their career, and to establish research partnerships which offer creative synergy and buffer the frustrations that accompany research. Further inspiration comes from those great researchers whose contributions shaped Medicine but did not lead to the Prize.

  5. "Bird in the hand" cash was more effective than prize draws in increasing physician questionnaire response.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Frances J; O'Leary, Eamonn; O'Neill, Ciaran; Burns, Richeal; Sharp, Linda

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effects of two monetary incentives on response rates to postal questionnaires from primary care physicians (PCPs). The PCPs were randomized into three arms (n=550 per arm), namely (1) €5 sent with the questionnaire (cash); (2) entry into a draw on return of completed questionnaire (prize); or (3) no incentive. Effects of incentives on response rates and item nonresponse were examined, as was cost-effectiveness. Response rates were significantly higher in the cash (66.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 61.9, 70.4%) and prize arms (44.8%; 95% CI: 40.1, 49.3%) compared with the no-incentive arm (39.9%; 95% CI: 35.4, 44.3%). Adjusted relative risk of response was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.35) and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.48, 1.91) in the prize and cash arms, respectively, compared with the no-incentive group. Costs per completed questionnaire were €9.85, €11.15, and €6.31 for the cash, prize, and no-incentive arms, respectively. Compared with the no-incentive arm, costs per additional questionnaire returned in the cash and prize arms were €14.72 and €37.20, respectively. Both a modest cash incentive and entry into a prize draw were effective in increasing response rates. The cash incentive was most effective and the most cost-effective. Where it is important to maximize response, a modest cash incentive may be cost-effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Review: Leon N. Cooper’s Science and Human Experience: Values, Culture, and the Mind

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Why are we reviewing a book written by someone who shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for work on superconductivity? Because shortly after winning the prize, Leon N. Cooper transitioned into brain research—specifically, the biological basis of memory. He became director of the Brown University Institute for Brain and Neural Systems, whose interdisciplinary program allowed him to integrate research on the brain, physics, and even philosophy. His new book tackles a diverse spectrum of topics and questions, including these: Does science have limits? Where does order come from? Can we understand consciousness? PMID:27358665

  7. NASA STS-132 Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-26

    STS-132 astronaut Piers Sellers, at podium, acknowleges museum director Ret. Gen. John R. "Jack" Dailey, seated left, and NASA astrophycisist Dr. John Mather, center, during a presentation, Tuesday, July 27, 2010, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Sellers returned a replica of the Nobel Prize that is in the museum's collection and was flown aboard STS-132 Atlantis. The prize was won by Mather and University of California, Berkeley researcher George Smoot in 2006 for their work using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite to understand the big-bang theory of the universe.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  8. Children’s spontaneous emotional expressions while receiving (un)wanted prizes in the presence of peers

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Mandy; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Although current emotion theories emphasize the importance of contextual factors for emotional expressive behavior, developmental studies that examine such factors are currently thin on the ground. In this research, we studied the course of emotional expressions of 8- and 11-year-old children after winning a (large) first prize or a (substantially smaller) consolation prize, while playing a game competing against the computer or a physically co-present peer. We analyzed their emotional reactions by conducting two perception tests in which participants rated children’s level of happiness. Results showed that co-presence positively affected children’s happiness only when receiving the first prize. Moreover, for children who were in the presence of a peer, we found that eye contact affected children’s expressions of happiness, but that the effect was different for different age groups: 8-year-old children were negatively affected, and 11-year-old children positively. Overall, we can conclude that as children grow older and their social awareness increases, the presence of a peer affects their non-verbal expressions, regardless of their appreciation of their prize. PMID:26441776

  9. Prizes in Cereal Boxes: An Application of Probability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwiller, Bonnie H.; Duncan, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents four cases of real-world probabilistic situations to promote more effective teaching of probability. Calculates the probability of obtaining six of six different prizes successively in six, seven, eight, and nine boxes of cereal, generalizes the problem to n boxes of cereal, and offers suggestions to extend the problem. (MDH)

  10. The 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlstein, Linda

    2013-01-01

    For millions of Americans, community colleges provide an essential pathway to well-paying jobs and continuing higher education. The Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence honors those institutions that strive for and achieve exceptional levels of success for all students, while they are in college and after they graduate. Community colleges…

  11. "Not Censorship but Selection": Censorship and/as Prizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This essay calls for a fresh critical approach to the topic of censorship, suggesting that anticensorship efforts, while important and necessary, function much like literary prizing. The analysis draws especially on James English's recent study "The Economy of Prestige." There are two central arguments: first, that the librarian ethic of…

  12. Collection Development: Celebrating Chemistry, February 1, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Susannah

    2011-01-01

    A hundred years after Marie Curie received her Nobel Prize in Chemistry, this arm of science is pointing the way to a more sustainable future. Growing movements like green chemistry, which strives to create alternative and new chemical reactions that produce no harmful waste products, and molecular engineering hold great potential for industry,…

  13. The Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking. 2013 Thorndike Award Address

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded in 2002 for work on judgment and decision-making tasks that are the operational measures of rational thought in cognitive science. Because assessments of intelligence (and similar tests of cognitive ability) are taken to be the quintessence of good thinking, it might be thought that such measures would…

  14. How to Make the 20-cent Fallout Meter

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, Roger Allen; Rodriguez, Serena R.; Alvarez, Luis

    Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez published an article on how to build a homemade fallout meter in the November 12, 1961, issue of the Sunday supplement This Week Magazine. A yellowed copy of the article was recently found in the files of the Radiochemistry Group, C-NR, and is reproduced below in its original form.

  15. I. I. Rabi, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Radar

    Science.gov Websites

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis I. I. Rabi, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and Radar Nobel Prize in Physics "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic the atomic clock, the laser and the diagnostic scanning of the human body by nuclear magnetic

  16. The Struggle for Human Rights in Myanmar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefer, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The non-violent participation of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and Buddhist monks in resistance efforts to advocate for the welfare of Myanmar's people has played an important role in educating the world about human rights violations in the country. Faced with international condemnation, Myanmar's junta released Aung San Suu Kyi from…

  17. NASA STS-132 Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-26

    A replica of the Nobel Prize that is in the museum's collection and was flown aboard STS-132 Atlantis is seen, Tuesday, July 27, 2010, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington. STS-132 astronaut Piers Sellers returned the replica during a ceremony at the museum. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  18. An iconoclast's career

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Philip

    2013-03-01

    The "maverick genius" referred to in the title of Phillip Schewe's book is Freeman Dyson: a truly great mathematical physicist, bestselling author, longest-serving member of the US military's JASON advisory group, and occupant of the "fourth chair" when the Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded for quantum electrodynamics (QED) - among many other distinctions.

  19. Sheldon Glashow, the Electroweak Theory, and the Grand Unified Theory

    Science.gov Websites

    ] 'Glashow shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for physics with Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam for unifying the particle physics and provides a framework for understanding how the early universe evolved and how the our universe came into being," says Lawrence R. Sulak, chairman of the Boston University physics

  20. Perceptions of Constructivist Pedagogy in Project Lead the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capers, Gesa Maria

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, six of six American Nobel Prize winners in science were immigrants. The numbers of U.S. educated graduates who enter the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields have been on the decline, and policymakers and educators have continually sought new policies and programs to try resolve this problem with long-term…

  1. Gains and Gaps in Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Xanthe Scharff; Scott, Kaitlyn

    2017-01-01

    After more than 25 years of research on girls' education, it is widely accepted among economists that investing in this area is one of, if not the most, effective development interventions. This research, as well as global advocacy and recent world events--including Malala Yousafzai winning the Nobel Peace Prize and the #Bringbackourgirls campaign…

  2. Lowy, Schiller win 2018 Szent-Györgyi Prize

    Cancer.gov

    A press release announcing that NCI scientists Douglas R. Lowy and John T. Schiller will receive the 2018 Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research from the National Foundation for Cancer Research for their work on HPV vaccines.

  3. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  4. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Iowec

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2015-12-18

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Iowec team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  5. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - SEWEC

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2015-12-11

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the SEWEC team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  6. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - WECCA

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-15

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the WECCA team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  7. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-01-01

    Peter Molnar, professor of geological sciences at the University of Colorado at Boulder, is the recipient of the 2014 Crafoord Prize in Geosciences, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (RAS) announced on 16 January. RAS noted that the award is being presented to Molnar "for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate." The award, which comes with a prize of 4 million Swedish kronor (about US$600,000), was established in 1980 to promote international basic research in astronomy, mathematics, geosciences, biosciences, and rheumatoid arthritis. According to RAS, those disciplines were chosen to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded.

  8. FRAUD/SABOTAGE Killing Nuclear-Reactors!!! ``Super"alloys GENERIC ENDEMIC Wigner's-Disease IN-stability!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asphahani, Aziz; Siegel, Sidney; Siegel, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Siegel [[J.Mag.Mag.Mtls.7,312(78); PSS(a)11,45(72); Semis.& Insuls.5(79)] (at: ORNL, ANS, Westin``KL"ouse, PSEG, IAEA, ABB) warning of old/new nuclear-reactors/spent-fuel-casks/refineries/ jet/missile/rocket-engines austenitic/FCC Ni/Fe-based (so MIS- called)``super"alloys(182/82;Hastelloy-X; 600;304/304L-SSs; 690 !!!) GENERIC ENDEMIC EXTANT detrimental(synonyms): Wigner's- diseas(WD)[J.Appl.Phys.17,857(46)]; Ostwald-ripening; spinodal- decomposition; overageing-embrittlement; thermomechanical- INstability: Mayo[Google: ``If Leaks Could Kill"; at flickr.com search on ``Giant-Magnotoresistance"; find: [Siegel<<<``Fert"(88) 2007-Nobel/Wolf/Japan-prizes]necessitating NRC inspections on 40+25=65 Westin``KL"ouse PWRs(12/06)]; Lai[Met.Trans.AIME,9A,827 (78)]-Sabol-Stickler[PSS(70)]; Ashpahani[Intl.Conf. H in Metals (77)]; Russell[Prog. Mtls.Sci.(83)]; Pollard[last UCS rept. (9/95)]; Lofaro[BNL/DOE/NRC Repts.]; Pringle[Nuclear-Power:From Physics to Politics(79)]; Hoffman[animatedsoftware.com],...what DOE/NRC MISlabels as ``butt-welds" ``stress-corrosion cracking" endpoint's ROOT-CAUSE ULTIMATE-ORIGIN is WD overageing-embrit- tlement caused brittle-fracture cracking from early/ongoing AEC/DOE-n``u''tional-la``v''atories sabotage!!!

  9. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.E.; DECARO,D.; WILLIAMS,G.

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is important that persons within and outside the US nuclear and safeguards industries become aware of career opportunities available at the IAEA, and informed about important vacancies. The IAEA has established an impressive web page to advertise opportunities for employment. However, additional effort is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient awareness in the US of these opportunities, and assistance for persons interested in taking positions at the IAEA. In 1998, the Subgroup on Safeguards Technicalmore » Support (SSTS) approved a special task under the US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) for improving US efforts to identify qualified candidates for vacancies in IAEA's Department of Safeguards. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) developed a plan that includes increased advertising, development of a web page to support US recruitment efforts, feedback from the US Mission in Vienna, and interaction with other recruitment services provided by US professional organizations. The main purpose of this effort is to educate US citizens about opportunities at the IAEA so that qualified candidates can be identified for the IAEA's consideration.« less

  10. Methodology to Calculate the ACE and HPQ Metrics Used in the Wave Energy Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Frederick R; Weber, Jochem W; Jenne, Dale S

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wave Energy Prize Competition encouraged the development of innovative deep-water wave energy conversion technologies that at least doubled device performance above the 2014 state of the art. Because levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metrics are challenging to apply equitably to new technologies where significant uncertainty exists in design and operation, the prize technical team developed a reduced metric as proxy for LCOE, which provides an equitable comparison of low technology readiness level wave energy converter (WEC) concepts. The metric is called 'ACE' which is short for the ratio of the average climate capture width tomore » the characteristic capital expenditure. The methodology and application of the ACE metric used to evaluate the performance of the technologies that competed in the Wave Energy Prize are explained in this report.« less

  11. Testing for Genetically Modified Foods Using PCR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ann; Sajan, Samin

    2005-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a Nobel Prize-winning technique that amplifies a specific segment of DNA and is commonly used to test for the presence of genetic modifications. Students use PCR to test corn meal and corn-muffin mixes for the presence of a promoter commonly used in genetically modified foods, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S…

  12. The Art and Craft of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root-Bernstein, Robert; Root-Bernstein, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Walter Alvarez, a doctor and physiologist of some renown, decided to send his scientifically talented son, Luis, to an arts and crafts school where Luis took industrial drawing and woodworking instead of calculus. Luis Alvarez won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1968. Einstein was certainly not a standout in his mathematics and physics classes. Yet…

  13. The Actiotope Model of Giftedness: A Useful Model for Examining Gifted Education in China's Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Weiguo

    2012-01-01

    In March 1978, under the suggestion of Chinese-born Nobel Prize laureate Tsung-Dao Lee, China launched its first gifted education program at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC). Based on nominations and interviews, 21 gifted students aged 11-16 were enrolled in USTC and comprised a special class. Five years later, the early…

  14. Debriefing a Health-Related Educational Game: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the utility of a Web-based game on the topic of immunity, based upon the work of Nobel Prize winner Ileya Mechnikov. This was accomplished through postgame written debriefing with an oral debriefing follow-up. A qualitative case study was conducted in a nonformal home setting. The participant learned new information,…

  15. "Supersizing" the College Classroom: How One Instructor Teaches 2,670 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In October, Myanmar's pro-democracy leader, Aung San Suu Kyi, got a quirky request on YouTube. A hyperactive instructor in a plaid jacket posted a video inviting her to do a Skype interview with his "World Regions" geography class at Virginia Tech. Ms. Suu Kyi, a Nobel Peace Prize laureate often compared to Nelson Mandela, might have…

  16. Measurement of Bitumen Viscosity in a Room-Temperature Drop Experiment: Student Education, Public Outreach and Modern Science in One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdicombe, A. T.; Ravindrarajah, P.; Sapelkin, A.; Phillips, A. E.; Dunstan, D.; Dove, M. T.; Brazhkin, V. V.; Trachenko, K.

    2014-01-01

    The slow flow of a viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and the public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration--the world's longest-running experiment, which has earned the Ig Nobel prize--one drop of pitch takes about ten years to fall, leading to…

  17. Malaria and the Decline of Ancient Greece: Revisiting the Jones Hypothesis in an Era of Interdisciplinarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christopher; Hamlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Between 1906 and 1909 the biologist Ronald Ross and the classicist W.H.S. Jones pioneered interdisciplinary research in biology and history in advancing the claim that malaria had been crucial in the decline of golden-age Greece (fourth century BCE). The idea had originated with Ross, winner of the Nobel Prize for demonstrating the importance of…

  18. Sex and the citadel of science.

    PubMed

    Francl, Michelle

    2011-08-23

    One hundred years on from Marie Curie being awarded her second Nobel Prize there has been only a handful of female scientists who have received the call from Stockholm. Why are women still under-represented? A lack of ability or passion, or could it be that we create labs into which women don’t quite fit?

  19. Sex and the citadel of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francl, Michelle

    2011-09-01

    One hundred years on from Marie Curie being awarded her second Nobel Prize there has been only a handful of female scientists who have received the call from Stockholm. Why are women still under-represented? A lack of ability or passion, or could it be that we create labs into which women don't quite fit?

  20. A Simplified Treatment of Brownian Motion and Stochastic Differential Equations Arising in Financial Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlar, Mahmut

    2004-01-01

    Brownian motion is an important stochastic process used in modelling the random evolution of stock prices. In their 1973 seminal paper--which led to the awarding of the 1997 Nobel prize in Economic Sciences--Fischer Black and Myron Scholes assumed that the random stock price process is described (i.e., generated) by Brownian motion. Despite its…

  1. John C. Mather, the Big Bang, and the COBE

    Science.gov Websites

    Additional Information * Videos John C. Mather Courtesy of NASA "Dr. John C. Mather of NASA's Goddard excerpt from NASA Scientist Shares Nobel Prize for Physics 2Edited excerpt from John Mather: The Path to a Spacecraft Courtesy of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Additional Web Pages: Dr. John C Mather, NASA

  2. Some Fictional Stereotypes of Women in 20th Century American Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladstein, Mimi Reisel

    The three last American writers to win the Nobel Prize represent American male novelists who have been unable either to come to terms with the "Otherness" of the female or to draw convincing portraits of women. As a result, women in their works are presented as female stereotypes of one kind or another. Hemingway shows a split attitude…

  3. Using and Applying Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Rupert

    2011-01-01

    The Nobel prize winning physicist Richard Feynman (2007) famously enthused about "the pleasure of finding things out". In day-to-day classroom life, however, it is easy to lose and undervalue this pleasure in the process, as opposed to products, of mathematics. Finding things out involves a journey and is often where the learning takes place.…

  4. The Most Potent Weapon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Martin Luther, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Three years before his Nobel Prize, Dr. King shared his vision of non violence in a televised interview published in this article for the first time in print. King and his father both began their lives given the name "Michael" King. During a 1934 trip to Nazi Germany to attned the Baptist World Alliance Conference, the elder R. King…

  5. Discussion of the Controversy Concerning a Historical Event among Pre-Service Teachers: Contributions to Their Knowledge about Science, Their Argumentative Skills, and Reflections about Their Future Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justi, Rosária; Mendonça, Paula Cristina Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    As part of a teacher training project, 16 future chemistry teachers participated in a dramatisation activity (a mock trial of the Fritz Haber case), in which they discussed a controversy concerning an event from the history of science: the awarding of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Fritz Haber in 1918. Preparations for the role-play activity, the…

  6. The Pleasure of Finding Things out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loxley, Peter

    2005-01-01

    "The pleasure of finding things out" is a collection of short works by the Nobel Prize winning scientist Richard Feynman. The book provides insights into his infectious enthusiasm for science and his love of sharing ideas about the subject with anyone who wanted to listen. Feynman has been widely acknowledged as one of the greatest physicists of…

  7. Analyzing Company Economics Using the Leontief Open Production Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    This article details the application of an economic theory to the fiscal operation of a small engineering consulting firm. Nobel Prize-winning economist Wassily Leontief developed his general input-output economic theory in the mid-twentieth century to describe the flow of goods and services in the U.S. economy. We use one mathematical model that…

  8. Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…

  9. A Quarter Century of Getting It Right in Education: Worldwide Successes and Continuing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyneman, Stephen P.; Anderson, Kathryn H.

    2008-01-01

    In his article, Steven Klees claims that certain economic policies have been a failure in general and specifically in education. He has it backwards. His characterisation of the economics profession has not been true since the 1960s. Nobel Prizes to Simon, Akerlof, Spence and Stiglitz illustrate a flowering of ideas in fields of behaviourial and…

  10. 90-50-10 Celebration: Ernest Courant

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest Courant

    BNL hosts a celebration titled “90-50-10” to celebrate the 90th birthday of Ernest Courant (of “strong focusing” fame), the 50th anniversary of the startup of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS, home of three Nobel Prizes), and the 10th anniversary of first collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  11. Slow Thinking and Deep Learning: Tversky and Kahneman's Taxi Cabs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedwell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on classroom application of a problem story constructed by Amos Tversky in the 1970s. His intention was to evaluate human beings' intuitions about statistical inference. The problem was revisited by his colleague, the Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman. The aim of this article is to show how popular science textbooks can…

  12. Willis Lamb, Jr., the Hydrogen Atom, and the Lamb Shift

    Science.gov Websites

    1955, Lamb won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discoveries concerning "the fine structure of , May 7 - September 30, 1979 Fine Structure of the Hydrogen Atom, Part I; Part II; Part III; Part IV ; Part V; Part VI (from Physical Review 1950-1953) Microwave Technique for Determining the Fine Structure

  13. The Impact of Early Childhood Teacher Education: How to Answer the Unanswerable Question. FPG Snapshot #68

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Public awareness of the value of a high quality early childhood education has never been stronger with Nobel-prize winning economist James J. Heckman declaring that it is the key to the nation's future. Higher education's role in preparing teachers to deliver on that promise is significant and continues to grow. A special issue of the "Journal of…

  14. The Best Kept Secret in Gifted Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvino, James

    2004-01-01

    It is perhaps one of the best-kept secrets in educating gifted high school youth, and yet for 45 years, Hugh O'Brian Youth Leadership (HOBY) has been going strong, "Motivating Tomorrow's Leaders Today." After spending nine inspirational days in 1958 with Albert Schweitzer (Nobel Prize physician and philosopher) at his clinic in the African jungle,…

  15. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    ScienceCinema

    Shiller, Robert J [Yale University

    2017-12-09

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

  16. Leon Van Speybroeck Wins Astrophysics Bruno Rossi Prize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leon Van Speybroeck of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge Massachusetts was awarded the 2002 Bruno Rossi Prize of the High-Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomy Society. The Rossi Prize is an arnual recognition of significant contributions in high-energy astrophysics in honor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's late Professor Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic ray physics and a pioneer in the field of x-ray astronomy. Van Speybroeck, who led the effort to design and make the x-ray mirrors for NASA's premier Chandra X-Ray Observatory, was recognized for a career of stellar achievements in designing precision x-ray optics. As Telescope Scientist for Chandra, he has worked for more than 20 years with a team that includes scientists and engineers from the Harvard-Smithsonian, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, TRW, Inc., Huhes-Danbury (now B.F. Goodrich Aerospace), Optical Coating Laboratories, Inc., and Eastman-Kodak on all aspects of the x-ray mirror assembly that is the heart of the observatory.

  17. Training Quality: Before and after Winning the Deming Prize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magennis, Jo P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the Quality Improvement Program developed by Florida Power and Light's Nuclear Training organization that was awarded the Deming Application Prize for quality control. Training quality, team activities, training's role in business planning, customer involvement and evaluation, and continuous improvement of training are discussed. (LRW)

  18. Ants, eyelashes, and the 2015 Ig Nobel Prize in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, David

    2016-11-01

    The zoo can be a source of recreation and rich scientific investigation. In this lecture, I will give an overview of my recent research with animals at the Atlanta Zoo. We will talk about how to make ant hamburgers, how eyelashes reduce evaporation of your eyes by a factor of two, and why mammals urinate for the same duration of 21 seconds. Although animal-inspired research can sound trendy, it can lead the way toward potential future directions in fluid mechanics, including the dynamics of active materials, flow through hairy surfaces, and the physics of digestion and excretion.

  19. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except as...

  20. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except as...

  1. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school…

  2. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contactsmore » with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  3. The Brain Prize 2014: complex human functions.

    PubMed

    Grigaityte, Kristina; Iacoboni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    Giacomo Rizzolatti, Stanislas Dehaene, and Trevor Robbins were recently awarded the 2014 Grete Lundbeck European Brain Research Prize for their 'pioneering research on higher brain mechanisms underpinning such complex human functions as literacy, numeracy, motivated behavior and social cognition, and for their effort to understand cognitive and behavioral disorders'. Why was their work highlighted? Is there anything that links together these seemingly disparate lines of research? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Quality and Access to Radiation Therapy-An IAEA Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Polo, Alfredo; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved in radiation therapy since soon after its creation in 1957. In response to the demands of Member States, the IAEA׳s activities relating to radiation therapy have focused on supporting low- and middle-income countries to set up radiation therapy facilities, expand the scope of treatments, or gradually transition to new technologies. In addition, the IAEA has been very active in providing internationally harmonized guidelines on clinical, dosimetry, medical physics, and safety aspects of radiation therapy. IAEA clinical research has provided evidence for treatment improvement as well as highly effective resource-sparing interventions. In the process, training of researchers occurs through this program. To provide this support, the IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide through several mechanisms. In this article, we review the main activities conducted by the IAEA in support to radiation therapy. IAEA support has been crucial for achieving tangible results in many low- and middle-income countries. However, long-term sustainability of projects can present a challenge, especially when considering health budget constraints and the brain drain of skilled professionals. The need for support remains, with more than 90% of patients in low-income countries lacking access to radiotherapy. Thus, the IAEA is expected to continue its support and strengthen quality radiation therapy treatment of patients with cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 141: Qubits for Future Quantum Information Nobel Symposium 141: Qubits for Future Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeson, Tord; Delsing, Per; Wendin, Göran

    2009-12-01

    correction, have yet to be solved. It has been predicted that quantum computers will be able to perform certain complicated computations or simulations in minutes or hours instead of years as with present computers. So far there exist very few useful quantum algorithms; however there is hope that the development of these will be stimulated once there is a breakthrough in hardware. Remarkable progress has been made in quantum engineering and quantum measurements, but a large scale quantum computer is still far off. Quantum communication and cryptography are much closer to the market than a quantum computer. The development of quantum information has meant a large push in the field of quantum physics, that previously could only be studied in the microscopic world. Artificial atoms, realized by circuit technology and mimicking the properties of 'natural' atoms, are one example of the new possibilities opened up by quantum engineering. Several different types of qubits have been suggested. Some are based upon microscopic entities, like atoms and ions in traps, or nuclear spins in molecules. They can have long coherence times (i.e. a long period allowing many operations, of the order of 10 000, to be performed before the state needs to be refreshed) but they are difficult to integrate into large systems. Other qubits are based upon solid state components that facilitate integration and coupling between qubits, but they suffer from interactions with the environment and their coherent states have a limited lifetime. Advanced experiments have been performed with superconducting Josephson junctions and many breakthroughs have been reported in the last few years. They have an advantage in the inherent coherence of superconducting Cooper pairs over macroscopic distances. We chose to focus the Nobel Symposium on Qubits for Future Quantum Information on superconducting qubits to allow for depth in discussions, but at the same time to allow comparison with other types of qubits that may

  6. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Waveswing America

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-22

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Waveswing America team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents Results

  8. Cracker Jacks: "Finding the Prize" inside Each Adolescent Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerbrock, Cheryl; DiCicco, Michael; Denmon, Jennifer M.; Parke, Erin; Mead, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight several practical classroom examples of asset-driven acts of reciprocal care and content-driven community builders and icebreakers that highlight ways to "find the prize" inside each student by fostering an adolescent-centered community of care that is committed to both relationships and…

  9. NASA STS-132 Air and Space Museum

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-26

    NASA Astrophycist Dr. John Mather, at podium, speaks Tuesday, July 27, 2010, at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington as museum director Gen. John R. "Jack" Dailey, U.S. Marine Corps ret. and STS-132 astronaut Piers Sellers look on. Sellers returned a replica of the Nobel Prize that is in the museum's collection and was flown aboard STS-132 Atlantis. The prize was won by Mather and University of California, Berkeley researcher George Smoot in 2006 for their work using the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite to understand the big-bang theory of the universe.Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  10. Editorial: The Sackler International Prize in Biophysical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frydman, Lucio

    2018-02-01

    The Raymond and Beverly Sackler International Prize is awarded alternatively in the fields of Biophysics, Chemistry and Physics on a yearly basis, by Tel Aviv University. The price is intended to encourage dedication to science, originality and excellence, by rewarding outstanding scientists under 45 years of age, with a total purse of 100,000. The 2016 Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize was awarded in the field of Magnetic Resonance last February in a festive symposium, to three excellent researchers: Professor John Morton (University College London), Professor Guido Pintacuda (Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon and CNRS), and Professor Charalampos Kalodimos (at the time at the University of Minnesota). John was recognized for his novel contributions to quantum information processing, by means of a range of highly elegant physical phenomena involving both NMR and EPR. Guido was recognized for his methodological advances in solid state NMR spectroscopy, including advances in proton detection under ultrafast MAS at ultrahigh magnetic field, and for his insightful applications to challenging biological systems. While Charalampos (Babis) was recognized for beautifully detailed characterizations of structure, function, and dynamics in challenging and important biological systems through solution NMR spectroscopy.

  11. Triggers of Chinese Economic Coercion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    banned the importation of Philippine bananas after an incident at Scarborough 1 James Reilly...thesis include the imposition of additional inspections on salmon from Norway following the awarding of a Nobel Peace Prize to the Chinese political...share of a natural resources such as the REEs needed by Japan for higher value -added goods production. China’s control over the REE market climbed

  12. A Study of Scientific Reasoning in a Peripheral Context: The Discovery of the Raman Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasgupta, Deepanwita

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to reconstruct how C.V. Raman, a peripheral scientist in the early 20th century colonial India, managed to develop a research programme in physical optics from his remote colonial location. His attempts at self-training and self-education eventually led him to the discovery of the Raman Effect and to the Nobel Prize in…

  13. Sir John and Lady Rita Cornforth: a distinguished chemical partnership.

    PubMed

    Purchase, Rupert; Hanson, James R

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the life of Sir John Cornforth AC CBE FRS, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1975. It covers his early life in Australia, his work in Oxford, the National Institute for Medical Research, the Milstead Laboratory of Chemical Enzymology and the University of Sussex, together with the contributions made by his wife, Lady Rita Cornforth.

  14. Conference Salam/Musset

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-05-25

    The DG L. Van Hove introduces Professor A. Salam, born in 1926 in western Pakistan,one of the winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics this year. This is a celebration of his theoretical contributions which are known about worldwide. After each speech, one small history is presented by Paul Musset. Honorable mention is also given to the Gargamelle experiment and its collaborators.

  15. General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a portrait of General George C. Marshall in Army uniform. The Marshall Space Flight Center, a NASA field installation, was established in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1960. The Center was named in honor of General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State, and Nobel Prize Wirner for his world-renowned Marshall Plan.

  16. Russell Hulse, the First Binary Pulsar, and Science Education

    Science.gov Websites

    physics research. In 1977, Hulse changed fields from astrophysics to plasma physics and joined the Plasma discoverer of the first binary pulsar and co-recipient of the 1993 Nobel Prize in physics, will affiliate with The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) as a visiting professor of physics and of science and math

  17. Melvin Schwartz and the Discovery of the Muon Neutrino

    Science.gov Websites

    Schwartz was the co-winner of the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the neutrino beam method and the physics. He did so in 1991, returning to Brookhaven Lab as Associate Director for High Energy and Nuclear Physics. ... Melvin Schwartz was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a fellow of the American

  18. The Art of Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Una; Stabley, Angela

    2010-01-01

    In the movie "A Beautiful Mind" there is a scene where future Nobel prize winner John Nash is captivated by a fellow student's tie. When asked about his behavior Nash quips, "There has to be a mathematical explanation for how bad that tie is." (Grazer & Howard, 2000) In this light moment, director Ron Howard attempts to show us that the mind of a…

  19. Hurrah for Mrs White

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Your obituary of Rudolf Mössbauer (November 2011 p9) reminded me of a story he once told me when I had the pleasure of sitting next to him at a conference dinner. My somewhat simplistic question was on the lines of "How did you manage to get a Nobel prize?", and Mössbauer's response was that it was all down to luck.

  20. n/a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This is a portrait of General George C. Marshall in Army uniform. The Marshall Space Flight Center, a NASA field installation, was established in Huntsville, Alabama, in 1960. The Center was named in honor of General George C. Marshall, the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, Secretary of State, and Nobel Prize Winner for his world-renowned Marshall Plan.

  1. Problem-Solving Test: Analysis of the Role of Cyclin B

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    An experiment is described in this test that was designed to study the role of the cyclin B protein in a cell-free system. The work was performed in the lab of Tim Hunt who, together with Hartwell and Nurse, received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2001 "for their discoveries of key chemicals that regulate the cell division cycle." It…

  2. Clear as Crystal: The Story of the Braggs--How X-Ray Crystallography Has Contributed to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Robert; Patterson, John

    2014-01-01

    Here is a brief history of the work of two of Australia's most famous scientists, Sir William Bragg and his son Sir Lawrence Bragg. Jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1915 for their groundbreaking research into the use of X-rays to study the chemical structure and function of molecules, they have contributed to our heritage and to science at an…

  3. The Machine at the End of the Universe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland is the land of Big Ideas, where even the streets have Nobel prizes. At the European particle physics lab known as CERN, the roads through campus bear the names of Einstein, Curie, Bohr, and Heisenberg. Working amid those tributes to giants of the past century, physicists from around the world are trying to make history of their own and…

  4. Harry Smith — recipient of the 2008 Molecular Ecology Prize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harry Smith is a scholar, mentor, internationally renowned researcher, eloquent speaker and author, pioneering journal editor and highly valued colleague who has contributed greatly in multiple ways to plant science and the community. He richly deserves the honour of the Molecular Ecology Prize....

  5. Reclaiming "Lost Prizes": An Interview with Ken McCluskey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Ken McCluskey, Dean and Professor of Education at the University of Winnipeg. He is known internationally for his work in several areas including: (1) mentoring; (2) attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; (3) at-risk children and youth (where his "Lost Prizes" and related projects serve as…

  6. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Oscilla Power

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-08

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Oscilla Power team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  7. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Principle Power

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-08

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Principle Power team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  8. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Sea Potential

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2015-12-04

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Sea Potential team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  9. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Mocean Energy

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-08

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Mocean Energy team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  10. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - CalWave

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-15

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the CalWave team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  11. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - AquaHarmonics

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-15

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the AquaHarmonics team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  12. Randomized Trial Comparing Two Treatment Strategies Using Prize-Based Reinforcement of Abstinence in Cocaine and Opiate Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Kenzie L.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Schmittner, John P.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Epstein, David H.

    2008-01-01

    We compared two strategies of prize-based contingency management (CM) in methadone-maintained outpatients. Urine was tested thrice weekly for 5 weeks pre-CM, 12 weeks CM, and 8 weeks post-CM. Participants were randomly assigned to a cocaine contingency (four prize draws for each cocaine-negative urine, N = 29) or an opiate-cocaine contingency (one…

  13. Activity Report: "Escola de Cultura de Pau", the Laureate of the First Evens Prize for Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delvou, Marjolein

    2011-01-01

    On March 18th 2011 an independent jury of experts convened in Antwerp, Belgium, to select the laureate of the first Evens Prize for Peace Education from a shortlist of eleven organizations from all over Europe. After a long day of intense discussions, the jury agreed unanimously to award the prize to the "Escola de Cultura de Pau"…

  14. Defining Excellence: Lessons from the 2013 Aspen Prize Finalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In many respects, one couldn't find a group of 10 schools more diverse than the finalists for the 2013 Aspen Prize for Community College Excellence. One community college serves 1,500 students, another 56,000. There are institutions devoted primarily--even solely--to technical degrees, and ones devoted mainly to preparing students for further…

  15. Keeping an Eye on the Prize

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-06

    Setting performance goals is part of the business plan for almost every company. The same is true in the world of supercomputers. Ten years ago, the Department of Energy (DOE) launched the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) to help ensure the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile without nuclear testing. ASCI, which is now called the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program and is managed by DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), set an initial 10-year goal to obtain computers that could process up to 100 trillion floating-point operations per second (teraflops). Many computer experts thought themore » goal was overly ambitious, but the program's results have proved them wrong. Last November, a Livermore-IBM team received the 2005 Gordon Bell Prize for achieving more than 100 teraflops while modeling the pressure-induced solidification of molten metal. The prestigious prize, which is named for a founding father of supercomputing, is awarded each year at the Supercomputing Conference to innovators who advance high-performance computing. Recipients for the 2005 prize included six Livermore scientists--physicists Fred Streitz, James Glosli, and Mehul Patel and computer scientists Bor Chan, Robert Yates, and Bronis de Supinski--as well as IBM researchers James Sexton and John Gunnels. This team produced the first atomic-scale model of metal solidification from the liquid phase with results that were independent of system size. The record-setting calculation used Livermore's domain decomposition molecular-dynamics (ddcMD) code running on BlueGene/L, a supercomputer developed by IBM in partnership with the ASC Program. BlueGene/L reached 280.6 teraflops on the Linpack benchmark, the industry standard used to measure computing speed. As a result, it ranks first on the list of Top500 Supercomputer Sites released in November 2005. To evaluate the performance of nuclear weapons systems, scientists must

  16. [The Rockefeller Foundation, the Carlsberg Foundation and Danish medical biology in the interwar years. Effects on research and education throughout the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L

    1999-01-01

    Three large scientific institutes were built in Copenhagen, Denmark, between 1928 and 1938 supported by the Rockefeller Foundation in New York. The three institutes were: the Rockefeller Institute of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej, the Biological Institute of the Carlsberg Foundation, and the Institute of Human Genetics, both on Tagensvej (The Carlsberg Foundation in Copenhagen participated in the financing of the two first ones.) In the same period the Rockefeller Foundation supported the construction of a cyclotron at Niels Bohr's Institute of Theoretical Physics. These institutes in Copenhagen sent many co-workers both to the Rockefeller University in New York and to other places in the world for further education supported by stipends from the Rockefeller Foundation. The scientific nucleus around which these activities crystallized included: the physiologist (and Nobel Prize winner) Aug. Krogh, the physicist (and Nobel Prize winner) Niels Bohr, the chemist S.P.L. Sorensen, the geneticist W. Johannsen, the plant physiologist Peter Boysen Jensen, and the cell culturist Albert Fischer. The international co-operation between the two foundations began early in the 20th century and it can be traced in Danish medical/biological science through the rest of that century.

  17. Nobel Peace Laureate Muhammad Yunus: A Banker Who Believes Credit is a Human Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szpara, Michelle Yvonne; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Pederson, Patricia Velde

    2007-01-01

    The article profiles Nobel Peace Laureate Muhammad Yunus, founder of Grameen Bank (an independent financial institution in Bangladesh), as well as an economics professor at the University of Chittagong. In his birthplace of Bangladesh, 49.8 percent of people exist below the poverty line, and 73.2 percent of the women are categorized as…

  18. IAEA Sampling Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2017-09-15

    The objectives for this presentation are to describe the method that the IAEA uses to determine a sampling plan for nuclear material measurements; describe the terms detection probability and significant quantity; list the three nuclear materials measurement types; describe the sampling method applied to an item facility; and describe multiple method sampling.

  19. Award of EC Television Prize for Broadcasts on Vocational Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) is endeavoring to encourage television to provide more and better information on vocational and continuing education in the European Community (EC). Therefore, it held its first competition to award prizes for broadcasts presenting information on vocational training,…

  20. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Employees may accept awards, including cash awards, given in recognition of a meritorious public... employee in the performance of his or her offical duties, advice about the acceptance of it should be... trophies, entertainment, rewards, and prizes given to competitors in contests or events which are open to...

  1. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Employees may accept awards, including cash awards, given in recognition of a meritorious public... employee in the performance of his or her offical duties, advice about the acceptance of it should be... trophies, entertainment, rewards, and prizes given to competitors in contests or events which are open to...

  2. Invention and History of the Bubble Chamber (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Glaser, Don [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-01-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Don Glaser won the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his 1952 invention of the bubble chamber at Berkeley Lab, a type of particle detector that became the mainstay of high-energy physics research throughout the 1960s and 1970s. He discusses how, inspired by bubbles in a glass of beer, he invented the bubble chamber and detected cosmic-ray muons.

  3. Afghanistan’s Local War: Building Local Defense Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Afghanistan’s Local War: Building Local Defense Forces economic and other development conditions. As the Nobel Prize- winning economist Amartya Sen ...strengthen warlords 9 Amartya Sen , Development as Freedom, New York: Anchor Books, 2000, p. 11. Mitigating Risks 77 • weaken central government forces...Taliban Afghanistan, Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion, 2002. Sen , Amartya , Development as Freedom, New York: Anchor Books, 2000. Shahrani

  4. 90-50-10 Celebration: Ernest Courant

    ScienceCinema

    Ernest Courant

    2017-12-09

    BNL hosts a celebration titled “90-50-10” to celebrate the 90th birthday of Ernest Courant (of “strong focusing” fame), the 50th anniversary of the startup of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS, home of three Nobel Prizes), and the 10th anniversary of first collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC).

  5. Perfect Mirror Design Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    with Prof. Mario Molina, recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The partnership, along with Aerodyne Research Inc., looked at how sulfur...Corporation is developing standards for nondestructive evaluation ( NDE ) techniques for industry use. Use of the new standards will result in improved...novel testing methodology that dramatically improves the accuracy of NDE techniques used to detect flaws. Basic Research Five years ago, the main

  6. Watching the action unfold: New cryo-EM images capture CRISPR’s interaction with target DNA | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Using the Nobel-prize winning technique of cryo-EM, researchers led by CCR Senior Investigator Sriram Subramaniam, Ph.D., have captured a series of highly detailed images of a protein complex belonging to the CRISPR system that can be used by bacteria to recognize and destroy foreign DNA. The images reveal the molecule’s form before and after its interaction with DNA and help

  7. America's Hero to the World, George C. Marshall. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skutt, Mary Sutton; Thompson, Rachel Yarnell

    George C. Marshall (1880-1959), head of the U.S. Army in World War II, Secretary of State (1947-49), Secretary of Defense (1950-51), and Nobel Peace Prize winner (1953), was one of the late people as a child. He liked to play and was reasonably athletic, anxious to try out new ideas, and was particularly interested in history, but he was not…

  8. Assessment: Give Me a Place to Stand, and I Will Move the Earth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Theory , and Policy Keywords: C2 agility, bounded rationality, heuristics, uncertainty, assessment Authors: Erik Bjurström Mälardalen...of making decisions. Although the notion of bounded rationality and its associated theory rendered Herbert Simon the 1978 Nobel prize in economics...future and represents a more structuralistic approach. While making predictions about the future is often necessary it is not feasible as a general

  9. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance of awards and prizes. 73.735-505 Section 73.735-505 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS... sought from a deputy ethics counselor. Also, an employee may not accept an award from an organization...

  10. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance of awards and prizes. 73.735-505 Section 73.735-505 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS... sought from a deputy ethics counselor. Also, an employee may not accept an award from an organization...

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-505 - Acceptance of awards and prizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of awards and prizes. 73.735-505 Section 73.735-505 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION STANDARDS... sought from a deputy ethics counselor. Also, an employee may not accept an award from an organization...

  12. International Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research: basic and translational research recognition : Mary-Claire King received the 2016 Prize for her pioneering research that demonstrated the first evidence of genetic predisposition to breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Hali; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2017-11-21

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award sponsored by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that supports innovative cancer research globally with the ultimate goal to cure cancer. The coveted Szent-Györgyi Prize annually honors a scientist whose seminal discovery or body of work has resulted in, or led toward, notable contributions to cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment; and the discovery has had a high direct impact of saving people's lives. In addition, the prize promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. In 2016, NFCR's Szent-Györgyi Prize Selection Committee was unanimous in its decision to recognize an icon in human disease genetics, Dr. Mary-Claire King, for her pioneering research that demonstrated the first evidence of genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Her proof of existence of BRCA1 gene and its location has made genetic screening for breast and ovarian cancers possible, saving lives of many people who are at high risk with inherited BRCA1 mutations.

  13. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Team Flapper/Harvest

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2015-12-18

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Team Flapper/Harvest, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  14. Supporting Military Veteran Students: Early Lessons from Kohlberg Prize Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Klempin, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Postsecondary education participation is critical for military-connected individuals as they transition back to civilian life. The Kisco Foundation's Kohlberg Prize, a competitive grant awarded in 2015 and 2016, is aimed at making community colleges more welcoming and better able to meet the needs of veteran students. This review details the early…

  15. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-02-03

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)--a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  16. DOE Scientists Contribute to 2007 Nobel Peace Prize Research about Climate

    Science.gov Websites

    and resources were devoted to modeling the interactive effects of consequences, that is to say effects are more immediate and profound than previously anticipated, and old questions (are humans the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, DOE Technical Report, May 2005 Climate Effects of Global Land Cover

  17. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - M3 Wave

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2016-01-08

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the M3 Wave team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  18. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - RTI Wave Power

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2015-12-18

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the RTI Wave Power team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  19. Wave Energy Prize - 1/50th Testing - Atlas Ocean Systems

    DOE Data Explorer

    Wesley Scharmen

    2015-12-04

    This submission of data includes all the 1/50th scale testing data completed on the Wave Energy Prize for the Atlas Ocean Systems team, and includes: 1/50th test data (raw & processed) 1/50th test data video and pictures 1/50th Test plans and testing documents SSTF_Submission (summarized results)

  20. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.