Science.gov

Sample records for iaea safety series

  1. Equivalency Evaluation between IAEA Safety Guidelines and Codes and Standards for Computer-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, S.H.; Kim, DAI. I.; Park, H.S.; Kim, B.R.; Kang, Y.D.; Oh, S.H.

    2002-07-01

    Computer based systems are used in safety related applications in safety critical applications as well as safety related applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features, certain functions of the process control and monitoring system. In this context, the IAEA released the safety standard series, NS-G-1.11 (hereafter: IAEA Guideline), 'Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in NPPs', in 2000 as a guideline for evaluating the software of digitalized computer based system applied in instrumentation and control system of nuclear plants. This paper discusses about the equivalency between IAEA Guideline and codes and standards adopted by Korea Institute Nuclear Safety (hereafter: KINS Guideline) as regulatory basis. (authors)

  2. Safety-Related Activities of the IAEA for Radioactive Waste, Decommissioning and Remediation - 13473

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Pil-Soo; Vesterlind, Magnus

    2013-07-01

    To fulfil its mandate and serve the needs of its Member States, the IAEA is engaged in a wide range of safety-related activities pertaining to radioactive waste management, decommissioning and remediation. One of the statutory obligations of the IAEA is to establish safety standards and to provide for the application of these standards. The present paper describes recent developments in regard to the IAEA's waste safety standards, and some of the ways the IAEA makes provision for their application. The safety standards and supporting safety demonstration projects seek to establish international consensus on methodologies and approaches for dealing with particular subject areas, for example, safety assessment for radioactive waste disposal. (authors)

  3. Fault displacement hazard assessment for nuclear installations based on IAEA safety standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In the IAEA Safety NS-R-3, surface fault displacement hazard assessment (FDHA) is required for the siting of nuclear installations. If any capable faults exist in the candidate site, IAEA recommends the consideration of alternative sites. However, due to the progress in palaeoseismological investigations, capable faults may be found in existing site. In such a case, IAEA recommends to evaluate the safety using probabilistic FDHA (PFDHA), which is an empirical approach based on still quite limited database. Therefore a basic and crucial improvement is to increase the database. In 2015, IAEA produced a TecDoc-1767 on Palaeoseismology as a reference for the identification of capable faults. Another IAEA Safety Report 85 on ground motion simulation based on fault rupture modelling provides an annex introducing recent PFDHAs and fault displacement simulation methodologies. The IAEA expanded the project of FDHA for the probabilistic approach and the physics based fault rupture modelling. The first approach needs a refinement of the empirical methods by building a world wide database, and the second approach needs to shift from kinematic to the dynamic scheme. Both approaches can complement each other, since simulated displacement can fill the gap of a sparse database and geological observations can be useful to calibrate the simulations. The IAEA already supported a workshop in October 2015 to discuss the existing databases with the aim of creating a common worldwide database. A consensus of a unified database was reached. The next milestone is to fill the database with as many fault rupture data sets as possible. Another IAEA work group had a WS in November 2015 to discuss the state-of-the-art PFDHA as well as simulation methodologies. Two groups jointed a consultancy meeting in February 2016, shared information, identified issues, discussed goals and outputs, and scheduled future meetings. Now we may aim at coordinating activities for the whole FDHA tasks jointly.

  4. Safety of evolutionary and innovative nuclear reactors: IAEA activities and world efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T.; Gasparini, M.

    2004-07-01

    'Defence in Depth' approach constitutes the basis of the IAEA safety standards for nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from the current generation of reactors suggest that, for the next generation of reactor designs, the Defence in Depth philosophy should be retained, and that its implementation should be guided by the probabilistic insights. Recent developments in the area of general safety requirements based on Defence in Depth approach are examined and summarized. Global efforts to harmonize safety requirements for evolutionary nuclear power plants have involved many countries and organizations such as IAEA, US EPRI and European Utility EUR Organization. In recent years, developments of innovative nuclear power plants are also being discussed. The IAEA is currently developing a safety approach specifically for innovative nuclear reactors. This approach will eventually lead to a proposal of safety requirements for innovative reactors. Such activities related to safety requirements of evolutionary and innovative reactors are introduced. Various evolutionary and innovative reactor designs are reported in the world. The safety design features of evolutionary large LWRs, innovative LWRs, Modular High Temperature Gas Reactors and Small Liquid Metal Cooled LMRs are also introduced. Enhanced safety features proposed in such reactors are discussed and summarized according to the levels of Defence in Depth. For future nuclear plants, international cooperation and harmonization, especially in the area of safety, appear to be inevitable. Based on the past experience with many member states, the IAEA believes itself to be the uniquely positioned international organization to play this key role. (authors)

  5. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    PubMed

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. NNSA / IAEA VVER reactor safety workshops. May 2002 - April 2003. Executive summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.; Petri, M. C.

    2003-07-29

    Over the past year, the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has sponsored four workshops to compare the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) of Soviet-designed VVER power plants. The ''International Workshop on Safety of First-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants'' was held on May 20-25, 2002, in Piestany, Slovakia. A short follow-on workshop was held in Bratislava, Slovakia, on November 5-6, 2002, to complete the work begun in May. Piestany was the location also for the ''International Workshop on Safety of Second-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Power Plants'' (September 9-14, 2002) and the ''International Workshop on Safety of VVER-1000 Nuclear Power Plants'' (April 7-12, 2003). The four workshops were held in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Slovakia (UJD), the Center for Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe (CENS), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives of the workshops were to identify the impact of the improvements on the core damage frequency; the contribution to the PRA results of different assumptions about events that can occur at the plants; and to understand, identify, and prioritize potential improvements in hardware and plant operation of VVER nuclear power plants. These objectives were achieved based on insights gained from recent PRAs completed by the plants and their technical support organizations. Nine first-generation VVER-440 plants (nominally of the VVER-440/230 design) are currently operating in Armenia, Bulgaria, Russia, and Slovakia. Sixteen VVER-440/213 plants are currently operating in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Russia, Slovakia, and Ukraine. Twenty-three VVER-1000 plants are currently operating in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Russia, and Ukraine. Eleven addition plants are in the advanced stages of construction in various parts of the world. The workshops reviewed the current configuration and safety status of each plant

  7. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. Ph.; Gulden, W.; Kolbasov, B.; Louzeiro-Malaquias, A.-J.; Petti, D.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.

    2008-01-01

    for materials selection which will have a large impact on waste disposal and recycling and in the real limits of radiation releases if indexed to the real impact on individuals and the environment given the differences in the types of radiation emitted by tritium when compared with the fission products. Round table sessions resulted in some common recommendations. The discussions also created the awareness of the need for a larger involvement of the IAEA in support of fusion safety standards development.

  8. IAEA TECDOC 055 Outline

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, Doug

    2015-07-13

    An outline of suggestions for updating a version of IAEA-TECDOC-1276 is provided. This update will become IAEA-TECDOC-055, titled ''IAEA handbook for designing and implementing physical protection systems for nuclear material and nuclear facilities.''

  9. Vehicle Safety. Managing Liability Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Deborah, Ed.

    This monograph discusses the safety of vehicles owned, leased, maintained, and operated by colleges and universities. First, the risks by colleges and universities is discussed. First, the risks associated with college vehicles are outlined, including the liability that comes with staff/faculty and student drivers and such special concerns as…

  10. Trip report on IAEA Training Workshop on Implementation of Integrated Management Systems for Research Reactors (T3-TR-45496).

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard J.

    2013-11-01

    From 17-21 June 2013, Sandia National Laboratories, Technical Area-V (SNL TA-V) represented the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Training Workshop (T3-TR-45486). This report gives a breakdown of the IAEA regulatory structure for those unfamiliar, and the lessons learned and observations that apply to SNL TA-V that were obtained from the workshop. The Safety Report Series, IAEA workshop final report, and SNL TA-V presentation are included as attachments.

  11. IAEA SAFEGUARDS DURING PLUTONIUM STABILIZATION AT HANFORDS PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MCRAE, L.P.

    2004-02-20

    The Vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) became subject to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards beginning in 1994 as part of the US excess fissile material program. The inventory needed to be stabilized and repackaged for long-term storage to comply with Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. In 1998, the United States began negotiations with IAEA to develop methods to maintain safeguards as this material was stabilized and repackaged. The Design Information Questionnaire was revised and submitted to the IAEA in 2002 describing how PFP would be modified to accommodate the stabilization process line. The operation plan for 2003 was submitted describing the proposed schedules for removing materials for stabilization. Stabilization and repackaging activities for the safeguarded plutonium began in January 2003 and were completed in December 2003. The safeguards approach implemented at the Hanford Site was a combination of the original baseline approach augmented by a series of five vault additions of stabilized materials followed by five removals of unstabilized materials. IAEA containment and surveillance measures were maintained until the unstabilized material was removed. Following placement of repackaged material (most from the original safeguarded stock) into the storage vault, the IAEA conducted inventory change verification measurements and then established containment and surveillance. As part of the stabilization campaign, the IAEA developed new measurement methods and calibration standards representative of the materials and packaging. The annual physical inventory verification was conducted on the normal IAEA schedule following the fourth additional/removal phase. Plant activities and the impacts on operations are described.

  12. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Approximately 115 lessons for increasing third grade students' safety knowledge and skills as pedestrians, as auto and school bus passengers, and as operators of bicycles are provided in this traffic safety curriculum. One third of the curriculum focuses on perceptual safety activities for young pedestrians, including lessons on visual and…

  13. Safety in Science. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulashnyk, Lorne; Boonov, Janet

    Since the major causes of accidents are carelessness and a negative or apathetic attitude towards safety, this guide was developed to facilitate safe, stimulating science laboratory activities by providing both general and specific safety information presented in 12 sections. Subject areas considered in these sections include: 1)…

  14. Safety in Science. Curriculum Support Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulashnyk, Lorne; Boonov, Janet

    Since the major causes of accidents are carelessness and a negative or apathetic attitude towards safety, this guide was developed to facilitate safe, stimulating science laboratory activities by providing both general and specific safety information presented in 12 sections. Subject areas considered in these sections include: 1)…

  15. Safety in Aquatic Activities. Sports Safety Series. Monograph No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in aquatic activities is outlined. Discussions include the causes and prevention of aquatic accidents, aquatic safety in the basic instructional program, the design of public swimming facilities, and safety considerations in pool operation and administration. A chapter is devoted to each of the…

  16. Firearms Safety: Instructor Manual. Shooting Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rodney J.; Powell, Cheryl Riley, Ed.

    Although written with the classroom teacher in mind, this learning module on firearms safety can be adapted by leaders of camps, 4-H clubs, outdoor educators, scouting organizations or any workers with junior and senior high school youth. The self-contained unit includes information on the subject, lesson plans, activities, class exercises, tests,…

  17. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This traffic safety curriculum for second grade students provides directions and materials for approximately 132 activities. Intended to develop pedestrian perceptual skills and to train children in safe conduct on the school bus, in an auto and in the school environment, the curriculum features concepts and skills taught through activities from…

  18. Firearms Safety: Instructor Manual. Shooting Skills Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Rodney J.; Powell, Cheryl Riley, Ed.

    Although written with the classroom teacher in mind, this learning module on firearms safety can be adapted by leaders of camps, 4-H clubs, outdoor educators, scouting organizations or any workers with junior and senior high school youth. The self-contained unit includes information on the subject, lesson plans, activities, class exercises, tests,…

  19. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    PubMed

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling.

  20. Safety Precautions. Child Health and Safety Series (Module I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for parents and child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on indoor and outdoor safety precautions, emergency preparation and first aid. Contents focus on monitoring arrivals and departures, prevention of suffocation and strangulation, control of pets and other animals, preventing and…

  1. Power Computations in Time Series Analyses for Traffic Safety Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, A. Ian; Vingilis, E. R.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of traffic safety interventions or other policies that can affect road safety often requires the collection of administrative time series data, such as monthly motor vehicle collision data that may be difficult and/or expensive to collect. Furthermore, since policy decisions may be based on the results found from the intervention analysis of the policy, it is important to ensure that the statistical tests have enough power, that is, that we have collected enough time series data both before and after the intervention so that a meaningful change in the series will likely be detected. In this short paper we present a simple methodology for doing this. It is expected that the methodology presented will be useful for sample size determination in a wide variety of traffic safety intervention analysis applications. Our method is illustrated with a proposed traffic safety study that was funded by NIH. PMID:18460394

  2. 76 FR 62496 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Series of Public Subcommittee Meetings AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The FMCSA's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC) will hold working group...

  3. Time series trends of the safety effects of pavement resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Wang, Jung-Han

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the safety performance of pavement resurfacing projects on urban arterials in Florida using the observational before and after approaches. The safety effects of pavement resurfacing were quantified in the crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimated based on different ranges of heavy vehicle traffic volume and time changes for different severity levels. In order to evaluate the variation of CMFs over time, crash modification functions (CMFunctions) were developed using nonlinear regression and time series models. The results showed that pavement resurfacing projects decrease crash frequency and are found to be more safety effective to reduce severe crashes in general. Moreover, the results of the general relationship between the safety effects and time changes indicated that the CMFs increase over time after the resurfacing treatment. It was also found that pavement resurfacing projects for the urban roadways with higher heavy vehicle volume rate are more safety effective than the roadways with lower heavy vehicle volume rate. Based on the exploration and comparison of the developed CMFucntions, the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) and exponential functional form of the nonlinear regression models can be utilized to identify the trend of CMFs over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Quality and Access to Radiation Therapy-An IAEA Perspective.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Polo, Alfredo; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been involved in radiation therapy since soon after its creation in 1957. In response to the demands of Member States, the IAEA׳s activities relating to radiation therapy have focused on supporting low- and middle-income countries to set up radiation therapy facilities, expand the scope of treatments, or gradually transition to new technologies. In addition, the IAEA has been very active in providing internationally harmonized guidelines on clinical, dosimetry, medical physics, and safety aspects of radiation therapy. IAEA clinical research has provided evidence for treatment improvement as well as highly effective resource-sparing interventions. In the process, training of researchers occurs through this program. To provide this support, the IAEA works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide through several mechanisms. In this article, we review the main activities conducted by the IAEA in support to radiation therapy. IAEA support has been crucial for achieving tangible results in many low- and middle-income countries. However, long-term sustainability of projects can present a challenge, especially when considering health budget constraints and the brain drain of skilled professionals. The need for support remains, with more than 90% of patients in low-income countries lacking access to radiotherapy. Thus, the IAEA is expected to continue its support and strengthen quality radiation therapy treatment of patients with cancer.

  5. RELAP5 posttest calculation of IAEA-SPE-4

    SciTech Connect

    Petelin, S.; Mavko, B.; Parzer, I.; Prosek, A.

    1994-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency`s Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (IAEA-SPE-4) was performed at the PMK-2 facility. The PMK-2 facility is designed to study processes following small- and medium-size breaks in the primary system and natural circulation in VVER-440 plants. The IAEA-SPE-4 experiment represents a cold-leg side small break, similar to the IAEA-SPE-2, with the exception of the high-pressure safety injection being unavailable, and the secondary side bleed and feed initiation. The break valve was located at the dead end of a vertical downcomer, which in fact simulates a break in the reactor vessel itself, and should be unlikely to happen in a real nuclear power plant (NPP). Three different RELAP5 code versions were used for the transient simulation in order to assess the calculations with test results.

  6. Safety Protection of Series Connected Hybrid Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongyu; Bird, Mark D.; Bole, Scott T.; Cantrell, Kurtis R.; Dixon, Iain R.; Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Painter, Thomas A.; Xu, Ting

    2010-04-01

    Two Series Connected Hybrid (SCH) magnets are under construction at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In the SCH system, consisting of a resistive insert and a superconducting outsert, the outsert superconducting coil is wound with Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) and cooled with forced-flow supercritical helium at 4.5 K. The forced-flow helium is supplied from a helium refrigerator. In the design of the cryogenic system for the series-connected hybrid, the possible failure of the magnet system should be considered and the cryogenic system should be safely protected in the event of failure. In the SCH system, a protected quench of the superconducting magnet, a loss of vacuum in the cryostat and an unprotected quench were analyzed. Active venting valves, safety valves and burst disks are used for the protection of the cryogenic system and cryostat in the case of the occurrence of failure modes. The design of the safety protection system and the analysis results in the failure modes are discussed.

  7. IAEA safeguards and classified materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.; Kratzer, M.

    1997-11-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilize its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials, some of which are classified, under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring classified materials. A traditional safeguards approach, based on nuclear material accountancy, would seem unavoidably to reveal classified information. However, further analysis of the IAEA`s safeguards approaches is warranted in order to understand fully the scope and nature of any problems. The issues are complex and difficult, and it is expected that common technical understandings will be essential for their resolution. Accordingly, this paper examines and compares traditional safeguards item accounting of fuel at a nuclear power station (especially spent fuel) with the challenges presented by inspections of classified materials. This analysis is intended to delineate more clearly the problems as well as reveal possible approaches, techniques, and technologies that could allow the adaptation of safeguards to the unprecedented task of inspecting classified materials. It is also hoped that a discussion of these issues can advance ongoing political-technical debates on international inspections of excess classified materials.

  8. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Ilokano. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Ilokano. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  9. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Korean. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Korean. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  10. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Cambodian. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide includes guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Cambodian. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  11. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Thai. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Thai. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  12. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Japanese. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practice in both English and Japanese. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  13. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Chinese. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Chinese. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  14. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Thai. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Thai. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  15. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Ilokano. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Ilokano. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  16. Industrial Arts Safety Guide. Cambodian. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle School District 1, WA.

    Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide includes guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Cambodian. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…

  17. 78 FR 66267 - Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake Havasu, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; HITS Triathlon Series; Colorado River; Lake... establishing a safety zone upon the navigable waters of the Colorado River in support of the HITS Triathlon... Series; Colorado River, Lake Havasu City, AZ. (a) Location. The safety zone includes the waters in...

  18. 77 FR 7025 - Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; America's Cup World Series, East Passage... Bay, Rhode Island, during the America's Cup World Series sailing vessel racing event. This safety zone... and spectators involved with the America's Cup World Series in the vicinity of Newport, RI. Discussion...

  19. 77 FR 60897 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Finish-Line, San... support of the 2012 America's Cup World Series sailing events. This safety zone is established to ensure..., through Sunday, October 7, 2012, for the 2012 America's Cup World Series. The Coast Guard intends to...

  20. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The presentation will include a

  1. Patient safety series: obstetric safety improvement and its reflection in reserved claims.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Ronald E; Heffner, Linda J

    2011-11-01

    In reviewing outcomes that are associated with the implementation of a series of labor and delivery patient safety efforts from 2004-2009, we requested data on the number of related professional liability claims that were reserved by our insurance companies that are established with the specific objective of financing risks that emanate from their parent group or groups. While we restructured the manner in which we give care, required training modules, and provided simulations to our providers, our legal risk continued to be monitored independently and in parallel. Retrospective review of the number of cases for which money was held in reserve for claims demonstrated a 20% decrease per year, which was adjusted for delivery volume, over this time period. We believe that the improved care that resulted from our safety projects has led to this decreased legal risk.

  2. 77 FR 28253 - Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; America's Cup World Series, East Passage... the America's Cup World Series (ACWS) sailing vessel racing event. DATES: This rule is effective June..., we published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Safety Zones; America's Cup World...

  3. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  4. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  5. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  6. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  7. 10 CFR 75.8 - IAEA inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false IAEA inspections. 75.8 Section 75.8 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General... notice from the U.S. Department of State. The applicant, licensee, or certificate holder should...

  8. Oakland County Science Safety Series: Reference Guide for Elementary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Betty Pogue; And Others

    This reference guide is designed to organize and suggest acceptable practices and procedures for dealing with safety in elementary science instruction. It is intended as a reference for teachers, administrators, and other school staff in planning for science activities and in making daily safety decisions. Topics covered in the guide include: (1)…

  9. Oakland County Science Safety Series: Reference Guide for Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, Dan; And Others

    This reference guide is designed to organize and suggest acceptable practices and procedures for dealing with safety in the area of biology instruction. It is intended as a reference for teachers, administrators, and other school staff in planning for science activities and in making daily safety decisions. Discussions deal with responsibility for…

  10. Oakland County Science Safety Series: Reference Guide for Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bury, Dan; And Others

    This reference guide is designed to organize and suggest acceptable practices and procedures for dealing with safety in the area of biology instruction. It is intended as a reference for teachers, administrators, and other school staff in planning for science activities and in making daily safety decisions. Discussions deal with responsibility for…

  11. Oakland County Science Safety Series: Reference Guide for Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cost, Helen; And Others

    This reference guide is intended to organize and suggest acceptable practices and procedures for dealing with safety in the area of chemistry instruction. It is intended as a resource for teachers, administrators and other school staff both in planning for science activities and in making daily decisions concerning safety. Sections include…

  12. Assessment of Alternative Funding Mechanisms for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Ford, Benjamin E.

    2012-06-15

    While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is growing concern that global demographic trends, advances in technology and the trend towards austerity in Member State budgets will stretch the Agency’s resources to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As part of an ongoing effort by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to evaluate the IAEA’s long-term budgetary concerns , this paper proposes a series of alternate funding mechanisms that have the potential to sustain the IAEA in the long-term, including endowment, charity, and fee-for-service funding models.

  13. A comparison of the PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes for the analysis of IAEA benchmark transients

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, W.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Smith, R.S.; Matos, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    The PARET/ANL and RELAP5/MOD3 codes are used to analyze the series of benchmark transients specified for the IAEA Research Reactor Core Conversion Guidebook (IAEA-TECDOC-643, Vol. 3). The computed results for these loss-of-flow and reactivity insertion transients with scram are in excellent agreement and agree well with the earlier results reported in the guidebook. Attempts to also compare RELAP5/MOD3 with the SPERT series of experiments are in progress.

  14. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  15. a state department perspective on IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, J.C. )

    1989-07-01

    The maintenance of effective international safeguards is a fundamental tenet of U.S. non-proliferation policy. The U.S. Department of State plays a substantial role not only in articulating U.S. non-proliferation policy, but in the implementation of that policy, including a substantial role in all aspects of U.S. support of IAEA safeguards. The State Department's role in supporting IAEA safeguards ranges from considerations related to bilateral agreements for cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and export control to many rather technical aspects of safeguards such as the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) and negotiation of Facility Attachments for U.S. nuclear facilities subject to IAEA safeguards. TSO plays an important role in support of these efforts by providing technical advice on a broad range of matters where technical and policy issues are closely intertwined.

  16. Safety Belt Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.

    Cited as the largest single cause of lost work time and on-the-job fatalities for U.S. workers, motor vehicle crashes cause major nonrecoverable losses for U.S. businesses. Workplace programs to encourage employees to wear safety belts can thus help employers reduce traffic accident-related losses of work time and can substantially reduce the…

  17. Case Citations 1994. Seventeenth Series (Violence and School Safety).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J., Ed.

    Case citations from federal and state court decisions concerning violence and school safety are organized in five major sections with brief summaries of relevant cases in subcategories followed by a table of cases cited. The major sections are as follows (1) "Assaults on School Personnel" (Michael L. Yates); (2) "The Fourth Amendment: Search and…

  18. PLANNING FOR SAFETY ON THE JOBSITE. SAFETY IN INDUSTRY--CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY SERIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OTTO, FRANCIS L.; VAN ATTA, F.A.

    WORK INJURIES AND THEIR MONETARY LOSSES IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CAN BE EFFECTIVELY PREVENTED ONLY THROUGH AN AGGRESSIVE AND WELL-PLANNED SAFETY EFFORT. THIS BULLETIN DISCUSSES THE "HOW" OF PLANNING FOR SAFETY ON THE JOBSITE. IT WAS PREPARED IN THE DIVISION OF PROGRAMING AND RESEARCH, OFFICE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY. CONTENTS INCLUDE (1) THE…

  19. 77 FR 54815 - Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Regattas, San Francisco Bay; San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone: America's Cup World Series Regattas, San... Alcatraz Island. This rule will regulate the on-water activities associated with 2012 America's Cup World... Cup World Series regattas as part of a circuit of sailing events being conducted at other U.S. and...

  20. Strengthening IAEA safeguards in an era of nuclear cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, R.

    1995-11-01

    Since the end of the Cold War the world has witnessed a remarkable series of events demonstrating that universal adherence to the principles of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament are no longer utopian dreams. The author reviews the actions of various countries to terminate or reduce nuclear weapons programs and those that are resisting the non-proliferation efforts. The author addresses efforts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to safeguard declared nuclear material more cost-effectively and deal with the possibility of undeclared nuclear activities.

  1. 78 FR 60698 - Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu City, AZ.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series; Thompson... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone within the navigable waters of Thompson Bay in Lake Havasu... Thompson Bay, Lake Havasu, AZ for The Lucas Oil Drag Boat Racing Series. This safety zone is necessary...

  2. A Case Series: Evaluation of the Metabolic Safety of Aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    De Hert, Marc; Hanssens, Linda; van Winkel, Ruud; Wampers, Martien; Van Eyck, Dominique; Scheen, Andre; Peuskens, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic abnormalities occur frequently in patients treated with antipsychotics and are of growing concern to clinicians. This study sought to determine whether antipsychotic-associated metabolic abnormalities identified through intensive monitoring can be reversed by switching to aripiprazole. Recent evidence suggests that aripiprazole may exhibit a favorable metabolic safety profile. The study population is a subset of a large (n > 500) ongoing prospective cohort. Thirty-one consecutive patients with schizophrenia who were started on aripiprazole were included in the study. All patients underwent an extensive metabolic evaluation, including an oral glucose tolerance test, at baseline, at 6 weeks, and at 3 months post switch. Metabolic abnormalities were defined as any of the following: new onset diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to various definitions, and dyslipidemia. After 3 months of treatment with aripiprazole (mean daily dose 16.3 mg), there was a significant decrease in body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. There was a significant reduction in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance index, and serum lipids levels (cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL, Chol/HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol). There was also a significant reduction in prolactin levels. All 7 cases of recent onset diabetes were reversed at 3 months follow-up. The MetS was reversed in 50% of patients at 3 months follow-up. Our results support the reversibility of recent onset diabetes on antipsychotic medication when detected early and followed by a switch to aripiprazole. PMID:16940338

  3. A case series: evaluation of the metabolic safety of aripiprazole.

    PubMed

    De Hert, Marc; Hanssens, Linda; van Winkel, Ruud; Wampers, Martien; Van Eyck, Dominique; Scheen, Andre; Peuskens, Joseph

    2007-05-01

    Metabolic abnormalities occur frequently in patients treated with antipsychotics and are of growing concern to clinicians. This study sought to determine whether antipsychotic-associated metabolic abnormalities identified through intensive monitoring can be reversed by switching to aripiprazole. Recent evidence suggests that aripiprazole may exhibit a favorable metabolic safety profile. The study population is a subset of a large (n > 500) ongoing prospective cohort. Thirty-one consecutive patients with schizophrenia who were started on aripiprazole were included in the study. All patients underwent an extensive metabolic evaluation, including an oral glucose tolerance test, at baseline, at 6 weeks, and at 3 months post switch. Metabolic abnormalities were defined as any of the following: new onset diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to various definitions, and dyslipidemia. After 3 months of treatment with aripiprazole (mean daily dose 16.3 mg), there was a significant decrease in body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. There was a significant reduction in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, insulin resistance index, and serum lipids levels (cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL, Chol/HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol). There was also a significant reduction in prolactin levels. All 7 cases of recent onset diabetes were reversed at 3 months follow-up. The MetS was reversed in 50% of patients at 3 months follow-up. Our results support the reversibility of recent onset diabetes on antipsychotic medication when detected early and followed by a switch to aripiprazole.

  4. An Australian secondary standard dosimetry laboratory participation in IAEA postal dose audits.

    PubMed

    Davies, J B; Izewska, J; Meriaty, H; Baldock, C

    2013-03-01

    For over 30 years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have jointly monitored activities of secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs) through postal dose audits with the aim of achieving consistency in dosimetry throughout the world. The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) maintains an SSDL and is a member of the IAEA/WHO SSDL Network. Postal dose audit results at this Australian SSDL from 2001 to 2011 demonstrate the consistency of absorbed dose to water measurements, underpinned by the primary standard maintained at the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA).

  5. IAEA Safeguards: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Hypes, Philip A.

    2012-06-14

    This talk will present an overview of the International Atomic Energy Agency with a specific focus on its international safeguards mission and activities. The talk will first present a brief history of the IAEA and discuss its current governing structure. It will then focus on the Safeguards Department and its role in providing assurance that nuclear materials are being used for peaceful purposes. It will then look at how the IAEA is currently evolving the way in which it executes its safeguards mission with a focus on the idea of a state-level approach.

  6. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS DURING STABILIZATION AT HANFORD PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MCRAE, L.P.

    2004-06-30

    The Vault at the Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) became subject to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards beginning in 1994 as part of the US excess fissile material program. The inventory needed to be stabilized and repackaged for long-term storage to comply with Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 94-1. In 1998, the United States began negotiations with IAEA to develop methods to maintain safeguards during stabilization and repackaging of this material. The Design Information Questionnaire was revised and submitted to the IAEA in 2002 describing modification to the facility to accommodate the stabilization process line. The operation plan for 2003 was submitted describing the proposed schedules for removing materials for stabilization. Stabilization and repackaging activities for the safeguarded plutonium began in January 2003 and were completed in December 2003. The stabilization was completed in five phases. IAEA containment and surveillance measures were maintained until the material was removed by phase for stabilization and repackaging. Following placement of the repackaged material into the storage vault, the IAEA conducted inventory change verification measurements, and re-established containment and surveillance. Plant activities and the impacts on operations are described.

  7. Evaluation of IAEA Coordinated Program Steels and Welds for 288 C radiation Embrittlement Resistance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    NRC-IN-B5528 UNCLASSIFIED NRL-MR-4655 NUREG -CR-2487T NL SMENEEEh EhhhhmmhhGIG AD -A .1 z4 Cq NUREG /CR-2487 NRL Memo Rpt 4655 m Evaluation of IAEA...3.00 and Na" al Tech 1 Infor on Servi e ingfi Id, irgi ia 1 NUREG /CR-2487 NRL Memo Rpt 4655 R5 Evaluation of IAEA Coordinated Program Steels and...reports and correspondence; Commission papers; and applicant and licensee documents and correspondence. The following documents in the NUREG series are

  8. IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R&D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium-tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project.

  9. On statistical inference in time series analysis of the evolution of road safety.

    PubMed

    Commandeur, Jacques J F; Bijleveld, Frits D; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George; Papadimitriou, Eleonora

    2013-11-01

    Data collected for building a road safety observatory usually include observations made sequentially through time. Examples of such data, called time series data, include annual (or monthly) number of road traffic accidents, traffic fatalities or vehicle kilometers driven in a country, as well as the corresponding values of safety performance indicators (e.g., data on speeding, seat belt use, alcohol use, etc.). Some commonly used statistical techniques imply assumptions that are often violated by the special properties of time series data, namely serial dependency among disturbances associated with the observations. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of such violations to the applicability of standard methods of statistical inference, which leads to an under or overestimation of the standard error and consequently may produce erroneous inferences. Moreover, having established the adverse consequences of ignoring serial dependency issues, the paper aims to describe rigorous statistical techniques used to overcome them. In particular, appropriate time series analysis techniques of varying complexity are employed to describe the development over time, relating the accident-occurrences to explanatory factors such as exposure measures or safety performance indicators, and forecasting the development into the near future. Traditional regression models (whether they are linear, generalized linear or nonlinear) are shown not to naturally capture the inherent dependencies in time series data. Dedicated time series analysis techniques, such as the ARMA-type and DRAG approaches are discussed next, followed by structural time series models, which are a subclass of state space methods. The paper concludes with general recommendations and practice guidelines for the use of time series models in road safety research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety in Outdoor Recreational Activities. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    Safety procedures are outlined for the following sports: (1) fishing; (2) hunting and shooting; (3) skeet and trap; (4) hiking and mountaineering; (5) ice fishing; (6) ice skating; (7) skiing; (8) snowmobiling; (9) recreational motorcycling; and (10) developmental and play activities. (JD)

  11. Safety. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-2-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on safety is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist firefighters in understanding the hazards of their profession and some methods of reducing…

  12. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  13. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  14. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  15. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  16. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  17. 10 CFR 75.7 - Notification of IAEA safeguards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of IAEA safeguards. 75.7 Section 75.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.7 Notification of IAEA safeguards. (a) The licensee must inform the...

  18. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  19. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  20. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except...

  1. A novel series connected batteries state of high voltage safety monitor system for electric vehicle application.

    PubMed

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application.

  2. A Novel Series Connected Batteries State of High Voltage Safety Monitor System for Electric Vehicle Application

    PubMed Central

    Jiaxi, Qiang; Lin, Yang; Jianhui, He; Qisheng, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Batteries, as the main or assistant power source of EV (Electric Vehicle), are usually connected in series with high voltage to improve the drivability and energy efficiency. Today, more and more batteries are connected in series with high voltage, if there is any fault in high voltage system (HVS), the consequence is serious and dangerous. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the electric parameters of HVS to ensure the high voltage safety and protect personal safety. In this study, a high voltage safety monitor system is developed to solve this critical issue. Four key electric parameters including precharge, contact resistance, insulation resistance, and remaining capacity are monitored and analyzed based on the equivalent models presented in this study. The high voltage safety controller which integrates the equivalent models and control strategy is developed. By the help of hardware-in-loop system, the equivalent models integrated in the high voltage safety controller are validated, and the online electric parameters monitor strategy is analyzed and discussed. The test results indicate that the high voltage safety monitor system designed in this paper is suitable for EV application. PMID:24194677

  3. WE-AB-213-04: IAEA Support to Medical Physics in Africa and Latin America: Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meghzifene, A.

    2015-06-15

    physicist, whose degree of involvement is determined by the complexity of the radiological procedures and the associated radiation risks”. Details on how these requirements can be carried out in resource-limited settings will be described. IAEA support to medical physics in Africa and Latin America: achievements and challenges Ahmed Meghzifene (IAEA) Shortage of clinically qualified medical physicists in radiotherapy and imaging, insufficient and inadequate education and training programs, as well as a lack of professional recognition were identified as the main issues to be addressed by the IAEA. The IAEA developed a series of integrated projects aiming specifically at promoting the essential role of medical physicists in health care, developing harmonized guidelines on dosimetry and quality assurance, and supporting education and clinical training programs. The unique feature of the IAEA approach is support it provides for implementation of guidelines and education programs in Member States through its technical cooperation project. The presentation will summarize IAEA support to Latin America and Africa in the field of medical physics and will highlight how the new International Basic Safety Standards are expected to impact the medical physics practice in low and middle income countries. Learning Objectives: Learn about the shortage of qualified Medical Physicists in Africa and Latin America. Understand the reasons of this shortage. Learn about the ways to improve the situation and AAPM role in this process.

  4. Introduction to the STS National Database Series: Outcomes Analysis, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Shahian, David M; Prager, Richard L; Edwards, Fred H; McDonald, Donna; Han, Jane M; D'Agostino, Richard S; Jacobs, Marshall L; Kozower, Benjamin D; Badhwar, Vinay; Thourani, Vinod H; Gaissert, Henning A; Fernandez, Felix G; Wright, Cam; Fann, James I; Paone, Gaetano; Sanchez, Juan A; Cleveland, Joseph C; Brennan, J Matthew; Dokholyan, Rachel S; O'Brien, Sean M; Peterson, Eric D; Grover, Frederick L; Patterson, G Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) National Database is the foundation for most of the Society's quality, research, and patient safety activities. Beginning in January 2016 and repeating each year, The Annals of Thoracic Surgery will publish a monthly Database series of scholarly articles on outcomes analysis, quality improvement, and patient safety. Six articles will be directly derived from the STS National Database and will be published every other month: three articles on outcomes and quality (one each from the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database, the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database, and the STS General Thoracic Surgery Database), and three articles on research (one from each of these three specialty databases). These six articles will alternate with five additional articles on topics related to patient safety. The final article, to be published in December, will provide a summary of the prior 11 manuscripts. This series will allow STS and its Workforces on National Databases, Research Development, and Patient Safety to convey timely information aimed at improving the quality and safety of cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. NGSI: IAEA Verification of UF6 Cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-06-05

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is often ignorant of the location of declared, uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders following verification, because cylinders are not typically tracked onsite or off. This paper will assess various methods the IAEA uses to verify cylinder gross defects, and how the task could be ameliorated through the use of improved identification and monitoring. The assessment will be restricted to current verification methods together with one that has been applied on a trial basis—short-notice random inspections coupled with mailbox declarations. This paper is part of the NNSA Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) program to investigate the concept of a global monitoring scheme that uniquely identifies and tracks UF6 cylinders.

  6. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  7. Road safety forecasts in five European countries using structural time series models.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Papadimitriou, Eleonora; Yannis, George

    2014-01-01

    Modeling road safety development is a complex task and needs to consider both the quantifiable impact of specific parameters as well as the underlying trends that cannot always be measured or observed. The objective of this research is to apply structural time series models for obtaining reliable medium- to long-term forecasts of road traffic fatality risk using data from 5 countries with different characteristics from all over Europe (Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Norway, and Switzerland). Two structural time series models are considered: (1) the local linear trend model and the (2) latent risk time series model. Furthermore, a structured decision tree for the selection of the applicable model for each situation (developed within the Road Safety Data, Collection, Transfer and Analysis [DaCoTA] research project, cofunded by the European Commission) is outlined. First, the fatality and exposure data that are used for the development of the models are presented and explored. Then, the modeling process is presented, including the model selection process, introduction of intervention variables, and development of mobility scenarios. The forecasts using the developed models appear to be realistic and within acceptable confidence intervals. The proposed methodology is proved to be very efficient for handling different cases of data availability and quality, providing an appropriate alternative from the family of structural time series models in each country. A concluding section providing perspectives and directions for future research is presented.

  8. Assessing coal-mine safety regulation: A pooled time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Youngpyoung.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the independent, relative, and conjoint effects of four types of variables on coal-mine safety: administrative (mine inspections, mine investigations, and mine safety grants); political (state party competition, gubernatorial party affiliation, and deregulation); economic (state per-capita income and unemployment rates); task-related (mine size, technology, and type of mining), and state dummy variables. Trend, Pearson correlation, and pooled time-series analyses are performed on fatal and nonfatal injury rates reported in 25 coal-producing states during the 1975-1985 time period. These are then interpreted in light of three competing theories of regulation: capture, nonmarket failure, and threshold. Analysis reveals: (1) distinctions in the total explanatory power of the model across different types of injuries, as well as across presidential administrations; (2) a consistently more powerful impact on safety of informational implementation tools (safety education grants) over command-and-control approaches (inspections and investigations) or political variables; and (3) limited, albeit conjectural, support for a threshold theory of regulation in the coal mine safety arena.

  9. Effectiveness of an improved road safety policy in Ethiopia: an interrupted time series study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in implementing road safety policy by different low income countries. However; the evidence is scarce on its success in the reduction of crashes, injuries and deaths. This study was conducted to assess whether road crashes, injuries and fatalities was reduced following the road safety regulation introduced as of September 2007 by Oromia Regional State Transport Bureau. Methods Routine road traffic accident data for the year 2002-2011were collected from sixteen traffic police offices. Data on average daily vehicle flow was obtained from the Ethiopian Road Authority. Interrupted time series design using segmented linear regression model was applied to estimate the effect of an improved road safety policy. Results A total of 4,053 crashes occurred on Addis Ababa - Adama/Hawassa main road. Of these crashes, almost half 46.4% (1,880) were property damage, 29.4% (1,193) were fatal and 24.2% (980) injury crashes, resulting 1,392 fatalities and 1,749 injuries. There were statistically significant reductions in non-injury crashes and deaths. Non-injury crash was reduced by 19% and fatality by 12.4% in the first year of implementing the revised transport safety regulation. Conclusion Although revised road safety policy helped in reducing motor vehicle crashes and associated fatalities, the overall incidence rate is still very high. Further action is required to avoid unnecessary loss of lives. PMID:24886220

  10. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Bruce D.; Anzelon, George A.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  11. 10 CFR 75.12 - Communication of information to IAEA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communication of information to IAEA. 75.12 Section 75.12... AGREEMENT Facility and Location Information § 75.12 Communication of information to IAEA. (a) Except as... provided for in the Safeguards Agreement and Additional Protocol. The Commission will take into account the...

  12. Analysis of IAEA Environmental Samples for Plutonium and Uranium by ICP/MS in Support Of International Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Orville T.; Olsen, Khris B.; Thomas, May-Lin P.; Garofoli, Stephanie J.

    2008-05-01

    A method for the separation and determination of total and isotopic uranium and plutonium by ICP-MS was developed for IAEA samples on cellulose-based media. Preparation of the IAEA samples involved a series of redox chemistries and separations using TRU® resin (Eichrom). The sample introduction system, an APEX nebulizer (Elemental Scientific, Inc), provided enhanced nebulization for a several-fold increase in sensitivity and reduction in background. Application of mass bias (ALPHA) correction factors greatly improved the precision of the data. By combining the enhancements of chemical separation, instrumentation and data processing, detection levels for uranium and plutonium approached high attogram levels.

  13. Progresses in tritium accident modelling in the frame of IAEA EMRAS II

    SciTech Connect

    Galeriu, D.; Melintescu, A.

    2015-03-15

    The assessment of the environmental impact of tritium release from nuclear facilities is a topic of interest in many countries. In the IAEA's Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS I) programme, progresses for routine releases were done and in the EMRAS II programme a dedicated working group (WG 7 - Tritium Accidents) focused on the potential accidental releases (liquid and atmospheric pathways). The progresses achieved in WG 7 were included in a complex report - a technical document of IAEA covering both liquid and atmospheric accidental release consequences. A brief description of the progresses achieved in the frame of EMRAS II WG 7 is presented. Important results have been obtained concerning washout rate, the deposition on the soil of HTO and HT, the HTO uptake by leaves and the subsequent conversion to OBT (organically bound tritium) during daylight. Further needs of the processes understanding and the experimental efforts are emphasised.

  14. Reference dosimeter system of the iaea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Kishor; Girzikowsky, Reinhard

    1995-09-01

    Quality assurance programmes must be in operation at radiation processing facilities to satisfy national and international Standards. Since dosimetry has a vital function in these QA programmes, it is imperative that the dosimetry systems in use at these facilities are well calibrated with a traceability to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. As a service to the Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency operates the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) to assist in this process. The transfer standard dosimetry system that is used for this service is based on ESR spectrometry. The paper describes the activities undertaken at the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory to establish the QA programme for its reference dosimetry system. There are four key elements of such a programme: quality assurance manual; calibration that is traceable to a Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory; a clear and detailed statement of uncertainty in the dose measurement; and, periodic quality audit.

  15. MANAGING UNCERTAINTIES ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL: TASK GROUP 4 OF THE IAEA PRISM PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2011-03-02

    It is widely recognized that the results of safety assessment calculations provide an important contribution to the safety arguments for a disposal facility, but cannot in themselves adequately demonstrate the safety of the disposal system. The safety assessment and a broader range of arguments and activities need to be considered holistically to justify radioactive waste disposal at any particular site. Many programs are therefore moving towards the production of what has become known as a Safety Case, which includes all of the different activities that are conducted to demonstrate the safety of a disposal concept. Recognizing the growing interest in the concept of a Safety Case, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is undertaking an intercomparison and harmonization project called PRISM (Practical Illustration and use of the Safety Case Concept in the Management of Near-surface Disposal). The PRISM project is organized into four Task Groups that address key aspects of the Safety Case concept: Task Group 1 - Understanding the Safety Case; Task Group 2 - Disposal facility design; Task Group 3 - Managing waste acceptance; and Task Group 4 - Managing uncertainty. This paper addresses the work of Task Group 4, which is investigating approaches for managing the uncertainties associated with near-surface disposal of radioactive waste and their consideration in the context of the Safety Case. Emphasis is placed on identifying a wide variety of approaches that can and have been used to manage different types of uncertainties, especially non-quantitative approaches that have not received as much attention in previous IAEA projects. This paper includes discussions of the current results of work on the task on managing uncertainty, including: the different circumstances being considered, the sources/types of uncertainties being addressed and some initial proposals for approaches that can be used to manage different types of uncertainties.

  16. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha..-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

  17. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-11 through SVT-13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-05-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will provide power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of Pu -decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first two reports (covering SVT-1 through SVT-10) described the results of flat, side-on, and angular module impacts against steel targets at 54 m/s. This report describes flat-on module impacts against concrete and granite targets, at velocities equivalent to or higher than previous SVTs.

  18. General-purpose heat source safety verification test series: SVT-7 through SVT-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, T. G.; Pavone, D.

    1985-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator that will supply power for the Galileo and Ulysses (formerly ISPM) space missions. The GPHS provides power by transmitting the heat of (238)PuO2 (ALPHA)-decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because the possibility of an orbital abort always exists, the heat source was designed and constructed to minimize plutonia release in any accident environment. The Safety Verification Test (SVT) series was formulated to evaluate the effectiveness of GPHS plutonia containment after atmospheric reentry and Earth impact. The first report (covering SVT-1 through SVT-6) described the results of flat and side-on module impacts. This report describes module impacts at angles of 15(0) and 30(0).

  19. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities Special issue containing papers presented at the 4th IAEA Technical Meeting on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, K.; Wilson, H. R.

    2010-05-01

    The 4th IAEA technical meeting (TM) on the Theory of Plasma Instabilities was held in Kyoto, May 18th--20th 2009, following the first (Seeon), second (Trieste) and third (York) meetings in this series. This IAEA-TM was motivated by the recent advances in theoretical methodology, the rapid progress in observations of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas and the evolution of fusion research as we approach the ITER era. The international advisory committee (IAC) and local organizing committee (LOC), the members of which are listed below, collaborated to define the scope and the content of the scientific programme. Young scientists were actively encouraged to participate in this TM to help stimulate their future research careers and raise their international profiles. Through these young scientists, the IAEA-TM planned to identify the future directions of research. About 90 researchers, from 13 countries and the IAEA, participated in this IAEA-TM, with 72 scientific presentations. The talks and posters generated enthusiastic discussions, contributing to the vibrancy of the meeting. This special issue of Nuclear Fusion consists of a cluster of papers, reporting some of the main contributions to the IAEA-TM. The articles in this cluster are representative of the scientific width of presentations at the meeting, spanning topics from micro-turbulence to large-scale MHD dynamics and from transport to detailed analysis of diagnostics. They demonstrate the quality and depth of the research presented at the conference. List of IAC (alphabetical order): B. Breizman (USA), S. Guenter (Germany), T. S. Hahm (USA), K. Itoh (Japan, Chair of 2009), Ya. I. Kolesnichenko (Ukraine), A. G. Peeters (UK), H. Wilson (UK) List of LOC (alphabetical order): A. Fukuyama, R. Horiuchi, S.-I. Itoh, N. Kasuya, Y. Kishimoto (co-chair), K. Kusano, J. Li, K. Mima, S. Murakami, H. Naitou, N. Nakajima, Y. Nakamura, H. Ohtani, S. Okamura, T. Ozeki, S. Sudo (co-chair), H. Sugama, Y. Todo, S. Tokuda, S

  20. General-Purpose Heat Source Development: Safety Verification Test Program. Flyer plate test series

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular component of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide electric power for space missions. The initial RTG applications will be for the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. Each of the 18 GPHS modules in an RTG contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) has been conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS fueled clads to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System Vehicle (space shuttle) is one conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests to simulate the fragment environment that the RTG and GPHS modules would experience in such an event. These tests deal specifically with the flat-on collision of flyer-plate-type fragments with bare, simulant-fueled (depleted UO/sub 2/) clads. Results of these tests suggest that the fueled clad is only minimally breached by collision with 3.53-mm-thick flyer-plate-type fragments of space shuttle alloy at velocities up to 1170 m/s. However, collision of a 38.1-mm-thick plate with a bare GPHS clad, at a velocity of 270 m/s, results in a total release of fuel.

  1. Explosion overpressure test series: General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test program

    SciTech Connect

    Cull, T.A.; George, T.G.; Pavone, D.

    1986-09-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a modular, radioisotope heat source that will be used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to supply electric power for space missions. The first two uses will be the NASA Galileo and the ESA Ulysses missions. The RTG for these missions will contain 18 GPHS modules, each of which contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. A series of Safety Verification Tests (SVTs) was conducted to assess the ability of the GPHS modules to contain the plutonia in accident environments. Because a launch pad or postlaunch explosion of the Space Transportation System vehicle (space shuttle) is a conceivable accident, the SVT plan included a series of tests that simulated the overpressure exposure the RTG and GPHS modules could experience in such an event. Results of these tests, in which we used depleted UO/sub 2/ as a fuel simulant, suggest that exposure to overpressures as high as 15.2 MPa (2200 psi), without subsequent impact, does not result in a release of fuel.

  2. PREFACE: Third IAEA Technical Meeting on ECRH Physics and Technology in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirant, S.

    2005-01-01

    This meeting belongs to a series of topical events which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna) organizes in a regular basis on crucial aspects of nuclear fusion research, or related in particular to ITER physics or a technological application relevant to the nuclear fusion reactor. Each Technical Meeting series has a specific object; the events are called on a two-three years basis and are recommended by the IAEA advisory body for Fusion, the International Fusion Research Council (IFRC) . The object of the IAEA-TM held in Como, Italy, 2-5 May 2005, was the application in ITER of powerful Electron Cyclotron waves in the millimeter wave frequency range for plasma Heating and noninductive Current Drive. The meeting was the third on this subject. There were 42 presentations to an audience of about 60 delegates from 16 countries. The main goal of this series of IAEA-TM is to bring together specialists of the different branches involved in the project, in the effort of the best understanding of the limits and capabilities of each one of the different fields of research and development. Millimeter-wave source developers, millimeter-wave system designers and plasma physicists, theoreticians and experimentalists in all of the fields, exposed their way of addressing the problem in plenary sessions attended by all participants. Discussions on the different topics of gyrotron development, launcher options and physics application were continued in forums following the presentations. The specialist reader will find in this volume in particular the latest developments concerning the frequency, the output power and the efficiency of the gyrotrons which are now being considered the preferred type of high power millimeter wave generators for ECH/ECCD applications in the fusion reactor. The debate on the launcher of the EC waves, in the form of Gaussian beams, is presently very active, with a few options on the table to be merged in one optimized and integrated design

  3. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  4. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The Asia and the Pacific region was within the IAEA program on radiation and tissue banking, the most active region. Most of the tissue banks in the Asia and the Pacific region were developed during the late 1980s and 1990s. The initial number of tissue banks established or supported by the IAEA program in the framework of the RCA Agreement for Asia and the Pacific region was 18. At the end of 2006, the number of tissue banks participating, in one way or another in the IAEA program was 59. Since the beginning of the implementation of the IAEA program in Asia and the Pacific region 63,537 amnion and 44,282 bone allografts were produced and 57,683 amnion and 36,388 bone allografts were used. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of at least 59 tissue banks in 15 countries in the region (the IAEA supported directly 16 of these banks); the improvement on the quality and safety of tissues procured and produced in the region reaching international standards; the implementation of eight national projects, two regional projects and two interregional projects; the elaboration of International Standards, a Code of Practice and a Public Awareness Strategies and, the application of quality control and quality assurances programs in all participating tissue banks.

  5. Nonproliferation, Disarmament, and the IAEA in Tomorrow's World

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Jill

    2008-09-08

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards have evolved considerably during the last five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To carry on serving well the international community, they need to continue to move with the times -- especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy and its projected expansion in the coming years, which could bring additional nuclear facilities, material and activities under IAEA safeguards. The projected nuclear ˜renaissance" may pose increased proliferation risks as nuclear material, technology and know-how spread in an increasingly globalized world. The presentation will provide an overview of the IAEA safeguards system and describe current verification challenges and potential new IAEA roles.

  6. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; van Beek, P; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gurriaran, R; Hanley, O; Harms, A V; Herrmann, J; Hult, M; Ikeuchi, Y; Ilchmann, C; Kanisch, G; Kis-Benedek, G; Kloster, M; Laubenstein, M; Llaurado, M; Mas, J L; Nakano, M; Nielsen, S P; Osvath, I; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Schikowski, J; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Sýkora, I; Tarjan, S; Varga, B; Vasileva, E; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2016-03-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified radionuclides include: (40)K, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (239+240)Pu and (241)Am for IAEA-410 and (40)K, (137)Cs, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu and (239+240)Pu for IAEA-412. The CRMs can be used for quality assurance and quality control purposes in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training.

  7. IAEA support to medical physics in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Sgouros, George

    2013-05-01

    Through its programmatic efforts and its publications, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped define the role and responsibilities of the nuclear medicine physicist in the practice of nuclear medicine. This paper describes the initiatives that the IAEA has undertaken to support medical physics in nuclear medicine. In 1984, the IAEA provided guidance on how to ensure that the equipment used for detecting, imaging, and quantifying radioactivity is functioning properly (Technical Document [TECDOC]-137, "Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments"). An updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-137 was issued in 1991 as IAEA-TECDOC-602, and this included new chapters on scanner-computer systems and single-photon emission computed tomography systems. Nuclear medicine physics was introduced as a part of a project on radiation imaging and radioactivity measurements in the 2002-2003 IAEA biennium program in Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics. Ten years later, IAEA activities in this field have expanded to cover quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) of nuclear medicine equipment, education and clinical training, professional recognition of the role of medical physicists in nuclear medicine physics, and finally, the coordination of research and development activities in internal dosimetry. As a result of these activities, the IAEA has received numerous requests to support the development and implementation of QA or QC programs for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine in many Member States. During the last 5 years, support was provided to 20 Member States through the IAEA's technical cooperation programme. The IAEA has also supported education and clinical training of medical physicists. This type of support has been essential for the development and expansion of the Medical Physics profession, especially in low- and middle-income countries. The need for basic as well as specialized clinical training in medical physics was identified as a

  8. Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections. Final report: Recommended observational skills training for IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Toquam, J.L.; Morris, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    This is the second of two reports prepared to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA or Agency) in enhancing the effectiveness of its international safeguards inspections through inspector training in {open_quotes}Observational Skills{close_quotes}. The first (Phase 1) report was essentially exploratory. It defined Observational Skills broadly to include all appropriate cognitive, communications, and interpersonal techniques that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively. It identified 10 specific Observational Skills components, analyzed their relevance to IAEA safeguards inspections, and reviewed a variety of inspection programs in the public and private sectors that provide training in one or more of these components. The report concluded that while it should be possible to draw upon these other programs in developing Observational Skills training for IAEA inspectors, the approaches utilized in these programs will likely require significant adaption to support the specific job requirements, policies, and practices that define the IAEA inspector`s job. The overall objective of this second (Phase 2) report is to provide a basis for the actual design and delivery of Observational Skills training to IAEA inspectors. The more specific purposes of this report are to convey a fuller understanding of the potential application of Observational Skills to the inspector`s job, describe inspector perspectives on the relevance and importance of particular Observational Skills, identify the specific Observational Skill components that are most important and relevant to enhancing safeguards inspections, and make recommendations as to Observational Skills training for the IAEA`s consideration in further developing its Safeguards training program.

  9. General-Purpose Heat Source development: Safety Verification Test Program. Bullet/fragment test series

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.G.; Tate, R.E.; Axler, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) that will provide power for space missions contains 18 General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. Each module contains four /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/-fueled clads and generates 250 W/sub (t)/. Because a launch-pad or post-launch explosion is always possible, we need to determine the ability of GPHS fueled clads within a module to survive fragment impact. The bullet/fragment test series, part of the Safety Verification Test Plan, was designed to provide information on clad response to impact by a compact, high-energy, aluminum-alloy fragment and to establish a threshold value of fragment energy required to breach the iridium cladding. Test results show that a velocity of 555 m/s (1820 ft/s) with an 18-g bullet is at or near the threshold value of fragment velocity that will cause a clad breach. Results also show that an exothermic Ir/Al reaction occurs if aluminum and hot iridium are in contact, a contact that is possible and most damaging to the clad within a narrow velocity range. The observed reactions between the iridium and the aluminum were studied in the laboratory and are reported in the Appendix.

  10. USSP-IAEA WORKSHOP ON ADVANCED SENSORS FOR SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.; QUEIROLO, A.; ZENDEL, M.; WHICHELLO, J.; ANNESE, C.; GRIEBE, J.; GRIEBE, R.

    2007-11-13

    The IAEA Medium Term Strategy (2006-2011) defines a number of specific goals in respect to the IAEA's ability to provide assurances to the international community regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy through States adherences to their respective non-proliferation treaty commitments. The IAEA has long used and still needs the best possible sensors to detect and measure nuclear material. The Department of Safeguards, recognizing the importance of safeguards-oriented R&D, especially targeting improved detection capabilities for undeclared facilities, materials and activities, initiated a number of activities in early 2005. The initiatives included letters to Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), personal contacts with known technology holders, topical meetings, consultant reviews of safeguards technology, and special workshops to identify new and novel technologies and methodologies. In support of this objective, the United States Support Program to IAEA Safeguards hosted a workshop on ''Advanced Sensors for Safeguards'' in Santa Fe, New Mexico, from April 23-27, 2007. The Organizational Analysis Corporation, a U.S.-based management consulting firm, organized and facilitated the workshop. The workshop's goal was to help the IAEA identify and plan for new sensors for safeguards implementation. The workshop, which was attended by representatives of seven member states and international organizations, included presentations by technology holders and developers on new technologies thought to have relevance to international safeguards, but not yet in use by the IAEA. The presentations were followed by facilitated breakout sessions where the participants considered two scenarios typical of what IAEA inspectors might face in the field. One scenario focused on an enrichment plant; the other scenario focused on a research reactor. The participants brainstormed using the technologies presented by the participants and other technologies known to them to propose

  11. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  12. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards: Challenges Ahead (437th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Michael

    2008-06-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), headquartered in Vienna, Austria, was established in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to discourage its military use. The agency's success in halting nuclear proliferation and in enhancing nuclear safeguards and security have been recognized internationally, including with the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the IAEA and its Director General. BNL has long had a role in the IAEA, by providing technical advice and assistance to its safeguards department. In fact, the IAEA's International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) is headquartered at the Lab and is responsible for the management of U.S. programs supporting ISPO. In the 437th Brookhaven Lecture on Wednesday, June 25th, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall, physicist Michael Rosenthal of the Energy, Environment & National Security Directorate will discuss the challenges facing the IAEA and ISPO in light of the world political situation and today's tight budgets, and BNL's role in finding and implementing solutions.

  13. Potential applications of environmental sampling and analysis for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Raber, E.

    1993-03-01

    This objective of this paper is to address the usefulness of envirorunental sampling and analysis in support of the IAEA. In particular, whether state-of-the-art analytical methods may provide detection of undeclared nuclear activities. It is important to emphasize that envirorunental sampling offers the IAEA a method of improving the assurance that a particular facility has no ongoing undeclared nuclear activities. It is suggested as a supplement to the existing IAEA safeguards inspections and activities. Enviromental sampling with appropriate analytical techniques can detect unknown activity fairly well, but it is not very reliable for determining how much or when activity has actually occured. Additionally, it is important to point out that the cost of such an envirorunental sampling program needs to be balanced with the confidence provided to detect undeclared nuclear activities. Environmental sampling wig probably not allow the IAEA to reduce or eliminate some of its existing baseline activities. The addition of an environmental sampling and analysis program will entail a cost of its own, and adding such a program may not reduce IAEA total costs. The overall cost of such a program will depend on the level of confidence required, (e.g. number and type of samples and analyses), the Quality Assurance plan to be implemented and the number of sites to be inspected. A more detailed cost analysis is not within the scope of this paper.

  14. Influence of safety warnings on ESA prescribing among dialysis patients using an interrupted time series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. Methods ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. Results The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit ≥36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (−164 units/week, p = <0.0001) and after the warnings (−80 units/week, p = .001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (−4,744 units/week, p = <.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (−90 units/week, p = .009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (−2,487 units/week, p = 0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. Conclusions ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning. PMID:23927675

  15. Influence of safety warnings on ESA prescribing among dialysis patients using an interrupted time series.

    PubMed

    Thamer, Mae; Zhang, Yi; Lai, Dejian; Kshirsagar, Onkar; Cotter, Dennis

    2013-08-09

    In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit≥36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (-164 units/week, p=<0.0001) and after the warnings (-80 units/week, p=.001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (-4,744 units/week, p=<.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (-90 units/week, p=.009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (-2,487 units/week, p=0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning.

  16. Radiation safety in the cardiac catheterization lab: A time series quality improvement initiative.

    PubMed

    Abuzeid, Wael; Abunassar, Joseph; Leis, Jerome A; Tang, Vicky; Wong, Brian; Ko, Dennis T; Wijeysundera, Harindra C

    Interventional cardiologists have one of the highest annual radiation exposures yet systems of care that promote radiation safety in cardiac catheterization labs are lacking. This study sought to reduce the frequency of radiation exposure, for PCI procedures, above 1.5Gy in labs utilizing a Phillips system at our local institution by 40%, over a 12-month period. We performed a time series study to assess the impact of different interventions on the frequency of radiation exposure above 1.5Gy. Process measures were percent of procedures where collimation and magnification were used and percent of completion of online educational modules. Balancing measures were the mean number of cases performed and mean fluoroscopy time. Information sessions, online modules, policies and posters were implemented followed by the introduction of a new lab with a novel software (AlluraClarity©) to reduce radiation dose. There was a significant reduction (91%, p<0.05) in the frequency of radiation exposure above 1.5Gy after utilizing a novel software (AlluraClarity©) in a new Phillips lab. Process measures of use of collimation (95.0% to 98.0%), use of magnification (20.0% to 14.0%) and completion of online modules (62%) helped track implementation. The mean number of cases performed and mean fluoroscopy time did not change significantly. While educational strategies had limited impact on reducing radiation exposure, implementing a novel software system provided the most effective means of reducing radiation exposure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Safety in Construction Using Virtual Reality (SAVR): A Model for Labor Safety. Working Paper Series WP-022.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; And Others

    An interactive training model called SAVR (Safety in Construction Using Virtual Reality) was developed to train construction students, novice engineers, and construction workers to prevent falls from scaffolding. The model was implemented in a graphics supercomputer, the ONYX Reality Engine2. The SAVR model provides trainees with an immersive,…

  18. The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M.; Stanculescu, A.; Arien, B.; Malambu, E.; Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S.; Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y.; Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M.; da Cruz, D.F.; Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G.; Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R.; Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M.; Morita, K.; Srivenkatesan, R.; Taczanowski, S.; Tucek, K.; Wider, H.; Vertes, P.; Uhlir, J.

    2007-07-01

    In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

  19. [Regularities of lateral distribution of uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides in the anthropogenically changed soils from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Taskaev, A I; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    Cartographical investigations of the territory of radium production waste storage has shown some changes in lateral differentiation of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series to occur during 27 years (1981-2008). Those changes are caused mostly by flat denudation typical for fluvial terrace. At present radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series are concentrated mostly in flood lands and relief depressions. At the same time, decrease in the radionuclide activity concentration in 0-20 cm soil layer is observed with changes in lateral distribution. Total stocks of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po within catena soils studied in the northern and southern parts of the waste storage decreased 3-6 times, 238U - 2 times, and did not significantly change in case of 232Th during 27 years. Nonetheless, most of the samples studied are referred to radioactive waste both according to Russian standards (SPORO-2002) and IAEA safety norms (IAEA, 2004).

  20. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated Research Projects on Structural Integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Server, W. L.; Nanstad, Randy K

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted a series of Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) that have focused on irradiated reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel fracture toughness properties and approaches for assuring structural integrity of RPVs throughout operating life. A series of nine CRPs have been sponsored by the IAEA, starting in the early 1970s, focused on neutron radiation effects on RPV steels. The purpose of the CRPs was to develop comparisons and correlations to test the uniformity of irradiated results through coordinated international research studies and data sharing. Consideration of dose rate effects, effects of alloying (nickel, manganese, silicon, etc.) and residual elements (eg., copper and phosphorus), and drop in upper shelf toughness are also important for assessing neutron embrittlement effects. The ultimate use of embrittlement understanding is assuring structural integrity of the RPV under current and future operation and accident conditions. Material fracture toughness is the key ingredient needed for this assessment, and many of the CRPs have focused on measurement and application of irradiated fracture toughness. This paper presents an overview of the progress made since the inception of the CRPs in the early 1970s. The chronology and importance of each CRP have been reviewed and put into context for continued and long-term safe operation of RPVs.

  1. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Stanley; Hambidge, Simon J.; McClure, David L.; Daley, Matthew F.; Glanz, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    In examining the association between vaccines and rare adverse events after vaccination in post-licensure observational studies, it is challenging to define appropriate risk windows because pre-licensure randomized clinical trials provide little insight on the timing of specific adverse events. Past vaccine safety studies have often used pre-specified risk windows based on prior publications, biological understanding of the vaccine, and expert opinion. Recently, a data driven approach was developed to identify appropriate risk windows for vaccine safety studies that use the self-controlled case series design. This approach employs both the maximum incidence rate ratio and the linear relation between the estimated incidence rate ratio and the inverse of average person time at risk, given a specified risk window. In this paper, we present a scan statistic that can identify appropriate risk windows in vaccine safety studies using the self-controlled case series design while taking into account the dependence of time intervals within an individual and while adjusting for time-varying covariates such as age and seasonality. This approach uses the maximum likelihood ratio test based on fixed effects models, which has been used for analyzing data from self-controlled case series design in addition to conditional Poisson models. PMID:23303643

  2. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stanley; Hambidge, Simon J; McClure, David L; Daley, Matthew F; Glanz, Jason M

    2013-08-30

    In the examination of the association between vaccines and rare adverse events after vaccination in postlicensure observational studies, it is challenging to define appropriate risk windows because prelicensure RCTs provide little insight on the timing of specific adverse events. Past vaccine safety studies have often used prespecified risk windows based on prior publications, biological understanding of the vaccine, and expert opinion. Recently, a data-driven approach was developed to identify appropriate risk windows for vaccine safety studies that use the self-controlled case series design. This approach employs both the maximum incidence rate ratio and the linear relation between the estimated incidence rate ratio and the inverse of average person time at risk, given a specified risk window. In this paper, we present a scan statistic that can identify appropriate risk windows in vaccine safety studies using the self-controlled case series design while taking into account the dependence of time intervals within an individual and while adjusting for time-varying covariates such as age and seasonality. This approach uses the maximum likelihood ratio test based on fixed-effects models, which has been used for analyzing data from self-controlled case series design in addition to conditional Poisson models.

  3. A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J. K.; Sinkule, B. J.; Hsue, S.-T.; Abhold, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this

  4. Health and Safety. Supervising: Industrial Relations. The Choice Series #84. A Self Learning Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Matthew S.

    This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in understanding and practicing principles of occupational health and safety. Discussed in the first three sections are the following topics: health and safety at work (causes of accidents, ways of dealing with and reporting accidents, procedures for preventing accidents and…

  5. A Teacher's Guide to School Safety Patrol. Curriculum Services Series No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.

    This teacher's guide to school safety patrols in Pennsylvania is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1, on administration, discusses the philosophy, objectives, personnel, and financial arrangements of a school safety patrol. Chapter 2, on organization, examines the following topics: school patrol function and duties, instruction of the patrol,…

  6. The Occupational Safety and Health Act: Its Goals and Its Achievements. Evaluative Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Stewart

    The safety and health mandate of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is examined in reference to its effectiveness in reducing injuries and its consistency with the goal of promoting general welfare. Chapter 1 describes the essential features of the act and its administration to date, and analyzes the mandate as revealed by legislative…

  7. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... International Transport Standards and Regulations § 171.26 Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA... may be offered for transportation or transported in accordance with the IAEA Regulations (IBR, see...

  8. Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate in developing countries: An IAEA study.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Barton, Michael; Mackillop, William; Fidarova, Elena; Cordero, Lisbeth; Yarney, Joel; Lim, Gerard; Abad, Anthony; Cernea, Valentin; Stojanovic-Rundic, Suzana; Strojan, Primoz; Kobachi, Lotfi; Quarneti, Aldo

    2015-07-01

    Optimal radiotherapy utilisation rate (RTU) is the proportion of all cancer cases that should receive radiotherapy. Optimal RTU was estimated for 9 Middle Income Countries as part of a larger IAEA project to better understand RTU and stage distribution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International Workshops to Foster Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Coates, Cameron W.; Bedke, Michael L.

    2003-07-14

    A country’s adherence to the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) Additional Protocol is an important statement to the world of that country’s commitment to nuclear nonproliferation. Without the Additional Protocol (AP) it is possible, as demonstrated in Iraq, for a country party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) to clandestinely work toward nuclear weapons and be undetected by the IAEA. This is because classical safeguards under the NPT are directed at diversion of nuclear material from declared activities. But a country may instead build undeclared activities to produce weapons-grade nuclear material. The AP is directed at detecting those undeclared activities. As of May 2003, 73 countries had signed the AP, but only 35 have entered into force. To further adherence to the AP, the IAEA has held regional, high-level seminars in Japan, South Africa, Kazakhstan, Peru, Romania, and Malaysia to explain AP provisions. To supplement these policy-level seminars, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has undertaken to develop a set of modules of technical competencies required to implement the AP. The intent is to work closely with the IAEA by providing these technical competencies to countries as well as to complement the IAEA’s regional seminars and other outreach efforts. This paper briefly describes the technical competency modules.

  10. The US Support program to IAEA Safeguards - 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper,S.

    2008-06-09

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to provide technical assistance to the IAEA Department of Safeguards. Since that time the U.S. Department of State has provided funding of over $200 million and over 900 tasks have been completed by USSP contractors on behalf of the KEA. The USSP is directed by a U.S. interagency subcommittee known as the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) and is managed by the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In recent years, the SSTS and ISPO have identified priorities to guide the process of determining which IAEA requests are aligned with US. policy and will be funded. The USSP priorities are reviewed and updated prior to the USSP Annual Review Meeting which is hosted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) each spring in Vienna, Austria. This paper will report on the 2008 USSP priorities and be an introduction for a session which will consist of four papers on USSP priorities and four other papers related to USSP activities.

  11. Determination of organochlorinated compounds and petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment sample IAEA-408. Results from a world-wide intercalibration exercise.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, J P; de Mora, S J; Cattini, C; Carvalho, F P

    2000-10-01

    A sediment sample from the intertidal mudflats of the Tagus estuary was prepared, homogenised and distributed globally to laboratories as the IAEA-408 intercomparison material for the analyses of organochlorinated pesticides, PCBs and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs). A total of 48 laboratories from 36 countries reported their results. The data from participants show that there still remain some difficulties with the accurate determination of organic contaminants such as pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). More consistent interlaboratory results were obtained for PCBs congeners. The final results of this intercomparison exercise enable individual participants to assess their performance and, where necessary, to introduce appropriate modifications in their analytical procedures. Furthermore, as a series of statistical criteria was fulfilled for a number of compounds, the sample IAEA-408 can now be used as a reference material for quality control in the determination of some persistant organic pollutants (POPs) in marine sediment samples.

  12. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  13. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  14. Intercomparison of techniques available at INETI in the analysis of two IAEA candidate research materials.

    PubMed

    Freitas, M C; Afonso, M H; Almeida, C; Alves, L C; Araújo, M F; Barreiros, M A; Seabra e Barros, J; Costa, M B; Gouveia, M A; Reis, M A

    1994-01-01

    Under contract with the IAEA, the epiphytic lichen Evernia prunastri was collected to prepare a multielement lichen reference material for quality assurance of environmental studies. An intercomparison run on trace and minor elements in this candidate research material (IAEA-336) was organized in which six analytical groups of the National Institute of Engineering and Industrial Technology (INETI) took part. INAA, PIXE, XRF, AAS, and ICP-ES were applied. The results obtained by different methods are compared, and their complementarity is discussed. As a quality control, the IAEA cabbage research material (IAEA-359) was analyzed. The results agree quite well with the estimated values given by the IAEA.

  15. Feasibility and observed safety of interactive video games for physical rehabilitation in the intensive care unit: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kho, Michelle E; Damluji, Abdulla; Zanni, Jennifer M; Needham, Dale M

    2012-04-01

    Early rehabilitation in the intensive care unit (ICU) improves patients' physical function. Despite reports of using commercially available interactive video game systems for rehabilitation, there are few data evaluating feasibility and safety as part of routine in-patient rehabilitation, particularly in the ICU. We conducted an observational study from September 1, 2009, to August 31, 2010, of adults admitted to a 16-bed medical ICU receiving video games as part of routine physical therapy (PT), evaluating use and indications and occurrence of 14 prospectively monitored safety events. Of 410 patients receiving PT in the medical ICU, 22 (5% of all patients; male, 64%; median age, 52 years) had 42 PT treatments with video games (median [interquartile range] per patient, 1.0 [1.0-2.0]). Main indications for video game therapy included balance (52%) and endurance (45%), and the most common activities included boxing (38%), bowling (24%), and balance board (21%). Of 42 treatments, 69% occurred while standing and 45% while mechanically ventilated. During 35 hours of PT treatment, 0 safety events occurred (95% upper confidence limit for safety event rate, 8.4%). Novel use of interactive video games as part of routine PT in critically ill patients is feasible and appears safe in our case series. Video game therapy may complement existing rehabilitation techniques for ICU patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An evaluation of Winnipeg's photo enforcement safety program: results of time series analyses and an intersection camera experiment.

    PubMed

    Vanlaar, Ward; Robertson, Robyn; Marcoux, Kyla

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of Winnipeg's photo enforcement safety program on speeding, i.e., "speed on green", and red-light running behavior at intersections as well as on crashes resulting from these behaviors. ARIMA time series analyses regarding crashes related to red-light running (right-angle crashes and rear-end crashes) and crashes related to speeding (injury crashes and property damage only crashes) occurring at intersections were conducted using monthly crash counts from 1994 to 2008. A quasi-experimental intersection camera experiment was also conducted using roadside data on speeding and red-light running behavior at intersections. These data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The time series analyses showed that for crashes related to red-light running, there had been a 46% decrease in right-angle crashes at camera intersections, but that there had also been an initial 42% increase in rear-end crashes. For crashes related to speeding, analyses revealed that the installation of cameras was not associated with increases or decreases in crashes. Results of the intersection camera experiment show that there were significantly fewer red light running violations at intersections after installation of cameras and that photo enforcement had a protective effect on speeding behavior at intersections. However, the data also suggest photo enforcement may be less effective in preventing serious speeding violations at intersections. Overall, Winnipeg's photo enforcement safety program had a positive net effect on traffic safety. Results from both the ARIMA time series and the quasi-experimental design corroborate one another. However, the protective effect of photo enforcement is not equally pronounced across different conditions so further monitoring is required to improve the delivery of this measure. Results from this study as well as limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  18. Child Care and Child Safety for Farm Children in Manitoba. RDI Report Series 1994-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockman, Lois M.

    A Manitoba survey examined child care use, child safety concerns, and parents' on-farm and off-farm work to determine the needs of farm families for child care services. Of 972 questionnaires mailed to Manitoba farm residences, 121 were returned by respondents who were actively farming and living on a farm with at least one child younger than 16…

  19. The U.S. Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986. Workforce & Workplace Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCL Brief, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This brief presents summary information about the U.S. Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1986, which mandated the Commercial Driver's License Test (CDL); the compliance status of states and drivers to date; and a recently authorized government grants program that will help fund CDL adult education programs. It also provides…

  20. ISO 14624 Series - Space Systems - Safety and Compatibility of Materials Flammability Assessment of Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David B.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the flammability of spacecraft materials is shown. The topics include: 1) Spacecraft Fire Safety; 2) Materials Flammability Test; 3) Impetus for enhanced materials flammability characterization; 4) Exploration Atmosphere Working Group Recommendations; 5) Approach; and 6) Status of implementation

  1. Instructional Resources Monograph Series: Safety in Wastewater Treatment Systems. Selected Instructional Activities and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Herbert L.

    Described are instructional and reference materials that may be useful to managers, supervisors, foremen and others who are interested in the safety education of workers in wastewater systems. Emphasis is upon items relevant to the development and presentation of wastewater treatment training programs. Part I contains descriptions and excerpts…

  2. Paracetamol effectiveness, safety and blood level monitoring during patent ductus arteriosus closure: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Irena; Waisman, Dan; Lavie-Nevo, Karen; Golzman, Marcelo; Lorber, Avraham; Rotschild, Avi

    2014-11-01

    Paracetamol was reported to be effective for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure. We present a case series of PDA closure by paracetamol in seven premature infants. During the treatment, paracetamol blood levels did not exceed the recommended levels for analgesia and hyperthermia in six tested infants. None of the patients demonstrated significant disturbances of liver function.

  3. Driver Education Task Analysis: Instructional Objectives. HumRRO Safety Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, A. James; Hundt, Alan G.

    Developed from a systematic analysis of driving behaviors, this publication contains a set of instructional objectives for driver education courses and a series of tests designed to measure the degree to which the instructional objectives have been met by students. Part 1 provides a description of objectives for 74 learning units, including such…

  4. IAEA proficiency tests for determination of radionuclides in sea water.

    PubMed

    Harms, Arend; Khanh Pham, Mai; Blinova, Oxana; Tarjan, Sandor; Nies, Hartmut; Osvath, Iolanda

    2017-02-14

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organised four proficiency tests between 2012 and 2015 to test the performance of participating laboratories in an analysis of radionuclides in sea water samples. These exercises were initiated to support IAEA Member States in sea water analyses of tritium, strontium-90 and caesium isotopes in relation to the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station, in March 2011, and subsequent contamination of the marine environment.

  5. IAEA's role in manpower development for nuclear power in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Csik, B.J.; Skjoeldebrand, R.

    1985-01-01

    Strengthening the manpower infrastructures in the developing countries that have nuclear power programs or plan to start one is of primary importance. Though manpower development is mainly a national effort, outside assistance is also needed. The IAEA is heavily engaged in providing such assistance through an integral, co-ordinated program employing different means: publications, courses, information exchange meetings, fellowships, equipment grants and expert missions. The program is aimed at promoting awareness of need, importance, requirements and problems; providing guidance for assessment of manpower requirements; assisting in manpower development program planning and implementation; and providing specialized training. Within this program, efforts are concentrated mainly in those critical areas where the need for external assistance seems greatest and where the largest benefits are expected, such as planning, management, safety and quality assurance. The sustained and increasing demand of the member States for such assistance provides a measure of the success of this program.

  6. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiatives: Records management for deep and near surface geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1996-09-01

    The international scientific community has long had an interest in determining methods by which information regarding nuclear waste repositories, and the inherent danger to humanity, could be passed from generation to generation and society to society. Because nuclear waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years future generations must be warned of the dangers thus eliminating intentional or inadvertent intrusion. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained so that this information remains accessible to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years; thus the retention of information continues beyond current societies, cultures and languages, and must be continually migrated to new retrieval technologies to assure access.

  7. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  8. Stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA - the latest developments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Gröning, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2017-04-01

    During the last few years the IAEA has performed works in several directions as following: • Released IAEA-603 (replacement of NBS19) - this is primary Stable isotope Reference Material (RM) used for the VPDB 13C and 18O scale realisation, • Released 6 isotopically enriched (in 2H and 18O) waters, • Performed careful monitoring of LVEC' property delta-13C value. This resulted in understanding that LSVEC needs a replacement. • Taken part in characterisation of 18 new organic CRMs (together with Indiana University and USGS) • Creating collaborations with metrology institutes - focus on metrological aspects of RMs, • As a spin-off of the Technical Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Materials (IAEA, Vienna 2014) the European EMPIR project aimed to create infrastructure to produce gas mixtures characterised in CO2 isotope composition has been established (NPL, UK and other metrological institutes). The presentation will give details of these works and overview of the current status of RMs production and development.

  9. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1996 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  10. IAEA Fellowship Program, 1997 report on United States participants

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Fellowship Program began in April 1958 as a part of the Agency`s Technical Cooperation (TC) Program. Through the TC Program, the IAEA provides technical assistance to meet the needs of recipient countries and to bring about a substantial transfer of technology. This is done by providing experts, equipment, fellowships, and training courses. This report addresses the US component of the fellowship program. These fellowships provide opportunities for research and training of scientists, engineers and physicians from developing countries in the peaceful application of nuclear energy. The fellowships are awarded to persons who are, or soon will be, trusted with responsibilities that are important to the development of their countries. Fellowship awards are classified into two groups, those financed by the IAEA General Fund or the UNDP Fund (Type 1 Fellowships and Scientific Visits), and those offered by Member States (Type 2 Fellowships). In placing individuals, preference is given to applicants from countries that are signatories to the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons or to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America.

  11. IAEA Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, F.

    2015-09-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of HTGR design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The predictive capability of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations for reactor design and safety analysis can be assessed with sensitivity analysis (SA) and uncertainty analysis (UA) methods. Uncertainty originates from errors in physical data, manufacturing uncertainties, modelling and computational algorithms. (The interested reader is referred to the large body of published SA and UA literature for a more complete overview of the various types of uncertainties, methodologies and results obtained). SA is helpful for ranking the various sources of uncertainty and error in the results of core analyses. SA and UA are required to address cost, safety, and licensing needs and should be applied to all aspects of reactor multi-physics simulation. SA and UA can guide experimental, modelling, and algorithm research and development. Current SA and UA rely either on derivative-based methods such as stochastic sampling methods or on generalized perturbation theory to obtain sensitivity coefficients. Neither approach addresses all needs. In order to benefit from recent advances in modelling and simulation and the availability of new covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) extensive sensitivity and uncertainty studies are needed for quantification of the impact of different sources of uncertainties on the design and safety parameters of HTGRs. Only a parallel effort in advanced simulation and in nuclear data improvement will be able to provide designers with more robust and well validated calculation tools to meet design target accuracies. In February 2009, the Technical Working Group on Gas-Cooled Reactors (TWG-GCR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommended that the proposed Coordinated Research Program (CRP) on

  12. [Safe:Trac course series of the German Society for Trauma Surgery on patient safety].

    PubMed

    Burghofer, K; Lackner, C K

    2009-08-01

    Based on crew resource management of the airline industry the German Society for Trauma Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, DGU) was the first scientific community in Germany to develop and implement a training course for patient safety. The S:training courses contain four course formats which focus on the prehospital life support (S:PLS), the operating room (S:OR), the trauma room (S:TR) and the intensive care unit (S:ICU). In the training the importance of the human factor for the management of acute major trauma is developed by means of presentations, training videos, practical training, discussions and realistic case scenarios associated with the special working environment of the participants. A specially developed course manual acts as a work and reference book and course booking is possible at http://www.safe-trac.de.

  13. Professor Glyn O. Phillip's legacy within the IAEA programme on radiation and tissue banking.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2017-08-19

    Professor Phillips began his involvement in the implementation of this important IAEA programme, insisting that there were advantages to be gained by using the ionizing radiation technique to sterilize human and animal tissues, based on the IAEA experience gained in the sterilization of medical products. The outcome of the implementation of the IAEA programme on radiation and tissue banking demonstrated that Professor Phillips was right in his opinion.

  14. Deterring Nuclear Proliferation: The Importance of IAEA Safeguards: A TEXTBOOK

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, M.D.; Fishbone, L.G.; Gallini, L.; Krass, A.; Kratzer, M.; Sanborn, J.; Ward, B.; Wulf, N. A.

    2012-03-13

    Nuclear terrorism and nuclear proliferation are among the most pressing challenges to international peace and security that we face today. Iran and Syria remain in non-compliance with the safeguards requirements of the NPT, and the nuclear ambitions of North Korea remain unchecked. Despite these challenges, the NPT remains a cornerstone of the nuclear non-proliferation regime, and the safeguards implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under the NPT play a critical role in deterring nuclear proliferation.How do they work? Where did they come from? And what is their future? This book answers these questions. Anyone studying the field of nuclear non-proliferation will benefit from reading this book, and for anyone entering the field, the book will enable them to get a running start. Part I describes the foundations of the international safeguards system: its origins in the 1930s - when new discoveries in physics made it clear immediately that nuclear energy held both peril and promise - through the entry into force in 1970 of the NPT, which codified the role of IAEA safeguards as a means to verify states NPT commitments not to acquire nuclear weapons. Part II describes the NPT safeguards system, which is based on a model safeguards agreement developed specifically for the NPT, The Structure and Content of Agreements between the Agency and States required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which has been published by the IAEA as INFCIRC/153. Part III describes events, especially in South Africa, the DPRK, and Iraq in the early 1990s, that triggered a transformation in the way in which safeguards were conceptualized and implemented.

  15. Training activities at FSUE 'RADON' and Lomonosov's Moscow state university under practical arrangements with IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveykin, P.P.; Kalmykov, S.N.; Ojovan, M.I.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) 'Radon', in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries - IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) has been signed between FSUE 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. A similar agreement - Practical Arrangements - has been signed between Lomonosov's MSU and the IAEA in 2012. In October 2012 a new IAEA two-weeks training course started at Lomonosov's MSU and FSUE 'Radon' in the framework of the Practical Agreements signed. Pre-disposal management of waste was the main topic of the courses. The paper summarizes the current experience of the FSUE 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  16. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS

    SciTech Connect

    PEPPER,S.E.; DECARO,D.; WILLIAMS,G.; CARELLI,J.; ASSUR,M.

    1999-07-25

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is important that persons within and outside the US nuclear and safeguards industries become aware of career opportunities available at the IAEA, and informed about important vacancies. The IAEA has established an impressive web page to advertise opportunities for employment. However, additional effort is necessary to ensure that there is sufficient awareness in the US of these opportunities, and assistance for persons interested in taking positions at the IAEA. In 1998, the Subgroup on Safeguards Technical Support (SSTS) approved a special task under the US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) for improving US efforts to identify qualified candidates for vacancies in IAEA's Department of Safeguards. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) developed a plan that includes increased advertising, development of a web page to support US recruitment efforts, feedback from the US Mission in Vienna, and interaction with other recruitment services provided by US professional organizations. The main purpose of this effort is to educate US citizens about opportunities at the IAEA so that qualified candidates can be identified for the IAEA's consideration.

  17. [Self-controlled case-series (SCCS) method as a tool for the evaluation on the safety of vaccine].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-Ren; He, Han-Qing; Yan, Rui; Fu, Jian

    2013-08-01

    Safety on vaccine issues has been under greater concern. Epidemiologically, classical study designs on investigating the association between a rare adverse event and vaccine inoculation usually confronted with lower feasibility in practice. Self-controlled case series (SCCS) method was derived from cohort studies. The key advantage of this method is that it only uses data related to cases and trying to find relative incidence of events in the 'at risk' periods relative to the 'controlled' periods. A further benefit of this method is that all the fixed confounders are controlled implicitly, by self-control, thus provides high statistic powers. With these advantages, SCCS is suitable for the causality assessment on rare but severe adverse events caused by immunization, which has been widely used,abroad. However,the methodology of SCCS is still being developed,and the areas in use have been expanded to the studies related to the safety and effectiveness of drugs, efficacy of vaccines as well as risk factors of disease.

  18. Use of Fixed Effects Models to Analyze Self-Controlled Case Series Data in Vaccine Safety Studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Stanley; Zeng, Chan; Newcomer, Sophia; Nelson, Jennifer; Glanz, Jason

    2012-04-19

    Conditional Poisson models have been used to analyze vaccine safety data from self-controlled case series (SCCS) design. In this paper, we derived the likelihood function of fixed effects models in analyzing SCCS data and showed that the likelihoods from fixed effects models and conditional Poisson models were proportional. Thus, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of time-varying variables including vaccination effect from fixed effects model and conditional Poisson model were equal. We performed a simulation study to compare empirical type I errors, means and standard errors of vaccination effect coefficient, and empirical powers among conditional Poisson models, fixed effects models, and generalized estimating equations (GEE), which has been commonly used for analyzing longitudinal data. Simulation study showed that both fixed effect models and conditional Poisson models generated the same estimates and standard errors for time-varying variables while GEE approach produced different results for some data sets. We also analyzed SCCS data from a vaccine safety study examining the association between measles mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). In analyzing MMR-ITP data, likelihood-based statistical tests were employed to test the impact of time-invariant variable on vaccination effect. In addition a complex semi-parametric model was fitted by simply treating unique event days as indicator variables in the fixed effects model. We conclude that theoretically fixed effects models provide identical MLEs as conditional Poisson models. Because fixed effect models are likelihood based, they have potentials to address methodological issues in vaccine safety studies such as how to identify optimal risk window and how to analyze SCCS data with misclassification of adverse events.

  19. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised.

  20. Radiation detectors as surveillance monitors for IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Dowdy, E.J.

    1980-10-01

    Radiation detectors used for personnel dosimetry are examined for use under IAEA Safeguards as monitors to confirm the passage or nonpassage (YES/NO) of plutonium-bearing nuclear material at barrier penetrations declared closed. In this application where backgrounds are ill defined, no advantage is found for a particular detector type because of intrinsic efficiency. Secondary considerations such as complexity, ease of tamper-proofing, and ease of readout are used to recommend specific detector types for routine monitoring and for data-base measurements. Recommendations are made for applications, data acquisition, and instrument development.

  1. Considerations Related To Human Intrusion In The Context Of Disposal Of Radioactive Waste-The IAEA HIDRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger; Kumano, Yumiko; Bailey, Lucy; Markley, Chris; Andersson, Eva; Beuth, Thomas

    2014-01-09

    The principal approaches for management of radioactive waste are commonly termed ‘delay and decay’, ‘concentrate and contain’ and ‘dilute and disperse’. Containing the waste and isolating it from the human environment, by burying it, is considered to increase safety and is generally accepted as the preferred approach for managing radioactive waste. However, this approach results in concentrated sources of radioactive waste contained in one location, which can pose hazards should the facility be disrupted by human action in the future. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) agree that some form of inadvertent human intrusion (HI) needs to be considered to address the potential consequences in the case of loss of institutional control and loss of memory of the disposal facility. Requirements are reflected in national regulations governing radioactive waste disposal. However, in practice, these requirements are often different from country to country, which is then reflected in the actual implementation of HI as part of a safety case. The IAEA project on HI in the context of Disposal of RadioActive waste (HIDRA) has been started to identify potential areas for improved consistency in consideration of HI. The expected outcome is to provide recommendations on how to address human actions in the safety case in the future, and how the safety case may be used to demonstrate robustness and optimize siting, design and waste acceptance criteria within the context of a safety case.

  2. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  3. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  4. Role of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) safeguards in confidence building

    SciTech Connect

    Augustson, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, I will examine some attributes of confidence building and connect them with how the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) interacts with its member states in carrying out its safeguards function. These interactions and the structure set up to define them help maintain and strengthen confidence between the IAEA and the member states and among these states. 3 refs.

  5. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... may be offered for transportation or transported in accordance with the IAEA Regulations (IBR, see... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations. 171.26 Section 171.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...

  6. 49 CFR 171.26 - Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... may be offered for transportation or transported in accordance with the IAEA Regulations (IBR, see... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements for the use of the IAEA Regulations. 171.26 Section 171.26 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE...

  7. Alcohol consumption and fatal injuries in Australia before and after major traffic safety initiatives: a time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Heng; Livingston, Michael; Room, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The associations between population-level alcohol consumption and fatal injuries have been examined in a number of previous studies, but few have considered the external impacts of major policy interventions. This study aims to quantify the associations between per capita alcohol consumption and traffic and nontraffic injury mortality rates in Australia before and after major traffic safety initiatives (the introduction of compulsory seat belt legislation [CSBL] and random breath testing [RBT] in 1970s). Using data from 1924 to 2006, gender- and age-specific traffic and nontraffic mortality rates (15 years and above) were analyzed in relation to per capita alcohol consumption using time series analysis. The external effects of policy interventions were measured by inserting a dummy variable in the time series models. Statistically significant associations between per capita alcohol consumption and both types of fatal injuries were found for both males and females. The results suggest that an increase in per capita alcohol consumption of 1 l was accompanied by an increase in traffic mortality of 3.4 among males and 0.5 among females per 100,000 inhabitants and an increase in nontraffic mortality of 3.0 among males and 0.9 among females. The associations between alcohol consumption and fatal injury rates varied across age groups. The introduction of CSBL and RBT was associated with significant reductions in traffic crash mortality in Australia, particularly for males and young people. The magnitude and distribution of the preventive effects from the reduction in population drinking on fatal injuries vary across different gender and age groups, with the strongest preventive impacts on fatal injuries among people aged 15 to 29 and 70 years and above. The mechanisms behind these effects are unclear from this study, but are likely to be due to the strong association between per capita consumption and heavy drinking. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Trends in readmission rates for safety net hospitals and non-safety net hospitals in the era of the US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program: a retrospective time series analysis using Medicare administrative claims data from 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Salerno, Amy M; Horwitz, Leora I; Kwon, Ji Young; Herrin, Jeph; Grady, Jacqueline N; Lin, Zhenqiu; Ross, Joseph S; Bernheim, Susannah M

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare trends in readmission rates among safety net and non-safety net hospitals under the US Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP). Design A retrospective time series analysis using Medicare administrative claims data from January 2008 to June 2015. Setting We examined 3254 US hospitals eligible for penalties under the HRRP, categorised as safety net or non-safety net hospitals based on the hospital’s proportion of patients with low socioeconomic status. Participants Admissions for Medicare fee-for-service patients, age ≥65 years, discharged alive, who had a valid five-digit zip code and did not have a principal discharge diagnosis of cancer or psychiatric illness were included, for a total of 52 516 213 index admissions. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean hospital-level, all-condition, 30-day risk-adjusted standardised unplanned readmission rate, measured quarterly, along with quarterly rate of change, and an interrupted time series examining: April–June 2010, after HRRP was passed, and October–December 2012, after HRRP penalties were implemented. Results 58.0% (SD 15.3) of safety net hospitals and 17.1% (SD 10.4) of non-safety net hospitals’ patients were in the lowest quartile of socioeconomic status. The mean safety net hospital standardised readmission rate declined from 17.0% (SD 3.7) to 13.6% (SD 3.6), whereas the mean non-safety net hospital declined from 15.4% (SD 3.0) to 12.7% (SD 2.5). The absolute difference in rates between safety net and non-safety net hospitals declined from 1.6% (95% CI 1.3 to 1.9) to 0.9% (0.7 to 1.2). The quarterly decline in standardised readmission rates was 0.03 percentage points (95% CI 0.03 to 0.02, p<0.001) greater among safety net hospitals over the entire study period, and no differential change among safety net and non-safety net hospitals was found after either HRRP was passed or penalties enacted. Conclusions Since HRRP was passed and penalties implemented, readmission rates

  9. Non-insertive Acupuncture and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: A Case Series From an Inner-city Safety Net Hospital

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura F.; Spellman, Lisa W.; Broderick, Maria; Highfield, Ellen Silver; Sommers, Elizabeth; Gardiner, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We report on the safety of non-insertive acupuncture (NIA) in 54 newborns diagnosed with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in a busy inner-city hospital. Methods: For this case series, a retrospective chart review was conducted. Data on participant demographics, number of NIA treatments, provider referrals, and outcomes of interest (sleeping, feeding, and adverse events) were collected. Results: Of the 54 newborns receiving NIA, 86% were non-Hispanic white; 87% were on Medicaid, and gestational age ranged from 33.2 to 42.1 weeks. Out of 54 chart reviews, a total of 92 NIA sessions were documented ranging from 1 to 6 sessions per infant. Of the total number of treatments (n = 92), 73% were requested by a physician. Chart reviews reported that restless infants calmed down during NIA, babies slept through or fell asleep immediately following NIA, and better feeding was noted following NIA. There were no adverse events noted in the medical records. Conclusions: This retrospective chart review shows potential for the use of NIA as an adjunctive treatment in newborns with NAS symptoms during hospitalization. More research is necessary to study whether the incorporation of NIA can result in positive outcomes in newborns withdrawing from narcotics. PMID:24078899

  10. Effectiveness and Safety of Sitagliptin in Patients with Beta-thalassaemia Major and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Zonoozi, Shahrzad; Barnard, Maria; Prescott, Emma; Jones, Romilla; Shah, Farrukh T; Tzoulis, Ploutarchos

    2017-01-01

    Sitagliptin, a modern antidiabetic agent which is weight neutral and associated with low rate of hypoglycaemias, is being increasingly used in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is a paucity of data about its efficacy and safety in beta-thalassaemia major (β-TM). This retrospective case series of five patients (mean age of 45 years) is the first study evaluating the use of sitagliptin in patients with β-TM and DM. Four patients responded well to sitagliptin, as evidenced by a decrease in fructosamine by 77 and 96μmol/L (equivalent reduction in HbA1c of 1.5% and 1.9%) observed in two patients and reduction in the frequency of hypoglycaemia without worsening glycaemic control in two others. One patient did not respond to sitagliptin. No patients reported significant side effects. This study provides evidence that sitagliptin may be considered, with caution, for use in patients with β-TM and DM, under the close monitoring of a Diabetologist. PMID:28101310

  11. Los Alamos National Laboratory support to IAEA environmental safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Robert E; Dry, Don E; Roensch, Fred R; Kinman, Will S; Roach, Jeff L; La Mont, Stephen P

    2010-12-01

    The nuclear and radiochemistry group provides sample preparation and analysis support to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL). These analyses include both non-destructive (alpha and gamma-ray spectrometry) and destructive (thermal ionization mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) methods. On a bi-annual basis the NWAL laboratories are invited to meet to discuss program evolution and issues. During this meeting each participating laboratory summarizes their efforts over the previous two years. This presentation will present Los Alamos National Laboratories efforts in support of this program. Data showing results from sample and blank analysis will be presented along with capability enhancement and issues that arose over the previous two years.

  12. Patient exposure tracking: the IAEA smart card project.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Frush, Donald P

    2011-09-01

    The existing approach of radiation protection is largely based on the collective dose to the population with provisions for protection at an individual level through justification and optimisation. With the individual patient dose now exceeding the life-long occupational dose to a worker in a typical radiology practice, there is a need to establish approaches based on the protection of an individual patient. Radiation exposure tracking seems a way forward in this respect. Technological advances in recent years have provided opportunities for tracking to becoming a reality. The IAEA project on Smart Card/SmartRadTrack is described in this paper. The tracking is now a reality in a few dozen centres in many countries connected by picture archiving and communication systems, and there is hope that this will extend to cover other countries and continents.

  13. End user needs for enhanced IAEA Safeguards Information Management Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Badalamente, R.; Anzelon, G.; Deland, S.; Whiteson, R.

    1994-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency is undertaking a program for strengthening its safeguards on the recognition that safeguards must give assurance not only of the non-diversion of declared material or that declared facilities are not being misused, but also of the absence of any undeclared nuclear activities in States which have signed comprehensive safeguards agreements with the Agency. The IAEA has determined that the detection of undeclared nuclear activities and the creation of confidence in the continuing peaceful use of declared material and facilities is largely dependent on more information being made available to the Agency and on the capability of the Agency to make more effective use of this additional information, as well as existing information.

  14. The future of IAEA safeguards: challenges and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory W

    2011-01-01

    For nearly two decades, the International Atomic Energy Agency (lAEA) has been transforming its safeguards system to address the challenges posed by undeclared nuclear programs, the associated revelation of an extensive non-State nuclear procurement network and other issues, including past limits to its verification mandate and the burden of noncompliance issues. Implementing the new measures, including those in the Additional Protocol, and integrating new and old safeguards measures, remains a work in progress. Implementation is complicated by factors including the limited teclmological tools that are available to address such issues as safeguarding bulk handling facilities, detection of undeclared facilities/activities, especially related to enrichment, etc. As this process continues, new challenges are arising, including the demands of expanding nuclear power production worldwide, so-called safeguards by design for a new generation of facilities, the possible IAEA role in a fissile material cutoff treaty and other elements of the arms control and disarmament agenda, the possible role in 'rollback' cases, etc. There is no doubt safeguards will need to evolve in the future, as they have over the last decades. In order for the evolutionary path to proceed, there will inter alia be a need to identify technological gaps, especially with respect to undeclared facilities, and ensure they are filled by adapting old safeguards technologies, by developing and introducing new and novel safeguards teclmologies and/or by developing new procedures and protocols. Safeguards will also need to respond to anticipated emerging threats and to future, unanticipated threats. This will require strategic planning and cooperation among Member States and with the Agency. This paper will address challenges to IAEA safeguards and the technological possibilities and R&D strategies needed to meet those challenges in the context of the forty-year evolution of safeguards, including the ongoing

  15. Technologies for pre-screening IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Nicholas A.; Steeb, Jennifer L.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, many samples are taken for the purpose of verifying the declared facility activities and identifying any possible undeclared activities. One of these sampling techniques is the environmental swipe sample. Due to the large number of samples collected, and the amount of time that is required to analyze them, prioritizing these swipes in the field or upon receipt at the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) will allow sensitive or mission-critical analyses to be performed sooner. As a result of this study, technologies were placed into one of three categories: recommended, promising, or not recommended. Both neutron activation analysis (NAA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) are recommended for further study and possible field deployment. These techniques performed the best in initial trials for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. We learned that for NAA more characterization of cold elements (such as calcium and magnesium) would need to be emphasized, and for XRF it may be appropriate to move towards a benchtop XRF versus a handheld XRF due to the increased range of elements available on benchtop equipment. Promising techniques that will require additional research and development include confocal Raman microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and infrared (IR) microscopy. These techniques showed substantive responses to uranium compounds, but expensive instrumentation upgrades (confocal Raman) or university engagement (fluorescence microscopy) may be necessary to investigate the utility of the techniques completely. Point-and-shoot (handheld) Raman and attenuated total reflectance–infrared (ATR-IR) measurements are not recommended, as they have not shown enough promise to continue investigations.

  16. Post-upgrade testing on a radiotherapy oncology information system with an embedded record and verify system following the IAEA Human Health Report No. 7 recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nyathi, Thulani; Colyer, Christopher; Bhardwaj, Anup Kumar; Rijken, James; Morton, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Record and verify (R&V) systems have proven that their application in radiotherapy clinics leads to a significant reduction in mis-treatments of patients. The purpose of this technical note is to share our experience of acceptance testing, commissioning and setting up a quality assurance programme for the MOSAIQ® oncology information system and R&V system after upgrading from software version 2.41 to 2.6 in a multi-vendor, multi-site environment. Testing was guided primarily by the IAEA Human Report No. 7 recommendations, but complemented by other departmental workflow specific tests. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time successful implementation of the IAEA Human Health Report Series No. 7 recommendations have been reported in the literature.

  17. Curriculum and Evaluation Guide for Safety Education Programs. Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 40.00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Carlee S.

    Designed to assist Bureau of Indian Affairs school officials in the identification of safety education program needs, this evaluation guide focuses upon the basic operational components in a safety education program. The means for establishing an evaluation design for safety education are presented via a flexible model appropriate for most…

  18. Four Years of Practical Arrangements between IAEA and Moscow SIA 'Radon': Preliminary Results - 13061

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Karlina, O.K.; Neveikin, P.P.

    2013-07-01

    The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 15 years. Since 1997, the educational system of the enterprise with the support of the IAEA has acquired an international character: more than 470 experts from 35 countries- IAEA Member States completed the professional development. Training is conducted at various thematic courses or fellowships for individual programs and seminars on IAEA technical projects. In June 2008 a direct agreement (Practical Arrangements) was signed between SIA 'Radon' and the IAEA on cooperation in the field of development of new technologies, expert's advice to IAEA Member States, and, in particular, the training of personnel in the field of radioactive waste management (RWM), which opens up new perspectives for fruitful cooperation of industry professionals. The paper summarizes the current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organization and implementation of the IAEA sponsored training and others events and outlines some of strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years. (authors)

  19. Grain-scale stable carbon and oxygen isotopic variations of the international reference calcite, IAEA-603.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kozue; Ishimura, Toyoho

    2017-08-22

    The new international reference material IAEA-603 (calcite) for stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13) C and δ(18) O values) was released in 2016 to replace the previous reference material, NBS19 (exhausted). We examined the grain-scale isotopic variations of IAEA-603 for application to microscale isotopic analysis of carbonate samples. Individual grains of IAEA-603 were analyzed with an IsoPrime100 isotope ratio mass spectrometer with a customized continuous-flow gas preparation system (MICAL3c). The individual grains of IAEA-603 were observed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, and their observational characteristics (grain color and size) were compared with their stable isotope compositions. Translucent grains (main component of IAEA-603; grain weight, 4-132 μg) had homogeneous isotopic ratios, comparable with the grain-scale isotopic homogeneity of NBS 19. Their average δ(13) C and δ(18) O values were the same as the recommended values determined by the IAEA. Opaque (whitish) grains (1-2 per 100 grains; grain weight, 8-63 μg) were significantly more depleted in (13) C and (18) O than the translucent grains. Low abundance opaque grains (1-2 grains of 100 translucent grains) have lower δ(13) C and δ(18) O values, suggesting that these grains should be eliminated when using IAEA-603 for single grain (microscale) isotope analysis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and efficacy of aneurysm treatment with WEB in the cumulative population of three prospective, multicenter series.

    PubMed

    Pierot, Laurent; Moret, Jacques; Barreau, Xavier; Szikora, Istvan; Herbreteau, Denis; Turjman, Francis; Holtmannspötter, Markus; Januel, Anne-Christine; Costalat, Vincent; Fiehler, Jens; Klisch, Joachim; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Weber, Werner; Desal, Hubert; Velasco, Stéphane; Liebig, Thomas; Stockx, Luc; Berkefeld, Joachim; Molyneux, Andrew; Byrne, James; Spelle, Laurent

    2017-09-30

    Flow disruption with the WEB is an innovative endovascular approach for treatment of wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms. Initial studies have shown a low complication rate with good efficacy. To report clinical and anatomical results of the WEB treatment in the cumulative population of three Good Clinical Practice (GCP) studies: WEBCAST (WEB Clinical Assessment of Intrasaccular Aneurysm), French Observatory, and WEBCAST-2. WEBCAST, French Observatory, and WEBCAST-2 are single-arm, prospective, multicenter, GCP studies dedicated to the evaluation of WEB treatment. Clinical data were independently evaluated. Postoperative and 1-year aneurysm occlusion was independently evaluated using the 3-grade scale: complete occlusion, neck remnant, and aneurysm remnant. The cumulative population comprised 168 patients with 169 aneurysms, including 112 female subjects (66.7%). The patients' ages ranged between 27 and 77 years (mean 55.5±10.2 years). Aneurysm locations were middle cerebral artery in 86/169 aneurysms (50.9%), anterior communicating artery in 36/169 (21.3%), basilar artery in 30/169 (17.8%), and internal carotid artery terminus in 17/169 (10.1%). The aneurysm was ruptured in 14/169 (8.3%). There was no mortality at 1 month and procedure/device-related morbidity was 1.2% (2/168). At 1 year, complete aneurysm occlusion was observed in 81/153 aneurysms (52.9%), neck remnant in 40/153 aneurysms (26.1%), and aneurysm remnant in 32/153 aneurysms (20.9%). Re-treatment was carried out in 6.9%. This series is at the moment the largest prospective, multicenter, GCP series of patients with aneurysms treated with WEB. It shows the high safety and good mid-term efficacy of this treatment. French Observatory: Unique identifier (NCT18069); WEBCAST and WEBCAST-2: Unique identifier (NCT01778322). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. The IAEA neutron coincidence counting (INCC) and the DEMING least-squares fitting programs

    SciTech Connect

    Krick, M.S.; Harker, W.C.; Rinard, P.M.; Wenz, T.R.; Lewis, W.; Pham, P.; Ridder, P. de

    1998-12-01

    Two computer programs are described: (1) the INCC (IAEA or International Neutron Coincidence Counting) program and (2) the DEMING curve-fitting program. The INCC program is an IAEA version of the Los Alamos NCC (Neutron Coincidence Counting) code. The DEMING program is an upgrade of earlier Windows{reg_sign} and DOS codes with the same name. The versions described are INCC 3.00 and DEMING 1.11. The INCC and DEMING codes provide inspectors with the software support needed to perform calibration and verification measurements with all of the neutron coincidence counting systems used in IAEA inspections for the nondestructive assay of plutonium and uranium.

  2. Absolute dose determination in high-energy electron beams: Comparison of IAEA dosimetry protocols

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyan, S.; Ravikumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, absorbed doses were measured and compared for high-energy electrons (6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV) using International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Technical Reports Series No. 277 (TRS), TRS 381, and TRS 398 dosimetry protocols. Absolute dose measurements were carried out using FC65-G Farmer chamber and Nordic Association of Clinical Physicists (NACP) parallel plate chamber with DOSE1 electrometer in WP1-D water phantom for reference field size of 15 × 15 cm2 at 100 cm source-to-surface distance. The results show that the difference between TRS 398 and TRS 381 was about 0.24% to 1.3% depending upon the energy, and the maximum difference between TRS 398 and TRS 277 was 1.5%. The use of cylindrical chamber in electron beam gives the maximum dose difference between the TRS 398 and TRS 277 in the order of 1.4% for energies above 10 MeV (R50 > 4 g/cm2). It was observed that the accuracy of dose estimation was better with the protocols based on the water calibration procedures, as no conversion quantities are involved for conversion of dose from air to water. The cross-calibration procedure of parallel plate chamber with high-energy electron beams is recommended as it avoids pwall correction factor entering into the determination of kQ,Qo. PMID:19893700

  3. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    The technical assistance program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for its member states in the framework of the implementation of its program on radiation and tissue banking focuses on ensuring the availability of quality radiation-sterilised tissue grafts. The IAEA also helps its member states to develop quality control capabilities in order to ensure the safe use of the processed tissues in certain medical treatments. The majority of developing countries does not have such capacity, and must import expensive sterilised tissues from developed countries. The IAEA's core contribution to its program on radiation and tissue banking in Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions is a technology for sterilisation by gamma radiation and a training program for tissue bank operators and medical personnel. The Agency develops capabilities for radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts, both for reducing the pre-processing bacterial load, and as a terminal sterilisation process. Sterilising tissue grafts offers a clear advantage in terms of safety. Moreover, compared to alternative sterilisation methods, radiation sterilisation is considered particularly safe in relation to environmental concerns, and the deposition of harmful residuals in the tissue, which occurs for example in the use of chemical such as ethylene oxide gas. Radiation sterilisation, thus, has become the method of choice for an increasing number of tissue banks. Radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts is a critical component in the chain connecting donors to recipients of high quality tissue grafts. Due to this fact, the IAEA has evolved as the only organisation in the UN System with expertise related to tissue banking.

  4. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures.

  5. Development and validation of a model for tritium accumulation by a freshwater bivalve using the IAEA EMRAS scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, K.; Inoue, Y.; Takeda, H.; Yanagisawa, K.; Fuma, S.; Ishii, N.; Kuroda, N.; Yankovich, T.; Kim, S. B.; Davis, P.

    2008-07-15

    A six-compartment metabolic model for tritium accumulation by bivalves was developed and validated using two observed data sets supplied in an international IAEA program for validation of environmental models, EMRAS (Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety, 2003-2007). The data observed were presented in scenarios for model prediction of temporal change of HTO and OBT concentrations in Barnes mussels (Elliptio complanata). In the Uptake Scenario, mussels were transplanted from a site with background tritium concentrations into a lake, which has historically received tritium inputs over time from up-gradient waste management areas. Another data set was presented in the Depuration Scenario for model prediction of the temporal decrease in HTO and OBT concentrations in the mussels following transplantation from the lake into another lake with significantly lower tritium levels. The model simulation was able to reproduce the observation that the amount of hydrogen taken from sediment was very small compared with that taken from lake water. (authors)

  6. Radiation processing of natural polymers: The IAEA contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Safrany, Agnes; Sampa, Maria Helena de O.; Ramamoorthy, Natesan

    2010-03-01

    Radiation processing offers a clean and additive-free method for preparation of value-added novel materials based on renewable, non-toxic, and biodegradable natural polymers. Crosslinked natural polymers can be used as hydrogel wound dressings, face cleaning cosmetic masks, adsorbents of toxins, and non-bedsore mats; while low molecular weight products show antibiotic, antioxidant, and plant-growth promoting properties. Recognizing the potential benefits that radiation technology can offer for processing of natural polymers into useful products, the IAEA implemented a coordinated research project (CRP) on "Development of Radiation-processed products of Natural Polymers for application in Agriculture, Healthcare, Industry and Environment". This CRP was launched at the end of 2007 with participation of 16 MS to help connecting radiation technology and end-users to derive enhanced benefits from these new value-added products of radiation-processed natural materials. In this paper the results of activities in participating MS related to this work will be presented.

  7. The IAEA handbook on radionuclide transfer to wildlife.

    PubMed

    Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Copplestone, D; Telleria, D; Proehl, G; Fesenko, S; Jeffree, R A; Yankovich, T L; Brown, J E; Higley, K; Johansen, M P; Mulye, H; Vandenhove, H; Gashchak, S; Wood, M D; Takata, H; Andersson, P; Dale, P; Ryan, J; Bollhöfer, A; Doering, C; Barnett, C L; Wells, C

    2013-07-01

    An IAEA handbook presenting transfer parameter values for wildlife has recently been produced. Concentration ratios (CRwo-media) between the whole organism (fresh weight) and either soil (dry weight) or water were collated for a range of wildlife groups (classified taxonomically and by feeding strategy) in terrestrial, freshwater, marine and brackish generic ecosystems. The data have been compiled in an on line database, which will continue to be updated in the future providing the basis for subsequent revision of the Wildlife TRS values. An overview of the compilation and analysis, and discussion of the extent and limitations of the data is presented. Example comparisons of the CRwo-media values are given for polonium across all wildlife groups and ecosystems and for molluscs for all radionuclides. The CRwo-media values have also been compared with those currently used in the ERICA Tool which represented the most complete published database for wildlife transfer values prior to this work. The use of CRwo-media values is a pragmatic approach to predicting radionuclide activity concentrations in wildlife and is similar to that used for screening assessments for the human food chain. The CRwo-media values are most suitable for a screening application where there are several conservative assumptions built into the models which will, to varying extents, compensate for the variable data quality and quantity, and associated uncertainty.

  8. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  9. Framework for fuel-cycle approaches to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1986-10-01

    In order to compare several nuclear-safeguards verification approaches to one another and to the conventional facility-oriented approach, we establish a framework of the classes of information routinely verifiable by IAEA safeguards inspections. For each facility type within a State nuclear fuel cycle, the classes include flow data, inventory data, and shipper and receiver data. By showing which classes of information are verified for each facility type within three fuel cycles of different complexity, we distinguish the inspection approaches from one anoter and exhibit their fuel-cycle dependence, i.e., their need for sets of safeguards inspection activities different from those required under the facility-oriented approach at similar facilities in fuel cycles of differing complexity. Tables V-1, V-2, and V-3 graphically depict these relations and give a qualitative summary of the relative effectiveness and effort requirements of the approaches classified. The zone, information-correlation, diversion-assumption-change, and randomization-over-facilities approaches depend intrinsically on the complexity of the fuel cycle: their very definition implies fuel-cycle dependence. The approaches involving randomization over activities and goal relaxations do not have such dependence.

  10. Safety in radiation oncology: the role of international initiatives by the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Holmberg, Ola; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-11-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a wide range of initiatives that address the issue of safety. Quality assurance initiatives and comprehensive audits of radiotherapy services, such as the Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology, are available through the IAEA. Furthermore, the experience of the IAEA in thermoluminescence dosimetric audits has been transferred to the national level in various countries and has contributed to improvements in the quality and safety of radiotherapy. The IAEA is also involved in the development of a safety reporting and analysis system (Safety in Radiation Oncology). In addition, IAEA publications describe and analyze factors contributing to safety-related incidents around the world. The lack of sufficient trained, qualified staff members is addressed through IAEA programs. Initiatives include national, regional, and interregional technical cooperation projects, educational workshops, and fellowship training for radiation oncology professionals, as well as technical assistance in developing and initiating local radiation therapy, safety education, and training programs. The agency is also active in developing staffing guidelines and encourages advanced planning at a national level, aided by information collection systems such as the Directory of Radiotherapy Centers and technical cooperation project personnel planning, to prevent shortages of staff. The IAEA also promotes the safe procurement of equipment for radiation therapy centers within a comprehensive technical cooperation program that includes clinical, medical physics, and radiation safety aspects and review of local infrastructure (room layout, shielding, utilities, and radiation safety), the availability of qualified staff members (radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists and therapists), as well as relevant imaging, treatment planning, dosimetry, and quality control items. The IAEA has taken the lead in developing a

  11. Coordinated Research Projects of the IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2011-05-11

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit is dedicated to the provision of databases for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (AM/PMI) data that are relevant for nuclear fusion research. IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) are the principal mechanism by which the Unit encourages data evaluation and the production of new data. Ongoing and planned CRPs on AM/PMI data are briefly described here.

  12. IAEA activities related to radiation biology and health effects of radiation.

    PubMed

    Wondergem, Jan; Rosenblatt, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The IAEA is involved in capacity building with regard to the radiobiological sciences in its member states through its technical cooperation programme. Research projects/programmes are normally carried out within the framework of coordinated research projects (CRPs). Under this programme, two CRPs have been approved which are relevant to nuclear/radiation accidents: (1) stem cell therapeutics to modify radiation-induced damage to normal tissue, and (2) strengthening biological dosimetry in IAEA member states.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Nebulized Recombinant Human DNase as Rescue Treatment for Persistent Atelectasis in Newborns: Case-series

    PubMed Central

    Erdeve, Omer; Uras, Nurdan; Atasay, Begum; Arsan, Saadet

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy and safety of using recombinant human DNase (rhDNase) in diminishing persistent atelectasis unresponsive to conventional treatment and mucus plugging in newborns with insufficient ability to clear thick and purulent airway secretions. Methods Twelve newborns (10 preterms), who did not respond to conventional methods, received rhDNase nebulized therapy at a dose of 1.25 mg over a 15-minute period, twice a day (2 hours between the doses) for up to 3 days. The application of the drug was continued for up to 3 days or until the improvement of atelectasis. After a-three-day therapy, if atelectasis did not improve, a single dose (1.25 mg) of the same drug in liquid form was administered endotracheally. Clinical (respiration rate, requirement for oxygen concentration) and radiological response (chest x-ray scoring), duration of the treatment, recurrence of atelectasis and requirement for additional therapy were evaluated. Results Ten out of 12 patients showed rapid clinical and radiological improvement after nebulized treatment. Two patients who did not respond to the three-day regimen received a single dose of the drug endotracheally and both recovered completely. Six patients did not require completion of three day regimen for radiological recovery. Chest x-ray scores and respiratory parameters showed significant improvement after the treatment. The respective median (range) values before and after treatment were 4 (1-5) and 0 (0-4) points for chest x-ray scores, 66 (60-78) and 49 (44-64) breaths/min for respiratory rates, and 45% (35-64) and 30% (21-40) for oxygen requirement. Comparison of pCO2 before (median, 56 mm Hg; range, 46-64) and after treatment (median, 41 mm Hg; range 38-58) in 7 patients showed significant improvement. Conclusion In a large series of newborns to receive rhDNase and we demonstrated the usefulness of rhDNase as a mucolytic agent in treating newborns with persistent atelectasis who do not respond to other

  14. The Invisible Worker: Highlights of the Ohio Migrant Farm Worker Safety Needs Assessment. Working Paper Series WP-024.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Thomas L.; Isaacs, Linda K.

    The Ohio Migrant Farm Worker Safety Needs Assessment was conducted to obtain baseline data on why migrant farm workers are at high risk of injury and illness in Ohio. First, 106 migrant farm workers were interviewed at clinics, labor camps, and job sites. Information concerning demographics, safety training, and incidence of occupational injury…

  15. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Containment and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz,R.A.

    2008-06-13

    The United States Support Program (USSP) priority for containment and surveillance (US) focuses on maintaining or improving the reliability and cost-effectiveness of C/S systems for IAEA safeguards, expanding the number of systems that are unattended and remotely monitored, and developing verification methods that help streamline the on-site inspection process. Existing IAEA C/S systems have evolved to become complex, integrated systems, which may include active seals, nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments, video cameras, and other sensors. These systems operate autonomously. They send analytical data to IAEA headquarters where it can be reviewed. These systems present challenges to the goals of improved system performance, standardization, reliability, maintainability, documentation, and cost effectiveness. One critical lesson from past experiences is the need for cooperation and common objectives among the IAEA, the developer, and the facility operator, to create a successful, cost effective system. Recent USSP C/S activities include Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant safeguard systems, production of a new shift register, numerous vulnerability assessments of C/S systems, a conduit monitoring system which identifies tampering of IAEA conduit deployed in the field, fiber optic seal upgrades, unattended monitoring system software upgrades, next generation surveillance system which will upgrade existing camera systems, and support of the IAEA's development of the universal nondestructive assay data acquisition platform.

  16. Total safety management: An approach to improving safety culture

    SciTech Connect

    Blush, S.M. )

    1993-01-01

    A little over 4 yr ago, Admiral James D. Watkins became Secretary of Energy. President Bush, who had appointed him, informed Watkins that his principal task would be to clean up the nuclear weapons complex and put the US Department of Energy (DOE) back in the business of producing tritium for the nation's nuclear deterrent. Watkins recognized that in order to achieve these objectives, he would have to substantially improve the DOE's safety culture. Safety culture is a relatively new term. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) used it in a 1986 report on the root causes of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. In 1990, the IAEA's International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group issued a document focusing directly on safety culture. It provides guidelines to the international nuclear community for measuring the effectiveness of safety culture in nuclear organizations. Safety culture has two principal aspects: an organizational framework conducive to safety and the necessary organizational and individual attitudes that promote safety. These obviously go hand in hand. An organization must create the right framework to foster the right attitudes, but individuals must have the right attitudes to create the organizational framework that will support a good safety culture. The difficulty in developing such a synergistic relationship suggests that achieving and sustaining a strong safety culture is not easy, particularly in an organization whose safety culture is in serious disrepair.

  17. Safety and Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthelot, Ronald J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This series of five articles highlights Pensacola Junior College's occupational safety course, involving simulated emergencies, Florida's standards for teacher liability, electrical safety in the classroom and laboratory, color coding for machine safety, and Florida industrial arts safety instructional materials. (SK)

  18. Automated Controlled-Potential Coulometer for the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.V.; Holland, M.K.; Fields, T.

    1998-01-29

    An automated controlled-potential coulometer has been developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for the determination of plutonium for use at the International Atomic Energy Agency`s (IAEA) Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Siebersdorf, Austria. The system is functionally the same as earlier systems built for use at the Savannah River Site`s Analytical Laboratory. All electronic circuits and printed circuits boards have been upgraded with state-of-the-art components. A higher amperage potentiostat with improved control stability has been developed. The system achieves electronic calibration accuracy and linearity of better than 0.01 percent, with a precision and accuracy better than 0.1 percent has been demonstrated. This coulometer features electrical calibration of the integration system, electrolysis current background corrections, and control-potential adjustment capabilities. These capabilities allow application of the system to plutonium measurements without chemical standards, achieving traceability to the international measurement system through electrical standards and Faraday`s constant. the chemist is provided with the capability to perform measurements without depending upon chemical standards, which is a significant advantage for applications such as characterization of primary and secondary standards. Additional benefits include reducing operating cost to procure, prepare and measure calibration standards and the corresponding decrease in radioactive waste generation. The design and documentation of the automated instrument are provided herein. Each individual module`s operation, wiring, layout, and alignment are described. Interconnection of the modules and system calibration are discussed. A complete set of prints and a list of associated parts are included.

  19. Lessons from UNSCOM/IAEA applicable to nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, D.W.

    1995-12-05

    In early 1991, the Security Council of the United Nations tasked the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency, with the assistance and cooperation of the United Nations Special Commission, to oversee the destruction, removal or rendering harmless of nuclear weapons material and capabilities in Iraq. The conduct of the nuclear inspections, and the subsequent activities (identification, destruction, removal rendering harmless), have provided a wealth of experience and insight into the inspection and monitoring process as well as into the political realities of such an operation. The early inspections were conducted in an atmosphere of discovery and inexperience on both the part of the Iraqis and the IAEA and UNSCOM. As time went on, the Iraqis became more adept at hiding and obscuring relevant documents and equipment, and the inspection teams became more knowledgeable about inspection and investigative techniques, and the pre-existing Iraqi programs. A continuous monitoring presence in Iraq has now been established and an import/export monitoring regime is being developed. While steps taken to date have proven effective in inhibiting resumption of nuclear weaponization activities, it remains to be seen how effective these measures will be in the future. The external and internal conditions which led the Iraqi leadership to undertake a nuclear weaponization program have not changed, and the prognosis for the long term is uncertain. The entire process in Iraq has shown how fragile are the tools available to the international community, and how a determined proliferator can evade inspection and monitoring measures. Such measures cannot prevent nuclear proliferation, they can only hope to deter it, or, failing in that, detect it.

  20. Containment and surveillance -- A principal IAEA safeguards measure

    SciTech Connect

    Drayer, D.D.; Dupree, S.A.; Sonnier, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    The growth of the safeguards inspectorate of the Agency, spanning more than 40 years, has produced a variety of interesting subjects (legal, technical, political, etc.) for recollection, discussion, and study. Although the Agency was established in 1957, the first practical inspections did not occur until the early 1960s. In the early inspections, thee was little C/S equipment available, and no optical surveillance was used. However, by the third decade of the IAEA, the 1980s, many technology advances were made, and the level of C/S equipment activities increased. By the late 1980s, some 200 Twin Minolta film camera systems were deployed by the Agency for safeguards use. At the present time, the Agency is evaluating and beginning to implement remote monitoring as part of the Strengthened Safeguards System. However, adoption of remote monitoring by international agencies cannot occur rapidly because of the many technical and policy issues associated with this activity. A glimpse into the future indicates that an important element of safeguards instrumentation will be the merging of C/S and NDA equipment into integrated systems. The use of modern interior area monitors in International Safeguards also offers a great potential for advancing C/S measures. The research in microsensors is in its infancy, and the opportunities for their reducing the cost, increasing the life time, and increasing the reliability of sensors for safeguards applications are manifold. A period may be approaching in which the terminology of C/S will no longer have its original meaning, as integrated systems combining NDA instruments and C/S instruments are already in use and are expected to be the norm in the near future.

  1. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  2. IAEA programs in empowering the nuclear medicine profession through online educational resources.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Thomas Nb; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Kashyap, Ravi; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) programme in human health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases through the application of nuclear techniques. It has the specific mission of fostering the application of nuclear medicine techniques as part of the clinical management of certain types of diseases. Attuned to the continuous evolution of this specialty as well as to the advancement and diversity of methods in delivering capacity building efforts in this digital age, the section of nuclear medicine of the IAEA has enhanced its program by incorporating online educational resources for nuclear medicine professionals into its repertoire of projects to further its commitment in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine. Through online educational resources such as the Human Health Campus website, e-learning modules, and scheduled interactive webinars, a validation of the commitment by the IAEA in addressing the needs of its Member States in the field of nuclear medicine is strengthened while utilizing the advanced internet and communications technology which is progressively becoming available worldwide. The Human Health Campus (www.humanhealth.iaea.org) is the online educational resources initiative of the Division of Human Health of the IAEA geared toward enhancing professional knowledge of health professionals in radiation medicine (nuclear medicine and diagnostic imaging, radiation oncology, and medical radiation physics), and nutrition. E-learning modules provide an interactive learning environment to its users while providing immediate feedback for each task accomplished. Webinars, unlike webcasts, offer the opportunity of enhanced interaction with the learners facilitated through slide shows where the presenter guides and engages the audience using video and live streaming. This paper explores the IAEA's available online

  3. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3).

    PubMed

    Mora, Patricia; Blanco, Susana; Khoury, Helen; Leyton, Fernando; Cárdenas, Juan; Defaz, María Yolanda; Garay, Fernando; Telón, Flaviano; Aguilar, Juan Garcia; Roas, Norma; Gamarra, Mirtha; Blanco, Daniel; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Nader, Alejandro

    2015-03-01

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them D(G) (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  4. Documentation and Analysis of IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safeguards Implementation at the Exxon Nuclear Fuel Fabrication Plant.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Those efforts also resulted in the development of innovative approaches for improving effectiveness and minimizing the cost burden. The experience showed...approaches for improving effectiveness and minimizing the cost burden. The experience showed that IAEA safeguards could be technically effective...services such as the cost of shipping the IAEA equipment to other locations in the U.S. and for providing the IAEA with working standards for use at the U.S

  5. Impact of a health safety warning and prior authorisation on the use of piroxicam: a time-series study.

    PubMed

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Pia-Morandeira, Agustin; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quantitative changes in systemic use of piroxicam after the issue of a health safety warning about its risks and the subsequent implementation of prior authorisation. We determined the number of monthly daily defined doses/1000 inhabitants/day (DHDs) of piroxicam in the period 2005-2008 in a health area in Spain. The data were analysed graphically, and the impact of the safety warning and introduction of prior authorisation were estimated by using segmented regression analysis. The graph showed that the number of DHDs of piroxicam was stable both before and after the health safety warning but registered a very marked decrease after implementation of prior authorisation, after which DHDs of piroxicam remained stable at a 98% inferior level compared with previous to prior authorisation. Segmented regression analysis showed no statistically significant immediate jump in piroxicam utilisation after the safety warning nor a change in the slope afterwards, but it did show a significant immediate jump after prior authorisation. Population exposure to systemic piroxicam remained unaffected by a previous health safety warning but declined sharply after the introduction of prior authorisation. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. IAEA Safeguards and technical support programs: POTAS in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, C.J. . Office of Nuclear Technology and Safeguards); Reisman, A.W. )

    1991-01-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) has since 1978 provided technology and technical assistance to the IAEA to support its nuclear safeguards activities. The present level of support, $6.9 million per year, equals 10% of the Department of Safeguards annual budget. During the next decade, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) will face new technical challenges in carrying out its verification activities. To help the IAEA acquire the technology and other technical support that it will require in the 1990s, POTAS expects to continue its assistance, both in the areas established in the past and in additional areas dictated by newly identified IAEA safeguards requirements. This paper will look at the political and policy context within which the Department of Safeguards, and hence POTAS, operates, and how that context is expected to evolve over the next decade. The roles and functions of POTAS will be identified and discussed in terms of their historical evolution. Lastly, the paper will consider how POTAS is expected to change during the 1990s, both to maintain effectiveness in existing roles and functions, and to meet the challenge of the changing policy context. 5 refs.

  7. Cooperation between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA Under the State-Level Concept:

    SciTech Connect

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Johnson, Jaclyn M

    2012-01-01

    The role of State and Regional Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs/RSACs) will increase within the framework of the state-level concept that is being implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to effectively implement the concept and further establish a state-level approach, which is sought to tailor safeguards activities in a specific state accordingly, collaboration between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is very important. Nevertheless, the implementation of such concept is not simple. Optimal relationship between operators and national/governmental authorities and between SSACs/RSACs and the IAEA is an evolving process. Benefits of such an approach as well as roles and responsibilities must be made clear to all parties involved. Acknowledging the uniqueness and diversity of SSACs/RSACs is a first step, followed by the implementation of confidence-building measures that result from an efficient communication process, and culminating with a transparent technical cooperation program. This paper analyses various aspects of the complex relationship among all parties involved in the implementation of the state-level concept: operators, national authorities, government agencies, SSACs/RSACs, and the IAEA. The author analyses the intricate network of possibilities to improve cooperation and discusses issues involving the provision of additional and voluntary information by SSACs/RSACs to the IAEA.

  8. Time Series Analysis of the Effectiveness and Safety of Capsule Endoscopy between the Premarketing and Postmarketing Settings: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, Kazuo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical studies for assessing the effectiveness and safety in a premarketing setting are conducted under time and cost constraints. In recent years, postmarketing data analysis has been given more attention. However, to our knowledge, no studies have compared the effectiveness and the safety between the pre- and postmarketing settings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of the postmarketing data analysis using clinical data. Methods and Findings Studies on capsule endoscopy with rich clinical data in both pre- and postmarketing settings were selected for the analysis. For effectiveness, clinical studies published before October 10, 2015 comparing capsule endoscopy and conventional flexible endoscopy measuring the detection ratio of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were selected (premarketing: 4 studies and postmarketing: 8 studies) from PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Web of Science. Among the 12 studies, 5 were blinded and 7 were non-blinded. A time series meta-analysis was conducted. Effectiveness (odds ratio) decreased in the postmarketing setting (premarketing: 5.19 [95% confidence interval: 3.07–8.76] vs. postmarketing: 1.48 [0.81–2.69]). The change in odds ratio was caused by the increase in the detection ratio with flexible endoscopy as the control group. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy did not change between pre- and postmarketing settings. Heterogeneity (I2) increased in the postmarketing setting because of one study. For safety, in terms of endoscope retention in the body, data from the approval summary and adverse event reports were analyzed. The incidence of retention decreased in the postmarketing setting (premarketing: 0.75% vs postmarketing: 0.095%). The introduction of the new patency capsule for checking the patency of the digestive tract might contribute to the decrease. Conclusions Effectiveness and safety could change in the postmarketing setting. Therefore, time series meta-analyses could be

  9. Time Series Analysis of the Effectiveness and Safety of Capsule Endoscopy between the Premarketing and Postmarketing Settings: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Kazuo; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies for assessing the effectiveness and safety in a premarketing setting are conducted under time and cost constraints. In recent years, postmarketing data analysis has been given more attention. However, to our knowledge, no studies have compared the effectiveness and the safety between the pre- and postmarketing settings. In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of the postmarketing data analysis using clinical data. Studies on capsule endoscopy with rich clinical data in both pre- and postmarketing settings were selected for the analysis. For effectiveness, clinical studies published before October 10, 2015 comparing capsule endoscopy and conventional flexible endoscopy measuring the detection ratio of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding were selected (premarketing: 4 studies and postmarketing: 8 studies) from PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Web of Science. Among the 12 studies, 5 were blinded and 7 were non-blinded. A time series meta-analysis was conducted. Effectiveness (odds ratio) decreased in the postmarketing setting (premarketing: 5.19 [95% confidence interval: 3.07-8.76] vs. postmarketing: 1.48 [0.81-2.69]). The change in odds ratio was caused by the increase in the detection ratio with flexible endoscopy as the control group. The efficacy of capsule endoscopy did not change between pre- and postmarketing settings. Heterogeneity (I2) increased in the postmarketing setting because of one study. For safety, in terms of endoscope retention in the body, data from the approval summary and adverse event reports were analyzed. The incidence of retention decreased in the postmarketing setting (premarketing: 0.75% vs postmarketing: 0.095%). The introduction of the new patency capsule for checking the patency of the digestive tract might contribute to the decrease. Effectiveness and safety could change in the postmarketing setting. Therefore, time series meta-analyses could be useful to continuously monitor the effectiveness

  10. Evaluation Series on Safety and Efficacy of Nutritional Supplements in Newly Diagnosed Hyperglycemia: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Hemant; Bantwal, Ganapati; Jain, Sunil; Kalra, Sanjay; Kale, Shailaja; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Jugal B.; Sivam, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is endemic with developing economies contributing to the bulk of this pandemic. Despite the evidence of incremental benefit of glycemic control starting early in life, acceptance of and adherence to modern medications remain suboptimal. Aims: To determine the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-lowering efficacy and safety of nutritional supplement, PreCrea®, in adult Indians with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: Double-blind, randomized study conducted in six diabetes centers in India. A total of 193 treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >100 mg/dL were randomized into either PreCrea® 600 mg (n = 90) or matched placebo (n = 89) capsules twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 weeks. The main outcomes were changes in HbA1c and FPG levels, attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)-defined goals for HbA1c, and clinical and biochemical measures of safety. Results: At 12 weeks, mean HbA1c in PreCrea® group reduced by 0.91% compared with 0.08% increase in the placebo group (P < .001). The reductions in the mean FPG at week 4 (P < .001) and week 12 (P = 0.04) were significant compared to the baseline. ADA goal of HbA1c <7% increased from 15.5% at the baseline to 35.6% at week 12 in PreCrea® subjects. Clinical safety and biochemical safety did not change. Hypoglycemia and weight gain were not observed with PreCrea®. Conclusions: Nearly 1% point reduction in HbA1c at week 12 with PreCrea® is comparable with most first-line glucose-lowering drugs. The safety and tolerability of PreCrea® highlights its potential as a first-line therapy in newly detected hyperglycemia. PMID:27042609

  11. IAEA Nuclear Data Section: provision of atomic and nuclear databases for user applications.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Denis P; Nichols, Alan L; Schwerer, Otto

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Section (NDS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides a wide range of atomic and nuclear data services to scientists worldwide, with particular emphasis placed on the needs of developing countries. Highly focused Co-ordinated Research Projects and multinational data networks are sponsored under the auspices of the IAEA for the development and assembly of databases through the organised participation of specialists from Member States. More than 100 data libraries are readily available cost-free through the Internet, CD-ROM and other media. These databases are used in a wide range of applications, including fission- and fusion-energy, non-energy applications and basic research studies. Further information concerning the various services can be found through the web address of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section: and a mirror site at IPEN, Brazil that is maintained by NDS staff:.

  12. Project plan international atomic energy agency (IAEA) safeguards project plutonium finishing plant

    SciTech Connect

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-05-13

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the PFP Integrated Project Management Plan (PMP), HNF-3617, Rev. 0. This project plan is the top-level definitive project management document for the PFP IAEA project. It specifies the technical, schedule, requirements and the cost baselines to manage the execution of the IAEA project. Any deviations to the document must be authorized through the appropriate change control process.

  13. IAEA workshop and field trial at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, D.M. Jr.; Ross, H.H.; Carter, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    In March 1994, members of the International Safeguards Department in the National Security Program Office (NSPO) hosted an environmental monitoring field trial workshop for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors. The workshop was held at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and its primary purpose was to train the inspectors in the techniques needed for effective environmental sample collection and handling. The workshop emphasized both sampling theory and practice. First, detailed techniques for swipe, vegetation, soil, biota, and water-associated sampling were covered in the classroom. Subsequently, the inspectors were divided into three groups for actual sample collection in and around the K-25 locale. The collected samples were processed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Network of Analytical Laboratories using established analytical techniques. This activity is part of the IAEA ``Programme 93+2 in. assessment of measures to enhance IAEA safeguards.

  14. Development of an IAEA Training Course for Future U.S. Inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Savannah Avgerinos Fitzwater; Amanda R. Rynes; David S. Bracken; Richard R. M. Metcalf; James D. West

    2011-07-01

    U.S. citizens currently make up only 12% of the positions held in the IAEA’s Department of Safeguards. While the United States has maintained a high level of support for the Agency over the duration of its history, the number of American inspectors currently in the field does not reflect this level of involvement. As a result, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Relations, as part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) mission, has tasked Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to develop a rigorous two week hands-on training program to encourage and operationally acclimatize U.S. Citizens who are interested in applying for IAEA inspector positions using IAEA authorized equipment at INL. Idaho National Laboratory is one-of-a-kind in its ability to train IAEA inspectors by including training at nuclear facilities on site and includes, for example, direct measurement of an active spent fuel storage cooling pond. This accredited course will introduce and train attendees on the major IAEA systems used in collecting nuclear safeguards data and performing safeguards inspections. Unique in the United States, these classes will give attendees direct hands-on training and will address equipment purpose, function, operating principles, application, and troubleshooting, based upon what would be expected of an IAEA Safeguards Inspector in the field and in the office. Upon completion, U.S. applicants will be better qualified to pursue a position in the IAEA Department of Safeguards Operational Divisions. In support, INL has recently established a new laboratory space to house state of the art nuclear safeguards instrumentation. Currently, equipment installed in the laboratory space includes attended systems: 3DLR (3-D Imaging Laser) for design information verification, a Digital Cerenkov Viewing Device for measurement of spent fuel, HM-5 handheld radiation detectors, quantitative neutron and gamma systems; unattended monitoring

  15. Results for Phase I of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Yoon, Su Jong

    2015-01-01

    The quantification of uncertainties in design and safety analysis of reactors is today not only broadly accepted, but in many cases became the preferred way to replace traditional conservative analysis for safety and licensing analysis. The use of a more fundamental methodology is also consistent with the reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes available today. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR) has its own peculiarities, coated particle design, large graphite quantities, different materials and high temperatures that also require other simulation requirements. The IAEA has therefore launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling (UAM) in 2013 to study uncertainty propagation specifically in the HTGR analysis chain. Two benchmark problems are defined, with the prismatic design represented by the General Atomics (GA) MHTGR-350 and a 250 MW modular pebble bed design similar to the HTR-PM (INET, China). This report summarizes the contributions of the HTGR Methods Simulation group at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) up to this point of the CRP. The activities at INL have been focused so far on creating the problem specifications for the prismatic design, as well as providing reference solutions for the exercises defined for Phase I. An overview is provided of the HTGR UAM objectives and scope, and the detailed specifications for Exercises I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4 are also included here for completeness. The main focus of the report is the compilation and discussion of reference results for Phase I (i.e. for input parameters at their nominal or best-estimate values), which is defined as the first step of the uncertainty quantification process. These reference results can be used by other CRP participants for comparison with other codes or their own reference

  16. Training in Tbilisi nuclear facility provides new sampling perspectives for IAEA inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2016-06-08

    Office of Nonproliferation and Arms Control- (NPAC-) sponsored training in a “cold” nuclear facility in Tbilisi, Georgia provides International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors with a new perspective on environmental sampling strategies. Sponsored by the Nuclear Safeguards program under the NPAC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) experts have been conducting an annual weeklong class for IAEA inspectors in a closed nuclear facility since 2011. The Andronikashvili Institute of Physics and the Republic of Georgia collaborate with PNNL to provide the training, and the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Embassy in Tbilisi and the U.S. Mission to International Organizations in Vienna provide logistical support.

  17. The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards - How It Works

    SciTech Connect

    Nock,C.; Hoffheins,B.

    2008-07-13

    The U.S. Support Program to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards (USSP) was established in 1977 to transfer US technology and expertise to assist the IAEA Department of Safeguards because its limited budget and scope would not allow for R&D activities and the procurement of specialized or customized equipment. Over the years, the USSP and the Department of Safeguards have worked together continuously to develop and improve processes for requesting, selecting, and managing projects that support the Safeguards verification mission. This paper will discuss the main USSP processes for accepting and processing Safeguards requests, and managing and reporting task progress.

  18. RECRUITMENT OF U.S. CITIZENS FOR VACANCIES IN IAEA SAFEGUARDS.

    SciTech Connect

    OCCHIOGROSSO, D.; PEPPER, S.

    2006-07-16

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on its member states to assist with recruiting qualified individuals for positions within the IAEA's secretariat. It is likewise important to the U.S. government for U.S. citizens to take positions with the IAEA to contribute to its success. It is important for persons within and outside the U.S. nuclear and safeguards industries to become aware of the job opportunities available at the IAEA and to be informed of important vacancies as they arise. The International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is tasked by the U.S. government with recruiting candidates for positions within the Department of Safeguards at the IAEA and since 1998, has been actively seeking methods for improving outreach. In addition, ISPO has been working more closely with the IAEA Division of Personnel. ISPO staff members attend trade shows to distribute information about IAEA opportunities. The shows target the nuclear industry as well as shows that are unrelated to the nuclear industry. ISPO developed a web site that provides information for prospective candidates. They have worked with the IAEA to understand its recruitment processes, to make suggestions for improvements, and to understand employment benefits so they can be communicated to potential U.S. applicants. ISPO is also collaborating with a State Department working group that is focused on increasing U.S. representation within the United Nations as a whole. Most recently Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice issued a letter to all Federal Agency heads encouraging details and transfers of their employees to international organizations to the maximum extent feasible and with due regard to their manpower requirements. She urged all federal agencies to review their detail and transfer policies and practices to ensure that employment in international organizations is promoted in a positive and active manner. In addition, she wrote that it is

  19. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION AND SAFETY: Challenges Facing the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    safeguards), and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident have focused greater attention on nuclear proliferation and the safety of nuclear power... Chernobyl , IAEA has placed increasing emphasis on assisting member states in improving the safety of nuclear power plants. Despite funding shortfalls...report language, GAO has incorporated their comments where appropriate. 2Nuclear Power Safety: Chernobyl Accident Prompted Worldwide Actions but

  20. First series of total robotic hysterectomy (TRH) using new integrated table motion for the da Vinci Xi: feasibility, safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Andrea; Russo, Eleonora; Mannella, Paolo; Palla, Giulia; Pisaneschi, Silvia; Cecchi, Elena; Maremmani, Michele; Morelli, Luca; Perutelli, Alessandra; Cela, Vito; Melfi, Franca; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2017-08-01

    To present the first case series of total robotic hysterectomy (TRH), using integrated table motion (ITM), which is a new feature comprising a unique operating table by Trumpf Medical that communicates wirelessly with the da Vinci Xi surgical system. ITM has been specifically developed to improve multiquadrant robotic surgery such as that conducted in colorectal surgery. Between May and October 2015, a prospective post-market study was conducted on ITM in the EU in 40 cases from different specialties. The gynecological study group comprised 12 patients. Primary endpoints were ITM feasibility, safety and efficacy. Ten patients underwent TRH. Mean number of ITM moves was three during TRH; there were 31 instances of table moves in the ten procedures. Twenty-eight of 31 ITM moves were made to gain internal exposure. The endoscope remained inserted during 29 of the 31 table movements (94%), while the instruments remained inserted during 27 of the 31 moves (87%). No external instrument collisions or other problems related to the operating table were noted. There were no ITM safety-related observations and no adverse events. This preliminary study demonstrated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of ITM for the da Vinci Xi surgical system in TRH. ITM was safe, with no adverse events related to its use. Further studies will be useful to define the real role and potential benefit of ITM in gynecological surgery.

  1. Addressing patient safety through the use of 'criteria of acceptability' for medical radiation equipment.

    PubMed

    Gilley, Debbie Bray; Holmberg, Ola

    2013-02-01

    Patient safety should be considered in the use of ionising radiation equipment in medicine. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) establishes standards of safety and provides for the application of these standards, also in the area of medical use of radiation. Equipment acceptability, as it relates to radiation in medicine, is the need to satisfy the requirements or standards prior to the use of the device in patient imaging or treatment. Through IAEA activities in establishing and developing Safety Standards, Safety Reports and recommendations to regulatory authorities and end-users, it encourages the adoption of acceptability criteria that are relevant to the medical equipment and its use.

  2. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Phase I Status and Initial Results

    SciTech Connect

    Strydom, Gerhard; Bostelmann, Friederike; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2014-10-01

    required confidence level. In order to address uncertainty propagation in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) that officially started in 2013. Although this project focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements, many lessons can be learned from the LWR community and the significant progress already made towards a consistent methodology uncertainty analysis. In the case of LWRs the NRC has already in 1988 amended 10 CFR 50.46 to allow best-estimate (plus uncertainties) calculations of emergency core cooling system performance. The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) also established an Expert Group on "Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling" which finally led to the definition of the "Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs". The CRP on HTGR UAM will follow as far as possible the on-going OECD Light Water Reactor UAM benchmark activity.

  3. Safety assessment guidance in the International Atomic Energy Agency RADWASS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vovk, I.F.; Seitz, R.R.

    1995-12-31

    The IAEA RADWASS programme is aimed at establishing a coherent and comprehensive set of principles and standards for the safe management of waste and formulating the guidelines necessary for their application. A large portion of this programme has been devoted to safety assessments for various waste management activities. Five Safety Guides are planned to be developed to provide general guidance to enable operators and regulators to develop necessary framework for safety assessment process in accordance with international recommendations. They cover predisposal, near surface disposal, geological disposal, uranium/thorium mining and milling waste, and decommissioning and environmental restoration. The Guide on safety assessment for near surface disposal is at the most advanced stage of preparation. This draft Safety Guide contains guidance on description of the disposal system, development of a conceptual model, identification and description of relevant scenarios and pathways, consequence analysis, presentation of results and confidence building. The set of RADWASS publications is currently undergoing in-depth review to ensure a harmonized approach throughout the Safety Series.

  4. Testing the methodology for dosimetry audit of heterogeneity corrections and small MLC-shaped fields: Results of IAEA multi-center studies

    PubMed Central

    Izewska, Joanna; Wesolowska, Paulina; Azangwe, Godfrey; Followill, David S.; Thwaites, David I.; Arib, Mehenna; Stefanic, Amalia; Viegas, Claudio; Suming, Luo; Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulski, Wojciech; Georg, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a long tradition of supporting development of methodologies for national networks providing quality audits in radiotherapy. A series of co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) has been conducted by the IAEA since 1995 assisting national external audit groups developing national audit programs. The CRP ‘Development of Quality Audits for Radiotherapy Dosimetry for Complex Treatment Techniques’ was conducted in 2009–2012 as an extension of previously developed audit programs. Material and methods. The CRP work described in this paper focused on developing and testing two steps of dosimetry audit: verification of heterogeneity corrections, and treatment planning system (TPS) modeling of small MLC fields, which are important for the initial stages of complex radiation treatments, such as IMRT. The project involved development of a new solid slab phantom with heterogeneities containing special measurement inserts for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic films. The phantom and the audit methodology has been developed at the IAEA and tested in multi-center studies involving the CRP participants. Results. The results of multi-center testing of methodology for two steps of dosimetry audit show that the design of audit procedures is adequate and the methodology is feasible for meeting the audit objectives. A total of 97% TLD results in heterogeneity situations obtained in the study were within 3% and all results within 5% agreement with the TPS predicted doses. In contrast, only 64% small beam profiles were within 3 mm agreement between the TPS calculated and film measured doses. Film dosimetry results have highlighted some limitations in TPS modeling of small beam profiles in the direction of MLC leave movements. Discussion. Through multi-center testing, any challenges or difficulties in the proposed audit methodology were identified, and the methodology improved. Using the experience of these

  5. Testing the methodology for dosimetry audit of heterogeneity corrections and small MLC-shaped fields: Results of IAEA multi-center studies.

    PubMed

    Izewska, Joanna; Wesolowska, Paulina; Azangwe, Godfrey; Followill, David S; Thwaites, David I; Arib, Mehenna; Stefanic, Amalia; Viegas, Claudio; Suming, Luo; Ekendahl, Daniela; Bulski, Wojciech; Georg, Dietmar

    2016-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a long tradition of supporting development of methodologies for national networks providing quality audits in radiotherapy. A series of co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) has been conducted by the IAEA since 1995 assisting national external audit groups developing national audit programs. The CRP 'Development of Quality Audits for Radiotherapy Dosimetry for Complex Treatment Techniques' was conducted in 2009-2012 as an extension of previously developed audit programs. The CRP work described in this paper focused on developing and testing two steps of dosimetry audit: verification of heterogeneity corrections, and treatment planning system (TPS) modeling of small MLC fields, which are important for the initial stages of complex radiation treatments, such as IMRT. The project involved development of a new solid slab phantom with heterogeneities containing special measurement inserts for thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic films. The phantom and the audit methodology has been developed at the IAEA and tested in multi-center studies involving the CRP participants. The results of multi-center testing of methodology for two steps of dosimetry audit show that the design of audit procedures is adequate and the methodology is feasible for meeting the audit objectives. A total of 97% TLD results in heterogeneity situations obtained in the study were within 3% and all results within 5% agreement with the TPS predicted doses. In contrast, only 64% small beam profiles were within 3 mm agreement between the TPS calculated and film measured doses. Film dosimetry results have highlighted some limitations in TPS modeling of small beam profiles in the direction of MLC leave movements. Through multi-center testing, any challenges or difficulties in the proposed audit methodology were identified, and the methodology improved. Using the experience of these studies, the participants could incorporate the auditing

  6. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    ScienceCinema

    Secretary Chu

    2016-07-12

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  7. The US Support Program to IAEA Safeguards Priority of Training and Human Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Queirolo,A.

    2008-06-13

    The U.S. Support Program to IAEA Safeguards (USSP) priority of training and human resources is aimed at providing the Department of Safeguards with an appropriate mixture of regular staff and extrabudgetary experts who are qualified to meet the IAEA's technical needs and to provide personnel with appropriate instruction to improve the technical basis and specific skills needed to perform their job functions. The equipment and methods used in inspection activities are unique, complex, and evolving. New and experienced safeguards inspectors need timely and effective training to perform required tasks and to learn new skills prescribed by new safeguards policies or agreements. The role of the inspector has changed from that of strictly an accountant to include that of a detective. New safeguards procedures are being instituted, and therefore, experienced inspectors must be educated on these new procedures. The USSP also recognizes the need for training safeguards support staff, particularly those who maintain and service safeguards equipment (SGTS), and those who perform information collection and analysis (SGIM). The USSP is committed to supporting the IAEA with training to ensure the effectiveness of all staff members and will continue to offer its assistance in the development and delivery of basic, refresher, and advanced training courses. This paper will discuss the USSP ongoing support in the area of training and IAEA staffing.

  8. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  9. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Pla; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-14

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project 'Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds' in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  10. Project Management Plan (PMP) for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Project

    SciTech Connect

    BARTLETT, W.D.

    1999-09-14

    This plan presents the overall objectives, description, justification and planning for the PFP IAEA project. The intent of this plan is to describe how this project will be managed and integrated with other facility stabilization and deactivation activities. This plan supplements the overall integrated plan presented in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Integrated Project Management Plan (IPMP) HNF-3617 Rev 0.

  11. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu speaks to the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation

    SciTech Connect

    Secretary Chu

    2009-09-15

    On Sept. 14, 2009, U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu addressed the 2009 IAEA General Conference delegation. Chu is the first Cabinet official to discuss President Obama's nuclear security and nonproliferation agenda outside the United States since the President delivered his landmark speech in Prague in April 2009.

  12. 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: Summary Of Sessions EX/C and ICC

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, R J

    2011-01-05

    An overview is given of recent experimental results in the areas of innovative confinement concepts, operational scenarios and confinement experiments as presented at the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. Important new findings are presented from fusion devices worldwide, with a strong focus towards the scientific and technical issues associated with ITER and W7-X devices, presently under construction.

  13. Implementation of IAEA /1/INT/054 Project in Nuclear Analytical Techniques Group of Argentina: Current State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sara, Resnizky; Rita, Plá; Alba, Zaretzky

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents the implementation of the training received through the IAEA Project "Preparation of Reference Materials and Organization of Proficiency Tests Rounds" in the Nuclear Analytical (NAT) Group of CNEA. Special emphasis is done on those activities related to the first Proficiency Test being carried out by the NAT Group.

  14. Opportunities to more fully utilize safeguards information reported to the IAEA at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, James R; Whitaker, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase transparency and to strengthen IAEA safeguards, more countries are adopting practices that provide the IAEA with more timely, safeguards-relevant information to confirm nuclear operations are as declared. At Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs) potential examples include installing unattended IAEA instruments that transmit selected information back to Vienna, instruments that collect and store measurement information on-site, and daily facility operator submissions of material receipts, shipments, or utilization of key operational systems (e.g., UF6 feed stations) to on-site mail boxes. Recently the IAEA has implemented the use of on-site mailbox systems supplemented with short notice or unannounced inspections to maintain effectiveness without significantly increasing the number of inspection days. While these measures significantly improves the IAEA’s effectiveness, we have identified several opportunities for how the use of this information could be improved and how some additional information would further improve safeguards. This paper presents concepts for how the safeguards information currently collected at GCEPs could be more effectively utilized through enhancing the way that raw data is displayed visually so that it is more intuitive to the inspector and provides for more effective inspection planning and execution, comparing information with previous IAEA inspection activities (lists of previous verified inventory), through comparing data with operator supplied data when inspectors arrive (notional inventory change reports), and through evaluating the data over time to provide even greater confidence in the data and operations as declared in between inspections. This paper will also discuss several potential improvements to the submissions themselves, such as including occupancy information about product and tails stations and including weight information for each station.

  15. Safety and efficacy of an intra-oral electrostimulator for the relief of dry mouth in patients with chronic graft versus host disease: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Zadik, Yehuda; Zeevi, Itai; Luboshitz-Shon, Noa; Dakwar, Nasri; Wolff, Andy; Shapira, Michael Y.; Or, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) often suffer from dry mouth and oral mucosal lesions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the safety of an intra-oral electrostimulator (GenNarino) in symptomatic cGVHD patients. The secondary objective was to study the impact on the salivary gland involvement of cGVHD patients. Study Design: This paper presents a case series. The study included patients treated for 4 weeks, randomly assigned to the active device and then crossed-over to a sham-device or vice versa. The patients and clinicians were blind to the treatment delivered. Data regarding oral mucosal and salivary gland involvement were collected. Results: Six patients were included in this series. Most of the intraoral areas with manifestations of cGVHD were not in contact with the GenNarino device. Two patients developed mild mucosal lesions in areas in contact with the GenNarino during the study. However, only one of them had a change in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) score for oral cGVHD. The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate increased in 4 out of the 5 patients included in this analysis. Symptoms of dry mouth and general oral comfort improved. Conclusion: This study suggests that GenNarino is safe in cGVHD patients with respect to oral tissues. Furthermore the use of GenNarino resulted in subjective and objective improvements in dry mouth symptoms. A large scale study is needed to confirm the impact and safety of GenNarino on systemic cGVHD. Key words:Dry mouth, graft versus host disease, electrostimulation, oral mucosa, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24121920

  16. Safety and efficacy of an intra-oral electrostimulator for the relief of dry mouth in patients with chronic graft versus host disease: Case series.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Zeevi, Itai; Luboshitz-Shon, Noa; Dakwar, Nasri; Wolff, Andy; Shapira, Michael Y; Or, Reuven; Elad, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) often suffer from dry mouth and oral mucosal lesions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the safety of an intra-oral electrostimulator (GenNarino) in symptomatic cGVHD patients. The secondary objective was to study the impact on the salivary gland involvement of cGVHD patients. This paper presents a case series. The study included patients treated for 4 weeks, randomly assigned to the active device and then crossed-over to a sham-device or vice versa. The patients and clinicians were blind to the treatment delivered. Data regarding oral mucosal and salivary gland involvement were collected. Six patients were included in this series. Most of the intraoral areas with manifestations of cGVHD were not in contact with the GenNarino device. Two patients developed mild mucosal lesions in areas in contact with the GenNarino during the study. However, only one of them had a change in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) score for oral cGVHD. The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate increased in 4 out of the 5 patients included in this analysis. Symptoms of dry mouth and general oral comfort improved. This study suggests that GenNarino is safe in cGVHD patients with respect to oral tissues. Furthermore the use of GenNarino resulted in subjective and objective improvements in dry mouth symptoms. A large scale study is needed to confirm the impact and safety of GenNarino on systemic cGVHD.

  17. [Effectiveness and safety of lenalidomide in myelofibrosis patients: a case series from the Spanish compassionate use program].

    PubMed

    Castillo, I; Ojea, Ma A; Boqué, C; Asensio, A; Hermosilla, Ma M; Blanes, M

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: La mielofibrosis (MF) es una neoplasia mieloproliferativa crónica (NMPc) caracterizada por la proliferación clonal de la célula germinal hematopoyética multipotente, fibrosis y angiogénesis de la médula ósea, y con hematopoyesis extramedular. Lenalidomida es un agente inmunomodulador y antiangiogénico, que ha mostrado beneficio clínico en pacientes con MF en diversos ensayos clínicos de fase II. En el presente trabajo presentamos los resultados de la evaluación retrospectiva de una serie de 32 pacientes diagnosticados de MF que recibieron tratamiento con lenalidomida dentro de un programa de uso compasivo en hospitales españoles. Método: Estudio multicéntrico, retrospectivo de una serie de casos de MF en tratamiento compasivo con lenalidomida. Resultados: Se recogió información de 32 pacientes con MF que habían sido tratados con lenalidomida en 17 hospitales españoles. La mediana de edad fue de 68 años (extremos, 50-83), el 72% eran varones. Veintiséis (81%) pacientes presentaban un riesgo intermedio-alto según la puntuación pronóstica de Dupriez. La dosis de lenalidomida programada fue en 16 pacientes de 10 mg/día durante 21 días en ciclos de 28 días; el resto de los pacientes recibió dosis inferiores u otros esquemas. Se dispuso de la evaluación de respuesta en 29 de los 32 pacientes. Dos pacientes presentaron respuesta clínico-hematológica completa y 14 presentaron respuesta parcial. Los acontecimientos adversos más frecuentemente observados fueron neutropenia (56%), trombocitopenia (50%), y anemia (40%). Conclusiones: El tratamiento continuado con lenalidomida es activo en pacientes con MF fuertemente pretratados. La mielosupresión que provoca la lenalidomida y otras toxicidades asociadas son manejables con ajustes de dosis.

  18. An impact evaluation of a federal mine safety training regulation on injury rates among US stone, sand, and gravel mine workers: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Monforton, Celeste; Windsor, Richard

    2010-07-01

    We evaluated the impact of a safety training regulation, implemented by the US Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 1999, on injury rates at stone, sand, and gravel mining operations. We applied a time-series design and analyses with quarterly counts of nonfatal injuries and employment hours from 7998 surface aggregate mines from 1995 through 2006. Covariates included standard industrial classification codes, ownership, and injury severity. Overall crude rates of injuries declined over the 12-year period. Reductions in incident rates for medical treatment only, restricted duty, and lost-time injuries were consistent with temporal trends and provided no evidence of an intervention effect attributable to the MSHA regulation. Rates of permanently disabling injuries (PDIs) declined markedly. Regression analyses documented a statistically significant reduction in the risk rate in the postintervention time period (risk rate = 0.591; 95% confidence interval = 0.529, 0.661). Although a causal relationship between the regulatory intervention and the decline in the rate of PDIs is plausible, inconsistency in the results with the other injury-severity categories preclude attributing the observed outcome to the MSHA regulation. Further analyses of these data are needed.

  19. An Impact Evaluation of a Federal Mine Safety Training Regulation on Injury Rates Among US Stone, Sand, and Gravel Mine Workers: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the impact of a safety training regulation, implemented by the US Department of Labor's Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 1999, on injury rates at stone, sand, and gravel mining operations. Methods. We applied a time-series design and analyses with quarterly counts of nonfatal injuries and employment hours from 7998 surface aggregate mines from 1995 through 2006. Covariates included standard industrial classification codes, ownership, and injury severity. Results. Overall crude rates of injuries declined over the 12-year period. Reductions in incident rates for medical treatment only, restricted duty, and lost-time injuries were consistent with temporal trends and provided no evidence of an intervention effect attributable to the MSHA regulation. Rates of permanently disabling injuries (PDIs) declined markedly. Regression analyses documented a statistically significant reduction in the risk rate in the postintervention time period (risk rate = 0.591; 95% confidence interval = 0.529, 0.661). Conclusions. Although a causal relationship between the regulatory intervention and the decline in the rate of PDIs is plausible, inconsistency in the results with the other injury-severity categories preclude attributing the observed outcome to the MSHA regulation. Further analyses of these data are needed. PMID:20466960

  20. Early impact of a national multi-faceted road safety intervention program in Mexico: results of a time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Aruna; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Híjar, Martha; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-01-01

    In January 2008, a national multifaceted road safety intervention program (IMESEVI) funded by the Bloomberg Philanthropies was launched in Mexico. Two years later in 2010, IMESEVI was refocused as part of a 10-country international consortium demonstration project (IMESEVI/RS10). We evaluate the initial effects of each phase of the road safety intervention project on numbers of RT crashes, injuries and deaths in Mexico and in the two main target cities of Guadalajara-Zapopan and León. An interrupted time series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling was performed using monthly data of rates of RT crashes and injuries (police data), as well as deaths (mortality system data) from 1999-2011 with dummy variables representing each intervention phase. In the period following the first intervention phase at the country level and in the city of León, the rate of RT crashes decreased significantly (p<0.05). Notably, following the second intervention phase although there was no reduction at the country level, there has been a decrease in the RT crash rate in both Guadalajara-Zapopan (p = 0.029) and in León (p = 0.029). There were no significant differences in the RT injury or death rates following either intervention phase in either city. These initial results suggest that a multi-faceted road safety intervention program appears to be effective in reducing road crashes in a middle-income country setting. Further analysis is needed to differentiate the effects of various interventions, and to determine what other economic and political factors might have affected this change.

  1. Early Impact of a National Multi-Faceted Road Safety Intervention Program in Mexico: Results of a Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Aruna; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M.; Híjar, Martha; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Hyder, Adnan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In January 2008, a national multifaceted road safety intervention program (IMESEVI) funded by the Bloomberg Philanthropies was launched in Mexico. Two years later in 2010, IMESEVI was refocused as part of a 10-country international consortium demonstration project (IMESEVI/RS10). We evaluate the initial effects of each phase of the road safety intervention project on numbers of RT crashes, injuries and deaths in Mexico and in the two main target cities of Guadalajara-Zapopan and León. Methods An interrupted time series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling was performed using monthly data of rates of RT crashes and injuries (police data), as well as deaths (mortality system data) from 1999–2011 with dummy variables representing each intervention phase. Results In the period following the first intervention phase at the country level and in the city of León, the rate of RT crashes decreased significantly (p<0.05). Notably, following the second intervention phase although there was no reduction at the country level, there has been a decrease in the RT crash rate in both Guadalajara-Zapopan (p = 0.029) and in León (p = 0.029). There were no significant differences in the RT injury or death rates following either intervention phase in either city. Conclusion These initial results suggest that a multi-faceted road safety intervention program appears to be effective in reducing road crashes in a middle-income country setting. Further analysis is needed to differentiate the effects of various interventions, and to determine what other economic and political factors might have affected this change. PMID:24498114

  2. Approach to IAEA material-balance verification with intermittent inspection at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.M.; Sanborn, J.B.

    1984-05-18

    This paper describes a potential approach by which the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) might verify the nuclear-material balance at the Portsmouth Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) for the circumstance in which the IAEA inspections occur on an intermittent basis. The verification approach is a variation of the standard IAEA attributes/variables measurement-verification method. This alternative approach is useful and applicable at the Portsmouth GCEP, which will ship all its product and tails UF/sub 6/ to United States facilities not eligible for IAEA safeguards. The paper reviews some of the relevant results of the Hexapartite Safeguards Project (HSP), describes the standard IAEA material-balance-verification approach for bulk-handling facilities, and provides the procedures to be followed in handling and processing UF/sub 6/ cylinders at the Portsmouth GCEP. The paper then discusses the assumptions made in the approach, and derives a formula for the probability with which the IAEA could detect the diversion of a significant quantity of uranium (75 kg of U-235 in depleted, normal, and low-enriched uranium) if this method were applied. The paper also provides numerical examples of IAEA detection probability should the operator divert uranium from the feed, product, or tails streams for the Portsmouth GCEP with a capacity of 1100 tonnes of separative work per year.

  3. IAEA experience in communicating radiation risks through the RPOP website.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M; Holmberg, O

    2015-07-01

    The authors report here their successful experience of communicating information to health professionals, patients and the public on benefits and risks of ionising radiation in medical applications. The approaches used have been based on giving importance to clinical benefits against risks, as well as safety in use against risk of use. Communicating brief messages against catchy questions with positive and pragmatic approach resulted in making website on radiation protection of patients (RPOP) as the top website of the world in this area. Credibility of information has been maintained. The results show immense outreach in 213 countries/territories. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Safety and diagnostic value of brain biopsy in HIV patients: a case series and meta-analysis of 1209 patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ashley M; Bai, Harrison X; Zou, Yingjie; Qiu, Dongxu; Zhou, Jianhua; Martinez-Lage Alvarez, Maria; Zhang, Paul; Tao, Yongguang; Tang, Xiangqi; Xiao, Bo; Yang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Early brain biopsy may be indicated in HIV patients with focal brain lesion. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the safety and diagnostic value of brain biopsy in HIV patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) versus post-HAART era via meta-analysis. Appropriate studies were identified per search criteria. The local database was retrospectively reviewed to select a similar patient cohort. Patient demographics, brain biopsy technique, histopathology and patient outcomes were extracted from each study. Study-specific outcomes were combined per random-effects model. Outcomes were compared between the pre-HAART and post-HAART era. Correlations between outcomes and baseline characteristics were assessed via meta-regression analysis. The proportions of histopathological diagnosis were tabulated and compared between the pre- and post-HAART era. Survival analysis was performed for patients in the post-HAART era. A total of 26 studies (including the local database) with 1209 patients were included in this meta-analysis. The most common indications for brain biopsy were diagnosis unlikely to be toxoplasmosis (n=8, 42.1%), focal brain lesion (n=5, 26.3%) or both (n=3, 15.8%). The weighted proportions for diagnostic success were 92% (95% CI 90.0% to 93.8%), change in management 57.7% (45.9% to 69.1%) and clinical improvement 36.6% (26.3% to 47.5%). Morbidity and mortality were 5.7% (3.6% to 8.3%) and 0.9% (0.3% to 1.9%), respectively. Diagnostic success rate was significantly higher in the post-HAART than the pre-HAART era (97.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.047). The odds ratio (OR) for diagnostic success in patients with contrast-enhanced lesions was 2.54 ((1.25 to 5.15), p<0.01). The median survival for HIV patients who underwent biopsy in the post-HAART era was 225 days (90-2446). Brain biopsy in HIV patients is safe with high diagnostic yield. Early brain biopsy should be considered in patients without classic presentation of toxoplasmosis encephalitis

  5. CURRENT STATUS OF THE IAEA'S NET ENABLED WASTE MANAGEMENT DATABASE

    SciTech Connect

    Csullog, G.W.; Pozdniakov, I.; Bellag, M.J.

    2003-02-27

    The International Atomic Energy Agency's Net Enabled Waste Management Database (NEWMDB) contains information on national radioactive waste management programs and organizations, plans and activities, relevant laws and regulations, policies and radioactive waste inventories. The NEWMDB, which was launched on the Internet July 6, 2001, is the successor to the Agency's Waste Management Database (WMDB), which was in use during the 1990's. The NEWMDB's first data collection cycle took place from July 2001 to March 2002. Agency Member State participation in the first data collection cycle was low--only 22 submissions were received. However, the first data collection cycle demonstrated that: the NEWMDB could be used to collect information on national radioactive waste management programs and radioactive waste inventories annually, the NEWMDB data can support the routine reporting of status and trends in radioactive waste management based on quantitative data, the NEWMDB can support the compilation of a consolidated, international radioactive waste inventory based on a unified waste classification scheme, the data needed to compute an indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management are available at the national level, NEWMDB data can be used to assess the development and implementation of national systems for radioactive waste management, and the NEWMDB can support the reporting requirements of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Agency Member States that had not made data submissions in the first cycle were asked to submit data during an extension of the first cycle (July 2002--January 2003). When this paper was written, the Agency had conducted two of three international workshops to provide training for future NEWMDB data collection cycles and to compile lessons learned for the first data collection cycle. A third workshop was scheduled for January 2003. This paper provides

  6. Towards a tactical nuclear weapons treaty? Is There a Role of IAEA Tools of Safeguards?

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, Emily C.; Rowberry, Ariana N.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2012-07-12

    In recent years, there is growing interest in formal negotiations on non-strategic or tactical nuclear weapons. With the negotiations of New START, there has been much speculation that a tactical nuclear weapons treaty should be included in the follow on to New START. This paper examines the current policy environment related to tactical weapons and some of the issues surrounding the definition of tactical nuclear weapons. We then map out the steps that would need to be taken in order to begin discussions on a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. These steps will review the potential role of the IAEA in verification of a tactical nuclear weapons treaty. Specifically, does IAEA involvement in various arms control treaties serve as a useful roadmap on how to overcome some of the issues pertaining to a tactical nuclear weapons treaty?

  7. The US Support Program Assistance to the IAEA Safeguards Information Technology, Collection, and Analysis 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Tackentien,J.

    2008-06-12

    One of the United States Support Program's (USSP) priorities for 2008 is to support the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) development of an integrated and efficient safeguards information infrastructure, including reliable and maintainable information systems, and effective tools and resources to collect and analyze safeguards-relevant information. The USSP has provided funding in support of this priority for the ISIS Re-engineering Project (IRP), and for human resources support to the design and definition of the enhanced information analysis architecture project (nVision). Assistance for several other information technology efforts is provided. This paper will report on the various ongoing support measures undertaken by the USSP to support the IAEA's information technology enhancements and will provide some insights into activities that the USSP may support in the future.

  8. NOTE: Monte Carlo simulation of correction factors for IAEA TLD holders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Izewska, Joanna

    2010-03-01

    The IAEA standard thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) holder has been developed for the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose program for audits of high-energy photon beams, and it is also employed by the ESTRO-QUALity assurance network (EQUAL) and several national TLD audit networks. Factors correcting for the influence of the holder on the TL signal under reference conditions have been calculated in the present work from Monte Carlo simulations with the PENELOPE code for 60Co γ-rays and 4, 6, 10, 15, 18 and 25 MV photon beams. The simulation results are around 0.2% smaller than measured factors reported in the literature, but well within the combined standard uncertainties. The present study supports the use of the experimentally obtained holder correction factors in the determination of the absorbed dose to water from the TL readings; the factors calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations may be adopted for the cases where there are no measured data.

  9. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  10. The Mailbox Computer System for the IAEA verification experiment on HEU downlending at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aronson, A.L.; Gordon, D.M.

    2000-07-31

    IN APRIL 1996, THE UNITED STATES (US) ADDED THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT TO THE LIST OF FACILITIES ELIGIBLE FOR THE APPLICATION OF INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA) SAFEGUARDS. AT THAT TIME, THE US PROPOSED THAT THE IAEA CARRY OUT A ''VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT'' AT THE PLANT WITH RESPECT TO DOOWNBLENDING OF ABOUT 13 METRIC TONS OF HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) IN THE FORM OF URANIUM HEXAFLUROIDE (UF6). DURING THE PERIOD DECEMBER 1997 THROUGH JULY 1998, THE IAEA CARRIED OUT THE REQUESTED VERIFICATION EXPERIMENT. THE VERIFICATION APPROACH USED FOR THIS EXPERIMENT INCLUDED, AMONG OTHER MEASURES, THE ENTRY OF PROCESS-OPERATIONAL DATA BY THE FACILITY OPERATOR ON A NEAR-REAL-TIME BASIS INTO A ''MAILBOX'' COMPUTER LOCATED WITHIN A TAMPER-INDICATING ENCLOSURE SEALED BY THE IAEA.

  11. Sections prepared for inclusion in an IAEA technical document handbook on Designing and Implementing a Physical Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark K.

    2015-11-01

    Two major sections were drafted (each with several subsections) for the IAEA dealing with designing and implementing a Physical Protection System (PPS). Areas addressed were Search Systems and the evaluation of PPS effectiveness.

  12. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  13. The impact of child safety restraint legislation on child injuries in police-reported motor vehicle collisions in British Columbia: An interrupted time series analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brubacher, Jeffrey R; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Erdelyi, Shannon; Chan, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) remain a leading cause of death and serious injury in Canadian children. In July 2008, British Columbia introduced child safety seat legislation that aimed to reduce the number of children killed or injured in MVCs. This legislation upgraded previous child seat legislation (introduced in 1985) and affected children zero to three and those four to eight years of age. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this legislation. METHODS: Deidentified police reports for all MVCs involving zero- to 14-year-olds (2000 to 2012) were used to compare injury rates, booster seat use, and seating position among children before and after booster seat laws. An interrupted time series design was used to estimate the effect of the new law on injuries among children zero to three and four to eight years of age. Estimates were adjusted using children nine to 14 years of age as controls. RESULTS: The booster seat law was associated with a 10.8% (95% CI 2.7% to 18.9%) reduction in the monthly rate of injuries in four- to eight-year-old children (P=0.01). This was equivalent to a decrease of 14.3 injuries per 1,000,000 children. Similarly, the monthly injury rate among children zero to three years of age decreased by 13.0% (95% CI 1.5% to 24.6% [9.8 injuries per 1,000,000]; P=0.03). CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence that British Columbia’s new child safety restraint law was associated with fewer injuries among children covered by the new laws. PMID:27429577

  14. Technical results of Y-12/IAEA field trial of remote monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Corbell, B.H.; Whitaker, J.M.; Welch, J.

    1997-08-01

    A Remote Monitoring System (RMS) field trial has been conducted with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on highly enriched uranium materials in a vault at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The RMS included a variety of Sandia, Oak Ridge, and Aquila sensor technologies which provide containment seals, video monitoring, radiation asset measurements, and container identification data to the on-site DAS (Data Acquisition System) by way of radio-frequency and Echelon LonWorks networks. The accumulated safeguards information was transmitted to the IAEA via satellite (COMSAT/RSI) and international telephone lines. The technologies tested in the remote monitoring environment are the RadCouple, RadSiP, and SmartShelf sensors from the ORSENS (Oak Ridge Sensors for Enhancing Nuclear Safeguards) technologies; the AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System) motion sensor (AMS), AIMS fiber-optic seal (AFOS), ICAM (Image Compression and Authentication Module) video surveillance system, DAS (Data Acquisition System), and DIRS (Data and Image Review Station) from Sandia; and the AssetLAN identification tag, VACOSS-S seal, and Gemini digital surveillance system from Aquila. The field trial was conducted from October 1996 through May 1997. Tests were conducted during the monthly IAEA Interim Inventory Verification (IIV) inspections for evaluation of the equipment. Experience gained through the field trials will allow the technologies to be applied to various monitoring scenarios.

  15. The U.S./IAEA Workshop on Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper S. E.; .; Worrall, L.; Pickett, C.; Bachner, K.; Queirolo, A.

    2014-08-08

    The U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative, the U.S. Department of State, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a a workshop on the subject of ”Software Sustainability for Safeguards Instrumentation.” The workshop was held at the Vienna International Centre in Vienna, Austria, May 6-8, 2014. The workshop participants included software and hardware experts from national laboratories, industry, government, and IAEA member states who were specially selected by the workshop organizers based on their experience with software that is developed for the control and operation of safeguards instrumentation. The workshop included presentations, to orient the participants to the IAEA Department of Safeguards software activities related to instrumentation data collection and processing, and case studies that were designed to inspire discussion of software development, use, maintenance, and upgrades in breakout sessions and to result in recommendations for effective software practices and management. This report summarizes the results of the workshop.

  16. IAEA activities on atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit (http://www-amdis.iaea.org/) aims to provide internationally evaluated and recommended data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) processes in fusion research. The Unit organizes technical meetings and coordinates an A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) and a Code Centre Network (CCN). In addition the Unit organizes Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs), for which the objectives are mixed between development of new data and evaluation and recommendation of existing data. In the area of A+M data we are placing new emphasis in our meeting schedule on data evaluation and especially on uncertainties in calculated cross section data and the propagation of uncertainties through structure data and fundamental cross sections to effective rate coefficients. Following a recent meeting of the CCN it is intended to use electron scattering on Be, Ne and N2 as exemplars for study of uncertainties and uncertainty propagation in calculated data; this will be discussed further at the presentation. Please see http://www-amdis.iaea.org/CRP/ for more on our active and planned CRPs, which are concerned with atomic processes in core and edge plasma and with plasma interaction with beryllium-based surfaces and with irradiated tungsten.

  17. Private sector involvement in the US program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, S.E.; Epel, L.; Maise, G.; Reisman, A.; Skalyo, J.

    1995-12-01

    The US Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) relies on technical expertise found in the U. S private and public sectors. Since 1993, the international Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) has sought to increase the role of the private sector in POTAS. ISPO maintains and continues to develop a database of US companies interested in providing technical expertise to the IAEA. This database is used by ISPO to find appropriate contractors to respond to IAEA requests for technical assistance when the assistance can be provided by the private sector. The private sector is currently providing support in the development of equipment, training, and procedure preparation. POTAS also supports the work of private consultants. This paper discusses ISPO`s efforts to identify suitable vendors and discusses conditions that hinder more substantial involvement by the private sector. In addition, the paper will discuss selected projects that are currently in progress and identify common problems that impede the progress and success of tasks performed by the private sector.

  18. Fostering applications of neutron scattering techniques in developing countries: IAEA's role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjpe, Shriniwas K.; Mank, G.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2006-11-01

    Over the last 60 years research reactors have played an important role in technological and socio-economical development of mankind. Neutron scattering has been the workhorse for research and development in materials science. Developing countries with moderate flux research reactors have also been involved in using this technique. The reactors and the facilities around them have a large potential for applications, while their under-utilization has been a concern for many member states. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been supporting its member states in the enhancement of utilization of their research reactors. Technical meetings focussing on the area of current interests with potential applications are organized under the project on “effective utilization of research reactors,” e.g. on residual stress measurement, neutron reflectometry. Coordinated research projects (CRPs) bring together scientists from developed and developing countries, build collaborations, and exchange expertise and technology. The CRPs on research reactor utilization include topics like development of small-angle neutron scattering applications and development of sources and imaging systems for neutron radiography. New CRPs on the measurement of residual stress and accelerator-driven neutron sources will be initiated soon. The results from these meetings of CRPs are published as technical documents of the IAEA that would act as guidelines for capacity building for research reactor managers. This paper will present some of the salient features of IAEA activities in promoting research reactor utilization.

  19. Preliminary considerations on developing IAEA technical safeguards for LMFBR power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P. J.

    1980-09-01

    Nuclear fuel cycles safeguards should be considered in the dynamic context of a world deployment of various reactor types and varying availability of fuel-cycle services. There will be a close interaction between thermal-reactor cycles and the future deployment of fast breeders. The quantitites of plutonium and the reprocessing, conversion, fabrication, and storage methods of the fuel for the fast breeders will have a significant impact on safeguards techniques. The approach to the fast breeder fuel cycle safeguards follows the general safeguards system approach proposed by the IAEA. Objective of IAEA safeguards is the detection of diversion of nuclear material and deterrence of such diversion. To achieve independent verification of material balance accountancy requires the capability to monitor inventory status and verify material flows and quantities of all nuclear materials subject to safeguards. Containment and surveillance measures are applied to monitor key measurement points, maintain integrity of material balance, and complement material accountancy. The safeguards study attempts to develop a generic reference IAEA Safeguards System and explores various system options using containment/surveillance and material accountancy instrumentation and integrated systems designs.

  20. Bias correction of risk estimates in vaccine safety studies with rare adverse events using a self-controlled case series design.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chan; Newcomer, Sophia R; Glanz, Jason M; Shoup, Jo Ann; Daley, Matthew F; Hambidge, Simon J; Xu, Stanley

    2013-12-15

    The self-controlled case series (SCCS) method is often used to examine the temporal association between vaccination and adverse events using only data from patients who experienced such events. Conditional Poisson regression models are used to estimate incidence rate ratios, and these models perform well with large or medium-sized case samples. However, in some vaccine safety studies, the adverse events studied are rare and the maximum likelihood estimates may be biased. Several bias correction methods have been examined in case-control studies using conditional logistic regression, but none of these methods have been evaluated in studies using the SCCS design. In this study, we used simulations to evaluate 2 bias correction approaches-the Firth penalized maximum likelihood method and Cordeiro and McCullagh's bias reduction after maximum likelihood estimation-with small sample sizes in studies using the SCCS design. The simulations showed that the bias under the SCCS design with a small number of cases can be large and is also sensitive to a short risk period. The Firth correction method provides finite and less biased estimates than the maximum likelihood method and Cordeiro and McCullagh's method. However, limitations still exist when the risk period in the SCCS design is short relative to the entire observation period.

  1. IAEA Inspections for Undeclared and Declared Activities: Is a More Robust Approach Needed?

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schanfein

    2009-07-01

    The United States has long supported a strong international safeguards system and for many years has served as the foremost supplier of technology, equipment, and training to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In doing so, it drew in many instances on DOE sponsored R&D and training that was directed towards domestic safeguards and then adapted for IAEA purposes. This was relatively straightforward because of the strong overlap between the development of nuclear material accountancy measures needed for both domestic and international purposes. Two factors have emerged that have made this strong reliance on domestic measures less and less able to be a source of support for the IAEA. One is the shift by the IAEA safeguards system towards detecting undeclared activities. The second is the shift of domestic attention away from nuclear material accountancy and towards physical protection. As a result, a gap in US sponsored R&D and training relevant to international safeguards has developed. The NNSA Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the DOE NA-22 Safeguards R&D program are intended to help fill this gap and, thereby, permit the U.S. to remain as the pre-eminent supplier of technology for international safeguards purposes. In this context, IAEA challenges have been examined from the perspective of detecting the diversion of nuclear material from declared stocks; detecting undeclared production of nuclear material and activities at locations declared under INFCIRC/153; and detecting undeclared nuclear material and activities elsewhere in a state. Of these, the detection of undeclared nuclear material and activities is, perhaps, the IAEA’s most significant challenge. It is a challenge that even the international community finds difficult to meet because of the scope and the geographic scale of the problem, the technical constraints, the knowledge required, and the significant resources needed to deploy effective systems world-wide (e.g., satellite

  2. MODEL 9977 B(M)F-96 SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G; Paul Blanton, P; Kurt Eberl, K

    2006-05-18

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) documents the analysis and testing performed on and for the 9977 Shipping Package, referred to as the General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP). The performance evaluation presented in this SARP documents the compliance of the 9977 package with the regulatory safety requirements for Type B packages. Per 10 CFR 71.59, for the 9977 packages evaluated in this SARP, the value of ''N'' is 50, and the Transport Index based on nuclear criticality control is 1.0. The 9977 package is designed with a high degree of single containment. The 9977 complies with 10 CFR 71 (2002), Department of Energy (DOE) Order 460.1B, DOE Order 460.2, and 10 CFR 20 (2003) for As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. The 9977 also satisfies the requirements of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material--1996 Edition (Revised)--Requirements. IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series No. TS-R-1 (ST-1, Rev.), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria (2000). The 9977 package is designed, analyzed and fabricated in accordance with Section III of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel (B&PV) Code, 1992 edition.

  3. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-02-26

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators.

  4. PREFACE: 9th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groebner, Richard

    2004-05-01

    This special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion contains invited and contributed papers presented at the 9th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Catamaran Hotel in San Diego, California, on 24-26 September, 2003, and it was organized by General Atomics. As has been the tradition at the last four meetings of this series, the programme was sub-divided into six topics. For each topic there was an invited talk whose purpose was to give an overview of the topic, based on contributed papers presented at the meeting and on external results. These talks were followed by discussion periods, which were used for extended question and answer sessions for the invited speakers or for additional short presentations by contributing speakers. For each topic there was an associated poster session for contributed papers, of which there were about 70. The topics were: Structure and dynamics of internal transport barriers Structure and dynamics of the H-mode pedestal Understanding transport barriers through modelling Control of transport barriers Transport within transport barriers: theorist's view of the future Diagnostic and analysis issues for transport barriers The topics were focused on the physics of edge and core transport barriers. Similar to the previous meeting, held in Toki, Japan, the universality of this physics in axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric machines was featured. In addition, the physics of transport barriers in relation to burning plasma experiments was emphasized. In particular, one of the hopes and goals of the participants is that the physics of transport barriers can be used to enhance the prospects for burning plasmas. Because this meeting occurred approximately 21 years after the discovery of the H-mode in 1982, a special session was held to commemorate more than 20 years of research on transport barriers. In this session, Dr R Stambaugh and Professor K Itoh presented personal views on the

  5. Efficacy, Safety, and Predictors of Intradiscal Methylene Blue Injection for Discogenic Low Back Pain: Results of a Multicenter Prospective Clinical Series.

    PubMed

    Kallewaard, Jan Willem; Geurts, José W; Kessels, Alphons; Willems, Paul; van Santbrink, Henk; van Kleef, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Prospective clinical study of intradiscal methylene blue injection for the treatment of lumbar discogenic pain. The objective of this study was to collect information about efficacy, safety, and acceptability of the intervention, gain and burden of outcome measures, and sample size assumptions for a potential following randomized controlled trial (RCT). If the pilot study demonstrates that this treatment is potentially effective and safe, and the methods and procedures used in this study are feasible, a RCT follows. Low back pain (LBP) is a highly common problem with a lifetime prevalence of more than 70%. A substantial part of chronic LBP is attributable to degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc. A recently published RCT assessing the treatment intradiscal injection of methylene blue for chronic discogenic LBP, showed exceptionally good results. Patients were selected on clinical criteria, magnetic resonance imaging, and a positive provocative discogram. The primary outcome measure was mean pain reduction at 6 months. Fifteen consecutive patients with chronic lumbar discogenic pain enrolled in a multicenter prospective case series in two interventional pain treatment centers in the Netherlands. Six months after the intervention, 40% of the patients claimed at least 30% pain relief. In patients who responded, physical function improved and medication use diminished. We observed no procedural complications or adverse events. Predictors for success were Pfirrmann grading of 2 or less and higher quality of life mental component scores. Our findings of 40% positive respondents, and no complications, give reason to set up a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  6. The resonance® metallic ureteric stent in the treatment of chronic ureteric obstruction: a safety and efficacy analysis from a contemporary clinical series.

    PubMed

    Patel, C; Loughran, D; Jones, R; Abdulmajed, M; Shergill, I

    2017-03-10

    We evaluate the efficacy and safety of metallic ureteric stenting using the Cook Resonance® stent in the treatment of chronic ureteric obstruction of benign and malignant aetiology. Published experience of using this stent in this context is limited. We add to the body of literature on this topic. All patients who had a Resonance® metallic stent inserted between April 2009 and November 2014 in our institution were identified from a prospectively maintained stent-database. Primary outcome was relief of ureteric obstruction, defined by successful clinical and radiological treatment of hydronephrosis/hydroureter. Secondary outcome measures included operative time, radiological exposure, total stent dwell time (defined as the cumulative time in months for which a Resonance® metallic stent was in situ), and early and late complications. Twenty-one patients underwent 52 stent insertion episodes (SIE). Median age was 58 years (range 39-90). Stent insertion resulted in successful treatment of hydronephrosis/hydroureter in 96% (2 SIE resulted in failure to relieve ureteric obstruction). Median operative time was 21 min (range 12-90) Median radiation exposure was 815.3 cGy/cm2 (range 192.9-5366.3). Median stent dwell time was 19.5 months (range 6-52) in non-malignant and 12 months (range 2-48) in malignant ureteric obstruction. One stent migrated proximally during insertion and had to be retrieved using an antegrade approach. 5 patients re-admitted with haematuria: all resolved without intervention or blood transfusion. 3 episodes of post-operative urinary infection were recorded; all were successfully treated with oral antibiotics. Metallic ureteric stenting using the Resonance® stent is safe and effective for treating ureteric obstruction from both malignant and benign causes. The success rate in our series is 96%.

  7. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  8. International contributions to IAEA-NEA heat transfer databases for supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L. K. H.; Yamada, K.

    2012-07-01

    An IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Heat Transfer Behaviour and Thermohydraulics Code Testing for SCWRs' is being conducted to facilitate collaboration and interaction among participants from 15 organizations. While the project covers several key technology areas relevant to the development of SCWR concepts, it focuses mainly on the heat transfer aspect, which has been identified as the most challenging. Through the collaborating effort, large heat-transfer databases have been compiled for supercritical water and surrogate fluids in tubes, annuli, and bundle subassemblies of various orientations over a wide range of flow conditions. Assessments of several supercritical heat-transfer correlations were performed using the complied databases. The assessment results are presented. (authors)

  9. 3-D heat transfer computer calculations of the performance of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, E.; Kaizermann, S.; Perry, R.B.; Fiarman, S.

    1989-01-01

    A three dimensional (3-D) heat transfer computer code was developed to study and optimize the design parameters and to better understand the performance characteristics of the IAEA's air-bath calorimeters. The computer model accounts for heat conduction and radiation in the complex materials of the calorimeter and for heat convection and radiation at its outer surface. The temperature servo controller is modelled as an integral part of the heat balance equations in the system. The model predictions will be validated against test data using the ANL bulk calorimeter. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  11. Implementation of the IAEA Additional Protocol in the Philippines: USDOE/PNRI Cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Sequis, Julietta E.; Cain, Ronald A.; Burbank, Roberta L.; Hansen, Linda H.; VanSickle, Matthew; Killinger, Mark H.; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2011-07-19

    The Philippines entered into force the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Additional Protocol (AP) in February 2010. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency responsible for implementing the AP. In June 2010 the IAEA invited the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to help conduct a joint national training seminar on the AP. DOE presented to PNRI its AP international technical assistance program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP), which helps partner countries implement the AP. In coordination with the IAEA, DOE established this program in 2008 to complement IAEA AP seminars with long-term country-specific cooperation from the perspective of a Member State. The US version of the AP is the same version as that of non-nuclear weapon states except for the addition of a national security exclusion. Due to this, DOE cooperation with other countries enables the sharing of valuable lessons learned in implementing the AP. DOE/INSEP described to PNRI the various areas of cooperation it offers to interested countries, whether they are preparing for entry into force or already implementing the AP. Even countries that have entered the AP into force are sometimes not fully prepared to implement it well, and welcome cooperation to improve their implementation process. PNRI and DOE/INSEP subsequently agreed to cooperate in several areas to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the Philippines AP implementation. These areas include providing working-level training to PNRI staff and preparing an information document that details that training for future reference, assisting with the development of an outreach program and procedures for AP reporting and complementary access, and identifying Annex II equipment and non-nuclear materials whose export must be reported under the AP. DOE laboratory representatives, funded by INSEP, met again with PNRI in February 2011 to provide training for PNRI AP

  12. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kairiyama, Eulogia; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Tissue banking activities in Argentina started in 1993. The regulatory and controlling national authority on organ, tissue and cells for transplantation activity is the National Unique Coordinating Central Institute for Ablation and Implant (INCUCAI). Three tissue banks were established under the IAEA program and nine other banks participated actively in the implementation of this program. As result of the implementation of the IAEA program in Argentina and the work done by the established tissue banks, more and more hospitals are now using, in a routine manner, radiation sterilised tissues processed by these banks. During the period 1992-2005, more than 21 016 tissues were produced and irradiated in the tissue banks participating in the IAEA program. Within the framework of the training component of the IAEA program, Argentina has been selected to host the Regional Training Centre for Latin American. In this centre, tissue bank operators and medical personal from Latin American countries were trained. Since 1999, Argentina has organised four regular regional training courses and two virtual regional training courses. More than twenty (20) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from Argentina were trained under the IAEA program in the six courses organised in the country. In general, ninety (96) tissue bank operators and medical personnel from eight Latin-American countries were trained in the Buenos Aires regional training centre. From Argentina 16 students graduated in these courses.

  13. Participation in proficiency test for tritium strontium and caesium isotopes in seawater 2015 (IAEA-RML-2015-02)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visetpotjanakit, S.; Kaewpaluek, S.

    2017-06-01

    A proficiency test (PT) exercise has proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RAS/7/021 “Marine benchmark study on the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific Region for Caesium Determination in Sea Water” since 2012. In 2015 the exercise was referred to Proficiency Test for Tritium, Strontium and Caesium Isotopes in Seawater 2015 (IAEA-RML-2015-02) to analyse3H, 134Cs, 137Cs and90Sr in a seawater sample. OAP was one of the 17 laboratories from 15 countries from Asia-Pacific Region who joined the PT exercise. The aim of our participation was to validate our analytical performance for the accurate determination of radionuclides in seawater by developed methods of radiochemical analysis. OAP submitted results determining the concentration for the three elements i.e. 134Cs, 137Cs and90Sr in seawater to the IAEA. A critical review was made to check suitability of our methodology and the criteria for the accuracy, precision and trueness of our data. The results of both 134Cs and 137Cs passed all criteria which were assigned “Accepted” statuses. Whereas 90Sr analysis did not pass the accuracy test therefore it was considered as “Not accepted” Our results and all other participant results with critical comments were published in the IAEA proficiency test report.

  14. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): outcomes of an IAEA meeting.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Eeva K; Kiel, Krystyna; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Joiner, Michael C; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Wondergem, Jan; Meghzifene, Ahmed

    2011-02-04

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed.ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology.

  15. Preparing the 1993--94 Safeguards Implementation Support Programme for IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L.

    1993-08-01

    The 1993-94 Safeguards Implementation Support (IS) Program describes the Department of Safeguards` program of implementation support for the coming two years. The main body of the document describes the IS program for IAEA. A detailed description of the individual IS needs for 1993-1994 is contained in an annex that specifies the nee, assigns priorities and lists tasks and activities underway to address the need. Other annexes address policy and procedures for program planning and management, current Member State Support Programs (MSSP) tasks, and identification of MSSP resources required for implementation of developed technologies that could be provided. The primary responsibility for supporting the implementation of safeguards technology is with the support divisions of the Department of Safeguards. However, in this time of limited resources it is essential that, where possible, the Department receives assistance from MSSPs that have the needed resources. This document should serve as a guide for IAEA, in planning implementation support activities and for identifying tasks for MSSPs wishing to provide assistance.

  16. Recent Data Generation Activities at the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.E.H.; Humbert, D.

    2005-05-27

    The main data generation mechanism of the Atomic and Molecular (A+M) Data Unit of the IAEA is the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The International Fusion Research Council Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion recommends topics for new CRPs to be initiated by the A+M Unit. A typical CRP has a lifetime of three to five years. At the start of the CRP a Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) is held with the purpose of formulating a detailed work plan. At later RCMs progress on these work plans is reported and the studies debated and expanded. At the conclusion of the CRP the results are compiled in a volume of the journal Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion. Numerical results are also added to the electronic database as appropriate. Normally the Unit has three to four active CRPs, and also holds Technical Meetings and invites individual Consultants to IAEA Headquarters, Vienna for specific tasks. Such activities can result in providing advice on a particular topic, on data for a particular process, or a new capability to be made widely available. Recently, consultants to the Unit have provided extensive additions to the Unit databases, as well as interfaces to run several calculational tools through the Internet. Specific examples will be presented.

  17. International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO): Outcomes of an IAEA Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA held the International Conference on Advances in Radiation Oncology (ICARO) in Vienna on 27-29 April 2009. The Conference dealt with the issues and requirements posed by the transition from conventional radiotherapy to advanced modern technologies, including staffing, training, treatment planning and delivery, quality assurance (QA) and the optimal use of available resources. The current role of advanced technologies (defined as 3-dimensional and/or image guided treatment with photons or particles) in current clinical practice and future scenarios were discussed. ICARO was organized by the IAEA at the request of the Member States and co-sponsored and supported by other international organizations to assess advances in technologies in radiation oncology in the face of economic challenges that most countries confront. Participants submitted research contributions, which were reviewed by a scientific committee and presented via 46 lectures and 103 posters. There were 327 participants from 70 Member States as well as participants from industry and government. The ICARO meeting provided an independent forum for the interaction of participants from developed and developing countries on current and developing issues related to radiation oncology. PMID:21294881

  18. PREFACE: 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takizuka, Tomonori

    2008-07-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers based on invited talks and contributed posters presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on H-mode Physics and Transport Barriers. This meeting was held at the Tsukuba International Congress Center in Tsukuba, Japan, on 26-28 September 2007, and was organized jointly by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency and the University of Tsukuba. The previous ten meetings in this series were held in San Diego (USA) 1987, Gut Ising (Germany) 1989, Abingdon (UK) 1991, Naka (Japan) 1993, Princeton (USA) 1995, Kloster Seeon (Germany) 1997, Oxford (UK) 1999, Toki (Japan) 2001, San Diego (USA) 2003, and St Petersburg (Russia) 2005. The purpose of the eleventh meeting was to present and discuss new results on H-mode (edge transport barrier, ETB) and internal transport barrier, ITB, experiments, theory and modeling in magnetic fusion research. It was expected that contributions give new and improved insights into the physics mechanisms behind high confinement modes of H-mode and ITBs. Ultimately, this research should lead to improved projections for ITER. As has been the tradition at the recent meetings of this series, the program was subdivided into six topics. The topics selected for the eleventh meeting were: H-mode transition and the pedestal-width Dynamics in ETB: ELM threshold, non-linear evolution and suppression, etc Transport relations of various quantities including turbulence in plasmas with ITB: rotation physics is especially highlighted Transport barriers in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields Theory and simulation on transport barriers Projections of transport barrier physics to ITER For each topic there was an invited talk presenting an overview of the topic, based on contributions to the meeting and on recently published external results. The six invited talks were: A Leonard (GA, USA): Progress in characterization of the H-mode pedestal and L-H transition N Oyama (JAEA, Japan): Progress and issues in

  19. Requirements relating to radon in the International Basic Safety Standards: information, measurement and national strategies.

    PubMed

    Colgan, P A; Boal, T; Czarwinski, R

    2013-03-01

    The fifth edition of the International Basic Safety Standards (BSS) has recently been established as Part 3 of the General Safety Requirements of the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The BSS applies to all exposure situations and to all categories of exposure. As such, the BSS addresses both occupational exposure due to radon in workplaces and public exposure due to radon in dwellings. In workplaces, exposure due to radon is treated either as a planned exposure situation or as an existing exposure situation, depending on the circumstances. With regard to exposure due to radon in dwellings, the BSS requires that general information on radon, including information on health risks and the synergy with smoking, be made available to the public and other interested parties. Countries are also required to determine whether an action plan for controlling exposure due to radon indoors is necessary, and, if so, to establish and implement such an action plan. Guidance material, covering the establishment of reference levels, national and regional radon surveys, identification of radon prone areas, building codes for new buildings, corrective actions for existing buildings, information campaigns and programme evaluation and effectiveness is currently being developed.

  20. Effectiveness and safety of combined cataract surgery and microhook ab interno trabeculotomy in Japanese eyes with glaucoma: report of an initial case series.

    PubMed

    Tanito, Masaki; Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Fujihara, Etsuko

    2017-09-19

    To report the early postoperative results and safety profile of ab interno microhook trabeculotomy (μLOT) combined with cataract surgery. This retrospective observational case series included 68 consecutive glaucomatous eyes of 23 Japanese men and 25 Japanese women [mean (SD) age, 76.0 ± 8.5 years] who underwent μLOT for intraocular pressure (IOP) and visually relevant cataracts. The LOT site/extent, perioperative complications, and complication treatments were collected from the medical and surgical records. The preoperative and postoperative IOP, numbers of antiglaucoma medications, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity (VA), anterior chamber (AC) flare, and corneal endothelial cell density (CECD) were compared. After small incisional cataract surgery, the trabecular meshwork was incised in the nasal (6 eyes, 3.6 ± 0.5 clock hours), temporal (6 eyes, 3.8 ± 0.8 clock hours), or both nasal and temporal (56 eyes, 6.5 ± 0.6 clock hours) angles. The mean preoperative IOP (16.4 ± 2.9 mmHg) and number of antiglaucoma medications (2.4 ± 1.2) decreased significantly (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0039, respectively) to 11.8 ± 4.5 and 2.1 ± 1.0 mmHg at 9.5 months postoperatively. Compared with the preoperative conditions, the final VA improved (P = 0.0002), the AC flare increased by 6.3 pc/ms (P = 0.0157), and the CECD decreased by 6% (P = 0.0005). Hyphema with niveau formation (28 eyes, 41%) and hyphema washout (6 eyes, 9%) were the most common postoperative complication and intervention, respectively. At the final visit, 54 eyes (79%) had achieved successful IOP control of 15 mmHg or less and IOP reduction of 15% or greater. Combined μLOT and cataract surgery improves IOP and VA during the early postoperative period in patients with glaucoma and cataract.

  1. Progress toward international agreement to improve reactor safety

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, J.I.; Graham, B.

    1993-05-14

    Representatives of nearly one-half of the 114 member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the United States, have participated in the development of an international nuclear safety conventions proposed multilateral treaty to improve civil nuclear power reactor safety. A preliminary draft of the convention has been developed (referred to as the draft convention for this report), but discussions are continuing, and when the final convention text will be completed and presented to IAEA member states for signature is uncertain. This report responds to the former and current Chairman`s request that we provide information on the development of the nuclear safety convention, including a discussion of (1) the draft convention`s scope and objectives, (2) how the convention will be implemented and monitored, (3) the views of selected country representatives on what provisions should be included in the draft convention, and (4) the convention`s potential benefits and limitations.

  2. Diversion analysis and safeguards measures for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors. Paper IAEA-SM-260/6

    SciTech Connect

    Persiani, P.J.; Ermakov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the study is to perform a diversion analysis and an assessment of the available safeguards methods and systems for verifying inventory and flow of nuclear material in accessible and inaccessible areas of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, systems. The study focuses primarily on the assembly-handling operations, assembly storage facilities, and reactor operations facilities relating to experimental, demonstration and prototypal reactor plants. The safeguards systems and methods presented are considered to be feasible for development and implementation within the resource limitation of the IAEA and are considered to be consistent with the objectives, requirements, and constraints of the IAEA documents INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/66-Rev-2.

  3. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Howell, John

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated

  4. Proficiency Testing as a tool to monitor consistency of measurements in the IAEA/WHO Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghzifene, Ahmed; Czap, Ladislav; Shortt, Ken

    2008-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) established a Network of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (IAEA/WHO SSDL Network) in 1976. Through SSDLs designated by Member States, the Network provides a direct link of national dosimetry standards to the international measurement system of standards traceable to the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Within this structure and through the proper calibration of field instruments, the SSDLs disseminate S.I. quantities and units. To ensure that the services provided by SSDL members to end-users follow internationally accepted standards, the IAEA has set up two different comparison programmes. One programme relies on the IAEA/WHO postal TLD service and the other uses comparisons of calibrated ionization chambers to help the SSDLs verify the integrity of their national standards and the procedures used for the transfer of the standards to the end-users. The IAEA comparisons include 60Co air kerma (NK) and absorbed dose to water (ND,W) coefficients. The results of the comparisons are confidential and are communicated only to the participants. This is to encourage participation of the laboratories and their full cooperation in the reconciliation of any discrepancy. This work describes the results of the IAEA programme comparing calibration coefficients for radiotherapy dosimetry, using ionization chambers. In this programme, ionization chambers that belong to the SSDLs are calibrated sequentially at the SSDL, at the IAEA, and again at the SSDL. As part of its own quality assurance programme, the IAEA has participated in several regional comparisons organized by Regional Metrology Organizations. The results of the IAEA comparison programme show that the majority of SSDLs are capable of providing calibrations that fall inside the acceptance level of 1.5% compared to the IAEA.

  5. Analytical quality of environmental analysis: Recent results and future trends of the IAEA-ILMR's Analytical Quality Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Holm, E.; Lopez, J.J.; Parsi, P. )

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services Program of the IAEA-ILMR covers a wide variety of intercalibration and reference materials. The purpose of the program is to ensure the comparability of the results obtained by the different participants and to enable laboratories engaged in low-level analyses of marine environmental materials to control their analytical performance. Within the past five years, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco has organized eight intercomparison exercises, on a world-wide basis, on natural materials of marine origin comprising sea water, sediment, seaweed and fish flesh. Results on artificial (fission and activation products, transuranium elements) and natural radionuclides were compiled and evaluated. Reference concentration values were established for a number of the intercalibration samples allowing them to become certified as reference materials available for general distribution. The results of the fish flesh sample and those of the deep-sea sediment are reviewed. The present status of three on-going intercomparison exercises on post-Chernobyl samples IAEA-306 (Baltic Sea sediment), IAEA-307 (Mediterranean sea-plant Posidonia oceanica) and IAEA-308 (Mediterranean mixed seaweed) is also described. 1 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. IAEA coordinated research projects on core physics benchmarks for high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Methnani, M.

    2006-07-01

    High-temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs present special computational challenges related to their core physics characteristics, in particular neutron streaming, double heterogeneities, impurities and the random distribution of coated fuel particles in the graphite matrix. In recent years, two consecutive IAEA Coordinated Research Projects (CRP 1 and CRP 5) have focused on code-to-code and code-to-experiment comparisons of representative benchmarks run by several participating international institutes. While the PROTEUS critical HTR experiments provided the test data reference for CRP-1, the more recent CRP-5 data has been made available by the HTTR, HTR-10 and ASTRA test facilities. Other benchmark cases are being considered for the GT-MHR and PBMR core designs. This paper overviews the scope and some sample results of both coordinated research projects. (authors)

  7. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-01

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  8. Databases and coordinated research projects at the IAEA on atomic processes in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2012-05-25

    The Atomic and Molecular Data Unit at the IAEA works with a network of national data centres to encourage and coordinate production and dissemination of fundamental data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M/PMI) processes that are relevant to the realization of fusion energy. The Unit maintains numerical and bibliographical databases and has started a Wiki-style knowledge base. The Unit also contributes to A+M database interface standards and provides a search engine that offers a common interface to multiple numerical A+M/PMI databases. Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) bring together fusion energy researchers and atomic, molecular and surface physicists for joint work towards the development of new data and new methods. The databases and current CRPs on A+M/PMI processes are briefly described here.

  9. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  10. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis: Benchmark Definition and Test Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Frederik Reitsma; Hans Gougar; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-11-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are essential elements of the reactor simulation code verification and validation process. Although several international uncertainty quantification activities have been launched in recent years in the LWR, BWR and VVER domains (e.g. the OECD/NEA BEMUSE program [1], from which the current OECD/NEA LWR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) benchmark [2] effort was derived), the systematic propagation of uncertainties in cross-section, manufacturing and model parameters for High Temperature Reactor (HTGR) designs has not been attempted yet. This paper summarises the scope, objectives and exercise definitions of the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR UAM [3]. Note that no results will be included here, as the HTGR UAM benchmark was only launched formally in April 2012, and the specification is currently still under development.

  11. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  12. Numerical modeling of the radionuclide water pathway with HYDRUS and comparison with the IAEA model of SR 44.

    PubMed

    Merk, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    This study depicts a theoretical experiment in which the radionuclide transport through the porous material of a landfill consisting of concrete rubble (e.g., from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants) and the subsequent migration through the vadose zone and aquifer to a model well is calculated by means of the software HYDRUS-1D (Simunek et al., 2008). The radionuclides originally contained within the rubble become dissolved due to leaching caused by infiltrated rainwater. The resulting well-water contamination (in Bq/L) is calculated numerically as a function of time and location and compared with the outcome of a simplified analytic model for the groundwater pathway published by the IAEA (2005). Identical model parameters are considered. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate the predictive capacity of the more simple IAEA model using HYDRUS-1D as a reference. For most of the radionuclides considered (e.g., ¹²⁹I, and ²³⁹Pu), results from applying the IAEA model were found to be comparable to results from the more elaborate HYDRUS modeling, provided the underlying parameter values are comparable. However, the IAEA model appears to underestimate the effects resulting from, for example, high nuclide mobility, short half-life, or short-term variations in the water infiltration. The present results indicate that the IAEA model is suited for screening calculations and general recommendation purposes. However, the analysis of a specific site should be accompanied by detailed HYDRUS computer simulations. In all models considered, the calculation outcome largely depends on the choice of the sorption parameter K(d). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear Cardiology Practices and Radiation Exposure in the Oceania Region: Results From the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS).

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sinjini; Better, Nathan; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Vitola, João V; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Westcott, James; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Bom, Henry Hee-Seung; Bouyoucef, Salah E; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufman, Philip A; Lele, Vikram; Luxenburg, Osnat; Mahmarian, John J; Shaw, Leslee J; Underwood, S Richard; Rehani, Madan; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    There is concern about radiation exposure with radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This sub-study of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study reports radiation doses from MPI, and use of dose-optimisation protocols in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ), and compares them with data from the rest of the world. Data were collected from 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 laboratories worldwide in one week in 2013, including 439 MPI studies from 34 ANZ laboratories. For each laboratory, effective radiation dose (ED) and a quality index (QI) score (out of 8) based on pre-specified "best practices" was determined. In ANZ patients, ED ranged from 0.9-17.9 milliSievert (mSv). Median ED was similar in ANZ compared with the rest of the world (10.0 (IQR: 6.5-11.7) vs. 10.0 (IQR 6.4-12.6, P=0.15), as were mean QI scores (5.5±0.7 vs. 5.4±1.3, P=0.84). Use of stress-only imaging (17.6% vs. 31.8% of labs, P=0.09) and weight-based dosing of technetium-99m (14.7% vs. 30.3%, P=0.07) was lower in ANZ compared with the rest of the world but this difference was not statistically significant. Median ED was significantly lower in metropolitan versus non-metropolitan laboratories (10.1 mSv vs. 11.6 mSv, P<0.01), although mean QI scores were similar (5.4±0.8 vs. 5.5±0.7, P=0.75). Across ANZ, there is variability in ED from MPI, and use of radiation safety practices, particularly between metropolitan and non-metropolitan laboratories. Overall, ANZ laboratories have a similar median ED to laboratories in the rest of the world. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The evolution and impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in the Latin American region.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Phillips, Glyn O

    2009-05-01

    Since 1993, the IAEA supported the establishment or the consolidation of seven tissue banks in the region. As a direct or indirect consequence of the implementation of the IAEA program, more than 53 tissue banks are now operating in the participating countries. The fast development of tissue banks in the Latin America region under the ARCAL Agreement and with the financial and technical support of the IAEA program made it necessary to train new tissue bank operators and medical personnel. In general, 90 tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the training centre of Buenos Aires. Another six tissue bank operators and medical personnel were trained in the International Training Centre of Singapore. The main impact of the IAEA program in the region was the following: the establishment or consolidation of fifty-three tissue banks in nine countries in the region; the implementation of five national projects, allocating $1,006,737 dollars for this purpose and of one regional project allocating $284,741 dollars for this purpose; the use of the IAEA Standards, the IAEA Code of Practice and the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies in several tissue banks in the region; the application of quality control and quality assurances manuals in all of the participating countries.

  15. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases

    SciTech Connect

    Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-10-01

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest

  16. Three-Year Clinical Outcomes of a Polymer-Free Paclitaxel-Eluting Microporous Stent in Real-World Practice: Final Results of the Safety and Efficacy Registry of the Yinyi Stent (SERY-I)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinzhou; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Lianglong; Zhang, Chenyun; Zhou, Xuchen; Yuan, Yong; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2017-01-01

    Background The safety and efficacy of a China-made polymer-free paclitaxel-eluting microporous stent (Yinyi) at 1-year has been previously reported. However, limited evidence exists regarding the long-term performance of this novel drug-eluting stent (DES). This study investigated the 3-year efficacy and safety of the Yinyi stent in the setting of safety and efficacy registry of the Yinyi stent (SERY-I) clinical trial. Methods Between June 2008 and August 2009, a total of 1045 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were implanted with ≥ 1 Yinyi stents at 27 medical centers in mainland China. Thereafter, clinical follow-up was performed for a period of 3 years after enrollment. The primary endpoint was the cumulative rate of composite major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including target lesion revascularization (TLR), the combined incidence of cardiac death, and non-fatal myocardial infarction; the second endpoint was the incidence of stent thrombosis. Results Overall, 1376 lesions were treated successfully with 1713 Yinyi stents, and 1019 (98.7%) patients received dual antiplatelet therapy for at least 12 months. At 3 years, a total of 13 (1.33%) patients had suffered cardiac death. The incidence of non-fatal myocardial infarction and TLR was 9 (0.92%) and 58 (5.92%) among the patients. Stent thrombosis occurred in 13 (1.33%) patients, and the rate of Academic Research Consortium (ARC) definite or probable stent thrombosis was 0.82%. Conclusions Given the limitations that SERY-I was a single arm, nonrandomized study and only telephone follow-up was performed without angiographic analysis, the safety and efficacy of Yinyi stent observed in this extended follow-up Registry needs further verification. PMID:28115804

  17. Worth the Risk: Four Approaches to Safety in International Learning, Including Selected and Annotated Resource Guide. CBIE Research Millennium Series No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myles, Wayne; Mitchell, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    More and more Canadians are departing the country for international study, training and work experiences. Increasingly Canadian organizations and institutions are developing programs that further this mobility. However there is a dearth of resources and a lack of guidelines related to ensuring health and safety while abroad. "Worth the…

  18. Evaluation of Safety Education (Choctaw Agency School System, Philadelphia, Mississippi, February 1976). Research and Evaluation Report Series No. 40.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Carlee S.

    Questionnaire responses derived from a sample of 202 Choctaw students (grades 4, 6, 8, and 10) in attendance at the Bureau of Indian Affairs' Choctaw Agency Schools (Philadelphia, Mississippi) were utilized to evaluate the Choctaw Safety Education Program. In addition, parents, teachers, janitors, bus drivers, council members, and principals were…

  19. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  20. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  1. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  2. Strengthened IAEA Safeguards-Imagery Analysis: Geospatial Tools for Nonproliferation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Pabian, Frank V

    2012-08-14

    This slide presentation focuses on the growing role and importance of imagery analysis for IAEA safeguards applications and how commercial satellite imagery, together with the newly available geospatial tools, can be used to promote 'all-source synergy.' As additional sources of openly available information, satellite imagery in conjunction with the geospatial tools can be used to significantly augment and enhance existing information gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection and assessment of nonproliferation relevant activities, facilities, and programs. Foremost of the geospatial tools are the 'Digital Virtual Globes' (i.e., GoogleEarth, Virtual Earth, etc.) that are far better than previously used simple 2-D plan-view line drawings for visualization of known and suspected facilities of interest which can be critical to: (1) Site familiarization and true geospatial context awareness; (2) Pre-inspection planning; (3) Onsite orientation and navigation; (4) Post-inspection reporting; (5) Site monitoring over time for changes; (6) Verification of states site declarations and for input to State Evaluation reports; and (7) A common basis for discussions among all interested parties (Member States). Additionally, as an 'open-source', such virtual globes can also provide a new, essentially free, means to conduct broad area search for undeclared nuclear sites and activities - either alleged through open source leads; identified on internet BLOGS and WIKI Layers, with input from a 'free' cadre of global browsers and/or by knowledgeable local citizens (a.k.a.: 'crowdsourcing'), that can include ground photos and maps; or by other initiatives based on existing information and in-house country knowledge. They also provide a means to acquire ground photography taken by locals, hobbyists, and tourists of the surrounding locales that can be useful in identifying and discriminating between relevant and non-relevant facilities and their associated

  3. Management of patients with issues related to opioid safety, efficacy and/or misuse: a case series from an integrated, interdisciplinary clinic.

    PubMed

    Becker, William C; Merlin, Jessica S; Manhapra, Ajay; Edens, Ellen L

    2016-01-28

    Patients, providers, communities and health systems have struggled to achieve balance between access to opioid treatment for chronic pain and its potential harmful consequences: especially misuse, addiction and overdose. We developed an interdisciplinary clinic embedded within primary care (the Opioid Reassessment Clinic-ORC) with the goal of improving the quality of care of patients with co-occurring chronic pain and issues related to opioid safety, efficacy and/or misuse. We present three cases referred to the ORC that highlight complex clinical scenarios related to assessment and treatment of patients with chronic pain and issues related to opioid safety, efficacy and misuse. In the context of the three cases, with respect to assessment, we discuss: making the diagnosis of opioid use disorder; allowing the patient space to endorse lack of efficacy; identification of co-occurring hazardous alcohol use; and recognizing barriers to multimodal pain care. With respect to treatment, we discuss: making a change in treatment with which the patient may not agree; effectiveness of buprenorphine/naloxone for the treatment of chronic pain; responding to low efficacy; and making continued opioid therapy contingent on engagement with substance abuse treatment. The core components of our approach-biopsychosocial assessment and multimodal treatment planning with an emphasis on promoting functional goals and safety using clear communication and a patient-centered stance-should guide providers in the management of similar clinical scenarios. More evidence is needed to definitively guide specific interventions and points of clinical equipoise.

  4. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Tehran Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hadi; Nematollahi, Mohammad Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2004-07-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this paper the application of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is presented. The level 1 PSA application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantification, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using SAPHIRE software. This Study shows that the obtained core damage frequency for Tehran Research Reactor (8.368 E-6 per year) well meets the IAEA criterion for existing nuclear power plants (1E-4). But safety improvement suggestions are offered to decrease the most probable accidents. (authors)

  5. The IAEA coordinated research programme on HTGR uncertainty analysis: Phase I status and Ex. I-1 prismatic reference results

    DOE PAGES

    Bostelmann, Friederike; Strydom, Gerhard; Reitsma, Frederik; ...

    2016-01-11

    The quantification of uncertainties in design and safety analysis of reactors is today not only broadly accepted, but in many cases became the preferred way to replace traditional conservative analysis for safety and licensing analysis. The use of a more fundamental methodology is also consistent with the reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes available today. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied, in contrast to the historical approach where sensitivity analysis were performed and uncertainties then determined by a simplified statistical combination of a few important inputmore » parameters. New methodologies are currently under development in the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs require specific treatment of the double heterogeneous fuel design and large graphite quantities at high temperatures. The IAEA has therefore launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) in 2013 to study uncertainty propagation specifically in the HTGR analysis chain. Two benchmark problems are defined, with the prismatic design represented by the General Atomics (GA) MHTGR-350 and a 250 MW modular pebble bed design similar to the Chinese HTR-PM. Work has started on the first phase and the current CRP status is reported in the paper. A comparison of the Serpent and SCALE/KENO-VI reference Monte Carlo results for Ex. I-1 of the MHTGR-350 design is also included. It was observed that the SCALE/KENO-VI Continuous Energy (CE) k∞ values were 395 pcm (Ex. I-1a) to 803 pcm (Ex. I-1b) higher than the respective Serpent lattice calculations, and that within the set of the SCALE results, the KENO-VI 238 Multi-Group (MG) k∞ values were up to 800 pcm lower than the KENO-VI CE values. The use of the

  6. The IAEA coordinated research programme on HTGR uncertainty analysis: Phase I status and Ex. I-1 prismatic reference results

    SciTech Connect

    Bostelmann, Friederike; Strydom, Gerhard; Reitsma, Frederik; Ivanov, Kostadin

    2016-01-11

    The quantification of uncertainties in design and safety analysis of reactors is today not only broadly accepted, but in many cases became the preferred way to replace traditional conservative analysis for safety and licensing analysis. The use of a more fundamental methodology is also consistent with the reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes available today. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied, in contrast to the historical approach where sensitivity analysis were performed and uncertainties then determined by a simplified statistical combination of a few important input parameters. New methodologies are currently under development in the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity. High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) designs require specific treatment of the double heterogeneous fuel design and large graphite quantities at high temperatures. The IAEA has therefore launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling (UAM) in 2013 to study uncertainty propagation specifically in the HTGR analysis chain. Two benchmark problems are defined, with the prismatic design represented by the General Atomics (GA) MHTGR-350 and a 250 MW modular pebble bed design similar to the Chinese HTR-PM. Work has started on the first phase and the current CRP status is reported in the paper. A comparison of the Serpent and SCALE/KENO-VI reference Monte Carlo results for Ex. I-1 of the MHTGR-350 design is also included. It was observed that the SCALE/KENO-VI Continuous Energy (CE) k values were 395 pcm (Ex. I-1a) to 803 pcm (Ex. I-1b) higher than the respective Serpent lattice calculations, and that within the set of the SCALE results, the KENO-VI 238 Multi-Group (MG) k values were up to 800 pcm lower than the KENO-VI CE values. The

  7. Certified reference material for radionuclides in fish flesh sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Sea).

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A; Povinec, P P; Arnold, D; Benmansour, M; Bojanowski, R; Carvalho, F P; Kim, C K; Esposito, M; Gastaud, J; Gascó, C L; Ham, G J; Hegde, A G; Holm, E; Jaskierowicz, D; Kanisch, G; Llaurado, M; La Rosa, J; Lee, S-H; Liong Wee Kwong, L; Le Petit, G; Maruo, Y; Nielsen, S P; Oh, J-S; Oregioni, B; Palomares, J; Pettersson, H B L; Rulik, P; Ryan, T P; Sato, K; Schikowski, J; Skwarzec, B; Smedley, P A; Tarján, S; Vajda, N; Wyse, E

    2006-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for radionuclides in fish sample IAEA-414 (mixed fish from the Irish Sea and North Seas) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. Nine radionuclides (40K, 137Cs, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am) were certified for this material. Information on massic activities with 95% confidence intervals is given for six other radionuclides (90Sr, 210Pb(210Po), 226Ra, 239Pu, 240Pu 241Pu). Less frequently reported radionuclides (99Tc, 129I, 228Th, 230Th and 237Np) and information on some activity and mass ratios are also included. The CRM can be used for quality assurance/quality control of the analysis of radionuclides in fish sample, for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material is available from IAEA, Vienna, in 100 g units.

  8. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  9. Characterisation of the IAEA-152 milk powder reference material for radioactivity with assigned values traceable to the SI units.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, T; Bohnstedt, A

    2008-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) participated in a research project initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to upgrade some of its existing reference materials (RMs). The aim of the project is to improve the RM metrological status by establishing traceability of their assigned values to SI units. The purpose of the work described in this article was to establish traceability to the International System of Units (SI) of the activity concentrations of the radionuclides (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (40)K, and (90)Sr in the IAEA-152 milk powder RM. The choice of the particular RM was based on the concern about radioactivity levels in foodstuff. The sample preparation and the assaying of the activity concentrations in the milk powder, the methods used to achieve instrument calibrations and measurements traceable to the SI units, the data reduction and analysis, and finally, the results obtained are presented.

  10. Safety of Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Warnecke, E.; Coates, R.

    2008-01-15

    Full text of publication follows: ensuring safety during all stages of facility life cycle is a widely recognised responsibility of the operators, implemented under the supervision of the regulatory body and other competent authorities. As the majority of the facilities worldwide are still in operation or shutdown, there is no substantial experience in decommissioning and evaluation of safety during decommissioning in majority of Member States. The need for cooperation and exchange of experience and good practices on ensuring and evaluating safety of decommissioning was one of the outcomes of the Berlin conference in 2002. On this basis during the last three years IAEA initiated a number of international projects that can assist countries, in particular small countries with limited resources. The main IAEA international projects addressing safety during decommissioning are: (i) DeSa Project on Evaluation and Demonstration of Safety during Decommissioning; (ii) R{sup 2}D{sup 2}P project on Research Reactors Decommissioning Demonstration Project; and (iii) Project on Evaluation and Decommissioning of Former Facilities that used Radioactive Material in Iraq. This paper focuses on the DeSa Project activities on (i) development of a harmonised methodology for safety assessment for decommissioning; (ii) development of a procedure for review of safety assessments; (iii) development of recommendations on application of the graded approach to the performance and review of safety assessments; and (iv) application of the methodology and procedure to the selected real facilities with different complexities and hazard potentials (a nuclear power plant, a research reactor and a nuclear laboratory). The paper also outlines the DeSa Project outcomes and planned follow-up activities. It also summarises the main objectives and activities of the Iraq Project and introduces the R{sup 2}D{sup 2} Project, which is a subject of a complementary paper.

  11. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  12. US technical assistance to the IAEA and the chemical weapons convection (CWC) - a review and look to the future

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, J.; Parsick, R.J.; Reisman, A.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews the Safeguards mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and describes U.S. technical support programs. We also review the mandate of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and speculate on the technical areas where U.S. assistance may prove useful. The IAEA was organized in 1957 in response to President Eisenhower`s {open_quotes}Atoms for Peace{close_quotes} initiative presented to the UN General Assembly on December 8, 1953. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) has been organized by a Preparatory Commission (PREPCOM) to prepare for the entry-into-force of this new convention which prohibits the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction. The safeguards mandate of the IAEA is to carry out verifications of nuclear material pursuant to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other voluntary but legally binding agreements. U.S. technical support programs have provided and continue to provide assistance in the form of Cost-Free Experts (CFE`s), systems studies on new safeguards approaches, training, computerized information systems, and equipment for nuclear materials measurements and containment and surveillance systems. Because the CWC just recently entered into force (April 29, 1997), verification procedures of the OPCW are not yet fully developed. However, it is expected, and can already be seen for many aspects of the technical task, that there are many similarities between the verification activities of the OPCW and those carried out by the IAEA. This paper will discuss potential technical support areas that can help strengthen the OPCW. 9 refs.

  13. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists` meeting on cracking in LWR RPV head penetrations

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Raney, S.J.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains 17 papers that were presented in four sessions at the IAEA Specialists` meeting on Cracking in LWR RPV Head Penetrations held at ASTM Headquarters in Philadelphia on May 2-3, 1995. The papers are compiled here in the order that presentations were made in the sessions, and they relate to operational observations, inspection techniques, analytical modeling, and regulatory control. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to review experience in the field of ensuring adequate performance of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads and penetrations. The emphasis was to allow a better understanding of RPV material behavior, to provide guidance supporting reliability and adequate performance, and to assist in defining directions for further investigations. The international nature of the meeting is illustrated by the fact that papers were presented by researchers from 10 countries. There were technical experts present form other countries who participated in discussions of the results presented. This present document incorporates the final version of the papers as received from the authors. The final chapter includes conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. IAEA Isotope-enabled coupled catchment-lake water balance model, IWBMIso: description and validation.

    PubMed

    Belachew, Dagnachew Legesse; Leavesley, George; David, Olaf; Patterson, Dave; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Terzer, Stefan; Carlson, Jack

    2016-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Water Balance Model with Isotopes (IWBMIso) is a spatially distributed monthly water balance model that considers water fluxes and storages and their associated isotopic compositions. It is composed of a lake water balance model that is tightly coupled with a catchment water balance model. Measured isotope compositions of precipitation, rivers, lakes, and groundwater provide data that can be used to make an improved estimate of the magnitude of the fluxes among the model components. The model has been developed using the Object Modelling System (OMS). A variety of open source geographic information systems and web-based tools have been combined to provide user support for (1) basin delineation, characterization, and parameterization; (2) data pre-processing; (3) model calibration and application; and (4) visualization and analysis of model results. In regions where measured data are limited, the model can use freely available global data sets of climate, isotopic composition of precipitation, and soils and vegetation characteristics to create input data files and estimate spatially distributed model parameters. The OMS model engine and support functions, and the spatial and web-based tool set are integrated using the Colorado State University Environmental Risk Assessment and Management System (eRAMS) framework. The IWBMIso can be used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of annual and monthly water balance components for input to water planning and management.

  15. Lessons from UNSCOM and IAEA regarding remote monitoring and air sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, at the direction of the United Nations Security Council, UNSCOM and IAEA developed plans for On-going Monitoring and Verification (OMV) in Iraq. The plans were accepted by the Security Council and remote monitoring and atmospheric sampling equipment has been installed at selected sites in Iraq. The remote monitoring equipment consists of video cameras and sensors positioned to observe equipment or activities at sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of weapons of mass destruction, or long-range missiles. The atmospheric sampling equipment provides unattended collection of chemical samples from sites that could be used to support the development or manufacture of chemical weapon agents. To support OMV in Iraq, UNSCOM has established the Baghdad Monitoring and Verification Centre. Imagery from the remote monitoring cameras can be accessed in near-real time from the Centre through RIF communication links with the monitored sites. The OMV program in Iraq has implications for international cooperative monitoring in both global and regional contexts. However, monitoring systems such as those used in Iraq are not sufficient, in and of themselves, to guarantee the absence of prohibited activities. Such systems cannot replace on-site inspections by competent, trained inspectors. However, monitoring similar to that used in Iraq can contribute to openness and confidence building, to the development of mutual trust, and to the improvement of regional stability.

  16. Clinical safety of brain magnetic resonance imaging with implanted deep brain stimulation hardware: large case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zrinzo, Ludvic; Yoshida, Fumiaki; Hariz, Marwan I; Thornton, John; Foltynie, Thomas; Yousry, Tarek A; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Over 75,000 patients have undergone deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures worldwide. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important clinical and research tool in analyzing electrode location, documenting postoperative complications, and investigating novel symptoms in DBS patients. Functional MRI may shed light on the mechanism of action of DBS. MRI safety in DBS patients is therefore an important consideration. We report our experience with MRI in patients with implanted DBS hardware and examine the literature for clinical reports on MRI safety with implanted DBS hardware. A total of 262 MRI examinations were performed in 223 patients with intracranial DBS hardware, including 45 in patients with an implanted pulse generator. Only 1 temporary adverse event occurred related to patient agitation and movement during immediate postoperative MR imaging. Agitation resolved after a few hours, and an MRI obtained before implanted pulse generator implantation revealed edema around both electrodes. Over 4000 MRI examinations in patients with implanted DBS hardware have been reported in the literature. Only 4 led to adverse events, including 2 hardware failures, 1 temporary and 1 permanent neurological deficit. Adverse neurological events occurred in a unique set of circumstances where appropriate safety protocols were not followed. MRI guidelines provided by DBS hardware manufacturers are inconsistent and vary among devices. The importance of MRI in modern medicine places pressure on industry to develop fully MRI-compatible DBS devices. Until then, the literature suggests that, when observing certain precautions, cranial MR images can be obtained with an extremely low risk in patients with implanted DBS hardware. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implementation of neutron counting techniques at US facilities for IAEA verification of excess materials from nuclear weapons production

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, J.E.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.; Reilly, T.D.; Theis, W.; Lemaire, R.J.; Xiao, J.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy, announced by President Clinton before the United Nations General Assembly on September 27, 1993, commits the U.S. to placing under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards excess nuclear materials no longer needed for the U.S. nuclear deterrent. As of July 1, 1995, the IAEA had completed Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) at two facilities: a storage vault in the Oak Ridge Y-12 plant containing highly enriched uranium (HOW) metal and another storage vault in the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) containing plutonium oxide and plutonium-bearing residues. Another plutonium- storage vault, located at Rocky Flats, is scheduled for the IPIV in the fall of 1995. Conventional neutron coincidence counting is one of the routinely applied IAEA nondestructive assay (ND) methods for verification of uranium and plutonium. However, at all three facilities mentioned above, neutron ND equipment had to be modified or developed for specific facility needs such as the type and configuration of material placed under safeguards. This document describes those modifications and developments.

  18. Radiation processing techniques in remediation of pollutants, and the role of the IAEA in supporting capacity building in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haji-Saeid, S. Mohammad.; Sampa, M. H.; Safrany, A.; Sabharwal, S.; Ramamoorthy, N.

    2012-08-01

    Radiation treatment, or a combination of radiation with conventional biological-chemical-physical processes, can help in the remediation of contaminated surfaces and in combating industrial chemical effluents and air pollution. The use of ionizing radiation as a powerful tool for inactivation of microbes is a valuable option to address likely threats from biohazard contamination that could be introduced either deliberately or inadvertently into areas where the public are exposed to, as well as for treatment of volatile organic compounds and similar hazardous chemical agents is an emerging development in tackling harmful pollutants. The role of the IAEA has been crucial both in supporting the development of local capabilities as well as in fostering international cooperation due to the multidisciplinary expertise required for achieving sustainable benefits. The IAEA is implementing Coordinated Research Projects, (CRP) thematic topical reviews of issues and challenges involved, and Technical Cooperation (TC) assistance in establishing and maintaining infrastructure in the MS. This paper will give an insight into the above mentioned IAEA activities, with examples of successes achieved through CRPs, as well as challenges on the road for broader dissemination of radiation processing technology for environmental remediation.

  19. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The National University Hospital (NUH) Tissue Bank was established in October 1988. The National University of Singapore (NUS) was officially appointed by IAEA to be the IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (RTC) for RCA Member States for training of tissue bank operators on September 18, 1996. In the first five years since its establishment the National University Hospital Tissue Bank concentrated its work on the sterile procurement and production of deep frozen femoral heads and were used in patients for bone reconstruction. The cost of producing these tissues were about SGD$ 250 per femoral head although cost fees were initially charged at SGD$ 50 per femoral head. The most important activity carried out by Singapore within the IAEA was training. Between November 1997 and April 2007, a total of nine courses were conducted by RTC with a total of 180 tissue bank operators registered, 133 from Asia and the Pacific region (13 countries, including 2 from Iran), 14 from Africa (Zambia, Libya, Egypt, Algeria, and South Africa), 6 from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru, and Uruguay), 9 from Europe (Greece, Slovakia, Poland, and Ukraine), and 2 from Australia. The last batch (ninth batch) involved 20 students registered in April 2007 and will be due to sit for the terminal examination in April 2008.

  20. Hybrid imaging worldwide-challenges and opportunities for the developing world: a report of a Technical Meeting organized by IAEA.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Mariani, Guliano

    2013-05-01

    The growth in nuclear medicine, in the past decade, is largely due to hybrid imaging, specifically single-photon emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT). Introduction and use of hybrid imaging has been growing at a fast pace. This has led to many challenges and opportunities to the personnel dealing with it. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) keeps a close watch on the trends in applications of nuclear techniques in health by many ways, including obtaining inputs from member states and professional societies. In 2012, a Technical Meeting on trends in hybrid imaging was organized by IAEA to understand the current status and trends of hybrid imaging using nuclear techniques, its role in clinical practice, and associated educational needs and challenges. Perspective of scientific societies and professionals from all the regions of the world was obtained. Heterogeneity in value, educational needs, and access was noted and the drivers of this heterogeneity were discussed. This article presents the key points shared during the technical meeting, focusing primarily on SPECT-CT and PET-CT, and shares the action plan for IAEA to deal with heterogeneity as suggested by the participants.

  1. Castle series, 1954. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, E.J.; Rowland, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    CASTLE was an atmospheric nuclear weapons test series held in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak and Bikini atolls in 1954. This is a report of DOD peronnel in CASTLE with an emphasis on operations and radiological safety.

  2. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    The widespread adoption of relative stable isotope-ratio measurements in organic matter by diverse scientific disciplines is at odds with the dearth of international organic stable isotopic reference materials (RMs). Only two of the few carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) organic RMs, namely L-glutamic acids USGS40 and USGS41 [1], both available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), provide an isotopically contrasting pair of organic RMs to enable essential 2-point calibrations for δ-scale normalization [2, 3]. The supply of hydrogen (H) organic RMs is even more limited. Numerous stable isotope laboratories have resorted to questionable practices, for example by using 'CO2, N2, and H2 reference gas pulses' for isotopic calibrations, which violates the principle of identical treatment of sample and standard (i.e., organic unknowns should be calibrated directly against chemically similar organic RMs) [4], or by using only 1 anchor instead of 2 for scale calibration. The absence of international organic RMs frequently serves as an excuse for indefensible calibrations. In 2011, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded an initiative of 10 laboratories from 7 countries to jointly develop much needed new organic RMs for future distribution by the USGS and the IAEA. The selection of targeted RMs attempts to cover various common compound classes of broad technical and scientific interest. We had to accept compromises to approach the ideal of high chemical stability, lack of toxicity, and low price of raw materials. Hazardous gases and flammable liquids were avoided in order to facilitate international shipping of future RMs. With the exception of polyethylene and vacuum pump oil, all organic RMs are individual, chemically-pure substances, which can be used for compound-specific isotopic measurements in conjunction with liquid and gas chromatographic interfaces. The compounds listed below are under isotopic calibration by

  3. 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, Herbert L.; Breizman, Boris N.

    2014-02-21

    The 12th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems took place in Austin, Texas (7–11 September 2011). This meeting was organized jointly with the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Theory of Plasma Instabilities (5–7 September 2011). The two meetings shared one day (7 September 2011) with presentations relevant to both groups. Some of the work reported at these meetings was then published in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion [Nucl. Fusion 52 (2012)]. Summaries of the Energetic Particle Conference presentations were given by Kazuo Toi and Boris Breizman. They respectively discussed the experimental and theoretical progress presented at the meeting. Highlights of this meeting include the tremendous progress that has been achieved in the development of diagnostics that enables the ‘viewing’ of internal fluctuations and allows comparison with theoretical predictions, as demonstrated, for example, in the talks of P. Lauber and M. Osakabe. The need and development of hardened diagnostics in the severe radiation environment, such as those that will exist in ITER, was discussed in the talks of V. Kiptily and V.A. Kazakhov. In theoretical studies, much of the effort is focused on nonlinear phenomena. For example, detailed comparison of theory and experiment on D-III-D on the n = 0 geodesic mode was reported in separate papers by R. Nazikian and G. Fu. A large number of theoretical papers were presented on wave chirping including a paper by B.N. Breizman, which notes that wave chirping from a single frequency may emanate continuously once marginal stability conditions have been established. Another area of wide interest was the detailed study of alpha orbits in a burning plasma, where losses can come from symmetry breaking due to finite coil number or magnetic field imperfections introduced by diagnostic or test modules. An important area of development, covered by M.A. Hole and D.A. Spong, is concerned with the self

  4. Joint probability safety assessment for NPP defense infrastructure against extreme external natural hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Guilin, L.; Defu, L.; Huajun, L.; Fengqing, W.; Tao, Z.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing tendency of natural hazards, the typhoon, hurricane and tropical Cyclone induced surge, wave, precipitation, flood and wind as extreme external loads menacing Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) in coastal and inland provinces of China. For all of planned, designed And constructed NPP the National Nuclear Safety Administration of China and IAEA recommended Probable Maximum Hurricane /Typhoon/(PMH/T), Probable Maximum Storm Surge (PMSS), Probable Maximum Flood (PMF), Design Basis Flood (DBF) as safety regulations for NPP defense infrastructures. This paper discusses the joint probability analysis of simultaneous occurrence typhoon induced extreme external hazards and compare with IAEA 2006-2009 recommended safety regulation design criteria for some NPP defense infrastructures along China coast. (authors)

  5. Fuel Cycle Analysis Framework Base Cases for the IAEA/INPRO GAINS Collaborative Project

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Dixon

    2012-09-01

    Thirteen countries participated in the Collaborative Project GAINS “Global Architecture of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems Based on Thermal and Fast Reactors Including a Closed Fuel Cycle”, which was the primary activity within the IAEA/INPRO Program Area B: “Global Vision on Sustainable Nuclear Energy” for the last three years. The overall objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems taking into account sustainable development, and to validate results through sample analyses. This paper details the eight scenarios that constitute the GAINS framework base cases for analysis of the transition to future innovative nuclear energy systems. The framework base cases provide a reference for users of the framework to start from in developing and assessing their own alternate systems. Each base case is described along with performance results against the GAINS sustainability evaluation metrics. The eight cases include four using a moderate growth projection and four using a high growth projection for global nuclear electricity generation through 2100. The cases are divided into two sets, addressing homogeneous and heterogeneous scenarios developed by GAINS to model global fuel cycle strategies. The heterogeneous world scenario considers three separate nuclear groups based on their fuel cycle strategies, with non-synergistic and synergistic cases. The framework base case analyses results show the impact of these different fuel cycle strategies while providing references for future users of the GAINS framework. A large number of scenario alterations are possible and can be used to assess different strategies, different technologies, and different assumptions about possible futures of nuclear power. Results can be compared to the framework base cases to assess where these alternate cases perform differently versus the sustainability indicators.

  6. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  7. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    PubMed

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit.

  8. A probabilistic safety analysis of incidents in nuclear research reactors.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Agostinho Angelo Sordi, Gian Maria; Moralles, Mauricio; Filho, Tufic Madi

    2012-06-01

    This work aims to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in nuclear research reactors. For its development, two databases of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used: the Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) and the Incident Report System for Research Reactor (IRSRR). For this study, the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was used. To obtain the result of the probability calculations for PSA, the theory and equations in the paper IAEA TECDOC-636 were used. A specific program to analyse the probabilities was developed within the main program, Scilab 5.1.1. for two distributions, Fischer and chi-square, both with the confidence level of 90 %. Using Sordi equations, the maximum admissible doses to compare with the risk limits established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were obtained. All results achieved with this probability analysis led to the conclusion that the incidents which occurred had radiation doses within the stochastic effects reference interval established by the ICRP-64.

  9. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided interventional treatment for refractory malignant left-sided liver tumors: a case series of 26 patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tian-an; Deng, Zhuang; Tian, Guo; Zhao, Qi-yu; Wang, Wei-lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of EUS-guided ethanol injection and 125I seed brachytherapy for malignant left-sided liver tumors which were difficult for trans-abdominal intervention. The study protocol was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02816944). Twenty-six patients were consecutively and prospectively hospitalized for EUS-guided interventional treatment of refractory malignant left-sided liver tumors between June 2014 and June 2016. Liver masses were detected using EUS in 25 of 26 (96.2%) patients. EUS-guided interventional treatment was completed uneventfully in 23 of 26 (88.5%) patients using anhydrous ethanol injection (n = 10) or iodine-125 seed implantation (n = 13). Six months later, complete response was achieved in 15 of 23 (65.2%) patients and partial response in 8 of 23 (34.8%) patients. Patients with tumor residual have second-look EUS-guided interventional treatment (n = 5), radiotherapy (n = 2) or surgical resection (n = 1). Complete response was achieved after repeated interventional treatment in 3 of 5 patients who underwent second EUS-guided intervention; 2 patients required additional surgical resection but one succeed. No significant complications occurred. Therefore EUS-guided 125I seed brachytherapy is an effective and safe treatment modality for radical operation or promising palliative control of malignant left-sided liver tumors refractory to trans-abdominal intervention. PMID:27958384

  10. Microscale heterogeneities in the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the international standard calcite materials (NBS19, NBS18, IAEA-CO-1, and IAEA-CO- 8)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, T.; Tsunogai, U.; Nakagawa, F.

    2008-12-01

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ13C and δ18O) of carbonate, especially biological calcite (e.g., foraminifera and coral), are useful as environmental tracers to reconstruct paleoclimate and paleo-oceanic circulations. In recent studies, the stable isotopic analyses for sub-100 μg quantities of carbonate are needed to reconstruct high-resolution environmental fluctuations. In this study, we investigated the magnitude of grain-scale (from 6 to 88 μg) heterogeneities in carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of international standard reference calcite materials (NBS 19, NBS 18, IAEA- CO-1, and IAEA-CO-8) in order to determine which standard reference calcite materials are suitable for a microscale, high-resolution, isotopic analysis. In order to serve this purpose, we have upgraded the analytical system reported in Ishimura et al. (2004) and improved both stability and precision during grain-scale isotopic analyses. This continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS) system realizes a simultaneous determination of both the δ13C and the δ18O values with standard deviations (S.D.) of less than 0.05 ‰ for CO2 gas. Based on the S.D. of the δ13C and δ18O values determined for CO2 gases evolved from the different grains of the same calcite material, we found that NBS19, IAEA-CO-1, and IEAE- CO-8 were homogeneous for δ13C (less than 0.10 ‰ S.D.), and only NBS19 was homogeneous for δ18O (less than 0.14 ‰ S.D.). On the level of single grains, we found that both IAEA-CO-1 and IAEA-CO-8 were heterogeneous for δ18O (1.46 ‰ and 0.76 ‰ S.D., respectively), and NBS18 was heterogeneous for both δ13C and δ18O (0.34 ‰ and 0.54 ‰ S.D., respectively). Closer inspection of NBS18 grains revealed that the highly deviated isotopic compositions were limited to the colored grains. By excluding such colored grains, we could obtain the homogeneous δ13C and δ18O values (less than 0.18 ‰ and less than 0.16 ‰ S.D., respectively) for

  11. Safety, tolerability and effectiveness of an ergonomic intervention with chiropractic care for knowledge workers with upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders: a prospective case series.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Chuck; Johnson, Dale; Chester, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and sixty million office workers (knowledge workers) in the U.S. and 2/3 of the developed countries use computers on a daily basis. Investigate the effectiveness of ergonomic and diversified chiropractic care for the reduction of pain, discomfort and impaired productivity in knowledge workers presenting with neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints. A one-year prospective case series (n=5 applying ergonomic job task analyses and ongoing surveillance at baseline, 8 weeks, 16 weeks and one-year for musculoskeletal discomfort (CMDQ and VAS, quality of life (Rand SF-36, productivity and forward head posture (FHP). CMDQ and VAS scores decreased by 45% (neck) and 80% (upper extremities); productivity increased from 65% to 100%; physical functioning, role physical and role emotional improved for 4 of 5 subjects; body pain and general health improved for 3 of 5. Average FHP changed from 1-inch (baseline) to 1/4-inch (16-weeks) to 1/2-inch (one year). Effectiveness of this intervention for the reduction of risks depended upon the subject's adoption of safe workstyle behaviors and postures. A transtheoretical model (TTM) for behavior change is discussed as a possible methodology to enhance the adoption of safer work habits.

  12. The impact of council directive 2011/70/EURATOM and IAEA joint convention review meetings on the ongoing establishment of the Portuguese regulatory framework and on the future of national radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Paiva, Isabel; Trindade, Romao B.

    2013-07-01

    Council Directive 2011/70/EURATOM of 19 July 2011, establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste will enter in force August 2013 in all EU Member States. Portugal has already started preparing its legislative framework to accommodate the new legislative piece. However, the first report of Portugal to the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management of the IAEA, in Vienna, 2012, has shown that Portugal still has many steps to overcome to establish a successful and effective basic regulatory framework. The existence of many competent authorities related to the radiological protection area and a newly independent commission that is still looking on how to fulfill its regulator role in other areas such as the radioactive waste management makes quite challenging the full application of the new directive as well as compliance that Portugal will have to show in the next Joint Convention review meeting in order to meet the obligations of the Convention. In this paper, the reality of the regulatory Portuguese framework on radiological protection, nuclear safety and radioactive waste management is presented. Discussion of the future impact of the new legislation and its consequences such as the need to setup the national program on radioactive waste management is critical discussed. (authors)

  13. Technical Review Report for the Model 9975-96 Package Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (S-SARP-G-00003, Revision 0, January 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    West, M

    2009-05-22

    This Technical Review Report (TRR) documents the review, performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Staff, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), on the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, Revision 0, dated January 2008 (S-SARP-G-00003, the SARP). The review includes an evaluation of the SARP, with respect to the requirements specified in 10 CFR 71, and in International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards Series No. TS-R-1. The Model 9975-96 Package is a 35-gallon drum package design that has evolved from a family of packages designed by DOE contractors at the Savannah River Site. Earlier package designs, i.e., the Model 9965, the Model 9966, the Model 9967, and the Model 9968 Packagings, were originally designed and certified in the early 1980s. In the 1990s, updated package designs that incorporated design features consistent with the then newer safety requirements were proposed. The updated package designs at the time were the Model 9972, the Model 9973, the Model 9974, and the Model 9975 Packagings, respectively. The Model 9975 Package was certified by the Packaging Certification Program, under the Office of Safety Management and Operations. The safety analysis of the Model 9975-85 Packaging is documented in the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging, Model 9975, B(M)F-85, Revision 0, dated December 2003. The Model 9975-85 Package is certified by DOE Certificate of Compliance (CoC) package identification number, USA/9975/B(M)F-85, for the transportation of Type B quantities of uranium metal/oxide, {sup 238}Pu heat sources, plutonium/uranium metals, plutonium/uranium oxides, plutonium composites, plutonium/tantalum composites, {sup 238}Pu oxide/beryllium metal.

  14. MO-D-BRB-01: Accuracy Requirements and Uncertainties in Radiation Therapy: A Preview of an Upcoming IAEA Report.

    PubMed

    Van Dyk, J

    2012-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a mandate 'to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. Through its Human Health Division, this is done by developing guidance documents on standards of practice in radiation medicine. In recent years, there have been major advances in the technology of radiation oncology which have allowed for a transition from conventional 2-D radiation therapy to the implementation of 3-D conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), adaptive radiation therapy (ART), and 4-D imaging and motion management in radiation therapy. Brachytherapy procedures have also evolved both for high dose rate (HDR) techniques as well as permanent implants, especially for prostate cancer treatments. Multiple imaging modalities are now available for target volume and normal tissue delineation for radiation treatment planning both for external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. With these new advanced technologies and improved outcome considerations for both external beam and brachytherapy, there is also a recognized need for greater accuracy in the radiation treatment process. While a number of reports and publications have defined accuracy needs in radiation oncology, most of these reports were developed in an era with different radiation technologies and date back to the 1980s and 90s. In view of the new technologies and techniques, improvements in dosimetry methodologies and new clinical dose- volume data, the IAEA is developing a new international guidance document on 'Accuracy Requirements and Uncertainties in Radiation Therapy' in order to reduce these uncertainties to provide more effective and safer patient treatments. This review will summarize the new IAEA report which is expected to be published later in 2012. This work is supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. © 2012

  15. The IAEA Radiotracer Biodistribution Template - A community resource for supporting the standardization and reporting of radionuclide pre-dosimetry data.

    PubMed

    Kesner, Adam Leon; Poli, Gian Luca; Beykan, Seval; Lassmann, Michael

    2017-09-15

    Radionuclide absorbed-dose dosimetry is an active area of development and has the potential to positively impact molecular radiotherapies. At present, many of the operations required to perform dosimetry calculations are unstandardized and unestablished. While the current methodology allows reasonable dosimetry estimates to be derived and published, it can be difficult to understand, and reproduce, each others' work. To help alleviate this we have identified the collection of biodistribution information as a key step in all internal dosimetry calculations, and present a template that can be used to standardize its documentation and reporting. A generalized biodistribution template entitled the IAEA Radiotracer Biodistribution Template (IAEA RaBiT) has been built and distributed for users performing biodistribution measurements in the community. The template enables robust recording of dosimetry-relevant information through standardization of details and their format. It has been designed to be simple and easy to use, and establish a structured recording of a common reference point in dosimetry operations - biodistribution data documentation. Improved documentation procedures may benefit organization of in house data, or be used to disseminate details throughout the community - for example to supplement dosimetry related publications. The standard format information may also enable the creation of new dosimetry related tools and protocols and support robust population databases. As dosimetry in nuclear medicine becomes more routinely applied in clinical applications, we need to develop the infrastructure for robustly handling large amounts of these data. Our IAEA RaBiT can be used as a standard format structure for data collection, organization, and dissemination. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dosimetric inter-institutional comparison in European radiotherapy centres: Results of IAEA supported treatment planning system audit.

    PubMed

    Gershkevitsh, Eduard; Pesznyak, Csilla; Petrovic, Borislava; Grezdo, Joseph; Chelminski, Krzysztof; do Carmo Lopes, Maria; Izewska, Joanna; Van Dyk, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    One of the newer audit modalities operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) involves audits of treatment planning systems (TPS) in radiotherapy. The main focus of the audit is the dosimetry verification of the delivery of a radiation treatment plan for three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy using high energy photon beams. The audit has been carried out in eight European countries - Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Poland and Portugal. The corresponding results are presented. The TPS audit reviews the dosimetry, treatment planning and radiotherapy delivery processes using the 'end-to-end' approach, i.e. following the pathway similar to that of the patient, through imaging, treatment planning and dose delivery. The audit is implemented at the national level with IAEA assistance. The national counterparts conduct the TPS audit at local radiotherapy centres through on-site visits. TPS calculated doses are compared with ion chamber measurements performed in an anthropomorphic phantom for eight test cases per algorithm/beam. A set of pre-defined agreement criteria is used to analyse the performance of TPSs. TPS audit was carried out in 60 radiotherapy centres. In total, 190 data sets (combination of algorithm and beam quality) have been collected and reviewed. Dosimetry problems requiring interventions were discovered in about 10% of datasets. In addition, suboptimal beam modelling in TPSs was discovered in a number of cases. The TPS audit project using the IAEA methodology has verified the treatment planning system calculations for 3D conformal radiotherapy in a group of radiotherapy centres in Europe. It contributed to achieving better understanding of the performance of TPSs and helped to resolve issues related to imaging, dosimetry and treatment planning.

  17. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in India.

    PubMed

    Lobo Gajiwala, Astrid; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The banking of tissues such bone and skin began in India in the 1980s and 1990s. Although eye banking started in 1945 there was little progress in this field for the next five decades. As part of the IAEA/RCA program to use ionising radiation for the sterilisation of biological tissues in Asia and the Pacific Region, the Tata Memorial Hospital (TMH) in 1986 decided to set up a tissue bank in Mumbai funded by the Government of India. The TMH Tissue Bank became operational in January 1988, and stands as a pioneering effort in the country to provide safe, clinically useful and cost-effective human allografts for transplantation. It uses the IAEA International Standards on Tissue Banking. All the grafts are sterilised terminally by exposure to a dose of 25 kGy of gamma radiation, which has been validated as recommended by the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilisation of Tissues Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. The TMH Tissue Bank is registered with the Maharashtra State Health Authorities, and in May 2004, it became India's first Tissue Bank to receive ISO 9001:2000 certification of its Quality Management System. From 1989 to September 2007, the TMH Tissue Bank has supplied 11,369 allografts to 310 surgeons operating in 69 hospitals in Mumbai and 56 hospitals in other parts of India. These numbers have been limited by difficulties with the retrieval of tissues from deceased donors due to inadequate resources and tissue donation policies of hospitals. As the Government of India representative in the IAEA program, the TMH Tissue Bank has promoted and co-coordinated these activities in the country and the development of tissue banks using radiation sterilisation of tissue grafts. Towards this end it has been engaged in training personnel, drawing up project proposals, and supporting the establishment of a Tissue Retrieval Centre in Mumbai. Currently it networks with the Zonal Transplant Co-ordination Centre of the Government of

  18. IAEA coordinated research project on nuclear data for charged-particle monitor reactions and medical isotope production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, Roberto; Nichols, Alan L.; Nortier, Francois Meiring; Carlson, Brett V.; Engle, Jonathan W.; Hermanne, Alex; Hussain, Mazhar; Ignatyuk, Anatoly V.; Kellett, Mark A.; Kibédi, Tibor; Kim, Guinyun; Kondev, Filip G.; Lebeda, Ondrej; Luca, Aurelian; Naik, Haladhara; Nagai, Yasuki; Spahn, Ingo; Suryanarayana, Saraswatula V.; Tárkányi, Ferenc T.; Verpelli, Marco

    2017-09-01

    An IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish and improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions and extend data for medical radionuclide production. An international team was assembled to undertake work addressing the requirements for more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. These studies are nearing completion, and are briefly described below.

  19. 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference: summary of sessions EX/S, EX/W and ICC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a summary overview, based on papers presented at the 25th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC), in the area of magnetic confinement experiments related to stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W) and innovative confinement concepts (ICCs). A selection of results that represent progress made since the last FEC in a few important thematic areas that are relevant for the successful and safe operation of future fusion devices like ITER, is highlighted.

  20. International law problems for realisation of the IAEA conventions on notification and assistance in the case of a nuclear accident

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, M.M.

    1993-12-31

    The Chernobyl accident underscored the need for an early warning system and international assistance plan in case of a nuclear accident. Shortly after Chernobyl, two conventions were adopted under the auspices of the IAEA. The convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, in force since 1986, establishes an early warning system for all nuclear accidents whose effects might cross national boundaries. Under the convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear accident or radiological Emergency,in force since 1987, countries must facilitate prompt assistance in case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, to minimize it`s consequences. Issues with the conventions are described.

  1. The safety of Pipeline flow diversion in fusiform vertebrobasilar aneurysms: a consecutive case series with longer-term follow-up from a single US center.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Lin, Ning; Sonig, Ashish; Rai, Ansaar T; Carpenter, Jeffrey S; Levy, Elad I; Siddiqui, Adnan H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Pessimism exists regarding flow diversion for posterior circulation aneurysms because of reports of perforator territory infarcts and delayed ruptures. The authors report the results of patients who underwent Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) flow diversion using novel strategies for treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms, and compare these results with those from previously reported series. METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective review of data from consecutive patients with fusiform vertebrobasilar artery aneurysms treated with the PED. RESULTS This review resulted in the identification of 12 such patients (mean [± SD] age 55.1 ± 14.1 years). Eleven patients had symptoms; 1 had a dissecting aneurysm identified on imaging for neck pain. The average aneurysm size was 13.25 ± 4.5 mm. None of the aneurysms were ruptured or previously treated. The average clinical follow-up duration was 22.1 ± 10.7 months and radiological follow-up was 14.5 ± 11.1 months from the index PED treatment. One patient suffered a perforator stroke and had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 4 at last follow-up. Another patient had a retained stent pusher requiring retrieval via surgical cut-down but recovered to an mRS score of 0 at last follow-up. Eleven (91.7%) of 12 patients recovered to an mRS score of 0 or 1. Two patients had aneurysmal remnants at 7 and 10 months, respectively, after the index PED, which were retreated with PEDs. At last follow-up, all 12 aneurysms were occluded and PEDs were patent. The minimum follow-up duration was 12 months from the index PED treatment; no patient experienced delayed hemorrhage, stroke, or in-stent stenosis. CONCLUSIONS Flow diversion with selective adjunctive techniques is evolving to become a safer treatment option for posterior circulation aneurysms. This is the longest clinical follow-up duration reported for a single-center experience of flow-diversion treatment of these aneurysms.

  2. Cardiovascular safety of methylphenidate among children and young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): nationwide self controlled case series study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ju-Young; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Park, Byung-Joo; Pratt, Nicole L

    2016-05-31

     To determine whether treatment with methylphenidate in children and young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was associated with cardiovascular events.  Self controlled case series analysis.  Nationwide health insurance database, 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011, in South Korea.  1224 patients aged ≤17 who had experienced an incident cardiovascular event and had had at least one incident prescription for methylphenidate.  A recorded diagnosis (either a primary or secondary cause) of any of the following cardiovascular adverse events: arrhythmias (ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) codes I44, I45, I47, I48, I49), hypertension (codes I10-I15), myocardial infarction (code I21), ischemic stroke (code I63), or heart failure (code I50). Incidence rate ratios were calculated with conditional Poisson regression and adjusted for time varying comorbidity and comedication.  Increased risk of arrhythmia was observed in all exposed time periods-that is, periods of treatment with methylphenidate-(incidence rate ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 1.74), and the risk was highest in the children who had congenital heart disease. No significant risk of myocardial infarction was observed for all exposed time periods (1.33, 0.90 to 1.98), though risk was higher in the early risk periods between eight and 56 days after the start of treatment with methylphenidate. No significant increased risk was observed for hypertension, ischemic stroke, or heart failure.  The relative risk of myocardial infarction and arrhythmias is increased in the early period after the start of methylphenidate treatment for ADHD in children and young people. Though the absolute risk is likely to be low, the risk-benefit balance of methylphenidate should be carefully considered, particularly in children with mild ADHD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  3. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2017-09-01

    series to forewarn consumers, clinicians, corporations, and governments of possible serious adverse events. They may also quicken the response rate during Phase IV post-marketing surveillance, in which governments could then exercise their regulatory powers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  5. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains eight lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  6. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-3. Pedestrian Safety, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on pedestrian safety for use in grade 3. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for…

  7. EDITORIAL: Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems Special issue containing papers presented at the 11th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.

    2010-08-01

    The history of fusion research resembles the way in which one builds skyscrapers: laying the first foundation stone, one thinks about the top of the skyscraper. At the early stages of fusion, when it became clear that the thermonuclear reactor would operate with DT plasma confined by the magnetic field, the study of the `top item'—the physics of 3.5 MeV alpha particles produced by the DT fusion reaction—was initiated. The first publications on this topic appeared as long ago as the 1960s. At that time, because the physics of alpha particles was far from the experimental demand, investigations were carried out by small groups of theoreticians who hoped to discover important and interesting phenomena in this new research area. Soon after the beginning of the work, theoreticians discovered that alpha particles could excite various instabilities in fusion plasmas. In particular, at the end of the 1960s an Alfvén instability driven by alpha particles was predicted. Later it turned out that a variety of Alfvén instabilities with very different features does exist. Instabilities with perturbations of the Alfvénic type play an important role in current experiments; it is likely that they will affect plasma performance in ITER and future reactors. The first experimental manifestation of instabilities excited by superthermal particles in fusion devices was observed in the PDX tokamak in 1983. In this device a large-scale instability—the so called `fishbone instability'—associated with ions produced by the neutral beam injection resulted in a loss of a large fraction of the injected energy. Since then, the study of energetic-ion-driven instabilities and the effects produced by energetic ions in fusion plasmas has attracted the growing attention of both experimentalists and theorists. Recognizing the importance of this topic, the first conference on fusion alpha particles was held in 1989 in Kyiv under the auspices of the IAEA. The meeting in Kyiv and several

  8. Measurement of ²²⁶Ra in soil from oil field: advantages of γ-ray spectrometry and application to the IAEA-448 CRM.

    PubMed

    Ceccatelli, A; Katona, R; Kis-Benedek, G; Pitois, A

    2014-05-01

    The analytical performance of gamma-ray spectrometry for the measurement of (226)Ra in TENORM (Technically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) soil was investigated by the IAEA. Fast results were obtained for characterization and certification of a new TENORM Certified Reference Material (CRM), identified as IAEA-448 (soil from oil field). The combined standard uncertainty of the gamma-ray spectrometry results is of the order of 2-3% for massic activity measurement values ranging from 16500 Bq kg(-1) to 21500 Bq kg(-1). Methodologies used for the production and certification of the IAEA-448 CRM are presented. Analytical results were confirmed by alpha spectrometry. The "t" test showed agreement between alpha and gamma results at 95% confidence level.

  9. A Report on IAEA/RCA C7-RAS 6/061-004 Training Course in Chiba, Japan in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Saga, Tsuneo; Paez, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The C7-RAS 6/061-004 training course by the International Atomic Energy Agency/Regional Cooperative Agreement (IAEA/RCA) was held in Chiba in 2014. The syllabus, pre- and post-course evaluations, and survey questionnaire results were assembled in this course. The post-course evaluation, including 32 questions similar to the pre-course evaluation, was performed right after the end of the final educational lecture. The mean score showed an improvement, with the score rising from 57.0 points at the beginning to 66.5 points at the end. Among 22 trainees, the greatest score was in a higher range, with an improvement from 82 points at the beginning to 88 points at the end. The grading distribution, with regard to the training course, was as follows: excellent (68.2%), good (31.8%), average (0%), fair (0%), and poor (0%). This report on the training course, held in Chiba in 2014, will contribute to the future global plans of IAEA/RCA. Continuous training courses in member states are required to decrease the present disparities in the knowledge level, instrumentation, and human resources.

  10. Improving the quality of radiation oncology: 10years' experience of QUATRO audits in the IAEA Europe Region.

    PubMed

    Izewska, Joanna; Coffey, Mary; Scalliet, Pierre; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Santos, Tania; Vouldis, Ioannis; Dunscombe, Peter

    2017-10-05

    The IAEA has developed a methodology for comprehensive quality audits of radiotherapy practices called Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO). This study explores the factors that impacted quality of care among QUATRO audited centres in the IAEA Europe Region. The 31 QUATRO reports collected over 10years include extensive data describing the quality of radiotherapy at the audited centres. A coding key was developed to aggregate and review these data in terms of recommendations for improvement and positive findings (commendations). Overall 759 recommendations and 600 commendations were given. Eight centres recognized as centres of competence differed from other centres mostly because they operated complete quality management systems and were adequately staffed. Other centres had excessive staff workloads and many gaps in the process of care. Insufficient equipment levels were prevalent. Patient centredness, communication, dosimetry, quality control and radiation protection were frequently commended by QUATRO. This analysis points to barriers to quality care such as insufficient staffing, education/training, equipment and lack of quality management. It highlights the correlation between the human resources availability and quality of care. It has also identified common action items for enhancing quality of radiotherapy programmes in the Region. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre Herrera, Paulina; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The Tissue Banking Project in Chile started as an idea in 1996. Before 1996 in Chile there were only a few small bone banks working with their own standards of quality. The first tissue bank (LPTR) was established in 1998, with the technical and financial support of the IAEA. Since 2001, the laboratory began to produce tissues for clinical use, starting with the processing of 6 amniotic membranes, 2 femoral heads and 19 batches of pig skin. In 2002, the laboratory began the processing of human skin. Five students from Chile have graduated from training courses carried out in Singapore and in Buenos Aires under the IAEA training program since 1998. The amount of tissues produced and sterilized using ionizing radiation by the LPTR in the last years was 320,000 cm(2) of human skin, 553,600 cm(2) of pig skin, 5,400 cm(2) of amniotic membrane, 49 femoral heads, 3 large bones and 300 g of bovine bone. The patients treated with sterilized tissues produced by the LPTR were 200 deep burns treated with human skin and pig skin, 40 bone transplants from femoral heads, 77 ophthalmologic patients treated with amniotic membrane and 150 bovine bone transplants for dental treatments.

  12. Training tissue bank operators: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/National University of Singapore (NUS) 10 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Nather, A; Phillips, G O; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Lee, Chris C W

    2009-05-01

    National University of Singapore (NUS) was appointed by IAEA to become IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (RTC) for Asia and the Pacific region in September 1996. The Government of Singapore (represented by the Ministry of Environment) with the National Science and Technology Board as the funding agency awarded a grant of S$225,500 to build a new purpose-built tissue bank to be the Regional Training Centre. National University Hospital provided a space of 2,000 square feet for this purpose. The first Diploma Course was launched on 3 November 1997 with 17 candidates with the first NUS Diploma Examination being held in October 1998. Between November 1997 and April 2007, a total of nine courses were conducted by RTC with a total of 180 tissue bank operators, 133 from Asia and the Pacific region (13 countries including 2 from Iran), 14 from Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Egypt, South Africa and Zambia), 6 from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru and Uruguay), 9 from Europe (Greece, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine) and 2 from Australia. The last batch (ninth batch) involved twenty students registered in April 2007 and will be due to sit for the terminal examination only in April 2008.

  13. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking: a successful program for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Jorge Morales

    2006-01-01

    Since its inception the IAEA program in radiation and tissue banking supported the establishment of twenty five tissue banks in different countries. Now more than 103 tissue banks are now operating in these countries. The production of sterilized tissues has grown in an exponential mode within the IAEA program. From 1988 until the end of 2000 the production of sterilized tissues was 224,706 grafts, with an estimated value of at least $51,768,553 million dollars at the mean current charge rate in non-commercial banks in Europe and USA. During the period 1997-2002 several countries from Asia and the Pacific region produced more than 155,000 grafts, with an estimated value of about $36.7 million dollars. Training was considered to be one of the most important tasks to be supported. A total of 192 students were registered in the training program and 146 students graduated with a University Diploma. For many developing countries an additional benefit is not having to import expensive sterilized tissues from developed countries, but the exposure of orthopedic and plastic surgeons working, to new methods of using allografts in specific surgical treatments.

  14. Analysis of the use of the IAEA rapid method of (89)Sr and (90)Sr in milk for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Herranz, M; Idoeta, R; Rozas, S; Legarda, F

    2017-10-01

    Rapid methods that are used during nuclear accidents or incident situations must first be implemented and validated in radioactivity measurement laboratories, so they can be ready to provide quick answers to governments, regulatory organizations and people in such situations. As these accident situations are rare and the methods are thus not frequently used, the best way to achieve this is to use the same methods for both routine environmental monitoring and rapid or emergency situations. Before this can be done, however, an analysis of the conditions under which a rapid method could be effectively used in routine situations should be carried out. This work analyses the performance of the rapid method for the simultaneous determination of (89)Sr and (90)Sr in milk, published by the IAEA, and compares it with another, more conventional method used for routine environmental purposes. Through numerical calculations and considering different (89)Sr and (90)Sr activities, we also conducted a study to obtain the optimum values for determination parameters - such as sample mass, counting times, time lapse between measurements and background counting times - that will allow the use of the IAEA rapid method as a routine environmental one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A future vision of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking for Asia and the Pacific and Latin American regions.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In order to solve some of the problems that are affecting tissue banking activities in the world, a new program/project proposal could be prepared by the IAEA and interested Member States in order to implement it in 2009. The main objective of the new program/project proposal could be the following: To consolidate tissue banks activities in a selected group of IAEA Member States by increasing the quality of the tissue processing and sterilization methods used. The specific objective to be reached by the new program/project proposal could be the following: To reach international standards in all activities carried out by a selected group of tissue banks, as well as the establishment of a limited regional tissue processing centres in specific regions. The following are the conditions to be met by the interested tissue banks, in order to participate in the new program/project proposal: To process different types of tissues for medical treatment using the ionizing radiation technique for tissue sterilization; To apply at least one of the current version of the IAEA Code of Practice, the IAEA Standards and the IAEA Public Awareness Strategies and to have the support of national health authorities for the use of the remaining IAEA documents in the near future; To have in force agreements with public and private hospitals for the use of the sterilized tissues processed by the bank for medical treatment; To have in place a donor referral system, or has the approval by the national health authorities to adopt such system in the near future; To receive the support from the national health authority to participate in the implementation of the new program/project proposal.

  16. Reduced schedules of 4CMenB vaccine in infants and catch-up series in children: Immunogenicity and safety results from a randomised open-label phase 3b trial.

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, Federico; Safadi, Marco Aurelio P; Martinez, Alfonso Carmona; Marquez, Pilar Infante; Torres, Juan Carlos Tejedor; Weckx, Lily Yin; Moreira, Edson Duarte; Mensi, Ilhem; Calabresi, Marco; Toneatto, Daniela

    2017-06-16

    This study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of a licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) administered alone according to reduced schedules in infants or catch-up series in children. In this open-label, multicentre, phase 3b study (NCT01339923), infants randomised 1:1:1 received 4CMenB: 2+1 doses at 3½-5-11months or 6-8-11months of age, 3+1 doses at ages 2½-3½-5-11months. Children aged 2-10years received 2 catch-up doses administered 2months apart. Immune responses were measured by hSBA assays against 4 strains specific for vaccine components fHbp, NadA, PorA and NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses was defined in groups with 2+1 doses schedules as a lower limit ≥70% for the 97.5% confidence interval of the percentage of infants with hSBA titres ≥4, 1month post-dose 2 for fHbp, NadA, PorA. Adverse events were collected for 7days post-vaccination; serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study. 754 infants and 404 children were enrolled. Post-primary vaccination, 98-100% of infants across all groups developed hSBA titres ≥4 for fHbp, NadA, PorA, and 48-77% for NHBA. Sufficiency of immune responses in infants receiving 2+1 schedules was demonstrated for fHbp, NadA, PorA after 2 doses of 4CMenB, as pre-specified criteria were met. Following receipt of 2 catch-up doses, 95-99% of children developed hSBA titres ≥4 for 4CMenB components. Similar safety profiles were observed across groups. A total of 45 SAEs were reported, 3 of which were related to vaccination. Reduced infant schedules and catch-up series in children were immunogenic and safe, having the potential to widen 4CMenB vaccine coverage. GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Nuclear cardiology practice and associated radiation doses in Europe: results of the IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Study (INCAPS) for the 27 European countries.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Oliver; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Acampa, Wanda; Burchert, Wolfgang; Flotats, Albert; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Kitsiou, Anastasia; Knuuti, Juhani; Underwood, S Richard; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Better, Nathan; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Dondi, Maurizio; Paez, Diana; Einstein, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear cardiology is widely used to diagnose coronary artery disease and to guide patient management, but data on current practices, radiation dose-related best practices, and radiation doses are scarce. To address these issues, the IAEA conducted a worldwide study of nuclear cardiology practice. We present the European subanalysis. In March 2013, the IAEA invited laboratories across the world to document all SPECT and PET studies performed in one week. The data included age, gender, weight, radiopharmaceuticals, injected activities, camera type, positioning, hardware and software. Radiation effective dose was calculated for each patient. A quality score was defined for each laboratory as the number followed of eight predefined best practices with a bearing on radiation exposure (range of quality score 0 - 8). The participating European countries were assigned to regions (North, East, South, and West). Comparisons were performed between the four European regions and between Europe and the rest-of-the-world (RoW). Data on 2,381 European patients undergoing nuclear cardiology procedures in 102 laboratories in 27 countries were collected. A cardiac SPECT study was performed in 97.9 % of the patients, and a PET study in 2.1 %. The average effective dose of SPECT was 8.0 ± 3.4 mSv (RoW 11.4 ± 4.3 mSv; P < 0.001) and of PET was 2.6 ± 1.5 mSv (RoW 3.8 ± 2.5 mSv; P < 0.001). The mean effective doses of SPECT and PET differed between European regions (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The mean quality score was 6.2 ± 1.2, which was higher than the RoW score (5.0 ± 1.1; P < 0.001). Adherence to best practices did not differ significantly among the European regions (range 6 to 6.4; P = 0.73). Of the best practices, stress-only imaging and weight-adjusted dosing were the least commonly used. In Europe, the mean effective dose from nuclear cardiology is lower and the average quality score is higher than in the

  18. The IAEA international conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles: highlights and main outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Monti, S.; Toti, A.

    2013-07-01

    The 'International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles', which is regularly held every four years, represents the main international event dealing with fast reactors technology and related fuel cycles options. Main topics of the conference were new fast reactor concepts, design and simulation capabilities, safety of fast reactors, fast reactor fuels and innovative fuel cycles, analysis of past experience, fast reactor knowledge management. Particular emphasis was put on safety aspects, considering the current need of developing and harmonizing safety standards for fast reactors at the international level, taking also into account the lessons learned from the accident occurred at the Fukushima- Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Main advances in the several key areas of technological development were presented through 208 oral presentations during 41 technical sessions which shows the importance taken by fast reactors in the future of nuclear energy.

  19. Home Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Swimming and Water Apply Swimming and Water filter Toy Safety Apply Toy Safety filter TV and Furniture Tip-Overs Apply ... Laundry Packets Medication Poison Sleep Safety and Suffocation Toy Safety TV and Furniture Tip-Overs Water and ...

  20. Comparison of AAPM Addendum to TG-51, IAEA TRS-398, and JSMP 12: Calibration of photon beams in water.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Naoki; Oguchi, Hiroshi; Nishimoto, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Toshiki; Shioura, Hiroki; Kimura, Hirohiko; Doi, Kunio

    2017-09-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Working Group on TG-51 published an Addendum to the AAPM's TG-51 protocol (Addendum to TG-51) in 2014, and the Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) published a new dosimetry protocol JSMP 12 in 2012. In this study, we compared the absorbed dose to water determined at the reference depth for high-energy photon beams following the recommendations given in AAPM TG-51 and the Addendum to TG-51, IAEA TRS-398, and JSMP 12. This study was performed using measurements with flattened photon beams with nominal energies of 6 and 10 MV. Three widely used ionization chambers with different compositions, Exradin A12, PTW 30013, and IBA FC65-P, were employed. Fully corrected charge readings obtained for the three chambers according to AAPM TG-51 and the Addendum to TG-51, which included the correction for the radiation beam profile (Prp ), showed variations of 0.2% and 0.3% at 6 and 10 MV, respectively, from the readings corresponding to IAEA TRS-398 and JSMP 12. The values for the beam quality conversion factor kQ obtained according to the three protocols agreed within 0.5%; the only exception was a 0.6% difference between the results obtained at 10 MV for Exradin A12 according to IAEA TRS-398 and AAPM TG-51 and the Addendum to TG-51. Consequently, the values for the absorbed dose to water obtained for the three protocols agreed within 0.4%; the only exception was a 0.6% difference between the values obtained at 10 MV for PTW 30013 according to AAPM TG-51 and the Addendum to TG-51, and JSMP 12. While the difference in the absorbed dose to water determined by the three protocols depends on the kQ and Prp values, the absorbed dose to water obtained according to the three protocols agrees within the relative uncertainties for the three protocols. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  1. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  2. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 8: Reactor Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutians in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  3. Making the Postclosure Safety Case for the Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    P. Swift; A.V. Luik

    2006-08-28

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in its advisory standard for geological repositories promulgated jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, explicitly distinguishes between the concepts of a safety case and a safety assessment. As defined in the advisory standard, the safety case is a broader set of arguments that provide confidence and substantiate the formal analyses of system safety made through the process of safety assessment. Although the IAEAYs definitions include both preclosure (i.e., operational) safety and post-closure performance in the overall safety assessment and safety case, the emphasis in here is on long-term performance after waste has been emplaced and the repository has been closed. This distinction between pre- and postclosure aspects of the repository is consistent with the U.S. regulatory framework defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Chapter 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 197, or 40 CFR 197) [2] and implemented by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (Chapter 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 63, or 10 CFR 63) [3]. The separation of the pre- and postclosure safety cases is also consistent with the way in which the U.S. Department of Energy has assigned responsibilities for developing the safety case. Bechtel SAIC Company is the Management and Operating contractor responsible for the design and operation of the Yucca Mountain facility and is therefore responsible for the preparation of the preclosure aspects of the safety case. Sandia National Laboratories has lead responsibility for scientific work evaluating post-closure performance, and therefore is responsible for developing the post-closure aspects of the safety case. In the context of the IAEA definitions, both preclosure and postclosure safety, including safety assessment and the safety case, will be documented in the license application being prepared for the

  4. Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators; Summary Report of an IAEA Technical Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Abriola, D.; Tuli, J.

    2009-03-23

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the 18th meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 23 to 27 March 2009. This meeting was attended by 22 scientists from 14 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, recommendations/conclusions, data centre reports, and various proposals considered, modified and agreed by the participants are contained within this document. The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators holds biennial meetings under the auspices of the IAEA, and consists of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries. This network has the objective of providing up-to-date nuclear structure and decay data for all known nuclides by evaluating all existing experimental data. Data resulting from this international evaluation collaboration is included in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and published in the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS).

  5. Safety in Team Sports. Sports Safety Series, Monograph No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others

    This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)

  6. Progress of National Multi-tissue Bank in Uruguay in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Inés; Del Carmen Saldías, Ma; Wodowoz, Olga; Pérez Campos, Héctor; Machin, Daniel; Silva, Walter; Sueta, Patricia; Pérez, Natalia; Acosta Md, Ma del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    The transplant law of 1971 based on informed consent, allows people to register their willingness to be a donor upon death. Since 1978 the governmental Institution, the National Bank of Organs and Tissues (BNOT), have been regulated the organ and tissue donation. Important progress was implemented in the BNOT and specially in the National Multi-tissue Bank (NMTB). Since 2001 with the participation in the IAEA Tissue Banking Programme, Quality System Management has been implemented in the NMTB. New bio-production for radiosterilized tissues for the first time and improved procedures were carried out. As a result an increased production of high-quality tissues was obtained and distributed for clinical use.

  7. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Norimah; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The IAEA was instrumental in developing the first Malaysian tissue bank at University Hospital of Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kubang Kerian, Kelantan in early 1990s and it was officiated as National Tissue Bank in 1994. Up to date, 38 government and private hospitals have received a supply from the bank. Bone allografts in term of bone chips, morsalised bone and long bones are procured from Malaysian donors. Almost thirty students from Malaysia graduated in the training courses carried out in Singapore since 1998 at regional and interregional levels. Organ donation is more readily accepted by the public at the moments, perhaps due to the vast promotion and advertisement given by the local newspapers and other media, but gradually tissue donation is catching up as well.

  8. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Herson, Marisa Roma; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Until 2000, efforts into organising tissue banks in Brazil had not progressed far beyond small "in house" tissue storage repositories, usually annexed to Orthopaedic Surgery Services. Despite the professional entrepreneurship of those working as part time tissue bankers in such operations, best practices in tissue banking were not always followed due to the lack of regulatory standards, specialised training, adequate facilities and dedicated personnel. The Skin Bank of the Plastic Surgery Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of Sao Paulo, the single skin bank in Brazil, was not an exception. Since 1956, restricted and unpredictable amounts of skin allografts were stored under refrigeration for short periods under very limited quality controls. As in most "tissue banks" at that time in Brazil, medical and nursing staff worked on a volunteer and informal basis undergoing no specific training. IAEA supported the implementation of the tissue banking program in Brazil through the regional project RLA/7/009 "Quality system for the production of irradiated sterilised grafts" (1998-2000) and through two interregional projects INT/6/049 "Interregional Centre of Excellence in Tissue Banking", during the period 2002-2004 and INT/6/052 "Improving the Quality of Production and Uses of Radiation Sterilised Tissue Grafts", during the period 2002-2004. In 2001-2002, the first two years of operation of the HC-Tissue Bank, 53 skin transplants were carried out instead of the previous 4-5 a year. During this period, 75 individuals donated skin tissue, generating approximately 90,000 cm(2) of skin graft. The IAEA program were of great benefit to Brazilian tissue banking which has evolved from scattered make shift small operations to a well-established, high quality tissue banking scenario.

  9. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gamero, Emma Castro; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    The tissue bank "Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo" (RGCTB) located at the Child's Health Institute was inaugurated in 1996, with the financial and technical support of the IAEA program on radiation and tissue banking. Since 1998, the biological bandage of fresh and lyophilised pigskin, amnion and bone tissue is processed routinely in this bank. In all cases, the tissue is sterilised with the use of Cobalt-60 radiation, process carried out at the Laboratories of Irradiation of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). The tissue bank in the Child's Health Institute helped to save lives in an accident occurred in Lima, when a New Year's fireworks celebration ran out of control in January 2002. Nearly 300 people died in the tragic blaze and hundreds more were seriously burned and injured. Eight Lima hospitals and clinics suddenly were faced with saving the lives of severely burned men, women and children. Fortunately, authorities were ready to respond to the emergency. More than 1,600 dressings were sterilised and supplied to Lima surgeons. The efforts helped save the lives of patients who otherwise might not have survived the Lima fire. Between 1998 and September 2007, 35,012 tissue grafts were produced and irradiated. Radiation sterilised tissues are used by 20 national medical institutions as well as 17 private health institutions. The tissue bank established in Peru with the support of the IAEA is now producing the following tissues: pigskin dressings, fresh and freeze-dried; bone allografts, chips, wedges and powdered, and amnion dressings air-dried. It is also now leading the elaboration of national standards, assignment being entrusted by ONDT (Organización Nacional de Donación y Transplantes; National Organisation on Donation and Transplant). This among other will permit the accreditation of the tissue bank. In this task is also participating IPEN.

  10. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yong-Koo; Yim, Chang-Joon; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In 1971, first bone bank was established at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery in Catholic University of Korea. The first clinical case was reported at the Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Association in 1973. Subsequently, more than 60 surgical bone banks were established in the university and teaching hospitals throughout country. In 1990, the Korea Biomaterial Research Institute (KBRI) organised the IAEA/RCA training course on tissue banking. In this course students from 17 countries participated. In 1994 the first collaboration for cadaver tissue recovery was performed. It is important to single out that the various religious groups in Korea have favourable attitudes towards tissue donation, which contributes to the success of the tissue banking programs in the country. The demands of allograft were getting increased in the Korean medical and dental society. Currently, 62 hospital based bone banks, 5 processing tissue banks, 1 regional tissue bank and more than 30 tissue distributors are working in Korea. Based on the U.S.A. usage of more than 1,000,000 grafts per year, 100,000-200,000 grafts will be needed in Korea. Those findings indicate a greatly increased need for training of tissue bank operators. The Korean society will need at least 20-30 tissue bank operators for training in every year. The National Training Centre (NTC) for tissue bank operators and medical personal using the IAEA Curriculum in the Korean languages was established in 2003. From 2004 to 2006, NTC have been trained 40 tissue bank operators. They have produced at least 10,000 tissues per year. These figures indicate a cost saving of US$ 10 million. Within 5 years, NTC will train 100 tissue bank operators. These individuals and their respective banks will provide an increasing number of high quality grafts to the communities they serve at a cost far less than if they were acquired from abroad.

  11. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hilmy, Nazly; Manjas, Menkher; Ferdiansyah; Abbas, Basril; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    In 1986, the National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) in Jakarta started the research and development for the setting up of a tissue bank (Batan Research Tissue Bank/BRTB) by preserving fresh amnion or fetal membranes by lyophilisation and then sterilising by gamma irradiation. During the period of 1990 and 2000, three more tissue banks were set up, i.e., Biomaterial Centre in Surabaya, Jamil Tissue Bank in Padang, and Sitanala Tissue Bank in Tangerang. In 1994, BRTB produced bone allografts. The banks established under the IAEA program concentrated its work on the production of amnion, bone and soft tissues allografts, as well as bone xenografts. These tissues (allografts and xenografts) were sterilised using gamma irradiation (about 90%) and the rest were sterilized by ETO and those products have been used in the treatment of patients at more than 50 hospitals in Indonesia. In 2004, those tissue banks produced 8,500 grafts and 5,000 of them were amnion grafts for eye treatment and wound dressing. All of those grafts were used for patients as well as for research. In 2006, the production increased to 9,000 grafts. Although the capacity of those banks can produce more grafts, we are facing problems on getting raw materials from suitable donors. To fulfill the demand of bone grafts we also produced bone xenografts. The impact of the IAEA program in tissue banking activities in Indonesia can be summarised as follows: to support the national program on importing substitutes for medical devices. The price of imported tissues are between US$ 50 and US$ 6,000 per graft. Local tissue bank can produce tissues with the same quality with the price for about 10-30% of the imported tissues.

  12. Sources of uncertainty in model predictions: lessons learned from the IAEA Forest and Fruit Working Group model intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Linkov, Igor; Burmistrov, Dmitriy

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), through the BIOMASS program, has provided a unique international forum for assessing the relative contribution of different sources of uncertainty associated with environmental modeling. The methodology and guidance for dealing with parameter uncertainty have been fairly well developed and quantitative tools such as Monte-Carlo modeling are often recommended. The issue of model uncertainty is still rarely addressed in practical applications and the use of several alternative models to derive a range of model outputs (similar to what was done in IAEA model intercomparisons) is one of a few available techniques. This paper addresses the often overlooked issue of what we call 'modeler uncertainty,' i.e., differences in problem formulation, model implementation and parameter selection originating from subjective interpretation of the problem at hand. This study uses results from the Fruit and Forest Working Groups created under the BIOMASS program (BIOsphere Modeling and ASSessment). The greatest uncertainty was found to result from modelers' interpretation of scenarios and approximations made by modelers. In scenarios that were unclear for modelers, the initial differences in model predictions were as high as seven orders of magnitude. Only after several meetings and discussions about specific assumptions did the differences in predictions by various models merge. Our study shows that the parameter uncertainty (as evaluated by a probabilistic Monte-Carlo assessment) may have contributed over one order of magnitude to the overall modeling uncertainty. The final model predictions ranged between one and three orders of magnitude, depending on the specific scenario. This study illustrates the importance of problem formulation and implementation of an analytic-deliberative process in fate and transport modeling and risk characterization.

  13. One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine administered concomitantly according to a new, 1-week, accelerated primary series.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Jakob P; Jelinek, Tomas; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Reisinger, Emil C; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Alberer, Martin; Bühler, Silja; Bosse, Dietrich; Meyer, Seetha; Fragapane, Elena; Costantini, Marco; Pellegrini, Michele; Lattanzi, Maria; Dovali, Claudia

    2016-03-01

    Conventional rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) primary series vaccination regimens each require up to 4 weeks to complete and, thus, may not be feasible for individuals who need these immunizations on short notice. This Phase 3b, randomized, controlled, observer-blind study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a purified chick embryo cell culture rabies vaccine and an inactivated, adsorbed JE vaccine according to an accelerated (1 week) regimen when compared with the conventional regimens (4 weeks). This report describes the kinetics of immune responses up to 1 year after vaccination. A total of 661 healthy adults (18 to ≤65 years) were randomized into the following accelerated or conventional vaccine regimens: Rabies + JE-Conventional, Rabies + JE-Accelerated, Rabies-Conventional and JE-Conventional. Immunogenicity was assessed by virus neutralization tests. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. Irrespective of rabies vaccination regimen, ≥97% of subjects had adequate levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations (≥0.5 IU/ml) up to Day 57, with percentages of subjects with RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/ml at Day 366 ranging between 68% in the Rabies + JE-Accelerated group and 80% of subjects in the Rabies-Conventional group. The Rabies + JE-Accelerated group revealed high JE neutralizing antibody titers at all-time points. At Day 366, the percentage of subjects with antibody titers indicative of seroprotection (PRNT50 titers ≥1:10) remained high across JE vaccine groups (86-94%). The accelerated PrEP rabies and JE vaccination regimens, once licensed, could represent a valid alternative in the short-term to currently recommended conventional regimens. The concomitant administration of these two vaccines does not compromise immune responses to any of the vaccine antigens particularly when aiming for short-term protection. Further evidence

  14. Safety and efficacy of high-dose enteral, intravenous, and transdermal clonidine for the acute management of severe intractable childhood dystonia and status dystonicus: An illustrative case-series.

    PubMed

    Nakou, V; Williamson, K; Arichi, T; Lumsden, D E; Tomlin, Steve; Kaminska, M; Lin, J-P

    2017-07-28

    Acute dystonia in children is distressing, painful and can progress to life-threatening status dystonicus. Typical management involves benzodiazepines which can result in respiratory depression requiring PICU admission. Clonidine is less respiratory-depressant, and by facilitating sleep, switches dystonia off. It can also be administered via enteral, continuous intravenous infusion, and transdermal slow release routes. We describe the dose range and safety profile of clonidine management in a case-series of children with severe acute exacerbation of dystonia in a tertiary hospital setting. The management of 5 children (3 female, age range 8-14 years) suffering from an acute exacerbation of secondary dystonia requiring hospital admission at the Evelina London Children's Hospital was reviewed. The average and maximum dose of clonidine in mcg/kg/h and routes of administration were recorded for each day of hospital admission. Co-administration of any other medical treatments for dystonia and their route of administration were also recorded. Cardiovascular and respiratory clinical status were measured by recording the daily mean and maximum Paediatric Early Warning Scores (PEWS). Clonidine was administered via enteral, intravenous, and transdermal routes at a median dose of 2.5 mcg/kg/h (range 0.1-9 mcg/kg/h). Administration of high dose clonidine was associated with decreased use of benzodiazepines, morphine, and propofol: avoiding invasive respiratory support for ¾ cases during admission. Clonidine doses via all routes of administration did not correlate with poorer PEWS scores (p = 0.839). Both high dose intravenous and transdermal clonidine where found to be effective. High dose clonidine administered via different routes can be used in the acute management of severe exacerbations of dystonia. Its use in our cohort was not associated with significant cardio-respiratory depression even at doses as high as 9 mcg/kg/h. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  15. ORNL results for Test Case 1 of the International Atomic Energy Agency`s research program on the safety assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Thorne, D.J.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Kocher, D.C.; Little, C.A.; Roemer, E.K.

    1993-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started the Coordinated Research Program entitled ```The Safety Assessment of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities.`` The program is aimed at improving the confidence in the modeling results for safety assessments of waste disposal facilities. The program has been given the acronym NSARS (Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Safety Assessment Reliability Study) for ease of reference. The purpose of this report is to present the ORNL modeling results for the first test case (i.e., Test Case 1) of the IAEA NSARS program. Test Case 1 is based on near-surface disposal of radionuclides that are subsequently leached to a saturated-sand aquifer. Exposure to radionuclides results from use of a well screened in the aquifer and from intrusion into the repository. Two repository concepts were defined in Test Case 1: a simple earth trench and an engineered vault.

  16. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  17. Vaccine Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs about Vaccine Safety Research Publications HDM Reports ISO Scientific Agenda Ensuring Safety History Understanding Side Effects ... Datalink Publications Emergency Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  18. Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013) Special section containing papers presented at the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems (Beijing, China, 17-20 September 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Z.

    2014-10-01

    In magnetic fusion plasmas, a significant fraction of the kinetic pressure is contributed by superthermal charged particles produced by auxiliary heating (fast ions and electrons) and fusion reactions (a-particles). Since these energetic particles are often far away from thermal equilibrium due to their non-Maxwellian distribution and steep pressure gradients, the free energy can excite electromagnetic instabilities to intensity levels well above the thermal fluctuations. The resultant electromagnetic turbulence could induce large transport of energetic particles, which could reduce heating efficiency, degrade overall plasma confinement, and damage fusion devices. Therefore, understanding and predicting energetic particle confinement properties are critical to the success of burning plasma experiments such as ITER since the ignition relies on plasma self-heating by a-particles. To promote international exchanges and collaborations on energetic particle physics, the biannual conference series under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were help in Kyiv (1989), Aspenas (1991), Trieste (1993), Princeton (1995), JET/Abingdon (1997), Naka (1999), Gothenburg (2001), San Diego (2003), Takayama (2005), Kloster Seeon (2007), Kyiv (2009), and Austin (2011). The papers in this special section were presented at the most recent meeting, the 13th IAEA Technical Meeting on Energetic Particles in Magnetic Confinement Systems, which was hosted by the Fusion Simulation Center, Peking University, Beijing, China (17-20 September 2013). The program of the meeting consisted of 71 presentations, including 13 invited talks, 26 oral contributed talks, 30 posters, and 2 summary talks, which were selected by the International Advisory Committee (IAC). The IAC members include H. Berk, L.G. Eriksson, A. Fasoli, W. Heidbrink, Ya. Kolesnichenko, Ph. Lauber, Z. Lin, R. Nazikian, S. Pinches, S. Sharapov, K. Shinohara, K. Toi, G. Vlad, and X.T. Ding. The conference program

  19. Assiniboine Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Minerva

    This series of illustrated booklets presents 13 Indian stories in a bilingual format of English and Assiniboine, an Indian tribal language. Written on the first grade level, the stories have the following titles: (1) "Orange Tree in Lodgepole"; (2) "Pretty Flower"; (3) Inktomi and the Rock"; (4) "Inktomi and the…

  20. Assiniboine Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Minerva

    This series of illustrated booklets presents 13 Indian stories in a bilingual format of English and Assiniboine, an Indian tribal language. Written on the first grade level, the stories have the following titles: (1) "Orange Tree in Lodgepole"; (2) "Pretty Flower"; (3) Inktomi and the Rock"; (4) "Inktomi and the…

  1. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  2. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide for grade 3 contains seven lessons on bicycles and an appendix on conducting a bicycle rodeo. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  3. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains ten lessons on bicycles for use in grade 2. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing communication methods for highway users,…

  4. Youth Violence. Current Controversies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biskup, Michael D., Ed.; Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores many social, political, and economic controversies, presenting the discussions in debate format. This volume focuses on youth violence. As youth violence escalates, concern grows over the safety of the neighborhoods, the victims of violence, and the future of violent youths themselves. The 35 selections in…

  5. Atomic Power Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: What is Atomic Power?; What Does Safety Depend On?; Control of Radioactive Material During Operation; Accident Prevention; Containment in the Event of an Accident; Licensing and…

  6. Total skin electron therapy (TSET): A reimplementation using radiochromic films and IAEA TRS-398 code of practice

    SciTech Connect

    Schiapparelli, P.; Zefiro, D.; Massone, F.; Taccini, G.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to present an updated implementation of total skin electron therapy (TSET) using IAEA TRS-398 code of practice for absolute dosimetry and taking advantage of the use of radiochromic films. The optimization of quality control tests is also included. Methods: A Varian 2100 C/D linear accelerator equipped with the special procedure HDTSe{sup -} (high dose rate total skin electron mode, E=6 MeV) was employed to perform TSET irradiations using the modified Stanford technique. The commissioning was performed following the AAPM report 23 recommendations. In particular, for dual-field beams irradiation, the optimal tilt angle was investigated and the dose distribution in the treatment plane was measured. For a complete six dual-field beams irradiation, the treatment skin dose on the surface of a cylindrical phantom was evaluated by radiochromic films and the B factor which relates the single dual-field skin dose to the six dual-field skin dose was assessed. Since the TRS-398 reference conditions do not meet the requirements of TSET absolute dosimetry, GafChromic EBT films were also employed to check and validate the application of the protocol. Simplified procedures were studied to verify beam constancy in PMMA phantoms without the more difficult setup of total skin irradiation. Results: The optimized geometrical setup for dual-field beams was: Tilt angle={+-}19 deg., SSD=353 cm, and the beam degrader (200x100x1 cm{sup 3}) placed at 320 cm from the source. As regards to dose homogeneity in the treatment plane, for dual-field beams irradiation, the mean relative dose value was 97%{+-}5% (normalizing to 100% at the calibration point level). For six dual-field beams irradiation, the multiplication factor B was 2.63. In addition, beam quality, dose rate, and bremsstrahlung contribution were also suitable for TSET treatments. The TRS-398 code of practice was used for TSET dosimetry, as dose measurements performed by ionization chamber and

  7. Quality management in nuclear medicine for better patient care: the IAEA program.

    PubMed

    Dondi, Maurizio; Kashyap, Ravi; Pascual, Thomas; Paez, Diana; Nunez-Miller, Rodolfo

    2013-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency promotes the practice of nuclear medicine among its Member States with a focus on quality and safety. It considers quality culture as a part of the educational process and as a tool to reduce heterogeneity in the practice of nuclear medicine, and in turn, patient care. Sensitization about quality is incorporated in all its delivery mechanisms. The Agency has developed a structured peer-review process called quality management (QM) audits in nuclear medicine practices to help nuclear medicine facilities improve their quality through this voluntary comprehensive audit process. The process is multidisciplinary, covering all aspects of nuclear medicine practice with a focus on the patient. It complements other QM and accreditation approaches developed by professional societies or accreditation agencies. The Agency is committed to propagate its utility and assist in the implementation process. Similar auditing programs for practice in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, called QUADRIL and QUATRO, respectively, are also in place. Necessary amendments in the auditing process and content are incorporated based on technological and practice changes with time. The reader will become familiar with the approach of the Agency on QM in nuclear medicine and its implementation process to improve patient care.

  8. International perspectives on quality assurance and new techniques in radiation medicine: outcomes of an IAEA conference.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Ken; Davidsson, Lena; Hendry, Jolyon; Dondi, Maurizio; Andreo, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international conference called, "Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine" (QANTRM). It dealt with quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of radiation medicine (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy) at the international level. Participants discussed QA issues pertaining to the implementation of new technologies and the need for education and staff training. The advantage of developing a comprehensive and harmonized approach to QA covering both the technical and the managerial issues was emphasized to ensure the optimization of benefits to patient safety and effectiveness. The necessary coupling between medical radiation imaging and radiotherapy was stressed, particularly for advanced technologies. However, the need for a more systematic approach to the adoption of advanced technologies was underscored by a report on failures in intensity-modulated radiotherapy dosimetry auditing tests in the United States, which could imply inadequate implementation of QA for these new technologies. A plenary session addressed the socioeconomic impact of introducing advanced technologies in resource-limited settings. How shall the dual gaps, one in access to basic medical services and the other in access to high-quality modern technology, be addressed?

  9. Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA hair (HH-1), animal bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10/sup -8/g/g to 10/sup -11/g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Participation in IAEA-TEL-201304/28 ALMERA Proficiency Test Exercise on Determination of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Water and Flour Samples.

    PubMed

    Visetpotjanakit, S; Kaewpaluek, S; Udomsomporn, S

    2016-03-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) participated in the IAEA-TEL-201304/28 ALMERA Proficiency Test Exercise, "Determination of Anthropogenic Radionuclides in Water and Flour Samples," organized by the ALMERA network. There were three test samples sent together with one known activity sample for quality control purpose. Two of the test samples were spiked water: one contained (134)Cs and (137)Cs and the other contained (90)Sr, (60)Co, (152)Eu and (241)Am. The third sample was wheat flour spiked with (134)Cs and (137)Cs. OAP submitted all results to IAEA after determining (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (60)Co, (152)Eu and (241)Am activities by direct gamma-ray counting and (90)Sr by chemical separation and Cerenkov measurement. Our results with critical comments and statistical analysis are described in this paper.

  11. The Prospective Durability of the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Safeguards System and Financing of the System. Volume 3. Main Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-24

    bilateral supply arrangements, the Treaty of Tlatelolco , several so-called IAEA project agreements, as well as some voluntary safe- guards agreements...regional inspectorate for Latin America or the Western Hemisphere structured around the Treaty of Tlatelolco (b) possibly seeking to broaden the scope of...West European regional system through joint efforts between EURATOM and the OECD. At P least conceptually the Treaty of TlateloLco might serve as the

  12. CONFERENCE REPORT: Summary of the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices (Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14 17 May 2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G. S.; Na, Yong-Su; Becoulet, A.; Ide, S.; Kessel, C. E.; Komori, A.; Kuteev, B. V.; Mank, G.; Olstad, R. A.; Sarkar, B.; Sips, A. C. C.; van Houtte, D.; Vdovin, V. L.

    2008-08-01

    This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 5th IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices, held in Daejeon, Republic of Korea, 14-17 May 2007. The main topics of the meeting were overview and superconducting devices, long pulse operation and advanced tokamak, steady state fusion technology, heating and current drive, particle control and power exhaust and ITER-related issues.

  13. Treatment of Irradiated Graphite to meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal: A New IAEA Collaborative Research Program - 12443

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, A.J.; Drace, Z.

    2012-07-01

    World-wide, more than 250,000 tonnes of irradiated graphite have arisen through commercial nuclear-power operations and from military production reactors. Whilst most nations responsible for the generation of this material have in mind repository disposal alongside other radwaste, the lack of progress in this regard has led in some cases to difficulties where, for example, the site of an existing graphite-moderated reactor is required for re-utilisation. In any case, graphite as a radwaste stream has unique chemical and physical properties which may lend itself to more radical and innovative treatment and disposal options, including the recovery of useful isotopes and also recycling within the nuclear industry. Such aspects are important in making the case for future graphite-moderated reactor options (for example, High-Temperature Reactors planned for simultaneous power production and high-grade heat sources for such applications as hydrogen production for road fuel). A number of initiatives have taken place since the mid 1990s aimed at exploring such alternative strategies and, more recently, improving technology offers new options at all stages of the dismantling and disposal process. A new IAEA Collaborative Research Program aims to build upon the work already done and the knowledge achieved, in order to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with alternative options for graphite disposal, along with cost comparisons, thus enabling individual Member States to have the best-available information at their disposal to configure their own programs. (authors)

  14. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vajaradul, Yongyudh; Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2009-05-01

    Tissue banking started in Thailand in 1979. Five years after this, the Bangkok Biomaterial Centre (BBC) was established in the Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, with the support of the IAEA program. The objective of the Centre was to provide sterile bones and tissues for clinical use. Through the passage of time, the Bangkok Biomaterial Centre has gained confidence from the end user and by 2007 has processed 33,872 allografts from 491 deceased donors and 4,035 live donors were used in medical treatment in 3,596 patients in more than 79 different hospitals. More than 305 surgeons from Thailand used the tissue produced in the BBC. At the beginning of its work the BBC concentrate its activities on the production of the following tissues: freeze dried bone, freeze dried dura mater and freeze dried fascia lata. All of these tissues were sterilised using ethylene oxide gas until the end of year 1984. Since 1985 the BBC sterilise tissue using ionising radiation. The BBC is now producing deep-frozen; bone tendon, cartilage, trachea and soft tissue; freeze-dried; bone, fascia lata, dura mater, amniotic membrane, bone hydroxyapatite, bone tablet and fresh preserved amniotic membrane.

  15. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Sánchez Noda, Eddy O; Rodríguez Cardona, Ramón Lorenzo; Otero, Isabel

    2009-05-01

    The first multi-tissue bank was founded at Havana in 1958. At that time, freeze-drying was used at the bank as a method of preserving, as well as Cobalt 60 irradiation to sterilise bone tissue, heart valves and others. The impact of the IAEA program in tissue banking activities in Cuba can be summarised as follows: (a) Increase in the production of sterilised tissues using ionising radiation (bone, pig skin and amnion) for medical treatment in the tissue bank of the Hospital Frank Pais; (b) increase of the quality of the productions of bone tissues, pig skin and amnion; (c) reduction in the import of tissues by increasing the local production of tissues; (d) sustainability in the number of donors through the implementation of a public and professional awareness campaign; (e) training of six persons in the Regional Training Centre of Buenos Aires; (f) qualification of one person in the administration of a tissue bank and in the implementation of a Quality System. The amount of tissues produced and sterilised using the ionising radiation techniques in the established banks was 25,510 units. The amount of patients treated with sterilised tissues produced by the established banks was 2,448.

  16. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  17. Comparisons of the Codes of Practice IAEA TRS 277 and TRS 398: High Energy Photons and Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Castillo, J. G.; Torres-Calderón, A.; Fragoso-Valdéz, F. R.; Álvarez-Romero, J. T.

    2004-09-01

    This work presents the calibration for: 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15 and 18 MeV electron beams, also to 6 and 15 MV photons beams. Beams that are generated by an accelerator Elekta Linac SL 18. The calibration is performed in terms of absorbed dose to water Dw. It is determined by two different protocols: the code of practice of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) TRS 277 for ionization chambers calibrated on air kerma NK, and the code of practice TRS 398 for ionization chambers calibrated on absorbed dose to water ND,W. Two independent dosimeters were used with two ionization chambers each one, respectively. The first one, a dosimeter PTW model UNIDOS with Markus type chamber (plane parallel) for electrons, and Farmer type chamber (cylindrical) for photons, both chambers calibrated in NK. The second dosimeter Scanditronix model DOSE 1 with plane parallel chamber (electrons) and cylindrical chamber (photons), both chambers calibrated in terms of ND,W. In the case of photon beams, the TPR was measured for 6 and 15 MV, also the profiles were determined in order to verify the flatness and symmetry of the beam: ±3%. The quality for electrons beams were estimated by means of the Dmax, R80, R50 and Rp. The results obtained for the absorbed dose quotients DW,Q(dmax)277398 are: Electrons, 0.976⩽ DW,Q(dmax)277398⩽ 1.001; Photons: 1.001 ⩽ DW,Q(dmax)277398 ⩽ 1.003.

  18. Evaluation of IAEA Clearance Concept for Low-level Radioactive Waste from a Radioisotope Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Yumoto, Yasuhiro; Okada, Shigeru; Kinno, Ikuo; Nagamatsu, Tomohiro; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Nakayama, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    The clearance of solid low-level radioactive laboratory waste (LLRW) after decay-in-storage (DIS) obtained from a research institute and thoroughly separated using the separation and classification protocols presented in this study was evaluated. The radioisotope (RI) content of incinerated LLRW from the specified RI research group (group A); the RI content of LLRW obtained in fiscal year 2000, which contained radionuclides with half-lives of less than 164 d (LLRW2); and the RI content of the LLRW reported in group A's disposal records were compared. The LLRW2 and LLRW of group A were incinerated after 2 y of decay-in-storage and immediately after storage, respectively. The highest ratio of the RI of incinerated LLRW to the value in the disposal records was 2.52 for ⁵¹Cr. The radioactivities of radionuclides in both the LLRW2 and LLRW for ³⁵S, ⁴⁵Ca, ⁵¹Cr, ¹²⁵I, ³²P, ³³P, and ⁹⁹mTc and the incinerated ash after 1 y later of decay-in-storage were below the clearance level defined by the RS-G-1.7 of the International Basic Safety Standard without contamination by ³H and ¹⁴C. These remains contained very small amounts of some long-half-life radionuclides of natural origin after 7 y of decay-in-storage. This LLRW separation protocol was effective for the separation of ³H and ¹⁴C. LLRW2 after 2 years of DIS and its incinerated ash after one year later of DIS were below the clearance level for radioactivity and radioactivity concentration.

  19. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Phillip; Chen, Xianglei; Choy, Susan P.; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Fleury, Jill K.; Chandler, Kathryn A.; Rand, Michael R.; Klaus, Patsy; Planty, Michael G.

    This report contains the most recent available data on school crime and safety drawn from a number of statistical series supported by the federal government. It is organized as a series of indicators, with each indicator presenting data on a different aspect of school crime and safety. There are five sections to the report: Violent Deaths at…

  20. Program of technical assistance to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons - lessons learned from the U.S. program of technical assistance to IAEA safeguards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Defense Nuclear Agency is sponsoring a technical study of the requirements of a vehicle to meet the OPCW`s future needs for enhanced chemical weapons verification capabilities. This report provides information about the proven mechanisms by which the U.S. provided both short- and long-term assistance to the IAEA to enhance its verification capabilities. Much of the technical assistance has generic application to international organizations verifying compliance with disarmament treaties or conventions. In addition, some of the equipment developed by the U.S. under the existing arrangements can be applied in the verification of other disarmament treaties or conventions. U.S. technical assistance to IAEA safeguards outside of the IAEA`s regular budget proved to be necessary. The U.S. technical assistance was successful in improving the effectiveness of IAEA safeguards for its most urgent responsibilities and in providing the technical elements for increased IAEA {open_quotes}readiness{close_quotes} for the postponed responsibilities deemed important for U.S. policy objectives. Much of the technical assistance was directed to generic subjects and helped to achieve a system of international verification. It is expected that the capabilities of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to verify a state`s compliance with the {open_quotes}Chemical Weapons Convention{close_quotes} will require improvements. This report presents 18 important lessons learned from the experience of the IAEA and the U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS), organized into three tiers. Each lesson is presented in the report in the context of the difficulty, need and history in which the lesson was learned. Only the most important points are recapitulated in this executive summary.

  1. Approach to training of personnel to manage radioactive wastes offered by education training Centre at Moscow Sia Radon under sponsorship of IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Batyukhnova, O.G.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Jova-Sed, L.; Rozdyalouskaya, L.; Drace, Z.

    2007-07-01

    The availability of qualified personnel is crucial to the licensing and efficient and safe operation of waste management facilities and for the improvement of the existing waste management practices. The countries with some degree of waste management activities are of special concerns, since their narrow waste management experience and personal capabilities may be a limiting factor to manage radioactive waste in a safe and technically optimal manner. The International Education Training Centre (IETC) at Moscow State Unitary Enterprise Scientific and Industrial Association 'Radon' (SIA 'Radon'), in co-operation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has developed expertise and provided training to waste management personnel for the last 10 years. During this period, more than 300 specialists from 26 European and Asian countries, (mostly) sponsored by the IAEA, have increased their knowledge and skills in radioactive waste management. The current experience of the SIA 'Radon' in the organisation of the IAEA sponsored training is summarized and an outline of some strategic educational elements, which IETC will continue to pursue in the coming years, is provided. (authors)

  2. IAEA CRP on HTGR Uncertainties in Modeling: Assessment of Phase I Lattice to Core Model Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Rouxelin, Pascal Nicolas; Strydom, Gerhard

    2016-09-01

    Best-estimate plus uncertainty analysis of reactors is replacing the traditional conservative (stacked uncertainty) method for safety and licensing analysis. To facilitate uncertainty analysis applications, a comprehensive approach and methodology must be developed and applied. High temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) have several features that require techniques not used in light-water reactor analysis (e.g., coated-particle design and large graphite quantities at high temperatures). The International Atomic Energy Agency has therefore launched the Coordinated Research Project on HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling to study uncertainty propagation in the HTGR analysis chain. The benchmark problem defined for the prismatic design is represented by the General Atomics Modular HTGR 350. The main focus of this report is the compilation and discussion of the results obtained for various permutations of Exercise I 2c and the use of the cross section data in Exercise II 1a of the prismatic benchmark, which is defined as the last and first steps of the lattice and core simulation phases, respectively. The report summarizes the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) best estimate results obtained for Exercise I 2a (fresh single-fuel block), Exercise I 2b (depleted single-fuel block), and Exercise I 2c (super cell) in addition to the first results of an investigation into the cross section generation effects for the super-cell problem. The two dimensional deterministic code known as the New ESC based Weighting Transport (NEWT) included in the Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) 6.1.2 package was used for the cross section evaluation, and the results obtained were compared to the three dimensional stochastic SCALE module KENO VI. The NEWT cross section libraries were generated for several permutations of the current benchmark super-cell geometry and were then provided as input to the Phase II core calculation of the stand alone neutronics Exercise

  3. Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safety of fish caught in your local lakes, rivers, and coastal areas. Advisories may recommend that ... Charts Picky Eating Physical Activity Food Safety Resources Kids Students Adults Families Professionals Multiple Languages MyPlate, MyWins ...

  4. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety A A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  5. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety A A ... tied to alcohol use. previous continue At the Water Park OK, so you do more splashing than ...

  6. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  7. Comparison of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous CFD Fuel Models for Phase I of the IAEA CRP on HTR Uncertainties Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhard Strydom; Su-Jong Yoon

    2014-04-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) evaluation of homogeneous and heterogeneous fuel models was performed as part of the Phase I calculations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinate Research Program (CRP) on High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Uncertainties in Modeling (UAM). This study was focused on the nominal localized stand-alone fuel thermal response, as defined in Ex. I-3 and I-4 of the HTR UAM. The aim of the stand-alone thermal unit-cell simulation is to isolate the effect of material and boundary input uncertainties on a very simplified problem, before propagation of these uncertainties are performed in subsequent coupled neutronics/thermal fluids phases on the benchmark. In many of the previous studies for high temperature gas cooled reactors, the volume-averaged homogeneous mixture model of a single fuel compact has been applied. In the homogeneous model, the Tristructural Isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles in the fuel compact were not modeled directly and an effective thermal conductivity was employed for the thermo-physical properties of the fuel compact. On the contrary, in the heterogeneous model, the uranium carbide (UCO), inner and outer pyrolytic carbon (IPyC/OPyC) and silicon carbide (SiC) layers of the TRISO fuel particles are explicitly modeled. The fuel compact is modeled as a heterogeneous mixture of TRISO fuel kernels embedded in H-451 matrix graphite. In this study, a steady-state and transient CFD simulations were performed with both homogeneous and heterogeneous models to compare the thermal characteristics. The nominal values of the input parameters are used for this CFD analysis. In a future study, the effects of input uncertainties in the material properties and boundary parameters will be investigated and reported.

  8. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  9. Safety Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Safety policies, procedures, and related information are presented in this manual to assist school personnel in a continuing program of accident prevention. Chapter 1 discusses safety education and accident prevention in general. Chapter 2 covers traffic regulations relating to school safety patrols, school bus transportation, bicycles, and…

  10. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  11. Objectives and Current Status of the IAEA Network of Centers of Excellence: Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M. J.; Knapp, M. R.

    2003-02-27

    Underground Research Laboratories (URLs) to develop and demonstrate technologies for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes have been established for national purposes by several Member States of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Under the auspices of the IAEA, nationally developed URLs and associated research institutions are being offered for use by other nations. These facilities form a Network of Centers of Excellence for training in and development of waste disposal technologies. Experience gained in the operation of the facilities, and through associated experimentation and demonstrations, will be transferred to participating Member States through hands-on work at the facilities. The Network consists of Network Members and Network Participants who share co-operative activities. Network Members are owners of facilities who have offered them to be part of the Network. At this time there are eight Members consisting of six underground facilities, a laboratory, and a university. Network Participants can potentially come from any interested IAEA Member State having spent nuclear fuel for disposal, with or without an established program for geologic disposal. There are presently about 15 Network Participants. A significant Network activity beginning in 2003 will be a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on characterization and evaluation of swelling clays for use in engineered barrier systems of geologic repositories. At the end of this project, every involved Member State should be able to identify and characterize a swelling clay that is suitable for use in a geologic repository. As the Network grows, additional CRPs to be carried out in the Underground Research Facilities of the Network Members will be defined.

  12. Meeting the challenges of global nuclear medicine technologist training in the 21st century: the IAEA Distance Assisted Training (DAT) program.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Heather E; Nunez, Margarita; Philotheou, Geraldine M; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-05-01

    Many countries have made significant investments in nuclear medicine (NM) technology with the acquisition of modern equipment and establishment of facilities, however, often appropriate training is not considered as part of these investments. Training for NM professionals is continually evolving, with a need to meet changing requirements in the workforce. Even places where established higher education courses are available, these do not necessarily cater to the practical component of training and the ever-changing technology that is central to medical imaging. The continuing advances in NM technology and growth of applications in quantitative clinical assessment place increases the pressure on technologists to learn and practice new techniques. Not only is training to understand new concepts limited but often there is inadequate training in the basics of NM and this can be a major constraint to the effective use of the evolving technology. Developing appropriate training programs for the broader international NM community is one of the goals of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A particularly successful and relevant development has been the program on 'distance assisted training (DAT) for NM professionals'. The development of DAT was initiated in the 1990s through Australian Government funding, administered under auspices of the IAEA through its Regional Cooperative Agreement, involving most countries in Asia that are Member States of the IAEA. The project has resulted in the development of a set of training modules which are designed for use under direct supervision in the workplace, delivered through means of distance-learning. The program has undergone several revisions and peer reviews with the current version providing a comprehensive training package that is now available online. DAT has been utilized widely in Asia or the Pacific region, Latin America, and parts of Africa and Europe. Currently there are approximately 1000 registered participants

  13. The use of the internet training course modality in the field of tissue banking: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/National University of Singapore (NUS) experience.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge

    2011-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promoted and supported an important training program for the training of tissue bank operators and medical doctors within its radiation and tissue banking program. The purpose of the program was to train an increase number of tissue bank operators and medical doctors in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and Eastern Europe, that were working or were associated to a number of tissue banks established in these regions under the IAEA program during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s. The National University of Singapore Tissue Bank was designated, in 1996, as the Regional Training Centre (RTC) for Asia and the Pacific region and later on, in 2002, as the International Training Centre (ITC) for the whole IAEA program. The National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina and the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Buenos Aires were also designated, in 1999, as the Regional Training Centre for the Latin American region. The objective of the ITC was to train tissue banks operators and medical doctors from all over the world and the RTCs to train tissue bank operators and medical doctors mainly from the Asia and the Pacific and the Latin American regions. Since 1997, training of tissue bank operators and medical doctors were carried out using the modality of distance training courses. However, due to its limitation, this type of courses was transformed, in 2002, in an Internet training course modality, with the purpose to increase not only the number of participants but, at the same time to reduce, as much as possible, the costs associated with the organisation of these courses. Since November 1997, the number of training courses carried out in the RTCs established under the IAEA program was 14, eight of them under the Internet training course modality. The total number of students registered in these courses was 261 and the total number of students graduated was 166 for a rate of approval of 63.6%. The National University of

  14. CHEMISTRY FOR THE SAFETY MAN. SAFETY IN INDUSTRY--ENVIRONMENTAL AND CHEMICAL HAZARDS SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CESTRONE, PATRICK F.

    THIS BULLETIN, ONE OF A SERIES ON SAFETY IN INDUSTRY, IS INTENDED TO PROVIDE THE BACKGROUND WHICH WILL ENABLE THE SAFETY MAN TO UNDERSTAND SOME OF THE PRINCIPLES APPLIED IN CONTROLLING CHEMICAL HAZARDS. IT WAS PREPARED IN THE OFFICE OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, DIVISION OF PROGRAMING AND RESEARCH, BUREAU OF LABOR STANDARDS. TOPICS INCLUDE (1) WHAT IS…

  15. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains thirteen lessons on pedestrian safety for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  16. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Pedestrian Safety, Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains thirteen lessons on pedestrian safety for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  17. The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, María Esther; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Sánchez Ramírez, Omar

    2009-05-01

    Tissue banking started in Mexico in 1948-1949, when two bone banks were established, one at the Infantile Hospital of Mexico and other at the Central Military Hospital. Mexico has benefited for the implementation of the IAEA program since through it has been able to settle down and to consolidate the Tissue Bank at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares ININ (National Institute for Nuclear Research). This is the only bank in Latin America that has a Quality Management System in force, certified under ISO 9001:2000 since August 1, 2003. The first tissue processed was amnion. The main products of the BTR are amnion and pig skin. Both are biological tissues which their main use is as a wound dressing in patients with burns, scars, diabetic ulcers, epidermolysis bullosa, damaged ocular surface, etc. The General Health Law, published in 1984 and reformed in June 19, 2007, describes the procedure for the disposal of organs, tissues and human cadavers in its fourteenth title and in the Regulation for Sanitary Control. During the period 2001-2005, the ININ Tissue Bank produced 292 sterilised tissues (amnion, 86,668 cm(2), and frozen pig skin, 164,220 cm(2), at an estimated cost of 1,012,668 Mexican pesos. Until 2006, one hundred eighty five (185) patients have been treated with the use of sterilised tissues produced by the ININ Tissue Bank. The radiation source used for sterilisation of tissues is an industrial Cobalt-60 irradiator model JS-6500 AECL, which belongs to ININ. This equipment is located in other building, close to the BTR, in the Centro Nuclear de México "Dr. Nabor Carrillo Flores" (Nuclear Center of Mexico). Until 2006, six hospitals use in a routine way the sterilised tissues produced by the ININ Tissue Bank, for the treatment of burns originated by diverse agents like flame, electricity, liquids in boil, chemical reagents, as well as for the reconstruction of the ocular surface. Two of these hospitals treat patients of very low economic

  18. Skateboard Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Giustina, Daniel

    1979-01-01

    The growing number of skateboard injuries clearly indicates a need for both recreational facilities designed exclusively for skateboarders, and for accident- prevention-oriented safety education programs. (LH)

  19. Medication safety.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Carol A; Bates, David W

    2008-03-01

    Patient safety is a state of mind, not a technology. The technologies used in the medical setting represent tools that must be properly designed, used well, and assessed on an on-going basis. Moreover, in all settings, building a culture of safety is pivotal for improving safety, and many nontechnologic approaches, such as medication reconciliation and teaching patients about their medications, are also essential. This article addresses the topic of medication safety and examines specific strategies being used to decrease the incidence of medication errors across various clinical settings.

  20. Solidifying Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Solidifying Safety: NASA s new safety organization spools up, as the 1SS program grapples with long-term risk. 2. Earth to Orbit O'Keefe telling skeptical lawmakers Orbital Space Plan (OSP) will cover exploration vision. China's rapid pace.

  1. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  2. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  3. Lab Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Sandra S.

    1991-01-01

    In response to the Texas Hazardous Communication Act (THCA) of 1986 which raised many new health and liability issues regarding students in science laboratories, a laboratory safety survey was generated for use in evaluating laboratory safety. This article contains the easy-to-use survey. (ZWH)

  4. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  5. Safety First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Ned Miller does not take security lightly. As director of campus safety and emergency management at the Des Moines Area Community College (DMACC), any threat requires serious consideration. As community college administrators adopt a more proactive approach to campus safety, many institutions are experimenting with emerging technologies, including…

  6. Overall results of and lessons learned from the IAEA CRP on sodium natural circulation test performed during the Phenix end-of-life experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Monti, S.; Toti, A.; Tenchine, D.; Pialla, D.

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) launched the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) 'Control Rod Withdrawal and Sodium Natural Circulation Tests Performed during the Phenix End-of-Life Experiments'. The overall purpose of the CRP, performed within the framework of the IAEA programme in support of innovative fast reactor technology development and deployment, is to improve the Member States' analytical capabilities in the various fields of research and design of sodium-cooled fast reactors through data and codes verification and validation. In particular the CRP, taking advantage of the End-of-Life set of experiments performed before the final shut-down of the French prototype fast breeder power reactor Phenix, aims at improving fast reactor simulation methods and design capabilities in the field of temperature and power distribution evaluation, as well as of the analysis of sodium natural circulation phenomena. The paper presents the overall results of the CRP, including blind calculations and post-test and sensitivity analyses carried out by the CRP participants, as well as lessons learned and recommendations for further future implementations to resolve open issues. (authors)

  7. IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project: update of X-ray and gamma-ray decay data standards for detector calibration and other applications.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Alan L

    2004-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) was established in 1998 by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section (Update of X-ray and gamma-ray Decay Data Standards for Detector Calibration and Other Applications), in order to improve further the recommended decay data used to undertake efficiency calibrations of gamma-ray detectors. Participants in this CRP reviewed and modified the list of radionuclides most suited for detector efficiency calibration, and also considered the decay-data needs for safeguards, waste management, dosimetry, nuclear medicine, material analysis and environmental monitoring. Overall, 62 radionuclides were selected for decay-data evaluation, along with four parent-daughter combinations and two natural decay chains. gamma-ray emissions from specific nuclear reactions were also included to extend the calibrant energy well beyond 10 MeV. A significant number of these decay-data evaluations have been completed, and an IAEA-TECDOC report and database are in the process of being assembled for planned completion by the end of 2003.

  8. A comparative study of (129)I content in environmental standard materials IAEA-375, NIST SRM 4354 and NIST SRM 4357 by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Olson, John; Adamic, Mary; Snyder, Darin; Brookhart, Jacob; Hahn, Paula; Watrous, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    Iodine environmental measurements have consistently been validated in the literature using the standard material IAEA-375, soil collected approximately 160 miles northeast of Chernobyl, which is currently the only soil/sediment material with a certified (129)I activity. IAEA-375 has not been available for purchase since approximately 2010. Two other standard materials that are available (NIST SRM 4354, freshwater lake sediment and NIST SRM 4357, ocean sediment) have certified activities for a variety of radionuclides but not for (129)I. This paper reports a comparison of TIMS and AMS data for all three standards. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Two Trabecular Micro-Bypass Stents as the Sole Procedure in Japanese Patients with Medically Uncontrolled Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Pilot Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Shingo; Yaguchi, Saori

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate efficacy and safety of a trabecular micro-bypass stent system when used as the sole procedure in Japanese patients with medically uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Design. Prospective nonrandomized interventional pilot study. Methods. Ten eyes of 10 Japanese patients with medically uncontrolled POAG taking three ocular hypotensive medications were treated using only the implantation of two iStent trabecular micro-bypass stents. Each patient continued to take the same ocular hypotensive medications used preoperatively throughout the study. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and endothelial cell density (ECD) were determined at baseline and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Results. Mean IOP was 22.0 ± 3.0 mmHg at baseline and 16.9 ± 3.6 mmHg at 6 months, which represented a mean reduction of 5.1 mmHg or 23.2%. No significant changes were observed in the ECD and BCVA. Complications that occurred during the early postoperative period included hyphema, peripheral anterior synechiae, and occlusion of the stent by the iris. Conclusion. Implantation of two trabecular micro-bypass stents as the sole procedure in Japanese POAG patients effectively reduced IOP and exhibited a favorable safety profile. Clinical Trials Registration number is UMIN000004002. PMID:28265466

  10. Software safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy

    1987-01-01

    Software safety and its relationship to other qualities are discussed. It is shown that standard reliability and fault tolerance techniques will not solve the safety problem for the present. A new attitude requires: looking at what you do NOT want software to do along with what you want it to do; and assuming things will go wrong. New procedures and changes to entire software development process are necessary: special software safety analysis techniques are needed; and design techniques, especially eliminating complexity, can be very helpful.

  11. Nuclear Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, E G

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  12. Public safety training as a force multiplier.

    PubMed

    Potter, Anthony N; Woodruff, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    The training of public safety officers to meet the many and varied demands of today's healthcare environment is the second step in developing and maintaining a world class public safety service. Working closely with the corporate training department, and utilizing the latest adult education techniques, the public safety director can ensure that all officers are capable of meeting the challenges threatening the safety and security of his healthcare facilities. This is the second in a series of articles on all aspects of public safety personnel administration.

  13. Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Miriam C., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a cooperative effort in Iowa to eliminate dangerous or unwanted chemicals from school science storerooms. Also reviews the Council of State Science Supervisor's safety program and discusses how to prevent cuts and punctures from jagged glass tubing. (JN)

  14. Auto Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure to ask for a certified child passenger safety technician to assist you.) continue Guidelines for ... killed if they are riding in the front passenger seat when an air bag opens. Air bags ...

  15. The efficacy and safety of treatments for acute gout: results from a series of systematic literature reviews including Cochrane reviews on intraarticular glucocorticoids, colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and interleukin-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wechalekar, Mihir D; Vinik, Ophir; Moi, John H Y; Sivera, Francisca; van Echteld, Irene A A M; van Durme, Caroline; Falzon, Louise; Bombardier, Claire; Carmona, Loreto; Aletaha, Daniel; Landewé, Robert B; van der Heijde, Désirée M F M; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids (GC), colchicine, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitors, and paracetamol to treat acute gout. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to September 2011. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT in adults with acute gout that compared GC, colchicine, NSAID, IL-1 inhibitors, and paracetamol to no treatment, placebo, another intervention, or combination therapy were included. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Primary endpoints were pain and adverse events. Data were pooled where appropriate. Twenty-six trials evaluating GC (N = 5), NSAID (N = 21), colchicine (N = 2), and canakinumab (N = 1) were included. No RCT assessed paracetamol or intraarticular (IA) GC. No RCT compared systemic GC with placebo. Moderate quality evidence (3 trials) concluded that systemic GC were as effective as NSAID but safer. Low quality evidence (1 trial) showed that both high- and low-dose colchicine were more effective than placebo, and low-dose colchicine was no different to placebo with respect to safety but safer than high-dose colchicine. Low quality evidence (1 trial) showed no difference between NSAID and placebo with regard to pain or inflammation. No NSAID was superior to another. Moderate quality evidence (1 trial) found that 150 mg canakinumab was more effective than a single dose of intramuscular GC (40 mg triamcinolone) and equally safe. GC, NSAID, low-dose colchicine, and canakinumab all effectively treat acute gout. There was insufficient evidence to rank them. Systemic GC appeared safer than NSAID and lower-dose colchicine was safer than higher-dose colchicine.

  16. Va-Room: Motorcycle Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about motorcycle safety. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it offers statistics concerning motorcycle accidents; information on how to choose the proper machine; basic information about the operation of the…

  17. Monitoring product safety in the postmarketing environment.

    PubMed

    Sharrar, Robert G; Dieck, Gretchen S

    2013-10-01

    The safety profile of a medicinal product may change in the postmarketing environment. Safety issues not identified in clinical development may be seen and need to be evaluated. Methods of evaluating spontaneous adverse experience reports and identifying new safety risks include a review of individual reports, a review of a frequency distribution of a list of the adverse experiences, the development and analysis of a case series, and various ways of examining the database for signals of disproportionality, which may suggest a possible association. Regulatory agencies monitor product safety through a variety of mechanisms including signal detection of the adverse experience safety reports in databases and by requiring and monitoring risk management plans, periodic safety update reports and postauthorization safety studies. The United States Food and Drug Administration is working with public, academic and private entities to develop methods for using large electronic databases to actively monitor product safety. Important identified risks will have to be evaluated through observational studies and registries.

  18. Counting efficiency of whole-body monitoring system using BOMAB and ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom due to internal contamination of 131I.

    PubMed

    Ghare, V P; Patni, H K; Akar, D K; Rao, D D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of Indian reference BOttle MAnnikin aBsorber (BOMAB) neck with axial cavity and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) thyroid phantom using pencil sources of (133)Ba ((131)I simulant) on counting efficiency (CE) is seen experimentally in static geometry for whole-body monitoring system comprising 10.16-cm diameter and 7.62-cm-thick NaI(Tl) detector. The CE estimated using the neck part of BOMAB phantom is 50.2% lower in comparison with ANSI phantom. In rest of the studies FLUKA code is used for Monte Carlo simulations using ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom. The simulation results are validated in static geometries with experimental CE and the differences are within 1.3%. It is observed that CE for pencil source distribution is 3.97% higher for (133)Ba in comparison with CE of (131)I source. Simulated CE for pencil source distribution is 4.7% lower in comparison with uniform source distribution in the volume of thyroid for (131)I. Since the radiation workers are of different physique; overlying tissue thickness (OTT) and neck-to-detector distance play an important role in the calculation of activity in thyroid. The CE decreases with increase in OTT and is found to be 5.5% lower if OTT is changed from 1.1 to 2 cm. Finally, the simulations are carried out to estimate the variation in CE due to variation in the neck-to-detector distance. The CE is 6.2% higher if the neck surface-to-detector distance is decreased from 21.4 to 20.4 cm and it goes on increasing up to 61.9% if the distance is decreased to 15.4 cm. In conclusion, the calibration of whole-body monitoring system for (131)I should be carried out with ANSI/IAEA thyroid phantom, the neck-to-detector distance controlled or the CE corrected for this, and the CE should be corrected for OTT. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVoe, Jill F.; Peter, Katharin; Kaufman, Phillip; Ruddy, Sally A.; Miller, Amanda K.; Planty, Mike; Snyder, Thomas D.; Duhart, Detis T.; Rand, Michael R.

    This report, the fifth in a series of annual reports on school crime, presents the latest available data on school crime and student safety. The data present a mixed picture of school safety. Rates of criminal victimization in school have declined or remained constant, and students seem to feel more secure at school than they did a few years ago.…

  20. A literature review of safety culture.

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  1. Status and Value of International Standards for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an update to the author's standards report provided at the ICNC-2007 meeting. It includes a discussion about the difference between, and the value of participating in, the development of international 'consensus' standards as opposed to nonconsensus standards. Standards are developed for a myriad of reasons. Generally, standards represent an agreed upon, repeatable way of doing something as defined by an individual or group of people. They come in various types. Examples include personal, family, business, industrial, commercial, and regulatory such as military, community, state, federal, and international standards. Typically, national and international 'consensus' standards are developed by individuals and organizations of diverse backgrounds representing the subject matter users and developers of a service or product and other interested parties or organizations. Within the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Technical Committee 85 (TC85) on nuclear energy, Subcommittee 5 (SC5) on nuclear fuel technology, there is a Working Group 8 (WG8) on standardization of calculations, procedures, and practices related to criticality safety. WG8 has developed, and is developing, ISO standards within the category of nuclear criticality safety of fissionable materials outside of reactors (i.e., nonreactor fissionable material nuclear fuel cycle facilities). Since the presentation of the ICNC-2007 report, WG8 has issued three new finalized international standards and is developing two more new standards. Nearly all elements of the published WG8 ISO standards have been incorporated into IAEA nonconsensus guides and standards. The progression of consensus standards development among international partners in a collegial environment establishes a synergy of different concepts that broadens the perspectives of the members. This breadth of perspectives benefits the working group members in their considerations of consensus standards

  2. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  3. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  4. Comparison of air kerma-length product measurements between the PTB and the IAEA for x-radiation qualities used in computed tomography (EURAMET.RI(I)-S12, EURAMET project #1327)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csete, István; Büermann, Ludwig; Alikhani, Babak; Gomola, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of air kerma-length product determinations for standard radiation qualities defined for use in computed tomography was performed between the PTB and the IAEA as EURAMET project #1327, registered in the KCDB as the EURAMET.RI(I)-S12 comparison. A pencil type reference-class ionization chamber of the IAEA and the three RQT beam qualities established according to the IEC standard 61627:2005 were selected for the comparison. The calibration coefficients for the transfer chamber in terms of Gycm/C at the PTB and the IAEA using the partial irradiation method recommended in the IAEA TRS 457 were determined. The results show the calibration coefficients of both laboratories were in a very good agreement of about 0.2 % well within the estimated relative standard uncertainty of the comparison of about 0.8 %. Residual correction due to the additional aperture required for partial irradiation of pencil chambers and feasibility of the full irradiation method were also studied. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Marked disequilibrium between 234Th and 230Th of the 238U natural radioactive decay chain in IAEA reference materials n. 312, 313 and 314.

    PubMed

    Colaianni, A; D'Erasmo, G; Pantaleo, A; Schiavulli, L

    2011-02-01

    A new laboratory for the spectroscopy of natural radioactivity with a good energy resolution is presented. It consists of two distinct parts equipped, respectively, the first one with a HpGe γ-ray detector, whose setup has been already completed, and the second one with large area Silicon α-ray detectors and a radiochemical section for thin α-samples preparation, whose setup is yet in progress and will be the argument of a separate work. The γ-ray spectrometer was calibrated by means of IAEA Reference Materials n. 312, 313, 314 and 375. A large difference from the predictions of secular equilibrium emerged between the activities of (234)Th and (230)Th in Materials n. 312, 313 and 314. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists` Meeting on Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing held at Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.E.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney, J.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report contains 40 papers that were presented at the Joint IAEA/CSNI Specialists` Meeting Fracture Mechanics Verification by Large-Scale Testing held at the Pollard Auditorium, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the week of October 26--29, 1992. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe recent large-scale fracture (brittle and/or ductile) experiments, analyses of these experiments, and comparisons between predictions and experimental results. The goal of the meeting was to allow international experts to examine the fracture behavior of various materials and structures under conditions relevant to nuclear reactor components and operating environments. The emphasis was on the ability of various fracture models and analysis methods to predict the wide range of experimental data now available. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  7. Status of IAEA CRP on Study of Process-Losses in Separation Processes in Partitioning and Transmutation Systems in View of Minimizing Long-Term Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J.; Bimova, K.C.; Bychkov, A.; Kormilitsyn, M.; Inoue, T.; Koch, L.; Nagarajan, K.; Nawada, H.; Ye, Y.; Yoo, J.H.

    2007-07-01

    Coordinated Research Project (CRP) was initiated in 2002 by IAEA to enable Member States in developing methodologies for reducing radio-toxic discharge to the environment from nuclear fuel cycle activities and in paving the way for sustainability of nuclear energy. In the past three Research Coordination Meetings (RCM), the following areas of research were examined upon: (1)Basic studies to compare dry partitioning process with aqueous partitioning process; (2)Defining proliferation resistance attributes of partitioning processes; (3) Advanced characterization methods for actinides for measuring the possible material holdup;( 4)Minimization of actinides losses in the waste fraction from the partitioning process;(5)Establishment of separation criteria of partitioning process to minimize environmental impact; and (6)Defining environmental impact associated with partitioning processes. The final TECDOC is currently being prepared to summarize the activities of this CRP. (authors)

  8. THE SCHOOL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    INVOLVING INDIVIDUALS AS WELL AS ORGANIZATIONS, THE PROGRAM AIMED AT THE OPTIMUM HEALTH OF ALL CHILDREN, AND IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY. EACH OF THE CHILDREN WAS URGED TO HAVE A SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION FOR SMALL POX, THE DPT SERIES AND BOOSTER, THE POLIO SERIES, AND CORRECTIONS OF ALL DENTAL DEFECTS AND…

  9. THE SCHOOL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    INVOLVING INDIVIDUALS AS WELL AS ORGANIZATIONS, THE PROGRAM AIMED AT THE OPTIMUM HEALTH OF ALL CHILDREN, AND IMPROVEMENT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY STANDARDS WITHIN THE COMMUNITY. EACH OF THE CHILDREN WAS URGED TO HAVE A SUCCESSFUL VACCINATION FOR SMALL POX, THE DPT SERIES AND BOOSTER, THE POLIO SERIES, AND CORRECTIONS OF ALL DENTAL DEFECTS AND…

  10. Safety assessment methodology in management of spent sealed sources.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Narmine Salah

    2005-02-14

    Environmental hazards can be caused from radioactive waste after their disposal. It was therefore important that safety assessment methodologies be developed and established to study and estimate the possible hazards, and institute certain safety methodologies that lead and prevent the evolution of these hazards. Spent sealed sources are specific type of radioactive waste. According to IAEA definition, spent sealed sources are unused sources because of activity decay, damage, misuse, loss, or theft. Accidental exposure of humans from spent sealed sources can occur at the moment they become spent and before their disposal. Because of that reason, safety assessment methodologies were tailored to suit the management of spent sealed sources. To provide understanding and confidence of this study, validation analysis was undertaken by considering the scenario of an accident that occurred in Egypt, June 2000 (the Meet-Halfa accident from an iridium-192 source). The text of this work includes consideration related to the safety assessment approaches of spent sealed sources which constitutes assessment context, processes leading an active source to be spent, accident scenarios, mathematical models for dose calculations, and radiological consequences and regulatory criteria. The text also includes a validation study, which was carried out by evaluating a theoretical scenario compared to the real scenario of Meet-Halfa accident depending on the clinical assessment of affected individuals.

  11. Situation analysis of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (2013) in the I. R. of Iran; assessment and recommendations based on the IAEA imPACT mission.

    PubMed

    Rouhollahi, Mohammad Reza; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Mohammadrezai, Narges; Ghiasvand, Reza; Ghanbari Motlagh, Ali; Harirchi, Iraj; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2014-04-01

    Iran was engaged in the Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) in 2012, and delegates from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) evaluated the National Cancer Control Program (NCCP) status (the imPACT mission), based on which they provided recommendations for improvements of NCCP in the I.R. of Iran. We reported the results of this situational analysis and discussed the recommendations and their implication in the promotion of NCCP in the I.R. of Iran.  International delegates visited the I.R. of Iran and evaluated different aspects and capacities of NCCP in Iran. In addition, a Farsi version of the WHO/IAEA self-assessment tool was completed by local experts and stakeholders, including experts from different departments of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) and representatives from the National Cancer Research Network (NCRN). Following these evaluations, the PACT office provided recommendations for improving the NCCP in Iran. Almost all the recommendations were endorsed by MOHME. The PACT program provided 31 recommendations for improvement of NCCP in Iran in six categories, including planning, cancer registration and information, prevention, early detection, diagnosis and treatment, and palliative care. The most important recommendation was to establish a strong, multi-sectoral NCCP committee and develop an updated national cancer control program. The imPACT mission report provided a comprehensive view about the NCCP status in Iran. An appropriate response to these recommendations and filing the observed gaps will improve the NCCP status in the I.R. of Iran.

  12. A systematic study on the extractability of arsenic species from algal certified reference material IAEA-140/TM (Fucus sp., Sea Plant Homogenate) using methanol/water extractant mixtures.

    PubMed

    van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Kahn, Markus; Goessler, Walter

    2007-02-28

    Using methanol/water mixtures (from pure water to pure methanol), with different desorption and solubility parameters, and varying extractant volume to algal mass (V/m) ratios, the extractability of arsenic species from CRM IAEA-140/TM was investigated. A linear sorption isotherm-based model was developed to process the data obtained with variable volume extraction, allowing the unambiguous deduction of the maximal extractable species concentrations under the specific extraction conditions, even for more stable species. The maximal extractable arsenic fraction ranged from 41 to 68% of the total arsenic concentration in CRM IAEA-140/TM, depending on the extractant composition, with pure methanol giving the lowest extraction yield and pure water giving erratic extractability (probably due to bad wettability). The main arsenic species quantified in the methanol/water extracts were arsenosugars, with arsenosugars 1 (glycerol arsenosugar), 3 (sulfonate arsenosugar) and 4 (sulfate arsenosugar) making up ca. 90% of the maximal extractable arsenic. The rest accounts for DMA (dimethylarsinate), arsenosugar 2 (phosphate arsenosugar) and As(V). There is no clear extraction pattern emerging from the data although it may be seen that extraction of more polar species (e.g. arsenosugar 1) is favoured in pure methanol and less polar more ionic species (e.g. arsenosugar 2 and As(V)) in methanol extractants with a higher water percentage. The precise and highly accurate data may be used for quality control purposes under strictly followed extraction conditions since the extraction is operationally defined. Additionally, the variable volume extraction methodology presented may be applied to other elemental species in other matrices using other extractants. Although this approach does not maximise the absolute extractability but only that which is extractant-specific, experimentators are forewarned that in most cases only a fingerprint of the extractant-specific species is produced

  13. Fatigue Impacting Patient Safety: Literature Review and Local Perceptions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-07

    Rosekind. 18. Leape, L., Epstein, A., & Hamel, M., “A Series on Patient Safety,” New England Journal of Medicine , 347 (16), 2002: 1273. 19. Kohn...Academy Press. Leape, L., Epstein, A., & Hamel, M. (2002). A series on patient safety. New England Journal of Medicine , 347 (16): 1272- 1274

  14. Crashworthiness of Small Poststandard School Buses: Safety Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Transportation Safety Board (DOT), Washington, DC.

    In 1977, a series of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) for school buses became effective, mandating different performance standards for school buses compared to other buses. Because data on the crash performance of school buses built to these standards were lacking, the National Transportation Safety Board conducted a series of…

  15. Safety and efficacy of excision and direct closure in acute burns surgery: outcome analysis in a prospective series of 100 patients and a survey of UK burns surgeons' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Bain, Charles J; Wang, Tim; McArthur, Gordon; Williams, Greg; Atkins, Joanne; Jones, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Many burns surgeons avoid excision and direct closure of acute burns owing to concerns over wound dehiscence, scarring and infection. There is no evidence in the literature to support this practice. We present outcomes of a prospective series of 100 patients who underwent excision and direct closure of 138 burns over a 2-year period, along with results from a survey sent to 33 senior burns surgeons to gauge attitudes towards direct closure in burns surgery. 47% of survey respondents never perform direct closure. Dehiscence was cited as the most common concern, followed by hypertrophic scarring (HTS). In our cohort, the superficial dehiscence rate was 12% and the HTS rate was 16%, with no scarring contractures. Patients with healing time greater than 14 days were more likely to develop HTS (p=0.008), as were those with wound dehiscence (p=0.014). Patients undergoing part-grafting in addition to direct closure took significantly longer to heal than those undergoing direct closure alone (p=0.0002), with the donor site or graft delaying healing in the majority. Excision and direct closure of acute burn wounds avoids donor site morbidity and has an acceptable complication rate. It is a safe and effective treatment for full thickness burns in selected cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. The Interface of Safety and Security in Transport: A Regional Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Tim; Duhamel, David A; Nandakumar, A. N.; ParamiPhD, Vangeline K.; Bajwa, Christopher; Shannon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Security of nuclear and other radioactive material in transport continues to be a challenge for States that are working on strengthening their nuclear security regime. One reason for this is that State regulatory agencies and other organizations lack the resources and trained personnel to dedicate to this field. For over 50 years safety has been a major focus in the use, storage and transport of radioactive material. Only recently, since the late 1990s, has dedicated focus been given to the field of security. One way to assist States to advance nuclear security is to reach out to safety workers (regulators, inspectors, and safety compliance personnel) and showcase the need to better integrate safety and security practices. A recent IAEA regional workshop in Bangkok, Thailand (June 2015) yielded profound results when subject matter experts lectured on both the safety and the security of radioactive material in transport. These experts presented and discussed experiences and best practices for: 1) developing and implementing safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport; 2) national and international cooperation; and 3) preventing shipment delays/denials of radioactive material. The workshop participants, who were predominantly from safety organizations, shared that they received the following from this event: 1. A clear understanding of the objectives of the IAEA safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport. 2. A general understanding of and appreciation for the similarities and differences between safety requirements and security recommendations for radioactive material in transport. 3. A greater appreciation of the interface between transport safety and security and potential impacts of this interface on the efforts to strengthen the compliance assurance regime for the safe transport of radioactive material. 4. A general understanding of assessing the transport security scenarios

  17. Safety Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoot, James L.; Bartkowiak, Elaine T.

    1994-01-01

    Lists 72 organizations and programs that deal with child safety, grouped by the following categories: (1) general; (2) general violence; (3) gun violence; (4) media violence; (5) drugs and alcohol; (6) child abuse and at-risk children; (7) parenting programs; (8) community service programs; (9) leadership programs; (10) peer counseling; (11)…

  18. Online Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Elliott

    2001-01-01

    Describes provisions of Children's Internet Protection Act, which school districts are required to implement on or before October 31, 2001, involving the development and public dissemination of federally mandated Internet-safety policy to prevent minors from accessing inappropriate and harmful material. Provides suggestions to protect children…

  19. Art Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCATA Journal for Art Teachers, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Advocating that Canadian art programs should use and model environmentally safe practices, the articles in this journal focus on issues of safe practices in art education. Articles are: (1) "What is WHMIS?"; (2) "Safety Precautions for Specific Art Processes"; (3) "Toxic Substances"; (4) "Using Clay, Glazes, and…

  20. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  1. Safety First!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longfield, Judith

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how a hands-on chemistry investigation provided her the inspiration to develop an effective safety lesson for her third grade chemistry class. She began the lesson by demonstrating the use of pH indicator paper to show that ordinary household (white) vinegar was an acid. With the students, she wondered aloud…

  2. Experts stress importance of hazard recognition to ensure workplace safety

    SciTech Connect

    Schlender, Michael H.

    2006-06-15

    Second in a series of monthly safety articles to be featured in the Tri-Cities Area Journal of Business. These articles will focus on safety tips and practices targeted businesses in the area. The first article focuses on safety tips for business owners who have high school and college students entering the workforce this summer.

  3. Vaccine safety.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Robert M

    2003-11-01

    Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.

  4. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on sidewalk vehicles and bicycles for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  5. Arizona Traffic Safety Education, K-8. Bicycle Safety, Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesa Public Schools, AZ.

    One in a series designed to assist Arizona elementary and junior high school teachers in developing children's traffic safety skills, this curriculum guide contains nine lessons on sidewalk vehicles and bicycles for use in kindergarten and grade 1. Introductory information provided for the teacher includes basic highway safety concepts, stressing…

  6. Safety harness

    SciTech Connect

    Gunter, L.W.

    1991-04-08

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment. The safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  7. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  8. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Preventing Strangulation and Entrapment Household Safety: Preventing Suffocation Internet Safety Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Knowing Your Child's Medical History Lead Poisoning Leaving Your Child Home Alone Making ...

  9. Unification and Infinite Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2008-01-01

    Some infinite series are analysed on the basis of the hypergeometric function and integer structure and modular rings. The resulting generalized functions are compared with differentiation of the "mother" series. (Contains 1 table.)

  10. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  11. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  12. Safety Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    all rags, waste, etc., soiled by combustible or flaxmable materials kept In tightly rnosed metal containers for daily disposal? 3. Are fire plans ...To prevent cold weather injuries, does the cowmander ensure that: (TBMad 81, pars, 5) a. Safety is included in planning ? b. Suitable cold weather gear...pages 2-2 thru 2-6) 2. Are prior planning and coordination of sling load operations always accomplished between the ground crews and aviation crews

  13. Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) and X-ray, are an increasing source of ionising radiation exposure to our community. Exposure to ionising radiation is associated with increased risk of malignancy, proportional to the level of exposure. Every diagnostic test using ionising radiation needs to be justified by clinical need. General practitioners need a working knowledge of radiation safety so they can adequately inform their patients of the risks and benefits of diagnostic imaging procedures.

  14. Geometric Series via Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  15. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent fuel Management and on the safety of Radioactive Waste Management: A UK Regulator's Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.; Bacon, M.L.

    2006-07-01

    The UK fully supports the objective of the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management to achieve and maintain a high level of safety worldwide in spent fuel and radioactive waste management, through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation, including where appropriate, safety-related co-operation. The UK's Health and Safety Executive, through its Nuclear Safety Directorate (NSD), has been committed to the Convention since the initial negotiations to set up the Convention and provided the president of the first review meeting in 2003. It would be wrong of any nation to believe that they have all the best solutions to managing spent fuel and radioactive waste. The process of compiling reports for the Convention review meetings provides a structured process through which every contracting party can review its provisions against a common set of standards and identify for itself possible areas of improvements. The sharing of reports and the asking and answering of questions then provides a further opportunity for both sharing of experience and learning. The UK was encouraged by the spirit of constructive discussion rather than negative criticism that pervaded the first review meeting that provided an incentive for all to learn and improve. While, as could be expected of the first meeting of such a group, not everything worked as well as could be hoped for, all parties seemed committed to learn from mistakes and to make the process more effective. Lessons were learned from the Nuclear Safety Convention on the process of submitting reports electronically and the UK actively supported aims to use IAEA requirements documents as an additional focus for reports. This should, we hope, provide for even better benchmarking of achievements and provide feedback for improvements of the IAEA requirements where appropriate. In summary, the UK finds the Joint Convention process to be a very

  16. Improving patient safety: just do it!

    PubMed

    Etchells, E; Bernstein, M

    2001-01-01

    Clinicians must celebrate and study medical errors. The dark culture of blame must be replaced by a scholarly culture of safety. This commentary presents six cases that show what we can learn from errors. The first step to identifying and understanding patient safety problems is to develop a common language for discussing patient safety. Latent unsafe conditions are ongoing circumstances of daily practice that reduce the safety of patients. An error is the failure ofa planned action to be completed as intended (error of execution), or the use of a wrong plan to achieve an aim (error of planning). Errors can be intercepted by appropriate action that minimizes the threat to patient safety. An adverse event is any unintended result of medical treatment that results in prolonged hospital stay, morbidity or mortality. If an adverse event is caused by an error, or series of errors, then it is a preventable adverse event. The teaching hospital is the first place where students (physicians, nurses, pharmacists and all other disciplines) are exposed to the culture of healthcare. It is essential to expose students to a culture of safety early in their training. Clinicians can make safety an academically important activity. Clinicians will find it difficult to undertake major safety initiatives given the existing constraints on time and energy. Although clinicians can identify the safety problems,there must also be a commitment to understand safety problems and make improvements. It is strongly recommended that hospitals train, implement and support Patient Safety Consultation Teams.

  17. Payload safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J.

    1979-01-01

    Space Shuttle payload safety requirements are summarized. Consideration is given to NASA objectives on STS payloads, payload safety documents, STS payload safety management, safety implementation possibilities, the hazard control procedure, and significant technical requirements.

  18. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  19. Safety Grooving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Safety grooving, the cutting of grooves in concrete to increase traction and prevent injury, was first developed to reduce aircraft accidents on wet runways. Represented by the International Grooving and Grinding Association (IG&GA), the industry expanded into highway and pedestrian applications. The technique originated at Langley, which assisted in testing the grooving at airports and on highways. Skidding was reduced, stopping distance decreased, and a vehicle's cornering ability on curves was increased. The process has been extended to animal holding pens, steps, parking lots and other potentially slippery surfaces.

  20. Isotope tracing of submarine groundwater discharge offshore Ubatuba, Brazil: results of the IAEA-UNESCO SGD project.

    PubMed

    Povinec, P P; Bokuniewicz, H; Burnett, W C; Cable, J; Charette, M; Comanducci, J-F; Kontar, E A; Moore, W S; Oberdorfer, J A; de Oliveira, J; Peterson, R; Stieglitz, T; Taniguchi, M

    2008-10-01

    Results of groundwater and seawater analyses for radioactive (3H, 222Rn, 223Ra, 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra) and stable (D and 18O) isotopes are presented together with in situ spatial mapping and time series 222Rn measurements in seawater, direct seepage measurements using manual and automated seepage meters, pore water investigations using different tracers and piezometric techniques, and geoelectric surveys probing the coast. This study represents first time that such a new complex arsenal of radioactive and non-radioactive tracer techniques and geophysical methods have been used for simultaneous submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) investigations. Large fluctuations of SGD fluxes were observed at sites situated only a few meters apart (from 0 cm d(-1) to 360 cm d(-1); the unit represents cm3/cm2/day), as well as during a few hours (from 0 cm d(-1) to 110 cm d(-1)), strongly depending on the tidal fluctuations. The average SGD flux estimated from continuous 222Rn measurements is 17+/-10 cm d(-1). Integrated coastal SGD flux estimated for the Ubatuba coast using radium isotopes is about 7x10(3) m3 d(-1) per km of the coast. The isotopic composition (deltaD and delta18O) of submarine waters was characterised by significant variability and heavy isotope enrichment, indicating that the contribution of groundwater in submarine waters varied from a small percentage to 20%. However, this contribution with increasing offshore distance became negligible. Automated seepage meters and time series measurements of 222Rn activity concentration showed a negative correlation between the SGD rates and tidal stage. This is likely caused by sea level changes as tidal effects induce variations of hydraulic gradients. The geoelectric probing and piezometric measurements contributed to better understanding of the spatial distribution of different water masses present along the coast. The radium isotope data showed scattered distributions with offshore distance, which imply that seawater

  1. Radiation safety

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    Radiation safety is rapidly becoming a major concern of every patient. Poor understanding of ionizing radiation and its effects frequently heightens anxiety. The average United States resident receives about 125 mrem of radiation per year from natural background radiation and another 120 mrem from man-made sources. The 240 million x-ray procedures performed annually contribute 90 percent of the man-made portion. It is assumed that the risks of medical radiation are outweighed by the benefits gained from the information obtained. If present in sufficiently high dosage, radiation can have harmful effects, such as induction of leukemia and thyroid malignancy. No deleterious effects have been shown to have been caused by diagnostic radiation. It is reassuring that the risks of medical radiation appear to be quite small compared with other common hazards most people face daily. Careful attention to the use of radiographic safety and protective technique will ensure the lowest possible radiation dose. The physician's discretion in ordering only appropriate and indicated x-ray films will ensure the patients are exposed to the lowest possible amount of radiation.

  2. Assay of impure plutonium oxide with the large neutron multiplicity counter for IAEA verification of excess weapons material at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Franco, J.B.; Larsen, R.K.

    1997-11-01

    The large neutron multiplicity counter (LNMC), also known as the 30-gal.-drum neutron multiplicity counter, has now been used successfully by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) and the first annual Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) of excess weapons plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These excess plutonium oxide materials contain a variety of impurities. They are stored two cans to a 10-gal.-drum. The drums contain from 1.3 to 4.0 kg of plutonium. The isotopic declarations vary from can to can but the material averages 6% {sup 240}Pu. During the IPIV, 94 samples were measured in the LNMC; 19 were measured during the PIV. The assays for all but a single drum agreed to within three standard deviations of the declared value. This problematic drum could not be measured by the LNMC because of its unusually high neutron emission rate. In this paper we will report on the overall performance of the LNMC in these inspections.

  3. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1982-10-04

    A long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test was conducted on the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu and various stable elements were measured at 25 and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The SPCF leaching results were compared with results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). Elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition were established. The LLNL and PNL leach test results appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements. 23 figures, 12 tables.

  4. Leaching study of PNL 76-68 glass beads using the LLNL continuous-flow method and the PNL-modified IAEA method. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.; Coles, D.G.; Mensing, R.W.; Rego, J.; Weed, H.C.

    1982-08-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has conducted a long-term single-pass continuous-flow (SPCF) leaching test of the glass waste form PNL 76-68. Leaching rates of Np, Pu, and various stable elements were measured at 25/sup 0/ and 75/sup 0/C with three different solutions and three different flow rates. The purposes of the study were: (1) to compare SPCF leaching results with the results of a modified IAEA leach test performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL); (2) to establish elemental leach rates and their variation with temperature, flow rate and solution composition; and (3) to gain insight into the leaching mechanisms. The LLNL and PNL leach tests yielded results which appear to agree within experimental uncertainties. The magnitude of the leach rates determined for Np and the glass matrix elements is 10/sup -5/ grams of glass/cm/sup 2/ geometric solid surface area/day. The rates increase with temperature and with solution flow rate, and are similar in brine and distilled water but higher in a bicarbonate solution. Other cations exhibit somewhat different behavior, and Pu in particular yields a much lower apparent leach rate, probably because of sorption or precipitation effects after release from the glass matrix. After the initial few days, most elements are leached at a constant rate. Matrix dissolution appears to be the most probable rate controlling step for the leaching of most elements.

  5. A new comparison of marine dispersion model performances for Fukushima Dai-ichi releases in the frame of IAEA MODARIA program.

    PubMed

    Periáñez, Raúl; Brovchenko, Igor; Duffa, Celine; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Kobayashi, Takuya; Lamego, Fernando; Maderich, Vladimir; Min, Byung-Il; Nies, Hartmut; Osvath, Iolanda; Psaltaki, Maria; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-12-01

    A detailed intercomparison of marine dispersion models applied to the releases from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant was carried out in the frame of MODARIA program, of the IAEA. Models were compared in such a way that the reasons of the discrepancies between them can be assessed (i.e., if they are due to the hydrodynamic part, the dispersion part, and the ultimate reasons). A sequential chain of dispersion exercises was carried out with this purpose. The overall idea is to harmonize models, making them run with the same forcing in a step-by-step procedure, in such a way that the main agent in producing discrepancy between models can be found. It was found that the main reason of discrepancies between models is due to the description of the hydrodynamics. However, once this has been suppressed, some variability between model outputs remains due to intrinsic differences between models (as numerical schemes). The numerical experiments were carried out for a perfectly conservative radionuclide and for (137)Cs (including water/sediment interactions). Model outputs for this radionuclide were also compared with measurements in water and sediments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  7. Fourier Series Operating Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnow, Milton L.

    1961-01-01

    This report presents a computer program for multiplying, adding, differentiating, integrating, "barring" and scalarly multiplying "literal" Fourier series as such, and for extracting the coefficients of specified terms.

  8. Medical Problems. Child Health and Safety Series (Module IV).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides guidelines and information on the detection, treatment, and control of medical problems of children. Introductory materials focus on signs of illness which carepersons can recognize. Section II concentrates on insect, animal and human bites. Section III discusses skin…

  9. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 24: Nuclear Systems and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  12. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  13. Independent accident investigation: a modern safety tool.

    PubMed

    Stoop, John A

    2004-07-26

    Historically, safety has been subjected to a fragmented approach. In the past, every department has had its own responsibility towards safety, focusing either on working conditions, internal safety, external safety, rescue and emergency, public order or security. They each issued policy documents, which in their time were leading statements for elaboration and regulation. They also addressed safety issues with tools of various nature, often specifically developed within their domain. Due to a series of major accidents and disasters, the focus of attention is shifting from complying with quantitative risk standards towards intervention in primary operational processes, coping with systemic deficiencies and a more integrated assessment of safety in its societal context. In The Netherlands recognition of the importance of independent investigations has led to an expansion of this philosophy from the transport sector to other sectors. The philosophy now covers transport, industry, defense, natural disaster, environment and health and other major occurrences such as explosions, fires, and collapse of buildings or structures. In 2003 a multi-sector covering law will establish an independent safety board in The Netherlands. At a European level, mandatory investigation agencies are recognized as indispensable safety instruments for aviation, railways and the maritime sector, for which EU Directives are in place or being progressed [Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union, European Transport Safety Council, ISBN 90-76024-10-3, Brussel, 2001]. Due to a series of major events, attention has been drawn to the consequences of disasters, highlighting the involvement of rescue and emergency services. They also have become subjected to investigative efforts, which in return, puts demands on investigation methodology. This paper comments on an evolutionary development in safety thinking and of safety boards, highlighting some consequences for strategic

  14. Romanian Experience for Enhancing Safety and Security in Transport of Radioactive Material - 12223

    SciTech Connect

    Vieru, Gheorghe

    2012-07-01

    The transport of Dangerous Goods-Class no.7 Radioactive Material (RAM), is an important part of the Romanian Radioactive Material Management. The overall aim of this activity is for enhancing operational safety and security measures during the transport of the radioactive materials, in order to ensure the protection of the people and the environment. The paper will present an overall of the safety and security measures recommended and implemented during transportation of RAM in Romania. Some aspects on the potential threat environment will be also approached with special referring to the low level radioactive material (waste) and NORM transportation either by road or by rail. A special attention is given to the assessment and evaluation of the possible radiological consequences due to RAM transportation. The paper is a part of the IAEA's Vienna Scientific Research Contract on the State Management of Nuclear Security Regime (Framework) concluded with the Institute for Nuclear Research, Romania, where the author is the CSI (Chief Scientific Investigator). The transport of RAM in Romania is a very sensible and complex problem taking into consideration the importance and the need of the security and safety for such activities. The Romanian Nuclear Regulatory Body set up strictly regulation and procedures according to the Recommendation of the IAEA Vienna and other international organizations. There were implemented the adequate regulation and procedures in order to keep the environmental impacts and the radiological consequences at the lower possible level and to assure the effectiveness of state nuclear security regime due to possible malicious acts in carrying out these activities including transport and the disposal site at the acceptable international levels. The levels of the estimated doses and risk expectation values for transport and disposal are within the acceptable limits provided by national and international regulations and recommendations but can increase

  15. Safety of Sildenafil in Infants*

    PubMed Central

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, Samira; Smith, P. Brian; van den Anker, Johannes N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In view of the recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s warning against the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients, we aimed to provide an updated overview of the dosing and safety of sildenafil in infants and to explore the relevance of the present safety concerns to the infant population. Data Source The National Library of Medicine PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched using the following terms: Sildenafil AND (infant OR infants OR newborn OR newborns OR child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR pediatrics OR paediatric OR paediatrics). Study Selection Studies presenting original clinical data regarding the dosing, use, or safety of sildenafil in infants with pulmonary hypertension would be included. Data Extraction Of the 49 included studies, case reports and case series were the most common type of publications (n = 25). The identified trials included 625 children, with more than 140 infants. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and pulmonary hypertension associated with other conditions were the most common underlying diagnoses. Conclusion There is currently no evidence of serious adverse event in infants exposed to sildenafil. Present safety concerns regarding the use of sildenafil in pediatric patients should be further explored before being applied to infant population. Sildenafil remains a valuable option for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in young infants. Prospective studies should be designed in such a way that they include a safety assessment to evaluate potential adverse outcomes of sildenafil therapy in this population. PMID:24583505

  16. Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

  17. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  18. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  19. SERI Wind Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  20. Safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.

    1995-01-01

    We are engaged in a research program in safety-critical computing that is based on two case studies. We use these case studies to provide application-specific details of the various research issues, and as targets for evaluation of research ideas. The first case study is the Magnetic Stereotaxis System (MSS), an investigational device for performing human neurosurgery being developed in a joint effort between the Department of Physics at the University of Virginia and the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. The system operates by manipulating a small permanent magnet (known as a 'seed') within the brain using an externally applied magnetic field. By varying the magnitude and gradient of the external magnetic field, the seed can be moved along a non-linear path and positioned at a site requiring therapy, e.g., a tumor. The magnetic field required for movement through brain tissue is extremely high, and is generated by a set of six superconducting magnets located in a housing surrounding the patient's head. The system uses two X-ray cameras positioned at right angles to detect in real time the locations of the seed and of X-ray opaque markers affixed to the patient's skull. the X-ray images are used to locate the objects of interest in a canonical frame of reference. the second case study is the University of Virginia Research Nuclear Reactor (UVAR). It is a 2 MW thermal, concrete-walled pool reactor. The system operates using 20 to 25 plate-type fuel assemblies placed on a rectangular grid plate. There are three scramable safety rods, and one non-scramable regulating rod that can be put in automatic mode. It was originally constructed in 1959 as a 1 MW system, and it was upgraded to 2 MW in 1973. Though only a research reactor rather than a power reactor, the issues raised are significant and can be related to the problems faced by full-scale reactor systems.