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  1. Quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing students in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Quality of Life encompasses an individual’s well-being and health, social participation and satisfaction with functional daily living. Disabilities such as deafness can impact on the quality of life with spatial variance to the environment. Deafness causes communicative problems with significant consequences in cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of affected individuals. However, information relating to the quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing individuals, especially students in developing countries like Nigeria, which could be used to design special health-related interventions is sparse. This study examined the quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing students in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. One hundred and ten deaf and hard of hearing students participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were drawn from all four secondary schools for the Deaf in Ibadan metropolis. The 26 item Brief version of the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at statistical significance of p<0.05. Majority (57.8%) of the deaf and hard of hearing students had poor quality of life. Attending the special school for the Deaf, upper socio-economic status and age (≥17years) are significantly associated with better quality of life. However, gender and age at onset of hearing loss had no significant influence on the quality of life. The Deaf community available in the special school appeared to protect against stigma and discrimination, while also promoting social interactions between deaf and hard of hearing individuals. PMID:29293560

  2. Quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing students in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jaiyeola, Mofadeke T; Adeyemo, Adebolajo A

    2018-01-01

    Quality of Life encompasses an individual's well-being and health, social participation and satisfaction with functional daily living. Disabilities such as deafness can impact on the quality of life with spatial variance to the environment. Deafness causes communicative problems with significant consequences in cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of affected individuals. However, information relating to the quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing individuals, especially students in developing countries like Nigeria, which could be used to design special health-related interventions is sparse. This study examined the quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing students in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. One hundred and ten deaf and hard of hearing students participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were drawn from all four secondary schools for the Deaf in Ibadan metropolis. The 26 item Brief version of the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire was used for data collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics at statistical significance of p<0.05. Majority (57.8%) of the deaf and hard of hearing students had poor quality of life. Attending the special school for the Deaf, upper socio-economic status and age (≥17years) are significantly associated with better quality of life. However, gender and age at onset of hearing loss had no significant influence on the quality of life. The Deaf community available in the special school appeared to protect against stigma and discrimination, while also promoting social interactions between deaf and hard of hearing individuals.

  3. Evaluation of Organization and Administration of Intramural Sports Programmes in Secondary Schools in Ibadan Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abayomi, B. O.; Oyeniyi, Pat Ola; Ainazx, O. O.

    2017-01-01

    The paper appraised the organization and administration of intramural sports programmes in secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis. The descriptive research design of survey type was employed for the study. The population was all secondary school students and teachers in Ibadan Metropolis. The sample consisted of 500 respondents, 40 public…

  4. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  5. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post

  6. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  7. Awareness and knowledge of National School Health Policy and School Health Programme among public secondary school teachers in Ibadan metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Obembe, Taiwo A.; Osungbade, Kayode O.; Ademokun, Oluwakemi M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The awareness, knowledge, and involvement of teachers in the implementation of School Health Programme (SHP) in secondary schools are essential in ensuring the effectiveness and overall success of the School Health Policy. This study assessed the awareness and knowledge of teachers on SHP in Ibadan metropolis. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out using a two-stage sampling technique to select 426 secondary school teachers across all the five Urban Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Ibadan metropolis by balloting. Pretested semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 426 teachers. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and logistics regression tests at 5% level of significance. Results: About one-third of the respondents had heard of National School Health Policy (NSHP); however, few had seen the document. About half of the respondents were aware of the SHP in their schools. Many of the respondents had a good knowledge of SHP. Age and level of education of participants significantly influenced the knowledge of SHP. Above 50 years of age and postgraduate qualification were the significant predictors for the good knowledge of SHP. Conclusions: Awareness of the NSHP was low despite the good knowledge of SHP. This could be due to the tertiary education that most of the respondents had. Concerted efforts of stakeholders are required to intensify the health education awareness campaign to improve teachers’ knowledge based on NSHP. PMID:27630385

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution of urban topsoil in Ibadan city, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Onianwa, P.C.

    The distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbon in topsoils from various parts of Ibadan city, Nigeria, was studied. Samples were selected from around the following zones: (a) railway tracks, (b) petrol stations, (c) refuse dumps, (d) residential areas, (e) high traffic density areas, (f) mechanical workshops, and (g) control zones. Contamination of the topsoil with hydrocarbons was significant only around petrol stations and mechanical workshops where the factors of accumulation were 10.1 and 4.72, respectively. The general trend in hydrocarbon levels was petrol station > mechanical workshop > refuse dumps > high traffic areas {ge} rail tracks > control residential areas.more » The results highlight the need to monitor urban environments that are remote from petroleum exploration activities for petroleum hydrocarbon contamination. 19 refs., 3 tabs.« less

  9. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Akinwale; School of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1SB; Sangodoyin, Abimbola

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitalsmore » and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.« less

  10. Solid waste management problems in secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ana, G R E E; Oloruntoba, E O; Shendell, D; Elemile, O O; Benjamin, O R; Sridhar, M K C

    2011-09-01

    Inappropriate solid waste management practices in schools in less-developed countries, particularly in major urban communities, constitute one of the major factors leading to declining environmental health conditions. The objective of the authors' descriptive, cross-sectional study was to assess solid waste management problems in selected urban schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Eight secondary schools with average pupil populations not less than 500 per school were selected randomly. Four hundred questionnaires (50 per school) were administered. In addition, an observational checklist was used to assess the physical environment. Paper and plastics were the most frequently generated wastes. Common methods of solid waste disposal reported were use of dustbins for collection and open burning. Major problems perceived with current refuse disposal methods by the study students were odors, pest infestation, and spillages. Littering and spillages of solid waste were also common features reported. Data suggested inadequate waste management facilities and practices in study schools. The lack of refuse bins may have contributed to waste spillages and the burning practices. Odors may have arisen from both the decay of overstored organic waste rich in moisture and emissions from refuse burning. This scenario poses a community environmental health nuisance and may compromise school environmental quality.

  11. Measurement of Radon Concentration in Selected Houses in Ibadan, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikalu, M. R.; Olatinwo, V.; Akpochafor, M.; Aweda, M. A.; Giannini, G.; Massimo, V.

    2017-05-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas without colour or odour and tasteless. The World Health Organization (WHO) grouped radon as a human lung carcinogen. For this reason, there has been a lot of interest on the effects of radon exposure to people all over the world and Nigeria is no exception. The aim of this study is to investigate the radon concentration in selected houses in three local government areas of Ibadan. The indoor radon was measured in both mud and brick houses. Fifty houses were considered from the three Local government areas. A calibrated portable continuous radon monitor type (RAD7) manufactured by Durridge company was used for the measurement. A distance of 100 to 200 m was maintained between houses in all the locations. The living room was kept closed during the measurements. The mean radon concentration measured in Egbeda is 10.54 ±1.30 Bqm -3; Lagelu is 16.90 ± 6.31 Bqm -3 and Ona-Ara is 17.95 ± 1.72 Bqm -3. The mean value of the annual absorbed dose and annual effective dose for the locations in the three local government areas was 0.19 mSvy-1 and 0.48 mSvy-1 respectively. The radon concentration for location 10 in Ono-Ara local government exceeded the recommended limit. However, the overall average indoor radon concentration of the three local governments was found to be lower than the world average value of 40 Bqm -3. Hence, there is need for proper awareness about the danger of radon accumulation in dwelling places.

  12. Trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatan, Abayomi A.; Osayomi, Tolulope; Akande, Samuel O.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Gutowski, William J.

    2018-02-01

    In recent times, Ibadan has been experiencing an increase in mean temperature which appears to be linked to anthropogenic global warming. Previous studies have indicated that the warming may be accompanied by changes in extreme events. This study examined trends in mean and extreme temperatures over Ibadan during 1971-2012 at annual and seasonal scales using the high-resolution atmospheric reanalysis from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth-century dataset (ERA-20C) at 15 grid points. Magnitudes of linear trends in mean and extreme temperatures and their statistical significance were calculated using ordinary least squares and Mann-Kendall rank statistic tests. The results show that Ibadan has witnessed an increase in annual and seasonal mean minimum temperatures. The annual mean maximum temperature exhibited a non-significant decline in most parts of Ibadan. While trends in cold extremes at annual scale show warming, trends in coldest night show greater warming than in coldest day. At the seasonal scale, we found that Ibadan experienced a mix of positive and negative trends in absolute extreme temperature indices. However, cold extremes show the largest trend magnitudes, with trends in coldest night showing the greatest warming. The results compare well with those obtained from a limited number of stations. This study should inform decision-makers and urban planners about the ongoing warming in Ibadan.

  13. Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onianwa, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

  14. Contributions of Environmental Clubs toward Improved Environmental Programs in Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ana, G. R. E. E.; Oloruntoba, E. O.; Sridhar, M. K. C.

    2009-01-01

    The descriptive cross-sectional study assessed contributions of Youth Environmental Scout (YES) clubs toward sustainable environmental programs in selected schools in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. It involved administration of questionnaires, in-depth interviews and observation checklists and results were analyzed using SPSS 10 software package.…

  15. Infant Feeding among Women Attending an Immunisation Clinic at a Tertiary Health Institution in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatiregun, A. A.; Abegunde, V. O.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal characteristics can affect a mother's decision to breastfeed. This study used a cross-sectional design to assess maternal variables and infant feeding patterns among nursing mothers attending an immunisation clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 264 mothers who consecutively attended the immunisation clinic and met certain inclusion…

  16. Causes and Prevalence of Antisocial Behaviour among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, Isaiah Olugbenga

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the causes and prevalence of antisocial behaviour among secondary school students with hearing impairment in Ibadan, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted to carry out the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 60 students with hearing impairment from Methodist Grammar School (Deaf Unit),…

  17. Evaluation of Interventions to Prevent Gender-Based Violence among Young Female Apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.; Ajuwon, Ademola J.; Osungbade, Kayode O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This intervention project targeted one vulnerable group, female apprentices in Ibadan, Nigeria, to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple interventions aimed at preventing violence against women (VAW). Design/methodology/approach: A baseline survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews with 350 young women recruited from…

  18. Significant Bacteriuria Among Asymptomatic Antenatal Clinic Attendees In Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kehinde, Aderemi O.; Adedapo, Kayode S.; Aimaikhu, Christopher O.; Odukogbe, Akin-tunde A.; Olayemi, Oladapo; Salako, Babatunde

    2011-01-01

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria can lead to urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnancy with devastating maternal and neonatal effects such as prematurity and low birth weight, higher fetal mortality rates and significant maternal morbidity. We carried out a two year (April 2007 to March 2009) cross-sectional epidemiological study to determine the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among asymptomatic antenatal clinic attendees at two antenatal clinics (ANCs) in University College Hospital and Adeoyo Maternity Hospital, both in Ibadan, Nigeria. All consenting ANC attendees without UTI were enrolled in the study. Urine specimens of 5 to 10 ml collected from each subject were examined microscopically for white blood cells, red blood cells and bacteria. The specimens were further cultured on MacConkey agar using a sterile bacteriological loop that delivered 0.002 ml of urine. Colony counts yielding bacterial growth of more than 105/ml of pure isolates were considered significant. Of the 473 subjects studied, 136 had significant bacteriuria, giving a prevalence rate of 28.8%. The highest age specific prevalence (47.8%) was found in the 25–29 year olds while only one (0.7%) was found in the teenage group. A large percentage (64.0%) of subjects with significant bacteriuria had tertiary education, compared with 4.4% who had no formal education but the association was not statistically significant (X2 = 0.47, p = 0.79). The majority (75.8%) of subjects with significant bacteriuria had no previous history of abortion, while 20 (14.7%) had one previous abortion and only three (2.1%) admitted to three previous abortions (X2 = 5.16, p = 0.16). The majority (69.8%) of those with significant bacteriuria presented at second trimester while 38 (28.0%) presented at third trimester (X2 = 6.5, p = 37). Only 22 (4.6%) of the studied subjects presented at first trimester, and 3 (13.7%) of these had significant bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is high among

  19. Sexual Behaviours and Reproductive Health Knowledge among In-School Young People with Disabilities in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaleye, Adeniyi O.; Anoemuah, Olayinka A.; Ladipo, Oladapo A.; Delano, Grace E.; Idowu, Grace F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to explore sexual behaviours and reproductive health knowledge among in-school young people with disabilities (PWD) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: In the paper a structured questionnaire was administered to 103 randomly selected PWD, aged ten to 25, from four integrated secondary schools in Ibadan. The…

  20. Facilities Offered by the University of Ibadan (Nigeria) Distance Learning Centre towards Learners' Academic Goal--An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adegbile, J. A.; Oyekanmi, J. O.

    2011-01-01

    Distance learners in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria unlike other distance learners of different parts of the world are faced with various educational, social and psychological problems associated with the code of distance learning. The facilities offered by the University of Ibadan distance learning centre towards the users' multifarious needs…

  1. Perception and management of cancer among the Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyetunde, M O

    2010-09-01

    Prevalence and mortality rates of cancer are on the increase worldwide. Its management is blurred by misconception in Nigeria particularly. This study therefore examines the Yoruba perception and management of cancer using health belief model as the theoretical framework. The study utilised both qualitative and quantitative approaches. It was carried out in Ibadan metropolis in Nigeria. For the qualitative data a total of 19 Focus group discussions (190 people) among people aged 20 years above 45 in-depth interviews and structured observation were held. For quantitative data, a simple random sampling technique was employed in selecting 450 people at the household level while non-probability sampling was used for the 45 people living with cancer (PLWC) and 75 health care providers. The result showed that cancer is perceived as a major health problem. It is commonly called "Jejere" literally meaning a devouring disease. Cancer is associated with natural causes due to unhealthy life styles such as nutritional pattern and indiscriminate use of both orthodox and traditional drugs. Socio-economic factors of the people determine management of cancer (43.4% and 33.0% for money and occupation respectively).Result showed that (60%) preferred and use the orthodox medical care for various reasons such as precison about treatment positive outcome of care among others. Utilization of modern healthcare however was associated with high cost. Education and occupation have significant relationship with perceived cause of cancer p < 0.05, respectively. Variables like sex, age, and religion were not significant to perceived causes (p > 0.05) of cancer. The perceived cause of cancer does not have any relationship with the choice of cancer care p > 0.05. The available health care is significant to the choice of cancer care p < 0.05. The choice of cancer care depends on variables like sex, age, education and occupation p < 0.05, while religion is insignificant to the choice of cancer

  2. The fluoride content of drinking water and caries experience in 15-19 year old school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, D M; Denloye, O O; Dosumu, O O

    2008-03-01

    Fluoride, a trace element with anticariogenic benefit may either occur naturally or be added to drinking water sources. This study aimed at determining the fluoride level of the different drinking water sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria and to relate this with the caries experience of secondary school children in the city. Sixteen samples of the drinking water sources from various locations in the five local government areas of the city were analysed for fluoride concentration. The locations were selected around the vicinities of the secondary schools used for caries study. Nine hundred and fifty five students aged 15-19 years randomly selected from eleven secondary schools in Ibadan metropolis were examined for dental caries over a period of 4-5 months. Only teeth with obvious cavitations were recorded as being carious using the WHO standard method. Teeth grossly covered with calculus and third molars were excluded. No radiograph was taken. The fluoride level of the different water sources was between 0.02 and 0.03 ppm. Forty-four (4.6%) of the children had dental caries. There was no statistically significant difference between either DMFT and gender (t = 0.67, p = 0.91) or DMFT and age (F = 1.488, p = 0.224). However, females had a slightly higher mean DMFT than males and the highest mean DMFT (2.67 +/- 1.15) was found among the 19-year-old children. Twenty-three (52.3%) of the students with caries had only one carious tooth while only two had four carious teeth each. In conclusion, both the fluoride level and caries prevalence were low.

  3. Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Nwachukwu, Kelechukwu I.; Ali, Domiya Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The study determined Relationship between Students' Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses which determined the relationships between the components of expectancy beliefs: ability, tasks difficulty, and past…

  4. “Salmonella hirschfeldii” in poultry and man in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojeniyi, Ade

    1984-01-01

    During an epidemiological study of salmonellosis in free-range village poultry, “Salmonella hirschfeldii” (invalid) was isolated from four birds in a village on the outskirts of the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. This is the first report of an isolation of “S. hirschfeldii” in poultry in Nigeria. The same organism was found in an adult male in the village. The simultaneous isolation of this serotype from poultry and man is significant because of the complex epidemiological pattern of salmonella infections in the tropical environment. It was not possible to determine whether the infection was transmitted from the poultry to the villager or vice versa. PMID:6439427

  5. Behavioural Problems of Juvenile Street Hawkers in Uyo Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoh, Nsisong A.; Joseph, Eme U.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought the opinions of Faculty of Education Students of University of Uyo on the behavioural problems of juvenile street hawkers in Uyo metropolis. Five research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. This cross-sectional survey employed multi-stage random sampling technique in selecting 200 regular undergraduate students in the…

  6. Genetic diversity of human respiratory syncytial virus circulating among children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunsemowo, Olukunle; Olaleye, David O; Odaibo, Georgina N

    2018-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the most common viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants and young children however, without an effective vaccine licensed for human use till date. Information on the circulating genotypes of HRSV from regions with high-burden of infection is vital in the global efforts towards the development of protective vaccine. We report here the genotypes of HRSV circulating among children in Ibadan, the first of such from Nigeria.Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs collected from 231 children presenting with respiratory infections in some health facilities for care as well as those attending immunization centers for routine vaccination in Ibadan, Nigeria were used for the study. The 2nd hypervariable (HVR2) region of the glycoprotein (G) gene of HRSV was amplified and sequenced using HRSV group specific primers. HRSV was detected in 41 out of the 231 samples. Thirty-three of the isolates were successfully subtyped(22 subtype A and 11 subtype B). Fourteen of the subtype A and all the subtype B were successfully sequenced and genotyped. Phylogenetic analysis showed that genotype ON1 with 72 nucleotide (nt) duplication was the major subgroup A virus (11 of 14) detected together with genotype NA2. All the HRSV subtype B detected belong to the BA genotype with characteristic 60nt duplication. The ON1 genotypes vary considerably from the prototype strain due to amino acid substitutions including T292I which has not been reported elsewhere. The NA2 genotypes have mutations on four antigenic sites within the HVR2relative to the prototype A2. In conclusion, three genotypes of HRSV were found circulating in Ibadan, Nigeria. Additional study that will include isolates from other parts of the country will be done to determine the extent of genotype diversity of HRSV circulating in Nigeria.

  7. Environmental hazards of automobile mechanics in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O

    1999-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was conducted among automobile mechanics and technicians in Ibadan to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and environmental hazards of these workers. Three hundred workers were interviewed. All respondents were males aged between 13 and 72 years of age. Educational attainment was poor, with only 20% of respondents having completed secondary education. Sanitation facilities were inadequate. Forty percent of workshops provided facilities for refuse disposal. Of the 33 workshops visited, only 1 provided toilet facilities. Most workers used facilities in neighbouring residential premises. Only three workshops (9%) had designated eating areas. Occupational exposure to petrol was common to all trades. Other occupational exposures were to petrochemicals such as engine oil and brake oil. Protective clothing was not used by the majority of workers. Only 25 (8%) respondents were wearing overalls at the time of our visit. This findings illustrate the typical work conditions of workers in small scale industries. There is a need for health education programmes about occupational and non-occupational diseases. This and other health promotion activities can be organized through the unions.

  8. Prevalence of violence against pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fawole, O I; Abass, L W A; Fawole, A O

    2010-12-01

    Women are at risk of violence at all stages of their life, including during pregnancy. Using a interviewer-administered questionnaire, 306 pregnant women were interviewed in two public secondary health facilities in Ibadan to compare prevalence and risk factors of VAW before and during pregnancy. Prevalence ofVAW a year before current pregnancy was 41.5% compared to 17.7% during pregnancy. Perpetrators before pregnancy were mostly relatives (22%), while during pregnancy, partners (64%). Major reasons for violence were "not obeying instructions" (33.3%) and "misbehaving" (26%). Education (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.83) and polygamous union (OR 9.56; 95% CI 3.71-24.63) and consumption of alcohol (OR 7.19; 95% CI 0.04-0.53) were statistically significant a year before pregnancy. Mothers occupation (OR 0.19; 95% CI 1.05-4.49); type of union (OR14.13; 95% CI 6.13-32.59), alcohol consumption by partner (OR 6.06; 95% CI 0.05-0.54); and not wanting pregnancy (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.20-9.30) were statistically significant in the index pregnancy. Hemorrhage (7.4% vs. 4.8%), abortion (1.9% vs. 1.2%), intrauterine death (3.7% vs. 1.2%) and premature labour (9.3% vs. 3.2%) were more often found in women who experienced VAW than those who did not, the latter was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Violence avoidance strategies included 'playing along' (51.3%) and 'praying' (21%). Pregnancy was protective against VAW. Empowerment of women through education and employment is crucial. Counselling on planning of families is also necessary. Screening for violence in pregnancy and close monitoring of the abused to ensure good obstetric outcome is recommended.

  9. Determinants of self medication practices among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuff, Kazeem B; Omarusehe, Louis-Domeih

    2011-10-01

    To assess the frequency and evaluate the factors underlining self-medication with orthodox and herbal medicines among pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Setting Antenatal clinics at the major antenatal care facility in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study with a pre-tested 15-item structured questionnaire over a 12 week period among 1,650 pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics at a major antenatal care facility in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Data analysis was done with Chi-square, multivariate logistic regression and summary statistics. Frequency and major factors associated with self-medication in pregnancy. The response and completion rate was 96.6% (1,594) [mean age ± SD 27 ± 5.3 years]. The majority of the respondents were literate (92.6%), self-employed (61.5%) and in the third trimester (49.5%). A significant majority (63.8%) used self-medication (orthodox and herbal medicines) as their first response to perceived ill-health (P < 0.001). Self-medication in pregnancy was strongly associated with self-employment (OR: 3.8 (2.6-4.7), unemployment (OR: 2.6 (1.4-4.2) and third trimester of pregnancy (OR: 4.2 (3.1-5.6). The major over-the-counter medicines and potentially harmful prescription medicines kept at home for self-medication were Paracetamol, vitamins and haematinics; and piroxicam, dipyrone, chloramphenicol and Diazepam respectively. About one-third of the respondents who self-medicated (1,017) used local herbs (31.2%). The most frequent source of the medicines purchased during self-medication was patent medicine stores (55%). Mothers-in-law and relatives (41.3%) were the most frequently cited sources of advice during self-medication. Miscarriage/bleeding (44.3%) was the most frequently cited potential adverse effect that could occur with the use of certain medicines during pregnancy. Only 32% of respondents could identify medicines that are potentially harmful in pregnancy. Poorly guided self-medication with

  10. Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Babatunde O A; Odole, Adesola C; Adeyinka, Adebayo A

    2015-06-01

    Adolescent low back pain (ALBP) can be considered a signal or precursor of a serious organic disease or telltale sign of future incidence of low back pain in adulthood. Published articles on ALBP in Nigeria are not readily available. The study's objectives were to investigate the prevalence of Adolescent Low Back Pain (ALBP) among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria and the prevalence's association with some socio-demographic variables. Participants were adolescent students from 15 secondary schools in Ibadan. Data was collected using a respondent-administered, validated questionnaire on low back pain in adolescents. Participants (Female: 298; Male: 273) aged 14.23 ±2.27 years (range 10-19) were recruited through multi-stage random sampling. Five hundred and seventy-one (83.97%) of the 680 copies of the questionnaire administered were returned. Data was analysed using mean, standard deviation, frequency, percentages, and Chi-square test with alpha level at 0.05. Lifetime, twelve-month, one-month and point prevalence rates of ALBP were 58.0%, 43.8%, 25.6% and 14.7% respectively. Age at first experience of ALBP was 11.86 ± 2.36 years. Gender was not significantly associated with any rate (p ≥0.317). Age (p ≤ 0.043) and engagement in commercial activities (p ≤ 0.025) were significantly associated with all period prevalence rates while injury to the back was significantly associated with all period prevalence rates except point prevalence (p = 0.087). Adolescent low back pain is common among secondary school students in Ibadan and its prevalence is significantly associated with age and engagement in commercial activities, but not with gender.

  11. Assessment of Noise and Associated Health Impacts at Selected Secondary Schools in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ana, Godson R. E. E.; Shendell, Derek G.; Brown, G. E.; Sridhar, M. K. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Most schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, are located near major roads (mobile line sources). We conducted an initial assessment of noise levels and adverse noise-related health and learning effects. Methods. For this descriptive, cross-sectional study, four schools were selected randomly from eight participating in overall project. We administered 200 questionnaires, 50 per school, assessing health and learning-related outcomes. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels, dBA) were measured with calibrated sound level meters. Traffic density was assessed for school with the highest measured dBA. Observational checklists assessed noise control parameters and building physical attributes. Results. Short-term, cross-sectional school-day noise levels ranged 68.3–84.7 dBA. Over 60% of respondents reported that vehicular traffic was major source of noise, and over 70% complained being disturbed by noise. Three schools reported tiredness, and one school lack of concentration, as the most prevalent noise-related health problems. Conclusion. Secondary school occupants in Ibadan, Nigeria were potentially affected by exposure to noise from mobile line sources. PMID:20041025

  12. Perceived Risks Associated with Contraceptive Method Use among Men and Women in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana E; Saad, Abdulmumin

    2015-12-01

    Research shows that side effects are often the most common reason for contraceptive non-use in Nigeria; however, research to date has not explored the underlying factors that influence risk and benefit perceptions associated with specific contraceptive methods in Nigeria. A qualitative study design using focus group discussions was used to explore social attitudes and beliefs about family planning methods in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. A total of 26 focus group discussions were held in 2010 with men and women of reproductive age, disaggregated by city, sex, age, marital status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and--for women only--family planning experience. A discussion guide was used that included specific questions about the perceived risks and benefits associated with the use of six different family planning methods. A thematic content analytic approach guided the analysis. Participants identified a spectrum of risks encompassing perceived threats to health (both real and fictitious) and social concerns, as well as benefits associated with each method. By exploring Nigerian perspectives on the risks and benefits associated with specific family planning methods, programs aiming to increase contraceptive use in Nigeria can be better equipped to highlight recognized benefits, address specific concerns, and work to dispel misperceptions associated with each family planning method.

  13. Hygiene and sanitation risk factors of diarrhoeal disease among under-five children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oloruntoba, Elizabeth Omoladun; Folarin, Taiwo Bukola; Ayede, Adejumoke Idowu

    2014-12-01

    Diarrhoea diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five-children (U-5C) in Nigeria. Inadequate safe water, sanitation, and hygiene account for the disease burden. Cases of diarrhoea still occur in high proportion in the study area despite government-oriented interventions. To determine the hygiene and sanitation risk factors predisposing U-5C to diarrhoea in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and twenty pairs of children, matched on age, were recruited as cases and controls over a period of 5 months in Ibadan. Questionnaire and observation checklist were used to obtain information on hygiene practices from caregivers/mothers and sanitation conditions in the households of 30% of the consenting mothers/caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Caregivers/mothers' mean ages were 31.3 ±7.5 (cases) and 30.6 ±6.0(controls) years. The risk of diarrhoea was significantly higher among children whose mothers did not wash hands with soap before food preparation (OR=3.0, p<0.05), before feeding their children (OR=3.0, p<0.05) and after leaving the toilet (OR=4.7, p<0.05). Factors significantly associated with diarrhoea were: poor water handling (OR=2.0,CI=1.2-3.5), presence of clogged drainage near the house (OR=2.1,CI=1.2-3.7) and breeding places for flies (OR=2.7,CI=1.6-4.7). The mean risk score among cases and controls from the sanitary inspection of drinking water sources were 5.4 ± 2.2 and 3.2 ± 1.9 (p<0.05) and household storage containers were 2.4 ± 1.8 and 1.2 ± 0.7 (p<0.05) respectively. Hygiene and sanitation conditions within households were risk factors for diarrhoea. This study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in sanitation in Ibadan, Nigeria.

  14. Prevalence of Fasciola species in ruminants under extensive management system in Ibadan southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adediran, O A; Adebiyi, A I; Uwalaka, E C

    2014-12-01

    Fasciolosis is a zoonotic trematode of ruminants and a common parasite in cattle in Nigeria. With the increasing numbers of small household cattle herds kept under extensive management system as well as the more usual small ruminants, there is a possibility therefore that parasites common to these ruminants but better adapted to cattle such as Fasciola may also be on the increase within the small ruminant population as they graze freely over the same wide area and sometimes freely mix. The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of Fasciola spp in sheep, goats and cattle in Ibadan during the short wet season, (August-October 2011). Faecal samples were collected per rectum from 440 each of goats and sheep and 291 cattle. Helminth ova were recovered using sedimentation technique for faecal examination. A total of 40 goats (9.1%), 53 sheep (12.0%) and 158 cattle (54.3%) were positive for Fasciola ova which reflects an increase in prevalence in small ruminants. This implies that the entire Ibadan is endemic for Fasciola spp and small ruminants may serve as an important link in the epidemiology of Fasciola spp infection. More so, this has implications for the scavenging household animals which receive little or no medical attention and man that may acquire this trematode by inadvertently eating vegetables with encysted Fasciola metacercariae.

  15. Utilization of physiotherapy in the continuum of stroke care at a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Olubukola Adebisi; Lawal, Zainab Iyabo

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the pattern of referral for and utilisation of physiotherapy in the continuum of stroke care at a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria. Referral notes and medical records of patients admitted in the University College Hospital, Ibadan with a clinical diagnosis of stroke between January, 2009 and December, 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Information on age, sex, type of stroke, length of hospital stay, referral for physiotherapy and utilisation of physiotherapy were retrieved. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics and analysed using Chi-square test. A total of 783 patients with stroke were admitted in the hospital during the period under study. The in-patient mortality rate was 37.2%. The mean Length of Hospital Stay (LoHS) was 16.17±12.34 days. Referral rate for physiotherapy was high (75.8%) and the mean time from admission to referral for physiotherapy was three days. Majority of patients referred utilised physiotherapy (63.4%) and mean number of physiotherapy sessions received during in-patient care was 8.69±6.45. There was a significant association between LoHS and utilisation of in-patientphysiotherapy (p=0.02). The referral rate of stroke patients for physiotherapy was relatively high. Utilisation of in-patient physiotherapy reduced length of hospital stay among patients with stroke. Utilisation of out-patient physiotherapy was low. Strategies to enhance out-patient utilisation should be explored.

  16. Detection and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed

    Ayinmode, Adekunle Bamidele; Ogbonna, Nkeiruka Fortunate; Widmer, Giovanni

    To study the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) raised for experimental usage, 134 faecal samples were obtained from two rearing houses in Ibadan and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst using the modified acid fast staining technique. Cryptosporidium species in 2 samples positive for microscopy were further characterized by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the 18S rRNA gene. Two of 134 samples were positive for the Cryptosporidium oocysts. Sequencing of the small-subunit rRNA amplicons identified the species in the two PCR positive samples as Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium rat genotype. These findings showed that laboratory rat is a potential reservoir for diverse Cryptosporidium species and suggests that laboratory rats should be screened for Cryptosporidium infection prior to experiments, especially where pathogen free animals are not available. This the first report to identify Cryptosporidium species infecting laboratory rats in Nigeria.

  17. Menstruation: symptoms, management and attitude of female nursing students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Moronkola, O A; Uzuegbu, V U

    2006-12-01

    This study surveyed 120 student nurses from two schools of nursing in Ibadan, Nigeria to assess the symptoms experienced during menstruation, attitude towards and management of menstruation. The student nurses overall mean age at menarche was 14 years, average duration of menstrual period was five days and mean of menstrual cycle was 28 days. Out of the 120 study participants, 93% were having menstruation regularly. More participants experienced symptoms during premenstrual periods than menstrual periods. Majority (70%) used sanitary pad to manage their menstruation, 93% had positive attitude towards menstruation while only 20% consulted medical doctors whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms. Paracetamol was the drug of choice for many of the participants whenever they experienced menstrual symptoms It was recommended that authorities in schools of nursing should not overlook reproductive health needs of students. Also teaching of reproductive health education early in primary and secondary schools should be encouraged.

  18. Gastrointestinal Helminths in Slaughtered Cattle in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedipe, Olubukola Deborah; Uwalaka, Emmanuel Chibuike; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Adediran, Oyeduntan Adejoju; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2014-01-01

    As part of an ongoing project to investigate the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminths of cattle in Nigeria, we carried out a systematic random sampling of cattle slaughtered in a major abattoir in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. Using sedimentation and floatation methods, we analyzed fecal samples from 397 animals between March and May 2013. Overall, 163 (41.6%) of the animals had at least one gastrointestinal helminth egg, comprising a total of eight helminths from different genera (i.e., four nematodes, three trematodes, and one cestode), with nematode infection being the highest (71.54%). In addition, eggs of four helminths of zoonotic importance were also obtained. Among the cattle examined, the Bunaji breed was the most infected (46%; 69/150). Furthermore, female animals (OR = 1.1; 95% CI: 0.60-1.84) and animals with moderate body condition (OR = 1.2; 95% CI: 0.80-1.79) are more likely to be positive to helminth infection. Our findings reveal that there were helminth infections of both zoonotic and socioeconomic importance among the cattle screened. Considering the impact of the infections on animal production and public health, we advocate that effective prophylactic measures be adopted as a first step to curtail helminth infections of cattle in Nigeria.

  19. Quality of life among persons living with HIV infection in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbuji, Q C; Oke, A E

    2010-06-01

    HIV infection is a major factor in the deteriorating. quality of life particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, the HIV prevalence in Nigeria is 4.4% with wide variation across the states. Though much data exist on the socio-economic aspects of HIV/ AIDS, information on quality of life of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is still scanty. Therefore, this study focused on socio-psychological investigation of the quality of life of PLWHAs in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design and was conducted in three care support centres in Ibadan. Using systematic random sampling technique, 514 PLWHAs were selected. A triangulation of methods was employed using pre-tested structured questionnaire, fifteen Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and six in-.depth interviews. The Health Belief Model complemented with the Quality of Life Tree guided the investigation. Quality Of Life was measured using the "HIV Symptom Scale" (HSS) and the "Quality Of Life Scale" (QOLS). Frequency distribution, percentages and chi-square were used to analyze quantitative data while content analysis was employed for qualitative data. The ages of the participants ranged from 15 -60 years with a mean of 34.8 (S.D 8.2). Sex distribution shows female preponderance with male: female ratio of 1:2. The data revealed poor quality of life among PLWHAs. There is no significant relationship between age and quality of life (P > 0.05). Almost equal proportion of participants aged 15 - 34 years (50.3%) and 35 -60 years (49.7%) showed similar quality of life as indicated by emotional status, life satisfaction and level of coping with the infection. Majority (70.0%) considered their poor financial condition a barrier to treatment. Qualitative data showed stigmatization and discrimination against PLWHAs by family and community members regardless of age and gender. This stimulated a deep feeling of sadness, dejection, hopelessness, anxiety and fear thereby affecting negatively their quality of

  20. Prevalence estimates of depression in elderly community-dwelling African Americans in Indianapolis and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Lane, Kathleen A; Gureje, Oye; Gao, Sujuan; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Hall, Kathleen S; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2007-08-01

    This is a community-based longitudinal epidemiological comparative study of elderly African Americans in Indianapolis and elderly Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria. A two-stage study was designed in which community-based individuals were first screened using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia. The second stage was a full clinical assessment, which included use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, of a smaller sub-sample of individuals selected on the basis of their performance in the screening interview. Prevalence of depression was estimated using sampling weights according to the sampling stratification scheme for clinical assessment. Some 2627 individuals were evaluated at the first stage in Indianapolis and 2806 in Ibadan. All were aged 69 years and over. Of these, 451 (17.2%) underwent clinical assessment in Indianapolis, while 605 (21.6%) were assessed in Ibadan. The prevalence estimates of both mild and severe depression were similar for the two sites (p=0.1273 and p=0.7093): 12.3% (mild depression) and 2.2% (severe depression) in Indianapolis and 19.8% and 1.6% respectively in Ibadan. Some differences were identified in association with demographic characteristics; for example, Ibadan men had a significantly higher prevalence of mild depression than Indianapolis men (p<0.0001). Poor cognitive performance was associated with significantly higher rates of depression in Yoruba (p=0.0039). Prevalence of depression was similar for elderly African Americans and Yoruba despite considerable socioeconomic and cultural differences between these populations.

  1. Students' Perception of Factors Influencing Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in Senior Secondary Schools in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauda, Bala; Jambo, Hyelni Emmanuel; Umar, Muhammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined students' perception of factors influencing teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Maiduguri Metropolis of Borno State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the extent to which students perceived: qualification, method of teaching, instructional materials and attitude of both…

  2. Family Background, Sexual Behaviour, and HIV/AIDS Vulnerability of Female Street Hawkers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyefara, John Lekan

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the sexual behaviour and the HIV/AIDS knowledge and vulnerability of female street hawkers in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 126 female street hawkers under 18 were sampled in a cross-sectional survey and six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted to generate data from respondents. Data on sexual behaviour…

  3. Instructional Methods and Students' End of Term Achievement in Biology in Selected Secondary Schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamsuddeen, Abdulrahman; Amina, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Correlation between instructional methods and students end of term achievement in Biology in selected secondary schools in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto State Nigeria. The study addressed three Specific objectives. To examine the relationship between; Cooperative learning methods, guided discovery, Simulation Method and…

  4. Effects of problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviours among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalik, Jibril; Ani, Cornelius; Ajuwon, Ademola J; Omigbodun, Olayinka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive patterns of behavior often start early in childhood, and tend to remain stable into adulthood. The negative consequences include poor academic performance, disciplinary problems and encounters with the juvenile justice system. Early school intervention programs can alter this trajectory for aggressive children. However, there are no studies evaluating the feasibility of such interventions in Africa. This study therefore, assessed the effect of group-based problem-solving interventions on aggressive behaviors among primary school pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was an intervention study with treatment and wait-list control groups. Two public primary schools in Ibadan Nigeria were randomly allocated to an intervention group and a waiting list control group. Teachers rated male Primary five pupils in the two schools on aggressive behaviors and the top 20 highest scorers in each school were selected. Pupils in the intervention school received 6 twice-weekly sessions of group-based intervention, which included problem-solving skills, calming techniques and attribution retraining. Outcome measures were; teacher rated aggressive behaviour (TRAB), self-rated aggression scale (SRAS), strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), attitude towards aggression questionnaire (ATAQ), and social cognition and attribution scale (SCAS). The participants were aged 12 years (SD = 1.2, range 9-14 years). Both groups had similar socio-demographic backgrounds and baseline measures of aggressive behaviors. Controlling for baseline scores, the intervention group had significantly lower scores on TRAB and SRAS 1-week post intervention with large Cohen's effect sizes of 1.2 and 0.9 respectively. The other outcome measures were not significantly different between the groups post-intervention. Group-based problem solving intervention for aggressive behaviors among primary school students showed significant reductions in both teachers' and students' rated aggressive behaviours

  5. Primary health workers' knowledge and practices relating to neonatal jaundice in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola E; Ojebiyi, Adeola O

    2017-01-30

    Over half of births and newborn care occur in primary healthcare facilities in Nigeria, but information on activities of personnel working there is scarce. To assess the knowledge and practices relating to neonatal jaundice (NNJ) among community health workers (CHWs) and community birth attendants (CBAs) in Nigeria. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all 227 CHWs and 193 registered CBAs in Ibadan, Nigeria. Knowledge and practices regarding NNJ were measured using a pretested questionnaire. Knowledge and practices were assessed on a 33-point scale and a 13-point scale, respectively. Scores ≤  17 and ≤  9 was regarded as poor knowledge and as wrong practice, respectively. Many (64.5%) of the respondents could not correctly describe examination for NNJ (CHWs: 49.4%; CBAs: 50.6%). Of the 200 (47.6%) who treated NNJ 3 months prior to the study, 62.5% (CHWs: 66.9% and CBAs: 53.7%) treated NNJ with orthodox drugs. Drugs prescribed included: antibiotics (93.3%), antimalarials (5.3%), multivitamins (28.0%), paracetamol (6.2%) and phenobarbitone (7.1%). Significantly more CHWs than CBAs practiced exposure to sunlight (33.1% versus 16.4%) and administration of glucose water (28.6% versus 14.9%), while 58.0% of all respondents referred cases to secondary health facilities. Overall, 80.2% had poor knowledge (CHWs: 78.9%; CBAs: 81.9%) and 46.4% engaged in wrong practices (CHWs: 57.3%; CBAs: 33.7%). CHWs were more likely to indulge in wrong practices than CBAs (OR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.03, 4.79). Primary Health Workers in Ibadan had poor knowledge and engaged in wrong practices about NNJ. The needs to organise regular training programmes were emphasised.

  6. A possible outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae invasive infection in children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fashae, K F; Ogunsola, F T; Salawu, O M; Dada, A O; Popoola, O

    2002-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important aetiological agent of infections in children worldwide. The isolation rate of the bacteria has been strikingly low in the recent past in Nigeria. In a study of 1000 blood samples from patients, out of which 642 were from children in Ibadan between May 1999 and December 2000, 14 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained (a prevalence rate of 1.4%). All the isolates were from children and clustered between 13th September and 22nd October 1999, period of 40 days and thereafter no more organisms were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity testing of all isolates by disc diffusion method showed resistance to cotrimoxazole, tetracycline and penicillin to be 14%, 21% and 36% respectively. All the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and erythromycin. No fatalities were recorded among the children. This may have indicated an outbreak and underscores the urgency for an epidemiological database in Nigeria to ascertain the exact clinical burden of S. pnemoniae infections so as to determine the appropriate vaccine strategies required for Nigerian children.

  7. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  8. Sexting: Prevalence, Predictors, and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among Postsecondary School Young People in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatunde, Oluwatoyin; Balogun, Folusho

    2017-01-01

    Sending and receiving sexually suggestive or explicit images or texts (sexting) have been shown to be associated with health risk behaviors but literature about this phenomenon is scarce in Nigeria. This study looked at the prevalence, predictors, and associated sexual risk behaviors of sexting among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were obtained for sociodemographic characteristics and sexual orientation, sexting behavior, personality assessment (using the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five factor markers), indicators for problematic phone use (using Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale), and sexual behavior. Chi square test and logistic regression were used for data analysis with p  = 0.05. Five hundred seventy-five participants were recruited, age range 14-24 years, and 46.0% were males. Twenty percent had sent sexts, while 33.2% had received sexts. Fifty-four percent had high scores in extraversion, 46.5% had moderate-severe problematic phone use. Sixteen percent had ever had sex, and 40.0% of these had multiple sexual partners. Males were more likely than females to have sent sexts (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.68-4.24). Having a high extraversion score (OR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.35-4.41) and moderate-severe problematic phone use (OR = 5.56, 95% CI: 2.73-11.32) was predictive of sexting. Sending and receiving of sext were significantly associated with ever having sexual intercourse (OR = 4.01, 95% CI: 2.25-7.17 and OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.72-5.12, respectively). Sexting was prevalent among postsecondary school young persons in Ibadan and was associated with male sex and problematic phone use. Intervention targeted at the identified susceptible group of young people may reduce its associated problems in this study group.

  9. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  10. Pattern of pharmaceutical retailing of anti-diabetic products in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Famuyiwa, O O

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four pharmacists in the city of Ibadan were surveyed through a self-administered structured questionnaire as to the extent of their involvement in the pharmaceutical retailing of antidiabetic products and their cost. Oral hypoglycemic agents especially, chlorpropamide (Diabenese) and glibenclamide (Daonil) were the most readily available drugs being obtainable from 21 (87.5%) pharmacies. Insulin was stocked regularly by only 14 (58.3%) of the pharmacists and insulin syringes and needles could be obtained from only 10 (41.6%) of the pharmacies. Among materials for urine testing, clinistix strip was the most readily available and fully one-third of the pharmacies did not stock any such material. The prices of all the products were disturbingly high and between 1983 and 1986 when retail prices were re-assessed, the cost of some materials had escalated by as much as 400%. Scarcity of antidiabetic products and their high cost pose serious challenges for those involved in the care of diabetic patients in Nigeria. Some suggestions have been made as to what steps both the government and the pharmaceutical industry can take in ensuring the availability of these life sustaining products for the increasingly large Nigerian diabetic population.

  11. Experiences of girls with hearing impairment in accessing reproductive health care services in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arulogun, Oyedunni S; Titiloye, Musibau A; Afolabi, Nathanael B; Oyewole, Oyediran E; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere G B

    2013-03-01

    Delivery of health services to people with hearing impairment is poorly understood in Nigeria and limited research has been done to throw more light on the process involved. This study described experiences of 167 girls with hearing impairment in accessing reproductive health services in Ibadan using a validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Almost 95.0% of respondents had ever visited health facility for reproductive health issues. Of these 6.2% and 4.6% went for treatment of STIs and pregnancy termination respectively; 36.7% were embarrassed to ask questions in the presence of an interpreter, communication (40.5%) and cost (10.8%) were key barriers to access and 85.6% would use facility if hearing impairment-friendly services are provided. Respondents who were currently working were 20 times more likely to receive services they wanted (OR = 20.29, CI = 1.05-392.16). Availability of certified interpreters and ensuring confidentiality are key to effective service delivery for the hearing impaired.

  12. Prevalence and pattern of violence in pregnancy in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesina, O; Oyugbo, I; Oladokun, A; Olubukola, A

    2011-01-01

    Violence against women is embedded in most cultures with pregnancy associated with higher rates. This study assessed the pattern of violence in pregnancy in two maternity centres in Ibadan, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study of antenatal clinic attendees, between 1 and 31 March, 2007 at the University College Hospital (UCH) and the Adeoyo Maternity (AMH). By systematic random sampling, 404 women were interviewed. Analysis was done by means, χ(2)-test (at 5% level of significance) and logistic regression. At UCH and AMH, 156 (38.7%) and 248 (61.3%) were studied, respectively. The prevalence of abuse was 17.1% (69 women). The perpetrator was most often an intimate partner (48, 66.1%). The commonest act of violence was a threat of abuse (23, 33.3%). The most frequent reason for the abuse was demand for money. Women in polygamous unions (p = 0.035), attending Adeoyo hospital (p = 0.00) or with secondary school or less education (p = 0.004) had higher levels of abuse. Regression analysis revealed women attending AMH were 3.6 times more likely to be abused (95% CI for OR = 1.69-7.81). Violence is not uncommon in this population. Education and employment may reduce these acts.

  13. Experiences of Discrimination Among Youth with HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Owoaje, Eme T.

    2012-01-01

    Nigerian youth currently bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. This paper presents findings on the occurrence of HIV-related discrimination among youth with HIV accessing care in Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted and information on history of discrimination experienced by 170 youth with HIV was obtained. About 80% of respondents had disclosed their HIV status. The majority had informed their spouses (66.3%), mothers (47.1%), fathers (39.1%) and siblings (37.7%). Sixteen (11.5%) respondents [15 (93.8%) females and one (6.2%) male] had suffered discrimination since disclosure of their status. Of these, 25.0% respondents were sent out of their matrimonial homes by their husbands, 25.0% were abandoned by their spouses and 12.5% indicated their fiancé broke up their relationship. A higher proportion of females (12.9%) than males (4.3%) had suffered discrimination. In addition, a significant proportion of respondents who were separated/divorced (73.3%) had been victims of discrimination compared with those who were widowed (10.5%) or single (5.9%) (P<0.05). The study confirmed that young people living with HIV/AIDS, especially women experience extreme forms of discrimination. More efforts aimed at addressing HIV/AIDS-related discrimination are required especially as it is a known barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:28299083

  14. Experiences of Discrimination Among Youth with HIV/AIDS in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sangowawa, Adesola O; Owoaje, Eme T

    2012-03-07

    Nigerian youth currently bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. This paper presents findings on the occurrence of HIV-related discrimination among youth with HIV accessing care in Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted and information on history of discrimination experienced by 170 youth with HIV was obtained. About 80% of respondents had disclosed their HIV status. The majority had informed their spouses (66.3%), mothers (47.1%), fathers (39.1%) and siblings (37.7%). Sixteen (11.5%) respondents [15 (93.8%) females and one (6.2%) male] had suffered discrimination since disclosure of their status. Of these, 25.0% respondents were sent out of their matrimonial homes by their husbands, 25.0% were abandoned by their spouses and 12.5% indicated their fiancé broke up their relationship. A higher proportion of females (12.9%) than males (4.3%) had suffered discrimination. In addition, a significant proportion of respondents who were separated/divorced (73.3%) had been victims of discrimination compared with those who were widowed (10.5%) or single (5.9%) (P<0.05). The study confirmed that young people living with HIV/AIDS, especially women experience extreme forms of discrimination. More efforts aimed at addressing HIV/AIDS-related discrimination are required especially as it is a known barrier to HIV prevention and treatment efforts.

  15. Empirical analysis of electromagnetic profiles for groundwater prospecting in rural areas of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.

    2005-05-01

    The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 meters was carried out in 10 villages in Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatised undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural pattern were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by high density of positive (HDP) or high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing show that borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. Asymmetry of the anomaly was also found useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.

  16. Empirical analysis of electromagnetic profiles for groundwater prospecting in rural areas of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Opoola, A. O.; Adesokan, H. A.

    2006-04-01

    The Slingram electromagnetic (EM) survey using a coil separation of 60 and 100 m was carried out in ten villages in the Akinyele area of Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria to aid in the development of groundwater. Five main rock types including an undifferentiated gneiss complex (Su), biotite-garnet schist/gneiss (Bs), quartzite and quartz schist (Q), migmatized undifferentiated biotite/hornblende gneiss (M) and pegmatite/quartz vein (P) underlie the study area. A total of 31 EM profiles was made to accurately locate prospective borehole sites in the field. Four main groups with different behavioural patterns were categorized from the EM profiles. Group 1 is characterized by a high density of positive (HDP) or a high density of negative (HDN) real and imaginary curves, Group 2 by parallel real and imaginary curves intersecting with negligible amplitude (PNA), Group 3 by frequent intersection of a high density of negative minima (FHN) real and imaginary curves, and Group 4 by separate and approximately parallel (SAP) real and imaginary curves. Qualitative pictures of the overburden thickness and the extent of fracturing have been proposed from these behavioural patterns. A comparison of the borehole yield with the overburden thickness and the level of fracturing shows that the borehole yield depends more on the fracture density than on the overburden thickness. The asymmetry of the anomaly was also found to be useful in the determination of the inclination of the conductor/fracture.

  17. Perception of cigarette smoking and advertisement among senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Faseru, B O

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among youths is increasingly a public health concern. This study sought to determine the prevalence of smoking among secondary school students and to assess their perception of smoking and cigarette advertisement. A cross sectional study was conducted among 1,223 senior secondary school students in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. The prevalence of smoking among this population was 41 (3.4%) with 115 (9.4%) reporting that they had ever smoked. Mean age of smoking initiation was 14.2 years. Smoking was greater among males than females and in higher secondary school classes. Only 700 (57%) of students knew that smoking was harmful to their health and 477 (39%) reported that they had been taught about the harmful effects of smoking in the school teaching programme. Twenty-six percent of students had an item with a cigarette brand name on it and 19% had been offered a free cigarette by a cigarette representative. One hundred and twenty-two (10%) of the students indicated that they will smoke when they leave school. Although the prevalence of smoking among students was low, exposure to cigarette advertisements may encourage them to smoke.

  18. Perceptions of sexual coercion: learning from young people in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajuwon, A J; Akin-Jimoh, I; Olley, B O; Akintola, O

    2001-05-01

    This study explored the problem of sexual coercion from the perspectives of 77 young people aged 14-21 in Ibadan, Nigeria, the behaviours they perceive to be sexually coercive and the contexts in which these occur through four narrative workshops. Participants were drawn from two secondary schools and 15 apprentice workshops. All four groups identified similar coercive behaviours and developed narratives of the events that typically lead up to them. Behaviours included rape, unwanted touching, incest, assault, verbal abuse, threats, unwanted kissing; forced exposure to pornographic films, use of drugs for sedation and traditional charms for seduction, and insistence on abortion if unwanted pregnancy occurs. Men were typically the perpetrators and young women the victims. Perpetrators included acquaintances, boyfriends, neighbours, parents and relatives. All the narratives revealed the inability of young people to communicate effectively with each other and resolve differences. The results suggest the need for life-skills training that facilitates communication, seeks to redress gender power imbalances, teaches alternatives to coercion as a means of resolving conflict over sexual relations and respect for sexual and reproductive rights, and provides victims with information on appropriate services, support and referral.

  19. GEOGRAPIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN DETERMINING ROAD TRAFFIC CRASH ANALYSIS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Rukewe, A; Taiwo, O J; Fatiregun, A A; Afuwape, O O; Alonge, T O

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic accidents are frequent in this environment, hence the need to determine the place of geographic information systems in the documentation of road traffic accidents. To investigate and document the variations in crash frequencies by types and across different road types in Ibadan, Nigeria. Road traffic accident data between January and June 2011 were obtained from the University College Hospital Emergency Department's trauma registry. All the traffic accidents were categorized into motor vehicular, motorbike and pedestrian crashes. Georeferencing of accident locations mentioned by patients was done using a combination of Google Earth and ArcGIS software. Nearest neighbor statistic, Moran's-I, Getis-Ord statistics, Student T-test, and ANOVA were used in investigating the spatial dynamics in crashes. Out of 600 locations recorded, 492 (82.0%) locations were correctly georeferenced. Crashes were clustered in space with motorbike crashes showing greatest clustering. There was significant difference in crashes between dual and non-dual carriage roads (P = 0.0001), but none between the inner city and the periphery (p = 0.115). However, significant variations also exist among the three categories analyzed (p = 0.004) and across the eleven Local Government Areas (P = 0.017). This study showed that the use of Geographic Information System can help in understanding variations in road traffic accident occurrence, while at the same time identifying locations and neighborhoods with unusually higher accidents frequency.

  20. Sexual practices and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among hairdressers in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Balogun, M O; Klemetti, M M; Olaolorun, F M

    2015-01-01

    The environment in salons provides hairdressers the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits which may promote unhealthy sexual behaviour and increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of the study was to determine sexual practices and knowledge and experience of STIs among hairdressers. The study was carried out in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria. A total of 1700 hairdressers were selected by cluster sampling technique. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour, knowledge and experience of STIs were identified. Their mean age was 27.0 ± 8.1 years, 860 (50.6%) were single. Majority of them, 1453(85.5%) had ever had sex. The mean age at sexual debut was 15.9 years. Mean knowledge score of STIs was 14.0 out of 25. Only 158(9.3%) experienced symptoms of STIs in the last 12 months. Among singles, senior secondary education was a predictor of ever had sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53-3.13), good knowledge of STIs (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.45-2.83) and experience of STIs in the last 12 months (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.53-3.13). Hairdressers, especially singles, are a vulnerable group at risk of reproductive health morbidities. There is a need to focus reproductive health interventions on this occupational group.

  1. Perceived quality of physiotherapy services among informal caregivers of children with cerebral palsy in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, Olubukola A; Hamzat, Talhatu K; Oloso, Modinat O

    2015-01-01

    Effective physiotherapy intervention for children with cerebral palsy (CP) requires that expectations of their caregivers be incorporated into treatment plans and strategies. This study explored the perceived Quality of Physiotherapy (QoP) for children with CP in Ibadan, Nigeria This cross-sectional survey explored the perceived QoP using the SERVQUAL instrument among informal caregivers of children with CP from two different healthcare facilities. Data was analysed using Mann Whiney U and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests at p ≤ 0.05. Fifty-three informal caregivers (50 females, 3 males) of children with CP (32 males, 21 females) were surveyed. Fourth-fifths (81.13%) of the caregivers perceived the QoP service for their children as poor. The highest negative and positive ranks were in the tangible and responsiveness dimensions of the SERVQUAL respectively. The study demonstrated that caregivers of children with CP perceived the quality of physiotherapy provided for their children as poor. This poor perception is related more to the tangible dimension of care. Strategies to improve care environment for children with CP and their informal caregivers should be implemented to engender satisfaction with care.

  2. Prevalence estimates of depression in elderly community-dwelling African Americans in Indianapolis and Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baiyewu, Olusegun; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Lane, Kathleen A.; Gureje, Oye; Gao, Sujuan; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Hall, Kathleen S.; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2010-01-01

    Background This is a community-based longitudinal epidemiological comparative study of elderly African Americans in Indianapolis and elderly Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria. Method A two-stage study was designed in which community-based individuals were first screened using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia. The second stage was a full clinical assessment, which included use of the Geriatric Depression Scale, of a smaller sub-sample of individuals selected on the basis of their performance in the screening interview. Prevalence of depression was estimated using sampling weights according to the sampling stratification scheme for clinical assessment. Results Some 2627 individuals were evaluated at the first stage in Indianapolis and 2806 in Ibadan. All were aged 69 years and over. Of these, 451 (17.2%) underwent clinical assessment in Indianapolis, while 605 (21.6%) were assessed in Ibadan. The prevalence estimates of both mild and severe depression were similar for the two sites (p = 0.1273 and p = 0.7093): 12.3% (mild depression) and 2.2% (severe depression) in Indianapolis and 19.8% and 1.6% respectively in Ibadan. Some differences were identified in association with demographic characteristics; for example, Ibadan men had a significantly higher prevalence of mild depression than Indianapolis men (p < 0.0001). Poor cognitive performance was associated with significantly higher rates of depression in Yoruba (p = 0.0039). Conclusion Prevalence of depression was similar for elderly African Americans and Yoruba despite considerable socioeconomic and cultural differences between these populations. PMID:17506912

  3. Epidemiology of road traffic crashes among long distance drivers in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejugbagbe, Adewale Moses; Fatiregun, Akinola Ayoola; Rukewe, Ambrose; Alonge, Temitope

    2015-06-01

    Road Traffic Crashes (RTCs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Few studies in Ibadan have focused on the distribution and determinants of RTC among long distance drivers. To describe the distribution of crashes by place, times of occurrence, characteristics of persons involved and identify associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among consenting long distance drivers within selected parks in Ibadan. Respondents (592) were males, with median age of 42.0 years (range 22.0-73.0 years). Secondary education was the highest level of education attained by 38.0%. About 34.0% reported current use of alcohol. The life-time prevalence of crashes was 35.3% (95% CI= 31.5-39.2%) and 15.9% (95% CI=13.1-19.0%) reported having had at least one episode of crash in the last one year preceding the study. The crash occurred mainly on narrow roads [32/94 (34.0%,)] and bad portions of tarred roads [35/94 (37.2%,)] with peak of occurrence on Saturdays 18/94 (19.1%,). Significantly higher proportions of drivers aged ≤39years (23.4%) versus >39years (11.7%), those with no education (29.9%) versus the educated (13.8%) and those who reported alcohol use (21.9%) versus non users (12.8%) were involved in crashes in the year preceding the study. Significant predictor of the last episode of crashes in the last one year were age (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.4-3.5), education (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.5-4.6) and alcohol use (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.2-3.0). Road traffic crashes occurred commonly on bad roads, in the afternoon and during weekends, among young and uneducated long-distance drivers studied. Reconstruction of bad roads and implementation of road safety education programmes aimed at discouraging the use of alcohol and targeting the identified groups at risk are recommended.

  4. Nutritional status and dietary pattern of male athletes in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladunni, M O; Sanusi, R A

    2013-12-20

    Several factors, including nutritional status and dietary pattern are paramount to optimum performance among athletes. Notwithstanding, risky behaviours that limit or impair athletic performance are widely prevalent among athletes; these include excessive weight reduction and inappropriate dietary practices. This study was conducted to provide information on the nutritional status and dietary pattern of athletes in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional descriptive study, involving 207 athletes aged 17 to 40 years in Ibadan. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices: Body Mass Index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF). BMI was calculated from weight and height measurements and %BF was estimated from the sum of skin-fold thickness at 4 sites (triceps, biceps, sub-scapular and supra-iliac skin-folds). Dietary pattern was assessed by food habits and food frequency questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were conducted to describe and examine relationships between variables. Mean (SD) for variables were: age; 26.09(±4.77) years, weight; 72.13(±0.45) kg, height; 1.74(±0.06)m, and BMI; 23.89(±3.34)kg/m2. Only 4(1.93%) of the participants were underweight, 39(18.84%) were overweight and 8(3.86%) obese. Mean (SD) of %BF among overweight athletes was 14.25(±3.12) and maximum %BF among overweight athletes was 21.2. A strong and positive correlation was observed between BMI and %BF and %BF increased with age among overweight athletes. About 72% of the athletes skipped meals, 77% drank water or sports drinks during sporting activities, about 11% spent less than #40.00 for each meal. About 49% ate before sports. Foods most frequently consumed by athletes in this study were meat, fish, roots/tubers, cereals, vegetables and fruits. Milk and legumes were less frequently consumed by these athletes. Most of these athletes had nutritional status adequate for their sport activity. With regards to food habits, most of these athletes

  5. Attitude and beliefs of some nurses in government hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria to natal/neonatal teeth in infants.

    PubMed

    Bankole, O O; Oke, G A

    2013-09-01

    Eruption of the first deciduous teeth in children has shown much variation and occasionally may erupt prematurely at birth or within one month of life. Myths about natal/neonatal teeth abound in the Nigerian culture. Nurses are health care providers who are in constant close contact with patients and can be invaluable in helping to dispel these associated myths. However, to provide correct information they should be adequately equipped to do so. The aim of this study thus, was to assess the attitudes and beliefs of some nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria to natal/neonatal teeth in infants. A cross sectional survey was conducted among 380 nurses in the teaching, general and local government hospitals and clinics in Ibadan, Nigeria. Results revealed that 41.3% of the respondents would express shock and surprise if they assisted in delivering a baby with natal teeth. Half of the respondents (49.7%) felt that natal/neonatal teeth will be a great source of embarrassment to the family while a smaller proportion (11.8%), believed it was a curse (p = 0.01). On the advice the respondents would give to the mothers, more than a th (39.7%), would recommend immediate extraction of the teeth. A further 42 (11.1%) nurses were of the opinion that spiritual cleansing should be carried out prior to extraction. A greater proportion of the older nurses would advice immediate extraction of the teeth (p = 0.031). Regarding the perceived effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the children, (7.4%), (12.6%) and (29.2%) of the respondents believed that the children will behave strangely, will possess spiritual authority and be victims of stigmatization later in life respectively. This study has revealed that knowledge gaps about natal/neonatal teeth exist among the nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria. Health education programmes targeted at nurses are essential to correct these beliefs.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of the particulate size distribution and chemical composition over Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinlade, Grace O; Olaniyi, Hezekiah B; Olise, Felix S; Owoade, Oyediran K; Almeida, Susana M; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Hopke, Philip K

    2015-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of suspended particulate matter was measured in Ibadan, Nigeria during the raining and dry months of 2013 and 2014, respectively. Six different locations were considered, reflecting city-spread, population density, lifestyle, and vehicular- and industrial-related activities. Elemental characterisation of the samples were carried out using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectroscopy, while the black carbon content was determined using an optical transmissometer. Backward trajectory analysis indicated that most air mass was of maritime origin except on few occasions that suggested the Sahara desert origin. Average PM2.5/PM10 ratio for the entire sampling period was 0.32 ± 0.04. This is slightly lower than the reported values in the coastal city of Lagos, partly because of more adequately paved and better road networks resulting in lower dust re-suspension and/or there are relatively finer fraction particulates from other sources, which might include marine, industrial, and secondary emission-related sources. Black carbon showed predominance in the fine fractions and was, majorly, of traffic origin. Major enriched elements of concern are S, Zn, As, and Pb aside from those of sea origin. Refuse burning was observed to be the principal source of Pb and Zn in all the sites except one, which showed major industrial-related activities source. This study will provide data for future measurement and modelling works as well as providing a benchmark for relevant agencies for policy making on setting emission standards for the country.

  7. Pregnancy outcomes and ethanol cook stove intervention: A randomized-controlled trial in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Donee A; Northcross, Amanda; Karrison, Theodore; Morhasson-Bello, Oludare; Wilson, Nathaniel; Atalabi, Omolola M; Dutta, Anindita; Adu, Damilola; Ibigbami, Tope; Olamijulo, John; Adepoju, Dayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Christopher O

    2018-02-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) exposure has been linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken in Ibadan, Nigeria to determine the impact of cooking with ethanol on pregnancy outcomes. Three-hundred-twenty-four pregnant women were randomized to either the control (continued cooking using kerosene/firewood stove, n=162) or intervention group (received ethanol stove, n=162). Primary outcome variables were birthweight, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and occurrence of miscarriage/stillbirth. Mean birthweights for ethanol and controls were 3076 and 2988g, respectively; the difference, 88g, (95% confidence interval: -18g to 194g), was not statistically significant (p=0.10). After adjusting for covariates, the difference reached significance (p=0.020). Rates of preterm delivery were 6.7% (ethanol) and 11.0% (control), (p=0.22). Number of miscarriages was 1(ethanol) vs. 4 (control) and stillbirths was 3 (ethanol) vs. 7 (control) (both non-significant). Average gestational age at delivery was significantly (p=0.015) higher in ethanol-users (39.2weeks) compared to controls (38.2weeks). Perinatal mortality (stillbirths and neonatal deaths) was twice as high in controls compared to ethanol-users (7.9% vs. 3.9%; p=0.045, after adjustment for covariates). We did not detect significant differences in exposure levels between the two treatment arms, perhaps due to large seasonal effects and high ambient air pollution levels. Transition from traditional biomass/kerosene fuel to ethanol reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the difference in birthweight was statistically significant only after covariate adjustment and the other significant differences were in tertiary endpoints. Our results are suggestive of a beneficial effect of ethanol use. Larger trials are required to validate these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc, lead, and cadmium levels in serum and milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edem, Victory Fabian; Akintunde, Kikelomo; Adelaja, Yewande Adeola; Nwozo, Sarah O; Charles-Davies, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is known to interact with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) reversing their toxicity and reducing their concentrations. However, lactating women are at high risk of developing Zn deficiency, which may result in Pb and Cd intoxication or increased exposure of breast-fed infants to Pb and Cd from breast milk. The aim of this study was to determine Zn, Pb, and Cd concentrations and examine their relationship in serum and breast milk of lactating women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ninety-two lactating women were recruited into this study. Anthropometric measurements were assessed by standard methods while serum and breast milk concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cd were assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data analyzed statistically by Student's t test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and a multiple regression model were significant at p < 0.05. Zn deficiency was observed in 12 (17.1%) of lactating women. Breast milk levels of Zn, Pb, and Cd were significantly higher than their levels in serum, whereas the ratios Zn:Pb and Zn:Cd in milk were significantly less than serum ratios. Significant negative correlation was observed between milk Pb and serum Zn:Pb while milk Cd correlated positively with milk Zn. Significant positive correlations were observed between serum Zn and serum Zn:Pb, serum Zn and serum Zn:Cd, as well as serum Zn:Cd and serum Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn were significantly negatively related. Significant negative correlations between serum Pb and serum Zn:Pb as well as milk Zn:Pb. Serum Cd and serum Zn:Pb as well as serum Zn:Cd correlated negatively. Milk Cd and Zn/Cd positively related with milk Pb while milk Zn was a negatively related with milk Pb in a multiple regression model ( R 2 = 0.333; p = 0.023). Breast milk may be contaminated by toxic metals. However, Zn supplementation in deficient mothers may protect maternal and infant health.

  9. Etiology of early onset septicemia among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akindolire, Abimbola Ellen; Tongo, Olukemi; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah; Akinyinka, Olusegun

    2016-12-30

    Neonatal septicemia remains a major cause of newborn deaths in developing countries. Its burden is further compounded by the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens, which is related to a lack of antibiotic protocols resulting in unrestricted use of antibiotics. The absence of reliable antibiotic sensitivity testing makes the formulation of antibiotic guidelines and judicious use of antibiotics difficult. This study sought to identify the current bacterial agents associated with early onset septicemia (EOS; age <72 hours) and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns among neonates at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of 202 inborn and outborn neonates with risk factors for or clinical features of septicemia in the first 72 hours of life had samples for blood cultures and antibiotic sensitivity patterns taken prior to treatment. Of the subjects, 95 (47.0%) were inborn and 107 (53.0%) outborn, with a M:F ratio of 1.3:1; 12.5% were culture positive, and the prevalence of EOS was 8.8/1,000 live births. The isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (52%), 30.7% of which were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12%), Enterobacter aerogenes (8%), Enterococcus spp. (8%), Eschericia coli (4%), and other Gram-negatives (12%). All the isolates except Staphylococcus aureus were susceptible to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, amikacin, gentamicin, and third-generation cephalosporins. All MRSA were sensitive to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, while all methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to ampicillin/sulbactam. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest cause of EOS in our setting, with 30.7% of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates being MRSA. Only MRSA demonstrated multidrug resistance.

  10. Clients' reasons for prenatal ultrasonography in Ibadan, South West of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enakpene, Christopher A; Morhason-Bello, Imran O; Marinho, Anthony O; Adedokun, Babatunde O; Kalejaiye, Adegoke O; Sogo, Kayode; Gbadamosi, Sikiru A; Awoyinka, Babatunde S; Enabor, Obehi O

    2009-01-01

    Background Prenatal ultrasonography has remained a universal tool but little is known especially from developing countries on clients' reasons for desiring it. Then aim was to determine the reasons why pregnant women will desire a prenatal ultrasound. Methods It was a cross-sectional survey of consecutive 222 women at 2 different ultrasonography facilities in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. Results The mean age of the respondents was 30.1 ± 4.5 years. The commonest reason for requesting for prenatal ultrasound scans was to check for fetal viability in 144 women (64.7%) of the respondents, followed by fetal gender determination in 50 women (22.6%. Other reasons were to check for number of fetuses, fetal age and placental location. Factors such as younger age, artisans profession and low level of education significantly influenced the decision to check for fetal viability on bivariate analysis but all were not significant on multivariate analysis. Concerning fetal gender determination, older age, Christianity, occupation and gravidity were significant on bivariate analysis, however, only gravidity and occupation remained significant independent predictor on logistic regression model. Women with less than 3 previous pregnancies were about 4 times more likely to request for fetal sex determination than women with more than 3 previous pregnancies, (OR 3.8 95%CI 1.52 – 9.44). The professionals were 7 times more likely than the artisans to request to find out about their fetal sex, (OR 7.0 95%CI 1.47 – 333.20). Conclusion This study shows that Nigerian pregnant women desired prenatal ultrasonography mostly for fetal viability, followed by fetal gender determination. These preferences were influenced by their biosocial variables. PMID:19426518

  11. Psychosocial impact of wheelchair usage on individuals with mobility disability in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hamzat, T K; Olaleye, O A; Agbomeji, O T

    2015-03-01

    Wheelchairs provide individuals with mobility impairments opportunity for independent living within their environment. However, using this device may have psychosocial impacts with consequent influence on the quality of life of the users. The psychosocial impact of wheelchair usage among individuals with mobility disability in a Nigerian community was investigated. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional survey. People who have been independent users of wheelchair for a minimum of six months prior to the study were recruited from centres for people with disabilities in Ibadan, Nigeria into the study. A profile of their use of the device was documented and the psychosocial impact of wheelchair was assessed using the Psychosocial Impact ofAssistive Devices Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics at p = 0.05. Sixty consenting individuals with mobility disability participated in this study. Their mean age was 38.7 +/- 14.1 years. Majority (90%) were manual wheelchair users and two-thirds (63.3%) had been using the wheelchair for < or = five years. Approximately a third of the participants use their wheelchairs occasionally. There was no significant difference (p=0.26) in the psychosocial impact of wheelchair usage between male and female users. The psychosocial impact of wheelchair was similar between male and female users. However, the impact was higher on the self-esteem of male than female users and lower on their competence than that of their female counterparts. This may be due to stigmatization or a culturally-related unwillingness of men in our environment to be dependent on others.

  12. Psychosocial implications of malocclusion among 12-18 year old secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Sanu, O O

    2005-03-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze the current psychosocial implications of malocclusion in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study sample comprised 614 secondary school children (327 males and 287 females) aged 12-18 years (mean age, 14.9 +/- 2.9 SD) who filled in a questionnaire containing general questions about body image and specific inquires concerning self-perception and social implications of dental appearance. The children's occlusions were also assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the malocclusion traits related to body image, self-perception, and social implications of dental appearance. Subjects with malocclusion rated only the teeth significantly least satisfactory among other twelve items of body image. The lowest rating was observed in subjects with crowding of the maxillary and mandibular incisor segments. Highly significant differences (P < 0.001) were found between subjects with normal or minor malocclusion and those with marked malocclusion in indicating awareness of malocclusion, dissatisfaction with the appearance of the teeth, and unfavourable appearance of the teeth compared with those of peers. Schoolmates' teasing occurred significantly more often in the presence of malocclusion (P < 0.001). Unfavourable perceptions of the teeth were expressed significantly more often by subjects with anterior maxillary irregularities of up to 1 mm and more, spacing of both maxillary and mandibular incisor segments, midline diastema, crowding (especially of the mandibular incisor segment), anterior open bite and molar relation deviations. It was concluded that certain malocclusions, especially occlusal and space anomalies, may adversely affect body image and self-concept of Nigerian adolescents.

  13. THE COMPARISON OF INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENTS OF ATOPIC AND NONATOPIC CHILDREN IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Daramola, O O M; Ayoola, O O; Ogunbiyi, A O

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atopy-related illnesses such as atopic dermatitis and asthma are chronic illnesses, and children suffering from such illnesses are subjected to frequent absenteeism from school. Studies have shown that the performance of children with asthma was comparable to their healthy counterparts despite their absenteeism at school, in contrast to findings in other chronic illnesses like epilepsy. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the association between atopy and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores in a group of Nigerian children in Ibadan, a city in southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of children in an urban elementary school. Questionnaires to ascertain the presence of atopy-associated conditions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergic conjunctivitis were administered to the parents of 128 pupils in the 3rd to 6th grades of elementary school. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, pupils were categorized as being atopic and nonatopic. All the pupils underwent the Standard Progressive Matrices IQ test. The IQ scores were then compared among these two groups of children. Results: Out of the children studied, 26.6% were found to have atopy and after adjusting for factors such as age and sex, the IQ scores in this atopic group were not found to be statistically different from the scores in the nonatopic group (r = 2.122872, P = 0.009). Conclusion: IQ scores were not statistically significantly different for children with and without atopy. Thus, the presence of atopy does not appear to be associated with low IQ scores and hence, may not be related to poor school performance. PMID:21063510

  14. Association of diet with acne vulgaris among adolescents in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, Emeka O; Ogunbiyi, Adebola O; George, Adekunle O; Subulade, Mobolaji O

    2016-09-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous units that affects 85% of the world's population aged 11-30 years. Diet is believed to affect the severity of acne vulgaris. This study was designed to identify possible associations of diet with acne vulgaris in Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in Ibadan in 2011. Students were interviewed for demographic data, history of acne, and frequency of intake of specific foods in the previous 12 months. Each participant was examined for facial acne. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for each participant. Data for 464 students were analyzed. The mean ± standard deviation age of all subjects was 13.6 ± 3.6 years, and the mean BMI was 17.8 kg/m(2) . A total of 299 (64.4%) students were found to have acne vulgaris. Frequencies of intake of various foods varied widely. Prevalences of acne were higher among those who reported an at least daily intake of milk as beverage (72.6% vs. 62.0%; P = 0.035), corn (76.6% vs. 62.3%; P = 0.016), fried beef (75.0% vs. 62.1%; P = 0.042), and cake (77.8% vs. 62.3%; P = 0.012), and less common among those students who reported an at least daily intake of bananas (55.3% vs. 67.6%; P = 0.032). The present findings suggest associations between some foods and acne in the Nigerian context. An interventional dietary study will be required to further ascertain the effects of these foods on acne vulgaris. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence towards female students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umana, Joseph E; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adeoye, Ikeola A

    2014-12-08

    In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the IPV burden and experience among young women in courtship and dating relationships. This study assesses the prevalence and correlates of IPV in female undergraduate and postgraduate students in a tertiary institution. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A four-stage sampling technique was used to select 1,100 undergraduate and 255 postgraduate female students from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data was collected using a 43-item self-administered structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. The life-time prevalence of IPV was 42.3% (postgraduate: 34.5%, undergraduate: 44.1%; P < 0.05). Lifetime experience of psychological, physical and sexual IPV were 41.8%, 7.9% and 6.6% respectively. Recent experience (within the previous 12 months) of violence was also more frequently reported by respondents who had a previous history of physical (62.5%) (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 2.02-3.49) and sexual (53.2%) (OR = 1.63; 95% CI:1.12-2.35) violence than respondents who had no such history. Postgraduate (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.46-0.87) and married (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35-0.78) students were less likely to have experienced IPV than undergraduate and single students respectively. Students who smoked (OR = 2.46; 95% CI: 1.58-3.83); consumed alcohol (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.82- 3.06); and with history of interparental violence (OR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.88- 3.07) had a higher likelihood of experiencing violence than students who were not exposed to these behaviors. Adverse effects (such as the inability to concentrate) of IPV on academic performance were reported by 10.3% of victims. The prevalence of IPV was high. There is the urgent need for interventions that will reduce vulnerability by addressing modifiable risk factors like smoking and alcohol consumption. Interventions should also encourage seeking health care following

  16. Family planning providers' perspectives on family planning service delivery in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Schwandt, Hilary Megan; Boulay, Marc; Skinner, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    In Nigeria, fertility continues to be high and contraceptive prevalence remains low. This study was conducted in order to understand the perceptions of, experiences with and challenges of delivering family planning services in two urban areas of Nigeria from the perspectives of family planning service providers. A qualitative study using 59 in-depth interviews was conducted among family planning providers working in hospitals, primary health centres, clinics, pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Ibadan and Kaduna, Nigeria. Providers support a mix of individuals and organisations involved in family planning provision, including the government of Nigeria. The Nigerian government's role can take a variety of forms, including providing promotional materials for family planning facilities as well as facilitating training and educational opportunities for providers, since many providers lack basic training in family planning provision. Providers often describe their motivation to provide in terms of the health benefits offered by family planning methods. Few providers engage in any marketing of their services and many providers exclude youth and unmarried individuals from their services. The family planning provider community supports a diverse network of providers, but needs further training and support in order to improve the quality of care and market their services. Adolescents, unmarried individuals and women seeking post-abortion care are vulnerable populations that providers need to be better educated about and trained in how to serve. The perspectives of providers should be considered when designing family planning interventions in urban areas of Nigeria.

  17. The Usage and Impact of Internet Enabled Phones on Academic Concentration among Students of Tertiary Institutions: A Study at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezemenaka, Emeka

    2013-01-01

    The usage of Internet enabled phones has been a 21st century phenomenon that spreads for different purposes and functions. This study looks into the usage and perceived effect implications internet enabled phones have on the academic performance of the tertiary students using University of Ibadan students in Nigeria as a case study. The study was…

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence among Male Civil Servants in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adejimi, A. A.; Fawole, O. I.; Sekoni, O. O.; Kyriacou, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Intimate Partner violence (IPV) is one of the common forms of violence against women and is a global public health problem that transcends social, economic, religious and cultural groups. It is often perceived as a private problem or a normal part of life but it contributes greatly to morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence by male civil servants in Oyo State Secretariat Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a multi-stage sampling technique. A total of 609 respondents completed a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 18 and STATA version 12. Chi-square statistic was used to test associations between categorical variables and predictors of perpetration of intimate partner violence were determined using logistic regression model at a level of statistical significance of 5%. Result The mean age was 38.8±9.9 years and about 74.5% were married. The prevalence of IPV perpetration in the 12 months preceding the study was 66.0%. The prevalence of controlling behaviour was 52.2%, psychological abuse − 31.2%, sexual violence − 23.0%, and physical violence − 11.7%. The predictors of perpetrating any form of IPV included previous history of physical fight with another woman [OR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.30–3.40)], having a negative attitude towards wife beating [OR 2.5 [95% CI: 1.85–3.42], childhood exposure to parental IPV [OR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.30–3.41)] and use of alcohol [OR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.14–2.15]. Conclusion The different types of IPV were prevalent among the male civil servants, despite their educational status. Strategies to stop IPV should include male education to change attitudes that encourage violence in relationships to use of non-violent conflict resolution strategies. Education should also include the dangers of alcohol abuse and involvement in physical fights. PMID:26681824

  19. Nurses' use of water-filled gloves in preventing heel pressure ulcer in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Prisca Olabisi; Ingwu, Justin Agorye

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive survey examined use (knowledge, perception and practices) of water-filled gloves (WFGs) by nurses in the prevention of heel pressure ulcer (PU) in the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants were 250 purposively selected nurses working in the Neurosciences and Surgical units. Quantitative data were generated through the administration of a semi-structured questionnaire, whereas the qualitative data were collected through in-depth interview. Hypotheses were tested using chi-square analysis at a significance level of 0.05, whereas the manual content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. Results showed that a significant number of nurses at UCH, Ibadan, were knowledgeable about WFGs and actually used them in their clinical practice. Years of experience in clinical practice was found to be significantly related to knowledge and use of WFGs in heel PU (X(2) = 41·677; DF = 5; P = 0·001). Nurses with adequate knowledge of risk factors in the development of PU used WFGs more than those who were not aware (X(2) = 44·907; DF = 3; P = 0·009). Nurses' perception about WFGs was also significantly related to its use (X(2) = 4·527; DF = 1; P = 0·033). Although knowledge level and perception of WFGs and its use by nurses was fairly adequate, continuous education for practicing nurses should be encouraged in resource-limited settings. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and Medicalhelplines.com Inc.

  20. The Impact of Peer Tutoring on Librarians in Training at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoroma, Francisca N.

    2013-01-01

    Peer tutoring plays a very significant role in teaching and learning, its gain is not limited to positive academic performance but extends to social life development. This work seeks to identify the impact peer tutoring has on librarians in training at the University of Ibadan, including the motives and strategies of the participants, the benefits…

  1. Prevalence and correlates of mental health problems among awaiting trial inmates in a Prison facility in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abdulmalik, JO; Adedokun, BO; Baiyewu, OO

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of mental health problems are frequently higher within the prison populations than the general population. Previous studies of prison mental health had focused on convict populations whereas, the awaiting trial segment of the prison population in Nigeria has gradually become the majority of the total lock-up. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and correlates of mental health problems among the awaiting trial inmates in a prison facility in Ibadan. Methods A cross sectional study design was employed to interview 725 awaiting trial inmates of Agodi Prison, Ibadan, Nigeria. A two phase procedure was utilized with initial screening using a socio-demographic questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ −12); followed by a second phase with all high scorers on the GHQ −12 and 10% of the low scorers using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Inventory (MINI). Results A total of 394 respondents participated in the second phase of the study with a mean age of 31.1 years (SD = 8.7), with ages ranging from 18 – 70 years. The mean duration of incarceration at Agodi was 1.1 years (SD = 1.47), with a range of 1 week to 10 years. The prevalence of mental illness was 56.6% with the commonest conditions being depression (20.8%), alcohol dependence (20.6%), substance dependence (20.1%), suicidality (19.8%) and antisocial personality disorder (18%). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders among awaiting trial inmates but this does not appear to be significantly different from that of convict populations. PMID:26689928

  2. Utilisation of a community-based health facility in a low-income urban community in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asuzu, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Primary healthcare is established to ensure that people have access to health services through facilities located in their community. However, utilisation of health facilities in Nigeria remains low in many communities. Aim To assess the utilisation of community-based health facility (CBHF) amongst adults in Ibadan, Nigeria Settings A low-income community in Ibadan North West Local Government Area of Oyo State. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a simple random sampling technique to select one adult per household in all 586 houses in the community. A semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and utilisation of the CBHF. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and association testing using the Chi-square test at p = 0.05. Results The mean age of the respondents was 46.5 ± 16.0 years; 46.0% were men and 81.0% married; 26% had no formal education and 38.0% had secondary-level education and above; traders constituted 52.0% of the sample; and 85.2% were of low socioeconomic standing; 90% had patronised the CBHF. The main reasons for non-utilisation were preference for general hospitals (13.8%) and self-medication (12.1%). Respondents who had secondary education and above, were in a higher socioeconomic class, who had good knowledge of the facility and were satisfied with care, utilised the CBHF three months significantly more than their counterparts prior to the study (p < 0.05). However, only satisfaction with care was found to be a significant predictor of utilisation of the CBHF. Conclusion The utilisation of the CBHF amongst adults in the study setting is high, driven mostly by satisfaction with the care received previously. Self-medication, promoted by uncontrolled access to drugs through pharmacies and patent medicine stores, threatens this high utilisation. PMID:26245600

  3. Water quality assessment of the Asata River catchment area in Enugu Metropolis, Southeast Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical mapping of the Asata River Catchment area in the Enugu metropolis, southeast Nigeria was carried out in order to assess the quality of the surface and groundwater and based on the analyses of the hydrogeochemical data, establish the level of chemical contaminations which inhibit the availability of potable water in the area. Forty (40) water samples comprising five (5) springs, nineteen (19) surface (streams/rivers) and sixteen (16) groundwater (well/borehole) samples were collected and analysed for the presence and degree of contamination of nine (9) major chemical contaminants. Hydrochemical analyses indicate that Electrical Conductivity (EC) which has a linear relationship with Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) ranges between 015 and 887 μS/cm, pH between 4.4 and 8.3, nitrate (NO3-) ranges between 40 and 130 mg/l and chloride (Cl-) between 7 and 130 mg/l. The concentrations of the dissolved chemical constituents defined the pollution trend and the rate of dispersion of contaminants. The degree of contaminants followed a simple trend, where the level of contamination of the dissolved chemical constituents is least in sampled spring water, with measured chemical constituents of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- range from 15 to 354 μS/cm; 6.4-6.5; 4.0-70 mg/l and 8-36 mg/l, respectively. However, the value of the measured chemical constituent of EC, pH, NO3- and Cl- gradually increases down the stream in both the surface (63-354 μS/cm; 4.5-7.7; 7.1-110 mg/l; 8-41 mg/l) and groundwater (56-531 μS/cm; 4.5-7.5; 40-130 mg/l; 7-130 mg/l), respectively. Noticeable peaks in contamination levels characterised sections of the study area where human population or their activities is highest. The result of the hydrogeochemical mapping indicate that Enugu coal mine operation, the industrial activities, fertilizer applied to plants cultivated on river banks and domestic human wastes which are indiscriminately dumped along river channels are the major sources of chemical

  4. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1-5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths' sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008-0.679), and those who said accessing the Internet for sexual material is not acceptable to them

  5. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing

  6. Improving outcomes in cancer diagnosis, prevention and control: barriers, facilitators and the need for health literacy in Ibadan Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Lounsbury, David; Popoola, Oluwafemi; Asuzu, Chioma; Lawal, Akinmayowa; Oladoyin, V; Crifase, Cassandra; Agalliu, Ilir; Shankar, Viswanathan; Adebiyi, Akindele

    2017-10-01

    Cancers constitute a significant public health problem in Nigeria. Breast, cervix and prostate cancers are leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Changing diets, lifestyles, HIV/AIDS and macro-structural factors contribute to cancer morbidity and mortality. Poor health information linking cancer risk to individual behaviors, environmental pollutants and structural barriers undermine prevention/control efforts. Studies suggest increasing health literacy and empowering individuals to take preventive action will improve outcomes and mitigate impact on a weak health system. We obtained qualitative data from 80 men, women, and young adults in 11 focus groups to assess beliefs, risk-perceptions, preventive behaviors and perceptions of barriers and facilitators to cancer control in Ibadan, Nigeria and conducted thematic analysis. Participants demonstrated awareness of cancers and mentioned several risk factors related to individual behaviors and the environment. Nonetheless, myths and misconceptions as well as micro, meso and macro level barriers impede prevention and control efforts. Developing and implementing comprehensive context-relevant health literacy interventions in community settings are urgently needed.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Social barriers to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in patients presenting at a teaching hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Liese; Mumuni, Tolulope; Raikhel, Eugene; Ademola, Adeyinka; Ogundiran, Temidayo; Adenipekun, Adeniyi; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Ojengbede, Oladosu A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2015-01-01

    Globally, breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women, and stage at diagnosis is a key determinant of outcome. In low- to middle-income countries, including Nigeria, advanced stage diagnosis and delayed treatment represent a significant problem. That social barriers contribute to delay has been noted in previous research; however, few specific factors have been studied. Using semi-structured interviews, this study identifies social barriers to diagnosis and treatment for patients who presented at University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria. Transcripts from the interviews were coded and analysed thematically. Thirty-one patients and five physicians were interviewed. The median age of patients was 51 (range: 28 to above 80), 83% were Christian and 17% were Muslim. Preliminary analysis showed that delays in diagnosis reflected a lack of education as well as the utilisation of non-physician medical services such as pharmacists. Delays in treatment were often due to fear of unanticipated surgery and cost. The majority of women did not know the cause of their breast cancer, but some believed it was caused by a spiritual affliction. This study suggests that further education and awareness of breast cancer for both patients and providers is needed in order to increase early stage diagnosis.

  8. Evaluation of directly observed treatment short courses at a secondary health institution in Ibadan, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Olajire A; Orokotan, Olalekan A

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the success rate of tuberculosis intervention programme at a specialist hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria through a retrospective study as well as carry out physicochemical evaluation of anti-tuberculous agents as a way of eliminating drug-related failure. The retrospective study involved the use of quarterly tuberculosis central register at the Government Chest Hospital, Ibadan between 1st quarter (2003) to 4th quarter (2009). Relevant data were extracted from these register with the aid of data collection forms. The basic physicochemical analyses of the drugs given to the patients were also carried out using the International Pharmacopoeia methods. All the drugs examined for their physicochemical properties passed the International Pharmacopeia recommended tests. A total number of 1 260 patients enrolled at the hospital were assessed through case notes. This comprises of 59.4% males of which 69.23% new cases were also males. There was a significant (P<0.05) patient enrollment across the quarters for the seven years. An overall 80.24% cure rate over the 7-period was obtained which is less than the WHO target of 85%. Cure rates were better in females than males. Failure treatment outcomes such as positive (1.51%), deaths (8.73%), defaulted (3.33%) and transferred out (5.95%) were recorded though not statistically significant (P>0.05). Failure rates in all categories were higher in males than females (P>0.05). More enlightenment and counseling is still required to meet up with the target for TB control. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Errors Committed by Physics Students in Secondary Schools in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omosewo, Esther Ore; Akanbi, Abdulrasaq Oladimeji

    2013-01-01

    The study attempt to find out the types of error committed and influence of gender on the type of error committed by senior secondary school physics students in metropolis. Six (6) schools were purposively chosen for the study. One hundred and fifty five students' scripts were randomly sampled for the study. Joint Mock physics essay questions…

  10. Environmental Awareness and School Sanitation in Calabar Metropolis of Cross Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anijaobi-Idem, F. N.; Ukata, B. N.; Bisong, N. N

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey designed study explored the influence of environmental awareness on secondary school sanitation in Calabar Metropolis. 1 hypothesis was formulated to direct the investigation. 300 subjects made up of 30 principals and 270 teachers constituted the sample drawn from the population of principals and teachers in secondary…

  11. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  12. Promoting environmental public health in rapidly urbanizing areas of less-developed countries in Africa: a collaborative interdisciplinary training in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shendell, Derek G; Ana, Godson R E E

    2011-01-01

    Globally, urbanization has been occurring more rapidly in small-to-medium-sized cities in less-developed countries of Africa and Asia. Studies have suggested associations between traffic and industry-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. These chemical and physical exposure agents have also received increased attention for environmental quality concerns like global climate change. Most research to date, however, was conducted in larger industrialized country urban centers. Ibadan, Nigeria, is a historic city characterized by urban sprawl and increasing modernization as an academic and medical training center but is lacking in the implementation of environmental laws. The authors conducted their first training in Ibadan, Nigeria, May 19-23, 2008, based on initial collaborative work during 2006-2008 as well as a trip in mid-March 2007. They describe the rationale for and components of the training, likely one of the first of its kind in Africa. The title of the training was "Advances in Community Outdoor and Indoor Air and Environmental Quality Monitoring and Exposure Assessment." Content was multimedia and interdisciplinary. The authors included lectures, group discussions, field experiences at community and industrial sites with cross-sectional environmental monitoring, and planned pilot studies including master's thesis projects based on real-time, grant-funded monitoring equipment provided to the University of Ibadan, including protocol development demonstrations.

  13. Bacteriological quality of drinking water from source to household in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oloruntoba, E O; Sridhar, M K C

    2007-06-01

    The bacteriological quality of drinking water from well, spring, borehole, and tap sources and that stored in containers by urban households in Ibadan was assessed during wet and dry seasons. The MPN technique was used to detect and enumerate the number of coliforms in water samples. Results showed that majority of households relied on wells, which were found to be the most contaminated of all the sources. At the household level, water quality significantly deteriorated after collection and storage as a result of poor handling. Furthermore, there was significant seasonal variation in E. coli count at source (P=0.013) and household (P=0.001). The study concludes that there is a need to improve the microbial quality of drinking water at source and the household level through hygiene education, and provision of simple, acceptable, low-cost treatment methods.

  14. Tooth wear in the elderly population in South East Local Government area in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, J O; Ogunyinka, A; Onyeaso, C O; Dosumu, O O

    2005-12-01

    It is the aim of this study to determine the pattern and degree of tooth wear in the elderly population in the South East Local Government Area in Ibadan. The study was carried out on 690 elderly individuals who were 65 years old and above, living in various wards in South East Local Government Area, in Ibadan. A multistage sampling technique was used to select elderly individuals for the study. Two interviewers, 2-record clerks and 2 examiners were trained for the study and the examiners were calibrated. The index of Eccles J.D was used to determine the severity of tooth wear. The results highlight the high prevalence of tooth wear, mainly attrition in the elderly in this local government area. Six hundred and forty (92.8%) of the elderly had tooth wear. Of these 58.59% were males and 41.41% females. Attrition was observed in 618 (89.6%) elderly individuals. The mandible exhibited a higher prevalence of tooth wear than the maxilla and was statistically significant. Severe tooth wear was observed in only 5.74% of the teeth whilst moderate and mild tooth wear were observed in 26.91% and 30.88% respectively. Unlike the Western European countries, attrition being the most common type of tooth wear in these elderly individuals suggests that the aetiological factors responsible for tooth wear are different. Common habits such as crushing of bones and chewing of sticks for routine oral hygiene care could be contributing factors to tooth wear in this environment.

  15. Assessment of Trace Metals Concentration in Tree Barks as Indicator of Atmospheric Pollution within Ibadan City, South-West, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ejidike, Ikechukwu P.; Onianwa, Percy C.

    2015-01-01

    Tree bark species were randomly collected from 65 sites having different anthropogenic activities, such as industrial, high traffic commercial, residential high and residential low traffic volume areas of Ibadan City, Nigeria. Levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, and Cr of the dry-ashed bark samples were determined by AAS. The mean metal concentrations (mg kg−1) in samples from industrial zone were found as Pb: 3.67 ± 1.97, Cd: 0.10 ± 0.07, Zn: 30.96 ± 32.05, Cu: 7.29 ± 5.17, Co: 0.91 ± 0.58, and Cr: 2.61 ± 1.84. The trend of mean trace metal concentrations at high traffic commercial zone follows the order: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Co > Cd. Residential high traffic and low traffic zones revealed the same trend as Cd < Co < Cr < Pb < Cu < Zn. Relatively strong positive correlation between the heavy metals at ρ < 0.05, such as Zn versus Cu (r = 0.79) and Co versus Cu (r = 0.77), was observed. The results of the study suggest that tree bark samples could potentially serve as bioindicators for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and possibly Co and Cd. Furthermore, interspecies variation of heavy metal concentrations in plants barks is recommended. PMID:26605104

  16. Influence of Exposure to Sexually Explicit Films on the Sexual Behavior of Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odeleye, Olubunmi; Ajuwon, Ademola J

    2015-01-01

    Young people in secondary schools who are prone to engage in risky sexual behaviors spend considerable time watching Television (TV) which often presents sex scenes. The influence of exposure to sex scenes on TV (SSTV) has been little researched in Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to determine the perceived influence of exposure to SSTV on the sexual behavior of secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area. A total of 489 randomly selected students were surveyed. Mean age of respondents was 14.1 ± 1.9 years and 53.8% were females. About 91% had ever been exposed to sex scenes. The type of TV program from which most respondents reported exposure to sexual scenes was movies (86.9%). Majority reported exposure to all forms of SSTV from secondary storage devices. Students whose TV watching behavior was not monitored had heavier exposures to SSTV compared with those who were. About 56.3% of females and 26.5% of males affirmed that watching SSTV had affected their sexual behavior. Predictor of sex-related activities was exposure to heavy sex scenes. Peer education and school-based programs should include topics to teach young people on how to evaluate presentations of TV programs. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Exposure to electric power generator noise among small scale business operators in selected communities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ana, Godson R E E; Luqman, Yesufu A; Shendell, Derek G; Owoaje, Eme T

    2014-11-01

    Inadequate and erratic power supplies mean small businesses use electric generators for alternative power. The authors' goal in the study described here was to assess noise from electric generators and impacts in the commercial areas of Agbowo and Ajibode in Ibadan, Nigeria. Noise levels (A-weighted decibels [dBA]) were measured over 12 weeks, three times a day, during the 2010 dry season using a sound level meter. A questionnaire was administered (515 respondents; 304 in Agbowo, 211 in Ajibode) and audiometric measurements were conducted on 40% of respondents. Mean noise levels varied by source (104 ± 7.7 dBA [diesel], 94.0 ± 6.3 dBA [petrol]) and were highest midday (90.6 ± 5.3 dBA [Agbowo], 70.9 ± 6.2 dBA [Ajibode]). Mean noise levels in Agbowo (78.5 ± 3.9 dBA) and Ajibode (65.7 ± 4.4 dBA) exceeded World Health Organization guidelines (65 dBA) for outdoor commercial environments. Working and living in Agbowo was significantly associated with current evidence of hearing impairment (odds ratio: 6.8, 95% confidence interval: 3.4-13.7). Reducing exposure to noise from electric power generators serving urban small businesses and homes is warranted.

  18. Integrated electromagnetic (EM) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) geophysical studies of environmental impact of Awotan dumpsite in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale Olakunle; Falufosi, Michael Oluseyi; Omiyale, Eniola Oluwatosin

    2018-04-01

    This study attempts to establish the level of contamination caused by the decomposition of wastes by defining the lateral distribution and the vertical limit of leachate induced zone of anomalous conductivity distribution within the subsurface through the analyses of Electromagnetic (EM) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data, generated from the integrated geophysical survey over Awotan landfill dumpsite, in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria. Nine (9) EM and ERT profiles each were established within and around the Awotan landfill site. EM data were acquire at 5 m station interval using 10 m, 20 m and 40 m inter-coil spacings, while ERT stations were occupied at 2 m electrode spacing using dipole-dipole electrode configuration. The near perfect agreement between the two sets of data generated from the EM and ERT surveys over the Awotan landfill site as well as the subsurface imaging ability of these geophysical methods to delineate the region of elevated contamination presented in the form of anomalously high apparent ground conductivity and low subsurface resistivity distribution, suggest the importance of integrating electromagnetic and electrical resistivity investigation techniques for environmental studies and more importantly for selecting appropriate landfill dump site location such with ability to retain the generated contaminants and thus prevent environmental pollution.

  19. Non-invasive estimation of pulmonary artery pressures in patients with sickle cell anaemia in Ibadan, Nigeria: an echocardiographic study.

    PubMed

    Enakpene, Evbu O; Adebiyi, Adewole A; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Olaniyi, John A; Aje, Akinyemi; Adeoye, Moshood A; Falase, Ayodele O

    2014-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is emerging as one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in adults with sickle cell disease. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in Nigerian adults with sickle cell anaemia is unknown. We decided to estimate the pulmonary artery systolic and diastolic pressures in subjects with sickle cell anaemia seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, and to determine the frequency of pulmonary hypertension among them. Ninety patients (38 males and 52 females) with sickle cell anaemia in steady state and comparable age- and sex-matched normal controls had a clinical evaluation and echocardiographic examination. The mean age of the subjects with sickle cell anaemia was 24.0 (9.00) years while the mean age for the control group was 24.0 (7.00) years. The frequency of pulmonary hypertension as assessed by a tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity of > 2.5 m/s in this study was 12.2%. Larger left ventricular dimensions and volumes, higher stroke volume and increased left ventricular mass indexed by body surface area were found to be associated with pulmonary hypertension. A multivariate analysis of the potential predictors of pulmonary hypertension in this study showed that male sex and lower packed cell volume (PCV) were independent predictors of pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anaemia. We conclude that pulmonary artery systolic and diastolic pressures are higher in subjects with sickle cell disease than normal controls. Male sex and low PCV are independent determinants of pulmonary arterial pressure in subjects with sickle cell anaemia in Nigeria.

  20. The SPLASH/ICPC integrity marathon in Ibadan, Nigeria: incidence and management of injuries and marathon-related health problems.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-04-15

    The growing interest in marathon runners and marathons in Nigeria has not been reflected in reports of injuries and other health problems associated with these events. This study therefore outlines the incidence of injuries, marathon-related health problems and delivery of physiotherapy at the maiden and second editions of the Splash 105.5 FM/ICPC Integrity Marathon in Ibadan city, south-west Nigeria in 2009 and 2010. Using a data entry sheet, demographics and information on running experience, past and present injuries and other health problems reported en route and at the finish line by the runners were documented. The prevalence of injuries and other health problems reported by previous and first-time runners were compared. In both events, 16.3% and 17.2% of the runners respectively reported injuries with significant occurrence in first-time runners (p = 0.003 for 2009; p = 0.002 for 2010) mostly at the finish line. The reported injury type and site were muscle cramps and the thigh (39.7% and 76.4% respectively). Heat exhaustion was reported by 42.8% of runners in 2009 and 56.3% in 2010. Cryotherapy was mostly used in combination with other physiotherapy modalities in both years. Most of the injuries and other health problems were reported by first-time marathon runners mainly at the finish line. The most reported site of injury was the thigh while muscle cramps and heat exhaustions were the most reported types of injuries and health problems. First-time marathon runners should be adequately informed of the predisposition to injury during marathons and adequate body conditioning should be emphasized. Ample preparation and effective involvement of the physiotherapy team is essential for management of injured runners en route and at the finish line in a marathon.

  1. The SPLASH/ICPC integrity marathon in Ibadan, Nigeria: incidence and management of injuries and marathon-related health problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing interest in marathon runners and marathons in Nigeria has not been reflected in reports of injuries and other health problems associated with these events. This study therefore outlines the incidence of injuries, marathon-related health problems and delivery of physiotherapy at the maiden and second editions of the Splash 105.5 FM/ICPC Integrity Marathon in Ibadan city, south-west Nigeria in 2009 and 2010. Methods Using a data entry sheet, demographics and information on running experience, past and present injuries and other health problems reported en route and at the finish line by the runners were documented. The prevalence of injuries and other health problems reported by previous and first-time runners were compared. Results In both events, 16.3% and 17.2% of the runners respectively reported injuries with significant occurrence in first-time runners (p = 0.003 for 2009; p = 0.002 for 2010) mostly at the finish line. The reported injury type and site were muscle cramps and the thigh (39.7% and 76.4% respectively). Heat exhaustion was reported by 42.8% of runners in 2009 and 56.3% in 2010. Cryotherapy was mostly used in combination with other physiotherapy modalities in both years. Conclusion Most of the injuries and other health problems were reported by first-time marathon runners mainly at the finish line. The most reported site of injury was the thigh while muscle cramps and heat exhaustions were the most reported types of injuries and health problems. First-time marathon runners should be adequately informed of the predisposition to injury during marathons and adequate body conditioning should be emphasized. Ample preparation and effective involvement of the physiotherapy team is essential for management of injured runners en route and at the finish line in a marathon. PMID:24499546

  2. Heavy metal content of selected personal care products (PCPs) available in Ibadan, Nigeria and their toxic effects.

    PubMed

    Omenka, Sunday Samuel; Adeyi, Adebola Abosede

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing concern on heavy metals in consumer products due to their potential human health risks and environmental effects. In this study, the levels of zinc, cadmium, lead and nickel were assessed in 3 different classes of personal care products commonly used in Ibadan, Nigeria. Samples were analysed for heavy metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of the metals and Health Risk Index (HRI) were calculated to assess the human health risks associated with the use of these PCPs. The concentrations (mg/kg) of zinc ranged from 3.75 to 19.3, 1.88 to 112,000 and 19.8 to 217 respectively in creams, powders and eyeliners. Cadmium ranged from ND-0.50, ND-36.3 and ND-0.50 mg/kg while lead ranged from ND-6.25, ND-468 and 3.73-27.5 mg/kg and nickel ranged from ND-6.25, 0.13-107 and 2.75-22.7 mg/kg respectively. There were high concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni in some of the samples when compared with the available permissible limits in cosmetics (Cd: 0.3 ppm, Pb: 10 ppm and Ni: 0.6 ppm while there is no permissible limit for Zn in cosmetics currently available). Prolonged use of PCPs may pose human health and environmental risks due to toxic metal loading through dermal contact and accumulation over a period of time. Hence, the need for necessary government agencies to regulate and enforce toxic metals in consumer products including cosmetics produced and imported into Nigeria to safeguard public health and the environment, which is the final sink.

  3. Utilization of insecticide treated nets during pregnancy among postpartum women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pregnant women are susceptible to symptomatic malaria due to invasion of the placenta by plasmodium. Malaria increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mothers, the foetuses and newborns. The effective use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) would be of benefit to these vulnerable women. Previous studies have focused on prenatal-women but this study sought to explore the actual trend of utilization of the proven strategy across all the pregnancy stages among postpartum women in Ibadan. Methods This cross-sectional survey utilized a validated structured questionnaire for data collection. A calculated sample of 335 postpartum women was proportionately recruited from three fee-paying facilities within Ibadan, Nigeria using a simple random sampling technique. These hospitals have high client flow for maternity cases and are known for provision of care under traditional ANC model. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by means of Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. The level of significance was set at = 0.05. Results The women's age ranged between 18 and 47 years, mean age was 29.4 ± 0.8 years. Various irregularities marked the traditional model of ANC provided at the settings and no exposure to preconception care. Also, 276 (82.4%) had heard of ITNs. Antenatal clinics formed the major source of information. Low utilization and compliance rates were observed. One hundred and twenty-seven (37.9%) of the women had high knowledge of Malaria in Pregnancy (MIP) but only 70 (20.9%) demonstrated positive attitude towards the use of ITNs. Participants' educational status, family types, employment and residential areas significantly influenced ITNs utilization. Conclusions The women knew and learned about ITNs from ANC visits. Majority of the women did not own ITNs because of lack of access to free distribution. The existing traditional model of ANC was marked by irregularities and none of the

  4. Contraceptive Knowledge and Sexual Behaviour among Federal University Students in Nigeria: The Case of University of Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babalola, Blessing

    2011-01-01

    This study looked into contraceptives knowledge and sexual behaviour among federal university students in Ibadan. The main objective of this study was to find out the level of knowledge of contraceptive and the relationship between level of knowledge of contraceptive and safe sexual behaviour of federal university students in Ibadan. It is…

  5. Factors affecting vaccine handling and storage practices among immunization service providers in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dairo, David M; Osizimete, Oyarebu E

    2016-06-01

    Improper handling has been identified as one of the major reasons for the decline in vaccine potency at the time of administration. Loss of potency becomes evident when immunised individuals contract the diseases the vaccines were meant to prevent. Assessing the factors associated with vaccine handling and storage practices. This was a cross-sectional study. Three-stage sampling was used to recruit 380 vaccine handlers from 273 health facilities from 11 Local Government areas in Ibadan. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Seventy-three percent were aware of vaccine handling and storage guidelines with 68.4% having ever read such guidelines. Only 15.3% read a guideline less than 1 month prior to the study. About 65.0% had received training on vaccine management. Incorrect handling practices reported included storing injections with vaccines (13.7%) and maintaining vaccine temperature using ice blocks (7.6%). About 43.0% had good knowledge of vaccine management, while 66.1% had good vaccine management practices. Respondents who had good knowledge of vaccine handling and storage [OR=10.0, 95%CI (5.28 - 18.94), p < 0.001] and had received formal training on vaccine management [OR=5.3, 95%CI (2.50 - 11.14), p< 0.001] were more likely to have good vaccine handling and storage practices. Regular training is recommended to enhance vaccine handling and storage practices.

  6. The unmet treatment need of traumatized anterior teeth in selected secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Mojirade Deborah; Denloye, Obafunke; Abiodun Solanke, Funmilayo I

    2010-02-01

    Treatment of traumatized anterior teeth is highly desirable to relieve pain, maintain esthetics and to preserve the balance of the anterior part of the mouth; however many may go untreated. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of damage to permanent anterior teeth in school adolescents, the average duration of trauma and to ascertain the level of the unmet treatment need. A total of 1532 secondary school children between the ages 12 and 19 years participated in the study. They were randomly selected from public secondary schools in five local government areas in Ibadan using a multistage sampling method. Participants were examined with the aid of mouth mirrors and probes under natural light. Traumatic anterior dental injuries were recorded by the same investigator (DMA) according to WHO classification. One hundred and sixty-five participants sustained injuries to their anterior teeth. Their mean age was 15.47 +/- 2.09 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The commonest cause was fall (78.8%) with road traffic accident being the least (1.8%). The tooth most commonly injured is the upper left incisor (48.0%) closely followed by upper right central (43.1%). Enamel fracture was seen in 46.5% and enamel-dentine in 42.6% of the traumatized teeth. Most (79.4%) of the children sustained injury to one tooth only. Of the participants, only 30 (18.2%) had previous dental consultation while only nine (5.5%) consulted the dentist following the trauma; however, none of the teeth had any form of restoration. Average time elapsed between trauma and dental examination was about 3.5 years. Many participants had had injury for about 2 years before dental examination. In conclusion, there is a high unmet treatment need of traumatized anterior teeth in the study population.

  7. Case control study of dry eye and related ocular surface abnormalities in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bekibele, C O; Baiyeroju, A M; Ajaiyeoba, A; Akang, E E U; Ajayi, B G K

    2010-02-01

    Tear instability is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort and irritation. Many patients with dry eyes remain untreated due to improper diagnoses. To identify symptoms and surface abnormalities associated with dry eyes. One hundred and fifty-six eyes of 78 subjects attending the Eye Clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan were screened for dry eyes/tear instability using rose Bengal stain (graded 0-9), tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's 1 tests, tear meniscus height and a standardised symptoms questionnaire. Grades 4-9 rose Bengal staining were considered as positive dry eye and were compared with grades 0-3 staining eyes as negative controls. Mean tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and TBUT were lower among cases than their corresponding control eyes. The difference between the mean Schirmer's test values of cases and their controls were statistically significant (P = 0.00 for right eyes and P = 0.002 for left eyes). Rose Bengal grades were inversely correlated with the mean Schirmer's values (Pearson correlation -0.429, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.335, P = 0.03 for left eyes) and TBUT (Pearson correlation -0.316, P = 0.05 for right eyes and -0.212, P = 0.06 for left eyes). About 95.8% of the cases were symptomatic, as opposed to 70.4% of the controls (P = 0.01, Fisher's exact test) and 95.8% of dry right eyes compared to 61.1% of their controls had ocular surface abnormalities (P = 0.001), while 89.5% of dry left eyes compared to 62.7% of controls had surface abnormalities (P = 0.07). A close relationship exists between ocular irritation symptoms, surface abnormalities and functional evidence of tear instability. Such patients should be treated empirically or screened for dry eyes.

  8. Our chairman is very efficient: community participation in the delivery of primary health care in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iyanda, Omowunmi Folake; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Community participation is rapidly being viewed as a requirement for the successful acceptance of health services; it integrates a complicated process which involves customs, beliefs, culture and power relations, not only structures and policies. Yet, there is a wide knowledge gap and changes favouring community participation in primary health care is still minimal. This study aims to assess the process indicators and other factors influencing community participation in the delivery of primary health care. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative methods was conducted in Ibadan South East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria between July and September, 2015. The interview and Focus Group Discussion guides centred around five participation indicators of needs assessment, leadership, resource mobilization, organization and management was used to collect data. A total of 12 in-depth interviews and four FGDs were conducted among male and female respondents consisting PHC service providers and community members purposively selected from four wards of the LGA. Spidergrams were constructed to visualize the levels of community participation from respondents' opinions. Results About 51.1% of the 45 respondents (with mean age 45.5 ± 8.09 years) were males. The respondents view community participation in the delivery of PHC in the LGA as being wide (open). Majority of the service users believe and agree that the level of community participation in their wards is about average while the service providers believed that participation was very high. However, respondents identified female representation, collaboration with pre-existing community structures, top-down and bottom-up approach to service delivery as factors affecting community participation in PHC delivery. Conclusion This study provides a baseline data on community participation in the delivery of primary health care. Community participation is still an important principle

  9. EFFECT OF A ROAD SAFETY EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON ROAD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSITY DRIVERS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Olumide, A O; Owoaje, E T

    2016-06-01

    It is essential for drivers employed in the formal sector to have good knowledge of road safety in order to safeguard their lives and those of the staff they are employed to drive. The study was conducted to determine the effect of a road safety education intervention on road safety knowledge of drivers employed in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental study of 98 intervention and 78 control drivers selected using a cluster sampling technique was conducted. The intervention comprised a two-day training on road safety and first aid. The drivers' knowledge of road safety was measured at baseline, immediately and 4-months post-intervention. Aggregate scores of road safety knowledge were computed giving minimum and maximum obtainable scores of 0 and 16 respectively. Change in mean scores over the three measurement periods was assessed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Independent t-test was used to compare the scores between intervention and control drivers at each of the assessment periods. Twenty-nine drivers did not complete the study (attrition rate = 16.5%). At baseline, mean road safety knowledge scores for the intervention and control drivers were 12.7±2.2 and 12.9± 2.3 (p = 0.510) respectively. Immediately and four months post intervention, the scores of the intervention drivers were 13.8±1.9 and 12.8±1.6; while scores for the controls were 13.3±2.0 and 13.2±1.8. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the increase in knowledge over the three assessment periods was not statistically significant. The intervention resulted in an initial increase in road safety knowledge of the intervention drivers. However, this was not sustained to the forth month post-intervention. This finding suggests periodic refresher trainings to sustain the knowledge acquired.

  10. Our chairman is very efficient: community participation in the delivery of primary health care in Ibadan, Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iyanda, Omowunmi Folake; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo

    2017-01-01

    Community participation is rapidly being viewed as a requirement for the successful acceptance of health services; it integrates a complicated process which involves customs, beliefs, culture and power relations, not only structures and policies. Yet, there is a wide knowledge gap and changes favouring community participation in primary health care is still minimal. This study aims to assess the process indicators and other factors influencing community participation in the delivery of primary health care. This descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative methods was conducted in Ibadan South East Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria between July and September, 2015. The interview and Focus Group Discussion guides centred around five participation indicators of needs assessment, leadership, resource mobilization, organization and management was used to collect data. A total of 12 in-depth interviews and four FGDs were conducted among male and female respondents consisting PHC service providers and community members purposively selected from four wards of the LGA. Spidergrams were constructed to visualize the levels of community participation from respondents' opinions. About 51.1% of the 45 respondents (with mean age 45.5 ± 8.09 years) were males. The respondents view community participation in the delivery of PHC in the LGA as being wide (open). Majority of the service users believe and agree that the level of community participation in their wards is about average while the service providers believed that participation was very high. However, respondents identified female representation, collaboration with pre-existing community structures, top-down and bottom-up approach to service delivery as factors affecting community participation in PHC delivery. This study provides a baseline data on community participation in the delivery of primary health care. Community participation is still an important principle in the delivery of primary health care

  11. Evaluation of seasonal variation of water quality using multivariate statistical analysis and irrigation parameter indices in Ajakanga area, Ibadan, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganiyu, S. A.; Badmus, B. S.; Olurin, O. T.; Ojekunle, Z. O.

    2018-03-01

    The variation of groundwater quality across different regions is of great importance in the study of groundwater so as to ascertain the sources of contaminants to available water sources. Geochemical assessment of groundwater samples from hand-dug wells were done within the vicinity of Ajakanga dumpsite, Ibadan, Southwestern, Nigeria, with the aim of assessing their suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes. Ten groundwater samples were collected both in dry and wet seasons for analysis of physicochemical parameters such as: pH, EC, TDS, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3^{ - } Cl-, SO4^{2 - }, NO3^{2 - } principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to determine probable sources of groundwater contamination. The results of the analyses showed the groundwater samples to be within permissible limits of WHO/NSDWQ, while elevated values of concentrations of most analyzed chemical constituents in water samples were noticed in S1 and S10 due to their nearness to the dumpsite and agricultural overflow, respectively. Groundwater in the study area is of hard, fresh and alkaline nature. There are very strong associations between EC and TDS, HCO3^{ - } and CO3^{2 - } in both seasons. PCA identified five and three major factors accounting for 95.7 and 88.7% of total variation in water quality for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA also identified factors influencing water quality as those probably related to mineral dissolution, groundwater-rock interaction, weathering process and anthropogenic activities from the dumpsite. Results of CA show groups based on similar water quality characteristics and on the extent of proximity to the dumpsite. Assessment for irrigation purpose showed that most of the water samples were suitable for agricultural purpose except in a few locations.

  12. Barriers to radiotherapy access at the University College Hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anakwenze, Chidinma P; Ntekim, Atara; Trock, Bruce; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B; Page, Brandi R

    2017-08-01

    Nigeria has the biggest gap between radiotherapy availability and need, with one machine per 19.4 million people, compared to one machine per 250,000 people in high-income countries. This study aims to identify its patient-level barriers to radiotherapy access. This was a cross sectional study consisting of patient questionnaires ( n  = 50) conducted in January 2016 to assess patient demographics, types of cancers seen, barriers to receiving radiotherapy, health beliefs and practices, and factors leading to treatment delay. Eighty percent of patients could not afford radiotherapy without financial assistance and only 6% of the patients had federal insurance, which did not cover radiotherapy services. Of the patients who had completed radiotherapy treatment, 91.3% had experienced treatment delay or often cancellation due to healthcare worker strike, power failure, machine breakdown, or prolonged wait time. The timeliness of a patient's radiotherapy care correlated with their employment status and distance from radiotherapy center ( p  < 0.05). Barriers to care at a radiotherapy center in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) have previously not been well characterized. These findings can be used to inform efforts to expand the availability of radiotherapy and improve current treatment capacity in Nigeria and in other LMICs.

  13. Correlates of willingness to engage in residential gardening: implications for health optimization in ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Motunrayo Ibrahim, Fausat

    2013-01-01

    Gardening is a worthwhile adventure which engenders health op-timization. Yet, a dearth of evidences that highlights motivations to engage in gardening exists. This study examined willingness to engage in gardening and its correlates, including some socio-psychological, health related and socio-demographic variables. In this cross-sectional survey, 508 copies of a structured questionnaire were randomly self administered among a group of civil servants of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of willingness to engage in gar-dening Results: Simple percentile analysis shows that 71.1% of respondents do not own a garden. Results of step wise multiple regression analysis indicate that descriptive norm of gardening is a good predictor, social support for gardening is better while gardening self efficacy is the best predictor of willingness to engage in gardening (P< 0.001). Health consciousness, gardening response efficacy, education and age are not predictors of this willingness (P> 0.05). Results of t-test and ANOVA respectively shows that gender is not associated with this willingness (P> 0.05), but marital status is (P< 0.05).  Socio-psychological characteristics and being married are very rele-vant in motivations to engage in gardening. The nexus between gardening and health optimization appears to be highly obscured in this population.

  14. Correlates of Willingness to Engage in Residential Gardening: Implications for Health Optimization in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Motunrayo Ibrahim, Fausat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gardening is a worthwhile adventure which engenders health op­timization. Yet, a dearth of evidences that highlights motivations to engage in gardening exists. This study examined willingness to engage in gardening and its correlates, including some socio-psychological, health related and socio-demographic variables. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 508 copies of a structured questionnaire were randomly self administered among a group of civil servants of Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi-item measures were used to assess variables. Step wise multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of willingness to engage in gar­dening Results: Simple percentile analysis shows that 71.1% of respondents do not own a garden. Results of step wise multiple regression analysis indicate that descriptive norm of gardening is a good predictor, social support for gardening is better while gardening self efficacy is the best predictor of willingness to engage in gardening (P< 0.001). Health consciousness, gardening response efficacy, education and age are not predictors of this willingness (P> 0.05). Results of t-test and ANOVA respectively shows that gender is not associated with this willingness (P> 0.05), but marital status is (P< 0.05).  Conclusion: Socio-psychological characteristics and being married are very rele­vant in motivations to engage in gardening. The nexus between gardening and health optimization appears to be highly obscured in this population. PMID:24688974

  15. The role of emotional intelligence and organisational support on work stress of nurses in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Abiodun M; Idemudia, Erhabor S

    2017-05-23

    Universally, nurses have been reported to be a group at high risk of workplace stress. However, nurses' responses to stressful situations at work could be the outcomes of individual differences and organisational factors. We examined the independent and joint contributions of four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support in work stress of nurses in a teaching hospital in Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional survey research design, which selected 228 (41 male and 187 female nurses) nurses through the use of convenience sampling. Questionnaires comprising demographics with work stress, organisational support and emotional intelligence scales were administered to the sampled 228 nurses in the study. Data were analysed with the use of correlational matrix and hierarchical multiple regression. Self-emotion appraisal, others' emotion appraisal, use of emotion, regulation of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have joint contributions to explaining work stress among nurses. Others' emotion appraisal, use of emotion and perceived organisational support were found to have independent relationships with work stress. Our findings stress that judgement of others' emotions, accurate use of emotion by nurses and support from management of the hospital are most important in explaining their reactions towards work-related stress.

  16. Predictors of condom use among sexually active persons involved in compulsory national service in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sunmola, Adegbenga M; Olley, Benjamin O; Oso, Grace E

    2007-08-01

    Migration is known to increase the risk of heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in sub-Saharan Africa, but little attention has been paid to fresh graduates of tertiary institutions who are on migration for compulsory national assignment in Nigeria. In July and August 2004, a survey was conducted on sexually active men (n = 344) and women (n = 373) to investigate determinants of condom use during national service. Sixty-eight percent of men and 41% of women reported condom use at last intercourse before the survey. For both men and women, condom use was common if they had one or more regular sex partners and if they were purchasing condoms. In addition, women's condom use was predicted by being single and having intention to use condoms in next intercourse. The findings further showed that there was high risk of HIV transmission in the sample population as consistent condom use was 15% for men and 4% for women. Twelve percent of men and 8% of women reported STI diagnoses in the last 12 months before the survey. Four percent of men and 2% of women reported they already had HIV diagnoses. Only 1% of men and 2% of women reported they would receive voluntary HIV test if offered free by the government. The study findings suggest the need to extend the existing condom social marketing services in the country to the youth on national service and promote condom education messages among them prior to commencing national service.

  17. Epidemiological Evaluation of Rubella Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adewumi, Olubusuyi M; Olayinka, Oluseyi A; Olusola, Babatunde A; Faleye, Temitope O C; Sule, Waidi F; Adesina, Olubukola

    2015-01-01

    Rubella is a vaccine-preventable, mild rash-inducing viral disease with complications that include a spectrum of birth defects in the developing fetus, especially if the infection is acquired in the early months of pregnancy. Consequently, the primary objective of global rubella control programs is prevention of congenital rubella infection and associated birth defects. Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines, and the elimination of the rubella virus in many developed countries, substantial commitment to rubella control has not been demonstrated in developing countries. This study appraises immunity to rubella, and consequently makes appropriate recommendations aimed at facilitating effective control. A cross-sectional sero-surveillance study was carried out among defined 272 consenting ante-natal clinic attendees in south-western, Nigeria. Prevalence rates of 91.54% and 1.84% were recorded for the anti-rubella virus (anti-RV) IgG and IgM, respectively. Also, 90.7% and 92.3% of the women aged ≤30 years and >30 years, respectively, had detectable anti-RV IgG. No significant association (p = 0.94) was recorded between anti-RV IgG detection and age of the women. Previous exposure and susceptibility of significant fraction of the population to rubella infection were confirmed. Considerable political commitment and promotion of free rubella immunization specifically for women with childbearing potential were recommended.

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Associations with Quality of Life among HIV-Infected Patients in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oladeji, Bibilola Damilola; Taiwo, Babafemi; Mosuro, Olushola; Fayemiwo, Samuel A; Abiona, Taiwo; Fought, Angela J; Robertson, Kevin; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Adewole, Isaac F

    Suicidality has rarely been studied in HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study explored suicidal behavior in a clinic sample of people living with HIV, in Nigeria. Consecutive patients were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-10.0) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHO-QOL-HIV-BREF). Associations of suicidal behavior were explored using logistic regression models. In this sample of 828 patients (71% female, mean age 41.3 ± 10 years), prevalence of suicidal behaviors were 15.1%, 5.8%, and 3.9% for suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts, respectively. Women were more likely than men to report suicidal ideation (odds ratio 1.7; 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.64). Depression and/or anxiety disorder was associated with increased odds of all suicidal behaviors. Suicidal behavior was associated with significantly lower overall and domain scores on the WHO-QOL. Suicidal behaviors were common and significantly associated with the presence of mental disorders and lower quality of life.

  19. Risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women in Ibadan, south west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesina, O; Oladokun, A; Akinyemi, O; Akingbola, T; Awolude, O; Adewole, I

    2011-03-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal and neonatal mortality. It is a recognized co-morbidity of HIV infection. This study aimed to determine the risk of anaemia in HIV positive pregnant women. This is a cross sectional study of healthy pregnant women attending Adeoyo Hospital, a secondary health centre in South-western Nigeria over a 1-month period (January 2007). During the study period, 2737 eligible women presented for antenatal care. About 98% (2682) of these women consented to HIV testing. Over all, their mean (+ S.D) packed cell volume was 30.96% (+/- 4.13). The prevalence of HIV infection was 2.9% (95% CI 2.3% - 3.6%) and the overall prevalence of anaemia was 33.1%. Frequency of anaemia was significantly higher in HIV +ve women (57.3% vs. 42.7%, p = 0.00. OR = 2.81., CI = 1.72-4.58). HIV +ve women presented more frequently with moderate or severe anaemia. In the logistic regression analysis only HIV infection (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.37-4.21) and primigravidity (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.04-15.2) remained independently associated with anemia. Anaemia is common in HIV positive pregnant women in this environment. Care providers must endeavor to determine the HIV status of every pregnant woman especially if she presents with anaemia with a view to providing appropriate interventions.

  20. Radon-222 in groundwater and effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Janet Ayobami; Oyeleke, Oyebode Akanni

    2017-03-20

    Radon concentration in groundwater collected from the eleven Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Ibadan, Nigeria, was analyzed. Annual effective doses due to ingestion and inhalation of radon from the consumption of the water were determined. The arithmetic means (AMs) of radon concentration for the 11 LGAs varied from 2.18 to 76.75 Bq l -1 with a standard deviation of 1.57 and 70.64 Bq l -1 , respectively. The geometric means (GMs) varied from 1.67 to 49.47 Bq l -1 with geometric standard deviation of 2.22 and 3.04, respectively. About 58% of the 84 water samples examined had a higher concentration of radon than the 11.1 Bq l -1 recommended by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); the AMs of six LGAs and GMs of three LGAs were higher than the recommended value. However the AMs and GMs of all the LGAs with about 93% of the water sampled were lower than the 100 Bq l -1 recommended by the World Health Organization and EURATOM drinking water directive. The concentration of radon varied with the geological formation of the area. The AMs of the annual effective dose due to ingestion of radon in water ranged from 0.036 to 1.261 mSv y -1 , 0.071 to 2.521 mSv y -1 and 0.042 to 1.471 mSv y -1 for adult, child and infant, respectively and the GMs in the range of 0.026 to 0.813, 0.055 to 1.625 and 0.032 to 0.948 mSv y -1 , respectively. The AMs of 10 LGAs and GMs of 7 LGAs were higher than the recommended reference dose level of 0.1 mSv y -1 from the consumption of water for the duration of one year for all the three categories of people. The AMs and GMs of the annual effective dose due to inhalation of radon in drinking water ranged from 0.533 to 18.82 μSv y -1 and 0.411 to 12.13 μSv y -1 , respectively, contributing less to the overall dose.

  1. Sexual networking among married men with wives of child bearing age in Ibadan City, Nigeria: report of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lawoyin, T O; Osinowo, H; Walker, M

    2004-09-01

    Following the Beijing Conference, it is desirable to empower men to play a more active and responsive role in promoting the health of family members and preventing disease. This cross sectional, community-based, ex-post factor, pilot study was designed to find out if traditional norms affect marital sexuality and also to identify sociodemographic factors associated with sexual networking among men. A total of 416 married men whose wives had delivered a baby in the last 36 months prior to the study were interviewed from randomly selected clusters in Ibadan, Nigeria. Of this number, the majority 336 (80.8%) had sex with pregnant wife in the last pregnancy and proportion of married men who had sex in the pregnancy with wives reduced modestly with increasing age of the men. With regards to sexual networking in pregnancy, 207 (49.8%) men reported having sex with someone else when wife was pregnant. Of this number 95 (45.9%) had it with steady girl friends, 56 (27.0%) with new girl friends, 50 (24.2%) with another wife and 6 (2.9%) with commercial sex workers. The prevalence for having sex with someone else in this period was lower in men from the higher socio-economic class (HSEC) when compared with the lower socio-economic class (LSEC)(chi2 = -9.89, P < 0.001). The middle socio-economic class also had a lower rate than the lower socio-economic class (chi2 = 6.28, P < 0.01). In addition, men with post secondary/University education had significantly lower rates for networking when their wives were pregnant compared with men of lower educational attainment (P < 0.05). Three hundred and eleven men (74.8%) reported that they observed some period ofpostpartum abstinence (PPA) with recently delivered wife, which ranged from 5 days to 72 months (Median was 7.5 months). The highest PPA rates were seen in men with no formal education, those from lower SEC and in men who embraced traditional religions. Issues that have to be addressed in more detail in the follow up study

  2. Influence of School Environment on the Management of Secondary School Education in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bua, Felix Terhile

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of school environment on the management of secondary school education in Makurdi Metropolis of Benue State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The survey design was adopted for the study. Four hundred (400) teachers from 20 grant aided secondary schools in Markurdi Metropolis of Benue…

  3. Evaluations of groundwater contamination by leachates around Olusosun open dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aboyeji, Olatunji Sunday; Eigbokhan, Stephen Femi

    2016-12-01

    A major cause of groundwater pollution in urban areas is contamination by leachates emanating from municipal solid waste dumpsites. The study evaluated the quality of water of selected boreholes and wells around Olusosun open solid waste dumpsite in Lagos metropolis, using water quality index (WQI) rating and geospatial techniques. Water samples were randomly collected from fifteen boreholes and five wells downslopes of the dumpsite. The samples were analysed for the physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals. Factor Analysis was employed to analyse the information content of the water quality indicators to determine their appropriateness for indexing. The spatial distribution of the WQIs determined using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation procedure. Results showed that the waters were generally acidic with 85% of pH values below the range suggested by WHO for drinking water. All samples contained concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in quantities higher than the recommended limit of 2.0 mg/l (average = 4.97 mg/l), while 40% of the samples contained concentration of K above the recommended limit. The concentration of heavy metals was generally low. The major cations (Mg, Na, and K) were highly positively correlated, and were positively correlated with pH, TA, TAL, TH and Cl. Negative correlations were observed between TDS, NO3(-) and PO4(3-); NO3(-) and Ag; and DO with the heavy metals. Eighteen parameters consisting of pH, EC, TDS, TA, TAL, TH, Cl, NO3(-), PO4(3-), Mg, Na, K, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, Ag and Pb were found to be the main indicators of groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate percolation. Evaluation of the WQIs indicated that 35% of the water samples were unsuitable for consumption, while 15%, 15% and 35% were in the good, very good and excellent categorises, respectively. The degree of suitability of the borehole and well waters was closely related to proximity to the dumpsite. It is imperative that appropriate remediation

  4. It is over three decades of graduate education in Epizootiology at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (1975-2011): is there a need to revise the curriculum?

    PubMed

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Ijagbone, Ighodalo Folorunso; Esuruoso, Gabriel Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    Epizootiology is the study of variable factors, events, forces and circumstances that contribute to the occurrence, distribution, control and prevention of ill-health, diseases and other problems in animal groups. It is a key component of veterinary medicine education at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria since 1975. It started as a Graduate Certificate in Epizootiology (GCE) in 1976. Later it was revised into M.Sc. Epizootiology in 1986. At graduate level, epizootiology curriculum has supported the M.Sc. Epizootiology programme. It compliments training in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. This epizootiology curriculum has been operational at graduate level for more than three decades. Now in 2011, a consortium of English speaking West African Universities is committed to review the current curriculum at the University of Ibadan to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world with scope for internationalized practicum in disease investigation. Emphases are made towards skills development in molecular studies on disease causal agents and the mapping of associated geographic risk factors, including indigenous knowledge and practices. It is notable that most English-speaking West African countries including Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Gambia either lack a Veterinary School or just started some, but do not have graduate programme in Epizootiology. Thus, the curriculum at Ibadan is positioned to make impact in three key areas, namely, sub-regional ecosystem health studies, improving human-animal disease surveillance programmes, and in indigenization of bio-technology for monitoring and evaluation of trans-boundary animal disease control interventions for global health in West Africa.

  5. It is over three decades of graduate education in Epizootiology at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria (1975–2011): is there a need to revise the curriculum?

    PubMed Central

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Ijagbone, Ighodalo Folorunso; Esuruoso, Gabriel Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    Epizootiology is the study of variable factors, events, forces and circumstances that contribute to the occurrence, distribution, control and prevention of ill-health, diseases and other problems in animal groups. It is a key component of veterinary medicine education at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria since 1975. It started as a Graduate Certificate in Epizootiology (GCE) in 1976. Later it was revised into M.Sc. Epizootiology in 1986. At graduate level, epizootiology curriculum has supported the M.Sc. Epizootiology programme. It compliments training in Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. This epizootiology curriculum has been operational at graduate level for more than three decades. Now in 2011, a consortium of English speaking West African Universities is committed to review the current curriculum at the University of Ibadan to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world with scope for internationalized practicum in disease investigation. Emphases are made towards skills development in molecular studies on disease causal agents and the mapping of associated geographic risk factors, including indigenous knowledge and practices. It is notable that most English-speaking West African countries including Ghana, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Gambia either lack a Veterinary School or just started some, but do not have graduate programme in Epizootiology. Thus, the curriculum at Ibadan is positioned to make impact in three key areas, namely, sub-regional ecosystem health studies, improving human-animal disease surveillance programmes, and in indigenization of bio-technology for monitoring and evaluation of trans-boundary animal disease control interventions for global health in West Africa. PMID:23024829

  6. Female Lecturers' Perception of ICT Integration for Teaching and Learning in University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adetimirin, Airen

    2016-01-01

    Deployment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for teaching and learning affords learners' flexibility in learning such that they can learn as individuals or groups. The dissemination of information by lecturers to learners will also be facilitated by the use of ICT. The University of Ibadan designed a courseware development…

  7. Non-protective immunity against tetanus in primiparous women and newborns at birth in rural and urban settings in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2017-01-01

    Nigeria remains among the few countries that are yet to achieve eradication of neonatal tetanus in the world despite the availability of an effective vaccine. This study investigated immunity against tetanus in primiparous mothers and neonates at birth, and identified associated factors. This cross-sectional study involved consecutive selection of 244 primiparous mother-neonate pairs (119 from rural areas, 125 from urban areas, 137 male neonates and 107 female neonates) delivered at primary healthcare facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria . Socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, immunisation and birthweight were obtained from mothers by interview. A validated immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test kit was used to test for immunity against tetanus. Positive and negative results were interpreted as protective immunity against tetanus (PIaT) and non-protective immunity against tetanus (NPIaT), respectively. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression at p = 0.05. The mean age of mothers was 27.9±3.4 years (range: 20-33) and median birthweight was 2700g (range: 1760-3300). Of the 244 mothers, 198 (81.1%) received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy and prevalence of NPIaT and PIaT was 28.7% and 71.3%, respectively. The prevalence of PIaT was significantly higher among mothers in urban areas (n= 96; 80.7%) than rural (n=78; 62.4%), p<0.001.The prevalence of NPIaT among neonates was 36.5% (n= 89). Predictors of NPIaT among neonates were residence in rural LGA (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.23-3.99) and maternal tetanus immunisation <2 doses (OR = 11.68; 95% CI = 4.05-21.75). Lack of protective immunity against tetanus among neonates of primiparous women in Ibadan is prevalent and a more conscientious enforcement of routine tetanus prevention practices is needed.

  8. Determination of asymptomatic carrier rate of beta-haemolytic group B Streptococcus in vaginas of pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olanisebe, S B; Adetosoye, A I

    1986-04-01

    Bacteriological studies of 500 vaginal swabs from pregnant women in second and third trimester from 4 government hospitals in Ibadan showed that 8 (1.6 per cent) were found to be culture-positive for Group B Streptococcus. Five (1.0 per cent) were found to harbour group D streptococci. All the 8 group B Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, methicillin, penicillin G, ampicillin and chloramphenicol in decreasing order. They were resistant to tetracycline, sulphafurazole and streptomycin.

  9. Perceptions and activities of religious leaders on the prevention of HIV/AIDS and care of people living with the HIV infection in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo O; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Fatiregun, A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues in Nigeria despite efforts to control it. Meaningful efforts aimed at combating this disease must be multisectoral. However, despite the major influence religious leaders have in this society, their role has not been well studied. The aim of the study was to assess the perceptions and activities of religious leaders on prevention of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and care of people living with the virus in Ibadan, Nigeria. In a cross-sectional study, 336 leaders from eight religious denominations in Ibadan were surveyed utilizing a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Respondents were selected by cluster sampling technique. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 15. The mean age of respondents was 37.9 (± 13.5) years. The majority (97.6%) were aware of the HIV/AIDS scourge, and most had good knowledge of routes of transmission and modes of prevention (85.7%). Attitudes to people living with HIV/AIDS were positive in 84.2% respondents, and many practiced preventive measures (94.9%). One hundred and ninety (56.5%) respondents had ever preached about HIV/AIDS transmission and treatment to their congregations, while 257 (76.5%) used their position as a medium of educating their congregation about the dangers of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent it. Further analysis showed that respondents who were Christians (P = 0.026), had ever been married (P = 0.004), and were males (P = 0.002) were more likely to have ever preached about health issues to their congregations (individual role). The study concluded that the religious leaders are well informed about HIV/AIDS and have adequate knowledge and positive attitudes towards people living with AIDS. However, they need encouragement and training to enable them to more effectively harness their position for HIV prevention and to control programs and activities among their congregation to thereby play

  10. Population-based prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria: implications for cervical cancer control programs and human papilloma virus immunization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J O; Ojemakinde, K O; Ajayi, I O; Omigbodun, A O; Fawole, O I; Oladepo, O

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytological findings and local risk factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. All women aged ≥15 years in each household in Idikan, Ibadan, were invited to participate in a population-based study. Structured questionnaires were administered to all consenting women. Conventional cervical Papanicolaou smears obtained from sexually active women were classified using the 2001 Bethesda system. The diagnoses were correlated with sociodemographic data and risk factors. Of 2,870 women aged ≥15 years estimated to live in Idikan, 1,204 sexually active women consented to pelvic examination and cervical smears. Results were available for 1,104 women (mean age: 39.8 years). Mean ages at menarche, first sexual intercourse and first pregnancy were 16.1, 20.3 and 20.7 years, respectively. Cytological results were categorized into atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and atypical glandular cells 22 (1.99%); low-grade 43 (3.89%) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) 17 (1.54%); invasive cancer 2 (0.18%) and normal 593 (53.8%) and reactive changes 427 (38.7%). The prevalence of epithelial abnormalities is 7.6%. Significant host-related factors in those with HSIL and invasive cancer included older age (mean 56.2 years), high parity and gravidity, lack of formal education and being divorced (p < 0.05). This study provides prevalence data and local risk factors for abnormal cervical cytology in a Nigerian population, which will be useful for planning future cervical cancer control programs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Non-protective immunity against tetanus in primiparous women and newborns at birth in rural and urban settings in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Orimadegun, Bose Etaniamhe; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria remains among the few countries that are yet to achieve eradication of neonatal tetanus in the world despite the availability of an effective vaccine. This study investigated immunity against tetanus in primiparous mothers and neonates at birth, and identified associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study involved consecutive selection of 244 primiparous mother-neonate pairs (119 from rural areas, 125 from urban areas, 137 male neonates and 107 female neonates) delivered at primary healthcare facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, immunisation and birthweight were obtained from mothers by interview. A validated immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic test kit was used to test for immunity against tetanus. Positive and negative results were interpreted as protective immunity against tetanus (PIaT) and non-protective immunity against tetanus (NPIaT), respectively. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression at p = 0.05. Results The mean age of mothers was 27.9±3.4 years (range: 20-33) and median birthweight was 2700g (range: 1760-3300). Of the 244 mothers, 198 (81.1%) received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy and prevalence of NPIaT and PIaT was 28.7% and 71.3%, respectively. The prevalence of PIaT was significantly higher among mothers in urban areas (n= 96; 80.7%) than rural (n=78; 62.4%), p<0.001.The prevalence of NPIaT among neonates was 36.5% (n= 89). Predictors of NPIaT among neonates were residence in rural LGA (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.23-3.99) and maternal tetanus immunisation <2 doses (OR = 11.68; 95% CI = 4.05-21.75). Conclusion Lack of protective immunity against tetanus among neonates of primiparous women in Ibadan is prevalent and a more conscientious enforcement of routine tetanus prevention practices is needed. PMID:29296161

  12. The relationship between dental aesthetic index (DAI) and perceptions of aesthetics, function and speech amongst secondary school children in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O; Aderinokun, G A

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between a professionally derived index, the Dental Aesthetic Index, and some indications for orthodontic treatment as perceived by potential patients. An epidemiological survey of 614 secondary school students, 327 males (53.3%) and 287 females (46.7%) was carried out in Ibadan, Nigeria. Children aged 12-18 years (mean age, 14.9+/-2.9 SD) were randomly selected, none of them had received previous orthodontic treatment. One examiner assessed the students using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Subjects were also asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of three questions concerning appearance, function, and speech, using a 5-point Likert scale. Weak but statistically significant correlations were found for subjective assessments of appearance of teeth and the DAI (r=0.174; P<0.01) and between biting/chewing and appearance of teeth (r=0.095; P<0.05). Statistically significant correlations were found between appearance of teeth and speech (r=0.148; P<0.01) and biting/chewing and speech. The last showed the strongest correlation (r=0.268; P<0.01). The study has shown weak but significant correlation between DAI and children's perceptions of the appearance of their teeth. We recommend further study involving both DAI and Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) for comparison in the Nigerian population.

  13. 'They bring AIDS to us and say we give it to them': Socio-structural context of female sex workers' vulnerability to HIV infection in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jennifer; Adedimeji, Adebola; Alawode, Olayemi

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine and describe the individual and structural-environmental factors that shape the vulnerability of brothel-based female sex workers (FSWs) in Ibadan, southwest Nigeria to HIV infection. A descriptive qualitative research design was utilised to elicit data, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, from 60 randomly selected participants in four brothels. A thematic analysis of data was undertaken following transcription and validation of interviews. Five themes emerged from the data: (i) flawed knowledge and fatalistic attitudes; (ii) the psychosocial and economic context of sex work; (iii) religious beliefs, stigma and risk taking; (iv) barriers to HIV testing; and (v) legal and policy constraints to sex work. We describe the complex interaction between these themes and how they combine to increase the risk of HIV infection among FSWs. The impact of previous interventions to reduce the risk of HIV infection among FSWs has been limited by personal and structural factors; hence we recommend that new strategies that recognise the practical constraints to HIV prevention among FSWs are urgently needed to make the environment of commercial work safer for FSWs, their clients, and by extension the general population.

  14. Endocrine-disruptor molecular responses, occurrence of intersex and gonado-histopathological changes in tilapia species from a tropical freshwater dam (Awba Dam) in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Onibonoje, Kolawole; Ibor, Oju R; Omiwole, Roseline A; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Ugwumba, Alex O; Ugwumba, Adiaha A A; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, the occurrence of endocrine disruptive responses in Tilapia species from Awba Dam has been investigated, and compared to a reference site (Modete Dam). The Awba Dam is a recipient of effluents from University of Ibadan (Nigeria) and several other anthropogenic sources. A total of 132 Tilapia species (Sarotherodon malenotheron (n=57 and 32, males and females, respectively) and Tilapia guineensis (n=23 and 20, males and females, respectively)) were collected from June to September 2014. At the reference site, samples of adult male and female S. melanotheron (48 males and 47 females) and T. guineensis (84 males and 27 females) were collected. Gonads were morphologically and histologically examined and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Hepatic mRNA transcriptions of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zrp) genes were analyzed using validated RT-qPCR. Significant increase in Vtg and Zrp transcripts were observed in male tilapias from Awba Dam, compared to males from the reference site. In addition, male tilapias from Awba Dam produced significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to females in June and July. However, at the natural peak spawning period in August and September, females produced, significantly higher Vtg and Zrp mRNA, compared to males. Fish gonads revealed varying incidence of intersex with a striking presence of two (2) pairs of testes and a pair of ovary in S. melanotheron from Awba Dam. The entire fish population examined at Awba Dam showed a high prevalence of intersex (34.8%), involving phenotypic males and females of both species. Analysis of sediment contaminant levels revealed that As, Cd, Pb, Hg and Ni (heavy metals), monobutyltin cation, 4-iso-nonyphenol and PCB congeners (138, 153 and 180) were significantly higher in Awba Dam, compared to the reference site. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fish variables were positively correlated with sediment contaminant burden at Awba Dam, indicating

  15. The influence of gender and group membership on food safety: the case of meat sellers in Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Grace, Delia; Olowoye, Janice; Dipeolu, Morenike; Odebode, Stella; Randolph, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We describe a study to assess the bacteriological quality and safety of meat in Bodija market in Ibadan and to investigate the influence of gender and group membership on food safety. Mixed methods were used to gather information on meat safety and related socioeconomic factors. These methods included a participatory urban appraisal, focus group discussions with eight butchers' associations, in depth discussions with six key informants, a questionnaire study of 269 meat sellers and a cross-sectional survey of meat quality (200 samples from ten associations). We found that slaughter, processing and sale of beef meat take place under unhygienic conditions. The activities involve both men and women, with some task differentiation by gender. Meat sold by association members is of unacceptable quality. However, some groups have consistently better quality meat and this is positively correlated with the proportion of women members. Women also have significantly better food safety practice than men, though there was no significant difference in their knowledge of and attitude towards food safety. Most meat sellers (85 %) reported being ill in the last 2 weeks and 47 % reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness. Eating beef, eating chicken, eating offal, consuming one's own products and belonging to a group with poor quality of meat were all strong and significant predictors of self-reported gastrointestinal illness. We include that gender and group membership influence meat quality and self-reported gastrointestinal illness and that butchers' associations are promising entry points for interventions to improve food safety.

  16. An observational study of road safety around selected primary schools in Ibadan municipality, Oyo State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sangowawa, Adesola O; Adebiyi, Akindele O; Faseru, Babalola; Popoola, Olusola J

    2012-01-01

    Child pedestrians have been identified as vulnerable road users. Although walking as a means of transport has health and other benefits, it exposes children to the risk of road traffic injuries. This study was conducted to assess the availability of road safety features around government-owned primary schools in Ibadan municipality. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 46 of the 74 schools in the study area. Some (11) of the selected schools were sited within the same premises and shared a common entrance; thus a total of 35 school premises were eventually observed. Trained research assistants observed the school environment around the selected schools for road safety features such as location of schools, presence of "school", "child crossing" and "speed limit" road signs, and presence of traffic calming devices (road bumps or zebra crossing). Five (14%) of the schools were located on major roads and eight (23%) had road signs indicating that a school was nearby. Seven (20%) had road bumps close to the school, 15 (43%) had a warden who assisted children to cross, and none had a zebra crossing. Five (14%) schools had pedestrian sidewalks. The study revealed that the environment around a number of the observed schools in the municipality compromised the pupils' road safety. The local government, school authorities, parents, and road safety professionals need to institute definite measures to enhance the road safety environment around schools in the municipality.

  17. PERCEPTION AND SATISFACTION WITH QUALITY OF ANTENATAL CARE SERVICES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Nwaeze, I.L.; Enabor, O.O.; Oluwasola, T.A.O.; Aimakhu, C.O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Antenatal care is an important health service which detects and sometimes reduces the risk of complications among pregnant women. The quality of care is likely to influence effective utilization and compliance with interventions. Objectives: This study evaluated clients’ perception of antenatal care quality at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan and determined levels of client satisfaction. Methods: Women presenting for antenatal care at the study centre were interviewed in a cross-sectional design using a structured questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire included sociodemographic and obstetric variables, assessment of quality of amenities, waiting time and level of satisfaction. Data analysis was done using frequency tables, Chi-square cross tabulations and logistic regression. The p-value was set at P<0.05. Results: There were 239 participants; 74% percent of the women were aged 25-34 years; majority of the respondents (86%) had tertiary education while 49.4% were skilled workers or professionals. In 57.7% of women, the gestational age was between 13 and 27 weeks while 66.1% were Para 1-4. Amenities and water supply were regarded as unsatisfactory in 60.7% and 61.9% respectively. The clinic services were regarded as good in 81.1% of respondents; the only significant association with patient satisfaction was the desire to register in the same facility in the next pregnancy. Conclusion: There is a high overall level of satisfaction with antenatal services among pregnant women in UCH. Policy makers and health providers should however address improvement of amenities, reduction of waiting time and ensure that health interventions are available for all clients. PMID:25161419

  18. The geo-spatial information infrastructure at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses, University of Ibadan, Nigeria: an emerging sustainable One-Health pavilion.

    PubMed

    Olugasa, B O

    2014-12-01

    The World-Wide-Web as a contemporary means of information sharing offers a platform for geo-spatial information dissemination to improve education about spatio-temporal patterns of disease spread at the human-animal-environment interface in developing countries of West Africa. In assessing the quality of exposure to geospatial information applications among students in five purposively selected institutions in West Africa, this study reviewed course contents and postgraduate programmes in zoonoses surveillance. Geospatial information content and associated practical exercises in zoonoses surveillance were scored.. Seven criteria were used to categorize and score capability, namely, spatial data capture; thematic map design and interpretation; spatio-temporal analysis; remote sensing of data; statistical modelling; the management of spatial data-profile; and web-based map sharing operation within an organization. These criteria were used to compute weighted exposure during training at the institutions. A categorical description of institution with highest-scoring of computed Cumulative Exposure Point Average (CEPA) was based on an illustration with retrospective records of rabies cases, using data from humans, animals and the environment, that were sourced from Grand Bassa County, Liberia to create and share maps and information with faculty, staff, students and the neighbourhood about animal bite injury surveillance and spatial distribution of rabies-like illness. Uniformly low CEPA values (0-1.3) were observed across academic departments. The highest (3.8) was observed at the Centre for Control and Prevention of Zoonoses (CCPZ), University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where geospatial techniques were systematically taught, and thematic and predictive maps were produced and shared online with other institutions in West Africa. In addition, a short course in zoonosis surveillance, which offers inclusive learning in geospatial applications, is taught at CCPZ. The paper

  19. Social support seeking and self-efficacy-building strategies in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal HIV/AIDS caregivers in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, Bernedette Okwuchukwu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the relative efficacy of social support seeking (SSS) and self-efficacy building (SEB) in the management of emotional well-being of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. It was based at the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) center in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state, being the first and the largest teaching hospital in Nigeria. A 3 × 2 factorial design consisting of treatment and a control group was used. The columns have two levels of gender being male and female caregivers. One-hundred and sixty-five (165) caregivers who were taking care of people that are suffering from HIV/AIDS were purposively selected and randomly assigned to the treatment groups and control. The treatment was carried out for a period of eight weeks. Two null hypotheses were tested, both at .05 levels of significance. Data were collected with the use of standardized intruments rating scale; social support scale, general self-efficacy scale and emotional well-being scale. ANCOVA was used to establish significant treatment effects with the pretest as covariate. Even though SSS and SEB were both found to be effective in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal caregivers in this study when compared to the controls, SSS was significantly more effective than SEB in achieving this goal. Since the HIV/AIDS patients cannot be adequately cared for in the hospital settings due to severe shortages of material, personnel and time, serious efforts should be made by the three levels of the health care system viz: the primary, secondary and tertiary health care systems, to encourage the employment of the psychological management of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. Also, the psychologists, clinical psychologists and the significant others should be encouraged to employ this psychological management in the care of HIV/AIDS informal caregivers. PMID:26831832

  20. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of abattoir workers in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Cadmus, Eniola; Awosanya, Emmanuel; Popoola, Olufemi Akinyele; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Moriyon, Ignacio; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria. Methods A slaughterhouse study was conducted in a major abattoir in Ibadan from March to August, 2013. To diagnose brucellosis, serum samples from 1,241 slaughtered cattle were tested using Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); again, 57 milk samples were tested with milk ring test (MRT) and indirect ELISA (iELISA). Furthermore, a survey on the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) and challenges to its use by abattoir workers was done. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Results Seroprevalence by RBT was 7.8%; 77.3% (75/97) of these were corroborated by cELISA. Prevalence in milk samples by MRT and indirect ELISA were 33.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Sex (OR: 2.5; 95%CI:1.3-4.5) was the factor significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity. None of the abattoir workers used standard protective overalls; while, 99.6% of the meat handlers and 84.1% of the butchers worked barefoot. Most of the workers (75.7%) wore no protective gloves. The respondents agreed that provision of free PPE and sanctions against non-users would encourage its use. Conclusion Our findings indicate moderate prevalence (7.8%) of bovine brucellosis with sex of cattle being a risk factor. A notable barrier to better protection of abattoir workers against brucellosis is perceived inconvenience arising from use of gloves. Therefore, preventive and control measures against brucellosis must include education and use of PPE among abattoir workers. PMID:29255538

  1. Prevalence of bovine brucellosis in slaughtered cattle and barriers to better protection of abattoir workers in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Cadmus, Eniola; Awosanya, Emmanuel; Popoola, Olufemi Akinyele; Akinyemi, Oluwaseun Oladapo; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Moriyon, Ignacio; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu

    2017-01-01

    Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis of public health importance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis among slaughtered cattle as well as challenges to the protection of abattoir workers in Nigeria. A slaughterhouse study was conducted in a major abattoir in Ibadan from March to August, 2013. To diagnose brucellosis, serum samples from 1,241 slaughtered cattle were tested using Rose-Bengal test (RBT) and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA); again, 57 milk samples were tested with milk ring test (MRT) and indirect ELISA (iELISA). Furthermore, a survey on the usage of personal protective equipment (PPE) and challenges to its use by abattoir workers was done. Data were analysed using Stata 12. Seroprevalence by RBT was 7.8%; 77.3% (75/97) of these were corroborated by cELISA. Prevalence in milk samples by MRT and indirect ELISA were 33.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Sex (OR: 2.5; 95%CI:1.3-4.5) was the factor significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity. None of the abattoir workers used standard protective overalls; while, 99.6% of the meat handlers and 84.1% of the butchers worked barefoot. Most of the workers (75.7%) wore no protective gloves. The respondents agreed that provision of free PPE and sanctions against non-users would encourage its use. Our findings indicate moderate prevalence (7.8%) of bovine brucellosis with sex of cattle being a risk factor. A notable barrier to better protection of abattoir workers against brucellosis is perceived inconvenience arising from use of gloves. Therefore, preventive and control measures against brucellosis must include education and use of PPE among abattoir workers.

  2. Social support seeking and self-efficacy-building strategies in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal HIV/AIDS caregivers in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Bernedette Okwuchukwu

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relative efficacy of social support seeking (SSS) and self-efficacy building (SEB) in the management of emotional well-being of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. It was based at the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) center in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo state, being the first and the largest teaching hospital in Nigeria. A 3 × 2 factorial design consisting of treatment and a control group was used. The columns have two levels of gender being male and female caregivers. One-hundred and sixty-five (165) caregivers who were taking care of people that are suffering from HIV/AIDS were purposively selected and randomly assigned to the treatment groups and control. The treatment was carried out for a period of eight weeks. Two null hypotheses were tested, both at .05 levels of significance. Data were collected with the use of standardized intruments rating scale; social support scale, general self-efficacy scale and emotional well-being scale. ANCOVA was used to establish significant treatment effects with the pretest as covariate. Even though SSS and SEB were both found to be effective in enhancing the emotional well-being of informal caregivers in this study when compared to the controls, SSS was significantly more effective than SEB in achieving this goal. Since the HIV/AIDS patients cannot be adequately cared for in the hospital settings due to severe shortages of material, personnel and time, serious efforts should be made by the three levels of the health care system viz: the primary, secondary and tertiary health care systems, to encourage the employment of the psychological management of caregivers of people suffering from HIV/AIDS. Also, the psychologists, clinical psychologists and the significant others should be encouraged to employ this psychological management in the care of HIV/AIDS informal caregivers.

  3. The Potential of GIS as a Management Tool for Avenue Trees Population in Small Communities; a Case Study of Idi-Shin Community, Ibadan, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olokeogun, O. S.; Akintola, O. O.; Abodunrin, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a management tool for avenue trees (Street trees) populations in small communities (using Idi-Ishin community, Ibadan, Nigeria as a case study). GIS is a decision support system which integrate data or set of data from different sources, bringing them under the same referencing system in a computer system. An Ikonos Imagery (1m Spatial Resolution) of the study area was digitized to produce a digital map using ArcGIS 10.1 version. The avenue trees species ≥ 5cm diameter at breast height (DBH) was selected for enumeration. These trees were then measured and tagged. The Height, Girth and Geographic location (X &Y coordinate) of the trees were measured with Haga altimeter, Girthing tape and Hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) respectively. The species and families of the trees enumerated were also identified. Data were analysed for basal area (BA) and volume (V). A total number of 43 avenue trees were assessed in Idi-Ishin Community. Roystonea regia accounted for the majority of the avenue trees (25.58%), followed by Polyanthia longiflora (23.26%), Gliricida seprium (20.93%), Eucalyptus toreliana (13.95%), Delunix regea (6.98%). However Terminalia catapa, Terminalia radii, Azadrachita indica and Newbodia levis had the same abundance of 2.33%. It was also observed that the benefits derived from these avenue trees includes; Carbon sequestration, Beautification, Wind break and shade. A spatial relational database was created for the assessed avenue trees using ArcCatalog of ArcGIS 10.1 version. Based on the findings from the study (which serves as baseline information for the management of the avenue trees in the study area), it was therefore recommended that subsequent assessment should be carried out at 3-5 year interval in other to ensure proper and continuous monitoring and updating of the data.

  4. Effects of health-care services and commodities cost on the patients at the primary health facilities in Zaria Metropolis, North Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegboyega, O; Abioye, K

    2017-08-01

    The payment for health-care services is a major problem for many poor patients in developing nations. The aim of the study was to examine the cost of services and commodities and how these affect the patients who utilizes the primary health-care centers in Zaria, North western Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of six primary health-care facilities in Zaria metropolis, namely Baban dodo, Tudun Wada, Magajiya PHCs from Zaria local government areas (LGA) and Samaru, Kwata, and Dogarawa PHCs from Sabon Gari LGA, was carried out. The mean age of the respondents was 28.87± 8.63 years, most of them were married (53.3%), Hausa (63.3%), and Muslims (85.7%); also, they were unemployed housewives with daily stipends from their husbands less than 1 dollar/day. The major method for payment for health-care services was out of pocket (98.3%). More than one-third of the clients were not aware of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) (39%). There was a significant inverse relationship between the monthly income of the clients and the experience of financial stress and a positive association between patients' monthly income and awareness of the NHIS (P < 0.05). The respondents were paying user fees for essential health-care services at the primary health-care centers and this was not convenient for them. There is a need for the LGA health department to intensify the supervision of the activities at the PHCs. Standardization of prices of services and commodities and the implementation of the National Health Act may alleviate the burdens of the poor community members who access PHCs in Nigeria.

  5. Exposure to coarse and fine particulate matter at and around major intra-urban traffic intersections of Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeniran, J. A.; Yusuf, R. O.; Olajire, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to determine the seasonal variations and composition of suspended particulate matter in different sizes PM1.0, PM2.5, PM10 and the total suspended particles (TSP) emitted at major intra-urban traffic intersections (TIs) of Ilorin metropolis. The concentration levels of PM (PM1.0, PM2.5, PM10) obtained at the TIs during the rush hours (45.1, 77.9, and 513 μg/m3) are higher than the levels obtained for the non-rush hour periods (42.3, 62.7, and 390 μg/m3). The average on-road respiratory deposition dose (RDD) rates of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 during the dry period at TIs types was found to be about 24%, 9% and 25% higher than those obtained during the wet period. Based on EF values calculated, Pb and Zn were anthropogenically-derived while Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu and Mg were of crustal source. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to a set of PM data in order to determine the contribution of different sources. It was found that the main principal factors extracted from particulate emission data were related to exhaust and non-exhaust emissions such as tyre wears, oil and fuel combustion sources.

  6. Application of constructed wetlands to the treatment of leachates from a municipal solid waste landfill in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, M K C

    2005-06-01

    Leachates are wastewater generated principally from landfills and solid waste disposal sites. Leachates emanating from municipal wastes are a major source of surface and groundwater pollution worldwide. Globally, leachates have been implicated in low yield of farm produce, developmental anomalies, low birth weights, leukemia incidence, and other cancers in communities around the site. They have also been implicated in hazards to the environment, loss of biodiversity, and contamination of water sources. At Aba-Eku in Nigeria, leachates are being discharged into the Omi Stream without treatment. A study was conducted on a method of leachate treatment that passes the leachate through constructed wetlands using Ipomoea aquatica (Forsk), a locally available plant found close to the landfill site. The aim of the study was to evolve a sustainable and cost-effective method of treatment whose effluents can be discharged into the Omi Stream with no or minimal impact. The study was descriptive and analytical in design. Samples were collected and analyzed with standard methods for pH, suspended solids (SS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia, nitrate, and trace metals. Raw leachates were turbid and amber in color and contained suspended solids (197.5 mg/L), ammonia (610.9 mg/L), lead (1.64 mg/L), iron (198.10 mg/L), and manganese (23.20 mg/L). When the leachates were passed through the constructed wetland with eight hours' detention time, effluents showed significant reductions in suspended solids (81.01 percent), BOD (86.03 percent), and ammonia (97.77 percent). The study shows that a constructed wetland is a feasible tool for the treatment of leachates before their disposal into the environment in Nigeria and can help safeguard environmental quality.

  7. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyedokun, A.V.; Adeniyi, D.O.

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations. PMID:27147898

  8. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations.

  9. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nmadu, Teresa M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. Objective: This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974)/Herron (1990) Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. Result: The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90%) still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03) and stock growth (P=0.04); while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002) and entrepreneurial skills (0.02). Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008). Conclusions: Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on business

  10. An assessment of the impact of entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists on pharmaceutical business performance in Jos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asieba, Iyeseun O; Nmadu, Teresa M

    2018-01-01

    Community pharmacy has been a lucrative area of practice for pharmacists in Jos, Nigeria, until about the turn of the millennium where a decline in viability of the business has been observed. This study assessed the entrepreneurial skills of community pharmacists, the business performance of community pharmacies and the impact of their entrepreneurial skills on business performance. A cross sectional survey was conducted by administering a pretested questionnaire to 30 community pharmacists in Jos. An adaptation of the Bernelli model and the expanded Katz (1974)/Herron (1990) Skill Typology Model was used to assess nine entrepreneurial skills - product, organizational, industry, networking, leadership, executive, entrepreneurial, marketing and money skills; while sales growth, net profit and stock growth were used to assess business performance. Frequency distribution of results was presented, with further analysis done with the Epi-Info software using the chi square test of association. The results from this study showed that community pharmacies in Jos do possess requisite entrepreneurial skills, but to varying extents. Product skills ranked highest while money skills and entrepreneurial skills ranked least, portraying a need for skills enhancement in these areas. Business performance was suboptimal, being rated as average or poor by 56.6% of respondents. However, most respondents (90%) still assessed their businesses as profitable. Money skills had a significant impact on business performance (P=0.03) and stock growth (P=0.04); while stock growth was significantly affected by leadership skills (P=0.002) and entrepreneurial skills (0.02). Net profit was significantly affected by industry skills (P=0.008). Community pharmacy business is still a profitable business venture in Jos though business performance is sub optimal. The entrepreneurial skills set of a community pharmacist set has an impact on business performance with money skills, leadership skills and

  11. Healthcare waste management status in Lagos State, Nigeria: a case study from selected healthcare facilities in Ikorodu and Lagos metropolis.

    PubMed

    Longe, Ezechiel O

    2012-06-01

    A survey of healthcare waste management practices and their implications for health and the environment was carried out. The study assessed waste management practices in 20 healthcare facilities ranging in capacity from 40 to 600 beds in Ikorodu and metropolitan Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. The prevailing healthcare waste management status was analysed. Management issues on quantities and proportion of different constituents of waste, segregation, collection, handling, transportation, treatment and disposal methods were assessed. The waste generation averaged 0.631 kg bed(-1) day(-1) over the survey area. The waste stream from the healthcare facilities consisted of general waste (59.0%), infectious waste (29.7%), sharps and pathological (8.9%), chemical (1.45%) and others (0.95%). Sharps/pathological waste includes disposable syringes. In general, the waste materials were collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid waste with attendant risks to health and safety. Most facilities lacked appropriate treatment systems for a variety of reasons that included inadequate funding and little or no priority for healthcare waste management as well as a lack of professionally competent waste managers among healthcare providers. Hazards associated with healthcare waste management and shortcomings in the existing system were identified.

  12. Examining the emerging entrepreneurial mindset in adolescence: A study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Salami, Samuel O

    2017-05-10

    This study investigated the relationship of family environment, network, parental socio-economic status, self-efficacy and proactive personality on entrepreneurial intention of secondary school adolescents and the mediating role of self-efficacy. The participants were 250 secondary school SS2 adolescents randomly selected from six secondary schools in Ibadan Metropolis, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Structural Equation Modelling was used to analyse the data obtained from the participants. The results showed that all the contextual and individual factors had significant relationship with entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship. It was suggested that counselling psychologists should consider the contextual and individual variables while assisting students in building their entrepreneurial intention. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Attitude and beliefs of traditional birth attendants to prematurely erupted teeth of infants in urban local government areas in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, Olubunmi; Taiwo, Juliana; Nasiru, Olukemi

    Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) can be invaluable in assisting to dispel myths commonly associated with natal/neonatal teeth. To ensure correct delivery of the message, baseline data of their beliefs is important. To assess the attitude and beliefs of some Nigerian TBAs to prematurely erupted teeth in infants, a total enumeration of the TBAs in the five urban Local Government Areas in Ibadan was conducted and 163 consenting TBAs were recruited using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The attitude of the TBAs was that of fear and shock (35.6%) while 30 (18.4%) will consider the child weird. Perceived causes of the variation include evil spirits (31.9%), contravening cultural taboos (9.2%), and prolonged gestation (4.9%). Beliefs on the effect of natal/neonatal teeth on the child include strange behavior (31.3%), child developing evil spiritual powers (41.1%), and mental retardation (3.1%). Practices included advising parents to get rid of/or hide the child (4.9%) and immediate extraction of the teeth with/without sacrifices (35.6%). There is an urgent need to address knowledge gaps by giving health education to TBAs.

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics and challenges experienced by disabled patients living with HIV/AIDS in a tertiary hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowookere, S A; Adewole, I F

    2012-09-01

    HIV/AIDS is highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and few studies had looked at physically and mentally challenged people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in this environment. This study aimed to describe the socio-demographic characteristics and challenges faced by these patients attending University College Hospital, Ibadan. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was done. A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was administered to consecutive disabled PLHIV over a period of six months. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A total of ninety-nine patients were seen during the study period. The mean age of these patients was 39.9 +/- 9.4 years (range 23-60 years). There were 30 (30.3%) males and 69 (69.7%) females. Twenty-four percent had no formal education while 12% had tertiary education. All respondents had suffered stigmatization/discrimination while most were poor. Eighty-seven percent had AIDS at presentation. Musculoskeletal impairments (46.5%), hearing loss (16.2%) and visual impairment (31.3%) were the commonest disability. Over twenty-three percent had prior history of road traffic accident as the cause of disability. Physically and mentally challenged people living with HIV/AIDS are poor and highly stigmatized. They require special assistance to cope and need economic empowerment to reduce their poverty level.

  15. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Smoke over Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea     ... document extensive smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color ... the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. ...

  16. Sexually transmitted diseases in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    A. O., Sogbetun; K. O., Alausa; A. O., Osoba

    1977-01-01

    Although previous workers have emphasised that venereal disease is rife in many developing countries there are no reliable statistics on the relative incidence of such infections. This dearth of information about these infections in Africa is directly related to economic factors, and the lack of modern diagnostic facilities and medical manpower. The pattern of these diseases was studied over a 30-month period at a hospital clinic serving an African population of about 2 million people. Standard diagnostic methods were used. The age distribution of patients conformed with that in other parts of the world except that more pre-pubertal patients were seen. The male to female ratio was 3:1. Non-specific genital infections were the most common (25·9%) followed closely by post-pubertal gonorrhoea (19·5%). Pre-pubertal gonorrhoea was commoner than reported elsewhere (4·0%) and this may be because the children have been in contact with infected clothing of their parents or members of their family. Most strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were sensitive to penicillin by the disc method, but a few were markedly resistant to this and other agents. It is to be expected that the problem of gonococcal drug resistance will increase unless effective legislation is introduced to discourage self-medication with antimicrobial preparations. Venereophobia was common (6·6%) and sociocultural factors may play a dominant role in the incidence of the basically psychiatric condition. Syphilis constituted 2·5% of diagnoses and this can be regarded as an ominous sign in an area where yaws was endemic two decades ago and is now virtually non-existent. Altogether 9·5% of cases had multiple diagnoses making them dangerous sources of multiple infections. Up to 70% of the patients were infected after a promiscuous sexual activity. Such a high level of promiscuity would undoubtedly lead to an even greater dissemination of these infections. It is essential to provide facilities for diagnosis and treatment in every major town in Africa, otherwise it will be difficult, if not impossible, to control such infections. PMID:577475

  17. Quantum Metropolis sampling.

    PubMed

    Temme, K; Osborne, T J; Vollbrecht, K G; Poulin, D; Verstraete, F

    2011-03-03

    The original motivation to build a quantum computer came from Feynman, who imagined a machine capable of simulating generic quantum mechanical systems--a task that is believed to be intractable for classical computers. Such a machine could have far-reaching applications in the simulation of many-body quantum physics in condensed-matter, chemical and high-energy systems. Part of Feynman's challenge was met by Lloyd, who showed how to approximately decompose the time evolution operator of interacting quantum particles into a short sequence of elementary gates, suitable for operation on a quantum computer. However, this left open the problem of how to simulate the equilibrium and static properties of quantum systems. This requires the preparation of ground and Gibbs states on a quantum computer. For classical systems, this problem is solved by the ubiquitous Metropolis algorithm, a method that has basically acquired a monopoly on the simulation of interacting particles. Here we demonstrate how to implement a quantum version of the Metropolis algorithm. This algorithm permits sampling directly from the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, and thus evades the sign problem present in classical simulations. A small-scale implementation of this algorithm should be achievable with today's technology.

  18. Pattern of childhood leukaemia in University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, T O; Ogun, G O; Brown, B J; Akang, E E; Aken'Ova, Y A

    2014-06-01

    Leukaemias are haematological malignancies characterized by unregulated clonal proliferation of haematopoietic cells. To determine the pattern of childhood leukaemia in Ibadan. This was a retrospective study of leukaemia cases diagnosed at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan between January 1991 and December 2010 in children less than 15 years of age. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. There were 64 cases of childhood leukaemia, accounting for 10.2% of childhood cancers seen during this study period. The male to female ratio was 2:1 and modal age group was between 10 and 14 years. Thirty (46.9%) cases were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 22 (34.4%) were acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) and 12 (18.8%) were unspecified acute leukaemias. There was no case of chronic myeloid or lymphocytic leukaemia. There has been a relative increase in the frequency of leukaemia cases at UCH, Ibadan, which may be largely explained by increased awareness and referrals. There is a need for further collaborative multicentre studies of childhood leukaemias in Nigeria and other developing countries and focused research on childhood leukaemias in order to unravel the aetiology.

  19. 77 FR 29697 - Honeywell Metropolis Works; Grant of Exemption for Honeywell Metropolis Works License

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-3392; NRC-2012-0111] Honeywell Metropolis Works; Grant of Exemption for Honeywell Metropolis Works License AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...

  20. The metropolis of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Russoff, D

    1986-04-01

    The Tokyo metropolis houses 11,892,016 people, 1/10 of the Japanese population. In recent years, Tokyo's population growth has slowed as the birthrate has fallen from a 1947 postwar high of 31.5/1000 to 11.4/1000 in 1983. 5.9 million males and 5.8 million females, composing 4 1/2 million households, live in Tokyo's 2160 square kilometers. Within the metropolis' 23 wards, density per square kilometer was 14,023 persons in 1983, with Toshima ward containing 21,844 people per square kilometer. Wards around the city's center held 71% of the population in 1983, but had only 27% of its land mass; outlying cities, towns, and villages held 28% of the population on 54% of the land. 50% of Tokyo's population is aged 25-59; those 65 or over will rise from 1980's 9% to 15.6% of the population in 2000. In 40 years, Japan will have more elderly people than any other advanced country. In 1983, Tokyo had over 150,000 housing starts, high by Japanese and international standards. Nearly 1/4 of Tokyo households each contain a married couple with 2 children, but single person households predominate, reflecting Tokyo's student, working bachelor, and elderly populations. Young, single Japanese workers spend 1/3 of their income on leisure, entertainment, cultural activities and education; couples marry late and, with 2 incomes, can purchase many nonessentials. Nearly 3.25 million students attend Tokyo's fiercely competitive schools and colleges; Japan is almost 100% literate. Of the 6 million people working in Tokyo, half work in the service and retail sector, 25% in manufacturing, 12% in transportation and communication, 9% in finance and insurance, and 8% work in construction. Tokyo workers earn nearly 20% more than the average Japanese worker. Japan now faces job shortages and will see many unemployment problems by 1990. To help absorb new workers, government planners recommend increasing vacation time, training workers as specialists rather than generalists, and encouraging job

  1. Capitalism and Culture in Ibadan Urban Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronson, Dan R.

    1978-01-01

    An extended case analysis of a 1973 single land sale in the Yoruba city of Ibadan illustrates the role of Yoruba cultural patterns in Nigerian capitalist growth. This analysis also provides insight into the nature of the social relationships being established in the urbanization of Ibadan. (EB)

  2. Measles in Ibadan: a continuous scourge.

    PubMed

    Lagunju, I A; Orimadegun, A E; Oyedemi, D G

    2005-12-01

    Measles remains one of the leading causes of childhood mortality in the world, despite the availability of a safe, effective, relatively inexpensive vaccine. It is also one of the leading causes of childhood blindness in the developing world. We reviewed the records of cases of measles admitted into Oni Memorial Children's Hospital, Ibadan over a 5-year period, January 2000 to December 2004; to evaluate any changes in the pattern of the disease. A total of 666 cases of measles were admitted comprising of 347 males and 319 females, giving a male to female ratio of 1.1:1. The yearly incidence of measles remained fairly the same from January 2000 to December 2002. There was a marked increase in yearly incidence in the year 2003. The majority of the affected children (74.1%) were 2 years and below. One hundred and thirty-six (20.4%) cases developed measles before the age of 9 months, the recommended age for measles vaccination in Nigeria. The peak incidence occurred in the months February and March. The commonest complication was bronchopneumonia, seen in 45.2% of cases. Other complications include protein-energy malnutrition, tuberculosis, croup, keratopathy, otitis media, heart failure and tension pneumothorax. Fifty-six patients died giving a case fatality rate of 8.4%. Factors associated with increased mortality were young age (<2years) and malnutrition. Measles remains a major threat to the health of the Nigerian child. A significant number of children developed measles before receiving the required vaccination at the recommended age of 9 months. There is a need to review the current immunisation policy, strengthen immunisation practices and improve the living standards in order to make the eradication of measles a reality.

  3. Awareness of Climate Change and Sustainable Development among Undergraduates from Two Selected Universities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, Omowunmi Sola; Emmanuel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated awareness of climate change and sustainable development among undergraduates in two universities: University of Ibadan, Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso in Oyo State of Nigeria. This was aimed at increasing the knowledge of undergraduates on climate change and sustainable development. The study…

  4. The University of Ibadan/Grass Foundation Workshop in Neuroscience Teaching

    PubMed Central

    Dzakpasu, Rhonda; Johnson, Bruce R.; Olopade, James O.

    2017-01-01

    The University of Ibadan/Grass Foundation Workshop in Neuroscience Teaching (March 31st to April 2nd, 2017) in Ibadan, Nigeria was sponsored by the Grass Foundation as a “proof of principle” outreach program for young neuroscience faculty at Nigerian universities with limited educational and research resources. The workshop’s goal was to introduce low cost equipment for student lab exercises and computational tutorials that could enhance the teaching and research capabilities of local neuroscience educators. Participant assessment of the workshop’s activities was very positive and suggested that similar workshops for other faculty from institutions with limited resources could have a great impact on the quality of both the undergraduate and faculty experience. PMID:29371853

  5. Repositioning Guidance and Counselling and Curriculum Innovation in Higher Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyilofor, Florence N. C.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on repositioning guidance and counseling and curriculum innovation in higher education in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. The study covered four Federal universities in the South-West Geopolitical zone of Nigeria, namely University of Ibadan in Oyo State; Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife…

  6. Fatal road traffic injuries in Ibadan, using the mortuary as a data source.

    PubMed

    Eze, Uwom O; Kipsaina, Chebiwot Caroline; Ozanne-Smith, Joan

    2013-12-01

    Road Traffic Injury (RTI) in Africa represents 14% of global RTI deaths. Lack of timely, reliable data undermines road safety interventions. Available fatality data are aggregated, limited in detail or scarce in surveys. This is the first fatal RTI surveillance study in Nigeria. To pilot a systematic mortuary-based data collection in Ibadan, determine the nature and circumstances of fatal RTI and assess data quality against existing data sources. Using a draft data collection system developed jointly by WHO and Monash University, the detailed information was prospectively collected on RTI University College Hospital mortuary admissions in Ibadan September 2010 to February 2011. Demographics, road user type, counterpart vehicle, intent, manner and medical cause of death were recorded. Mortuary admissions included 80 fatal RTI cases: 81.3% males. By road user category, 28 (35.0%) were pedestrians; 28 (35.0%) motorised 2-wheeler users; 18.8% car occupants; and 11.3% bus occupants. In 70% of cases, medical cause of death was head injury, including 25 of 28 motorised 2-wheeler users (89.3%). Estimates from this study indicate apparent increased mortuary capture of fatal RTI compared with police data. This study demonstrates the feasibility of collecting detailed, timely RTI fatality data through mortuary-based surveillance in Ibadan. While not all RTI deaths are reported to any authority in Ibadan, this large case series complements existing data sources and suggests that pedestrians and motorised 2-wheeler users die most often in road traffic crashes. Frequent head injuries among motorised 2-wheeler users strongly support the need for helmet wearing interventions.

  7. Single dose treatment of gonococcal urethritis with augmentin in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Osoba, A O; Oyelese, A O; Ashiru, J O; Ekweozor, C C; Ochei, J

    1985-01-01

    Augmentin, a new orally absorbed broadspectrum antibacterial agent comprising of amoxycillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate, was investigated in the treatment of gonococcal urethritis in Ibadan, Nigeria, where penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) constitute about 80% of the circulating strains of gonococci. Two different formulations of the agent were employed in the study. The first formulation consisting of 3.0 g amoxycillin and 125 mg clavulanic acid, achieved a cure rate of 75% (i.e. eighteen out of twenty-four patients) among PPNG infections, but 100% cure rate among nine patients with non-PPNG infections. The second formulation consisting of 3.0 g amoxycillin and 250 mg clavulanic acid, had a cure rate of 86% (i.e. fifty-seven out of sixty-six patients) among PPNG infections, and 91% (i.e. ten out of eleven patients) among non-PPNG infections. Clavulanic acid appears to potentiate and enhance the activity of amoxycillin against the beta-lactamase produced by the gonococci. Augmentin seems to be a good and acceptable agent for the treatment of gonococcal infections, in this environment and further studies on its efficacy are therefore justified, such as the simultaneous administration of probenecid.

  8. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  9. Accelerated Dimension-Independent Adaptive Metropolis

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yuxin; Keyes, David E.; Law, Kody J.; ...

    2016-10-27

    This work describes improvements from algorithmic and architectural means to black-box Bayesian inference over high-dimensional parameter spaces. The well-known adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm [33] is extended herein to scale asymptotically uniformly with respect to the underlying parameter dimension for Gaussian targets, by respecting the variance of the target. The resulting algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non-Gaussian targets. This algorithm is further improved, and the possibility of probing high-dimensional (with dimension d 1000) targets is enabled, via GPU-accelerated numerical libraries and periodically synchronized concurrent chains (justimore » ed a posteriori). Asymptotically in dimension, this GPU implementation exhibits a factor of four improvement versus a competitive CPU-based Intel MKL parallel version alone. Strong scaling to concurrent chains is exhibited, through a combination of longer time per sample batch (weak scaling) and yet fewer necessary samples to convergence. The algorithm performance is illustrated on several Gaussian and non-Gaussian target examples, in which the dimension may be in excess of one thousand.« less

  10. Accelerated Dimension-Independent Adaptive Metropolis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yuxin; Keyes, David E.; Law, Kody J.

    This work describes improvements from algorithmic and architectural means to black-box Bayesian inference over high-dimensional parameter spaces. The well-known adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm [33] is extended herein to scale asymptotically uniformly with respect to the underlying parameter dimension for Gaussian targets, by respecting the variance of the target. The resulting algorithm, referred to as the dimension-independent adaptive Metropolis (DIAM) algorithm, also shows improved performance with respect to adaptive Metropolis on non-Gaussian targets. This algorithm is further improved, and the possibility of probing high-dimensional (with dimension d 1000) targets is enabled, via GPU-accelerated numerical libraries and periodically synchronized concurrent chains (justimore » ed a posteriori). Asymptotically in dimension, this GPU implementation exhibits a factor of four improvement versus a competitive CPU-based Intel MKL parallel version alone. Strong scaling to concurrent chains is exhibited, through a combination of longer time per sample batch (weak scaling) and yet fewer necessary samples to convergence. The algorithm performance is illustrated on several Gaussian and non-Gaussian target examples, in which the dimension may be in excess of one thousand.« less

  11. Assessment of the Implementation of the Reading Component of the English Language Curriculum for Basic Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Hanna Onyi

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the implementation of the reading component of the Junior Secondary School English Language Curriculum for Basic Education in Nigeria. Ten (10) randomly selected public and private secondary schools from Kaduna metropolis in Kaduna State of Nigeria were used for the study. Among the factors assessed in relation to the…

  12. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  13. A quantum–quantum Metropolis algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Yung, Man-Hong; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    The classical Metropolis sampling method is a cornerstone of many statistical modeling applications that range from physics, chemistry, and biology to economics. This method is particularly suitable for sampling the thermal distributions of classical systems. The challenge of extending this method to the simulation of arbitrary quantum systems is that, in general, eigenstates of quantum Hamiltonians cannot be obtained efficiently with a classical computer. However, this challenge can be overcome by quantum computers. Here, we present a quantum algorithm which fully generalizes the classical Metropolis algorithm to the quantum domain. The meaning of quantum generalization is twofold: The proposed algorithm is not only applicable to both classical and quantum systems, but also offers a quantum speedup relative to the classical counterpart. Furthermore, unlike the classical method of quantum Monte Carlo, this quantum algorithm does not suffer from the negative-sign problem associated with fermionic systems. Applications of this algorithm include the study of low-temperature properties of quantum systems, such as the Hubbard model, and preparing the thermal states of sizable molecules to simulate, for example, chemical reactions at an arbitrary temperature. PMID:22215584

  14. Functional health of patients with knee osteoarthritis in a family medicine clinic in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Ilori, T; Ladipo, M M; Ogunbode, A M

    2016-09-01

    Patients with knee osteoarthritis experience pain and functional impairment, which impacts upon activities of daily living ultimately leading to a loss of functional independence and low quality- of-life. This study therefore aimed at evaluating the functional health status of patients with knee osteoarthritis in the Family Medicine clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 270 eligible respondents between January and March 2011. The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Measure (IKHOAM) was administered after screening with the knee pain screening tool (KNEST). Respondents'Socio- demographic characteristics and knee pain intensity ratings were also recorded. The age range of respondents in the study was from 28 years to 85 years with a female: male ratio 5:1. Out of the 270 respondents studied, 146 (54.1%) reported restriction in performing duties at work. One hundred and twenty seven respondents (47.0%) needed some assistance in walking outside the house for 15 to 20 minutes, whilst 195 (72.2%) required some assistance in climbing stairs. Thirty four (12.6%) of Muslims and 77 (28.5%) of Christians could not kneel to pray. Males are twice more likely to have a better functional health than females (OR= 2.1, 95% CI= 1.0- 4.6, p=0.046). Knee osteoarthritis significantly impairs activities of daily living, especially some socio-cultural and religious practices of respondents. Therefore in addition to treating the knee symptoms, removing environmental barriers may reduce immobility within and outside the home thereby improving functionality.

  15. A Path-Analytic Study of Some Correlates Predicting Persistence and Student's Success in Distance Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojokheta, K. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the influence of some predictors in the enhancement of persistence and students success in distance education in the two most recognised and respected distance learning institutions in Nigeria--the Distance Learning Institute (DLI) of University of Lagos and Distance Learning Centre of University of Ibadan. The need for this…

  16. Application of Biased Metropolis Algorithms: From protons to proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bazavov, Alexei; Berg, Bernd A.; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    We show that sampling with a biased Metropolis scheme is essentially equivalent to using the heatbath algorithm. However, the biased Metropolis method can also be applied when an efficient heatbath algorithm does not exist. This is first illustrated with an example from high energy physics (lattice gauge theory simulations). We then illustrate the Rugged Metropolis method, which is based on a similar biased updating scheme, but aims at very different applications. The goal of such applications is to locate the most likely configurations in a rugged free energy landscape, which is most relevant for simulations of biomolecules. PMID:26612967

  17. Rugged Metropolis sampling with simultaneous updating of two dynamical variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2005-07-01

    The rugged Metropolis (RM) algorithm is a biased updating scheme which aims at directly hitting the most likely configurations in a rugged free-energy landscape. Details of the one-variable (RM1) implementation of this algorithm are presented. This is followed by an extension to simultaneous updating of two dynamical variables (RM2) . In a test with the brain peptide Met-Enkephalin in vacuum RM2 improves conventional Metropolis simulations by a factor of about 4. Correlations between three or more dihedral angles appear to prevent larger improvements at low temperatures. We also investigate a multihit Metropolis scheme, which spends more CPU time on variables with large autocorrelation times.

  18. Adaptive Metropolis Sampling with Product Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Lee, Chiu Fan

    2005-01-01

    The Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm is a way to sample a provided target distribution pi(z). It works by repeatedly sampling a separate proposal distribution T(x,x') to generate a random walk {x(t)}. We consider a modification of the MH algorithm in which T is dynamically updated during the walk. The update at time t uses the {x(t' less than t)} to estimate the product distribution that has the least Kullback-Leibler distance to pi. That estimate is the information-theoretically optimal mean-field approximation to pi. We demonstrate through computer experiments that our algorithm produces samples that are superior to those of the conventional MH algorithm.

  19. Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Jegede, Ayodele S; Falade, Catherine O; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2013-10-24

    Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of development projects was

  20. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy wasmore » awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.« less

  1. Physico-chemical studies on adulteration of honey in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lawal, R A; Lawal, A K; Adekalu, J B

    2009-08-01

    The extent of adulteration of honey samples from various geographical locations in Nigeria was evaluated. In order to ascertain the quality and extent of adulteration of the honey samples, the total titrable acidity, brix content, pH, colour, viscosity, moisture content, total solids, ash content, hydroxymethyl furfural and microbiological analysis were carried out. Honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun had a high hydroxymethyl furfural with coliforms and total bacteria counts being absent, while honey samples from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan had a low hydroxymethyl furfural and some total viable counts were present in them. These results indicate that honey samples from Akwa-Ibom, Ondo and Ogun were completely free of adulteration. However, honey samples obtained from Shaki, Yola and Ibadan were discovered to have undergone some form of adulteration.

  2. 76 FR 39918 - Honeywell International, Inc., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ...., Metropolis Works; License Amendment Request and Request for a Hearing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... surface impoundment decommissioning plan at its Metropolis Works Facility site located in Metropolis... information. With respect to copyrighted works, except for limited excerpts that serve the purpose of the...

  3. 76 FR 58049 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-3392-MLA; ASLBP No. 11-910-01-MLA-BD01] Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; Honeywell International, Inc.; Metropolis Works Uranium Conversion Facility... assurance for its Metropolis Works uranium conversion facility in Metropolis, Illinois. \\1\\ LBP-11-19, 74...

  4. Factors Related to under Achievement in Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) in Secondary Schools in Rivers State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obomanu, B. J.; Adaramola, M. O.

    2011-01-01

    We report a research into factors related to underachievement in science, technology and mathematics (STM) education in schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. The study investigated 240 Nigerian secondary school students, 100 parents, 140 STM teachers and 20 government officials from Port Harcourt Metropolis. Five (5) research questions and one…

  5. Effects of Goal-Setting Skills on Students'academic Performance in English Language in Enugu Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Iyabo Idowu; Ilogu, Guy Chibuzoh; Madueke, Ify Louisa

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of goal-setting skills among Senior Secondary II students' academic performance in English language in Enugu Metropolis, Enugu state, Nigeria. Quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test control group design was adopted for the study. The initial sample was 147 participants (male and female) Senior Secondary…

  6. Estimating a Noncompensatory IRT Model Using Metropolis within Gibbs Sampling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted with the noncompensatory class of multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) models. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted exploring the estimation of a two-parameter noncompensatory item response theory (IRT) model. The estimation method used was a Metropolis-Hastings within Gibbs algorithm…

  7. Women in Educational Leadership within the Tamale Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segkulu, L.; Gyimah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Within the Tamale Metropolis, it is observed that only a few women occupy top level management positions within the Ghana Education Service (GES). A descriptive survey was therefore conducted in 2013/2014 academic year to assess the factors affecting the gender disparity in educational leadership within the Service. Specifically, the study sought…

  8. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-11-01

    Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation.

  9. Refractive Amblyopia among children in Ibadan: the need for amblyopia screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, B A; Ugalahi, M O; Okoli, C E; Baiyeroju, A M

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence and burden of amblyopia in developing countries is probably underestimated, and little is known about the pattern of amblyopia in West Africa. To determine the relative frequency and types of amblyopia among children with refractive errors seen in the eye clinic of a tertiary hospital over a 2 year period. A cross-sectional study conducted at the eye clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria between January 2012 and December 2013. Case notes of children with refractive errors seen during this period were retrieved and information including socio-demographic data, presenting visual acuity and visual acuity with correction were recorded. Amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity worse than 6/9 or a difference of ≥ 2 Snellen chart lines between both eyes in the absence of any ocular pathology that could explain the visual impairment. A total of 250 eligible patients who had refractive errors were included in the study. Visual acuity was corrected to 6/9 or better in 224 (89.6%) children while 26 (10.4%) of them had amblyopia. Among the 26 children with amblyopia, 21 (80.8%) children had amblyopia in both eyes and majority (65.4%) had iso-ametropic amblyopia. Of the 47 amblyopic eyes, 36 (76.6%) eyes had moderate amblyopia while 11 (23.4%) eyes had severe amblyopia. There is a high relative frequency of amblyopia in this study and we recommend preschool eye examinations for all children to ensure early detection and management of amblyopia, thereby reducing the burden of amblyopia in our populace.

  10. Predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria among obstetric population in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Awonuga, D O; Awonuga, D A; Fawole, A O; Dada-Adegbola, H O; Dada-Adegbola, H A; Olola, F A; Awonuga, O M

    2010-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is the major risk factor for symptomatic urinary tract infection during pregnancy. Screening and identification of bacteriuria during pregnancy have been recommended. The general objective of the study was to determine the pattern as well as possible predictors of asymptomatic bacteriuria at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. The study was a descriptive, cross sectional, exploratory survey of the pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria among all consecutive patients presenting for the first antenatal visit at the University College Hospital, Ibadan during the study period. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 10.7%. Although no statistically significant association was found, the prevalence was higher among women aged between 26 - 35 years (11.5%) and those with only secondary education (14.6%). Other demographic parameters characterized by high rates of bacteriuria were Christian women (12.7% compared to 4.3% among Muslims) and genotypes AS and AC (16.4% and 16.7% respectively). Low parity (para 1-2), 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy were the identified possible obstetric predictors of bacteriuria in pregnancy. Staphylococcus species constitute the predominant isolates in 3rd trimester and among Muslim pregnant women. Since no statistically significant predictors for bacteriuria in pregnancy were found, routine screening of all our pregnant women for this condition in 2nd trimester is recommended.

  11. The pattern of childhood accidents in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1969-01-01

    All childhood accidents treated at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, during a 4-year period are analysed. The pattern of childhood injuries in the part of Nigeria served by this hospital does not differ significantly from the pattern reported in studies from other parts of the world. The chain of events leading to an accident appears in large measure to be directly influenced by the mode of life in the community. This in turn is related to the prevailing level of technological development. There is an obvious need for more exhaustive studies of childhood accidents in developing countries. However, these countries need not wait for this information to become available before initiating accident-prevention programmes. PMID:5309535

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria of pregnancy in Ibadan, Nigeria: a re-assessment.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, O; Ogbolu, D O; Akinloye, O M; Terry Alli, O A

    2006-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy is the major risk factor for developing symptomatic urinary tract infection during pregnancy. In the present study, 300 pregnant women are screened for significant asymptomatic bacteriuria in order to provide an insight into the prevalence in developing countries, reassessment of some predisposing factors and aetiological agents and their susceptibility tests. The mean age of the patients in the study is 26.8 years (SD: 5.8 years, range: 16-40 years). Using 10(3) organisms/mL as a significant level of bacteriuria, the prevalence was found to be 21.0%. One hundred and fifty-eight samples had no pus cells, with 25 showing significant bacteriuria, 116 samples contained 1-4 pus cells/high power field (hpf) with 25 showing significant bacteriuria, while 26 samples had > or = 5 pus cells/hpf with 13 showing significant bacteriuria. There was no particular trend associated with age and rate of infection. However, there was a decline in the rate of infection in the 26-30 age group, with a sharp increase as age increased. There was high incidence of bacteriuria during the third trimester of pregnancy (21.9%) compared with that in the first trimester (7.7%), while the level in the second trimester was 22.5%. Multiparity is associated with increased bacteriuria in pregnancy. Thirty-one (49.2%) isolates grew Gram-negative bacilli; 27 (42.9%) grew Gram-positive cocci and the remainder (7.9%) grew yeast-like cells. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequent pathogen (41.3%), followed by Klebsiella species (33.3%) and Escherichia coli (11.1%). Bacterial isolates from this study were most sensitive to ceftazidime, followed by ceftriazone, and least susceptible to co-trimoxazole.

  13. A study of the pattern of breast feeding in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osinusi, K

    1987-12-01

    The patterns of breast feeding and the effect of health education on the practice among three groups of women, namely a rural poor group, an urban poor group and an urban elite group were studied. Although the rural poor had the least knowledge about the advantages of breast feeding, the median duration of breast feeding was longest in this group and only 32% of them had introduced supplementary feeds by the end of the first month. Health education did not appear to be a critical factor in motivating these mothers to feed their children the right way. Rather, socio-economic factors particularly poverty appeared to be the compelling factor with regards to duration of breast feeding and time of introduction of supplementary feeds.

  14. Periodontal Condition and Treatment Needs of Some Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opeodu, O I; Dosumu, E B; Arowojolu, M O

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal diseases had been reported to be worse in the presence of hormonal imbalance as seen during pregnancy, which if that is the case, should resolve following childbirth when the hormonal level of the women should have reverted to normal. Periodontal health of 345 pregnant women was assessed once during pregnancy and at 14(th) week following their childbirth. The clinical variant of community periodontal index of treatment needs probe was used in the assessment. During pregnancy, 167/345 (48.4%) of the women had deep pockets, 178/345 (51.6%) had shallow pockets. After childbirth, 5/345 (1.5%) had healthy periodontium, 25/345 (7.2%) had calculus and 7/345 (2.0%) had deep pockets. All of the respondents required oral hygiene instructions (OHI) and prophylaxis and 167/345 (48.4%) required complex treatment during pregnancy. After childbirth, 340/345 (98.5%) of the women required OHI and prophylaxis. Despite the great need for dental treatment among the respondents, majority never sought any treatment as 308/345 (89.3%) of the respondents had never visited a dentist before the study. The fact that the deep pocket reduced drastically following childbirth shows that it was not a true pocket. The high unmet treatment needs among the respondents require a concerted effort from dentists and policy makers in order to enlighten the women, especially those of child bearing age concerning the need for preventive dental visitation.

  15. A typical presentations of hypothyroidism and associated problems in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, F M; Jarrett, O O

    2015-06-01

    Hypothyroidism can present atypically making its recognition difficult especially in resource limited settings. CASE PRESENTATION AND MANAGEMENT: Two children presented with atypical features of hypothyroidism with resultant delay in diagnosis. Patient I presented with persistent respiratory distress, facial swelling and recurrent syncopal attacks. Cardiovascular examination was normal except for pulmonary hypertension. He did not respond to conventional supportive therapy and hypothyroidism was discovered much later. Patient II was a seven month old male infant with abdominal swelling, bilateral pitting leg oedema, poor weight gain and delayed developmental milestones. Examination revealed ascites and pericardial effusion. He was being managed for protein energy malnutrition until he was found to have hypothyroidism and was successfully managed with L thyroxin. A typical presentations of hypothyroidism in resource limited settings can result in delay in diagnosis and treatment which can lead to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. High index of suspicion and expertise are therefore required.

  16. Complementary and alternative medicines use in children with epilepsy in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lagunju, I A

    2013-03-01

    There is documented evidence that the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has been on the increase worldwide. A standardized questionnaire was administered to caregivers of children with epilepsy to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of CAM use. One hundred and seventy five caregivers of 175 children with epilepsy were studied. Ninety nine (56.6%) of the caregivers gave a history of CAM use. The forms of CAM used were herbal preparations (39.4%), spiritual/prayer healing (34.3%), scarifications (17.1%) and special vitamins (6.1%). Seventy (40%) of the 175 children had received CAM ever before seeking Western Medicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Of the 99 children with history of CAM use, 33 (33.3%) continued to use CAM in combination with the prescribed anti-epileptic drug (AED). Adverse effects were reported in 17 (17.1%) cases. There was no statistically significant relationship between the type of epilepsy and the use of CAM (p= 0.229, OR 1.655, 95% CI 0.608-4.508). There was a statistically significant inverse relationship between social class of the family (p = 0.043, OR 0.354, 95% CI 1.087-2.489) and mother's level of education (p = 0.013, OR 2.618, 95% CI 1.173-5.844) and the use of CAM. Only 30 (30.3%) of the 99 caregivers had spontaneously volunteered the history of the use of CAM to the attending physician and the leading reason for not giving the history was that the attending physician did not ask for the information. Children with epilepsy frequently use CAM and attending physicians often fail to ask about use of CAM in the routine evaluation of patients. There is a need to routinely ask caregivers and patients about the use of CAM in management of their disease.

  17. Geo-products of urban areas: Silesian Metropolis, Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chybiorz, Ryszard; Abramowicz, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Silesian Metropolis is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, in the most important industrial region in Poland. It consist of 14 cities with powiat rights, which create the largest urban center in Poland and one of the largest in Central and Eastern Europe. Almost 2 million people live in its territory. A large concentration of the population is associated with industrialization and especially with the development of the mining industry (Upper Silesian Coal Basin) and the processing industry (steelworks, textile industry) at the end of 19th century. One hundred years later, during the creation of the modern sectors of the economy, processes of metallurgy and mining restructuring have been started. Created mechanisms and conditions for development of post-industrial areas were consistent with the principles of sustainable development and had many new features, including cultural and touristic features. The Industrial Monuments Route was opened for the inhabitants and visitors in October 2006. The route joined the European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) in 2010. Its most interesting mining attractions are located in Silesian Metropolis, and the most frequently visited object on the route is the Guido Historical Coal Mine in Zabrze and the Historical Silver Mine in Tarnowskie Góry. The project, which is realized in Zabrze, will provide for tourists a system of underground corridors, which were used for coal transportation in the 19th century. Visitors will be able to actively explore the work of miners, moving by underground boats, railway and suspension railway. Surface mines are also available for geotourists. The Ecological and Geological Education Center GEOsfera was created in a former Triassic quarry in Jaworzno. Although the area of the Silesian Metropolis is characterized by a very large devastation of the environment, the following objects were created (and are still created) on the basis of inanimate nature and they have a touristic value for the region

  18. High-risk of obstructive sleep apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness among commercial intra-city drivers in Lagos metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Ozoh, Obianuju B.; Okubadejo, Njideka U.; Akanbi, Maxwell O.; Dania, Michelle G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The burden of obstructive sleep apnea among commercial drivers in Nigeria is not known. Aim: To assess the prevalence of high risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) among intra-city commercial drivers. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study in three major motor parks in Lagos metropolis. Materials and Methods: Demographic, anthropometric and historical data was obtained. The risk of OSA and EDS was assessed using the STOP BANG questionnaire and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectively. Statistical Analysis: The relationship between the OSA risk, EDS risk and past road traffic accident (RTA) was explored using the Pearson's chi square. Independent determinants of OSA risk, EDS risk and past RTA, respectively, were assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Result: Five hundred male commercial drivers (mean age (years) ±SD = 42.36 ± 11.17 and mean BMI (kg/m2) ±SD = 25.68 ± 3.79) were recruited. OSA risk was high in 244 (48.8%) drivers and 72 (14.4%) had EDS. There was a positive relationship between OSA risk and the risk of EDS (Pearson's X2 = 28.2, P < 0.001). Sixty-one (12.2%) drivers had a past history of RTA but there was no significant relationship between a past RTA and either OSA risk (X2 = 2.05, P = 0.15) or EDS risk (X2 = 2.7, P = 0.1), respectively. Abdominal adiposity, regular alcohol use and EDS were independent determinants of OSA risk while the use of cannabis and OSA risk were independent determinants of EDS. No independent risk factor for past RTA was identified. Conclusion: A significant proportion of commercial drivers in Lagos metropolis are at high risk of OSA and EDS. PMID:24249946

  19. Biased Metropolis Sampling for Rugged Free Energy Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Bernd A.

    2003-11-01

    Metropolis simulations of all-atom models of peptides (i.e. small proteins) are considered. Inspired by the funnel picture of Bryngelson and Wolyness, a transformation of the updating probabilities of the dihedral angles is defined, which uses probability densities from a higher temperature to improve the algorithmic performance at a lower temperature. The method is suitable for canonical as well as for generalized ensemble simulations. A simple approximation to the full transformation is tested at room temperature for Met-Enkephalin in vacuum. Integrated autocorrelation times are found to be reduced by factors close to two and a similar improvement due to generalized ensemble methods enters multiplicatively.

  20. Commercial motorcycle drivers' perceptions of risk and road safety in urban Nigeria: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Sanusi, Adebayo Adesola; Emmelin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injury is a great public health challenge with an emerging trend of increasing rates and high mortality involving commercial motorcycles in Nigeria. A qualitative approach was used with 10 in-depth interviews conducted to explore the risk perceptions of commercial motorcyclists in Ibadan, Nigeria. The data analysis using manifest and latent content analysis resulted in an overarching theme: inadequate structures and internalised norms prevent change. The three themes leading to the overarching theme are: risk-taking as generally acceptable; risk-taking as an intrinsic part of occupation; and risk-taking as a way to make ends meet. The study suggests that there is a great need for adequate regulation as regards training and licensing of riders. Also the need to tighten enforcement of traffic rules is paramount to road safety in Nigeria.

  1. Effect of Field Trip on Students' Academic Performance in Basic Technology in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amosa, Abdul Ganiyu Alasela; Ogunlade, Oyeronke Olufunmilola; Atobatele, Adunni Suliat

    2015-01-01

    The use of field trip in teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in Basic Technology. Field trip is a group excursion away from the normal education environment for firsthand experience of an historic site or place of special interest. This study therefore was geared towards finding out the effect of field trip…

  2. Effect of petroleum products inhalation on some haematological indices of fuel attendants in Calabar metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoro, A M; Ani, E J; Ibu, J O; Akpogomeh, B A

    2006-01-01

    The Haematotoxic implications of exposure to petroleum fumes through inhalation in human subjects were investigated. A total of 400 subjects (200 males and 200 females) aged between 18-30 years participated. Each gender was further categorized into two groups of 100 each for control and test, respectively. The test group was again subdivided into test 1 (T1) and test 2 (T2) in both sexes. T1 subjects were exposed to petroleum fumes for two years and below while T2 subjects were exposed for more than two years. Samples of blood were collected daily and subjected to haematological analysis. The results obtained showed that in males and females, red blood cell counts (10(6) /mm3) was significantly [P < 0.001] decreased in T1 (4.4 +/- 0.13) and T2 (3.85 +/- 0.07) compared to control (4.76 +/- 0.01). White blood cell counts, haematocrit, haemoglobin concentration and mean corpusclular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly [P < 0.01] decreased in both sexes of test groups when compared with control. There was also a significant [P < 0.001] decrease in mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in test 2 males compared with control. Most subjects exposed for longer than two years (T2) had significantly [P < 0.001] lower values of red blood cell count, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit than those exposed for less than two years. The odds/odds ratio that a subject would become anaemic progressively rose from less than 1 in the control to greater than 1 or infinity on exposure to petroleum fumes. These results indicate that the petroleum fumes cause a reduction in haematological indices which worsens with prolonged exposure.

  3. Evaluation of some heavy metals concentration in body fluids of metal workers in Kano metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sani, Ali; Abdullahi, Ibrahim Lawal

    2017-01-01

    Metal workers in urban Kano constitute a major workforce with a considerable population. The present work was aimed at obtaining baseline data on the extent of metal ion concentration in body fluids (urine and blood) of sampled population in the area. The investigation involves interaction with sampled population as well as blood and urine sample collection for heavy metals analysis. The health problems associated with the practice identified by respondents include: metal fume fever; eye and skin irritation; dizziness and respiratory problems; lack of or inadequate protective devices during activity were also reported. Laboratory investigation of urine samples by Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated higher concentrations for Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Nickel (Ni); in blood samples, there were higher concentrations of Manganese (Mn), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni). Metal workers of urban Kano are at risk because of the concentration of Mn and Pb in particular. There is the need to monitor occupational activities that are responsible for pollution and with serious health risk.

  4. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Yarfi, Cosmos; Ashigbi, Evans Y K; Nakua, Emmanuel K

    2017-01-01

    Accessibility implies making public places accessible to every individual, irrespective of his or her disability or special need, ensuring the integration of the wheelchair user into the society and thereby granting them the capability of participating in activities of daily living and ensuring equality in daily life. This study was carried out to assess the accessibility of the physical infrastructures (public buildings) in the Kumasi metropolis to wheelchairs after the passage of the Ghanaian Disability Law (Act 716, 2006). Eighty-four public buildings housing education facilities, health facilities, ministries, departments and agencies, sports and recreation, religious groups and banks were assessed. The routes, entrances, height of steps, grade of ramps, sinks, entrance to washrooms, toilets, urinals, automated teller machines and tellers' counters were measured and computed. Out of a total of 84 buildings assessed, only 34 (40.5%) of the buildings, 52.3% of the entrances and 87.4% of the routes of the buildings were accessible to wheelchair users. A total of 25% (13 out of 52) of the public buildings with more than one floor were fitted with elevators to connect the different levels of floors. The results of this study show that public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis are not wheelchair accessible. An important observation made during this study was that there is an intention to improve accessibility when buildings are being constructed or renovated, but there are no laid down guidelines as how to make the buildings accessible for wheelchair users.

  5. Wheelchair accessibility to public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ashigbi, Evans Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Accessibility implies making public places accessible to every individual, irrespective of his or her disability or special need, ensuring the integration of the wheelchair user into the society and thereby granting them the capability of participating in activities of daily living and ensuring equality in daily life. Objective This study was carried out to assess the accessibility of the physical infrastructures (public buildings) in the Kumasi metropolis to wheelchairs after the passage of the Ghanaian Disability Law (Act 716, 2006). Methods Eighty-four public buildings housing education facilities, health facilities, ministries, departments and agencies, sports and recreation, religious groups and banks were assessed. The routes, entrances, height of steps, grade of ramps, sinks, entrance to washrooms, toilets, urinals, automated teller machines and tellers’ counters were measured and computed. Results Out of a total of 84 buildings assessed, only 34 (40.5%) of the buildings, 52.3% of the entrances and 87.4% of the routes of the buildings were accessible to wheelchair users. A total of 25% (13 out of 52) of the public buildings with more than one floor were fitted with elevators to connect the different levels of floors. Conclusion The results of this study show that public buildings in the Kumasi metropolis are not wheelchair accessible. An important observation made during this study was that there is an intention to improve accessibility when buildings are being constructed or renovated, but there are no laid down guidelines as how to make the buildings accessible for wheelchair users. PMID:29062761

  6. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  7. Rainforest metropolis casts 1,000-km defaunation shadow.

    PubMed

    Tregidgo, Daniel J; Barlow, Jos; Pompeu, Paulo S; de Almeida Rocha, Mayana; Parry, Luke

    2017-08-08

    Tropical rainforest regions are urbanizing rapidly, yet the role of emerging metropolises in driving wildlife overharvesting in forests and inland waters is unknown. We present evidence of a large defaunation shadow around a rainforest metropolis. Using interviews with 392 rural fishers, we show that fishing has severely depleted a large-bodied keystone fish species, tambaqui ( Colossoma macropomum ), with an impact extending over 1,000 km from the rainforest city of Manaus (population 2.1 million). There was strong evidence of defaunation within this area, including a 50% reduction in body size and catch rate (catch per unit effort). Our findings link these declines to city-based boats that provide rural fishers with reliable access to fish buyers and ice and likely impact rural fisher livelihoods and flooded forest biodiversity. This empirical evidence that urban markets can defaunate deep into rainforest wilderness has implications for other urbanizing socioecological systems.

  8. Kyiv Small Rivers in Metropolis Water Objects System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krelshteyn, P.; Dubnytska, M.

    2017-12-01

    The article answers the question, what really are the small underground rivers with artificial watercourses: water bodies or city engineering infrastructure objects? The place of such rivers in metropolis water objects system is identified. The ecological state and the degree of urbanization of small rivers, as well as the dynamics of change in these indicators are analysed on the Kiev city example with the help of water objects cadastre. It was found that the registration of small rivers in Kyiv city is not conducted, and the summary information on such water objects is absent and is not taken into account when making managerial decisions at the urban level. To solve this problem, we propose to create some water bodies accounting system (water cadastre).

  9. Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) infestation on cassava genotypes grown at different ecozones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ariyo, O A; Dixon, A G O; Atiri, G I

    2005-04-01

    Large-scale screening of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, genotypes for resistance to infestation by whitefly Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses, is limited. A range of new cassava elite clones were therefore assessed for the whitefly infestation in the 1999/2000 and 2000/2001 cropping seasons in experimental fields of International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. On each scoring day, between 0600 and 0800 hours when the whiteflies were relatively immobile, adult whitefly populations on the five topmost expanded leaves of cassava cultivars were counted. All through the 6-mo scoring period, there was a highly significant difference in whitefly infestation among the new cassava elite clones. Vector population buildup was observed in Ibadan (forest-savanna transition zone) and Onne (humid forest), 2 mo after planting (MAP). Mean infestation across cassava genotypes was significantly highest (16.6 whiteflies per plant) in Ibadan and lowest in Zaria (0.2). Generally, whitefly infestation was very low in all locations at 5 and 6 MAP. During this period, cassava genotypes 96/1439 and 91/02324 significantly supported higher infestations than other genotypes. Plants of 96/1089A and TMS 30572 supported the lowest whitefly infestation across cassava genotypes in all locations. The preferential whitefly visitation, the differences between locations in relation to whitefly population, cassava mosaic disease, and the fresh root yield of cassava genotypes are discussed.

  10. Assessing cancer patients' quality of life and coping mechanisms in Radiotherapy Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, Chioma Christie; Elumelu, Theresa Nchekube

    2013-10-01

    Cancer is often associated with a lot of pain and suffering. These suggest that coping with the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of cancer is a major life stressor that is capable of influencing patients' quality of life (QoL). The purpose of the study is to assess the relationship between cancer patients' QoL dimensions and coping strategies in the Radiotherapy Department of the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were collected on clinic days from all available and consenting cancer patients who were receiving treatment at the radiotherapy department. Participants were informed of their right to decline to fill the questionnaires. In this study, 237 cancer patients participated. They had an age range of 15 to 95 years with a mean age of 49.91 years. There was significant inverse relationship between physical well-being with behavioural disengagement, venting, planning and self-blame (p < 0.05); social/family well-being has significant linear relationship with active coping, emotional support, positive reframing, instrumental support, acceptance and religion (p < 0.05); emotional well-being has significant inverse relationship with behavioural disengagement and self-blame (p < 0.05); functional well-being has significant linear relationship with active coping, instrumental support and acceptance (p < 0.05). It is important to assess cancer patients for the kind of coping strategies they are adopting to use in coping with their cancer burden, thereby guiding against lower QoL due to negative coping strategies. Intervention programmes could be developed to help cancer patients adopt more positive and effective coping strategies to improve patients' QoL. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Spatial patterns monitoring of road traffic injuries in Karachi metropolis.

    PubMed

    Lateef, Muhammad U

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to assess the pattern of road traffic injuries (RTIs) and fatalities in Karachi metropolis. Assessing the pattern of RTIs in Karachi at this juncture is important for many reasons. The rapid motorisation in the recent years due to the availability of credit has significantly increased the traffic volume of the city. Since then, the roads of Karachi have continuously developed at a rapid pace. This development has come with a high human loss, because the construction of multilevel flyovers, signal-free corridors and the resulting high-speed traffic ultimately increase the severity of injuries. The reasons for this high proportion are inadequate infrastructure, poor enforcement of safety regulations, high crash severity index and greater population of vulnerable road user groups (riders and pedestrians). This research is the first of its kind in the country to have a geocoded database of fatalities and injuries in a geographical information system for the entire city of Karachi. In fact, road crashes are both predictable and preventable. Developing countries should learn from the experience of highly motorised nations to avoid the high burden of RTIs by adopting road safety and prevention measures.

  12. Water budget analysis and management for Bangkok Metropolis, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2017-09-01

    The water budget of the Bangkok Metropolis system was analyzed using a material flow analysis model. Total imported flows into the system were 80,080 million m 3 per year (Mm 3 y -1 ) including inflows from the Chao Phraya and Mae Klong rivers and rainwater. Total exported flows out of the system were 78,528 Mm 3 y -1 including outflow into the lower Chao Phraya River and tap water (TW) distributed to suburbs. Total rates of stock exchange (1,552 Mm 3 y -1 ) were found in the processes of water recycling, TW distribution, domestic use, swine farming, aquaculture, and paddy fields. Only 21% of the total amount of wastewater (1,255 Mm 3 y -1 ) was collected, with insufficient treatment capacity of about 415 Mm 3 y -1 . Domestic and business (industrial and commercial sectors) areas were major point sources, whereas paddy fields were a major non-point source of wastewater. To manage Bangkok's water budget, critical measures have to be considered. Wastewater treatment capacity and efficiency of wastewater collection should be improved. On-site wastewater treatment plants for residential areas should be installed. Urban planning and land use zoning are suggested to control land use activities. Green technology should be supported to reduce wastewater from farming.

  13. Children within the juvenile justice system in Nigeria: psychopathology and psychosocial needs.

    PubMed

    Bella, T T; Atilola, O; Omigbodun, O O

    2010-06-01

    Many children in Nigeria face a life of poverty, family instability, inadequate educational opportunities and poor physical and mental health which hinder their ability to develop into healthy adults, live an improved quality of life or fulfil their life aspirations. These factors have also been associated with juvenile delinquency and need for institutional care. As a step toward providing comprehensive services for incarcerated children in Nigeria, this study aimed to identify the psychosocial needs as well as types of psychopathology among a group of incarcerated children at the Ibadan remand home. A cross-sectional survey of children and adolescents at the Ibadan remand home was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 59 children were assessed over a one year period. Majority (90%) were in need of care and protection. All (100%) had significant psychosocial needs presenting as difficulty with their primary support, economic, social environment, or educational systems. Majority (97%) also demonstrated significant psychopathology and anxiety, suicidal and depressive symptoms were the most commonly elicited. Incarcerated children in this study showed significant mental health needs which need to be addressed as a matter of urgency. This should be carried out through the collaborative efforts of mental health professionals with various stakeholders in child care.

  14. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were < 1. All the samples had low ecological risk for Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cr while only 15.35% of samples had low ecological risk for Cd. Atmospheric transport rather than land use factors best explained the seasonal variations in heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  15. Visual defects and commercial motorcycle accidents in south eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Achigbu, E O; Fiebai, B

    2013-01-01

    Commercial motorcyclists are a regular part of our highways, especially with the decrease in the number and quality of good roads. This study is aimed at determining the role of vision if any in the increasing number of road traffic accidents (RTA's) among commercial motorcyclists in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria. A cross sectional survey with a multi stage random sampling design was used to select the 615 commercial motorcyclists in Enugu metropolis enrolled in the study. Out of the 615 motorcyclists, seven (1.14% +/- 0.70%) motorcyclists had visual impairment (< 6/18-3/60). Visual field defect was noted in 2.3% +/- 0.98% while 2.6% +/- 0.98% had colour vision defect. The prevalence of road traffic accident (RTA) was 57.7%. Visual impairment was not significantly associated with RTA (P = 0.333) while visual field defect (P = 0.000), and colour vision defect (P = 0.003) were positively associated with RTA. Inexperienced riders had significantly more RTAs than their counterparts (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION; Visual field defect, and colour vision defect were significantly associated with RTA but this finding is in the backdrop of poor training, and inexperience which also significantly affected RTA among the predominantly young riders involved in RTA.

  16. Engaging Nigerian community pharmacists in public health programs: assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice in Enugu metropolis.

    PubMed

    Offu, Ogochukwu; Anetoh, Maureen; Okonta, Matthew; Ekwunife, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    The Nigerian health sector battles with control of infectious diseases and emerging non-communicable diseases. Number of healthcare personnel involved in public health programs need to be boosted to contain the health challenges of the country. Therefore, it is important to assess whether community pharmacists in Nigeria could be engaged in the promotion and delivery of various public health interventions. This study aimed to assess level of knowledge, attitude and practice of public health by community pharmacists. The cross sectional survey was carried out in Enugu metropolis. Questionnaire items were developed from expert literature. Percentage satisfactory knowledge and practice were obtained by determining the percentage of community pharmacists that were able to list more than 2 activities or that stated the correct answer. Attitude score represents the average score on the 5 point Likert scale for each item. Chi square and Fisher's exact test were used to test for statistically significant difference in knowledge, attitude and practice of public health between different groups of community pharmacists. Forty pharmacists participated in the survey. About one third of the participants had satisfactory knowledge of public health. With the exception of one item in attitude assessment, average item score ranged from 'agreed' to 'strongly agreed'. Study participants scored below satisfactory on practice of public health. Knowledge, attitude and practice of public health were not influenced by years of practice, qualification and prior public health experience. Reported barriers to the practice of public health include inadequate funds, lack of time, lack of space, cooperation of clients, inadequate staff, government regulation, insufficient knowledge, and remuneration. Level of knowledge and practice of public health by community pharmacists were not satisfactory although they had a positive attitude towards practice of public health. The findings highlight the

  17. Air pollution and hospitalizations in the largest Brazilian metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Nelson; Corrallo, Flavia Prado; de Leon, Antônio Carlos Ponce; Junger, Washington; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of air pollution on hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in the largest Brazilian metropolis. METHODS This study was carried out at the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental data were obtained from the network of monitoring stations of nine municipalities. Air pollution exposure was measured by daily means of PM10 (particles with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm) per municipality, while daily counts of hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases within the Brazilian Unified Health System were the outcome. For each municipality a time series analysis was carried out in which a semiparametric Poisson regression model was the framework to explain the daily fluctuations on counts of hospitalizations over time. The results were combined in a meta-analysis to estimate the overall risk of PM10 in hospitalizations for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases at the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. RESULTS Regarding hospitalizations for respiratory diseases, the effect estimates were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for all municipalities, except Santo André and Taboão da Serra. The RR (Relative Risk) of this outcome for an increase of 10 µg/m3 in the levels of PM10 ranged from 1.011 (95%CI 1.009–1.013) for São Paulo to 1.032 (95%CI 1.024–1.040) in São Bernardo do Campo. The RR of hospitalization for respiratory diseases in children for an increase of 10 µg/m3 of PM10 ranged from 1.009 (95%CI 1.001–1.017) in Santo André to 1.077 (95%CI 1.056–1.098) in Mauá. Only São Paulo and São Bernardo do Campo presented positive and statistically significant results for hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to estimate the risk of illness from air pollution in the set of municipalities of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. Global estimates of the effect of exposure to pollution in the region

  18. Race, Schools and Opportunity Hoarding: Evidence from a Post-War American Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.; Rife, Aaron Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Opportunity hoarding is a sociological concept first introduced by Charles Tilly. This article explores its utility for historians by examining efforts to exclude different groups of people in a major American metropolis during the 1960s and seventies. This was a period of significant social change, as the racial composition of big city schools…

  19. 77 FR 64831 - Confirmatory Order; In the Matter of Honeywell International Inc.; Metropolis, Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-3392; License No. SUB-526; EA-12-157; NRC-2012-0244] Confirmatory Order; In the Matter of Honeywell International Inc.; Metropolis, Illinois I. Honeywell International Inc. (Honeywell or Licensee) is the holder of Materials License No. SUB-526, issued by the U.S...

  20. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-3392; NRC-2011-0143] License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works, Honeywell International, Inc. AGENCY... Federal Regulations (10 CFR) to approve the closure of the calcium fluoride ponds in-place, by...

  1. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  2. Examining Work and Family Conflict among Female Bankers in Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissi-Abrokwah, Bernard; Andoh-Robertson, Theophilus; Tutu-Danquah, Cecilia; Agbesi, Catherine Selorm

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects and solutions of work and family conflict among female bankers in Accra Metropolis. Using triangulatory mixed method design, a structured questionnaire was randomly administered to 300 female bankers and 15 female Bankers who were interviewed were also sampled by using convenient sampling technique. The…

  3. Putting the Learning in Service Learning: From Soup Kitchen Models to the Black Metropolis Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Theodoric, Jr.; Buffa, Avery S.; Dube, Caleb; Reed, Lauren

    2006-01-01

    Results of the Black Metropolis Model (BMM) of service learning are analyzed and illustrated in this article to explain how to "put the learning in service learning." There are many soup kitchens or nontransforming models of service learning where students are asked to serve needy populations but internalize and learn little about the…

  4. Stakeholders' Perception on Teachers' Assessment Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogidi, Reuben C.; Udechukwu, Jonathan O.

    2017-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the perception of stakeholders on teachers' assessment effectiveness in secondary schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State. Three research questions and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted survey research design. The sample of the study consisted of 20 principles, 30 vice…

  5. Using the Metropolis Algorithm to Calculate Thermodynamic Quantities: An Undergraduate Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beddard, Godfrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities such as the average energy, heat capacity, and entropy are calculated using a Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis algorithm. This method is illustrated with reference to the harmonic oscillator but is particularly useful when the partition function cannot be evaluated; an example using a one-dimensional spin system…

  6. Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm for Confirmatory Item Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    Item factor analysis (IFA), already well established in educational measurement, is increasingly applied to psychological measurement in research settings. However, high-dimensional confirmatory IFA remains a numerical challenge. The current research extends the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm, initially proposed for…

  7. Employee Motivation on the Organisational Growth of Printing Industry in the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Osei-Poku, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The printing industry is supposed to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of information to the general public. The main purpose of the study was to assess employee motivation on the printing industry within Kumasi Metropolis. The study employed both the quantitative and qualitative surveys…

  8. "Metropolis," The Lights Fantastic: Semiotic Analysis of Lighting Codes in Relation to Character and Theme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Lane

    Fritz Lang's "Metropolis" (1927) is a seminal film because of its concern, now generic, with the profound impact technological progress has on mankind's social and spiritual progress. As in many later science fiction films, the ascendancy of artifact over nature is depicted not as liberating human beings, but as subjecting and corrupting…

  9. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

  10. High levels of unprotected anal intercourse and never testing for HIV among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: evidence from a cross-sectional survey for the need for innovative approaches to HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lung; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Tun, Waimar; Adebajo, Sylvia

    2013-12-01

    To describe sexual risk behaviour, correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and never testing for HIV and its implications for HIV prevention interventions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria and other similar contexts. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 712 MSM in Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Levels of sexual risk behaviour and never having tested for HIV prior to the survey were calculated using weighted data for each city and unweighted data for the pooled sample. Correlates of UAI and never testing for HIV were determined using multiple logistic regression. The risk for HIV and STI among MSM in Nigeria is high, with 43.4% reporting UAI at last sex, 45.1% never having been tested for HIV and 53.9% reporting exchange of sex for resources in the past 6 months. Correlates of UAI in multivariate analysis included living in Ibadan, marriage or cohabitation with a woman, identification as bisexual, not having tested for HIV and being HIV-positive. Correlates of not having tested for HIV in multivariate analysis included living in Ibadan, young age, less education, unemployment and report of UAI. HIV testing is low and associated with UAI. Findings merit targeted and innovative approaches for HIV prevention for MSM, especially access to HIV self-testing. Attention to social and structural determinants of health-seeking and sexual risk behaviour is also needed, including the criminalisation of homosexuality and social marginalisation of MSM.

  11. Comparative effect of tube drain on post operative inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar surgery College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obimakinde, O S; Fasola, A O; Arotiba, J T; Okoje, V N; Obiechina, A E

    2010-09-01

    Swelling, pain and trismus are acute reversible inflammatory complications of impacted mandibular third molar (M3) surgery. They contribute to the deterioration of quality of life and loss of several useful working hours. This study aimed to investigate whether the use of a surgical drain following M3 surgery can minimise these inflammatory complications. Eighty consecutive patients who gave consent were enrolled into the study. Patients were assigned into two groups (drain and no drain) by systematic sampling method which was modified to ensure matching of patients by age, sex and spatial relationship of the impacted mandibular third molar. The patients in the drain group (n=40) had a Foley's catheter drain inserted into the wound after the surgical procedure while the patients in the no drain group (n=40) had their wound closed without the use of drain. All patients had primary wound closure with 3.0 black silk sutures after the procedure. Demographic data, cheek dimension and maximal mouth opening were recorded before the procedure. Pain, swelling and trismus were evaluated in the two groups at 24 hours, 48 hours and 7th day after surgery. Post operative swelling and visual analogue scale score for pain were comparatively lesser in the drain group patients. The maximal interincisal distance was also more in the drain group patients. The findings from this study indicated that there is a significant benefit of using a surgical drain in minimising postoperative oedema, pain and trismus following surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar.

  12. Self-esteem as determined by gender differences among Yoruba adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria: a research note.

    PubMed

    Oyefeso, A O; Zacheaus, A

    1990-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of gender differences on the expression of self-esteem among Yoruba adolescents. Using a sample of 120 adolescents, 60 males and 60 females, with a mean age of 16.02 years (S.D. = 1.63), the results reveal that male adolescents express higher self-esteem than female adolescents. This finding is attributed to the differing socialization processes for males and females in Yoruba societies.

  13. An assessment of attitudes towards people with mental illness among medical students and physicians in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ighodaro, Adesuwa; Stefanovics, Elina; Makanjuola, Victor; Rosenheck, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The authors surveyed attitudes towards mental illness among Nigerian medical personnel at three different levels of training and experience: medical students who had not completed their psychiatry rotation, medical students who had competed their psychiatry rotation, and graduate physicians. Six questions addressed beliefs about the effectiveness of treatments for four specific mental illnesses (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety) and two medical illnesses (diabetes and hypertension) among the three groups. A self-report questionnaire including 56 dichotomous items was used to compare beliefs about and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Factor analysis was used to identify key attitudes and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the groups adjusting for age and personal experience with people with mental illness. There were no significant trends in attitudes towards the effectiveness of medication. Exploratory factor analysis of the beliefs and attitudes items identified four factors: (1) comfort socializing with people with mental, illness; (2) non-superstitious beliefs about the causes of mental illness; (3) neighborly feelings towards people with mental illness; and (4) belief that stress and abuse are part of the etiology of mental illness. ANCOVA comparing attitudes among the three groups showed that on three (1, 2, and 4) of the four factors medical students who had completed a rotation in psychiatry had significantly higher scores than the medical students who had not completed a rotation in psychiatry. Graduate physicians showed a similar pattern scoring higher than the medical students who had not completed a rotation in psychiatry in two factors (1 and 4) but showed no differences from students who had completed their psychiatry rotation. While beliefs about medication effectiveness do not differ between medical trainees and graduate professionals, stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental illness seem to be most strongly affected by clinical training. Psychiatric education and especially clinical experience result in more progressive attitudes towards people with mental illness.

  14. Lecturers and Postgraduates Perception of Libraries as Promoters of Teaching, Learning, and Research at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyewole, Olawale; Adetimirin, Airen

    2015-01-01

    Lecturers and postgraduates are among the users of the university libraries and their perception of the libraries has influence on utilization of the information resources, hence the need for this study. Survey method was adopted for the study and simple random sampling method was used to select sample size of 38 lecturers and 233 postgraduates.…

  15. Impact of Parent-Child Relationship on the Career Development Process of High School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salami, Samuel O.; Aremu, A. Oyesoji

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationships of parental attachment and psychological separation to the career development process of secondary school adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: An "ex post facto" survey research design was adopted. The sample comprised 242 (males = 121, females = 121) senior…

  16. Efficacy of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy on Poststroke Depression among Survivors of First Stroke Attack in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olukolade, Olugbemi; Osinowo, Helen O

    2017-01-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common complication after stroke. There is no adequate treatment for PSD. This study examined efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of PSD among stroke survivors. An experimental design, 30 participants with poststroke depression were randomly assigned into 3 groups of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT), psychoeducation (PE), and the control group (CG). CRT consisted of nine sessions with three-phased sessions focusing on activity stimulation, negative thoughts, and people contacts, PE consisted of nine sessions focusing on knowledge on stroke and poststroke depression, and the CG group was on the waiting list. The BDI scale was used for assessing PSD at posttest. There was a significant difference in the efficacy of CRT, PE, and the CG on PSD, with CRT-CG mean difference of -9.4 ± 3.11 and PE-CG 1.0 ± 3.83. Furthermore, stress was not a confounding variable on the efficacy of CRT. The type of therapy significantly influenced PSD at posttest, with the CRT having greater mean reduction to CG (-11.1 ± 3.1) than PE to the CG (3.0 ± 3.8). Cognitive rehabilitation therapy significantly reduced poststroke depression. Hence, it should be integrated as an adjunct treatment of poststroke depression.

  17. Predisposing factors and outcome of treatment of non-union of long-bone fractures in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunlade, S O; Omololu, A B; Alonge, T O; Diete, S T; Obawonyi, J E

    2011-03-01

    This study was done to find out factors that contribute to development of Non-union of long bone fractures in this environment and the outcome of operative intervention. This is a prospective hospital based study. All patients with Non-union of long bone fracture that presented in the hospital since January 1997 were recruited into the study. The data included causative factors, treatment given before presenting in the hospital, type of surgical procedure and result of treatment. The study was completed in December, 2005. 78 patients presented with 87 Non-union of long bones. A male, female ratio of 1.6:1 was encountered while 69.2 per cent of the patients were below the age 55years. Road Traffic Accident accounted for 68 fractures (78.2 per cent) while duration of injury before presentation varies from 6 months to 22 months. Atrophic non-union occurred in 60 cases (69.0 per cent) and hypertrophic non-union in 21 cases. Non-union of the femur occurred in 33 cases (37.9 per cent) humerus in 24 cases (27.6 per cent), tibia in 16 cases (18.4 per cent), radius and ulna in 14 cases (16.1 per cent). The initial treatments of the fresh fracture in the 78 patients with nonunion were by the traditional bonesetters in 51 patients (65.4 per cent) while the remaining fractures were treated by plaster of paris in hospital. Open reduction and internal fixation using plate and screws with bone grafting was the most common procedure for treating the non-union in most cases. Union was achieved in the entire patients following surgical intervention. Important factor that appears to contribute to non-union of long bone in this environment is soft tissue interposition between the fracture ends of the bone, which is found in all fractures with more than one diameter displacement. Another factor is interference with periosteal blood supply from disruption of soft tissue envelope as a result of high energy injuries which is also responsible for the displacements that were observed in these fractures. The treatment by traditional bone setters which entails daily massage of the fracture creating a macro movement at the fracture site is also an important contributing factor.

  18. Effect of a clean stove intervention on inflammatory biomarkers in pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Olopade, Christopher O; Frank, Elizabeth; Bartlett, Emily; Alexander, Donee; Dutta, Anindita; Ibigbami, Tope; Adu, Damilola; Olamijulo, John; Arinola, Ganiyu; Karrison, Theodore; Ojengbede, Oladosu

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) has been linked to systemic inflammation. We determined the impact of transition from traditional firewood/kerosene stove to bioethanol-burning stove on inflammatory biomarkers in pregnant Nigerian women. Women (n=324), cooking with kerosene/firewood, were recruited during their first trimester of pregnancy from June 2013-October 2015 and were randomly allocated to either control (n=162) or intervention (n=162) group using web-based randomization. Controls continued to use their own firewood/kerosene stove, while intervention participants received bioethanol CleanCook stoves. Serum concentrations of retinol-binding protein (RBP), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. After excluding 53 women (loss of follow-up, untimely biomarker assessments, incorrect dates of enrollment), data from 271 women were included in analysis. Mean (SD) change in RBP, MDA, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 between baseline and third trimester was -2.16 (4.47), -19.6 (46.4), 3.72 (37.2), 0.51 (14.4), and 13.2 (197), respectively, in intervention and -2.25 (4.30), -24.6 (43.6), 7.17 (32.6), -1.79, (11.4), and 31.3 (296) in control groups. None of these changes differed significantly between the two treatment arms. However, changes from baseline in TNF-α levels were significantly different between intervention and control groups in subset of women (n=99) using firewood before trial (-7.03 [32.9] vs. +12.4 [33.6]; 95% CI for group difference: -35.4 to -3.4, p=0.018). Decrease in TNF-α concentration from baseline to third trimesters in intervention group women could indicate reduced cardiovascular stress and prothrombotic effects from decreased HAP. Our findings suggest that ethanol-burning stoves may mitigate cardiovascular health risks. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. [Adult Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odokara, Elijah O.

    Focusing on eastern Nigeria, these studies describe educational planning to combat anomia (uncertainty and despair) in war-ravaged rural areas; the role of the University of Nigeria in social action, womens education, young farmers' clubs, and other activities aimed at postwar reconstruction; a proposal for improving family life education for…

  20. Welcome to Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Iowa Univ., Cedar Falls. Geographic Alliance of Iowa.

    This lesson plans project provides information and classroom-ready lesson plans about Nigeria. These lesson plans can stand alone or be used in conjunction with one another. They have been correlated to coincide with the standards set forth in Geography for Life. Following background information "Why Study Nigeria?" (A. Shields), lesson…

  1. Nigeria Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria is currently the largest oil producer in Africa and was the world's fourth-largest exporter of LNG in 2015. Nigeria's oil production is hampered by instability and supply disruptions, while its natural gas sector is restricted by the lack of infrastructure to commercialize natural gas that is currently flared (burned off).

  2. Indoor External Radiation Risk in Densely Populated Regions of Southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ife-Adediran, Oluwatobi O.; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B.

    2018-02-01

    It is known that certain types of building materials contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides; consequently, exposure to indoor background radiation is from the combined radioactivity from the soil as well as building materials; indoor exposures therefore have higher radiation hazard potentials than outdoor exposures in this regard and hence, need to be monitored. In this paper, an evaluation of background ionizing radiation from different buildings in Lagos and Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the exposure rate of the general public to indoor ionizing radiation. 630 in situ measurements from the different buildings were taken using a Geiger Muller counter (model GQ-320 Plus). The indoor dose rates (i.e., 50-120 nGy/h) were within the world average values while the Annual Effective Dose for most of the buildings were above the world average AED for indoor gamma exposure from building materials. The mean AED for Lagos and Ibadan due to indoor exposures were 0.37 and 0.39 mSv/y with Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk of 0.99E-3 and 1.05E-3, respectively.

  3. Indoor External Radiation Risk in Densely Populated Regions of Southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ife-Adediran, Oluwatobi O.; Uwadiae, Iyobosa B.

    2018-05-01

    It is known that certain types of building materials contain significant concentrations of natural radionuclides; consequently, exposure to indoor background radiation is from the combined radioactivity from the soil as well as building materials; indoor exposures therefore have higher radiation hazard potentials than outdoor exposures in this regard and hence, need to be monitored. In this paper, an evaluation of background ionizing radiation from different buildings in Lagos and Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria was carried out to determine the exposure rate of the general public to indoor ionizing radiation. 630 in situ measurements from the different buildings were taken using a Geiger Muller counter (model GQ-320 Plus). The indoor dose rates (i.e., 50-120 nGy/h) were within the world average values while the Annual Effective Dose for most of the buildings were above the world average AED for indoor gamma exposure from building materials. The mean AED for Lagos and Ibadan due to indoor exposures were 0.37 and 0.39 mSv/y with Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk of 0.99E-3 and 1.05E-3, respectively.

  4. Water Oxidation Catalysis for NiOOH by a Metropolis Monte Carlo Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hareli, Chen; Caspary Toroker, Maytal

    2018-05-08

    Understanding catalytic mechanisms is important for discovering better catalysts, particularly for water splitting reactions that are of great interest to the renewable energy field. One of the best performing catalysts for water oxidation is nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH). However, only one mechanism has been adopted so far for modeling catalysis of the active plane: β-NiOOH(01̅5). In order to understand how a second reaction mechanism affects catalysis, we perform Density Functional Theory + U (DFT+U) calculations of a second mechanism for water oxidation reaction of NiOOH. Then, we use a Metropolis Monte Carlo algorithm to calculate how many catalytic cycles are completed when two reaction mechanisms are competing. We find that within the Metropolis algorithm, the second mechanism has a higher overpotential and is therefore not active even for large applied biases.

  5. Assessment of trace metals using lichen transplant from automobile mechanic workshop in Ile-Ife metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odiwe, Anthony I; Adesanwo, Adeyemi T J; Olowoyo, Joshua O; Raimi, Idris O

    2014-04-01

    The level of air pollution around the automobile mechanic workshops has been generally overlooked. This study, examined the level of trace metals in automobile mechanic workshops and the suitability of using transplanted lichen thalli of Lepraria incana for measuring air pollution in such areas. Samples of the lichen thalli were transplanted into seven different sites and were attached to the bark of trees at each site. The samples were harvested from the sites after 3-month exposure. Concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe, Zn, and S content were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results showed that there was a significant difference in the trace metals concentrations across the sites (p < 0.05). The analyzed lichen samples showed a range of 91.26-119.35 ppm for Fe, 30.23-61.32 ppm for Zn, 1.25-2.45 ppm for Cu, 0.017-0.043 ppm for Cd, 0.018-0.051 ppm, and 0.37-0.42 ppm for S. From the study, sites 6 and 7 presented higher concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn than other sites. The enrichment factor calculated showed that Zn, Cd, and Pb were greatly enriched from the workshops. The trend in the concentration of these heavy metals suggests that activities in these workshops might become a major source of certain heavy metals in the environment and if the pollution activities persist, it might become worrisome over time.

  6. General Metropolis-Hastings jump diffusions for automatic target recognition in infrared scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanterman, Aaron D.; Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L.

    1997-04-01

    To locate and recognize ground-based targets in forward- looking IR (FLIR) images, 3D faceted models with associated pose parameters are formulated to accommodate the variability found in FLIR imagery. Taking a Bayesian approach, scenes are simulated from the emissive characteristics of the CAD models and compared with the collected data by a likelihood function based on sensor statistics. This likelihood is combined with a prior distribution defined over the set of possible scenes to form a posterior distribution. To accommodate scenes with variable numbers of targets, the posterior distribution is defined over parameter vectors of varying dimension. An inference algorithm based on Metropolis-Hastings jump- diffusion processes empirically samples from the posterior distribution, generating configurations of templates and transformations that match the collected sensor data with high probability. The jumps accommodate the addition and deletion of targets and the estimation of target identities; diffusions refine the hypotheses by drifting along the gradient of the posterior distribution with respect to the orientation and position parameters. Previous results on jumps strategies analogous to the Metropolis acceptance/rejection algorithm, with proposals drawn from the prior and accepted based on the likelihood, are extended to encompass general Metropolis-Hastings proposal densities. In particular, the algorithm proposes moves by drawing from the posterior distribution over computationally tractible subsets of the parameter space. The algorithm is illustrated by an implementation on a Silicon Graphics Onyx/Reality Engine.

  7. Energy sources for Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Okoroji, C.E.I.

    1982-09-01

    A public consensus has developed on the need for national energy policies and better planning in the utilization of energy resources in Nigeria. A look at Nigeria's energy future is timely as a period of rapid technological growth and industrial development begins. At the present time, Nigeria exports a relatively high percentage (92%) of the petroleum produced annually. In addition, about 95% of all produced natural gas is flared. Only a relatively minor fraction of the coal produced is used and the rest exported to West African countries. Water power in Nigeria is not yet fully developed. Although the depositsmore » of uranium and oil sand may be substantial, the reserves are not currently known. The proportions in which mineral fuels are used are not related to their relative abundance. Based on present production rates, domestic reserves of petroleum will last 20 years, those of natural gas 63 years, and those of coal 1503 years. Nigeria is not currently and is not likely to become self-sufficient in terms of energy requirements. During the past decade, Nigeria's population has increased by 28.4%. Of vital concern for the immediate future in Nigeria are the demands on energy consumption and mineral resources resulting from increasing population pressure.« less

  8. Efficacy of Information and Communication Technology in Enhancing Learning Outcomes of Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egaga, Patrick I.; Aderibigbe, S. Akinwumi

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at examining the efficacy of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in enhancing learning outcomes of students with hearing impairment in Ibadan. The study adopted a pretest, post-test, control group quasi-experimental research design. Purposive sampling techniques was used for the selection of thirty participants…

  9. Antenatal care visits' absenteeism at a secondary care medical facility in Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oloko, Olakunle; Ogunbode, Olayinka Oladunjoye; Roberts, Olumuyiwa; Arowojolu, Ayodele Olatunji

    2016-11-01

    Antenatal care (ANC) is a specialised pattern of care organised for pregnant women with the goal of maintaining good health and promoting safe delivery of healthy infants. It is an indispensable part of effective maternity care services. This study identified the factors responsible for absenteeism from ANC follow-up visits. It was a hospital-based prospective cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at a faith based secondary healthcare facility in Ibadan, Nigeria. Relevant data were retrieved using interviewer-administered structured questionnaires and antenatal health record cards. The major reasons identified for absenteeism were delay in receiving hospital services due to long queues at service points and understaffing. The pregnant women aged 35 years and above were the most likely to miss the visits. Therefore, there is the need for hospital administrators and health care givers to make the services patient-friendly.

  10. Enhancement of Health Research Capacity in Nigeria through North-South and In-Country Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Olaleye, David O.; Odaibo, Georgina N.; Carney, Paula; Agbaji, Oche; Sagay, Atiene S.; Muktar, Haruna; Akinyinka, Olusegun O.; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gashau, Wadzani; Akanmu, Sulaimon; Ogunsola, Folasade; Chukwuka, Chinwe; Okonkwo, Prosper I.; Meloni, Seema T.; Adewole, Isaac; Kanki, Phyllis J.; Murphy, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Research productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa has the potential to affect teaching, student quality, faculty career development, and translational country-relevant research as it has in developed countries. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, with an academic infrastructure that includes 129 universities and 45 medical schools; however, despite the size, the country has unacceptably poor health status indicators. To further develop the research infrastructure in Nigeria, faculty and research career development topics were identified within the six Nigerian universities of the nine institutions of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative in Nigeria (MEPIN) consortium. The consortium identified a training model that incorporated multi-institutional “train the trainers” programs at the University of Ibadan, followed by replication at the other MEPIN universities. More than 140 in-country trainers subsequently presented nine courses to more than 1,600 faculty, graduate students, and resident doctors throughout the consortium during the program’s first three years (2011–2013). This model has fostered a new era of collaboration among the major Nigerian research universities, which now have increased capacity for collaborative research initiatives and improved research output. These changes, in turn, have the potential to improve the nation’s health outcomes. PMID:25072590

  11. Special Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abang, Theresa B.

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the special education system in Nigeria, focusing on integration; training of special educators; medical, health, and welfare services for children with disabilities; recreational facilities; employment opportunities; national planning; and problems and successes. (JDD)

  12. Groundwater fluoride and dental fluorosis in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo, A M

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the fluoride levels of groundwater from open wells, consumed by the residents of three communities located in two distinct geological terrains of southwestern Nigeria. Fluoride concentration was determined using spectrophotometric technique, while analysis of other parameters like temperature, pH and total dissolve solids followed standard methods. Results of the analysis indicated that groundwater samples from Abeokuta Metropolis (i.e., basement complex terrain) had fluoride content in the range of 0.65 ± 0.21 and 1.20 ± 0.14. These values were found to be lower than the fluoride contents in the groundwater samples from Ewekoro peri-urban and Lagos metropolis where the values ranged between 1.10 ± 0.14-1.45 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.07-2.20 ± 1.41 mg/l, respectively. The fluoride contents in almost all locations were generally higher than the WHO recommended 0.6 mg/l. Analysis of Duncan multiple range test indicated that there is similarity in the level of significance of fluoride contents between different locations of same geological terrain at p ≤ 0.05. It was also observed that fluoride distribution of groundwater samples from the different geological terrain was more dependent on factors like pH and TDS than on temperature. The result of the analyzed social demographic characteristics of the residents indicated that the adults (between the age of 20 and >40 years) showed dental decay than the adolescent (<20 years). This signifies incidence of dental fluorosis by the high fluoride content in the drinking water of the populace. Further investigation on all sources of drinking water and other causes of tooth decay in the area is suggested.

  13. Predictors of quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus in two tertiary health institutions in Ghana and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ababio, Grace K; Bosomprah, Samuel; Olumide, Adesola; Aperkor, Nicholas; Aimakhu, Chris; Oteng-Yeboah, Audrey; Agama, Joan; Chaplin, William F; Okuyemi, Kola S; Amoah, Albert G B; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2017-01-01

    Patients with chronic diseases such as Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) usually have a relatively poor quality of life (QoL), because the cost of care (living expenses and health) or diet restrictions are heavily felt by these patients, and this is of a public health concern. However, limited data on DM QoL exist in Ghana and Nigeria. This makes it imperative for data to be collated in that regard. We adopted the Strengthening The reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) consensus checklist to survey the patients with DM seen at the diabetic clinic at the Department of Medicine of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Patients with Type 2 DM aged 40 years and older were recruited by using systematic random sampling method. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, diabetes empowerment scale, and DM knowledge scale were used to assess QoL, patient empowerment, and knowledge of DM, respectively. The predictors of QoL were determined using multiple linear regression analyses. A total of 198 patients in Ghana and 203 patients in Nigeria completed the survey, with female-to-male ratio being 3:1 and 2:1, respectively. The overall QoL in both countries was relatively low: 56.19 ± 8.23 in Ghana and 64.34 ± 7.34 in Nigeria. In Ghana, significant correlates of higher scores on the QoL scale were medication adherence (P = 0.02) and employment status (P = 0.02). Among patients in Nigeria, employment status (P = 0.02) and DM empowerment (0.03) were significant predictors of QoL in patients with DM. Our study revealed an association between a number of psychosocial factors and QoL among patients with DM in Ghana and Nigeria.

  14. Comparison of foE and M(3000)F2 variability at Ibadan, Singapore and Slough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somoye, E. O.; Onori, E. O.; Akala, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    The variability, VR, of critical frequency of E-layer, foE, and ionospheric propagation factor, M(3000)F2 at Ibadan (7.4°N, 3.9°E, 6°S dip) is investigated for local time, seasonal and solar cycle variations. Latitudinal influence of these characteristics is sought by comparison with foE VR and M(3000)F2 VR of Slough ( 51.5°N, 359.4°E, 66.5°N dip) in the European sector, and Singapore (1.3°N,103.8°E, 17.6°S dip) in the Asian sector. While the pattern of foE VR is similar to those of other F2 characteristics with characteristic peaks around dawn and dusk, M(3000)F2 VR shows no clear diurnal trend.A lower bound of foE VR is usually 3% while the maximum VR ranges between 8% and13% at post-sunrise and pre-sunset hours at all the epochs, M(3000)F2 VR is however lower during MSA (about 9%) than during LSA and HSA when it is 4% to about 12-14%. Generally, daytime M(3000)F2 VR is greater than that of foE VR by between 5% and 10%. Furthermore, no latitudinal difference is observed in both characteristics during both HSA and MSA. While nighttime M(3000)F2 VR is about half that of nighttime foF2 VR (the critical frequency of F2-layer ) VR, daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal during the three epochs at Ibadan. For Slough, nighttime M(3000)F2 VR and nighttime foF2 VR as well as the daytime VR of both characteristics are about equal. This difference is most likely due to latitudinal effect.

  15. Contraceptive use among hairdressers in South-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Onadeko, M O; Balogun, O O

    2007-08-01

    Hairdressers and their apprentices are mostly women in their reproductive years. The social environment in hairdressing salons provides the opportunity to discuss sexual exploits among peers and may influence decisions on sexual behavior. This study was designed to assess the knowledge and use of contraceptives among hairdressers. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic characteristics and knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among hairdressers in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria. A total of 355 hairdressers were interviewed: 60 apprentices (17%) and 295 qualified hairdressers (83%); 110 (31%) single and 240 (67%) married. They were females aged 15 - 49 years (mean 29 +/- 6.9 years). Some 70% of single women had regular sexual partners. A total of 24 single women (21%) had been pregnant and 20 (18%) had abortions. Some 121 (34%) of the study population were currently using contraceptives: 27 single and 94 married respondents. The prevalence of contraceptive use among sexually active single women was 34%. The condom was the most known and used contraceptive method. The major reasons for non-use of contraceptives were fear of side-effects (23%); need for more children (16%); or respondents were not engaged in sexual activity (12%). Contraceptive use among sexually active single hairdressers is lower than the national average. Workplace educational intervention is needed to prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among these young women.

  16. Metis: A Pure Metropolis Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference Library

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell; Mckigney, Edward Allen

    The use of Bayesian inference in data analysis has become the standard for large scienti c experiments [1, 2]. The Monte Carlo Codes Group(XCP-3) at Los Alamos has developed a simple set of algorithms currently implemented in C++ and Python to easily perform at-prior Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian inference with pure Metropolis sampling. These implementations are designed to be user friendly and extensible for customization based on speci c application requirements. This document describes the algorithmic choices made and presents two use cases.

  17. Childhood epilepsy: knowledge and attitude of primary school teachers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alikor, E A D; Essien, A A

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the knowledge of primary school teachers in Port Harcourt metropolis of epilepsy, their knowledge of the management of an attack of epilepsy and the attitude of these teachers towards epilepsy in children. This is a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study of 118 school teachers from five randomly selected primary schools in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. Ten percent (12) of the 118 teachers were graded "Good", 45% (54) "Fair" and 43% (52) "Poor" in overall knowledge score. Sixty six teachers (56%) accept applying crude oil on the body as useful in stopping epileptic attacks in children. There was no significant association between overall knowledge score and sex, year of experience as a teacher and experience with a child with epilepsy. Only 10% of the teachers studied were classified as having overall good knowledge of epilepsy. Sixty nine teachers (58.5%) were graded as having good knowledge of cause of epilepsy. Only 38 (32%) disagree that the saliva drooled during an epileptic attack is contagious; one hundred (84.8%) and 65 (55.1%) agree that some childhood illnesses can cause epilepsy and that it runs in families respectively. Overall, 54 teachers (45.8%) had a cumulative score of negative attitude towards epilepsy. Eighty three teachers (73.3%) would want all children with epilepsy put in a special school whilst 57 (48%) agree that children with epilepsy should be withdrawn from schools. The longer the teacher's professional experience, the more the likelihood of positive attitude towards epilepsy but the association did not reach statistically significant level (p = 0.076). Attitude was not statistically associated with sex and educational qualification. The overall knowledge of primary school teachers in Port Harcourt metropolis of epilepsy and the first-aid management of an epileptic attack is poor. The attitude of these teachers towards epilepsy is negative. Education of the primary school teacher and general

  18. Drivers and Pattern of Social Vulnerability to Flood in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasona, M.

    2016-12-01

    Lagos is Africa's second largest city and a city-state in southwest Nigeria. Population and economic activities in the city are concentrated in the greater Lagos metropolitan area - a group of barrier islands less than a thousand square kilometer. Several physical factors and critical human-environmental conditions contribute to high flood vulnerability across the city. Flood impact is highly denominated and the poor tend to suffer more due to higher risk of exposure and poor adaptive capacity. In this study we present the pattern of social vulnerability to flooding across the Lagos metropolis and argued that the pattern substantially reflects the pattern and severity of flooding impact on people across the metropolis. Twenty nine social indicators and experiences including poverty profile, housing conditions, education, population and demography, social network, and communication, among others, were considered. The data were collated through field survey and subjected to principal component analysis. The results were processed into raster surfaces using GIS for social vulnerability characterization at neighborhood levels. The results suggest the social status indicators, neighborhood standing and social networks indictors, the indicators of emergency responses and security, and the neighborhood conditions, in that order, are the most important determinants of social vulnerability. Six of the 16 LGAs in metropolitan Lagos have high social vulnerability. Neighborhoods that combine poor social status indicators and poor neighborhood standing and social networks are found to have high social vulnerability whereas other poor neighborhoods with strong social networks performed better. We conclude that improved human living condition and social network and communication in poor urban neighborhoods are important to reducing social vulnerability to flooding in the metropolis.

  19. A Bootstrap Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm for Bayesian Analysis of Big Data.

    PubMed

    Liang, Faming; Kim, Jinsu; Song, Qifan

    2016-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have proven to be a very powerful tool for analyzing data of complex structures. However, their computer-intensive nature, which typically require a large number of iterations and a complete scan of the full dataset for each iteration, precludes their use for big data analysis. In this paper, we propose the so-called bootstrap Metropolis-Hastings (BMH) algorithm, which provides a general framework for how to tame powerful MCMC methods to be used for big data analysis; that is to replace the full data log-likelihood by a Monte Carlo average of the log-likelihoods that are calculated in parallel from multiple bootstrap samples. The BMH algorithm possesses an embarrassingly parallel structure and avoids repeated scans of the full dataset in iterations, and is thus feasible for big data problems. Compared to the popular divide-and-combine method, BMH can be generally more efficient as it can asymptotically integrate the whole data information into a single simulation run. The BMH algorithm is very flexible. Like the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, it can serve as a basic building block for developing advanced MCMC algorithms that are feasible for big data problems. This is illustrated in the paper by the tempering BMH algorithm, which can be viewed as a combination of parallel tempering and the BMH algorithm. BMH can also be used for model selection and optimization by combining with reversible jump MCMC and simulated annealing, respectively.

  20. Ocular Health and Safety Assessment among Mechanics of the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Opuni, Prince Quarcoo; Kyei, Samuel; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    To conduct an ocular health and safety assessment among mechanics in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. This descriptive cross sectional study included 500 mechanics using multistage sampling. All participants filled a structured questionnaire on demographic data, occupational history and ocular health history. Study participants underwent determination of visual acuity (VA) using LogMAR chart, external eye examination with a handheld slit lamp biomicroscope, dilated fundus examination, applanation tonometry and refraction. Out of 500 mechanics, 433 were examined (response rate, 87%) comprised of 408 (94.2%) male and 25 (5.8%) female subjects. The prevalence of visual impairment (i.e. presenting VA < 6/18) among the respondents was 2.1%. Eye injuries were reported in 171 (39.5%) mechanics probably due to the large number of workers, 314 (72.5%), who did not use eye protective devices. Mechanics in the auto welding category were at the highest risk of sustaining an eye injury (odds ratio [OR], 13.4; P < 0.001). Anterior segment ocular disorders were mostly pterygia while posterior segment eye disorders included glaucoma suspects and retinochoroidal lesions. The development of pterygia was associated with the number of years a mechanic stayed on the job. Eye care seeking behavior among the participants was poor. Eye injuries were prevalent among the mechanics as the use of eye protection was low. Eye safety should be made an integral part of the public health agenda in the Cape Coast Metropolis.

  1. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  2. Multiple-try differential evolution adaptive Metropolis for efficient solution of highly parameterized models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eric, L.; Vrugt, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Spatially distributed hydrologic models potentially contain hundreds of parameters that need to be derived by calibration against a historical record of input-output data. The quality of this calibration strongly determines the predictive capability of the model and thus its usefulness for science-based decision making and forecasting. Unfortunately, high-dimensional optimization problems are typically difficult to solve. Here we present our recent developments to the Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm (Vrugt et al., 2009) to warrant efficient solution of high-dimensional parameter estimation problems. The algorithm samples from an archive of past states (Ter Braak and Vrugt, 2008), and uses multiple-try Metropolis sampling (Liu et al., 2000) to decrease the required burn-in time for each individual chain and increase efficiency of posterior sampling. This approach is hereafter referred to as MT-DREAM. We present results for 2 synthetic mathematical case studies, and 2 real-world examples involving from 10 to 240 parameters. Results for those cases show that our multiple-try sampler, MT-DREAM, can consistently find better solutions than other Bayesian MCMC methods. Moreover, MT-DREAM is admirably suited to be implemented and ran on a parallel machine and is therefore a powerful method for posterior inference.

  3. Cultural and ethical challenges of assisted reproductive technologies in the management of infertility among the Yoruba of southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Ayodele S; Fayemiwo, Adetona S

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the cultural and ethical issues arising from the use of Assisted Reproductive Health Technologies. Twenty-five In-depth interviews were conducted with 5 couples of reproductive age who have never conceived or brought pregnancy to term after one year of unprotected intercourse, 4 adult males, 4 adult females, a gyneacologist, a nurse, a herbalist and 2 religious leaders in Ibadan, Nigeria. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Legitimacy of children born through ART, religious obligation, patriarchy, polygamy and value of children are cultural issues surrounding ARTs while decision making about it, discrimination against children born through ART, psychological problems and loss of self esteem, side effects of the technologies and the cost of accessing them are the ethical challenges. The findings have methodological implications for conducting infertility research in non-western societies.

  4. Pharmaceutical Education in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyegbile, F. Rachel

    1988-01-01

    Nigeria has six pharmacy schools, most offering graduate programs. The undergraduate program is being expanded from four to five years. Although behavioral and clinical sciences are offered, emphasis is on the pharmaceutical sciences. Overall, pharmaceutical education is oriented toward hospice practice. (Author/MSE)

  5. RAPID SITUATION ASSESSMENTS OF ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG COMMERCIAL VEHICLE DRIVERS IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Lasebikan, V O; Ayinde, O

    2012-11-01

    To describe the current situation with respect to substance use and related harms among commercial vehicle drivers, and to identify a range of interventions that could be feasibly implemented to minimise harms related to substance use. Observational and group interviews. Four different motor parks in Ibadan, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a sample of commercial vehicle drivers, community and members of the law enforcement agencies. Widespread use of psychoactive substances was reported. New trend of local alcohol beverage generally called 'sepe' tended to have replaced older ones such as palm wine. All substances of abuse were freely available and openly displayed at motor parks except for cocaine and narcotics. There was poor law provision and enforcement of laws prohibiting sale and use around motor parks or while driving. This study shows the feasibility and value of conducting rapid assessments among commercial vehicle drivers in Nigeria. One outcome of this study is the development of a guide on rapid assessment of alcohol and other substance use assessment and a measure of brief intervention among them. Presentation of these findings should contribute to increased awareness and improved response from the government.

  6. Widowers' accounts of maternal mortality among women of low socioeconomic status in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, Ezebunwa Ethelbert

    2012-09-01

    The research is based on information collected on 50 deceased Nigerian women of low socioeconomic status in different locations of the country including Lagos, Ibadan, Kaduna, Zaria, Minna, Enugu, and Port-Harcourt among others. They had some common characteristics such as low levels of education, involvement in petty trading and were clients of a microfinance bank as small loan receivers. Primary data were generated mainly through verbal autopsy with widowers employing in-depth interviews and key informant interviews. In addition, unobtrusive observation was carried out in these locations to ascertain in some instances the distance between the deceased homes and health facilities patronised by the women. Secondary data were specific to death certificates of the deceased supplied by the widowers. Both ethnographic summaries and content analysis were employed in data analysis to account for contextual differences, especially in a multicultural society like Nigeria. The findings implicated several issues that are taken for granted at the micro-family and macro-society levels. It specifically revealed that small loans alone are not sufficient to empower poor women to make meaningful contributions to their own reproductive health in a patriarchal society like Nigeria. Results also indicated that cultural differences as well as rural-urban dichotomy were not proximate determinants of maternal behaviour; the latter rather finds expression in low socioeconomic status. Consequently, policy relevant recommendations that could contribute to significant maternal mortality reduction were proffered.

  7. Estimation of Contextual Effects through Nonlinear Multilevel Latent Variable Modeling with a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ji Seung; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to improve estimation efficiency in obtaining maximum marginal likelihood estimates of contextual effects in the framework of nonlinear multilevel latent variable model by adopting the Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro algorithm (MH-RM). Results indicate that the MH-RM algorithm can produce estimates and standard…

  8. Efficient implementation of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, with application to the Cormack?Jolly?Seber model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Judicious choice of candidate generating distributions improves efficiency of the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm. In Bayesian applications, it is sometimes possible to identify an approximation to the target posterior distribution; this approximate posterior distribution is a good choice for candidate generation. These observations are applied to analysis of the Cormack?Jolly?Seber model and its extensions.

  9. Simulated tempering based on global balance or detailed balance conditions: Suwa-Todo, heat bath, and Metropolis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Okumura, Hisashi

    2015-12-05

    Simulated tempering (ST) is a useful method to enhance sampling of molecular simulations. When ST is used, the Metropolis algorithm, which satisfies the detailed balance condition, is usually applied to calculate the transition probability. Recently, an alternative method that satisfies the global balance condition instead of the detailed balance condition has been proposed by Suwa and Todo. In this study, ST method with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is proposed. Molecular dynamics simulations with ST are performed with three algorithms (the Metropolis, heat bath, and Suwa-Todo algorithms) to calculate the transition probability. Among the three algorithms, the Suwa-Todo algorithm yields the highest acceptance ratio and the shortest autocorrelation time. These suggest that sampling by a ST simulation with the Suwa-Todo algorithm is most efficient. In addition, because the acceptance ratio of the Suwa-Todo algorithm is higher than that of the Metropolis algorithm, the number of temperature states can be reduced by 25% for the Suwa-Todo algorithm when compared with the Metropolis algorithm. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Challenges Pre-School Teachers Face in the Implementation of the Early Childhood Curriculum in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntumi, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the challenges that pre-school teachers encounter in the implementation of the early childhood curriculum; exploring teaching methods employed by pre-schools teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey as the research design. A convenient sample of 62 pre-school teachers were selected from a…

  11. Adolescents' Perception of the Psychological Security of School Environment, Emotional Development and Academic Performance in Secondary Schools in Gombe Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Meshak, Bibi; Sagir, Jummai Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine adolescents' perceptions of the psychological security of their schools environments and their relationship with their emotional development and academic performance in secondary schools in Gombe Metropolis. A sample of 239 (107 males and 133 females) secondary school students selected via stratified…

  12. Galactic Metropolis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-18

    The collection of red dots seen here show one of several very distant galaxy clusters discovered by combining ground-based optical data from the NOAO Kitt Peak National Observatory with infrared data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

  13. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth.

  14. Neonatal Klebsiella Septicaemia in Ibadan: Implications for Neonatal Care in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omokhodion, S. I.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The antecedent events, clinical features, prevalence, and complications of neonatal Klebsiella septicaemia in 73 infants admitted to a special care baby unit in Nigeria are retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 72 infants who had no risk factors for sepsis admitted to the same unit during the same period. A nosocomial acquisition of…

  15. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  16. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  17. The knowledge base and acceptability of prenatal diagnosis by pregnant women in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Adekanbi, Adesina O A; Olayemi, Oladapo O; Fawole, Adeniran O

    2014-03-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated knowledge and acceptability of prenatal diagnosis among 500 pregnant women at the University College Hospital, Ibadan. Most participants were aged 25-34 years, self-employed, Muslim, monogamy, secondary school leavers, on income of < naira10,000.00 (US$ 67.00)/month. Attitudinal mean score was dependent on age (p = 0.006), educational attainment (p = 0.001), marital status (p = 0.025) and religion (p = 0.012). Knowledge mean score was influenced by marital status (p = 0.028). Overall, acceptance of prenatal diagnosis was high. There was a direct correlation between acceptance and educational attainment: 41.5%, 31.50%, 19%, 19% of women who agreed to have prenatal diagnosis had tertiary, secondary school, primary school and no formal education respectively. Determinants of acceptability were age, educational attainment, marital status and religion. Being married significantly affected knowledge scores, while tertiary education, being divorced, unskilled and self-employed positively influenced attitude towards prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Who Cares? Pre and Post Abortion Experiences among Young Females in Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Esia-Donkoh, Kobina; Darteh, Eugene K M; Blemano, Harriet; Asare, Hagar

    2015-06-01

    Issues of abortion are critical in Ghana largely due to its consequences on sexual and reproductive health. The negative perception society attaches to it makes it difficult for young females to access services and share their experiences. This paper examines the pre and post abortion experiences of young females; a subject scarcely researched in the country. Twenty-one clients of Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) clinic at Cape Coast were interviewed. Guided by the biopsychosocial model, the study revealed that fear of societal stigma, shame, and rejection by partners, as well as self-imposed stigma constituted some of the pre and post abortion experiences the respondents. Other experiences reported were bleeding, severe abdominal pain and psychological pain. The Ghana Health Services (GHS) and other service providers should partner the PPAG clinic to integrate psychosocial treatment in its abortion services while intensifying behaviour change communication and community-based stigma-reduction education in the Metropolis.

  19. Optimization and benchmarking of a perturbative Metropolis Monte Carlo quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldt, Jonas; Miranda, Sebastião; Pratas, Frederico; Roma, Nuno; Tomás, Pedro; Mata, Ricardo A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present an optimized perturbative quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method for use in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The model adopted is particularly tailored for the simulation of molecular systems in solution but can be readily extended to other applications, such as catalysis in enzymatic environments. The electrostatic coupling between the QM and MM systems is simplified by applying perturbation theory to estimate the energy changes caused by a movement in the MM system. This approximation, together with the effective use of GPU acceleration, leads to a negligible added computational cost for the sampling of the environment. Benchmark calculations are carried out to evaluate the impact of the approximations applied and the overall computational performance.

  20. Note: A pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with independent Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Vrbik, Jan; Ospadov, Egor; Rothstein, Stuart M

    2016-07-14

    Recently, Ospadov and Rothstein published a pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (PSQMC) that features an auxiliary Path Z that connects the midpoints of the current and proposed Paths X and Y, respectively. When sufficiently long, Path Z provides statistical independence of Paths X and Y. Under those conditions, the Metropolis decision used in PSQMC is done without any approximation, i.e., not requiring microscopic reversibility and without having to introduce any G(x → x'; τ) factors into its decision function. This is a unique feature that contrasts with all competing reptation algorithms in the literature. An example illustrates that dependence of Paths X and Y has adverse consequences for pure sampling.

  1. Optimization and benchmarking of a perturbative Metropolis Monte Carlo quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics program.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Jonas; Miranda, Sebastião; Pratas, Frederico; Roma, Nuno; Tomás, Pedro; Mata, Ricardo A

    2017-12-28

    In this work, we present an optimized perturbative quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method for use in Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations. The model adopted is particularly tailored for the simulation of molecular systems in solution but can be readily extended to other applications, such as catalysis in enzymatic environments. The electrostatic coupling between the QM and MM systems is simplified by applying perturbation theory to estimate the energy changes caused by a movement in the MM system. This approximation, together with the effective use of GPU acceleration, leads to a negligible added computational cost for the sampling of the environment. Benchmark calculations are carried out to evaluate the impact of the approximations applied and the overall computational performance.

  2. Note: A pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm with independent Metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrbik, Jan; Ospadov, Egor; Rothstein, Stuart M.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, Ospadov and Rothstein published a pure-sampling quantum Monte Carlo algorithm (PSQMC) that features an auxiliary Path Z that connects the midpoints of the current and proposed Paths X and Y, respectively. When sufficiently long, Path Z provides statistical independence of Paths X and Y. Under those conditions, the Metropolis decision used in PSQMC is done without any approximation, i.e., not requiring microscopic reversibility and without having to introduce any G(x → x'; τ) factors into its decision function. This is a unique feature that contrasts with all competing reptation algorithms in the literature. An example illustrates that dependence of Paths X and Y has adverse consequences for pure sampling.

  3. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: implications for combination prevention.

    PubMed

    Vu, Lung; Adebajo, Sylvia; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Karlyn, Andrew; Njab, Jean; Azeez, Aderemi; Ahonsi, Babatunde

    2013-06-01

    This study provides population-based estimates of HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in 3 large cities in Nigeria. We aimed to increase the knowledge base of the evolving HIV epidemic among MSM, highlight risk factors that may fuel the epidemic, and inform future HIV prevention packages. A total of 712 MSM, aged 18 years and older, living in Abuja, Ibadan, and Lagos were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed a behavioral questionnaire and tested for HIV. Population-based estimates were obtained using RDSAT software. Factors associated with HIV infection were ascertained using multiple logistic regression adjusting for RDSAT individualized weights. A high proportion of MSM reported high-risk behaviors, including unprotected anal sex with men (30-50%), unprotected vaginal sex with women (40%), bisexual behavior (30-45%), and never been tested for HIV (40-55%). The population-based estimates of HIV among MSM in the 3 cities were 34.9%, 11.3%, and 15.2%, respectively. In Abuja, HIV was significantly associated with unprotected sex and transactional sex. In Ibadan, HIV was significantly associated with unprotected sex and self-identified bisexual. In Lagos, HIV was significantly associated with the older age. HIV prevalence among MSM in the 3 cities was 4-10 times higher than the general population prevalence and was behaviorally linked. In response to a complex set of risks and disadvantages that put African MSM at a greater risk of HIV infection, future interventions targeting MSM should focus on a comprehensive approach that combines behavioral, biomedical, and structural interventions.

  4. The Metropolis Monte Carlo method with CUDA enabled Graphic Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Clifford; School of Physics, Astronomy, and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., Fairfax, VA 22030; Ji, Weixiao

    2014-02-01

    We present a CPU–GPU system for runtime acceleration of large molecular simulations using GPU computation and memory swaps. The memory architecture of the GPU can be used both as container for simulation data stored on the graphics card and as floating-point code target, providing an effective means for the manipulation of atomistic or molecular data on the GPU. To fully take advantage of this mechanism, efficient GPU realizations of algorithms used to perform atomistic and molecular simulations are essential. Our system implements a versatile molecular engine, including inter-molecule interactions and orientational variables for performing the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm,more » which is one type of Markov chain Monte Carlo. By combining memory objects with floating-point code fragments we have implemented an MMC parallel engine that entirely avoids the communication time of molecular data at runtime. Our runtime acceleration system is a forerunner of a new class of CPU–GPU algorithms exploiting memory concepts combined with threading for avoiding bus bandwidth and communication. The testbed molecular system used here is a condensed phase system of oligopyrrole chains. A benchmark shows a size scaling speedup of 60 for systems with 210,000 pyrrole monomers. Our implementation can easily be combined with MPI to connect in parallel several CPU–GPU duets. -- Highlights: •We parallelize the Metropolis Monte Carlo (MMC) algorithm on one CPU—GPU duet. •The Adaptive Tempering Monte Carlo employs MMC and profits from this CPU—GPU implementation. •Our benchmark shows a size scaling-up speedup of 62 for systems with 225,000 particles. •The testbed involves a polymeric system of oligopyrroles in the condensed phase. •The CPU—GPU parallelization includes dipole—dipole and Mie—Jones classic potentials.« less

  5. Nigeria: Current Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-12

    Hausa-Fulani, the southwestern Yoruba , and the southeastern Ibo have traditionally been the most politically active and dominant. Almost half of the...Adamawa State in the January elections, was chosen by the PDP as the running mate of Obasanjo, a Yoruba from southwestern Nigeria. The APP and AD...nominated Chief Olu Falae, a Yoruba , as their joint candidate for president. A former Nigerian security chief and a northerner, Chief Umaru Shinakfi, was

  6. China in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    African policy on democracy, good governance and human rights while China’ policy is resource and business oriented. Nigeria benefits from the combination...infrastructure, governance , AFRICOM 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...www.allacademic.com/ meta /p251834_index.html. 32 Paradise, “China and International Harmony: The Role of Confucius Institutes in Bolstering Beijing’s Soft Power,” 648

  7. Telemedicine’s Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    van Gurp, Jelle; Soyannwo, Olaitan; Odebunmi, Kehinde; Dania, Simpa; van Selm, Martine; van Leeuwen, Evert; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Materials and Methods Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN) and the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks. Results The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical–technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria’s palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education ‘lite’ scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication. Discussion Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve

  8. Mobilization for cervical cancer screening: lessons from a poor-urban Yoruba community in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J O; Babarinsa, I A; Ajayi, I O; Fawole, O; Ojemakinde, K O; Omigbodun, A O

    2005-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide and it remains one of the commonest malignancies in Nigeria. Screening remains the most effective tool for the detection of pre-invasive stages of cervical cancer, giving the opportunity for prompt and effective treatment before the emergence of invasive disease. In Nigeria, as in most developing countries, the concept of screening for cancer and its pre-emptive treatment is underdeveloped. The fact that the facilities and logistics for cervical cancer screening are generally located in the hospital setting, a place where one goes when ill, according to local beliefs, makes acceptance more difficult. That Nigeria urgently needs to set up or develop cervical screening programmes that will reach women outside the hospital setting in a culturally acceptable milieu is not in doubt. A community cervical screening survey for the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and HPV infection was initiated in Idikan, a poor-urban inner core area of Ibadan. The challenges and experiences encountered in the execution of the project which could serve as useful knowledge to those undertaking similar exercises, requiring mass mobilization for cancer screening of an uninformed group, are highlighted. Our experience in the course of this study is important as it brought out the probable influences of community dynamics and social organization in illness decisions and prescriptions for health operative in this particular population group. Cervical cancer screening programmes should therefore make provisions to accommodate the occasional outcomes as we had encountered. In addition, screening programmes in developing societies would require sensitive designs that should address the cultural attitudes, personal conflicts, expectations of treatment and overall context of preventive care.

  9. Prevalence and injury patterns among electronic waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ohajinwa, Chimere May; van Bodegom, Peter M; Vijver, Martina G; Olumide, Adesola O; Osibanjo, Oladele; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2018-06-01

    Despite the large volume of e-waste recycled informally, the prevalence of work-related injuries among e-waste workers is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence, patterns and factors associated with occupational injuries among e-waste workers in the informal sector in Nigeria. This cross-sectional study adopted a multistage sampling method to select 279 respondents from three cities (Ibadan, Lagos and Aba) in Nigeria. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on sociodemographics, work practices and injury occurrences from the respondents in 2015. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and standard logistic regression. We found high injury prevalence of 38% and 68% in 1-2 weeks and 6 months preceding the study, respectively. The most common injuries were cuts (59%). Injuries were mainly caused by sharp objects (77%). The majority (82%) of the injuries occurred on the hands/fingers. Despite the high occurrence of injury, only 18% of the workers use personal protective equipment (PPE) and 51% of those that use PPE got at least an injury in 1-2 weeks and 88% got at least an injury in 6 months preceding the study. The factors associated with injury in 1-2 weeks were job designation and the geographical location, while the factors associated with injury in 6 months were job designation, geographical location and age. There is a high prevalence of injury and low use of PPE among the e-waste workers in Nigeria. Occupational injury can be reduced through health education and safety promotion programmes for e-waste workers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Assessment of common interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention in southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Olabisi, Prisca

    2014-01-01

    We examined the interventions used by nurses to prevent pressure ulcers in 3 hospitals in south west Nigeria and perceived barriers to effective nursing pressure ulcer prevention interventions. One hundred ninety-three nurses were purposively selected from neurological, orthopedic, intensive care, and accident and emergency units of participating hospitals. Study sites were 3 teaching hospitals in south west Nigeria (Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Lagos; University College Hospital, Ibadan; and Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospital Ile-Ife). Data were collected via a structured questionnaire designed for this study. It included 3 sections: demographic information, practices used for pressure ulcer prevention, and perceived barriers to prevention. Sections of the questionnaire that queried interventions and perceived barriers to pressure ulcer prevention were evaluated for face and content validity. Reliability was evaluated via internal consistency; the split half reliability was 0.82. Similar practices regarding pressure ulcer prevention were found across the 3 hospitals. The most commonly used intervention was patient repositioning every 2 hours; the least used intervention was completion of a validated pressure ulcer risk scale. Nurses described using interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention such as massaging bony prominences and application of talcum powder. Nurses identified 2 principal factors that act as barriers to successful prevention of pressure ulcers: inadequate manpower and inadequate supply of linens on the wards. Nurses use a combination of evidence-based interventions, along with interventions that have not proved effective for pressure ulcer prevention. We recommend development of national standards for pressure ulcer prevention in Nigeria that are based on current best evidence and consistent with current international guidelines.

  11. Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia: a report of two cases seen at the university college hospital ibadan.

    PubMed

    Lawal, A O; Adisa, A O; Lasisi, T J

    2011-06-01

    Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is commonly seen in black women, but few cases have been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This article presents two cases of FCOD seen at the University College Hospital Ibadan. Two women aged 70 and 60 years were initially diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis but both were eventually diagnosed as florid cementoosseous dysplasia after radiological examination by orthopanthomogram. Diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is possible by clinical examination and the distinct radiological presentation, especially on orthopanthomogram and a biopsy may not be required.

  12. FLORID CEMENTO-OSSEOUS DYSPLASIA: A REPORT OF TWO CASES SEEN AT THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL IBADAN

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, A.O.; Adisa, A.O.; Lasisi, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) is commonly seen in black women, but few cases have been reported in sub-Saharan Africa. This article presents two cases of FCOD seen at the University College Hospital Ibadan. Two women aged 70 and 60 years were initially diagnosed as chronic osteomyelitis but both were eventually diagnosed as florid cementoosseous dysplasia after radiological examination by orthopanthomogram. Diagnosis of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is possible by clinical examination and the distinct radiological presentation, especially on orthopanthomogram and a biopsy may not be required. PMID:25161487

  13. PERIAPICAL LESIONS OF THE JAWS: A REVIEW OF 104 CASES IN IBADAN

    PubMed Central

    Akinyamoju, AO; Gbadebo, SO; Adeyemi, BF

    2014-01-01

    Background: Periapical lesions (PLs) occur as a result of pulpal inflammation and may rarely be seen in the absence of pulpal diseases. They are the most common pathological lesions affecting the alveolar bone. Objective: This study aims to describe the clinicopathological features of PLs of the jaws with emphasis on the two most common types. Methods: Histopathology records of PLs diagnosed from January 1990 to December 2012 at the Department of Oral Pathology, University College Hospital Ibadan, were examined and categorized into periapical cysts (PCs); periapical granuloma (PGs) and others. Clinical data and histopathological features of these PLs were reviewed and analyzed. Results: One hundred and four lesions met the criteria for this study and consisted of PGs with 71 (68.3%) cases and PCs with 31 (29.8%) cases and one case each of apical scar and pleomorphic adenoma. Age range of cases was 9 to 80 years (mean=35.6 ± 15.8years) with a peak at age group of 20-29 years. Females were more frequently affected with 51.9% of cases. PLs were most frequently diagnosed in the anterior maxillary region with 58 (56.9%) cases, while the most frequently involved tooth was the left maxillary central incisor with 23 (22.1%) cases. Conclusion: Findings in this study are consistent with those of previous studies. It is important for all periapical pathological specimens to be submitted for histological examination to establish an accurate diagnosis and aid in the identification of sinister lesions that may present in the Periradicular region of teeth. PMID:25960702

  14. Quality of life in patients with visual impairment in Ibadan: a clinical study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Adigun, Kehinde; Oluleye, Tunji S; Ladipo, Modupe Ma; Olowookere, Samuel Anu

    2014-01-01

    Visual function is important for optimal orientation in functional and social life, and has an effect on physical and emotional well-being. Visual impairment, therefore, leads to restrictions in all aspects of daily living and is related to quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide information on the causes of visual impairment in patients presenting to their family physician, the spectrum of impairment, and its impact on quality of life for these patients. This descriptive cross-sectional study of 375 adult patients with ocular symptoms was performed in the general outpatient department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, from July to September, 2009. After checking their presenting visual acuity, the patients were interviewed using the Vision-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to determine the impact of visual impairment on their quality of life. Ophthalmic examinations were performed to determine the causes of visual impairment. The results were analyzed using proportions and percentages. The main causes of visual impairment were cataracts (58.7%), refractive error (19.4%), and glaucoma (2.9%). Visual impairment was found to be associated with advancing age, low education, and unemployment (P<0.001). Most patients (85.1%) were found to have good quality of life overall. Quality of life was found to be poor in the domains of visual function (64.2%) and social interaction (50.9%). Quality of life was found to be related to the degree of visual impairment, ie, blind patients reported poor quality of life (41.4%) when compared with those having low vision (8.6%) or near normal vision (2.4%, P<0.001). This study identified poor quality of life in patients with a higher degree of visual impairment. Family physicians need to identify these visually impaired patients early and make timely referrals.

  15. Psychosocial problems of clinical students in the University of Ibadan Medical School.

    PubMed

    Omokhodion, F O; Gureje, O

    2003-03-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out among medical students in the University of Ibadan to identify their socio economic and psychological problems. Three hundred and sixteen students, 159 males and 157 females participated in the study. The questionnaire, which was self-administered, sought information about sources of financial support, type of accommodation, use of recreational facilities, smoking and drinking habits and sources of stress and insecurity on the campus. The GHQ-12 was used to assess their mental status. Ninety-four percent of students were sponsored by their parents. Average monthly income as pocket money ranged from N800-N15,000. Sixty-three (20%) reported that their pocket money was inadequate and 11 (3.5%) engage in business ventures to supplement their income. Two hundred and fifty-seven (81%) live on the campus, 11 (3.5%) were current smokers and 54 (18%) were current drinkers. Stealing and lack of money were the commonest causes of insecurity on the campus. Lack of money, fear of failure of examinations, family problems and broken relationships were reported as causes of depression among this study population. GHQ scores ranged from 1 to 9 using a cut-off point of 3 scores, 38 students (12.0%) were categorised as having traits of poor mental health. GHQ scores were not associated with age, sex, smoking or drinking status or students' assessment of the adequacy of their pocket money. However, living off campus and poor self-perception were associated with poor mental health (p < 0.01). Counseling services should be provided in the medical school to assist students to handle issues that constitute a source of stress in their psychosocial environment.

  16. Paediatric otogenic tetanus: an evidence of poor immunization in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunkeyede, Segun Ayodeji; Daniel, Adekunle; Ogundoyin, Omowonuola

    2017-01-01

    Suppurative otitis media is a common childhood infection that predisposes to otogenic tetanus. Tetanus is a vaccine preventable disease that is associated with high cost of care and mortality. This study highlights reasons for otogenic tetanus in Nigerian children and way of reducing the menace. This is a 5-year retrospective review of all patients managed for otogenic tetanus in at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. The data collected include demographic, clinical presentations, tetanus immunisation history, and duration of hospital admission, and management- outcome. There were 23 patients comprising of 13(56.5 %) males and 10 (43.5%) females, male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The age ranged between 11 months and12 years (mean age 3.4 years ± 2.1). All the patients presented with discharging ear, trismus and spasms. The onset of symptoms prior hospital presentation ranged between 2 - 11 days (mean 3.0 days ± 1.3). Only 12(52.1%) patients had complete childhood tetanus immunisation, 6(26.1) % had no tetanus immunisation and no other childhood immunisation, while 5(21.7%) had partial tetanus immunisation. The discharging ears were managed by self-medication and other harmful health practices. The hospital admission ranged from 20 days - 41days (average of 23days) and there were 3(13.0 %) death. Tetanus immunization was not received because of; non- availability of the vaccine at health centers, lack of health facility in communities, fear of complications from immunization, poor awareness of the immunization programme. Tetanus, an immunisable disease, is still a major problem in Nigeria.

  17. Nigeria using more condoms.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Marie Stopes International says a project it supports in Nigeria is making good progress in its efforts to promote the use of condoms to protect against STDs and for contraception. The program, which uses social marketing methods, is headed by Stewart Parkinson from the UK. His previous experience has been in the private sector; he has worked in sales, marketing, and advertising for companies like Coca Cola, Budweiser, Securicor, and Mates. "Social marketing," he says, "is simply getting people to buy a product". He sees no clash with more conventional health education practitioners, believing that the two approaches can complement each other. "Much of the work simply involves pointing out the benefits of condoms," says Parkinson. "You can convert large numbers of people to the idea in a short space of time if you get the message right]" Nevertheless, as he points out, the conversion rate usually drops after that. "At first the take-up is from middle-income people, who already have a latent demand for condoms. The poor are harder to reach." He says Nigeria is a very suitable country for a private sector approach to condom promotion, as there is no functioning public sector. He recently paid a visit to Zimbabwe, where the public sector is strong, and agrees that different approaches may be suitable there. The scheme provided 85% of the 65 million condoms used in Nigeria last year. Stewart Parkinson says, "It's working out at only US$5 to provide protection for one couple per year--a very cheap intervention]" full text

  18. Non-polio enteroviruses serotypes circulating in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyero, O G; Adu, F D

    2010-12-01

    Enteroviruses is one of the most common group of human pathogens, causing a wide range of acute symptoms involving the cardiac and skeletal muscles, central nervous system, pancreas,skin and mucous membranes. In spite of the success recorded in polio eradication globally, infections with other enteroviruses remain frequent and sometimes very serious, requiring hospitalization. In this study we determined the various circulating serotypes of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) with a view to providing information on the activity of these viruses among the Nigerian children, who usually are the most affected. Stool samples were obtained from hospitalized children at two major secondary community hospitals in Ibadan and acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases from 26 states ofNigeria. A presumptive identification of NPEVs was based on growth in RD cells. Isolates were identified by neutralization assay using sera obtained from the Institute for Public Health and the Environment, the Netherlands. The problems associated with this assay prompted the use of genotypic method developed at the Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, USA for the final identification of isolates. Neutralization assay identified the 138 isolates into echoviruses (43.5%), coxsackie B viruses (29.7%) and untypeable isolates (26.8%). Finally genotyping identified echoviruses (E3, E6, E7, E11, E12, E13, E14, E19, E20, E21, E24, E29, E30, E33), coxsackieviruses (CVA3, CVA4, CVA6, CVA17, CVB3, CVB5, CVB6) and enteroviruses (EV69, EV71). The causal association of isolates with different diseases was also established. Majority of the isolates belonged to the human enterovirus gropup B (HEV-B) specie, followed by 4 and 1 in the HEV-A and HEV-C species respectively. This study forms the basis of molecular epidemiology of NPEVs being established for the first time in Nigeria. The implication of the presence of neurotropic serotypes (E3, E6, E7, E11, E14, E20, E24, E29, E30, EV71, CVB3 and CVB5) is that AFP may

  19. Analysis of 2014 Post UTME Score of Candidates in the University of Ibadan with Two Methods of Standard Setting to Set Cut Off Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oladele, Babatunde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to analyse the 2014 Post UTME scores of candidates in the university of Ibadan towards the establishment of cut off using two methods of standard settings. Prospective candidates who seek admission to higher institution are often denied admission through the Post UTME exercise. There is no single recommended…

  20. Hazardous waste management and weight-based indicators--the case of Haifa Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Elimelech, E; Ayalon, O; Flicstein, B

    2011-01-30

    The quantity control of hazardous waste in Israel relies primarily on the Environmental Services Company (ESC) reports. With limited management tools, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MoEP) has no applicable methodology to confirm or monitor the actual amounts of hazardous waste produced by various industrial sectors. The main goal of this research was to develop a method for estimating the amounts of hazardous waste produced by various sectors. In order to achieve this goal, sector-specific indicators were tested on three hazardous waste producing sectors in the Haifa Metropolis: petroleum refineries, dry cleaners, and public hospitals. The findings reveal poor practice of hazardous waste management in the dry cleaning sector and in the public hospitals sector. Large discrepancies were found in the dry cleaning sector, between the quantities of hazardous waste reported and the corresponding indicator estimates. Furthermore, a lack of documentation on hospitals' pharmaceutical and chemical waste production volume was observed. Only in the case of petroleum refineries, the reported amount was consistent with the estimate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The prevalence and incidence of COPD among urban older persons of Bangkok Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Maranetra, Khun Nanta; Chuaychoo, Benjamas; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai; Chierakul, Nitipatana; Nana, Arth; Lertakyamanee, Jariya; Naruman, Chana; Suthamsmai, Tasneeya; Sangkaew, Sutee; Sreelum, Wichean; Aksornin, Montchai; Dechapol, Jaroon; Sathet, Wichean

    2002-11-01

    COPD substantially affects the national healthcare resource and healthcare cost especially among the older persons. Identifying the accurate prevalence and incidence reflects the scale of problem posed by COPD. This epidemiological study using the criteria for diagnosing COPD based on ratio of FEV1.0/FVC less than 70 per cent and the reversibility of less than 15 per cent increase of post bronchodilator FEV1.0 in the absence of parenchymal lesions and cardiomegaly in CXR (PA and lateral view) revealed the prevalence (1998) of COPD among the 3094 older persons aged 60 years and over in the communities of Bangkok Metropolis 10 km around Siriraj Hospital was 7.11 per cent (95% CI: 6.21-8.01), whereas the incidence (1999) of COPD was 3.63 per cent (95% CI: 2.83-4.43). Both the prevalence and the incidence were increased with increasing age. The disease occurred predominantly among male smokers. The distribution of mild : moderate : severe COPD in the prevalence study was 5.6:2.2:1. The current findings also suggest that tobacco smoking is the prime important cause of COPD and the indoor pollution especially cooking smoke is not significant. In particular, the unexpectedly high incidence compared with prevalence in this population probably represents the warning message to the national policy maker for prompt and effective health promotion and disease prevention to prevent further social and economic loss.

  2. Determinants of parents' decisions on childhood immunisations at Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Doris; Phethlu, Deliwe R

    2016-07-29

    To describe factors that influence parents' decisions on childhood immunisations at Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. Quantitative cross-sectional survey. A sample of 303 parents was obtained from a monthly accessible population of 1420 individuals from the five district hospitals through convenience sampling of respondents at immunisation sessions in Kumasi. Data obtained from the survey were analysed with SPSS version 21 software. Most parents were aware of child immunisations, but they had limited knowledge on vaccines and immunisation schedules. Antenatal nurses constituted the most accessible source of vaccine information. The study established a high percentage of complete immunisation, influenced by parents' fear of their children contracting vaccine-preventable diseases. Remarkably, some parents indicated that they immunised their children because they wanted to know the weight of their children. Forgetfulness and lack of personnel or vaccine at the centres were the reasons given by the few parents who could not complete immunisation schedules for their children, whereas the socio-demographic variables considered did not influence parents' decision on immunisation. Knowledge on immunisation could not influence immunisation decisions but parents' fear of vaccine-preventable diseases, awareness on the benefits of immunisations and sources of vaccine information were the main factors that influenced immunisation decision at Kumasi in Ghana.

  3. Urban transformation of a metropolis and its environmental impacts: a case study in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhan; Cao, Guiying; Shi, Jun; McCallum, Ian; Cui, Linli; Fan, Dongli; Li, Xinhu

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand the sustainability of urban spatial transformation in the process of rapid urbanization, and calls for future research on the demographic and economic dimensions of climate change. Shanghai towards its transformation to a metropolis has experienced vast socioeconomic and ecological change and calls for future research on the impacts of demographic and economic dimensions on climate change. We look at the major questions (1) to explore economic and demographic growth, land use and land-cover changes in the context of rapid economic and city growth, and (2) to analyze how the demography and economic growth have been associated with the local air temperature and vegetation. We examine urban growth, land use and land-cover changes in the context of rapid economic development and urbanization. We assess the impact of urban expansion on local air temperature and vegetation. The analysis is based on time series data of land use, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and meteorological, demographic and economic data. The results indicate that urban growth has been driven by mass immigration; as a consequence of economic growth and urban expansion, a large amount of farmland has been converted to paved road and residential buildings. Furthermore, the difference between air temperature in urban and exurban areas has increased rapidly. The decrease of high mean annual NDVI has mainly occurred around the dense urban areas.

  4. Audit of sharp weapon deaths in metropolis of Karachi--an autopsy based study.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Farhat Hussain; Hasan, Qudsia; Memon, Akhtar Amin; Adil, Syeda Ezz-e-Rukhshan

    2010-01-01

    Sharp weapons are one of the most violent and abhorrent means of deaths. This study assesses the frequency of sharp weapon deaths in Karachi. This was a cross sectional study, and involves the deaths by sharp weapons autopsied in Karachi during Mar 2008-Feb 2009. This study reports that the frequency of sharp weapon deaths in Karachi is similar to some other studies conducted in different regions of Pakistan, yet it is very high as the population of Karachi is way more than any other metropolis of Pakistan. Our study reported that out of 2090 medico-legal deaths in Karachi during the study period, 91 deaths were due to sharp weapons, including 73 (80.2%) males and 18 (19.8%) females. 100% of the deaths were homicides, so none were suicides. Deaths were more frequent in age group ranging from 20-39 years (59.3%). Sharp weapon deaths continue to be a means of quite a number of deaths in Karachi. Such violence depicts intolerant and frustrated nature of the citizens.

  5. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions

    PubMed Central

    King, Samuel B.; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to “Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics,” a 2004 survey of informatics programs. Methods: An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Results: Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Conclusions: Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Implications: Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself. PMID:25552939

  6. Metropolis revisited: the evolving role of librarians in informatics education for the health professions.

    PubMed

    King, Samuel B; Lapidus, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The authors' goal was to assess changes in the role of librarians in informatics education from 2004 to 2013. This is a follow-up to "Metropolis Redux: The Unique Importance of Library Skills in Informatics," a 2004 survey of informatics programs. An electronic survey was conducted in January 2013 and sent to librarians via the MEDLIB-L email discussion list, the library section of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, the Medical Informatics Section of the Medical Library Association, the Information Technology Interest Group of the Association of College and Research Libraries/New England Region, and various library directors across the country. Librarians from fifty-five institutions responded to the survey. Of these respondents, thirty-four included librarians in nonlibrary aspects of informatics training. Fifteen institutions have librarians participating in leadership positions in their informatics programs. Compared to the earlier survey, the role of librarians has evolved. Librarians possess skills that enable them to participate in informatics programs beyond a narrow library focus. Librarians currently perform significant leadership roles in informatics education. There are opportunities for librarian interdisciplinary collaboration in informatics programs. Informatics is much more than the study of technology. The information skills that librarians bring to the table enrich and broaden the study of informatics in addition to adding value to the library profession itself.

  7. The Emerging Spatial Organization of the Metropolis: Zones of Diversity and Minority Enclaves in Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenquan; Logan, John R.

    2018-01-01

    The rapid growth of Asian and Hispanic populations in urban areas is superceding traditional classifications of neighborhoods (for example as white, transitional, or minority). The “global neighborhood” that includes all groups (white, black, Hispanic and Asian) is one important new category. We examine the emerging spatial pattern of racial/ethnic composition in the Chicago metropolis, documenting an expansion of all-minority neighborhoods in the city and just beyond its borders, a shrinking set of all-white neighborhoods in the outer suburbs, and more diverse neighborhoods including whites mainly in between. The most novel element of this pattern is how large the zone of diversity has become and how far it extends into suburbia, upending the old dichotomy of “chocolate city” and “vanilla suburbs.” In addition to comparing the distance of different kinds of neighborhoods from the urban core, we also analyze their adjacency to neighborhoods of the same type or other types. There is a strong tendency toward spatial clustering of each neighborhood type and also for transitions on the boundaries of clusters either to expand or to contract their territory. PMID:29430517

  8. Psychosocial and seizure factors related to depression and neurotic-disorders among patients with chronic epilepsy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olley, B O

    2004-03-01

    To establish the effect of psychosocial and seizure factors on Depression and Neurotic Disorders among clinically diagnosed Nigerian patients, with epilepsy. This study utilized the multivariate statistical design to evaluate the associations between some psychosocial and seizure factors on increase depression and neurotic disorders. The Neurology outpatient clinics of two tertiary facilities in Nigeria: Aro Neuro-psychiatric Hospital/World Health Organization Collaborating Centre, Abeokuta and the University College Hospital Ibadan, were used for the study. Two hundred and sixty four (264) consecutive clinic attendees with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy participated in the study. Perceived Stigma Scale (PSS); Washington Psychosocial Seizure Inventory (WPSI-Modified): Becks Depression Inventory (BDI) and Crown-Crisp Experiential Index (CCEI). Significant main effect for seizure control, stigma, emotional adjustment, vocational adjustment, interpersonal adjustment, adjustment to seizures but not for age at onset of epilepsy, financial adjustment and gender, were recorded on depression. Similarly significant main effect for seizure control, stigma, emotional adjustment, adjustment to seizures but not for age at onset of epilepsy, gender, vocational adjustment, financial adjustment and interpersonal adjustment were recorded for neurotic disorders. The study highlights some of the factors, which may contribute to the understanding of epilepsy-related psychopathologies and implication for psychotherapeutic intervention among individuals with epilepsy in Nigeria.

  9. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  10. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  11. The burden of malaria infection on pregnant women and birth weight of infants in south western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akanbi, O M; Odaibo, A B; Ademowo, O G

    2009-04-01

    To determine the effect of malaria infection on pregnant women and the birth weight of the infants in the south western Nigeria. 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade-Oyo maternity hospital. 128 were primigravidae while 134 were multigravidae. 2ml of blood was withdrawn from 262 pregnant women who came for antenatal clinic at Ade Oyo maternity hospital. Thick blood smears were prepared for parasite identification and quantification. Anaemia was detected by measuring Hb levels using Drabkin's solution. Age, gravidity and history of treatment with antimalaria drugs were obtained from the subjects using questionnaire. The overall prevalence of infection was 41.8%. Primigravidae were more infected (35%) than multigravidae (22%). The prevalence was significantly higher (p<0.05) in wet season than dry season. Teenagers and primigravidae were more infected than the adults and multigravidae. The severity of the anaemia was significantly higher (p<0.05) among malaria positive teenagers and primigravidae than adults and multigravidae. The mean birth weight of infants born to malaria positive was significantly lower (p<0.05) than those born to malaria negative mothers. Malaria positive teenagers and primigravidae had infants with lowest birth weight as compared with adult and multigravidae. The birth weights of the infants were positively correlated with the Hb levels. This study suggests that malaria infection, anaemia, and gravidity affect the birth weight of infants born in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria.

  12. Prevalence of internalized homophobia and HIV associated risks among men who have sex with men in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebajo, Sylvia B; Eluwa, George I; Allman, Dan; Myers, Ted; Ahonsi, Babatunde A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the level of internalized homophobia and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Using respondent driven sampling, MSM were recruited in Lagos and Ibadan between July and September, 2006. Internalized homophobia was assessed as a negative composite score using an 11-item scale. A total of 1,125 MSM were interviewed. About 44.4% self-identified as homosexual or gay while 55% regarded themselves as bisexual. About a third of the respondents reported internalized homophobia. With homosexual/gay men as reference, respondents who self-identified as bisexual were two times more likely [AOR 2.1; 95 CI: 1.6 - 2.9, p < 0.001] to report internalized homophobia. Those who were HIV positive were also twice as likely to report internalized homophobia compared to those who were HIV negative [AOR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2 - 2.7, p = 0.004]. As internalized homophobia impedes acceptance of HIV prevention programming, identifying MSM who experience internalized homophobia is integral to the success of HIV prevention programming in Nigeria.

  13. An Exploratory Study of Civil Servants Spatial Thinking, Awareness and Use of Maps in Africa-Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiyanbola, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The paper is an exploratory study of spatial thinking, awareness and use of maps among civil servants in Nigeria with a view towards enhancing capacity building in the development and use of global mapping and geospatial information technologies products and services. The data used in the paper was from administration of 152 questionnaires to civil servants in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria between February and August, 2017. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The study shows among others that majority of the civil servants had situations in their daily lives or specialty that require spatial thinking; the three top situations in their daily lives or specialty that require spatial thinking were identification of places, wayfinding and walking; majority of them asked from people information about location, direction, distances and other needed information about places they do not know; majority of them were aware of maps; majority of them could read maps; majority of them had interest to learn more how to read maps and were willing to pay for the training.

  14. Persistent mission home delivery in ibadan: attractive role of traditional birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Ayede, A I

    2012-12-01

    One of the major factors responsible for high maternal and neonatal deaths in Nigeria and other developing countries is the use of Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). The current study was carried out to evaluate the attractive roles of the TBAs that make pregnant mothers persistently use them. The study was conducted in Ido and Lagelu local government areas of Oyo State in Nigeria. TBA basic demographic data were collected and were then followed up for a period of six months by trained Nurses and Doctors targeting a total of ten direct observations made per TBA per ANC/delivery. There were a total of 146 TBAs out of which 134 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were recruited into the study. The Male to female ratio was 1/133 and age range was 22-68 years with 70.1 % above 40 years. Seventy two per cent of them had only elementary school and 72%, 30% and 38% had been re-trained by LGA, SMOH and National TBA associations respectively. Post- partum care, counseling services, tender care in labour, easy accessibility, accommodating other relations, installmental payment were observed in all TBAs while 60-98% of them did home visit, assisted in referral and arranged for USS and laboratory services. These good practices should be incorporated into formal health sector and attitudinal change in the current health workers across all health care levels should be encouraged. CHEWs should also be primarily involved in home visit in pregnancy and post-natal care services.

  15. Depression and disability: comparisons with common physical conditions in the Ibadan study of aging.

    PubMed

    Gureje, Oye; Ademola, Adedotun; Olley, Benjamin O

    2008-11-01

    To compare the effects of depression and chronic physical conditions on disability in elderly persons. Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria. Interviews. PATICIPANTS: Community-dwelling persons aged 65 and older. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a representative sample of community-dwelling persons aged 65 and older (N=2,152) in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria (representing approximately 22% of the national population). Major depressive disorder (MDD) was assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Chronic pain and medical disorders were assessed using self-report. Disorder-specific disability was evaluated using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). MDD was highly comorbid with each of the medical conditions (odds ratio range 1.3-2.0). A higher proportion of persons with MDD (47.2%) were rated severely disabled globally than those with arthritis (20.6%), chronic spinal pain (24.2%), or high blood pressure (25.0%). Subjects with MDD were also more likely to be severely disabled in three of the four domains of the SDS. In pair-wise comparisons, persons with MDD had significantly higher levels of disability than those with any of the disorders, with differences in mean scores ranging between -3.74 and -27.50. To reduce the public health burden of depression, its prevention and treatment require more clinical and research attention than currently given by developing countries.

  16. Antigenic Detection of Human Strain of Influenza Virus A (H3N2) in Swine Populations at Three Locations in Nigeria and Ghana during the Dry Early Months of 2014.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O A; Olugasa, B O; Emikpe, B O

    2016-03-01

    Since the first detection of human H3N2 influenza virus in Taiwanese pigs in 1970, infection of pigs with wholly human viruses has been known to occur in other parts of the world. These viruses, referred to as human-like H3N2 viruses, have been known to cause clinical and subclinical infections of swine populations. Due to the paucity and complete unavailability of information on transmission of influenza viruses from other species, especially humans, to swine in Nigeria and Ghana, respectively, this study was designed to investigate the presence and prevalence of a human strain of influenza A (H3N2) in swine populations at three locations in two cities within these two West African countries in January and February, 2014. Using stratified random technique, nasal swab specimens were collected from seventy-five (75) pigs at two locations in Ibadan, Nigeria and from fifty (50) pigs in Kumasi, Ghana. These specimens were tested directly by a sensitive Quantitative Solid Phase Antigen-detection Sandwich ELISA using anti-A/Brisbane/10/2007 haemagglutinin monoclonal antibody. Influenza virus A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2) was detected among pigs at the three study locations, with an aggregate prevalence of 4.0% for the two locations in Ibadan, Nigeria and also 4.0% for Kumasi, Ghana. Transmission of influenza viruses from other species to swine portends serious sinister prospects for genetic reassortment and evolvement of novel viruses. We therefore recommend that further studies should be carried out to investigate the presence of other circulating human and avian influenza viruses in swine populations in West Africa and also determine the extent of genetic reassortment of strains circulating among these pigs. This would provide an early warning system for detection of novel influenza viruses, which could have pandemic potentials. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Agricultural Engineering Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboaba, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    Agricultural engineering, an important new branch of engineering in Nigeria, is discussed in relation to available training programs, diploma and certificate courses, and evaluation of training programs. (Author/PG)

  18. Uvulectomy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijaduola, G T

    1981-11-01

    The removal of the uvula for minor pharyngeal lesions is unusual in Western otorhinolaryngological practice. However, uvulectomy is a common procedure for "throat problems' in Nigeria and some other African countries by traditional surgeons. This is because it is believed that the elongated uvula is the root cause of all throat problems. These traditional surgeons are usually barbers by profession and only practice surgery on a part-time basis. Most of their patients do well but some have to be rushed to the hospital with severe post-operative bleeding. Attention of Europeans and other foreign otolaryngologists who may find themselves practising in any part of Africa is hereby drawn to the procedure.

  19. Challenging tradition in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Supriya, K E

    1991-01-01

    In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs.

  20. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and HIV infection among pregnant women in Ibadan North Local Government, Oyo State.

    PubMed

    Awobode, H O; Olubi, I C

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii poses a risk of congenital infection during pregnancy in infected women. The disease poses a threat of ocular and neurological sequelae in congenitally ilfected infants and HIV patients; however, there is little valuable information on its prevalence in Ibadan. A cross sectional study of pregnant women attending antenatal care in three primary healthcare centres in Ibadan was carried out. 179 women were screened for T gondii infection using PCR, 83 of these were also screened for HIV. Forty nine (27.4%) were positive for T gondii, and 2(2.4%) were HIV positive (P = 0.002, OR = 0.28, CL = 95%). 27 (15.1%) of the infected women were in third trimester, with 20 (11.2%) and 2 (1.1%) in second and first trimester respectively. 18 (10.1%) positive cases were identified among the primigravidas and 31 (17.2%) among the multigravidas. Risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection were assessed, and the source of drinking water and the types of animals around habitation were found to be significantly associated with the presence of Toxoplasma infection (P = 0.002, OR = 2.109 and P = 0.004, OR = 1.693 respectively). The high prevalence among women in third trimester may indicate high risk of congenital infection, and the significant association found between the source of drinking water and infection suggests environmental contamination as a major possible mode of infection. The need to educate pregnant women about the transmission mechanisms of T. gondii, and the effects of the infection on neonates and babies is pertinent in order to effectively control Toxoplasma infection.

  1. Yoruba culture and the resilience of HIV-positive adolescent girls in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Catherine O; Steyn, Miemsie G

    2018-02-01

    Although there is a growing body of research exploring the influence of culture on the resilience of African youth, few studies have examined how culture constrains or enables resilience among HIV-positive adolescent girls from the perspective of the young women themselves. This paper reports on the findings from a qualitative study of five purposively selected girls living with HIV in Ibadan, Nigeria. By analysing data drawn mainly from interviews and observations, we explored how cultural influences promote or limit resilience in participants. Social-ecological resilience theory was used to document and interpret the findings. While some cultural values and perceptions enable resilience, others constrain participants' resilience trajectories. However, the girls were able to navigate through these constraints using their cultural identities and coping strategies, such as future dreams, emotional and physical resources linked to spirituality and networks of friends and families. Findings have implications for policymakers, researchers and programmers in strengthening the health and resilience of young people in the face of HIV.

  2. Exploration of solar radiation data from three geo-political zones in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, Adebowale O; Suleiman, Esivue A; Okagbue, Hilary I

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, readings of solar radiation received at three meteorological sites in Nigeria were analysed. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical test was carried out on the data set to observe the significant differences on radiations for each quarter of the specified years. The data were obtained in raw form from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Oshodi, Lagos. In order to get a clear description and visualization of the fluctuations of the radiation data, each year were considered independently, where it was discovered that for the 3rd quarter of each year, there is a great fall in the intensity of the solar radiation to as low as 73.27 (W/m 2 ), 101.66 (W/m 2 ), 158.51 (W/m 2 ) for Ibadan, Port-Harcourt and Sokoto respectively. A detailed data description is available for the averages across months for each quarter. The data can provide insights on the health implications of exposure to solar radiation and the effect of solar radiation on climate change, food production, rainfall and flood patterns.

  3. Nutritional status of older persons presenting in a primary care clinic in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebusoye, L A; Ajayi, I O; Dairo, M D; Ogunniyi, A O

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the nutritional status and its association with sociodemographic characteristics and health complaints of older persons presenting at the General Outpatients Department (GOPD) Clinic of University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used to select 500 consecutively presenting participants aged 60 years and older between September and December, 2009. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool and body mass index were used to assess undernutrition and overweight, respectively. The prevalence of nutritional problems was 61.9% (undernutrition = 7.8% and overweight = 54.1%). Being unmarried (P < 0.001), engagement in a job after the age of 60 years (P < 0.001), constipation (P = 0.009), rectal bleeding (P = 0.008), and oral problems (mouth, teeth, and tongue) were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with undernutrition. Younger age (P = 0.050) and female gender (P = 0.011) were significantly associated with being overweight. Logistic regression analysis showed being unmarried OR = 1.355 (95%CI 1.075-1.708) to be the most important factor for the development of undernutrition. The high prevalence of nutritional problems in this study underscores the need for intervention in this population. Correlation analysis (Pearson's) showed a positive association between BMI and MNA scores (r = 0.152, P = 0.001).

  4. Point Prevalence of Chronic Wounds at a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iyun, Ayodele O; Ademola, Samuel A; Olawoye, Olayinka A; Michael, Afie I; Oluwatosin, Odunayo M

    2016-02-01

    Chronic wounds are a drain on resources both for the patient and health institution. Management of chronic wounds based on evidence-based practice requires baseline data for adequate planning. This study was carried out to determine the point prevalence of chronic wounds in a tertiary hospital (University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria) and utilize this information for subsequent wound care planning. The study was carried out within a 1-month period and included all patients seen in the hospital with chronic wounds. The data obtained was entered into a designed form and was subsequently analyzed. There were 48 patients with 78 wounds representing approximately 11% of patients seen in the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery each month. Their ages ranged from 3 months to 80 years; the median age was 48 years. The male to female ratio was 1.6 to 1. The duration of the wounds ranged from 6 weeks to 780 weeks; the median duration of the wounds was 10 weeks. The area of the wounds ranged from 1 cm(2) -1,248 cm(2) (median 24 cm(2)). The most common chronic wounds were diabetic wounds, followed by pressure ulcers, postinfection ulcers, posttraumatic ulcers, burn wounds, malignant ulcers, and venous ulcers. The point prevalence data serves as a basis for wound care planning. This, in turn, should result in improved wound management grounded in evidence-based practices.

  5. Plaque and growth characteristics of different polioviruses isolated from acute flaccid paralysis in Northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sule, W F; Oyedele, O I; Osei-Kwasi, M; Odoom, J K; Adu, F D

    2008-03-01

    To determine some virulent trait-related properties of poliovirus isolates from children with acute flaccid paralysis following vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV). Six polioviruses earlier characterised into wild, vaccine-derived and OPV-like were studied using the plaque morphology and growth kinetics at supra-optimal temperature. Department of Virology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Polio isolates from six children who developed acute flaccid paralysis following vaccinations with various doses of OPV were used. All the children were located in the Northern part of the country where poliovirus is still circulating. The two vaccine-derived polioviruses acquired wild type characteristics. All the six poliovirus isolates developed different forms of plaques ranging from tiny, small and large. The plaque formed could however not be used to identify the different isolates. Growth of the different isolates at supra-optimal temperature showed that the three wild polioviruses grew to a higher titre when compared with the Sabin 2 control. The two vaccine derived isolates behaved like the wild poliovirus while the OPV-like virus acquired an intermediate characteristics between wild and sabin. The wild polioviruses represented in this study are among the last vestiges of the circulating polioviruses found in the world. It is possible that the observed biological properties of wild types 1 and 3 described in the study are typical of the West African polioviruses. These properties will provide useful previews to the final identification of some important clinical isolates especially type 1 which may grow rapidly in cell culture.

  6. 'ENVIRONMENTAL AKALISM' AND THE WAR ON FILTH: THE PERSONIFICATION OF SANITATION IN URBAN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Manton, John

    2013-11-01

    In Nigerian cities, as across much of Africa, sanitation practices at zone, ward and street levels inscribe - in patterns of circulation and interaction around waste - not only the hopes and fears of urban residents and managers, but also the aspirations and failures encoded in colonial and post-colonial national and regional histories. Adjusting to numerous challenges - the interplay of racist colonial zoning strategies, rapid post-colonial urban expansion, the withdrawal of public services amid the liberalization programmes of the 1980s, the increasingly abject character of the social contract, and the ongoing tenuousness of economic life and activity - urban environmental sanitation in Nigeria has long struggled to keep pace with the historical dynamics of the country's emergent metropolises. Following the activities of a cohort of inspectors and volunteers at the Ministry of Environment and Water Resources, Oyo State, this article examines the politics of performance and coercion surrounding the monthly observance of Environmental Sanitation Day in Ibadan amid the heightened political tensions of the electoral season in 2011.

  7. Adolescent Girls’ Understanding of Tetanus Infection and Prevention: Implications for the Disease Control in Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orimadegun, Adebola Emmanuel; Adepoju, Akinlolu Adedayo; Akinyinka, Olusegun Olusina

    2014-01-01

    Tetanus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Nigeria is aiming to eliminate tetanus by maintaining coverage of routine vaccinations for infants and pregnant women, but little attention is given to the adolescents’ needs. This study assessed the understanding of adolescent girls about tetanus infection and prevention in order to provide information that may foster better policy. In this cross-sectional analytical study, 851 female adolescents were selected from eight secondary schools in Ibadan, south-west of Nigeria using a three-stage random sampling technique. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to obtain information on demographic and socio-economic characteristics, history of tetanus vaccination, and adolescents’ knowledge of tetanus infection. Mean age of respondents was 14.3 ± 1.9 years. Only 3.1% had received tetanus toxoid injection 1 year prior to the study, most frequently following a “wound or injury” (65.4%). Though 344 (40.4%) respondents claimed that they knew about tetanus as a “serious neurological disease,” only 46.5% correctly defined tetanus. Overall, the mean knowledge score was 4.8 ± 3.1 and 64.7% of the respondents had poor knowledge. Academic class was significantly associated with knowledge; higher mean score among the senior (5.3 ± 5.3) than junior classes (4.4 ± 3.2); p < 0.001. Over half (56.2%) of the adolescents disagreed with the statement that “tetanus immunization can be given to students in the school premises.” There is the need to improve immunization campaigns against tetanus among adolescent girls and consider the introduction of school-based immunization programs if the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus is to be achieved. PMID:24724076

  8. Traditional/Alternative Medicine: An Investigation into Identification, Knowledge and Consumption Practices of Herbal Medicine among Students with Hearing Impairment in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeniyi, Samuel O.; Olufemi-Adeniyi, Olubukola A.; Erinoso, Sakiru M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional medicine as alternative or complimentary therapy is gaining prominence in primary health care worldwide. This is because of the efficacy in the management of mild, chronic seemingly incurable ailments/diseases. Though the publicity is on the increase from country to country in the world, however, one cannot conclude that the…

  9. An assessment of relationship between self-esteem, orthodontic concern, and Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) scores among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeaso, C O

    2003-04-01

    To ascertain the correlation between self-esteem, orthodontic concern and orthodontic status using DAI scores in a group of Nigerian potential orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical study. Secondary schools reflecting a good socio-economic spread of adolescents in the town. Randomly selected 520 junior and senior students 276 (53.1%) males and 244 (46.9%) females with mean age of 15.02 +/- 3.26 (SD) years participated in the study. Each student was asked to fill in the questionnaire on orthodontic concern and Global Negative Self-Evaluation scale (GSE) with subsequent assessment of the occlusion according to the DAI by one orthodontist. After obtaining consent, thirty students were re-examined to test intra-examiner reliability which was good (r = 0.98, P < 0.001). The correlations between self-esteem, orthodontic concern and DAI scores were tested using Spearman rank order correlation coefficient. Significant positive correlations were observed between self-esteem and orthodontic concern according to DAI treatment category needs (r = 0.274, p<0.01; r = 0.396, p<0.01; r = 0.347, p<0.05) except for the severe malocclusion group which was positive but not statistically significant (r = 0.136, p> 0.05). Significant correlation was equally noted between DAI scores and orthodontic concern (r = 0.191, p<0.01). Significant positive correlation existed between self-esteem in a group of Nigerian adolescents and their orthodontic concern as well as between their DAI scores and orthodontic concern. DAI should be a relevant and useful occlusal index for the Nigerian orthodontic population.

  10. The development and state of health and safety in the workplace in west Africa: perspectives from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, M C

    1996-01-01

    Occupational health practice originated in Europe following the systematic work of Bernadino Ramazzini in Italy at the turn of the 17th century. It grew mostly under the notion of Industrial health, concentrating on the chemical, mechanical and social conditions of labourers as well as the work of the arts and trades, until the work of Charles Turner Thackrah in Britain broadened its understanding to include the professions and certain civic ways of living. In West Africa, as in most of the developing world, occupational health and safety practice came to us mostly as side products of the colonial company health work, in their attempt to fulfil the requirements of their national health laws to their citizens here. The first organised effort to boost occupational health and practice for the Africans among the Africans, and involving mainly Africans, came in the 1960s with the first African Conference on Occupational health in Africa in Lagos in 1968. This process has gone on now, albeit rather slowly, until the citing of a Chair of Occupational health at the University of Ibadan by the Society of Occupational Health Physicians of Nigeria in the 1992/93 academic year. The health and safety in industries in Nigeria have however not been in anyway adequate from studies in that area, especially among the indigenous small and medium sized companies. This paper reviews these developments and proposes some suggestions on how to improve on the speed and accuracy of these developments, specifically in Nigeria; and by extrapolation, for the West Africa sub-region as well.

  11. Cultural practices in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Alabi, E M

    1990-05-01

    Nigeria has a rich cultural heritage. Cultural practices include extended family; adequate care for new mothers for 40 days after delivery; prolonged breastfeeding; and respect for elders. Many negative practices exist, most of them affecting the health of children and women. About 90% of babies are delivered by mostly untrained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and healers. Child marriage is a common Nigerian practice. This deprives the girl of education and results in teenage pregnancy. Legislation does not seem to be very effective. It is hoped that will education, girls will be allowed to remain in school until the age of 18. Female circumcision and vaginal mutilation and also common in Nigerian culture. TBAs and healers have stated that there is severe bleeding after circumcision, sometimes so severe that it leads to death. Other harmful delivery practices include bathing in boiling water; gishiri cut, a crude local symphysiotomy; and agurya cut--removal of the hymen loop on 7-day-old females. Bathing in boiling water results in many women being burned or disfigured; gishiri cut has resulted in vesicovaginal fistula in many young girls. Other harmful practices are purging of infants to get rid of impurities "they might have swallowed while in the uterus;" uvulectomy in infants, and induction of postpartum hemorrhage to clear the uterus of impure blood. The list goes on and on. Women and children are exposed to many unhealthy practices in the name of tradition or culture.

  12. Constraining ecosystem model with adaptive Metropolis algorithm using boreal forest site eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, Jarmo; Susiluoto, Jouni; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Järvinen, Heikki; Mammarella, Ivan; Hagemann, Stefan; Aalto, Tuula

    2016-12-01

    We examined parameter optimisation in the JSBACH (Kaminski et al., 2013; Knorr and Kattge, 2005; Reick et al., 2013) ecosystem model, applied to two boreal forest sites (Hyytiälä and Sodankylä) in Finland. We identified and tested key parameters in soil hydrology and forest water and carbon-exchange-related formulations, and optimised them using the adaptive Metropolis (AM) algorithm for Hyytiälä with a 5-year calibration period (2000-2004) followed by a 4-year validation period (2005-2008). Sodankylä acted as an independent validation site, where optimisations were not made. The tuning provided estimates for full distribution of possible parameters, along with information about correlation, sensitivity and identifiability. Some parameters were correlated with each other due to a phenomenological connection between carbon uptake and water stress or other connections due to the set-up of the model formulations. The latter holds especially for vegetation phenology parameters. The least identifiable parameters include phenology parameters, parameters connecting relative humidity and soil dryness, and the field capacity of the skin reservoir. These soil parameters were masked by the large contribution from vegetation transpiration. In addition to leaf area index and the maximum carboxylation rate, the most effective parameters adjusting the gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) fluxes in seasonal tuning were related to soil wilting point, drainage and moisture stress imposed on vegetation. For daily and half-hourly tunings the most important parameters were the ratio of leaf internal CO2 concentration to external CO2 and the parameter connecting relative humidity and soil dryness. Effectively the seasonal tuning transferred water from soil moisture into ET, and daily and half-hourly tunings reversed this process. The seasonal tuning improved the month-to-month development of GPP and ET, and produced the most stable estimates of water use

  13. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  14. Fault zone structure and inferences on past activities of the active Shanchiao Fault in the Taipei metropolis, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Lee, J.; Chan, Y.; Lu, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Taipei Metropolis, home to around 10 million people, is subject to seismic hazard originated from not only distant faults or sources scattered throughout the Taiwan region, but also active fault lain directly underneath. Northern Taiwan including the Taipei region is currently affected by post-orogenic (Penglai arc-continent collision) processes related to backarc extension of the Ryukyu subduction system. The Shanchiao Fault, an active normal fault outcropping along the western boundary of the Taipei Basin and dipping to the east, is investigated here for its subsurface structure and activities. Boreholes records in the central portion of the fault were analyzed to document the stacking of post- Last Glacial Maximum growth sediments, and a tulip flower structure is illuminated with averaged vertical slip rate of about 3 mm/yr. Similar fault zone architecture and post-LGM tectonic subsidence rate is also found in the northern portion of the fault. A correlation between geomorphology and structural geology in the Shanchiao Fault zone demonstrates an array of subtle geomorphic scarps corresponds to the branch fault while the surface trace of the main fault seems to be completely erased by erosion and sedimentation. Such constraints and knowledge are crucial in earthquake hazard evaluation and mitigation in the Taipei Metropolis, and in understanding the kinematics of transtensional tectonics in northern Taiwan. Schematic 3D diagram of the fault zone in the central portion of the Shanchiao Fault, displaying regional subsurface geology and its relation to topographic features.

  15. Diabetes in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana: an assessment of risk factors, nutritional practices and lifestyle changes.

    PubMed

    Gato, Worlanyo E; Acquah, Samuel; Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T; Boakye, Blessed K

    2017-09-01

    Despite the significant increase in the incidence of diabetes in Ghana, research in this area has been lagging. The purpose of the study was to assess the risk factors associated with diabetes in the Cape Coast metropolis of Ghana, and to describe nutritional practices and efforts toward lifestyle change. A convenient sample of 482 adults from the Cape Coast metropolis was surveyed using a self-reported questionnaire. The survey collected information on the demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, health status and routine nutritional practices of respondents. The aims of the study were addressed using multivariable regression analyses. A total of 8% of respondents reported that they had been diagnosed with diabetes. Older age and body weight were found to be independently associated with diabetes. Individuals living with diabetes were no more likely than those without diabetes to have taken active steps at reducing their weight. The percentage of self-reported diabetes in this population was consistent with what has been reported in previous studies in Ghana. The findings from this study highlight the need for more patient education on physical activity and weight management. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Molecular determinants of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria and the regional emergence of dhps 431V.

    PubMed

    Oguike, Mary C; Falade, Catherine O; Shu, Elvis; Enato, Izehiuwa G; Watila, Ismaila; Baba, Ebenezer S; Bruce, Jane; Webster, Jayne; Hamade, Prudence; Meek, Sylvia; Chandramohan, Daniel; Sutherland, Colin J; Warhurst, David; Roper, Cally

    2016-12-01

    There are few published reports of mutations in dihydropteroate synthetase (dhps) and dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) genes in P. falciparum populations in Nigeria, but one previous study has recorded a novel dhps mutation at codon 431 among infections imported to the United Kingdom from Nigeria. To assess how widespread this mutation is among parasites in different parts of the country and consequently fill the gap in sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance data in Nigeria, we retrospectively analysed 1000 filter paper blood spots collected in surveys of pregnant women and children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria between 2003 and 2015 from four sites in the south and north. Genomic DNA was extracted from filter paper blood spots and placental impressions. Point mutations at codons 16, 50, 51, 59, 108, 140 and 164 of the dhfr gene and codons 431, 436, 437, 540, 581 and 613 of the dhps gene were evaluated by nested PCR amplification followed by direct sequencing. The distribution of the dhps-431V mutation was widespread throughout Nigeria with the highest prevalence in Enugu (46%). In Ibadan where we had sequential sampling, its prevalence increased from 0% to 6.5% between 2003 and 2008. Although there were various combinations of dhps mutations with 431V, the combination 431V + 436A + 437G+581G+613S was the most common. All these observations support the view that dhps-431V is on the increase. In addition, P. falciparum DHPS crystal structure modelling shows that the change from Isoleucine to Valine (dhps-431V) could alter the effects of both S436A/F and A437G, which closely follow the 2nd β-strand. Consequently, it is now a research priority to assess the implications of dhps-VAGKGS mutant haplotype on continuing use of SP in seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) and intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp). Our data also provides surveillance data for SP resistance markers in Nigeria between 2003 and 2015. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  17. Effect of Improvised Instructional Materials on Students' Achievement in Geometry at the Upper Basic Education Level in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iji, C. O.; Ogbole, P. O.; Uka, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Among all approaches aimed at reducing poor mathematics achievement among the students, adoption of appropriate methods of teaching appears to be more rewarding. In this study, improvised instructional materials were used to ascertain students' geometry achievement at the upper basic education one. Two research questions were asked with associated…

  18. Living Conditions, Low Socioeconomic Position, and Mortality in the Ibadan Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Ojagbemi, Akin; Bello, Toyin; Luo, Zhehui; Gureje, Oye

    2017-07-01

    Very little is known about socioeconomic differentials in mortality among persons surviving to old age in sub-Saharan Africa. We report on the impact of low socioeconomic position (SEP) on mortality over a 5-year observation period among community-dwelling older adults living in southwestern Nigeria. Data are from a household multistage probability sample of 2,149 Yoruba Nigerians aged 65 years or older. We collected information on indices related to health and well-being at baseline (2003/2004). Socioeconomic positions were estimated using asset-based measures relevant to low income settings. Information on mortality was obtained by research supervisors in multiple waves (2007, 2008, and 2009). Associations between baseline covariates and mortality were explored using discrete time survival models and life tables. We recorded 357 deaths over 5 years, or an annual mortality rate of 4.7% (95% CI = 4.2-5.2). Being 80 years or older (HR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5) and belonging to the lowest SEP (HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1) were the main predictors of mortality. The significant effect of lowest SEP on mortality risk over the study period was independent of age, gender, education, rural or urban residence, weight, physical activity level, and social engagement. In this sample of older persons living in an economically disadvantaged context, we found persistent socioeconomic differentials in mortality estimated, conservatively, over 5 years. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Extensive diversity in the allelic frequency of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface proteins and glutamate-rich protein in rural and urban settings of southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Funwei, Roland I; Thomas, Bolaji N; Falade, Catherine O; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2018-01-02

    Nigeria carries a high burden of malaria which makes continuous surveillance for current information on genetic diversity imperative. In this study, the merozoite surface proteins (msp-1, msp-2) and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) of Plasmodium falciparum collected from two communities representing rural and urban settings in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria were analysed. A total of 511 febrile children, aged 3-59 months, whose parents/guardians provided informed consent, were recruited into the study. Capillary blood was obtained for malaria rapid diagnostic test, thick blood smears for parasite count and blood spots on filter paper for molecular analysis. Three-hundred and nine samples were successfully genotyped for msp-1, msp-2 and glurp genes. The allelic distribution of the three genes was not significantly different in the rural and urban communities. R033 and 3D7 were the most prevalent alleles in both rural and urban communities for msp-1 and msp-2, respectively. Eleven of glurp RII region genotypes, coded I-XII, with sizes ranging from 500 to 1100 base pairs were detected in the rural setting. Genotype XI (1000-1050 bp) had the highest prevalence of 41.5 and 38.5% in rural and urban settings, respectively. Overall, 82.1 and 70.0% of samples had multiclonal infection with msp-1 gene resulting in a mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2.8 and 2.6 for rural and urban samples, respectively. Msp-1 and msp-2 genes displayed higher levels of diversity and higher MOI rates than the glurp gene. Significant genetic diversity was observed between rural and urban parasite populations in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The results of this study show that malaria transmission intensity in these regions is still high. No significant difference was observed between rural and urban settings, except for a completely different msp-1 allele, compared to previous reports, thereby confirming the changing face of malaria transmission in these communities. This study provides

  20. Knowledge of hazards of antibiotics self-medication by mothers for under-fives in rural community of South-west Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinlade, K A; Akinyemi, J O; Fawole, O I

    2015-12-01

    In Nigeria, self-medication of young children is common. Children under the age of five are often self-medicated with antibiotics because of their increased susceptibility to infections. To assess mothers' knowledge on the hazards of antibiotics self-medication in a rural community of South-west Nigeria. A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 mothers selected through a purposive sampling technique from Koko community in Olodo, Ibadan between October and December, 2014. Data were collected using a semistructured interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression were done at 5% level of significance. A very high proportion (96.5%) of mothers in this study practiced antibiotic self-medication for their children. Only 28.1% were knowledgeable about the risks and side effects of antibiotic self-medication. Chi-square test revealed that there was a significant association between respondents' educational status (P < 0.05) and knowledge of the hazards. Mothers with no formal education were less likely to be knowledgeable compared to those who had tertiary education (OR = 0.08; 95% CI = 0.02- 0.57). High proportions of mothers lack adequate knowledge on the hazards of antibiotics self-medication. Mothers, particularly those with lower educational levels and young age need to be educated on the risks and side effects of this practice.

  1. Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Eleri, E.O.

    Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by itsmore » role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.« less

  2. Sero-prevalence and risk factors for hepatitis E virus infection among pregnant women in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Asante Awuku, Yaw; Adu, Joseph; Pappoe, Faustina; Obboh, Evans; Nsiah, Paul; Amoako-Sakyi, Daniel; Simpore, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus is an emerging infection in Africa with poor maternal and foetal outcomes. There is scanty data on the sero-prevalence of HEV infection among pregnant women in Ghana. This study highlighted the prevalence and risk factors associated with HEV infection among pregnant women in Cape Coast Metropolis, Central Region of Ghana. A multicenter (3 selected sites) analytical cross sectional study involving 398 pregnant women in the Cape Coast metropolis was conducted. HEV (Anti-HEV IgG and Anti-HEV IgM) ELISA was performed. Sero-positive women had liver chemistries done and data collected on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Data analyses were performed using Stata version 13 software (STATA Corp, Texas USA). Mean age was 28.01 (± 5.93) years. HEV sero-prevalence was 12.2% (n = 48) for IgG and 0.2% (n = 1) for IgM with overall of 12.3%. The odds of being HEV sero-positive for women aged 26-35 years was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.1), p = 0.02 and ≥36 years it was 10.7 (95% CI; 3.4-33.5), p = 0.0001. Living in urban settlement was associated with lowest odds of HEV infection {OR 0.4 (95% CI; 0.2-0.8), p = 0.01}. Factors with no statistical evidence of association include main source of drinking water and history of blood transfusion. The sero-prevalence of HEV IgG increased progressively across trimesters with the highest among women in their third trimester (55.3%). None of the 49 HEV sero-positive women had elevated ALT level. Ten (N = 41) of the neonates born to sero-positive women developed jaundice in the neonatal period. The mean birth weight was 3.1kg (SD 0.4). HEV sero-prevalence among pregnant women in the Cape Coast Metropolis is high enough to deserve more attention than it has received so far. It is therefore important to conduct further research on the potential impact on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity in Ghana.

  3. Epidemiology of non–fatal injuries among adolescents in an urban Niger delta community of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azubuike, Samuel O; Onyemaka, Elizabeth O

    2012-01-01

    Background: Injuries affect the lives of 10 – 30 million children and adolescents each year and have been acknowledged as the leading cause of mortality among young people in the age range of 15 – 19 years. Injury, as a research problem has been largely ignored in developing countries like Nigeria. Aims: This study was aimed at determining injury prevalence, external causes / mechanism of injury, various factors affecting injury occurrence, injury severity, type of treatment received, as well as the most common days and times of injury. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in the Agbor Metropolis of the oil-rich Niger delta region of Nigeria and adopted a cross-sectional study design. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to 386 subjects selected using a stratified and simple random technique. Analysis: Analysis was done using Social Science Statistical Package, with the level of significance taken at 0.05 Results: Injury prevalence was 284 (73.6%) with a mean frequency of 1.8 per child. About (221) 57.3% of the injuries sustained resulted in 1+ day's activity loss, with about 136 (35.2%) requiring medical attention. The top injury sites were street / road, 49 (12.69%) and school environment and sporting arena, 47 (12.18%), respectively, followed by home vicinity, 43 (11.14%). The key causes of injury were collision, 53 (13.73%), falling, 41 (10.62%), and cut / stabbing, 41 (7.51%). Most treatments were at the hospital, 136 (47.72%). Most injuries occurred in the afternoons, 108 (28%) and evenings, 89 (23.1%). Injury experience was associated with Respondents / Parents level of education, family type, alcohol consumption, and age (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: Injury experience was relatively high and varied with site, activity, age, family type, alcohol consumption, and parental educational status. PMID:23181214

  4. Nutritional status of urban and rural primary school pupils in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekekezie, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Ibeabuchi, N M

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in Lagos State in Ikorodu LGA (rural), a largely agrarian area producing raw materials for agro-allied industries and Ikeja LGA (urban), a highly-developed metropolis and commercial centre. Hitherto, studies showed that undernutrition had been the main form of malnutrition among Nigerian children. However with influences from urbanization, westernization and globalization in cosmopolitan Lagos, it is imperative to find out if the global epidemic of overweight and obesity has caught on. To compare the nutritional status of primary school pupils in urban and rural LGAs in Lagos State, Nigeria. This was a cross , sectional comparative study. A multistage sampling method was adopted. Data were collected from 529 pupils with an interviewer administered questionnaire. Their weight and height were recorded in pre-designed proforma and converted to nutritional indices. The prevalence rates of underweight, stunting and wasting in the rural area were 49.6%, 50.8% and 24.2% respectively; while it was 15.1%, 16.6% and 13.6% in the urban area respectively. There was overnutrition in the urban area: 15.1% were overweight and 13.2% were obese. The mean nutritional indices were significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (p<0.001) in each case. Undernutrition is still a major health problem among school children in Lagos State, Nigeria, more so in the rural area. There is an emergence of overweight and obesity in the urban area. A comprehensive programme to improve nutritional status is recommended as part of a well funded school health programme.

  5. Perception of sexuality education amongst secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opara, P I; Eke, G K; Tabansi, P N

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality behavior amongst young people in Nigeria and indeed Sub-Saharan Africa is seriously going through transformation from what it was previously. It is therefore important that young people have adequate information about their sexuality so that they can make informed choices. To determine perceptions and knowledge of sexuality education amongst secondary school students in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A structured, anonymous and self-administered questionnaire, used as instrument for data collection, was distributed amongst a convenient sample of 1050 secondary school students attending a series of Schools debates in Port Harcourt Metropolis. The students were aged 10 -20 years, with a median age of 15. There were 486 males and 564 females giving a M: F ratio of 1:1.2. Four hundred and fourteen (73.4%) of the females had attained menarche. Nine hundred and fifty (90.5%) of the respondents had heard of sexuality education but only 422 (40.1%) discussed relevant topics on the subject. 52.8% believed that sexuality education should be given at home by both parents. However, only 164 (31.2%) and 19 (3.6%) got such information from their mothers and fathers respectively. Only 7.6% acknowledged the school teacher as a source of information. Secondary school students are aware of the subject of sexuality education, but lack adequate information on sexuality issues. Parents and teachers are a poor source of information for students. Parents, Teachers and students need to be enlightened on sexuality education. There is also a need to incorporate it into the school curriculum.

  6. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A.

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature,more » all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.« less

  7. Hypertension and prehypertension among adolescents in secondary schools in Enugu, South East Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ujunwa, Fortune A; Ikefuna, Anthony N; Nwokocha, Ada R C; Chinawa, Josephat M

    2013-11-02

    Hypertension is a prevalent cardiovascular disease risk factor among blacks and adolescent hypertension can progress into adulthood. To determine the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension among secondary school adolescents in Enugu South East Nigeria. A study of 2694 adolescents aged 10-18 years in Enugu metropolis was carried out. Socio-demographic profile anthropometric and blood pressure readings were obtained. Derived measurements such as Prehypertension, hypertension and BMI were obtained. The results showed that the mean systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure for males were 106.66+ 11.80 mmHg and 70.25 + 7.34 mmHg respectively. The mean SBP and DBP for females were 109.83+ 11.66 mmHg and 72.23 + 8.26 mmHg respectively (p < 0.01). Blood pressure was found to increase with age. Prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension was 5.4% and 17.3% respectively with a higher rate in females (6.9%) than males (3.8%). Prevalence of prehypertension among males and females were 14.3% and 20.1% respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 1.9%. Modifiable risk factors exist among adolescents. Early lifestyle modification and a strengthened school health are recommended.

  8. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    2006-08-01

    Nigeria's desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA/ OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa, 1976. The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results. The National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA), Nigeria's space research coordinating body; has taken a more active role to help Nigeria's space research community to succeed internationally. The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria's successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing, meteorology, communication and Information Technology. and many more. It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations. The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist's involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria. It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria's space borne scientific experiments, policies and programs.

  9. Profile and determinants of successful aging in the Ibadan Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola D; Abiona, Taiwo; Chatterji, Somnath

    2014-05-01

    To determine the profile and determinants of successful aging in a developing country characterized by low life expectancy and where successful agers may represent a unique group. Community-based cohort study. Eight contiguous states in the Yoruba-speaking region of Nigeria. A multistage clustered sampling of households was used to select a representative sample of individuals (N = 2,149) aged 65 and older at baseline. Nine hundred thirty were successfully followed for an average of 64 months between August 2003 and December 2009. Lifestyle and behavioral factors were assessed at baseline. Successful aging, defined using each of three models (absence of chronic health conditions, functional independence, and satisfaction with life), was assessed at follow-up. Between 16% and 75% of respondents could be classified as successful agers using one of the three models while 7.5% could be so classified using a combination of all the models. Correlations between the three models were small, ranging from 0.08 to 0.15. Different features predicted their outcomes, suggesting that they represent relatively independent trajectories of aging. Whichever model was used, more men than women tended to be classified as aging successfully. Men who aged successfully, using a combination of all the three models, were more likely never to have smoked (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55-14.46) and to report, at baseline, having contacts with friends (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.0-18.76) or participating in community activities (aOR = 16.0, 95% CI = 1.23-204.40). In women, there was a nonlinear trend for younger age at baseline to predict this outcome. Modifiable social and lifestyle factors predicted successful aging in this population, suggesting that health promotion targeting behavior change may lead to tangible benefits for health and well-being in old age. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Bayesian forecasting and uncertainty quantifying of stream flows using Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongrui; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xiong; Yu, Chen

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents a Bayesian approach using Metropolis-Hastings Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm and applies this method for daily river flow rate forecast and uncertainty quantification for Zhujiachuan River using data collected from Qiaotoubao Gage Station and other 13 gage stations in Zhujiachuan watershed in China. The proposed method is also compared with the conventional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) for parameter estimation and quantification of associated uncertainties. While the Bayesian method performs similarly in estimating the mean value of daily flow rate, it performs over the conventional MLE method on uncertainty quantification, providing relatively narrower reliable interval than the MLE confidence interval and thus more precise estimation by using the related information from regional gage stations. The Bayesian MCMC method might be more favorable in the uncertainty analysis and risk management.

  11. Thermodynamics and simulation of hard-sphere fluid and solid: Kinetic Monte Carlo method versus standard Metropolis scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper aims at a comparison of techniques based on the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) and the conventional Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) methods as applied to the hard-sphere (HS) fluid and solid. In the case of the kMC, an alternative representation of the chemical potential is explored [E. A. Ustinov and D. D. Do, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 366, 216 (2012)], which does not require any external procedure like the Widom test particle insertion method. A direct evaluation of the chemical potential of the fluid and solid without thermodynamic integration is achieved by molecular simulation in an elongated box with an external potential imposed on the system in order to reduce the particle density in the vicinity of the box ends. The existence of rarefied zones allows one to determine the chemical potential of the crystalline phase and substantially increases its accuracy for the disordered dense phase in the central zone of the simulation box. This method is applicable to both the Metropolis MC and the kMC, but in the latter case, the chemical potential is determined with higher accuracy at the same conditions and the number of MC steps. Thermodynamic functions of the disordered fluid and crystalline face-centered cubic (FCC) phase for the hard-sphere system have been evaluated with the kinetic MC and the standard MC coupled with the Widom procedure over a wide range of density. The melting transition parameters have been determined by the point of intersection of the pressure-chemical potential curves for the disordered HS fluid and FCC crystal using the Gibbs-Duhem equation as a constraint. A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the hard-sphere fluid has provided a rigorous verification of the approach, which can be extended to more complex systems.

  12. Exploration gaps exist in Nigeria`s prolific delta

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.

    The Niger delta region of the Republic of Nigeria is Africa`s largest oil producing area. It is clear that Nigeria will continue to contribute significantly to world petroleum production well into the 21st century: with increases in recoverable oil reserves in the Niger delta onshore and offshore; the promising potential of the Niger delta deepwater region; and a lesser but not insignificant contribution from the unexplored onshore Benue trough, part of the mid-African rift system, which has already proved to hold substantial oil reserves in the Doba basin of neighboring Chad. This is the first of five parts on Nigeria`smore » oil and gas potential. The later articles deal with Niger delta oil reserves and production, Niger delta gas reserves, the delta`s deepwater region, and the Benue trough and onshore cretaceous rift basins. This article deals with the geologic setting of the Niger delta-Benue trough region, the synrift deposits, marine sedimentation, margin evolution, geologic strata and reservoirs, reservoir character, structure and traps, hydrocarbon types, geotemperatures, and source rock quality.« less

  13. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    southern protectorates of Nigeria were governed separately due to their cultural differences until 1914 when both were finally amalgamated by the British...Hausa), was the concentration of southern Igbo and Yoruba Christians in homogenous pockets within Hausa-Fulani Muslim cities. This initiated a...solving, and cross- cultural relationship-building skills. Muslim and Christian youths from diverse ethnic groups are trained as peer mediators and life

  14. A photo voice perspective on factors contributing to the resilience of HIV positive Yoruba adolescent girls in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegoke, Catherine O; Steyn, Miemsie G

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing discourse worldwide on the impact of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on "at risk youths". In response, five HIV-positive Nigerian adolescent girls were qualitatively investigated in collaboration with a non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Ibadan, an urban settlement in Nigeria in 2013. Using a secondary data analysis from a photo voice component of the research, combined with narratives, we show that participants possess the capacity to overcome their adversities from the effects of HIV infection and remain resilient. Few studies have used photovoice - a visual participatory approach - and its impact on this group. The theories of Bourdieu, Piaget and Erikson were used as tools to interpret and document, resilience, social capital and coping among participants. Findings reveal participants frame positive goals, use social competence, coping skills, and express personal challenges. These have serious implications for policy makers, researchers and programmer in strengthening adolescents' resilience. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients seen at a tertiary institution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Lawal, A O; Kolude, B; Adeyemi, B F; Lawoyin, J O; Akang, E E

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors of oral cancer, but nutritional deficiency may also contribute to development of oral cancer. This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate the role of vitamin deficiencies in the etiology of oral cancer. Serum vitamin A, C, and E levels of 33 oral cancer patients and 30 controls at University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, were determined using standard methods. The data obtained were analyzed using the Student t-test, odds ratio, and logistic regression. Mean vitamin A, C, and E levels were significantly lower in oral cancer patients (P=0.022, P=0.000, and P=0.013 respectively). Risk of oral cancer was 10.89, 11.35, and 5.6 times more in patients with low serum vitamins A, C, and E, respectively. However, on logistic regression analysis, only low serum vitamin E independently predicted occurrence of oral cancer. The lower serum vitamin A, C, and E levels in oral cancer patients could be either a cause or an effect of the oral cancer. Further studies using a larger sample size and cohort studies with long-term follow-up of subjects are desirable.

  16. Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. Methods A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Results Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Conclusion Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated. PMID:28293377

  17. Molecular detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Nigeria, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kamani, J; Baneth, G; Apanaskevich, D A; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Harrus, S

    2015-06-01

    Several species of the spotted fever group rickettsiae have been identified as emerging pathogens throughout the world, including in Africa. In this study, 197 Hyalomma ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) collected from 51 camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Kano, northern Nigeria, were screened by amplification and sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA), outer membrane protein A (ompA) and 17-kDa antigen gene fragments. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments were detected in 43.3% (42/97) of the tick pools tested. Rickettsial ompA gene fragments (189 bp and 630 bp) were detected in 64.3% (n = 27) and 23.8% (n = 10) of the gltA-positive tick pools by real-time and conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The amplicons were 99-100% identical to Rickettsia aeschlimannii TR/Orkun-H and R. aeschlimannii strain EgyRickHimp-El-Arish in GenBank. Furthermore, 17-kDa antigen gene fragments of 214 bp and 265 bp were detected in 59.5% (n = 25) and 38.1% (n = 16), respectively, of tick pools, and sequences were identical to one another and 99-100% identical to those of the R. aeschlimannii strain Ibadan A1 in GenBank. None of the Hyalomma impressum ticks collected were positive for Rickettsia sp. DNA. Rickettsia sp. gltA fragments (133 bp) were detected in 18.8% of camel blood samples, but all samples were negative for the other genes targeted. This is the first report to describe the molecular detection of R. aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. ticks from camels in Nigeria. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  18. Influence of internet exposure on sexual behaviour of young persons in an urban district of Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arulogun, Oyedunni Sola; Ogbu, Ifeyinwa Arinze; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of young people exposed to pornographic materials through the internet in Nigeria is increasing. However, the influence of the exposure on their sexual behaviour has not been fully explored. This study therefore explored the effects of internet exposure on the sexual behaviour of young persons in Ibadan North Local Government Area of southwest Nigeria. A survey of 413 young persons was done using a pretested self-administered questionnaire which included questions on internet exposure and its influence on behaviour. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and logistic regression. Mean age of males was 21.7 ± 3.4 years while that of females was 20.9 ± 3.2 years. Forty-nine percent of the respondents used the internet for the first time between the ages of 15-19 years. Main source of information about the internet was friends (63.3%) and 99.3% accessed the internet from cybercafé. Seventy-two percent had ever stumbled on pornographic sites. Reactions included glancing through before closing (45.2%), closure of the sites (38.5%), and minimizing page to view later (12.5%). Post-exposure influence on behaviour included engagement in oral sex (48.3%), body tattoo (18.3%), having multiple sexual partners (11.6%) and homosexuality (5.0%). More males (95% CI OR =1.245-6.465) and frequent users (95% CI OR =1.168-3.497) were likely to report a change in sexual behaviour. Internet use was common among the young persons. Interventions aimed at reducing exposure to sexual content on internet targeting young persons especially the males and cybercafé operators are advocated.

  19. Validation of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen in Nigeria and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Paddick, Stella-Maria; Gray, William K; Ogunjimi, Luqman; Lwezuala, Bingileki; Olakehinde, Olaide; Kisoli, Aloyce; Kissima, John; Mbowe, Godfrey; Mkenda, Sarah; Dotchin, Catherine L; Walker, Richard W; Mushi, Declare; Collingwood, Cecilia; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2015-04-25

    We have previously described the development of the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans (IDEA) cognitive screen for use in populations with low levels of formal education. The IDEA cognitive screen was developed and field-tested in an elderly, community-based population in rural Tanzania with a relatively high prevalence of cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to validate the IDEA cognitive screen as an assessment of major cognitive impairment in hospital settings in Nigeria and Tanzania. In Nigeria, 121 consecutive elderly medical clinic outpatients reviewed at the University College Hospital, Ibadan were screened using the IDEA cognitive screen. In Tanzania, 97 consecutive inpatients admitted to Mawenzi Regional Hospital (MRH), Moshi, and 108 consecutive medical clinic outpatients attending the geriatric medicine clinic at MRH were screened. Inter-rater reliability was assessed in Tanzanian outpatients attending St Joseph's Hospital in Moshi using three raters. A diagnosis of dementia or delirium (DSM-IV criteria) was classified as major cognitive impairment and was provided independently by a physician blinded to the results of the screening assessment. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve in Nigerian outpatients, Tanzanian outpatients and Tanzanian inpatients was 0.990, 0.919 and 0.917 respectively. Inter-rater reliability was good (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.742 to 0.791). In regression models, the cognitive screen did not appear to be educationally biased. The IDEA cognitive screen performed well in these populations and should prove useful in screening for dementia and delirium in other areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Environment on Life Styles and Life Chances among out of School Youths in Lagos Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahab, E. O.; Ajiboye, O. E.; Atere, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is motivated as a result of rapid changes in the lifestyle of our youths and the increasing deterioration of their welfare in terms of the increase in the number of out of school youth in the country, high incidence of child participation in economic activities and incidence of street children in Nigeria. Although, many researches…

  1. Youth Reproductive & Sexual Health in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Melodi

    2010-01-01

    Nearly one third of Nigeria's total population of 148.1 million is between the ages of 10 and 24. Nigerian adolescents' sizeable share of the population makes them integral to the country's social, political and economic development. Nigeria's development is compromised by the sexual and reproductive health issues afflicting its youth. Lack of…

  2. Rights of the Child in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Anne Laurence; Shoenberg, Cheryl; Schonveld, Ben

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Federation of Nigeria. The report's introduction asserts that the rule by decree of Nigeria's present military regime has…

  3. ICT and Higher Educational System in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idowu, Adeyemi I.; Esere, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the integration of ICT in higher education in Nigeria. The possibilities and reach of information technologies can tear down territorial boundaries and make available equal information and knowledge of different categories as soon as necessary data are fed on the website. Nevertheless, Nigeria as a nation is yet to take full…

  4. Choosing an Indigenous Official Language for Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Charles C.

    A discussion of the choice of official languages in Nigeria first gives an overview of the current language situation in Nigeria, particularly of indigenous language usage, sketches the history of English, French, and Anglo-Nigerian Pidgin (ANP) both before and after independence, outlines the main proposals for language planning, and draws some…

  5. Household Structure and Living Conditions in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mberu, Blessing Uchenna

    2007-01-01

    Data on 7,632 households from the 1999 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey are used to examine household structure and living conditions in Nigeria. The study finds significant disadvantage in living conditions of single-adult, female- and single-adult, male-headed households relative to two-parent households. Extended households show no…

  6. Spirometric evaluation of ventilatory function in adult male cigarette smokers in Sokoto metropolis.

    PubMed

    Isah, Muhammad D; Makusidi, Muhammad A; Abbas, Aminu; Okpapi, Juliana U; Njoku, Chibueze H; Abba, Abdullahi A

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a widespread social habit in Nigeria with extensive deleterious multisystemic effect. Ventilatory dysfunction is one of the cigarette smoking-related illnesses that affect the respiratory system. Spirometry is an investigative method that can be used for the early detection of ventilatory dysfunction even before the onset of the symptoms. A questionnaire adapted from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey was administered to collect demographic, clinical, and cigarette smoking data. Ventilatory function test was conducted using Clement Clarke (One Flow) Spirometer, version 1.3. The highest value of each ventilatory function index was chosen for analysis, and individual(s) with ventilatory dysfunction were subjected to post bronchodilator spirometry. For the purpose of this research, 150 participants who were currently cigarette smokers were enrolled, and 50 apparently healthy, age-matched individuals who were never smokers served as controls in the ratio of 3:1. Eighty percent of participants and 68% of controls were aged 40 years or below. The mean age of participants (34.27 ± 8.91 years) and the controls (35.08 ± 10.35 years) was not significantly different (P = 0.592). Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences between the mean anthropometric indices (weight: P = 0.663, height: P = 0.084, and body mass index: P = 0.099) of both participants and controls. The mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory flow in one second) and FEV1/FVC (FVC=forced vital capacity) were lower in the participants compared to the controls, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was a weak negative correlation between pack-years of cigarette smoking and FEV1 (r = -0.237 and P = 0.004). Obstructive ventilatory defect was found among six study participants (4%) and two controls (4%). Cigarette smoking is associated with decline in ventilatory function test indices (FEV1 and FEV1

  7. Evidence for a magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis of Taiwan from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2016-12-23

    There are more than 7 million people living near the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan. For the safety of the Taipei metropolis, in particular, it has been debated for decades whether or not these volcanoes are active. Here I show evidence of a deep magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays. The reservoir is probably composed of either a thin magma layer overlay or many molten sills within thick partially molten rocks. Assuming that 40% of the reservoir is partially molten, its total volume could be approximately 350 km 3 . The exact location and geometry of the magma reservoir will be obtained after dense seismic arrays are deployed in 2017-2020.

  8. Evidence for a magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis of Taiwan from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Horng

    2016-01-01

    There are more than 7 million people living near the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan. For the safety of the Taipei metropolis, in particular, it has been debated for decades whether or not these volcanoes are active. Here I show evidence of a deep magma reservoir beneath the Taipei metropolis from both S-wave shadows and P-wave delays. The reservoir is probably composed of either a thin magma layer overlay or many molten sills within thick partially molten rocks. Assuming that 40% of the reservoir is partially molten, its total volume could be approximately 350 km3. The exact location and geometry of the magma reservoir will be obtained after dense seismic arrays are deployed in 2017–2020. PMID:28008931

  9. Male participation in pregnancy and delivery in Nigeria: a survey of antenatal attendees.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, O; Bello, F A; Aimakhu, C O; Obajimi, G O; Adekunle, A O

    2009-07-01

    This was a cross-sectional study carried out on 462 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study's aims were to assess the level of participation of Nigerian men in pregnancy and birth, the attitude of the women and likely targets for improved care delivery. Three hundred and forty-nine women (75.5%) were aware that husbands could participate in childbirth. Most women did not think it was their husbands' place to attend antenatal clinic (48.3%) or counselling sessions (56.7%). Nearly all husbands (97.4%) encouraged their wives to attend antenatal clinic - paying antenatal service bills (96.5%), paying for transport to the clinic (94.6%) and reminding them of their clinic visits (83.3%). Three hundred and thirty-five husbands (72.5%) accompanied their wives to the hospital for their last delivery, while 63.9% were present at last delivery. More-educated women were less likely to be accompanied to the antenatal clinic, while more-educated men were likely to accompany their wives. Yoruba husbands were less likely to accompany their wives, but Yoruba wives with non-Yoruba husbands were 12 times more likely to be accompanied. Women in the rural centre were less likely to receive help with household chores from their husbands during pregnancy, while educated women were more likely to benefit from this. Monogamous unions and increasing level of husbands' education were associated with spousal presence at delivery. It appears that male participation is satisfactory in some aspects, but increased attendance at antenatal services and delivery would be desirable.

  10. Perceived medication use challenges and coping strategies among medical outpatients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Yusuff, Kazeem B

    2013-02-01

    The use of medicines is an action that involves a change in behaviour and it is a complex construct involving reciprocal interactions between social, environmental and cognitive factors. This is particularly true when a patient uses medicines for asymptomatic chronic conditions, requiring life-long use. To identify patient-perceived medication use challenges, determine the coping strategies used and investigate the relationship between patient-perceived challenges and self-initiation of coping strategies. A premier 900-bed tertiary/teaching hospital located in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ten pharmacists conducted cross-sectional medication use interviews for a random sample of 324 medical outpatients in 4 weeks (25th October-19th November 2006). Patient-perceived challenges with prescribed medications, self-initiated coping strategies used and relationship between patient-perceived challenges and self-initiation of coping strategies Eighty-one percent (324) of the random sample of 400 patients consented and completed the interview. Of these, 50.3 % were males while 49.7 % were females with mean age (SD) of 51.5 (17.6) and 52.1 (17.4) years respectively. The most frequent diagnoses were hypertension (53 %) and type-2 diabetes + hypertension (14.5 %). Two hundred and twenty-four patients reported one or more perceived challenges. Of these, 43.8 % were 65 years or older and about half reported at least 3 challenges. The majority (95.6 %) of patients who reported perceived challenges initiated one or more coping strategies without the knowledge of their physicians or pharmacists. Of 100 patients who did not report any perceived challenge, 43 % admitted initiating strategies to maintain perceived "cure" of their medical conditions. Self-initiation and use of coping strategies was far more likely among patients who reported perceived challenges (OR: 28.4, 95 % CI 26.1-30.5). The number of coping strategies reported appeared strongly related to the number of perceived challenges (r

  11. Finite Adaptation and Multistep Moves in the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm for Variable Selection in Genome-Wide Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peltola, Tomi; Marttinen, Pekka; Vehtari, Aki

    2012-01-01

    High-dimensional datasets with large amounts of redundant information are nowadays available for hypothesis-free exploration of scientific questions. A particular case is genome-wide association analysis, where variations in the genome are searched for effects on disease or other traits. Bayesian variable selection has been demonstrated as a possible analysis approach, which can account for the multifactorial nature of the genetic effects in a linear regression model. Yet, the computation presents a challenge and application to large-scale data is not routine. Here, we study aspects of the computation using the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for the variable selection: finite adaptation of the proposal distributions, multistep moves for changing the inclusion state of multiple variables in a single proposal and multistep move size adaptation. We also experiment with a delayed rejection step for the multistep moves. Results on simulated and real data show increase in the sampling efficiency. We also demonstrate that with application specific proposals, the approach can overcome a specific mixing problem in real data with 3822 individuals and 1,051,811 single nucleotide polymorphisms and uncover a variant pair with synergistic effect on the studied trait. Moreover, we illustrate multimodality in the real dataset related to a restrictive prior distribution on the genetic effect sizes and advocate a more flexible alternative. PMID:23166669

  12. Sex markets and sexual opportunity structures of behaviorally bisexual latino men in the urban metropolis of new york city.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard; Wilson, Patrick A

    2014-04-01

    Sex markets (the spatially and culturally bounded arenas) that shape bisexual behavior among Latino men have been utilized as a deterministic concept without a sufficient focus on the ability of individuals to make autonomous decisions within such arenas. We nuance the theory of sex markets using the concept of sexual opportunity structures to investigate the ways in which behaviorally bisexual Latino men in the urban metropolis of New York City navigate sexual geographies, cultural meaning systems, sexual scripts, and social institutions to configure their bisexual behaviors. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews with bisexual Latino men in New York City, we first describe and analyze venues that constitute sexual geographies that facilitate and impede sexual interaction. These also allow for a degree of autonomy in decision-making, as men travel throughout the urban sexual landscape and sometimes even manage to reject norms, such as those imposed by Christian religion. We explore some of the cultural meaning systems and social institutions that regulate sex markets and influence individual decision-making. Secrecy and discretion-regulated by the family, masculinity, migration, and religion-only partially shaped sexual behavior and relationships. These factors create a flux in "equilibrium" in bisexual sex markets in which sociocultural-economic structures constantly interplay with human agency. This article contributes to the literature in identifying dynamic spaces for sexual health interventions that draw on individual agency and empowerment.

  13. Influence of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending their antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region.

  14. Sex Markets and Sexual Opportunity Structures of Behaviorally Bisexual Latino Men in the Urban Metropolis of New York City

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Sex markets (the spatially and culturally bounded arenas) that shape bisexual behavior among Latino men have been utilized as a deterministic concept without a sufficient focus on the ability of individuals to make autonomous decisions within such arenas. We nuance the theory of sex markets using the concept of sexual opportunity structures to investigate the ways in which behaviorally bisexual Latino men in the urban metropolis of New York City navigate sexual geographies, cultural meaning systems, sexual scripts, and social institutions to configure their bisexual behaviors. Drawing on 60 in-depth interviews with bisexual Latino men in New York city, we first describe and analyze venues that constitute sexual geographies that facilitate and impede sexual interaction. These also allow for a degree of autonomy in decision-making, as men travel throughout the urban sexual landscape and sometimes even manage to reject norms, such as those imposed by Christian religion. We explore some of the cultural meaning systems and social institutions that regulate sex markets and influence individual decision-making. Secrecy and discretion—regulated by the family, masculinity, migration, and religion—only partially shaped sexual behavior and relationships. These factors create a flux in “equilibrium” in bisexual sex markets in which sociocultural-economic structures constantly interplay with human agency. This article contributes to the literature in identifying dynamic spaces for sexual health interventions that draw on individual agency and empowerment. PMID:23479357

  15. Solubility classification of airborne uranium products collected at the perimeter of the Allied Chemical Plant, Metropolis, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1980-05-01

    Airborne uranium products were collected at the perimeter of the uranium-conversion plant operated by the Allied Chemical Corporation at Metropolis, Illinois, and the dissolution rates of these products were classified in terms of the ICRP Task Group Lung Model. Assignments were based on measurements of the dissolution half-times exhibited by uranium components of the dust samples as they dissolved in simulated lung fluid at 37/sup 0/C. Based on three trials, the dissolution behavior of dust with aerodynamic equivalent diameter (AED) less than 5.5 ..mu..m and collected nearest the closest residence to the plant was classified 0.40 D, 0.60 Y. Basedmore » on two trials, the dissolution behavior of dust with AED greater than 5.5 ..mu..m and collected at this location was classified 0.37 D, 0.63 Y. Based on one trial, the dissolution behavior of dust with AED less than 5.5 ..mu..m and collected at a location on the opposite side of the plant was classified 0.68 D, 0.32 Y. There was some evidence for adsorption of dissolved uranium onto other dust components during dissolution, and preliminary dissolution trials are recommended for future samples in order to optimize the fluid replacement schedule.« less

  16. Women Education in Nigeria: Predicaments and Hopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akubuilo, Francis; Omeje, Monica

    2012-10-01

    This paper is focused on women education in Nigeria. It traces the genesis of western education in Nigeria and bias that existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women education. It identified and discussed barriers to women education in Nigeria. Recent trend in enrolment at various levels of education shows improvement in favor of women. In view of this realization, this paper argues that if the current momentum is sustained, women will not only achieve equal status to men in educational attainment but also have the tendency to surpass men within the next ten to fifteen years. The implications could be outreaching as the paper proffers some recommendations.

  17. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identifiedmore » around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.« less

  18. Relationship Between Nutritional Status and Intensity of Common Intestinal Helminths Among Children in Enugu, South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ilechukwu, GC; Ilechukwu, CGA; Ubesie, AC; Onyire, NB; Emechebe, G; Eze, JC

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intestinal helminthiasis is associated with malnutrition in children. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the intensity and effect of the common intestinal helminths on the nutritional status of children in Enugu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 460 children conducted in Enugu metropolis, south-east Nigeria between August and September 2003. Their stools were analyzed at the research laboratory of the Federal Ministry of Health, National Arbovirus and Vector Research Center, Enugu. The intensity of the common intestinal helminths was determined using the standard Kato-Katz method of fresh stool samples. The classification intensity of helminthic infestation was according to the World Health Organization classification. Data were analyzed using Statistical Software for Social Sciences version 11.0 (Chicago IL, USA). P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: 452 of 460 children (98.3%) had normal height for age, weight for age and weight for height Z-scores. Six of the 460 children (1.3% were wasted), 1/460 stunted (0.2%) and 1/460 wasted and stunted (0.2%). 150 out of 460 (32.6%) studied were infected with helminths. There was no significant relationship between the intensity of helminth infection and the nutritional status of the children. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of helminthiasis in children in Enugu was high, intensity of helminthiasis in these children was mainly mild. Hence, majority of them had normal weight and height measurements for age and sex. PMID:25184077

  19. Factors of Stream Instability in Urban Centres of Southern Nigeria: Case Study of Port Harcourt City River Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amangabara, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    There are two main drainage rivers in the Port Harcourt Metropolis - The Ntamogba and the Woji creek (Abam, 2004). There are a few other drainage rivers that are equally important e.g. the Nwaja River that drains Rumukalagbor, Elekahia, New GRA Phases IV and V, Presidential Housing Estate and Sun Ray publications Area of Aba Road. These river systems drain the entire Port Harcourt City dividing the City into three major drainage zones. Since the discovery of oil in Nigeria in the 1950s, the country has been suffering the negative environmental consequences of oil development. The growth of the country's oil industry, combined with population explosion and a lack of environmental regulations, led to substantial damage to Nigeria's environment, especially in the Niger Delta region, the center of the country's oil industry. Uncontrolled population movement as well as spontaneous housing development on marginal lands such as stream corridors, has led to the degradation of all major stream channels in the Nation's oil capital - Port Harcourt City. The longitudinal profiles and cross sections of reaches of three major streams (Ntamogba, Nwaja, and Oginigba streams) were investigated. Land use maps of 1979 1999 and 2004 were used. Our result showed that 1). Almost all of the stream corridors have been built up without adequate plan 2). The natural grades have been distorted by channelisation for the purpose of flood evacuation without geomorphic consideration .3). Our research also shows that the interface of saline water and fresh water has extended upstream affecting urban infrastructure. 4) localized damming and sedimentation behind hydraulic structures were common occurrences) our overall result indicate that two episodes of channel incision on Oginigba stream had increased slope reduced sinuosity increased entrenchment and reduce width-depth ratio . Conclusively the factors of the instability of theses urban streams are manly the processes of urbanization which

  20. Effect of Sex Education Programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of school-going adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Esere, Mary Ogechi

    2008-06-01

    Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.

  1. Maternal and child health project in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chinyelu B

    2003-12-01

    Maternal deaths in developing countries are rooted in womens powerlessness and their unequal access to employment, finance, education, basic health care, and other resources. Nigeria is Africa's most populous country, and it is an oil producing country, but Nigeria has one of the worst maternal mortality rates in Africa. These deaths were linked to deficiencies in access to health care including poor quality of health services, socio-cultural factors, and access issues related to the poor status of women. To address these problems, a participatory approach was used to bring Christian women from various denominations in Eastern Nigeria together. With technical assistance from a research unit in a university in Eastern Nigeria, the women were able to implement a Safe Motherhood project starting from needs assessment to program evaluation. Lessons learned from this program approach are discussed.

  2. Current Problems of Educational Development in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyinka, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of problems of educational development in Nigeria focusingon the responsibility for and control of the nations' educational system, its diversification, the need to relate the schools' curricula to national manpower needs, and the issue of finance. (EH)

  3. Higher Education in Nigeria: A Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint, William; Hartnett, Teresa A.; Strassner, Erich

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the current status of higher education in Nigeria and reviews the country's new policy initiatives in this context. The discussion gives particular attention to issues of access, teaching/learning, finance, and governance/management. (EV)

  4. Effects of cognitive behavioral coaching on depressive symptoms in a sample of type 2 diabetic inpatients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyechi, Kay Chinonyelum Nwamaka; Eseadi, Chiedu; Okere, Anthony U; Onuigbo, Liziana N; Umoke, Prince C I; Anyaegbunam, Ngozi Joannes; Otu, Mkpoikanke Sunday; Ugorji, Ngozi Juliet

    2016-08-01

    Depression is one of the mental health problems confronting those with diabetes mellitus and may result from self-defeating thoughts and lifestyles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cognitive behavioral coaching (CBC) program on depressive symptoms in a sample of the Type 2 diabetic inpatients in Onitsha metropolis of Anambra State, Nigeria. The design of the study was pretest-post-test randomized control group design. The participants were 80 Type 2 diabetic inpatients randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The primary outcome measures were Beck's Depression Inventory-II and a Diabetic Inpatient's Depressive Symptoms Observation Checklist. Mean, standard deviation, repeated measures analysis of covariance, and partial eta squared were used for data analysis. The results revealed that the baseline of depressive symptoms was similar between the control and treatment groups of the Type 2 diabetic inpatients. But, exposing the Type 2 diabetic inpatients to a cognitive behavioral coaching program significantly reduced the depressive symptoms in the treatment group compared to those in the control group at the end of the intervention. The effects of cognitive behavioral coaching program on the depressive symptoms of those in the treatment group remained consistent at a 6 month follow-up meetings compared to the control group. Given the potential benefits of a cognitive behavioral coaching program, clinicians and mental health professionals are urged to support and implement evidence-based cognitive-behavioral coaching interventions aimed at promoting diabetic inpatients' wellbeing in the Nigerian hospitals.

  5. Determinants of Knowledge and Safety Practices of Occupational Hazards of Textile Dye Workers in Sokoto, Nigeria: A Descriptive Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Okafoagu, Nneka Christina; Oche, Mansur; Awosan, Kehinde Joseph; Abdulmulmuni, Hashim Bala; Gana, Godwin Jiya; Ango, Jessica Timane; Raji, Ismail

    2017-06-23

    Textile dye workers are subject to occupational hazards on a daily basis due to exposure to precarious conditions in the workplace. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and safety practices and its determinants among textile dye workers in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 200 textile dye workers and the respondents were selected by multi stage sampling technique. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was processed using SPSS IBM version 20 and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Majority of the respondents (74.0%) had good knowledge of workplace hazards; (81.0%) had positive attitude and only 20% observed all the safety practices. Formal education (P=0.047); working less than 5 days a week (P=0.001) and permanent employment (P=0.013) were found to be determinants of respondents' knowledge and attitude towards workplace hazards. Although the respondents had good knowledge and positive attitude, their lack of observance of safety practices brings to fore the need for direct safety instruction and training and retraining of textile dye workers on workplace hazards and safety practices.

  6. Oil Politics and National Security in Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria,” Economies of...against the nine states officially recognized i.e. they exclude Ondo, Abia , and Imo states from being part of the Delta region (figure 1). 125 BBC...Peterside Sofiri Dr, “Oil Transparency in the Niger Delta: Improving Public Sector Oil Derived Resource Flows and Utilization in Abia State, Nigeria

  7. Some upper cretaceous ammonites from southern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaborski, P. M. P.

    Ammonites of Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian and Maastrichtian age are described from the Calabar, Lokpanta, Nkalagu and Lokpauku regions of southern Nigeria. Two species are new Forbesiceras varicostatum sp. nov. from the Loweer Cenomanian and Romaniceras (Yubariceras) evolutum sp. nov. from the Upper Turonian. The stratigraphical significance of the described faunas is discussed. There are striking similarities between the Lower Turonian assemblages of parts of southern Nigeria and South America, particularly Venezuela, which contain common species of Mammites, Fagesia, Vascoceras, Paramammites and Neoptychites.

  8. Blaney-Morin-Nigeria evapotranspiration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duru, J. Obiukwu

    1984-02-01

    An evapotranspiration model which parallels that proposed earlier by Blaney and Morin has been developed for application in Nigeria. The model, designated as the Blaney-Morin-Nigeria evapotranspiration model, predicts potential evapotranspiration with accuracy and consistency that are better than the Penman model, under Nigerian conditions. It is suggested that the Blaney-Morin evapotranspiration concept may have similar potential elsewhere when given specific form with appropriate constants derived to reflect climatic peculiarities.

  9. Developments in Space Research in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oke, O.

    Nigeria s desire to venture into space technology was first made known to ECA OAU member countries at an inter-governmental meeting in Addis Ababa 1976 The Nigerian space research is highly rated in Africa in terms of reputation and scientific results The National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA Nigeria s space research coordinating body has taken a more active role to help Nigeria s space research community to succeed internationally The paper presents recent examples of Nigeria s successes in space and its detailed applications in areas such as remote sensing meteorology communication and Information Technology and many more It gave an analysis of the statistics of Nigerian born space scientists working in the other space-faring nations The analysis have been used to develop a model for increasing Nigerian scientist s involvement in the development of space research in Nigeria It concluded with some thoughts on the current and future of Nigeria s space borne scientific experiments policies and programs

  10. Ethnicity and fertility in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kollehlon, Konia T

    2003-01-01

    Using a sample of Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, Ibo, and all other women from the 1990 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey, this study examines ethnic fertility differentials in Nigeria within the context of the social characteristics and cultural hypotheses. Among all women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani women to be lower than that of Other women; with no statistically significant difference in the net fertility of Ibo, Yourba, and Other women. But, among currently married women, we find the net fertility of Hausa-Fulani and Yoruba women to be lower than that of Other women, while the net fertility of Ibo women is higher than that of Other women. Overall, the findings of this study are more consistent with the cultural hypothesis, because statistically significant fertility differentials by ethnicity remain, even after controlling for selected socioeconomic and demographic variables.

  11. A management-orientated comparative analysis of urban and rural anglers living in a metropolis (Berlin, Germany).

    PubMed

    Arlinghaus, Robert; Mehner, Thomas

    2004-03-01

    Increased efforts to analyze the human dimensions of anglers are necessary to improve freshwater fisheries management. This paper is a comparative analysis of urban and rural anglers living in a metropolis, based on n = 1061 anglers responding to a mail survey in the German capital of Berlin. More than two thirds of the anglers (71%) had spent most (>50%) of their effort outside the city borders of Berlin and thus were categorized as rural anglers. Compared to the rural anglers, urban anglers (>/=50% of total effort spent inside the city) were younger and less educated. Urban anglers were more avid and committed, less mobile, and more frequently fished from boats and during weekdays. Rural anglers were more experienced, fished for longer times per trip, fished more often at weekends and on holidays, were more often members of angling clubs, and more frequently caught higher valued fish species. The achievement and fish quantity aspects of the angling experience were more important for urban than for rural anglers. Concerning management options, urban anglers more frequently suggested constraining other stakeholders and reducing regulations, whereas rural anglers more often proposed improving physical access to angling sites. Future urban fishing programs should offer ease of access, connection to public transportation, moderate prices, and diverse piscivorous fish stocks. In contrast to rural fisheries, the provision of high ecological and aesthetical quality of the angling waters can be regarded as of minor importance in urban fisheries. Rural fisheries managers need to consider the needs of stakeholders living in Berlin to minimize impacts on the less degraded rural water bodies and potential user conflicts with resident anglers. Ecosystem-based management approaches should guide rural fisheries policy.

  12. Heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils of different land uses in Erbil metropolis, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    PubMed

    Amjadian, Keyvan; Sacchi, Elisa; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam

    2016-11-01

    Urban soil contamination is a growing concern for the potential health impact on the increasing number of people living in these areas. In this study, the concentration, the distribution, the contamination levels, and the role of land use were investigated in Erbil metropolis, the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan. A total of 74 soil samples were collected, treated, and analyzed for their physicochemical properties, and for 7 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) and 16 PAH contents. High concentrations, especially of Cd, Cu Pb, and Zn, were found. The Geoaccumulation index (I geo ), along with correlation coefficients and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn have similar behaviors and spatial distribution patterns. Heavy traffic density mainly contributed to the high concentrations of these metals. The total concentration of ∑PAHs ranged from 24.26 to 6129.14 ng/g with a mean of 2296.1 ng/g. The PAH pattern was dominated by 4- and 5-ring PAHs, while diagnostic ratios and PCA indicated that the main sources of PAHs were pyrogenic. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) values ranged from 3.26 to 362.84 ng/g, with higher values in central parts of the city. A statistically significant difference in As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH concentrations between different land uses was observed. The highest As concentrations were found in agricultural areas while roadside, commercial, and industrial areas had the highest Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, and ∑PAH contents.

  13. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision correction among adults in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ntodie, Michael; Abu, Sampson L; Kyei, Samuel; Abokyi, Samuel; Abu, Emmanuel K

    2017-06-01

    To determine the near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to obtaining near vision correction among adults aged 35 years and older in the Cape Coast Metropolis of Ghana. A population-based cross-sectional study design was adopted and 500 out of 576 participants aged 35 years and older were examined from 12 randomly selected clusters in Cape Coast, Ghana. All participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination which included: distance and near visual acuities measurements and external and internal ocular health assessments. Distance and near refractions were performed using subjective refraction technique. Information on participants' demographics, near vision correction status, near visual needs and barriers to acquiring near vision correction were obtained through a questionnaire administered as part of the study. The mean age of participants was 52.3±10.3 years of whom 280 (56%) were females and 220 (44%) were males. The near vision spectacle coverage was 25%, 33% "met need" for near vision correction in the presbyopic population, and 64% unmet need in the entire study population. After controlling for other variables, age (5 th and 6 th decades) and educational level were associated with "met need" for near vision correction (OR=2.7 (1.55-4.68), p =0.00, and OR=2.36 (1.18-4.72), p=0.02 respectively). Among those who needed but did not have near vision correction, 64 (26%) did not feel the need for correction, 55 (22%) stated that they were unaware of available interventions, and 53 (21%) found the cost of near vision correction prohibitive. There was a low near vision spectacle coverage in this population which suggests the need for strategies on health education and promotion to address the lack of awareness of spectacle need and cost of services.

  14. Seroprevalence and Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Secondary School Children in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eke, CB; Ogbodo, SO; Ukoha, OM; Muoneke, VU; Ibekwe, RC; Ikefuna, AN

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although children comprise a small fraction of the burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, which is a major global health challenge, a significant number of them develop chronic HCV infection and are at risk of its complications. Aim: The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of HCV infection in school children in Enugu urban. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study involving children aged 10–18 years selected using multistage systematic sampling in Enugu metropolis, Southeast Nigeria. The anti-HCV was tested using a 3rd generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 16.0 with the level of significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Four hundred and twenty children were selected and screened comprising 210 (50.0%) males and females. The seroprevalence of anti-HCV was 4 (1.0%). Three (75%) out of the four positive cases for the anti-HCV were females while one was a male giving a male to female ratio of 0.3–1. Traditional scarifications/tattoos were the putative risk factors observed to be significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated an anti-HCV seroprevalence of 1.0% among children aged 10–18 years in Enugu with traditional scarification as the predominant associated risk factor. Proper health education including school health education and promotion of behavioral change among the public on the practice of safe scarifications/tattoos should be encouraged in our setting. PMID:27398246

  15. Predictors of public attitude toward living organ donation in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Lawan, Umar M; Abubakar, Mustapha; Adamu, Bappa

    2014-01-01

    Organ shortage is a major public health challenge for transplant programs globally. The sustenance of such programs as an effective therapy for end-stage organ failure (ESOF) requires an exploration of public awareness and willingness to donate organs. This is imperative, especially in developing countries where ESOF is highly prevalent. We studied the awareness and predictors of public attitude toward organ donation in Kano city in northern Nigeria. Using interviewer-administered questionnaires, we assessed the awareness and willingness to donate solid organs among 400 adults in the Kano metropolis. Three hundred and five of the 383 respondents (79.6%) reported that they had heard about organ donation. There was a significant variation of awareness by education and ethnicity (P <0.05). Most respondents, 303 (79.1%), were willing to donate an organ. Gender [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-4.95], educational attainment (AOR = 2.55; 95% CI: 1.35-5.88), marital status (AOR = 4.5; 95% CI: 2.97-9.1), religion (AOR = 3.40; 95% CI: 1.43-8.10) and ethnicity (AOR = 2.36; 95% CI 1.04-5.35) were significant predictors of willingness to donate an organ. Preferred organ recipients were parents (48.9%), children (21.3%), spouses (14.6%) and other relatives (13.4%). Reasons for willingness to donate organs included religion (51.2%), moral obligation (21.4%) and compassion (11.9%), among others. However, there was widespread ignorance of religious precepts concerning organ donation. The high level of awareness and willingness to donate organs in this society could be further enhanced by intensive information, education and communication strategies providing clear messages on societal benefits, religious aspects and bioethical guidance regarding organ donation.

  16. Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-12

    notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 12 FEB 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND...19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a . REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98

  17. Rural-urban migration in Nigeria: consequences on housing, health-care and employment.

    PubMed

    Johnnie, P B

    1988-01-01

    This article explores the results of an on-going longitudinal study in selected high-density areas of Port Harcourt metropolis involving 240 respondents from 4 groups. When respondents in the 1st cohort (watchnights, laborers, and messengers) were asked what motivated them to move from rural areas to the city, 94% said to get better jobs and increase their earnings. 98% of the clerks migrated to Port Harcourt for better jobs and to find employment. All 40 school leavers confirmed that they had moved to the city to find jobs. In spite of the various statutory provisions and policy statements relating to housing in Nigeria there still exists an acute and noticeable shortage both in rural and urban housing. There not only exists a dearth of residential accommodation in these urban centers, but there is also a seemingly atrocious disparity in housing conditions between a large majority of poor urban dwellers and a negligible number of urban residents who are reasonably wealthy. With the growing number of persons migrating from the rural areas to the urban centers, there are also likely to be problems of overcrowding which would exacerbate the problems of communicable diseases and pollution. In terms of the allocation of medical personnel, equipment, and drugs, there is a disproportionately skewed distribution in favor of urban dwellers. 1 important cause of urban employment problems is the phenomenal growth in urbanization and the inability of these urban centers to be able to utilize or absorb the urban labor that was created through the process of urbanization. The other problem is the extremely slow pace of industrialization as compared to urbanization . A serious malady responsible for urban unemployment is the staggering rate at which young school leavers migrate to the city. Nigeria as a nation state has assumed the most dangerous dimensions of capitalism by deliberately erecting inequality and poverty in society. 1 way by which the state, controlled by the

  18. Nigeria: Developing a Strategy for Sub-Saharan Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-20

    single Islamic government. This extension of Islam and consolidation of tne caliphate accounts for the dichotomy between northern and southern Nigeria...in Nigeria and its eventual colonization of Nigeria in the early twentieth century. Northern and Southern Nigeria were officially united as the Colony...south; a still larger dry central plateau, with much open woodland and savanna ; and a strip of semidesert on the fringes of the Sahel in the north

  19. Nigeria: Hydrocarbon Curse Fueling Instability in Niger Delta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-15

    Christians and Muslims. 12 The largest ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani in theNorth, the Ibo in the Southeast, and the Yoruba in the Southwest. 13 Nigeria...0). AllAfrica.com. "Nigeria: The Fading Culture of Party System in Nigeria." http://allafrica.com/stories/200803190577.htm I (accessed February 9

  20. Trends in Educational Evaluations in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndubueze, M. Okoloeze; Iyoke, J. O.; Okoh, S. C.; Beatrice, N. Akubuilo

    2015-01-01

    The paper highlights the trends in educational evaluations in Nigeria starting from the pre-colonial Nigeria to the contemporary. Nigeria first practiced traditional educational evaluation but the system was criticized for lack of documented data. Then the colonial one-shot end of programme evaluation which was later found to be judgmental, breeds…

  1. E-Learning and Distance Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajadi, Timothy Olugbenga; Salawu, Ibrahim Olatunde; Adeoye, Femi Adetunji

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of e-learning in the position of distance education in Nigeria. It commences by discussing the meaning of e-learning and distance education. It also discusses the historical background of distance education in Nigeria as well as the operations of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) as the first federal…

  2. 75 FR 56509 - Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria...: Multi-Sector Trade Mission to Nigeria, March 8-10, 2011 I. Mission Description The United States... Mission to Nigeria March 8-10, 2011, to help U.S. firms find business partners and sell equipment and...

  3. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  4. Nigeria`s rich resources for renewable energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ayankoya, J.O.

    It has been observed in Nigeria, that there is a correlation between the standard of living as measured by per capita GNP, and per capita energy consumption. As energy use per capita is tied to the importance of population increase it tends to drop during economic slow down. The per capita energy usage is put at 0.2 kw compared to 10 kw for USA and 4 kw for Europe respectively. Furthermore, analysis shows with the increase in population per year and a 2--5% growth in per capita GNP, require an increase of 5--8% in energy supply per year. The Countrymore » derives almost all its energy need from fossil fuels (petroleum, gas and coal), hydropower (the only renewable energy used for generating electricity at present) Wood, Animal, Human power and Wind. With the introduction of solar energy, wind energy, micro hydro power, ocean energy, geothermal energy, biomass conversion, and municipal waste energy, the generating of electricity is bound to take a new turn.« less

  5. Nigeria's Satellite Programme Development: Prospects and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinyede, Joseph

    Nigeria's desire to maximize the benefits of space technology for its sustainable development, has become a reality with the establishment of the National Space Research and Development Agency (NASRDA) in May 1999 and the approval of the national Space Policy and Programmes in July 2001. In November, 2000, the Federal Government took a bold step with the signing of an agreement with the Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL) of United Kingdom (UK) for the design, construction and launch of a medium resolution micro-satellite - NigeriaSat-1 with a Ground Sampling Distance of thirty-two (32) meters. The agreement also covers the Know-How-Technology-Training (KHTT) to Nigerian Engineers and Scientists for a period of 18th months at SSTL‘s facility in the U.K.. NigeriaSat-1 was successfully launched into Leo Earth Orbit on 27th September, 2003. NigeriaSat- 1 is one of the five (5) satellites belonging to Nigeria, Algeria, Turkey, United Kingdom and China being operated in a Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The launch of NigeriaSat-1 has promoted access to information which has become a strategy for mass socio-economic development, as information underscores all developmental effort be it in education, provision of health services, marketing, construction industry, tourism, defense, etc. As a follow-up to the successful launch of NigeriaSat-1, the government of Nigeria started the implementation of a Nigerian communication satellite (NigcomSat-1) to address the problem of communication which is the greatest drawbacks to the socio-economic development of the country, particularly in the areas of rural telephone, tele-education, tele-medicine, egovernment, e-commerce and real-time monitoring services. NigcomSat-1, which carries 40- hybrid transponders in the C, KU, KA and L bands, has a 15 years life span and coverage of the African continent, Middle East and part of Europe was launched in May 2007. To satisfy geospatial data needs in sectors such as survey

  6. Challenges of Attending E-Learning Studies in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugi, Stephan Z.

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to find out what challenges the E-leaner faces in the Nigerian environment. Survey research design was used to obtain the opinion of 200 randomly selected E-learners in Kaduna metropolis. Their responses revealed that the most prominent challenges they face are, Inadequate Power supply, Internet connectivity problems, Efficacy…

  7. Ethnicity, petroeconomy, and national integration in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Yeri-Obidake, E.Z.

    1985-01-01

    Among several related phenomena, this study presents as its focal points the examination of some of the variables that influence and shape the structure of sociopolitical, cultural and socioeconomic relations in the course of national integration in Nigeria. The exploitation of petroleum resources since 1958 in the Niger Delta has largely influenced the course of the political as well as the socioeconomic development of Nigeria. Due to its rich petroleum resources, the Rivers territory ranked high in the political calculus of both the Federal Government and secessionist Biafra. The central thesis of this study is that oil is the singlemore » glue that has held the Federation of Nigeria together in the last two decades, and prevented it from being balkanized. This study attempts to put into perspective the various eruptions and episodes of secessionist tendencies and agitations in Nigeria. The ebb and flow of separatist agitations seem to reflect the changing geoeconomic, socioeconomic, and sociopolitical environment of the country. Should the petroeconomy collapse, and/or oil losses its significance in the international economy, what will happen to Nigeria as a nation. The present study points up the need to develop other sources of economic interdependence via the proper utilization of the enormous oil revenues before it is written off as a lost opportunity.« less

  8. Why the spending stopped in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, C.

    Nigeria will have an income of about $14 billion this year from the sale of crude, mostly from the US. Nigeria is our second-largest foreign oil supplier. But, lacking the expertise and financial sophistication of other oil producers, Nigeria began squandering its oil earnings soon after petroleum prices quadrupled following the 1973 OPEC boycott. The country plunged into a series of overindulgent development plans that sent imports and government expenditures soaring, mainly on projects of little value. Improvements that were constructed have not been maintained or are not working, i.e., telecommunication systems, elevators in high-rise buildings, etc. The spiraling importsmore » and lavish spending was brought to an abrupt halt in mid-1978, when the country's military government began imposing a series of drastic restrictions on spending. This year, Nigeria's imports are running a full third below last year's level. The austerity measures have helped to plunge the counry into recession, but if things go according to plan, the hard times should enable Nigeria to right itself and to become an economic leader of Africa.« less

  9. PREVALENCE, CLINICAL AND LIFE-STYLE CORRELATE OF DIZZINESS AMONG THE COMMUNITY ELDERLY FROM THE IBADAN STUDY OF AGEING

    PubMed Central

    Lasisi, Akeem O; Gureje, Oye

    2011-01-01

    Dizziness has been reported to be preponderant among the elderly people, however, little is known about the prevalence and risk factors in the sub Saharan population. This longitudinal cohort study determines the prevalence of dizziness and the clinical and socio-epidemiological correlates in elderly persons residing in the Yoruba-speaking areas of Nigeria. Dizziness was reported 318/1299, representing a prevalence of 24.6%. They were made up of 197(58.5%) females and 121(41.5%) males, 39 (27.6%) were in the 65-69 years age range, 91 in the 70-74years age range, 66(26.8%) in the 75-79 years and 122(45.5%) were above 80 years. The majority of the subjects (253/318) (%) lived in rural-sub-urban, with no formal education in (172/318) (%) and more than two-third (213/318) were of low economic status. Balance test conducted in 1, 006 elderly subjects revealed poor balance (mean balance test score <3.3) in 93/250(37.2%) subjects with dizziness and 189/756(25%) subjects without dizziness(P=0.01). Logistic regression adjusting for age and gender revealed that the odds for poor balance were 1.5 times greater in elderly with dizziness. Low economic status (P=0.05) and smoking (P=0.01) were found to be significant in univariate analysis while logistic regression revealed smoking(OR=1.51, CI=1.17-1.95, P=0.01) and gender(OR=0.77, CI=0.59-0.99, P=0.05) as significant correlate of dizziness while none of age, residence or educational level was significant. Significant clinical correlates in the experience of dizziness included self report of suppurative otitis media (OR =2.07, CI=1.21- 3.52, P=0.01), head injury (OR=2.41, CI=1.61-3.61, P=0.00), recurrent rhinosinusitis (OR=2.97, CI=2.05-4.29,P=0.00), current hypertension(OR=1.43, CI=1.03-2.00, P=0.03) and transient ischemic attack(OR=1.97, CI=1.19-3.23, P=0.01), while diabetes mellitus(OR=1.50, CI= 0.83- 2.71, P= 0.18) was not. The high incidence of dizziness among the community elderly and significant correlation with

  10. Accurate Influenza Monitoring and Forecasting Using Novel Internet Data Streams: A Case Study in the Boston Metropolis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fred Sun; Hou, Suqin; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Shah, Manan; Leskovec, Jure; Sosic, Rok; Hawkins, Jared; Brownstein, John; Conidi, Giuseppe; Gunn, Julia; Gray, Josh; Zink, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Background Influenza outbreaks pose major challenges to public health around the world, leading to thousands of deaths a year in the United States alone. Accurate systems that track influenza activity at the city level are necessary to provide actionable information that can be used for clinical, hospital, and community outbreak preparation. Objective Although Internet-based real-time data sources such as Google searches and tweets have been successfully used to produce influenza activity estimates ahead of traditional health care–based systems at national and state levels, influenza tracking and forecasting at finer spatial resolutions, such as the city level, remain an open question. Our study aimed to present a precise, near real-time methodology capable of producing influenza estimates ahead of those collected and published by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) for the Boston metropolitan area. This approach has great potential to be extended to other cities with access to similar data sources. Methods We first tested the ability of Google searches, Twitter posts, electronic health records, and a crowd-sourced influenza reporting system to detect influenza activity in the Boston metropolis separately. We then adapted a multivariate dynamic regression method named ARGO (autoregression with general online information), designed for tracking influenza at the national level, and showed that it effectively uses the above data sources to monitor and forecast influenza at the city level 1 week ahead of the current date. Finally, we presented an ensemble-based approach capable of combining information from models based on multiple data sources to more robustly nowcast as well as forecast influenza activity in the Boston metropolitan area. The performances of our models were evaluated in an out-of-sample fashion over 4 influenza seasons within 2012-2016, as well as a holdout validation period from 2016 to 2017. Results Our ensemble-based methods incorporating

  11. Expanding health insurance scheme in the informal sector in Nigeria: awareness as a potential demand-side tool

    PubMed Central

    Adewole, David Ayobami; Akanbi, Saidat Abisola; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Bello, Segun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The implementation and expansion of a health insurance scheme in the informal sector, particularly in developing countries, is a challenge. With the aid of an innovative Information-Education and Communication model, titled 'Understanding the concept of health insurance: An innovative social marketing tool', an assessment of the awareness and perception of the scheme among market women was carried out. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey, carried out among market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. In a multi-stage sampling technique, a total of 351 women were interviewed using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was used to test associations between selected variables of interest. Logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of awareness of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). A model controlling for participants' enrolment status was built and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) reported. Level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results A total of 344 market women aged 18 years and above participated in the study, a response rate of 98.0%. Respondents' educational status was the only predictor significantly associated with awareness of the NHIS. Respondents with post-primary education had 10 times the odds of being aware of the NHIS than respondents with no education or only primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 10.3; 95% CI = 4.1-26.0). Conclusion Innovative models to enable potential beneficiaries, especially among the informal sector, to better comprehend and accept the concept of prepayment methods of financing healthcare costs is important in efforts to implement and expand a social health insurance scheme. PMID:28819474

  12. Perceived confidence to use female condoms among students in Tertiary Institutions of a Metropolitan City, Southwestern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obembe, Taiwo A; Adebowale, Ayo S; Odebunmi, Kehinde O

    2017-08-11

    Latex condoms for men have been documented to offer high efficacy as both a contraceptive and protection against sexually transmitted diseases. This equally establishes the importance of continued research on female condoms. This study aims to investigate the perceived confidence to use the female condoms amongst undergraduate female students from selected tertiary institutions from Ibadan Southwestern Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey involving 388 female undergraduate students selected through a multistage sampling technique. The survey was carried using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences to generate frequencies, cross tabulations of variables at 5% level of significance. Mean age of respondents 18.26 ± 3.45 with most students being 20-24 years (55.2%), single (92.8%), Yorubas (85.6%) and from the polytechnic institutions (41.0%). Only 10.8% had good perceived confidence to use a female condom. Perceived confidence was significantly higher amongst other ethnicities (19.59 ± 3.827) compared to Yoruba ethnicity (18.04 ± 3.337) (F = 9.935; p < 0.05). Likewise, students from the Polytechnic campuses exhibited significantly higher mean scores (18.81 ± 3.187) compared to others (F = 3.724; p < 0.05). Perception towards the condom was a significant factor that influenced the confidence to use a female condom (F = 9.896; p < 0.000). Concerted efforts are advocated to improve the low perception exhibited towards the use of female condoms and the low perceived confidence to its utilization. This would help to transfer the decision making and control to women thus contributing to their empowerment and increased protection from unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.

  13. Psychosocial wellbeing of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis voluntarily confined to long-term hospitalisation in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie; Udoh, Ekerette Emmanuel; Oladimeji, Kelechi Elizabeth; Ige, Olusoji Mayowa; Obasanya, Olusegun; Lekharu, Daisy; Atilola, Olayinka; Lawson, Lovett; Eltayeb, Osman; Gidado, Mustapha; Tsoka-Gwegweni, Joyce M; Ihekweazu, Chikwe A; Chasela, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Patient isolation, which is a widely successful treatment strategy for tuberculosis (TB), has been suspected to have effects on patient psychosocial wellbeing. We assessed the psychosocial wellbeing of multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients in voluntary and isolated long-term hospitalisation in Nigeria. Methods 98 accessible and consenting patients in four drug-resistant treatment centres (University College Hospital and Government Chest Hospital, Ibadan; Mainland Hospital, Lagos, and Lawrence Henshaw Memorial Hospital, Calabar) were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using an 18-item psychosocial wellbeing questionnaire including sociodemographic characteristics. We used descriptive statistics to present demographic characteristics; the χ2 test was used to assess associations between psychosocial wellbeing and independent variables and the relationship was modelled using logistic regression. Results The mean age of respondents was 36.1±11.9 years and 63% were males. Respondents had been in hospital an average of 4.5±1.9 months. Females had more psychosocial concerns compared with males. The most common concerns recorded among respondents were concern that people will get to know that the respondent had a bad type of TB (70%), discontent with being separated from and longing for the company of their marital partner (72%), concerns that they may have taken too many drugs (73%), and displeasure with being unable to continue to engage in their usual social and economic activities (75%). Respondents who were employed had eight times the odds of having more psychosocial concerns than the median number among respondents. Respondents who were supported by their own families during hospitalisation experienced a lower burden of psychosocial concerns compared with those who were supported by third parties. Conclusions Prolonged hospitalisation resulted in significant psychosocial burden for the MDR-TB patients in our study centres

  14. Characterization of tinnitus in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sogebi, Olusola Ayodele

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to characterize tinnitus in middle aged and elderly out-patients attending a specialized clinic in a developing country. A cross sectional study of patients attending the ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, OOUTH Sagamu, Nigeria. Data was collected with the use of a structured questionnaire. Data collected included socio demographics, medical history including experience of tinnitus, PTAs, BMI and BP. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. 79 patients had complaints of tinnitus thus making a crude prevalence of 14.5%, the prevalence increased steadily along the age groups. 51.9% of patients experienced tinnitus for a short period. 53.2% of the patients had symptoms referable to only one ear, while 54.4% had discrete as opposed to multiple types of tinnitus. Occurrence of intermittent symptoms was experienced by 75.9% of the patients and 70.9% were non-pulsatile in nature. Tinnitus was significantly associated with abnormal audiographic pattern, global increased hearing thresholds, high tone hearing loss, vertigo, hypertension and obesity. Tinnitus character was majorly short term, unilateral, discrete, intermittent, and non-pulsatile in nature, and it is associated with otological, audiological, anthropometric and cardiovascular anomalies. The characteristics of tinnitus in Nigerian patients were similar to those described in developed countries, but the major risk factors for tinnitus except hearing impairment, may be different from the latter. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevention of lassa Fever in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inegbenebor, Ute; Okosun, John; Inegbenebor, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    Although specific treatment is available for Lassa fever, early diagnosis is still difficult in most Nigerian primary and secondary health centers. This study was carried out to compare the case-fatality rates of Lassa fever and other medical diseases commonly seen in adult medical wards, to determine the community habits that make Lassa fever endemic in Edo Central District of Nigeria, with the aim of prescribing preventive measures for its control in Nigeria. The records of 908 inpatients in the adult medical wards of Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua and responses from respondents interviewed by trained interviewers on their knowledge, attitudes and practices pertaining to Lassa fever were used for this study. The case-fatality rate of Lassa fever in this center was 28%. Cultural factors and habits were found to favor endemicity of Lassa fever in Edo Central District of Nigeria. Preventive measures were prescribed for families and communities.

  16. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2010-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria's development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains.

  17. Nigeria's women look beyond literacy.

    PubMed

    Obadina, E

    1993-01-01

    Vocational training programs in Nigeria offer hope for providing women with skills to earn income as self-employed workers. The National Open Apprenticeship Scheme provides training for 100,000 boys and girls annually. Women's Vocational Training Centers are being developed in 589 local areas. The Nigerian government and a number of community banks are providing start-up funds for the self-employed. Traditional craft and art forms are being revived in the process. Cooperatives are being established for selling products. Girls find it easy to get married once they are trained. Women are valued for their ability to add to income and in turn are placed in a position to bargain for power in the relationship. It is unknown yet how these schemes will affect fertility. The example is given of Grace Mfon who left a village 500 miles from Lagos in the impoverished, oil-producing state of Akwa Ibom. She is apprenticed with 3 others in a 1-room "Fashion House" to learn tailoring. The 2-year apprenticeship program cost her $38/year, which she saved from her $20/month job. She plans to save for her own shop and get married and have children. She joined the apprenticeship program because of the poor job prospects and the dead end life of farming for her husband. There is both a great need and interest in providing vocational training. The government has been involved in an economic restructuring under the guidance of the International Monetary Fund, and must find work for the hugh number of unemployed workers, many of whom are school dropouts.

  18. Process and outcome measures of quality of care at the diabetes outpatient clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, J O; Kuti, M A

    2017-02-01

    The study aims to assess the quality of care provided at a diabetes outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria using quality indicators approved by the National Diabetes Quality Improvement Alliance (NDQIA). The medical records of patients who had visited the clinic at least two times within a 12 months period preceding the index visit were reviewed during a 5 month period. Process measure indicators, approved by the NDQIA (evaluating the functioning of the clinic) and outcome measures, published by the American Diabetes Association, (evaluating the health status of the attending patients) were retrieved from the medical records. The 332 records reviewed showed that the most consistently performed process measures were blood pressure and weight measurement (>90%). Foot examination was done infrequently (10.5%). Less than 50% had at least an annual low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and hemoglobin A1c testing done. The mean (standard deviation) HbA1C (%), LDL-C (mg/dL) systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mmHg) were 7.6 (2.0), 107.3 (31.5), 134.3 (20.8), 79.5 (11.0), respectively. HbA1C >8.0%, LDL-C >130 mg/dL, SBP >130 mmHg, and DBP >90 mmHg) were observed in 34.8%, 21.1%, 40.4%, and 23.8%, respectively. Although the organization of the outpatient services allowed for good performance with regards to "free" services such as blood pressure and weight measurement, it performed suboptimally for foot examinations. Performance indicators that required payment were consistently underperformed. Regular assessment of the quality of care may help in the identification of opportunities for improvement in the organization and delivery of care.

  19. Counseling View of Abortion in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogwokhademhe, M. C.; Sowho, Paulina O.

    2015-01-01

    Guidance and counseling are twin words that help people adjust to their psychological, emotional, social and psychosocial problems which tend to occur in human life. Abortion, which is a prevalent problem in Nigeria mostly among the teenage girls, has drawn the attentions of the counselors, teachers, guardians, administrators, researchers and the…

  20. Family Quality of Life in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, P. M.; Brown, I.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The limited literature that exists about intellectual disabilities (ID) in Nigeria suggests that perceptions of ID may be shaped by social and cultural beliefs, and that socio-economic factors have prevented the development of policy and services. The present study sought to explore these suggestions in more detail by administering the…

  1. Roles for SOF in a Staggering Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    languages and approximately 350 ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria can indubitably be dubbed a cultural patchwork. Three dominant groups, the Ibo, Yoruba ...critical factors ................................................................................................................ 4 A cultural patchwork...continue to be the U.S. military force of choice for operations and exercises within Africa.”10 Culturally attuned, experienced in working with

  2. Melioidosis Acquired by Traveler to Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Alex P.; Khan, Nisa; Malnick, Henry; Kenna, Dervla T.D.; Dance, David A.B.

    2011-01-01

    We describe melioidosis associated with travel to Nigeria in a woman with diabetes, a major predisposing factor for this infection. With the prevalence of diabetes projected to increase dramatically in many developing countries, the global reach of melioidosis may expand. PMID:21762592

  3. Erectile dysfunction management options in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Afolayan, Anthony Jide; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2009-04-01

    In Nigeria, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) among patients attending primary care clinics, age-standardized to the U.S. population in 2000 is 57.4%. This is considered high enough to warrant the attention of scientist for critical studies and analysis. The high ED prevalence is associated with etiologies such as psychosexual factors, chronic medical conditions, and some lifestyles. ED constitutes a major public health problem, influencing the patient's well-being and quality of life. It also leads to broken homes and marriages, psychological, social, and physical morbidity. To give an account of various ED management options in Nigeria. Review of peer-reviewed literature, questionnaire, and ethnobotanical survey to some indigenous herb sellers and herbalists. Cross cultural perspectives of ED management in Nigeria. The review suggests that traditional (phytotherapy, zootherapy, and occultism) and nontraditional, orthodox practice (drug therapy, psychological, and behavioral counseling) are applicable to ED management in Nigeria. This review should help in creating awareness into various options available for managing ED in the country, but does not recommend self medication of any form, be it the use of orthodox or herbal remedy.

  4. Foreign Exchange and Library Collections in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiagwu, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the difficulties involved in acquiring materials for academic libraries in Nigeria uses statistics at one university to demonstrate the drop in foreign exchange based orders. Alternatives to overseas purchasing, including local purchasing, gifts and exchanges, and resource sharing programs, are also discussed. (CLB)

  5. Education and Political Restructure in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayeni, Matthew Adedeji; Adeleye, Joseph Olusola

    2013-01-01

    To say that education is a potent factor in any political restructuring is an indisputable fact. For a meaningful political development to take place in any nation, especially like Nigeria. The place of education is never in doubt to influence positively those in the position of authority to ascertain what are needed to put in place for effective…

  6. Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbogu, Christiana O.

    2011-01-01

    Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…

  7. The English Language of the Nigeria Police

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udo Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In the present day Nigeria, the quality of the English language spoken by Nigerians, is perceived to have been deteriorating and needs urgent attention. The proliferation of books and articles in the recent years can be seen as the native outcrop of its received attention and recognition as a matter of discourse. Evidently, every profession,…

  8. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  9. Law and University Administration in Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojo, J. D.

    This book examines the legal issues and problems surrounding the administration of higher education in Nigeria. It focuses on the need for each university to have a legal unit to handle the legal problems of staff, students, and those in the neighboring community. Further, it addresses the problems currently found within the academic community…

  10. Women, Education and Work in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anugwom, Edlyne E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the implication of the growing educational opportunities for women in Nigeria. Although bias has existed from the traditional Nigerian society against women, recent events especially in education reveal a conquering of this deep-rooted prejudice. Enrollment figures particularly in the last ten years show a remarkable bridging…

  11. Young People's Sexual Risk Behaviors in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Fawole, O. I.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in Nigeria are poorly documented. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of HIV-related risk behaviors among adolescents and youths in order to plan appropriate intervention measures. This is a descriptive cross-sectional survey using…

  12. Computational biology and bioinformatics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fatumo, Segun A; Adoga, Moses P; Ojo, Opeolu O; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-04-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries.

  13. SUSTAINABLE WATER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM FOR RURAL NIGERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa face the most acute water supply challenges in the world. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has considerable populations without basic access to safe drinking water, with over 50% of the country lacking coverage. The village of Adu A...

  14. Preparing Teachers for the Contemporary Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Nkechi J.; Ogbondah, Livinus; Ekpefa-Abdullahi, Janet Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on preparing teachers for the contemporary Nigeria. Teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times the correct identification of indices of developments in the society. This responsibility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of a constant search for updated knowledge in various fields of Endeavour. The…

  15. Refugee Education: The State of Nigeria's Preparedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obashoro-John, Oluwayemisi A.; Oni, Gbolabo J.

    2017-01-01

    The spate of insurgences and conflicts in the country and around the sub-region has led to the increased presence of refugees and Internally Displaced People (IDPs) in Nigeria. This has resultant challenges on the basic needs of refugees and IDPs at different levels. One of the highest priorities of refugees and IDPs communities is education.…

  16. Computational Biology and Bioinformatics in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fatumo, Segun A.; Adoga, Moses P.; Ojo, Opeolu O.; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Adeoye, Tolulope; Ewejobi, Itunuoluwa; Adebiyi, Marion; Adebiyi, Ezekiel; Bewaji, Clement; Nashiru, Oyekanmi

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, major advances in the field of molecular biology, coupled with advances in genomic technologies, have led to an explosive growth in the biological data generated by the scientific community. The critical need to process and analyze such a deluge of data and turn it into useful knowledge has caused bioinformatics to gain prominence and importance. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary research area that applies techniques, methodologies, and tools in computer and information science to solve biological problems. In Nigeria, bioinformatics has recently played a vital role in the advancement of biological sciences. As a developing country, the importance of bioinformatics is rapidly gaining acceptance, and bioinformatics groups comprised of biologists, computer scientists, and computer engineers are being constituted at Nigerian universities and research institutes. In this article, we present an overview of bioinformatics education and research in Nigeria. We also discuss professional societies and academic and research institutions that play central roles in advancing the discipline in Nigeria. Finally, we propose strategies that can bolster bioinformatics education and support from policy makers in Nigeria, with potential positive implications for other developing countries. PMID:24763310

  17. Aerosol indirect effects on lightning in the generation of induced NOx and tropospheric ozone over an Indian urban metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Upal; Maitra, Animesh; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti

    increase in lightning activity is caused by the indirect influx of aerosols, especially in the upper troposphere. This is due to the warming-effect of aerosol forcing via its effect on tropospheric ozone production. Due to the increased production of O3 by lightning-induced NOx and high aerosol loading in the pre-monsoon and monsoon months, the positive climate feedback indicates a warmer climate. As a consequence, convective activity as well as lightning flashes may increase due to this indirect effect of AOD over the region. The generation of induced NOx has a positive correlation (r = 0.723) with the LFR during 2001-2012 over Kolkata. Thus, our results have significant implications for understanding the tropospheric ozone forcing by investigating the coupled aerosol-cloud-chemistry system on the generation of lightning and lightning-induced NOx over the urban metropolis.

  18. Women's perceptions and reflections of male partners and couple dynamics in family planning adoption in selected urban slums in Nigeria: a qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Akinyemi, Akanni Ibukun; Fatusi, Adesegun Olayiwola

    2014-08-23

    Nigeria is one of the countries where significant progress has not been recorded in contraceptive uptake despite decades of family planning programs while there are indications that slum dwellers may differ significantly from other urban dwellers in their sexual and reproductive behavior, including family planning uptake. This study therefore examined local notions regarding male partners' involvement in family planning (FP) adoption by women in two selected urban slums areas in Nigeria - Ibadan (Southwest region) and Kaduna (Northwest region). Specifically, the study investigated women's narratives about FP, perceived barriers from male partners regarding FP adoption by the women and how women negotiate male partners' cooperation for FP use. Sixteen FGD sessions were conducted with selected groups of men and women, stratified by sex, age group, and FP experience using a vignette to generate discussions. Sessions were facilitated by experienced social scientists and audio-taped, with note-taker also present. The transcribed data were analyzed with Atlas.ti software version 7. Inductive approach was employed to analyze the data. Reasons given for FP attitudes and use are presented in a network format while critical discourse analysis was also used in generating relevant tables. The finding shows that women in the selected communities expressed desire for FP adoption. Three main reasons largely accounted for the desire to use FP: perceived need to space childbirth, family's financial condition and the potential adverse effect of high fertility on the woman's health. Male partners' support for the use of FP by women was perceived to be low, which is due to misconceptions about FP and traditional pro-natalistic beliefs and tendencies. Mechanisms by which women negotiate their male-partner's cooperation for FP adoption include seeking the support of the partner's significant others and advice from older women. To significantly improve family planning adoption rates

  19. Text Possession and Teachers' Pedagogical Practices in the Teaching of Prose Literature-in-English in Some Schools in Ibadan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, F. O.; Igubor, P.

    2014-01-01

    Performance in school examinations has remained one of the reliable indices of the quality of education in many countries. For over two decades in Nigeria, students' performance in most subjects on the school curriculum including Literature-in-English has been persistently declining. A number of explanations are offered for this unsatisfactory…

  20. Adolescent pregnancy and the risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and anaemia-a pilot study from Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Aforakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2012-09-01

    The problem of malaria in adolescence has been surpassed by the immense burden of malaria in children, most especially less than 5. A substantial amount of work done on malaria in pregnancy in endemic regions has not properly considered the adolescence. The present study therefore aimed at evaluating the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum and anaemia infection in adolescent pregnant girls in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana. The study was carried out at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis of the western region of Ghana from January 2010 to October 2010. Structured questionnaires were administered to the consenting pregnant women during their antenatal care visits. Information on education, age, gravidae, occupation and socio-demographic characteristics were recorded. Venous bloods were screened for malaria using RAPID response antibody kit and Geimsa staining while haemoglobin estimations were done by cyanmethemoglobin method. The results revealed that adolescent pregnant girls were more likely to have malaria infection than the adult pregnant women (34.6% verses 21.3%, adjusted OR 1.65, 95% CI, 1.03-2.65, P=0.039). In addition, adolescent pregnant girls had higher odds of anaemia than their adult pregnant women equivalent (43.9% versus 33.2%; adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI, 1.01-2.62, P=0.046). Taken together, these data suggest that adolescent pregnant girls were more likely to have malaria and anaemia compared to their adult pregnant counterpart. Results from this study shows that proactive adolescent friendly policies and control programmes for malaria and anaemia are needed in this region in order to protect this vulnerable group of pregnant women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality of Artemisinin-Based Combination Formulations for Malaria Treatment: Prevalence and Risk Factors for Poor Quality Medicines in Public Facilities and Private Sector Drug Outlets in Enugu, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harparkash; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Mamadu, Ibrahim; Hall, Zoe; Ibe, Ogochukwu; El Sherbiny, Mohamed; van Wyk, Albert; Yeung, Shunmay; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Culzoni, Maria Julia; Clarke, Siân; Schellenberg, David; Fernández, Facundo M.; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, yet medication must be of good quality for efficacious treatment. A recent meta-analysis reported 35% (796/2,296) of antimalarial drug samples from 21 Sub-Saharan African countries, purchased from outlets predominantly using convenience sampling, failed chemical content analysis. We used three sampling strategies to purchase artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria, and compared the resulting quality estimates. Methods ACAs were purchased using three sampling approaches - convenience, mystery clients and overt, within a defined area and sampling frame in Enugu metropolis. The active pharmaceutical ingredients were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by mass spectrometry at three independent laboratories. Results were expressed as percentage of APIs stated on the packaging and used to categorise each sample as acceptable quality, substandard, degraded, or falsified. Results Content analysis of 3024 samples purchased from 421 outlets using convenience (n=200), mystery (n=1,919) and overt (n=905) approaches, showed overall 90.8% ACAs to be of acceptable quality, 6.8% substandard, 1.3% degraded and 1.2% falsified. Convenience sampling yielded a significantly higher prevalence of poor quality ACAs, but was not evident by the mystery and overt sampling strategies both of which yielded results that were comparable between each other. Artesunate (n=135; 4 falsified) and dihydroartemisinin (n=14) monotherapy tablets, not recommended by WHO, were also identified. Conclusion Randomised sampling identified fewer falsified ACAs than previously reported by convenience approaches. Our findings emphasise the need for specific consideration to be given to sampling frame and sampling approach if representative information on drug quality is to be obtained

  2. Quality of artemisinin-based combination formulations for malaria treatment: prevalence and risk factors for poor quality medicines in public facilities and private sector drug outlets in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Harparkash; Allan, Elizabeth Louise; Mamadu, Ibrahim; Hall, Zoe; Ibe, Ogochukwu; El Sherbiny, Mohamed; van Wyk, Albert; Yeung, Shunmay; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D; Dwivedi, Prabha; Culzoni, Maria Julia; Clarke, Siân; Schellenberg, David; Fernández, Facundo M; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies are recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as first-line treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, yet medication must be of good quality for efficacious treatment. A recent meta-analysis reported 35% (796/2,296) of antimalarial drug samples from 21 Sub-Saharan African countries, purchased from outlets predominantly using convenience sampling, failed chemical content analysis. We used three sampling strategies to purchase artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) in Enugu metropolis, Nigeria, and compared the resulting quality estimates. ACAs were purchased using three sampling approaches--convenience, mystery clients and overt, within a defined area and sampling frame in Enugu metropolis. The active pharmaceutical ingredients were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and confirmed by mass spectrometry at three independent laboratories. Results were expressed as percentage of APIs stated on the packaging and used to categorise each sample as acceptable quality, substandard, degraded, or falsified. Content analysis of 3024 samples purchased from 421 outlets using convenience (n=200), mystery (n=1,919) and overt (n=905) approaches, showed overall 90.8% ACAs to be of acceptable quality, 6.8% substandard, 1.3% degraded and 1.2% falsified. Convenience sampling yielded a significantly higher prevalence of poor quality ACAs, but was not evident by the mystery and overt sampling strategies both of which yielded results that were comparable between each other. Artesunate (n=135; 4 falsified) and dihydroartemisinin (n=14) monotherapy tablets, not recommended by WHO, were also identified. Randomised sampling identified fewer falsified ACAs than previously reported by convenience approaches. Our findings emphasise the need for specific consideration to be given to sampling frame and sampling approach if representative information on drug quality is to be obtained.

  3. Radiowave propagation measurements in Nigeria (preliminary reports)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falodun, S. E.; Okeke, P. N.

    2013-07-01

    International conferences on frequency coordination have, in recent years, required new information on radiowave propagation in tropical regions and, in particular, on propagation in Africa. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU-R) initiated `radio-wave propagation measurement campaign' in some African countries some years back. However, none of the ITU-initiated experiments were mounted in Nigeria, and hence, there is lack of adequate understanding of the propagation mechanisms associated with this region of the tropics. The Centre for Basic Space Science (CBSS) of NASRDA has therefore embarked on propagation data collection from the different climatic zones of Nigeria (namely Coastal, Guinea Savannah, Midland, and Sahelian) with the aim of making propagation data available to the ITU, for design and prediction purposes in order to ensure a qualitative and effective communication system in Nigeria. This paper focuses on the current status of propagation data from Nigeria (collected by CBSS), identifying other parameters that still need to be obtained. The centre has deployed weather stations to different locations in the country for refractivity measurements in clear atmosphere, at the ground surface and at an altitude of 100 m, being the average height of communication mast in Nigeria. Other equipments deployed are Micro Rain Radar and Nigerian Environmental and Climatic Observing Program equipments. Some of the locations of the measurement stations are Nsukka (7.4° E, 6.9° N), Akure (5.12° E, 7.15° N), Minna (6.5° E, 9.6° N), Sokoto (5.25° E, 13.08° N), Jos (8.9° E, 9.86° N), and Lagos (3.35° E, 6.6° N). The results obtained from the data analysis have shown that the refractivity values vary with climatic zones and seasons of the year. Also, the occurrence probability of abnormal propagation events, such as super refraction, sub-refraction, and ducting, depends on the location as well as the local time. We have also attempted to identify

  4. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  5. The role of HIV counselling and testing in sexual health behaviour change among undergraduates in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede; Okoukoni, Saturday

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries risky sexual behaviour among young people is on the increase. This study examined the likelihood of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) in reducing risky sexual behaviour among undergraduates in Lagos Metropolis in Nigeria. The main hypothesis tested in the study was the uptake of HCT is likely to reduce risky sexual behaviour among young undergraduates. A multistage sampling procedure was adopted to select a sample of 625 undergraduates in the study setting. A structured questionnaire was administered to respondents to elicit information on previous participation in HCT and sexual behaviour before and after participation. Result indicates that 26.1% of males and 28.9% of females ever participated in HCT. The average number of heterosexual partners kept by the respondents declined among males and females from 3.17 and 2.36, respectively before they participated in HCT to 2.27 and 1.6 after they participated in HCT. The differences in the average number of sexual partners by the respondents before and after they participated in HCT were statistically significant (P=0.000). The proportion of male respondents who engaged in frequent sex also declined from 35.8% (before participating in HCT) to 24.1% (after participating in HCT) and from 25% (before participating in HCT) to 24.7% (after participating in HCT) among females. In conclusion, participation in HCT is likely to reduce the prevalence of risky sexual behaviour among undergraduates in the study setting. Therefore, HCT is an intervention that should be emphasized.

  6. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Patrick I

    2014-05-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria.

  7. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Patrick I.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

  8. Nigeria: unscreened blood still given to patients.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, P

    1988-12-01

    Anti-AIDS groups in Nigeria have reported that blood transfusion, the use of blood-stained instruments for ritual circumcision, ear-piercing, and tribal face-scarring, drug abuse, and homosexuality are spreading AIDS throughout the country. Only 1 government hospital, the National Orthopedic Hospital in Enugu, Anambra State, requires blood-screening before transfusion. In other hospitals transfusions are given without screening because AIDS-testing equipment is not available and there are no funds with which to buy it. Doctors expect the number of AIDS cases to increase drastically in the next few years. Although, according to official figures, in August, 1988, there were only 30 people suffering from AIDS in the whole of Nigeria.

  9. Oyo-first field Deepwater Nigeria?

    SciTech Connect

    Lilletveit, R.; Nelson, L.; Osahon, G.

    The Oyo-1 well was drilled in 3Q95 in OPL 210. The partners in the block are Allied Energy (Operator) and the Statoil and BP Alliance. This well was the first well drilled in Deepwater Nigeria and is a reported hydrocarbon discovery. Although the well was within the Niger Delta depositional system, the deepwater play types drilled were quite different than anything previously tested on the Nigerian shelf or onshore. One year on, some of the questions to be asked are: (1) What did Oyo-1 discover? (2) What has been done to establish the commerciality, or otherwise, of the hydrocarbon poolsmore » encountered? (3) What impact does this discovery have on other prospects identified in the deepwater area? The answer to these questions will help to identify whether a new hydrocarbon province in the deepwater Nigeria area can be developed, or not.« less

  10. Religion in Nigeria -- Hope or Despair?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-02

    religion, but the cultural system and governmental foundations in law, justice, education, and social structures that are still in use today. 15...associated with African society and culture .” 24 Although their belief systems are similar, the different orders are separate and often compete for...the indigenous beliefs of early African culture . In its earliest beginnings, the indigenous religions of Nigeria were based on worshiping gods

  11. The Incidence of Abortion in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F.; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Because of Nigeria’s low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country’s restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. METHODS A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. RESULTS An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15–49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15–49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. CONCLUSION Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26871725

  12. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, V.A.

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  13. Capitalist development and internal migration in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akor, R I; Mou, D

    1986-12-01

    The authors analyze internal migration trends in Nigeria by examining individual household strategies and how they have adapted to structural changes brought about by colonial rule and capitalist development. The first section of this article describes the structural changes that started the process of labor migration. The second section deals with post-independence industrialization and the consequent rural-urban migration. The final section analyzes the consequences of these migration patterns for urban growth and rural productivity.

  14. Determinants of catastrophic health expenditure in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aregbeshola, Bolaji Samson; Khan, Samina Mohsin

    2018-05-01

    Catastrophic health expenditure is a measure of financial risk protection and it is often incurred by households who have to pay out of pocket for health care services that are not affordable. The study assessed the determinants of catastrophic health expenditure among households in Nigeria. Secondary data from the Harmonized Nigeria Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) of 2009/10 was utilized to assess factors associated with catastrophic health expenditure in Nigeria. Household and individual characteristics associated with catastrophic health expenditure were determined using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Results showed that irrespective of the threshold for the two concepts of total household expenditure and non-food expenditure, having household members aged between 6 and 14 years, having household members aged between 15 and 24 years, having household members aged between 25 and 54 years, having no education, having primary education, having secondary education, lack of health insurance coverage, visiting a private health facility, households living in north central zone, households living in north east zone and having household members with non-chronic illnesses were factors that increase the risk of incurring catastrophic health expenditure among households. Policy-makers and political actors need to design equitable health financing policies that will increase financial risk protection for people in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy.

  15. Factors which predict violence victimization in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Lincoln J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health issue, globally as well as in the African continent. This paper looks at Nigeria and begins the process of identifying the factors that predict interpersonal violence in that country. The purpose is to interpret the implications of the results presented here for violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study is based on the responses of 2324 Nigerians included in Round Four of the Afrobarometer surveys. The study concentrates on 579 respondents who reported either they or someone else in their family had been the victim of violence, defined as being physically attacked, in the past year. Results: A logistical regression analysis revealed five significant factors that predicted interpersonal violence: being the victim of a property crime, the fear of crime, the respondents faith, whethera police station was in the local area and poverty. The findings revealed that 43.7% of the sample had been victimised within the past year and 18.8% had been the victim of both violent and property crimes. One surprising findingwas the number of respondents who were re-victimised; 75% of violence victims also had been property crime victims. Conclusions: These findings suggest that target hardening should be the basis to plan, implement and evaluate violence prevention programmes in Nigeria. Prevention personnel and/or law enforcement need to respond to reported incidents of property and/or violence victimisation and attempt to prepare victims to protect both their premises and their persons in the future. PMID:24970968

  16. A study of coal production in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akarakiri, J.B.; Afonja, A.A.; Okejiri, E.C.

    The Nigerian coal industry was studied. The focus was on the problems which have caused low production output of coal. More specifically, the study examined the present techniques of coal production, the causes of low production of coal, the coal production policy as it affected this study, and proposed policy measures to address the findings. It was discovered that some of the limiting factors to coal production in Nigeria could be attributed to the lack of the following: (i) clear and specific production-demand targets set for coal in Nigeria; (ii) adequate technological capability to mechanize coal mining operations in Nigeria;more » (iii) venture capital to invest in coal production; (iv) poor infrastructural facilities for coal production such as mining, storage, transportation, etc. It was also discovered that the dissatisfaction of the miners with their conditions of service influenced production capacity negatively. These findings point to the reality that coal is unlikely to play a major role in the country's energy equation in the near future unless serious efforts are made to address the above issues.« less

  17. Nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in nnewi, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Ef; Onubogu, Cu; Edokwe, Es; Okeke, Kn

    2014-07-01

    Lunch packs play a significant role in the nutritional status and academic performance of school children. Available data show a high prevalence of malnutrition among school-age children. The aim of this study is to document the nutritional contents of lunch packs of primary school children in Nnewi, Anambra state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1018 primary 1-6 pupils selected by stratified systematic random sampling from six primary schools, two each of private, - mission, - and government (public) - owned schools in Nnewi metropolis with the aid of the semi-structured questionnaire. Lunch packs of the pupils were examined. Majority of the pupils (77.8% [792/1018]) had lunch packs although about half of pupils in public schools had no lunch pack. Only 12.4% (98/792) and 19.2% (152/792) of pupils with lunch packs had balanced meals and fruits/vegetables in their lunch packs, respectively. The odds of not coming to school with packed lunch was about 13 and 12 times higher for mothers with no formal education or only primary education, respectively, compared with those with tertiary education. Type of school had a strong influence on possession and contents of lunch pack (χ(2) = 2.88, P < 0.001, phi coefficient = 0.72). Pupils in private (97.5% [198/203]) and mission (94.4% [388/411]) schools were more likely to have a lunch pack compared with public schools (51.0% [206/404]). However, pupils in private schools were most likely to have a balanced meal (32.5% [66/203] vs. 5.8% [24/411] in mission and 2.0% [8/404] in public schools) and fruits/vegetables (48.3% [98/203] vs. 10.2% [42/411] in mission and 3.0% [12/404] in public schools) in their lunch packs. Mothers' educational status and parents' occupation were significantly associated with lunch pack contents. Majority of the lunch packs of primary school pupils contain poor quality food especially in public schools. Mother's educational status and parent's occupation are important

  18. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ado, J Mohammed; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Damisa, Eunice; Mkanda, Pascal; Gasasira, Alex; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Johnson, Ticha; Dieng, Boubacar; Corkum, Melissa; Enemaku, Ogu; Mataruse, Noah; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Baig, Shahzad; Galway, Michael; Seaman, Vincent; Wiesen, Eric; Vertefeuille, John; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Armstrong, Gregory; Mahoney, Frank J

    2014-11-01

    Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) has never been interrupted in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. Since 2003, infections with WPV of Nigerian origin have been detected in 25 polio-free countries. In 2012, the Nigerian government created an emergency operations center and implemented a national emergency action plan to eradicate polio. The 2013 revision of this plan prioritized (1) improving the quality of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), (2) implementing strategies to reach underserved populations, (3) adopting special approaches in security-compromised areas, (4) improving outbreak response, (5) enhancing routine immunization and activities implemented between SIAs, and (6) strengthening surveillance. This report summarizes implementation of these activities during a period of unprecedented insecurity and violence, including the killing of health workers and the onset of a state of emergency in the northeast zone. This report reviews management strategies, innovations, trends in case counts, vaccination and social mobilization activities, and surveillance and monitoring data to assess progress in polio eradication in Nigeria. Nigeria has made significant improvements in the management of polio eradication initiative (pei) activities with marked improvement in the quality of SIAs, as measured by lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS). Comparing results from February 2012 with results from December 2013, the proportion of local government areas (LGAs) conducting LQAS in the 11 high-risk states at the ≥90% pass/fail threshold increased from 7% to 42%, and the proportion at the 80%-89% threshold increased from 9% to 30%. During January-December 2013, 53 polio cases were reported from 26 LGAs in 9 states in Nigeria, compared with 122 cases reported from 13 states in 2012. No cases of WPV type 3 infection have been reported since November 2012. In 2013, no polio cases due to any poliovirus type were detected in the northwest sanctuaries of Nigeria. In

  19. Arenavirus Diversity and Phylogeography of Mastomys natalensis Rodents, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obadare, Adeoba; Oyeyiola, Akinlabi; Igbokwe, Joseph; Fasogbon, Ayobami; Igbahenah, Felix; Ortsega, Daniel; Asogun, Danny; Umeh, Prince; Vakkai, Innocent; Abejegah, Chukwuyem; Pahlman, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Mastomys natalensis rodents are natural hosts for Lassa virus (LASV). Detection of LASV in 2 mitochondrial phylogroups of the rodent near the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria underlines the potential for LASV emergence in fresh phylogroups of this rodent. A Mobala-like sequence was also detected in eastern Nigeria. PMID:26982388

  20. Health Literacy and the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evawoma-Enuku, Usiwoma; Oyitso, Mabel; Enuku, Christie Akpoigho

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examined health related challenges facing Nigeria. They argued that the relationship between literacy and health in today's knowledge-based economy further puts pressure on countries like Nigeria to raise its literacy rates if it is to compete in the global market. This line of thought is based on the fact that in…

  1. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  2. Pathogenic Variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi Infecting Soybean in Nigeria

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean rust is an important disease in Nigeria and many other soybean-producing countries world-wide. To determine the geographical distribution of soybean rust in Nigeria, soybean fields were surveyed in the Derived Savanna, Northern Guinea Savanna, and Southern Guinea Savanna agroecological zones...

  3. Secret Cults in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria: An Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aluede, Raymond O. A.; Oniyama, Hope O.

    2009-01-01

    Cultism has remained a problem for tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the Larger Nigerian society since the first decade of the existence of university education in Nigeria. It has been worrisome to have children on campuses and several measures had been adopted to curb cultism some of such measures were the expulsion of the cultists caught and…

  4. Inservice Teacher Education in Nigeria: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esu, Akon E. O.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the current status of in-service teacher education in Nigeria, indicating three approaches: the central office approach; the long vacation program; and the Associateship Certificate in Education distance learning approach. Recommendations for planning and implementing in-service teacher education programs in Nigeria are noted. (SM)

  5. NELA: A Community Response to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyinka, Femi; Ogundare, Dipo; Olowookere, Kemi; Akinsola, Yemisi; Alade, Adeyemi; Moronkola, O. A.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest current threat to humanity, most especially in the developing countries of the world, is HIV/AIDS. The first case of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria was in 1986 in Lagos. Due to inaction and denial by the people, there was a rapid but subtle transmission of the virus within Nigeria's various populations and communities. Presently, the disease has…

  6. Financing Adult and Non-Formal Education in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Moshood Ayinde

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how adult and non formal education is financed in Nigeria; and to examine areas or forms of and the problems of financing adult and non-formal education in Nigeria. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. Three hundred and twenty five (325) respondents from government agencies,…

  7. Empirical evidence of child poverty and deprivation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Fidelis O; Ozughalu, Uche M

    2018-03-01

    Development economists and policy makers have in recent times focused attention on child poverty as a crucial aspect of poverty. The importance of the analysis of child poverty partly lies in the fact that children are the most vulnerable group in every society. This study used two poverty lines and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to analyze extreme and overall child poverty headcount, depth and severity in Nigeria. The study also used the headcount ratio to analyze the extent of child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation. The study was based on the 2010 Harmonized Nigeria Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) and the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Abuja, Nigeria. The study revealed that 23.22% of children in Nigeria were in extreme child poverty while 70.31% of children in the country were in overall child poverty. The study further showed that there was pronounced child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation. Both child poverty and child deprivation were more pronounced in the rural sector than in the urban sector and in Northern Nigeria than in Southern Nigeria. Therefore, the Nigerian government should take adequate steps to eradicate child poverty and obliterate all forms of child deprivation in Nigeria - particularly deprivation in basic needs. In taking such steps, more attention should be focused on rural areas and Northern Nigeria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  9. Addressing Gender Imbalance in Nigeria's Higher Education through Institutional Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Emeka Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the gender imbalance among students in Nigeria's higher education and the possible ways to addressing them. The poor access of female gender to higher education in Nigeria has become a thing of great concern to all stakeholders such as School authorities, Government, International agencies and employers of labor. The paper…

  10. Education, Horizontal Inequalities and Ethnic Relations in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukiwo, Ukoha

    2007-01-01

    The article focuses on the role of higher education in generating or mitigating inequality among ethno-regional groups and its impact on ethnic relations with evidence from Nigeria. It shows that access to education in Nigeria has been politicised. This is because of the perceived role of education in engendering political and socio-economic…

  11. Entrepreneurial Education in Nigeria Tertiary Institutions and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agboola, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    The higher education in Nigeria has witnessed a tremendous growth in the last 50 years in terms of producing manpower that could bring about development. However, the problem of Nigeria today is not about human and natural resources, but how to translate the human potentials to meet the realization of its all round development and sustain economic…

  12. Equity in Primary and Secondary Education: Findings from Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    Eighty parents and teachers were interviewed in Nigeria to identify attitudes toward inequities in access to education that may be related to high population growth and weak economic growth. Children from poor families and Muslim girls are underenrolled in Nigeria. The interviewees acknowledged the continuing underenrollment but did not think it…

  13. Professional Counseling in Nigeria: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okocha, Aneneosa A. G.; Alika, Ijeoma H.

    2012-01-01

    The events that circumscribed the parameters of today's counseling in Nigeria are many and varied regarding their influence in shaping the development of the profession in the country. The authors review these events and the current status of counseling in Nigeria, including the challenges faced in the profession. Future trends and suggestions for…

  14. Employablity Skills among Graduates of Estate Management in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbenta, Idu Robert

    2015-01-01

    There is wide claim that employers have a high level of dissatisfaction associated with graduates from Nigeria higher institutions of learning. This paper examines whether graduates of estate management in Nigeria higher institutions have employability skills for productive employment. The study randomly sampled 59 principal partners or heads of…

  15. Use of Web-based training for quality improvement between a field immunohistochemistry laboratory in Nigeria and its United States-based partner institution.

    PubMed

    Oluwasola, Abideen O; Malaka, David; Khramtsov, Andrey Ilyich; Ikpatt, Offiong Francis; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeyanju, Oyinlolu Olorunsogo; Sveen, Walmy Elisabeth; Falusi, Adeyinka Gloria; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo Ibironke

    2013-12-01

    The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed κ scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries. © 2013.

  16. Prevalence of developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies and association with caries and oral hygiene status of children in Southwestern, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Popoola, Bamidele O; Onyejaka, Nneka; Folayan, Morenike O

    2016-07-07

    Developmental dental hard tissue anomalies are often associated with oral health problems. This study determined the clinical prevalence of developmental dental hard tissue anomalies in the permanent dentition of children resident in southwestern Nigeria and its association with dental caries and poor oral hygiene status. This was a cross-sectional study recruiting 1565 school children, 12 to 15 year old attending schools in Ibadan, Oyo State and Ile-Ife, Osun State. All eligible study participants had oral examinations conducted to determine presence of developmental hard dental tissue anomalies, caries and oral hygiene status. The prevalence of developmental dental hard tissue anomalies was determined. Logistic Poisson regression was used to determine the association of between developmental dental hard tissue anomalies, caries and oral hygiene status. Only 65 (4.2 %) children had clinically diagnosed developmental dental hard tissue anomalies. The most prevalent anomaly was enamel hypoplasia (2.2 %). More females (p = 0.003) and more children with middle socioeconomic class (p = 0.001) had enamel hypoplasia. The probability of having poor oral hygiene was significantly increased for children with developmental dental anomalies (APR: 0.07; 95 % CI: 0.03 - 0.12; p = 0.002). The probability of having caries was insignificantly increased for children with developmental dental hard tissue anomalies (APR: 0.005; 95 % CI: -0.03 - 0.04; p = 0.08). The most prevalence clinically detectable developmental dental hard tissue anomalies for the study population was enamel hypoplasia. The presence of developmental dental hard tissue anomalies significantly increased the chances of having poor oral hygiene but not caries. Further studies are required to understand if poor oral hygiene is associated with dental caries in children with developmental dental hard tissue anomalies.

  17. Urban city transportation mode and respiratory health effect of air pollution: a cross-sectional study among transit and non-transit workers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, Chris E; Ettebong, E O; Akpan, E E; Samson, T K; Daniel, Nyebuk E

    2012-01-01

    To assess the respiratory health effect of city ambient air pollutants on transit and non-transit workers and compare such effects by transportation mode, occupational exposure and sociodemographic characteristics of participants. Cross-sectional, randomised survey. A two primary healthcare centre survey in 2009/2010 in Uyo metropolis, South-South Nigeria. Of the 245 male participants recruited, 168 (50 taxi drivers, 60 motorcyclists and 58 civil servants) met the inclusion criteria. These include age 18-35 years, a male transit worker or civil servant who had worked within Uyo metropolis for at least a year prior to the study, and had no history of respiratory disorders/impairment or any other debilitating illness. The adjusted ORs for respiratory function impairment (force vital capacity (FVC) and/or FEV(1)<80% predicted or FEV(1)/FVC<70% predicted) using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Diseases (GOLD) and National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) criteria were calculated. In order to investigate specific occupation-dependent respiratory function impairment, a comparison was made between the ORs for respiratory impairment in the three occupations. Adjustments were made for some demographic variables such as age, BMI, area of residence, etc. Exposure to ambient air pollution by occupation and transportation mode was independently associated with respiratory functions impairment and incident respiratory symptoms among participants. Motorcyclists had the highest effect, with adjusted OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.402 to 16.207 for FVC<80% predicted and OR 1.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 4.76 for FEV(1)/FVC<70% predicted using GOLD and NICE criteria. In addition, uneducated, currently smoking transit workers who had worked for more than 1 year, with three trips per day and more than 1 h transit time per trip were significantly associated with higher odds for respiratory function impairment at p<0.001, respectively. Findings of this study lend weights to

  18. Combating HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Responses from National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambe-Uva, Terhemba Nom

    2007-01-01

    Universities have come under serious attack because of their lackluster response to HIV/AIDS. This article examines the response of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and its strategic responses in combating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This is achieved by examining NOUN's basic structures that position the University to respond to the epidemic; and…

  19. Skin diseases in Nigeria: the Calabar experience.

    PubMed

    Henshaw, Eshan B; Olasode, Olayinka A

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports on a 6-year study (April 2006 to April 2012) and a follow-up of a 9-month baseline survey of the pattern of dermatoses in Calabar, the capital of Cross River State in southern Nigeria. Prior to the time of this study, this region had not benefited from the services of a resident dermatologist for over a century. Data on the age, gender, and diagnoses of 1307 consecutive new patients attending the relatively new dermatology clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital during the study period were obtained and analyzed. Most diagnoses were based on clinical findings but were supported by relevant laboratory investigations and histopathologic examinations when necessary. The male : female ratio of patients was 1 : 1.5. The mean ± standard deviation age of the patients was 27.7 ± 17.2 years (range: 4 weeks to 84 years). A total of 1459 diagnoses were recorded; 143 patients had more than one dermatosis. Diagnoses were broadly divided into 10 groups. Allergic/hypersensitivity diseases represented the most common group (30.4%), followed by infections/infestations (28.9%). A comparison of this study with others from various geopolitical zones of Nigeria revealed some similarities. Dermatophytosis and acne were consistent reasons for visits to dermatologists in all zones. Despite the wide spectrum of dermatoses observed, a small number of diseases account for a sizeable percentage of diagnoses. The pattern of dermatoses in Calabar is similar to that in other parts of the country. Climate and socioeconomic factors are synergistic in causing dermatoses that remain a major cause of morbidity in all age groups and both genders across Nigeria. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikeme, A C; Ezegwui, H U; Ikeako, L C; Agbata, I; Agbata, E

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia infections in women cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. The infection is largely asymptomatic. To determine the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. A population-based prospective study comprising female residents of Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. Indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay of Chlamydia antibodies was done using ImmunoComb C0. Trachomatis IgG Kit (Orgenics). The population comprised 136 female undergraduate students and 150 non-student women. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 29.4%. The percentage of subjects who admitted to be having multiple sexual partners was higher among the student population (71.2%) compared to those from the non-student population (28.8%). The highest percentage of seroprevalence was 28 (33.3%) in the age group of 20-24 years for the student population and 18 (21.4%) in the age group of 25-29 years for the non-student population. The highest seroprevalence of C. trachomatis antibodies (69.0%) in both populations was observed in females without any history of infection. Females that had pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted infection, and secondary infertility assayed for C. trachomatis had seroprevalence levels of 19%, 9.5%, and 2.4%, respectively. There was a positive correlation between positive Chlamydia assay and the type of subject population (student or non-student) with r2 value of 1.55 at P < 0.01. C. trachomatis infection is largely underdiagnosed and remains a silent disease in the apparently healthy population of Enugu, South eastern Nigeria.

  1. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2011-01-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. PMID:22469532

  2. AIDS NGOS and corruption in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2012-05-01

    Using two ethnographic case studies, the intersecting dynamics of inequality, morality, and corruption are examined as they play out in Nigerian AIDS NGOs. To the Nigerian public, local AIDS organizations are widely seen as conduits for corruption. But local opinions of particular NGOs and their leaders turn less on whether donor resources were misused and more on the ways that people who accumulate the benefits of corruption use them socially. Nevertheless, discontent swirls about corruption in general, a fact that suggests a gradual change in people's understandings of the processes that produce inequality in Nigeria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Living the mission: medical assistance to Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jan

    2007-11-01

    In 2001, a team of health care providers from Tennessee undertook a medical mission to the Nigerian Christian Hospital in Aba, Nigeria. During A 10-day period, the surgical team applied US and AORN standards when possible, but found they also had to accept some of the local standards because of the lack of medical supplies, cleaning supplies, and properly functioning equipment in this impoverished area. The 60 surgeries performed by the team was a small number relative to the community's overwhelming needs, but the team members were rewarded with the knowledge that they had helped many patients by providing them with quality care that normally would have been unavailable.

  4. Corruption, NGOs, and Development in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Daniel Jordan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines corruption in Nigeria’s development sector, particularly in the vastly growing arena of local non-governmental organisations (NGOs). Grounded in ethnographic case studies, the analysis explores why local NGOs in Nigeria have proliferated so widely, what they do in practice, what effects they have beyond their stated aims, and how they are perceived and experienced by ordinary Nigerians. It shows that even faux NGOs and disingenuous political rhetoric about civil society, democracy, and development are contributing to changing ideals and rising expectations in these same domains. PMID:24265511

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Chancroid in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mbata, T I; Onile, B A; Agbonlahor, D E; Odugbemi, T O; Anukam, K; Onyedum, U; Orji, M U

    2004-03-01

    There is a broad group of venereal disease that is referred to as the "Tropical Venereal Disease". They are so-called because they are most frequently seen in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. Among them are conditions like chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV or climatic bubo) and granuloma inguinale (chronic venereal sores). Chancroid is variously called "soft sore" or "soft chancre" because it bleeds easily and "ulcus moile".1 It is an acute infection and auto-innoculable disease. The extent of chancroid genital ulceration in Nigeria is greater in the Northern partly due to permissive sexual practices especially for men.

  6. Transforming vaccines supply chains in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sarley, David; Mahmud, Mustafa; Idris, Jide; Osunkiyesi, Modele; Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Okebukola, Peter; Wiwa, Owens

    2017-04-19

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and in 2012 was suffering some of the lowest vaccination rates in the World. A combination of factors had resulted in a dysfunctional immunization cold chain and supply chain. Recognizing that the number of unimmunized children contributed to high levels of under-5-mortality, and that health MDGs would not be attained, Minister of State for Health Mohammed Pate launched a vaccines transformation project in 2013. In partnership with BMGF, GAVI, UNICEF, WHO, other donors and implementing partners the transformation journey has so far taken three years and achieved impressive results. It has though faced challenges along the way and with the financial burden of GAVI graduation facing Nigeria, the economic downturn and the decentralized funding of health services, the results are far from sustained. This paper documents the work undertaken at the Federal level and then highlights specific work undertaken in partnership with Lagos State Government. It identifies the importance of taking an end to end approach and looking at the root causes of weak system performance. The strategy combined simple innovations in how data was captured, recorded and used to drive decision making. It included a comprehensive and systematic approach to cold chain procurement, installation and maintenance with a shift to a culture of active cold chain maintenance that is performing with higher levels of uptime. It also included supply chain redesign at both the Federal and State level. Finally, it involved an institutional transformation at the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) to establish a data driven Department of Logistics and Health Commodities (DLHC) to manage the many challenges in immunizing 7.5 million children annually. While results have been impressive, there have been many challenges and lessons learned on the way. As Nigeria gets ready for its graduation from GAVI, a robust agile performing cold chain and

  7. Polio elimination in Nigeria: A review.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-03-03

    Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic countries

  8. Polio elimination in Nigeria: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Usman Nakakana; Bandyopadhyay, Ananda Sankar; Montagnani, Francesca; Akite, Jacqueline Elaine; Mungu, Etaluka Blanche; Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; Ismaila, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    abstract Nigeria has made tremendous strides towards eliminating polio and has been free of wild polio virus (WPV) for more than a year as of August 2015. However, sustained focus towards getting rid of all types of poliovirus by improving population immunity and enhancing disease surveillance will be needed to ensure it sustains the polio-free status. We reviewed the pertinent literature including published and unpublished, official reports and working documents of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) partners as well as other concerned organizations. The literature were selected based on the following criteria: published in English Language, published after year 2000, relevant content and conformance to the theme of the review and these were sorted accordingly. The challenges facing the Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) in Nigeria were found to fall into 3 broad categories viz failure to vaccinate, failure of the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and epidemiology of the virus. Failure to vaccinate resulted from insecurity, heterogeneous political support, programmatic limitation in implementation of vaccination campaigns, poor performance of vaccination teams in persistently poor performing Local Government areas and sporadic vaccine refusals in Northern Nigeria. Sub optimal effectiveness of OPV in some settings as well as the rare occurrence of VDPVs associated with OPV type 2 in areas of low immunization coverage were also found to be key issues. Some of the innovations which helped to manage the threats to the PEI include a strong government accountability frame work, change from type 2 containing OPV to bi valent OPVs for supplementary immunization activities (SIA), enhancing environmental surveillance in key states (Sokoto, Kano and Borno) along with an overall improvement in SIA quality. There has been an improvement in coverage of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns, which has resulted in Nigeria being removed from the list of endemic

  9. Prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with non-protective immunity against tetanus among high school adolescents girls in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The low uptake of tetanus vaccine and its resultant high burden of tetanus in Nigeria suggest the need to improve routine and booster vaccination in children and adolescents. However, epidemiological evidence for vaccination in the adolescent age group needed for effective strategy and policy formulation is lacking. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of protective immunity against tetanus and to identify risk factors for non-protective immunity among schooling adolescents. Methods Using a three-stage sampling technique, 851 female adolescents were randomly selected from secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics and history of tetanus vaccination. An immuno-chromatographic rapid test kit, “Tetanos Quick Stick” was used to test specific anti-tetanus antibody protective level in venous blood samples. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were done with level of significance set at p = 0.05. Results Mean age of participants was 14.3 ± 1.9 years. Seroprevalence of protective immunity against tetanus was 38.1% and it significantly decreased with increasing age. More adolescents in public (65.4%) than private (44.7%) schools had non-protective level of immunity. A significantly increasing trend in the risk of non-protective immunity was observed with decreasing level of mothers’ education. Also, the Odds of non-protective level of immunity was significantly higher in public than private schools (OR = 2.14; 95% CI =1.39, 3.20) but lower among adolescents who had history of recent tetanus toxoid injection than those who did not (OR = 0.11 95% CI = 0.09, 0.22). However, no significant association was found between protective immunity against tetanus and parents’ marital status as well as family size. Conclusion Protective immunity against tetanus among female adolescents was poor, more so in public

  10. Heterogeneity Index for the Assessment of Relationship Between Land Use Pattern and Road Traffic Congestion in Apapa-Oworoshoki Express way, Lagos Metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaigba, D. B.; Soumah, M.; Banjo, M. O.

    2017-05-01

    The problem of urban mobility is complicated by traffic delay, resulting from poor planning, high population density and poor condition of roads within urban spaces. This study assessed traffic congestion resulting from differential contribution made by various land-uses along Apapa-Oworoshoki expressway in Lagos metropolis. The data for this study was from both primary and secondary sources; GPS point data was collected at selected points for traffic volume count; observation of the nature of vehicular traffic congestion, and land use types along the corridor. Existing data on traffic count along the corridor, connectivity map and land use map sourced from relevant authorities were acquired. Traffic congestion within the area was estimated using volume capacity ratio (V/C). Heterogeneity Index was developed and used to quantify the percentage contribution to traffic volume from various land-use categories. Analytical Hierarchical Processing (AHP) and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. Results showed significant relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and road traffic congestion. Volume Capacity Ratio computed revealed that the route corridor exceeds its designed capacity in the southward direction between the hours of 8am and 12pm on working days. Five major nodes were analyzed along the corridor, and were all above the expected Passenger Car Unit (PCU), these are "Oshodi" 15 %, "Airport junction" 10 %, "Cele bus stop" 21 %, "Mile 2" 14 %, "Berger" 15 % and "Tincan bus stop" 33 % indicating heavy traffic congestion.

  11. Bacteriological quality of the wastewater used for irrigation at the vegetable farms in Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Pesewu, George A; Bentum, Daniel; Olu-Taiwo, Michael A; Glover, Kathreen K; Yirenya-Tawiah, Dzidzo R

    2017-01-01

    Many developing countries, including Ghana, are water stressed. As such, farmers, particularly those in urban areas, have adopted the use of wastewater for irrigation. This study evaluated the bacteriological water quality of the wastewater used for irrigation in the vegetable farms at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH), Accra Metropolis, Ghana. In all, 40 wastewater samples were collected and analysed bacteriologically using the total aerobic plate count method. The isolated bacteria were identified biochemically using Bergey's manual for determinative bacteriology. Mean total bacterial colony count values in the range of 2.75-4.44 × 10 5 CFU/100 mL were isolated which far exceeds values of 1 × 10 3 /100 mL recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for unrestricted irrigation of crops likely to be eaten raw. Enterobacter cloacae (51.4%), Klebsiella sp. (24.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.3%), Salmonella typhi (10.6%), Escherichia coli (2.2%) and Proteus sp. (0.4%) were the predominant bacteria isolated. Growers should use treated wastewater for farming while processors and consumers should minimize contamination risks of produce from the vegetable farms/garden to the plate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Offal dumping sites influence the relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) in urban landscape: a study from Kolkata metropolis, India.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Subhendu; Ghose, Dipankar; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-12-14

    Although Black Kites (Milvus migrans govinda) serve as major scavenging raptor in most of the urban areas, scientific studies on this important ecosystem service provider are almost non-existent in Indian context. The present study was carried out in a metropolis in eastern India to find out the factors influencing relative abundance and roosting site selection of Black Kites. Separate generalized linear models (GLMs) were performed considering encounter rate and roosting Black Kite abundance as response variables. The study conclusively indicated that encounter rates of Black Kites were significantly influenced by the presence of garbage dumps in its vicinity. Numbers of Black Kites were also higher in the roosting sites situated closer to garbage dumps and open spaces. In addition, expected counts of Black Kites significantly increased in roosting sites situated away from buildings and water bodies. However, built-up area and tree cover around the roosting sites had no influence on the abundance of Black Kites therein. With rapid urbanization and changing offal disposal patterns, our findings would be useful to ensure continued availability of food and roosting sites of Black Kites in urban areas.

  13. Chlorine treatment effectiveness and physico-chemical and bacteriological characteristics of treated water supplies in distribution networks of Accra-Tema Metropolis, Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karikari, A. Y.; Ampofo, J. A.

    2013-06-01

    Drinking water quality from two major treatment plants in Ghana; Kpong and Weija Plants, and distribution networks in the Accra-Tema Metropolis were monitored monthly for a year at fifteen different locations. The study determined the relationship between chlorine residual, other physico-chemical qualities of the treated water, and, bacteria regrowth. Results indicated that the treated water at the Kpong and Weija Treatment Plants conformed to WHO guidelines for potable water. However, the water quality deteriorated bacteriologically, from the plants to the delivery points with high numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens. This could be due to inadequate disinfection residual, biofilms or accidental point source contamination by broken pipes, installation and repair works. The mean turbidity ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 NTU; pH varied from 6.8 to 7.4; conductivity fluctuated from 71.1 to 293 μS/cm. Chlorine residual ranged from 0.13 to 1.35 mg/l. High residual chlorine was observed at the treatment plants, which decreased further from the plants. Results showed that additional chlorination does not take place at the booster stations. Chlorine showed inverse relationship with microbial counts. Total coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 248 cfu/100 ml, and faecal coliform values varied from 0 to 128 cfu/100 ml. Other microorganisms observed in the treated water included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Boiling water in the household before consumption will reduce water-related health risks.

  14. Problems of postgraduate medical training in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ike, S O

    2004-01-01

    Postgraduate medical training in Nigeria has been in dire straits for about two decades now. That it has continued to survive, is a tribute to the average resident doctor who has become immunized, and who has grown a thick skin of armour, as well the spirit of altruism of the medical teachers--consultants (young and old), who despite odds, have kept their focus clear, above the murky waters of national distraction and daunting socio economic challenges. A review of relevant literature on medical education in Nigeria was undertaken by manual library search. This paper x-rays the strong points that have still prevailed to hold the rudiments and ideals of postgraduate medical training in a viable position up to date. It discusses the weaknesses and threats--potential and real--to the training programme. This paper attempts to search, and actually hopes, for silver lining in the Nigerian sky as possible solution lifelines that may yet re-engineer the programme.

  15. Helping women traders. Organizing for change: Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obadina, E

    1995-01-01

    In Nigeria, the World Bank developed a pilot project, the Women's Management Training Outreach Programme (WMTOP), to improve the managerial skills of illiterate and semiliterate rural business women and farmers. In 1993, WMTOP chose the Country Women's Association of Nigeria (COWAN) for training. The result for a local group of cooperative kola nut traders was improved time management techniques, a more profitable division of labor, and the ability to keep better written financial records. WMTOP has taught women from 58 local groups (reaching 2600 women) the principles of human resource management, finance and credit, microproject management, and marketing. Although participants praise the project, a lack of money for business expansion continues to hold the women back from real success. Funding for WMTOP comes from the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, which exists primarily to train government functionaries. This extension to include nongovernmental organizations in the training program is a result of the World Bank's effort to promote self-sufficiency. WMTOP attempts to take the program directly to the women, and the trainers live with the trainees in their home villages during the follow-up sessions. All of the WMTOP materials have been translated into Yoruba to eliminate misunderstandings. WMTOP seed money will end in 1996, but there is hope that this positive program will interest donors.

  16. Analysis of Road Traffic Crashes-Related Maxillofacial Injuries Severity and Concomitant Injuries in 201 Patients Seen at the UCH, Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Aladelusi, Timothy; Akinmoladun, Victor; Olusanya, Adeola; Akadiri, Oladimeji; Fasola, Abiodun

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of road traffic crashes (RTC)-related maxillofacial injuries, the concomitant injuries occurring with them, and to assess the relationship between the severity of maxillofacial and concomitant injuries. This was a prospective study involving 201 victims of RTC seen at the Accident and Emergency Department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan with maxillofacial injuries during the study period. Demographic data of the patients, the types of maxillofacial injuries, and concomitant injuries sustained were recorded. Severity of maxillofacial injury was determined using the maxillofacial injury severity scale (MFISS), while the severity of concomitant injuries was based on the ISS. Correlations between types and severity of maxillofacial injury and types and severity of concomitant injury were conducted to determine the predictability of concomitant injuries based on maxillofacial injury severity. Data were processed using SPSS Statistical software (SPSS, version 20.0 for windows, IBM SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Maxillofacial injuries constituted 25.4% of RTC-related admission by the Accident and Emergency Department. A total of 151 (75.1%) patients who presented with concomitant injuries participated in the study. Eighty-one (53.6%) sustained injuries to more than one body region. Head injury was the commonest (99, 65.6%) concomitant injury, followed by orthopedic injury (69, 45.7%). Increasing severity of maxillofacial injury showed a positive correlation with increasing ISS. Also, positive correlation was noted with increasing severity of maxillofacial injury and presence of polytrauma (p = 0.01), traumatic brain injury (p = 0.034), and eye injuries (p = 0.034). There was a high prevalence of maxillofacial injuries in victims of RTC. There was a high incidence of concomitant injuries noted with these maxillofacial injuries. Significantly, this study showed a direct relationship between the

  17. ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS TAKING PART-TIME JOBS: A STUDY AMONGST FIRST YEAR CLINICAL STUDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN

    PubMed Central

    Kanmodi, K.K.; Akinloye, A.G.; Aladelusi, T.O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Student part-time jobs are employments taken up by students while in school. Students in tertiary institutions do engage in part-time jobs because of the associated benefits. Some of these benefits include work experience, independence, financial support, and job satisfaction. Different studies have reported different attitudes towards taking part-time jobs among university students. Objective: To determine the attitudes of medical students in their first clinical year of study at the University of Ibadan medical school towards taking up parttime medical jobs within the university hospital. Method: This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in their first clinical year of study. Eighty one first clinical - year medical students were recruited to participate in this study. All participants were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on bio-data, scholarship benefit status, level of satisfaction with monthly income, choices of part-time jobs, and the factors that might informed choice of a part-time job. No questionnaire was discarded because all were correctly filled. Data collected was coded, entered, and analysed using the SPSS version 16 software. Analyses of all variables were done using descriptive statistics. Results: The mean age of the 81 respondents was 20.8 (±1.6) years and 51.9% were males. A higher proportion of the male respondents were studying on scholarship (57.1%), compared to that of the females (31.6%). Respondents studying on scholarship had a higher level of financial satisfaction. Over 90% of the participants supported the idea of part-time medical job creation for medical students. The majority of the respondents (64.2%) prefer to take up the job position of research assistantships. The amount of wages to be earned was the most predominant factor considered among the male respondents in their decision for taking up a part-time medical job, while

  18. ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS TAKING PART-TIME JOBS: A STUDY AMONGST FIRST YEAR CLINICAL STUDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN.

    PubMed

    Kanmodi, K K; Akinloye, A G; Aladelusi, T O

    2017-06-01

    Student part-time jobs are employments taken up by students while in school. Students in tertiary institutions do engage in part-time jobs because of the associated benefits. Some of these benefits include work experience, independence, financial support, and job satisfaction. Different studies have reported different attitudes towards taking part-time jobs among university students. To determine the attitudes of medical students in their first clinical year of study at the University of Ibadan medical school towards taking up parttime medical jobs within the university hospital. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in their first clinical year of study. Eighty one first clinical - year medical students were recruited to participate in this study. All participants were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on bio-data, scholarship benefit status, level of satisfaction with monthly income, choices of part-time jobs, and the factors that might informed choice of a part-time job. No questionnaire was discarded because all were correctly filled. Data collected was coded, entered, and analysed using the SPSS version 16 software. Analyses of all variables were done using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the 81 respondents was 20.8 (±1.6) years and 51.9% were males. A higher proportion of the male respondents were studying on scholarship (57.1%), compared to that of the females (31.6%). Respondents studying on scholarship had a higher level of financial satisfaction. Over 90% of the participants supported the idea of part-time medical job creation for medical students. The majority of the respondents (64.2%) prefer to take up the job position of research assistantships. The amount of wages to be earned was the most predominant factor considered among the male respondents in their decision for taking up a part-time medical job, while opportunity to learn new skills was the most

  19. A comparative analysis of fertility differentials in Ghana and Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olatoregun, Oluwaseun; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi Francis; Akinyemi, Odunayo Joshua; Yusuf, Oyindamola Bidemi; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2014-09-01

    Nigeria and Ghana are the most densely populated countries in the West African sub-region with fertility levels above world average. Our study compared the two countries' fertility levels and their determinants as well as the differentials in the effect of these factors across the two countries. We carried out a retrospective analysis of data from the Nigeria and Ghana Demographic Health Surveys, 2008. The sample of 33,385 and 4,916 women aged 15-49 years obtained in Nigeria and Ghana respectively was stratified into low, medium and high fertility using reported children ever born. Data was summarized using appropriate descriptive statistics. Factors influencing fertility were identified using ordinal logistic regression at 5% significance level. While unemployment significantly lowers fertility in Nigeria, it wasn't significant in Ghana. In both countries, education, age at first marriage, marital status, urban-rural residence, wealth index and use of oral contraception were the main factors influencing high fertility levels.

  20. The drink driving situation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogazi, Chidi; Edison, Ema

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the magnitude and nature of the drink-drive problem in Nigeria and evaluate the institutional capacities for preventing drinking and driving, using the methodology developed by the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) described in the overview article in this issue (Johnson 2012). Data and information were collected using existing reports and by consulting officials and experts from a number of key agencies. In 2008, 9572 people died in road crashes according to police statistics. However, according to World Health Organization statistical modeling, this figure is likely to be much higher, with deaths ranging from 34,000 to 78,000 in 2007 and a mortality rate of 32.3 percent. Not only is it likely that the police data underestimate the road crash problem but it was also found that the data from the police and the Federal Road Safety Commission (FRSC) were inadequate for estimating the extent of the drink-drive problem mainly because of the lack of alcohol testing equipment. One research study highlighted the problem of drivers of commercial vehicles; 67.2 percent of drivers admitting to drinking alcohol during the working day. Nigeria sets a legal limit of 0.05 g/100 mL blood alcohol concentration (BAC), but enforcement of the law is weak because alcohol testing equipment is unavailable. The FRSC is a federal agency dedicated to improving road safety and the clear lead agency in Nigeria. It runs publicity campaigns against drinking and driving with private sector support, especially toward the end of the year when there is increased vehicular traffic due to people travelling to celebrate the Christmas and New Year holidays, but these have not been evaluated. However, its combined enforcement and public education roles give it considerable potential for tackling the drink-drive problem in the future. This study recommended that priority should be given to strengthening the road crash and injury database and drink