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Sample records for ic recombinant-methionyl human

  1. Production of polyclonal antibodies directed to recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Pantaleón, C; Huet, A C; Kavanagh, O; Lei, H; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Le Bizec, B; Situ, C; Delahaut, Ph

    2013-01-25

    The administration of recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin (rMbST) to dairy cows to increase milk yield remains a common practice in many countries including the USA, Brazil, Mexico, South Africa and Korea, whereas it has been forbidden within the European Union (EU) since 1999. A rapid screening immunoanalytical method capable of the unequivocal determination of rMbST in milk would be highly desirable in order to effectively monitor compliance with the EU-wide ban for home-made or imported dairy products. For decades, the production of specific antibodies for this recombinant isoform of bovine somatotropin (bST) has remained elusive, due to the high degree of sequence homology between both counterparts (e.g. methionine for rMbST in substitution of alanine in bST at the N-terminus). In this study, we compared several immunizing strategies for the production of specific polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), based on the use of the full-length recombinant protein, an rMbST N-terminus peptide fragment and a multiple antigen peptide (MAP) which consists of an oligomeric branching lysine core attached to the first two N-terminus amino acids of rMbST, methionine and phenylalanine (MF-MAP). The immunization with KLH-conjugated MF-MAP led to the production of the pAb with the highest rMbST/bST recognition ratio amongst the generated battery of antibodies. The pAb exhibited a specific binding ability to rMbST in a competitive antigen-coated ELISA format, which avidity was further improved after purification by rMbST N-terminus peptide-based affinity chromatography. These results suggest that immunodiscrimination between structurally related proteins can be achieved using immuno-enhanced immunogens such as MAPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cloning and characterization of human IC53-2, a novel CDK5 activator binding protein.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yi Hu; He, Xiang Huo; Tang, Yun Tian; Li, Jin Jun; Pan, Zhi Mei; Qin, Wen Xin; Wan, Da Fang; Gu, Jian Ren

    2003-04-01

    We have identified IC53-2, a human homologue of the rat C53 gene from a human placenta cDNA library (GeneBank Accession No.AF217982). IC53-2 can bind to the CDK5 activator p35 by in vitro association assay. IC53-2 is mapped to human chromosome 17q21.31. The IC53-2 transcript is highly expressed in kidney, liver, skeletal muscle and placenta. It is abundantly expressed in SMMC-7721, C-33A, 3AO, A431 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines by RT-PCR assay. Stable transfection of IC53-2 cDNA into the hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell remarkably stimulates its growth in vitro. The above results indicate that IC53-2 is a novel human gene, which may be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation.

  3. Influence of the electric charge of the antigen and the immune complex (IC) lattice on the IC activation of human complement

    PubMed Central

    Michelin, M A; Crott, L S P; Assis-pandochi, A I; Coimbra, T M; Teixeira, J E; Barbosa, J E

    2002-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of complement (C) activation by immune complexes (ICs), the anti-complementary effect of ICs containing cationized antigens was compared in vitro to that using ICs formed by native antigens. ICs were prepared with affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal IgG antibovine serum albumin (BSA) antibody and either native BSA (isoelectric point 4.2) or BSA rendered cationic by treatment with ethylenediamine (isoelectric point 9.4). Native and cationized antigens were characterized by isoelectric focusing. ICs containing anti-BSA IgG or F(ab′)2, formed either at equivalence or in excess of native or cationized antigen, were submitted to ultracentrifugation in a sucrose gradient for mesh size determination. The anti-complementary effect of ICs was evaluated by kinetic determination of haemolytic activity of human serum on haemolysin-sensitized sheep red blood cells. In conditions of antigen excess, the ICs formed by cationized BSA were significantly more efficient in activating human complement than those formed by native antigen. This higher activity was dependent on cationized antigen complexed with complete antibody molecules, as non-complexed cationized BSA or ICs prepared with F(ab′)2 fragments were inactive under the same experimental conditions. Furthermore, this difference did not depend on the mesh size of the immune complexes. Our results suggest that the balance between antigen, antibody and C may be of importance in vivo for the onset and course of infections and other pathological processes involving IC formation. ICs containing cationized antigens should be proven of value in experimental models for studies on the regulation of C activation. PMID:12084047

  4. Human platelets express Toll-like receptor 3 and respond to poly I:C.

    PubMed

    Anabel, Antonio-Santos; Eduardo, Pérez-Campos; Pedro Antonio, Hernández-Cruz; Carlos, Solórzano-Mata; Juana, Narváez-Morales; Honorio, Torres-Aguilar; Nicolás, Villegas-Sepúlveda; Sergio Roberto, Aguilar-Ruiz

    2014-12-01

    Platelets functions in hemostasis have been widely studied. Currently, growing evidence shows that platelets have also a role in the immune innate response. Recently, protein expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR's) 2, 4, 7, 8, and 9, and the presence of TLRs 1 and 6 mRNA in human platelets was described. Up to now the functionality of TLR-2, 4 and 9 in human platelets has been demonstrated. Due to the relevance of TLRs functions to PAMPS (pathogen-associated molecular patterns) recognizing, we evaluated the presence of TLR3 in human platelets founding low percentages of platelets expressing surface or intracellular TLR3 protein. The activation with thrombin induced an increase in the percentage of platelets expressing surface TLR3 and higher levels of TLR3 expression in the whole population. Human platelets responded to poly I:C by increasing [Ca(2+)]i, the percentages of cells expressing TLR4 and CD62P, and by releasing CXCL4 and IL-1β in comparison to unstimulated platelets. These results demonstrate that human platelets express TLR3 and are capable of responding to poly I:C, suggesting that these cells might influence the immune innate response when detecting viral dsRNA.

  5. Category-Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex Follows Cortical Topology: A Grouped icEEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Christopher Richard; Whaley, Meagan Lee; Baboyan, Vatche George; Tandon, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that category-selective regions in higher-order visual cortex are topologically organized around specific anatomical landmarks: the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS) in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and lateral occipital sulcus (LOS) in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC). To derive precise structure-function maps from direct neural signals, we collected intracranial EEG (icEEG) recordings in a large human cohort (n = 26) undergoing implantation of subdural electrodes. A surface-based approach to grouped icEEG analysis was used to overcome challenges from sparse electrode coverage within subjects and variable cortical anatomy across subjects. The topology of category-selectivity in bilateral VTC and LOC was assessed for five classes of visual stimuli—faces, animate non-face (animals/body-parts), places, tools, and words—using correlational and linear mixed effects analyses. In the LOC, selectivity for living (faces and animate non-face) and non-living (places and tools) classes was arranged in a ventral-to-dorsal axis along the LOS. In the VTC, selectivity for living and non-living stimuli was arranged in a latero-medial axis along the MFS. Written word-selectivity was reliably localized to the intersection of the left MFS and the occipito-temporal sulcus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence for topological information structuring of functional representations within higher-order visual cortex. PMID:27272936

  6. Selective expression of myosin IC Isoform A in mouse and human cell lines and mouse prostate cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Sielski, Neil L; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2014-01-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily. We recently identified a novel isoform and showed that the MYOIC gene in mammalian cells encodes three isoforms (isoforms A, B, and C). Furthermore, we demonstrated that myosin IC isoform A but not isoform B exhibits a tissue specific expression pattern. In this study, we extended our analysis of myosin IC isoform expression patterns by analyzing the protein and mRNA expression in various mammalian cell lines and in various prostate specimens and tumor tissues from the transgenic mouse prostate (TRAMP) model by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and by indirect immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded prostate specimen. Analysis of a panel of mammalian cell lines showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of specifically myosin IC isoform A in a panel of human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines but not in non-cancer prostate or other (non-prostate-) cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myosin IC isoform A expression is significantly increased in TRAMP mouse prostate samples with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions and in distant site metastases in lung and liver when compared to matched normal tissues. Our observations demonstrate specific changes in the expression of myosin IC isoform A that are concurrent with the occurrence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model that closely mimics clinical prostate cancer. These data suggest that elevated levels of myosin IC isoform A may be a potential marker for the detection of prostate cancer.

  7. Interim Human Factors Guidance for Hybrid and Digital I&C System

    SciTech Connect

    J.Naser, G.Morris

    2003-08-15

    OAK- B135 To help nuclear power plant operators and suppliers plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and other HSI in a way that takes advantage of digital systems and HSI technologies, reflects practical constraints associated with modernizing existing control rooms and I&C systems, and addresses issues associated with hybrid control room HSI.

  8. Toll-like receptor 3 activation promotes desensitization of histamine response in human gingival fibroblasts: Poly (I:C) induces histamine receptor desensitization in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Rodríguez-Pérez, Citlalli Ekaterina

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are associated with the development of periodontal disease, particularly during periods of suppressed cellular immunity. For this reason, we evaluated the hypothesis that viral components regulate the actions of histamine, an important mediator of immune responses. We assessed the effect of Poly (I:C) on histamine-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization in human gingival fibroblasts. Our results show that histamine induces an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. This response was blocked when cells were incubated in the presence of Poly (I:C). In addition, phorbol esters, a diacylglycerol analog, mimics the inhibitory actions of Poly (I:C) in response to histamine. The effect of Poly (I:C) was reversed by Stuarosporine (1 μM), GÖ6983 (7 μM), Bisindolylmaleimide (1 μM) [a protein inhibitor (PKC)], and SB 203580 (3 μM) (a p38-MAPK inhibitor). These findings suggest that Poly (I:C) regulates histamine-induced calcium mobilization through activation of PKC and p38.

  9. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC. PMID:26883396

  10. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-02-17

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC.

  11. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  12. Mouse CD8α+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-λ in response to poly IC

    PubMed Central

    Lauterbach, Henning; Bathke, Barbara; Gilles, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Luber, Christian A.; Fejer, György; Freudenberg, Marina A.; Davey, Gayle M.; Vremec, David; Kallies, Axel; Wu, Li; Shortman, Ken; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; O’Keeffe, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC), a double-stranded RNA, is an effective adjuvant in vivo. IFN-λs (also termed IL-28/29) are potent immunomodulatory and antiviral cytokines. We demonstrate that poly IC injection in vivo induces large amounts of IFN-λ, which depended on hematopoietic cells and the presence of TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3), IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3), IRF7, IFN-I receptor, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL), and IRF8 but not on MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), Rig-like helicases, or lymphocytes. Upon poly IC injection in vivo, the IFN-λ production by splenocytes segregated with cells phenotypically resembling CD8α+ conventional dendritic cells (DCs [cDCs]). In vitro experiments revealed that CD8α+ cDCs were the major producers of IFN-λ in response to poly IC, whereas both CD8α+ cDCs and plasmacytoid DCs produced large amounts of IFN-λ in response to HSV-1 or parapoxvirus. The nature of the stimulus and the cytokine milieu determined whether CD8α+ cDCs produced IFN-λ or IL-12p70. Human DCs expressing BDCA3 (CD141), which is considered to be the human counterpart of murine CD8α+ DCs, also produced large amounts of IFN-λ upon poly IC stimulation. Thus, IFN-λ production in response to poly IC is a novel function of mouse CD8α+ cDCs and their human equivalents. PMID:20975040

  13. Mouse CD8alpha+ DCs and human BDCA3+ DCs are major producers of IFN-lambda in response to poly IC.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Henning; Bathke, Barbara; Gilles, Stefanie; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Luber, Christian A; Fejer, György; Freudenberg, Marina A; Davey, Gayle M; Vremec, David; Kallies, Axel; Wu, Li; Shortman, Ken; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark; O'Keeffe, Meredith; Hochrein, Hubertus

    2010-11-22

    Polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly IC), a double-stranded RNA, is an effective adjuvant in vivo. IFN-λs (also termed IL-28/29) are potent immunomodulatory and antiviral cytokines. We demonstrate that poly IC injection in vivo induces large amounts of IFN-λ, which depended on hematopoietic cells and the presence of TLR3 (Toll-like receptor 3), IRF3 (IFN regulatory factor 3), IRF7, IFN-I receptor, Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL), and IRF8 but not on MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88), Rig-like helicases, or lymphocytes. Upon poly IC injection in vivo, the IFN-λ production by splenocytes segregated with cells phenotypically resembling CD8α(+) conventional dendritic cells (DCs [cDCs]). In vitro experiments revealed that CD8α(+) cDCs were the major producers of IFN-λ in response to poly IC, whereas both CD8α(+) cDCs and plasmacytoid DCs produced large amounts of IFN-λ in response to HSV-1 or parapoxvirus. The nature of the stimulus and the cytokine milieu determined whether CD8α(+) cDCs produced IFN-λ or IL-12p70. Human DCs expressing BDCA3 (CD141), which is considered to be the human counterpart of murine CD8α(+) DCs, also produced large amounts of IFN-λ upon poly IC stimulation. Thus, IFN-λ production in response to poly IC is a novel function of mouse CD8α(+) cDCs and their human equivalents.

  14. IC Associated Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... marked by various painful vulvovaginal symptoms, is the fourth most common IC-related condition. It is thought ... about these and other related conditions. Revised Thursday, July 7th, 2016 About IC What is Interstitial Cystitis ( ...

  15. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

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    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  16. Pregnancy and IC

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    ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ... IC Epidemiology (RICE) Study Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey ICA Pilot Research Program Funding Opportunities Clinical ...

  17. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J.; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  18. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs.

  19. Effects of recombinant methionyl bovine somatotropin (sometribove) in high producing cows milked three times daily.

    PubMed

    Jordan, D C; Aguilar, A A; Olson, J D; Bailey, C; Hartnell, G F; Madsen, K S

    1991-01-01

    Effects of daily sometribove administration on milk yield and composition, body condition score, BW, and SCC were evaluated in Holstein cows milked three times daily. Lactating cows (n =104) were assigned randomly to control or sometribove-treated (25 mg/d) groups. The experimental period was 16 wk, consisting of 2-wk pretreatment, 12-wk treatment, and 2-wk posttreatment periods. All cows were injected once daily starting at 53 to 180 d postpartum, housed in free stalls, and fed one of five total mixed rations according to milk production. Body weights were measured weekly, and body condition was scored biweekly. Milk yield was recorded daily, and weekly milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and SCC. Milk yield and milk protein were increased 18.8% (38.6 vs. 32.5 kg/d) and 3.3% (3.1 vs. 3.0%), respectively, whereas percentage of milk fat, lactose, SNF, SCC, and BW were unaffected by treatment. Overall average body condition scores were lower for the sometribove-treated group versus control (2.2 vs. 2.4). No apparent differences in the number of cows treated for mastitis, foot rot, displaced abomasum, or lameness were observed between treatment groups. Sometribove treatment significantly enhanced milk yield (6.1 kg/d) with no apparent negative effects on health in high producing cows milked three times per day.

  20. A monoclonal antibody against the dynein IC1 peptide of sea urchin spermatozoa inhibits the motility of sea urchin, dinoflagellate, and human flagellar axonemes.

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, C; White, D; Huitorel, P; Cosson, J

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the role of axonemal components in the mechanics and regulation of flagellar movement, we have generated a series of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus) sperm axonemal proteins, selected for their ability to inhibit the motility of demembranated sperm models. One of these antibodies, mAb D1, recognizes an antigen of 142 kDa on blots of sea urchin axonemal proteins and of purified outer arm dynein, suggesting that it acts by binding to the heaviest intermediate chain (IC1) of the dynein arm. mAb D1 blocks the motility of demembranated sea urchin spermatozoa by modifying the beating amplitude and shear angle without affecting the ATPase activity of purified dynein or of demembranated immotile spermatozoa. Furthermore, mAb D1 had only a marginal effect on the velocity of sliding microtubules in trypsin-treated axonemes. This antibody was also capable of inhibiting the motility of flagella of Oxyrrhis marina, a primitive dinoflagellate, and those of demembranated human spermatozoa. Localization of the antigen recognized by mAb D1 by immunofluorescence reveals its presence on the axonemes of flagella from sea urchin spermatozoa and O. marina but not on the cortical microtubule network of the dinoflagellate. These results are consistent with a dynamic role for the dynein intermediate chain IC1 in the bending and/or wave propagation of flagellar axonemes. Images PMID:7841521

  1. A comparative analytical assessment of iodides in healthy and pathological human thyroids based on IC-PAD method preceded by microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Błażewicz, Anna; Orlicz-Szczęsna, Grażyna; Szczęsny, Piotr; Prystupa, Andrzej; Grzywa-Celińska, Anna; Trojnar, Marcin

    2011-03-15

    The aim of the study was to examine correlations between the content of iodides in 66 nodular goiters and 100 healthy human thyroid tissues (50- frozen and 50 formalin-fixed). A fast, accurate and precise ion chromatography method on IonPac AS11 chromatographic column (Dionex, USA) with a pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD) followed by alkaline digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in a closed system and with the assistance of microwaves was developed and used for the comparative analysis of two types of human thyroid samples. Statistical analysis revealed over eightfold reduction of iodine concentration in the pathological tissues (the mean value was 77.13±14.02 ppm) in comparison with the control group (622.62±187.11 ppm for frozen samples and 601.49±192.11 ppm for formalin-fixed ones). A good correspondence (for 10 additional determinations) between the certified (3.38±0.02 ppm with variation coefficient (V.C.) of 0.59% for Standard Reference Material (SRM) NIST 1549-non-fat milk powder) and the measured iodine concentrations (3.52±0.29 ppm; V.C.=10%) was achieved. It was pointed out that the way of tissue preservation (either in formalin or by freezing) had no significant effect on the iodine determination result (α=0.1). Significantly lower iodide content was found in nodular goiter thyroid samples. The applied conditions of digestion, reinforced by the action of microwaves, brought about a decidedly shorter (less than 20 min) sample preparation time. Suitability of the developed IC method was supported by validation results.

  2. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

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  3. IC Treatment: Antidepressants

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  5. Men and IC

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  6. General IC Symptoms

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  7. Children and IC

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  8. IC Associated Conditions

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    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  9. Pregnancy and IC

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    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  10. Children and IC

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    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  11. Men and IC

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  12. General IC Symptoms

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    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  13. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  14. IC Treatment: Antidepressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  15. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  16. IC Treatment: Antihistamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain Complementary Therapies Complementary vs. Alternative Herbs, Dietary Supplements, & Biologicals Mind-body Medicine Massage, Manipulation, & Body-based Practices Energy Medicine Bringing Treatments to Market IC Healthcare Provider ...

  17. Momordin Ic couples apoptosis with autophagy in human hepatoblastoma cancer cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yashi; Xiao, Chunxia; Du, Qingwei; Wu, Wanqiang; Qi, Guoyuan; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Momordin Ic is a principal saponin constituent of Fructus Kochiae, which acts as an edible and pharmaceutical product more than 2000 years in China. Our previous research found momordin Ic induced apoptosis by PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. While the role of autophagy in momordin Ic induced cell death has not been discussed, and the connection between the apoptosis and autophagy is not clear yet. In this work, we reported momordin Ic promoted the formation of autophagic vacuole and expression of Beclin 1 and LC-3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared with momordin Ic treatment alone, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) also can inhibit apoptosis, while autophagy activator rapamycin (RAP) has the opposite effect, and the apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-fmk also inhibited autophagy induced by momordin Ic. Momordin Ic simultaneously induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing the ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and activating the ROS-related JNK and P38 pathways. Additionally, momordin Ic induces apoptosis by suppressing PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB pathways and promotes autophagy by ROS-mediated Erk signaling pathway. Those results suggest that momordin Ic has great potential as a nutritional preventive strategy in cancer therapy.

  18. Spotlight on IC 3583

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-28

    This delicate blue group of stars — actually an irregular galaxy named IC 3583 — sits some 30 million light-years away in the constellation of Virgo (The Virgin). It may seem to have no discernable structure, but IC 3583 has been found to have a bar of stars running through its centre. These structures are common throughout the Universe, and are found within the majority of spiral, many irregular, and some lenticular galaxies. Two of our closest cosmic neighbours, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, are barred, indicating that they may have once been barred spiral galaxies that were disrupted or torn apart by the gravitational pull of the Milky Way. Something similar might be happening with IC 3583. This small galaxy is thought to be gravitationally interacting with one of its neighbours, the spiral Messier 90. Together, the duo form a pairing known as Arp 76. It’s still unclear whether these flirtations are the cause of IC 3583’s irregular appearance — but whatever the cause, the galaxy makes for a strikingly delicate sight in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, glimmering in the blackness of space.

  19. Phenotype-genotype relationships of SULT1A1 in human liver and variations in the IC50 of the SULT1A1 inhibitor quercetin.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A M; Maggini, V; Fredianelli, E; Di Bello, D; Pietrabissa, A; Mosca, F; Barale, R; Pacifici, G M

    2004-10-01

    Human sulfotransferases catalyze sulfate conjugation and 2 polymorphic genes, SULT1A1 and SULT1A2 in this family of transferases have been identified, encoding for 2 isoenzymes with very similar properties and substrate specificities. In order to test the hypothesis that variability in sulfation is due to genetic polymorphism in SULT1A1, the sulfation rate of 4-nitrophenol, a diagnostic substrate, was measured in 50 human liver samples and the genotype at the SULT1A1 locus was analyzed. The rate of 4-nitrophenol sulfation varied from 473 - 1,405 pmol/min/mg between the 5th and 95th percentiles, with a median and a mean +/- SD of 757 and 807 +/- 292 pmol/min/mg, respectively. The activities detected among the SULT1A1*2/*2 homozygotes (5 cases) were significantly lower than those of the other 2 genotypes, SULTA1*11/*1 and SULT1A1*1/*2 (5 and 40 cases, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference found between the SULT1A1*1/*1 and SULT1A1*1/*2 genotypes. To evaluate the possible influence of SULT1A2 polymorphism, genotype assays were also performed for this locus. No SULT1A2*2/*2 carrier, 26 SULT1A2*1/*1 and 24 SULT1A2*1/*2 were detected in the population sample under study. However, no correlation between the rate of 4-nitrophenol sulfation and the SULT1A2 genotype was detected. These results confirm that the variation in the rate of 4-nitrophenol sulfation in human liver is mainly due to SULT1A. Since SULT1A1*1/*2 polymorphism accounts for no more than 10% of the phenotypic variation seen in this cohort, other factors must also contribute to the variability in the rate of 4-nitrophenol sulfation in human liver. However, on the basis of the data obtained, variations in age, gender and liver function as possible causative factors can be excluded. The IC50 of quercetin, a potent inhibitor of 4-nitrophenol sulfation, was measured in the liver samples and ranged from 4.6 to 17.3 nM between the 5th and 95th percentiles. The median and the mean +/- SD were 7

  20. Mutation in the human acetylcholinesterase-associated collagen gene, COLQ, is responsible for congenital myasthenic syndrome with end-plate acetylcholinesterase deficiency (Type Ic).

    PubMed Central

    Donger, C; Krejci, E; Serradell, A P; Eymard, B; Bon, S; Nicole, S; Chateau, D; Gary, F; Fardeau, M; Massoulié, J; Guicheney, P

    1998-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) with end-plate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, recently classified as CMS type Ic (CMS-Ic). It is characterized by onset in childhood, generalized weakness increased by exertion, refractoriness to anticholinesterase drugs, and morphological abnormalities of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The collagen-tailed form of AChE, which is normally concentrated at NMJs, is composed of catalytic tetramers associated with a specific collagen, COLQ. In CMS-Ic patients, these collagen-tailed forms are often absent. We studied a large family comprising 11 siblings, 6 of whom are affected by a mild form of CMS-Ic. The muscles of the patients contained collagen-tailed AChE. We first excluded the ACHE gene (7q22) as potential culprit, by linkage analysis; then we mapped COLQ to chromosome 3p24.2. By analyzing 3p24.2 markers located close to the gene, we found that the six affected patients were homozygous for an interval of 14 cM between D3S1597 and D3S2338. We determined the COLQ coding sequence and found that the patients present a homozygous missense mutation, Y431S, in the conserved C-terminal domain of COLQ. This mutation is thought to disturb the attachment of collagen-tailed AChE to the NMJ, thus constituting the first genetic defect causing CMS-Ic. PMID:9758617

  1. POLY IC IS THE MOST EFFECTIVE TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR ADJUVANT FOR SIV GAG PROTEIN INDUCED T CELL RESPONSES IN NON-HUMAN PRIMATES

    PubMed Central

    Park, Haesun; Adamson, Lauren; Ha, Tae; Mullen, Karl; Hagen, Shoko I; Nogueron, Arys; Sylwester, Andrew W.; Axthelm, Michael K.; Legasse, Al; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; McElrath, Juliana M.; Picker, Louis J.; Seder, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Prime-boost immunization with heterologous vaccines elicits potent cellular immunity. Here, we assessed the influence of various TLR ligands on SIV Gag-specific T cell immunity and protection following prime-boost immunization. Rhesus macaques (RM) were primed with SIV Gag protein emulsified in montanide ISA51 with or without TLR3 (polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly IC)), TLR4 (monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)), TLR7/8, TLR9 (CpG) or TLR3 (Poly IC) combined with TLR7/8 ligands, then boosted with replication defective adenovirus 5 expressing SIV Gag (rAd5-Gag). After priming, RM that received SIV Gag protein plus Poly IC developed significantly higher frequencies of SIV Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 responses in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid lymphocytes (BAL) compared to all other adjuvants, and low-level SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses. After the rAd5-Gag boost, the magnitude and breadth of SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses were significantly increased in RM primed with SIV Gag protein plus Poly IC, with or without the TLR7/8 ligand, or CpG. However, the anamnestic, SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response to SIVmac251 challenge was not significantly enhanced by SIV Gag protein priming with any of the adjuvants. In contrast, the anamnestic SIV Gag-specific CD4+ T cell response in BAL was enhanced by SIV Gag protein priming with Poly IC or CpG, which correlated with partial control of early viral replication after SIVmac251 challenge. These results demonstrate that prime-boost vaccination with SIV Gag protein/Poly IC improves magnitude, breadth, and durability of CD4+ T cell immune responses, which may have a role in control of SIV viral replication. PMID:23509365

  2. A Multiwavelength Study of IC 63 and IC 59

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karr, J. L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Martin, P. G.

    2005-02-01

    IC 63 and IC 59 are two nearby arc-shaped nebulae with relatively simple geometries and minimal obscuring material. The two regions, in spite of a similar projected distance from their ionizing star, have very different observational properties, both in continuum emission and in the presence and strength of line emission from molecular species. This paper conducts a multiwavelength study of the two regions using archived data from a variety of sources, including the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and the Infrared Space Observatory. The multiwavelength morphology and structure of the two nebulae are studied in detail, particularly the ionization fronts in IC 63. The possibility of triggered star formation in IC 63 is investigated and determined to be spurious. H2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission is detected in both IC 63 and IC 59, confirming the presence of molecular hydrogen in IC 59. The averaged line ratios are similar in the two regions, but variations are seen within each region. Temperatures and densities were calculated from the S(3) and S(5) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen. We derived a temperature of 630 K in IC 63, comparable to previous results, and a column density of 5.8×1017 cm-2, somewhat lower than previous values. New results for IC 59 show values of 590 K and 3.4×1017 cm-2, slightly cooler and with lower column density than IC 63. The contrast in appearance between IC 63 and IC 59 is consistent with a difference in actual (rather than projected) distances and a small variation in temperature and column density.

  3. Methods of the pharmacological imaging of the cannabinoid system (PhICS) study: towards understanding the role of the brain endocannabinoid system in human cognition.

    PubMed

    van Hell, Hendrika H; Bossong, Matthijs G; Jager, Gerry; Kahn, René S; Ramsey, Nick F

    2011-03-01

    Various lines of (pre)clinical research indicate that cannabinoid agents carry the potential for therapeutic application to reduce symptoms in several psychiatric disorders. However, direct testing of the involvement of cannabinoid brain systems in psychiatric syndromes is essential for further development. In the Pharmacological Imaging of the Cannabinoid System (PhICS) study, the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in cognitive brain function is assessed by comparing acute effects of the cannabinoid agonist Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on brain function between healthy controls and groups of psychiatric patients showing cognitive dysfunction. This article describes the objectives and methods of the PhICS study and presents preliminary results of the administration procedure on subjective and neurophysiological parameters. Core elements in the methodology of PhICS are the administration method (THC is administered by inhalation using a vaporizing device) and a comprehensive use of pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) combining several types of MRI scans including functional MRI (fMRI), Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) to measure brain perfusion, and resting-state fMRI. Additional methods like neuropsychological testing further specify the exact role of the endocannabinoid system in regulating cognition. Preliminary results presented in this paper indicate robust behavioral and subjective effects of THC. In addition, fMRI paradigms demonstrate activation of expected networks of brain regions in the cognitive domains of interest. The presented administration and assessment protocol provides a basis for further research on the involvement of the endocannabionoid systems in behavior and in psychopathology, which in turn may lead to development of therapeutic opportunities of cannabinoid ligands. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  5. Extended red emission in IC59 and IC63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Thomas S.-Y.; Witt, Adolf N.; Crawford, Ken

    2017-08-01

    We analysed new wide-field, wide- and narrow-band optical images of IC 59 and IC 63, two nebulae that are externally illuminated by the early B-star γ Cas, with the objective of mapping the extended red emission (ERE), a dust-related photoluminescence process that is still poorly understood, in these two clouds. The spatial distribution of the ERE relative to the direction of the incident radiation and relative to other emission processes, whose carriers and excitation requirements are known, provides important constraints on the excitation of the ERE. In both nebulae, we find the ERE intensity to peak spatially well before the more extended distribution of mid-infrared emission in the unidentified infrared bands, supporting earlier findings that point towards far-ultraviolet (11 < Ephoton < 13.6 eV) photons as the source of ERE excitation. The band-integrated absolute intensities of the ERE in IC 59 and IC 63 measured relative to the number density of photons available for ERE excitation are lower by about two orders of magnitude compared to ERE intensities observed in the high-latitude diffuse interstellar medium. This suggests that the lifetime of the ERE carriers is significantly reduced in the more intense radiation field prevailing in IC 59 and IC 63, pointing towards potential carriers that are only marginally stable against photoprocessing under interstellar conditions. A model involving isolated molecules or molecular ions, capable of inverse internal conversion and recurrent fluorescence, appears to provide the most likely explanation for our observational results.

  6. Local environments of SNe Ic and Ic-BL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Thöne, Christina; Modjaz, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    In this project we have observed the local explosion environments of a sample Type Ic and Type Ic-BL Supernove (SNe) selected from both targeted and non-targeted surveys using VLT/VIMOS in IFU-mode. It is believed that by probing the local surroundings of the parent stellar populations of these types of SNe, valuable information can be gained about the physical conditions, which affect the type of SNe produced. The different kinds of SNe produced are determined by the initial mass and metallicity of the stellar progenitor, as well as by the metallicity-dependent mass loss in the stellar winds at the end phase of their evolution and the interaction with a sufficiently close companion star. At the redshift of the galaxies we have selected, we spatially resolve regions ~250 pc across, comparable to the size of HII regions in local galaxies and using strong nebular emission lines as a proxy for the metal content of the stellar population, we can investigate if the conditions for the two types of SNe differ. The connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and broad-lined SNe Ic and the existence of SNe Ic-bl without observed GRBs raises the question of what distinguishes a GRB progenitor from that of an ordinary SN Ic-bl without a GRB and this project will help with the elucidation of this. Moreover, from the HII region ages and stellar mass estimates, we examine the two suggested progenitor models for stripped SNe: single massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with main-sequence masses of >30M⊙ that have experienced mass loss during the main sequence and WR stages, vs. binaries from lower-mass He stars.

  7. Reliability in CMOS IC processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreeve, R.; Ferrier, S.; Hall, D.; Wang, J.

    1990-01-01

    Critical CMOS IC processing reliability monitors are defined in this paper. These monitors are divided into three categories: process qualifications, ongoing production workcell monitors, and ongoing reliability monitors. The key measures in each of these categories are identified and prioritized based on their importance.

  8. Young Stars in IC 2118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Tim; Rebull, Luisa; Daou, Doris; Maranto, Tony; Roelofsen, Theresa; Sepulveda, Babs; Weehler, Cynthia

    2005-02-01

    IC 2118, the Witch Head Nebula (~210 parsecs), is region forming stars located near the supergiant star Rigel in the constellation Orion. Kun et al. (2004, A&A, 418, 89) have determined that IC 2118 is on the near side of the Orion-Eridanus Super Bubble and that stellar winds from the Orion OB1 association may be triggering new star formation in the nebula. We propose using IRAC and MIPS to reexamine a small dense region of this nebula where Kun et al. have spectroscopically identified three 2MASS sources as T Tauri stars embedded in the cloud. Previous all-sky surveys, including both IRAS and 2MASS, have included this region, but not to the resolution that Spitzer can provide, and there are few studies of this particular region in the literature. Our team proposes to use IRAC and MIPS observations to (1) investigate star formation, (2) look for likely cluster member stars with infrared excesses, and characterize this young star population by obtaining their colors and therefore estimates of masses and ages, (3) study the distribution of stars, their relationship to the ISM, and the possibilities of triggered star formation, (4) compare the young star population, distribution, and age to other similar sites of star formation, e.g., IC 1396 and (5) produce a dramatic image of the interstellar medium in the region surrounding IC 2118. Since this region is in the Orion constellation near the bright star Rigel, it provides additional appeal to students and the general public.

  9. R&D100: IC ID

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason; Pierson, Lyndon; Bauer, Todd

    2015-11-19

    Supply chain security to detect, deter, and prevent the counterfeiting of networked and stand-alone integrated circuits (ICs) is critical to cyber security. Sandia National Laboratory researchers have developed IC ID to leverage Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) and strong cryptographic authentication to create a unique fingerprint for each integrated circuit. IC ID assures the authenticity of ICs to prevent tampering or malicious substitution.

  10. R&D100: IC ID

    ScienceCinema

    Hamlet, Jason; Pierson, Lyndon; Bauer, Todd

    2016-07-12

    Supply chain security to detect, deter, and prevent the counterfeiting of networked and stand-alone integrated circuits (ICs) is critical to cyber security. Sandia National Laboratory researchers have developed IC ID to leverage Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) and strong cryptographic authentication to create a unique fingerprint for each integrated circuit. IC ID assures the authenticity of ICs to prevent tampering or malicious substitution.

  11. Leptin replacement improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected lipoatrophic men treated with pioglitazone: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Magkos, Faidon; Brennan, Aoife; Sweeney, Laura; Kang, Eun Seok; Doweiko, John; Karchmer, Adolf W; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-07-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced lipoatrophy is characterized by hypoleptinemia and insulin resistance. Evidence suggests that pioglitazone and recombinant methionyl human leptin (metreleptin) administration has beneficial effects in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected lipoatrophic patients. This proof-of-concept study aimed at evaluating whether the combination of metreleptin and pioglitazone has favorable effects, above and beyond pioglitazone alone, on both metabolic outcomes and peripheral lipoatrophy in HIV-infected patients on HAART. Nine HIV-positive men with at least 6 months of HAART exposure, clinical evidence of lipoatrophy, and low leptin concentrations (≤4 ng/mL) were placed on pioglitazone treatment (30 mg/d per os) and were randomized to receive either metreleptin (0.04 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily; n = 5) or placebo (n = 4) for 3 months in a double-blinded fashion. Compared with placebo, metreleptin reduced fasting serum insulin concentration, increased adiponectin concentration, reduced the homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance, and attenuated postprandial glycemia in response to a mixed meal (all P ≤ .02), but did not affect trunk and peripheral fat mass. HIV control was not affected, and no major adverse effects were observed. Metreleptin administration in HIV-positive, leptin-deficient patients with lipoatrophy treated with pioglitazone improves postprandial glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Results from this pilot study should be confirmed in larger clinical trials.

  12. Intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) induces local and systemic antitumor effects that involve both activated T and NK cells as well as enhanced IC retention.

    PubMed

    Yang, Richard K; Kalogriopoulos, Nicholas A; Rakhmilevich, Alexander L; Ranheim, Erik A; Seo, Songwon; Kim, Kyungmann; Alderson, Kory L; Gan, Jacek; Reisfeld, Ralph A; Gillies, Stephen D; Hank, Jacquelyn A; Sondel, Paul M

    2012-09-01

    hu14.18-IL-2 (IC) is an immunocytokine consisting of human IL-2 linked to hu14.18 mAb, which recognizes the GD2 disialoganglioside. Phase 2 clinical trials of i.v. hu14.18-IL-2 (i.v.-IC) in neuroblastoma and melanoma are underway and have already demonstrated activity in neuroblastoma. We showed previously that intratumoral hu14.18-IL-2 (IT-IC) results in enhanced antitumor activity in mouse models compared with i.v.-IC. The studies presented in this article were designed to determine the mechanisms involved in this enhanced activity and to support the future clinical testing of intratumoral administration of immunocytokines. Improved survival and inhibition of growth of both local and distant tumors were observed in A/J mice bearing s.c. NXS2 neuroblastomas treated with IT-IC compared with those treated with i.v.-IC or control mice. The local and systemic antitumor effects of IT-IC were inhibited by depletion of NK cells or T cells. IT-IC resulted in increased NKG2D receptors on intratumoral NKG2A/C/E⁺ NKp46⁺ NK cells and NKG2A/C/E⁺ CD8⁺ T cells compared with control mice or mice treated with i.v.-IC. NKG2D levels were augmented more in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes compared with splenocytes, supporting the localized nature of the intratumoral changes induced by IT-IC treatment. Prolonged retention of IC at the tumor site was seen with IT-IC compared with i.v.-IC. Overall, IT-IC resulted in increased numbers of activated T and NK cells within tumors, better IC retention in the tumor, enhanced inhibition of tumor growth, and improved survival compared with i.v.-IC.

  13. Human LTC-IC can be maintained for at least 5 weeks in vitro when interleukin-3 and a single chemokine are combined with O-sulfated heparan sulfates: requirement for optimal binding interactions of heparan sulfate with early-acting cytokines and matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; Oegema, T R; Brazil, J J; Dudek, A Z; Slungaard, A; Verfaillie, C M

    2000-01-01

    We have shown that stromal O-sulfated heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (O-S-GAGs) regulate primitive human hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) growth and differentiation by colocalizing heparin-binding cytokines and matrix proteins with HPC in stem cell "niches" in the marrow microenvironment. We now show that long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC) are maintained for 5 weeks in the absence of stroma when O-S-GAGs are added to IL-3 and either MIP-1alpha or PF4 (LTC-IC maintenance without GAGs, 32 +/- 2%; with GAGs, 95 +/- 7%; P <.001). When cultured with 5 additional cytokines, O-S-GAGs, IL-3, and MIP-1alpha, LTC-IC expanded 2- to 4-fold at 2 weeks, and 92 +/- 8% LTC-IC were maintained at 5 weeks. Similar results were seen when PF4 replaced MIP-1alpha. Although O-S-GAG omission did not affect 2-week expansion, only 20% LTC-IC were maintained for 5 weeks. When O-S-heparin was replaced by completely desulfated-, N-sulfated (O-desulfated), or unmodified heparins, LTC-IC maintenance at week 5 was not better than with cytokines alone. Unmodified- and O-S-heparin, but not desulfated- or N-sulfated heparin, bound to MIP-1alpha, IL-3, PF4, VEGF, thrombospondin, and fibronectin. However, the affinity of heparin for thrombospondin and PF4, and the association and dissociation rates of heparin for PF4, were higher than those of O-S-heparin. We conclude that (i) although cytokines may suffice to induce early expansion, adult human LTC-IC maintenance for longer than 1 month requires O-S-GAGs, and (ii) HPC support may depend not only on the ability of GAGs to bind proteins, but also on optimal affinity and kinetics of interactions that affect presentation of proteins in a biologically active manner to progenitors. (Blood. 2000;95:147-155)

  14. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kenneth R; Lally, Bryan R

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  15. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  16. IC and Component Selection for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the integrated circuit (IC) and selections of the IC components for space systems. Included in the discussion are a overview of semiconductors and the evolution of integrated circuit. It also reviews the three different viewpoints of the IC selection: technical, programmatic, and risk. From a radiation perspective there are four criteria for selecting ICs for space systems: guaranteed hardness, historical ground-based data, historical flight usage, and unknown assurance.

  17. Rocket Observations of IC 405

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, K.; McCandliss, S. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Burgh, E. B.

    2001-12-01

    We present the preliminary results from a NASA/JHU sounding rocket mission (36.198 UG), launched on 09 February 2001 at 21:00 MST, to obtain a long slit (200\\arcsec x 12\\arcsec) spectrum of the reflection nebula IC 405 in the 900 -- 1400 Å wavelength region. Several pointings within the nebula were obtained, including a high quality (S/N ≈ 10-15 at R = 300) spectrum of the central star, HD 34078, which clearly shows absorption from molecular hydrogen (H2). Observations of the nebula reveal a surface brightness to stellar flux ratio that rises by two orders of magnitude between 1400 and 900 Å. This is in contrast with the relatively flat nebular dust scattering observed during a prior sounding rocket observation of the reflection nebula NGC 2023. We will also present additional nebular pointings within IC 405, including a region observed by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope showing evidence of H2 fluorescent emission. These observations were supported by NASA grant NAG5-5122 to the Johns Hopkins University.

  18. Thackeray's Globules in IC 2944

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Strangely glowing dark clouds float serenely in this remarkable and beautiful image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. These dense, opaque dust clouds - known as 'globules' - are silhouetted against nearby bright stars in the busy star-forming region, IC 2944. These globules were first found in IC 2944 by astronomer A.D. Thackeray in 1950. Although globules like these have been known since Dutch-American astronomer Bart Bok first drew attention to such objects in 1947, little is still known about their origin and nature, except that they are generally associated with areas of star formation, called 'HII regions' due to the presence of hydrogen gas. The largest of the globules in this image is actually two separate clouds that gently overlap along our line of sight. Each cloud is nearly 1.4 light-years (50 arcseconds) along its longest dimension, and collectively, they contain enough material to equal over 15 solar masses. IC 2944, the surrounding HII region, is filled with gas and dust that is illuminated and heated by a loose cluster of O-type stars. These stars are much hotter and much more massive than our Sun. IC 2944 is relatively close by, located only 5900 light-years (1800 parsecs) away in the constellation Centaurus. Thanks to the remarkable resolution offered by the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers can for the first time study the intricate structure of these globules. The globules appear to be heavily fractured, as if major forces were tearing them apart. When radio astronomers observed the faint hiss of molecules within the globules, they realized that the globules are actually in constant, churning motion, moving supersonically among each other. This may be caused by the powerful ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars, which also heat up the gas in the HII region, causing it to expand and stream against the globules, leading to their destruction. Despite their serene appearance, the globules may actually be likened to clumps

  19. Thackeray's Globules in IC 2944

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Strangely glowing dark clouds float serenely in this remarkable and beautiful image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. These dense, opaque dust clouds - known as 'globules' - are silhouetted against nearby bright stars in the busy star-forming region, IC 2944. These globules were first found in IC 2944 by astronomer A.D. Thackeray in 1950. Although globules like these have been known since Dutch-American astronomer Bart Bok first drew attention to such objects in 1947, little is still known about their origin and nature, except that they are generally associated with areas of star formation, called 'HII regions' due to the presence of hydrogen gas. The largest of the globules in this image is actually two separate clouds that gently overlap along our line of sight. Each cloud is nearly 1.4 light-years (50 arcseconds) along its longest dimension, and collectively, they contain enough material to equal over 15 solar masses. IC 2944, the surrounding HII region, is filled with gas and dust that is illuminated and heated by a loose cluster of O-type stars. These stars are much hotter and much more massive than our Sun. IC 2944 is relatively close by, located only 5900 light-years (1800 parsecs) away in the constellation Centaurus. Thanks to the remarkable resolution offered by the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers can for the first time study the intricate structure of these globules. The globules appear to be heavily fractured, as if major forces were tearing them apart. When radio astronomers observed the faint hiss of molecules within the globules, they realized that the globules are actually in constant, churning motion, moving supersonically among each other. This may be caused by the powerful ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars, which also heat up the gas in the HII region, causing it to expand and stream against the globules, leading to their destruction. Despite their serene appearance, the globules may actually be likened to clumps

  20. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF IC 2118

    SciTech Connect

    Guieu, S.; Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Cole, D. M.; Flagey, N.; Laher, R.; Stolovy, S.; Spuck, T.; Roelofsen Moody, T.; Sepulveda, B.; Weehler, C.; Maranto, A.; Penprase, B.; Ramirez, S.

    2010-09-01

    IC 2118, also known as the Witch Head Nebula, is a wispy, roughly cometary, {approx}5 degree long reflection nebula, and is thought to be a site of triggered star formation. In order to search for new young stellar objects (YSOs), we have observed this region in seven mid- and far-infrared bands using the Spitzer Space Telescope and in four bands in the optical using the U. S. Naval Observatory 40 inch telescope. We find infrared excesses in four of the six previously known T Tauri stars in our combined infrared maps, and we find six entirely new candidate YSOs, one of which may be an edge-on disk. Most of the YSOs seen in the infrared are Class II objects, and they are all in the 'head' of the nebula, within the most massive molecular cloud of the region.

  1. Star Formation in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, W.

    2008-12-01

    A review of work on the small, compact, nearby young cluster IC 348 is given. This region is particularly important because it is well surveyed at a variety of wavelengths and intermediate in nature between dense clusters and loose associations. Its earliest type star is B5 and it contains a few hundred stellar members as well as some brown dwarfs, protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and starless sub-mm cores. The total mass of its components is ˜90 M_⊙, most of which is in the form of pre-main sequence stars. Perhaps the biggest challenge to work on the cluster is the relatively high and variable extinction (A_v=3D1-7 mag). Studies to date have provided particularly valuable insights into the initial mass function, disk lifetimes, stellar rotation properties, X-ray properties, outflows and substructure of the cluster. Results on the stellar component include the following: 1) the initial mass function matches that for field stars in the stellar and brown dwarf regimes, 2) the fraction of stars with disks is probably normal for the cluster's age, 3) the rotation properties match those of the Orion Nebula Cluster and are significantly different, in the sense of slower rotation, than NGC 2264, 4) the X-ray properties of the stars appear normal for T Tauri stars. There is a ridge of high extinction that lies ˜10 arcmin (0.9 pc in projection) to the southwest of IC 348 and contains about a dozen Class 0 and I protostars as well as some Herbig Haro objects and sub-mm cores. This region, which also contains the "Flying Ghost Nebula" and the well-studied object HH 211, clearly signals that star formation in this part of the Perseus dark clouds is not yet finished. An extensive kinematical study involving both proper motions and radial velocities for the 400 members of the cluster would be most desirable.

  2. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bounds, John Alan

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  3. Differential regulation of metabolic, neuroendocrine, and immune function by leptin in humans.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jean L; Matarese, Giuseppe; Shetty, Greeshma K; Raciti, Patricia; Kelesidis, Iosif; Aufiero, Daniela; De Rosa, Veronica; Perna, Francesco; Fontana, Silvia; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2006-05-30

    To elucidate whether the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and immune function during short-term starvation in healthy humans is permissive, i.e., occurs only when circulating leptin levels are below a critical threshold level, we studied seven normal-weight women during a normoleptinemic-fed state and two states of relative hypoleptinemia induced by 72-h fasting during which we administered either placebo or recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) in replacement doses. Fasting for 72 h decreased leptin levels by approximately = 80% from a midphysiologic (14.7 +/- 2.6 ng/ml) to a low-physiologic (2.8 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) level. Administration of r-metHuLeptin during fasting fully restored leptin to physiologic levels (28.8 +/- 2.0 ng/ml) and reversed the fasting-associated decrease in overnight luteinizing hormone pulse frequency but had no effect on fasting-induced changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone pulsatility, thyroid and IGF-1 hormone levels, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and renin-aldosterone activity. FSH and sex steroid levels were not altered. Short-term reduction of leptin levels decreased the number of circulating cells of the adaptive immune response, but r-metHuLeptin did not have major effects on their number or in vitro function. Thus, changes of leptin levels within the physiologic range have no major physiologic effects in leptin-replete humans. Studies involving more severe and/or chronic leptin deficiency are needed to precisely define the lower limit of normal leptin levels for each of leptin's physiologic targets.

  4. Differential regulation of metabolic, neuroendocrine, and immune function by leptin in humans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jean L.; Matarese, Giuseppe; Shetty, Greeshma K.; Raciti, Patricia; Kelesidis, Iosif; Aufiero, Daniela; De Rosa, Veronica; Perna, Francesco; Fontana, Silvia; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2006-01-01

    To elucidate whether the role of leptin in regulating neuroendocrine and immune function during short-term starvation in healthy humans is permissive, i.e., occurs only when circulating leptin levels are below a critical threshold level, we studied seven normal-weight women during a normoleptinemic-fed state and two states of relative hypoleptinemia induced by 72-h fasting during which we administered either placebo or recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) in replacement doses. Fasting for 72 h decreased leptin levels by ≈80% from a midphysiologic (14.7 ± 2.6 ng/ml) to a low-physiologic (2.8 ± 0.3 ng/ml) level. Administration of r-metHuLeptin during fasting fully restored leptin to physiologic levels (28.8 ± 2.0 ng/ml) and reversed the fasting-associated decrease in overnight luteinizing hormone pulse frequency but had no effect on fasting-induced changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone pulsatility, thyroid and IGF-1 hormone levels, hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal and renin–aldosterone activity. FSH and sex steroid levels were not altered. Short-term reduction of leptin levels decreased the number of circulating cells of the adaptive immune response, but r-metHuLeptin did not have major effects on their number or in vitro function. Thus, changes of leptin levels within the physiologic range have no major physiologic effects in leptin-replete humans. Studies involving more severe and/or chronic leptin deficiency are needed to precisely define the lower limit of normal leptin levels for each of leptin’s physiologic targets. PMID:16714386

  5. SPROC: A multiple-processor DSP IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R.

    1991-01-01

    A large, single-chip, multiple-processor, digital signal processing (DSP) integrated circuit (IC) fabricated in HP-Cmos34 is presented. The innovative architecture is best suited for analog and real-time systems characterized by both parallel signal data flows and concurrent logic processing. The IC is supported by a powerful development system that transforms graphical signal flow graphs into production-ready systems in minutes. Automatic compiler partitioning of tasks among four on-chip processors gives the IC the signal processing power of several conventional DSP chips.

  6. High performance MPEG-audio decoder IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, M.; Benbassat, G.; Cyr, K.; Li, S.; Gill, M.; Kam, D.; Walker, K.; Look, P.; Eldridge, C.; Ng, P.

    1993-01-01

    The emerging digital audio and video compression technology brings both an opportunity and a new challenge to IC design. The pervasive application of compression technology to consumer electronics will require high volume, low cost IC's and fast time to market of the prototypes and production units. At the same time, the algorithms used in the compression technology result in complex VLSI IC's. The conflicting challenges of algorithm complexity, low cost, and fast time to market have an impact on device architecture and design methodology. The work presented in this paper is about the design of a dedicated, high precision, Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) audio decoder.

  7. High performance MPEG-audio decoder IC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorn, M.; Benbassat, G.; Cyr, K.; Li, S.; Gill, M.; Kam, D.; Walker, K.; Look, P.; Eldridge, C.; Ng, P.

    1993-01-01

    The emerging digital audio and video compression technology brings both an opportunity and a new challenge to IC design. The pervasive application of compression technology to consumer electronics will require high volume, low cost IC's and fast time to market of the prototypes and production units. At the same time, the algorithms used in the compression technology result in complex VLSI IC's. The conflicting challenges of algorithm complexity, low cost, and fast time to market have an impact on device architecture and design methodology. The work presented in this paper is about the design of a dedicated, high precision, Motion Picture Expert Group (MPEG) audio decoder.

  8. I&C Modeling in SPAR Models

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Schroeder

    2012-06-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models for the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants currently have very limited instrumentation and control (I&C) modeling [1]. Most of the I&C components in the operating plant SPAR models are related to the reactor protection system. This was identified as a finding during the industry peer review of SPAR models. While the Emergency Safeguard Features (ESF) actuation and control system was incorporated into the Peach Bottom Unit 2 SPAR model in a recent effort [2], various approaches to expend resources for detailed I&C modeling in other SPAR models are investigated.

  9. ESD evaluation of radiation-hardened, high-reliability CMOS and MNOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.M.; Stewart, H.D.; Pastorek, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Standard human-body-equivalent circuit electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests were performed on the inputs of high-reliability, radiation-hardened integrated circuits (ICs) designed with seven different technologies. Metal and silicon gate complementary MOS (CMOS) and metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) ICs with design rules ranging from 10 microns down to 2 microns were evaluated. The ESD hardness of these ICs ranged from 1 kV to greater than 9 kV. The low-range ESD hardness ICs were fabricated with a masking polysilicon ring that defined the input protection diodes. Tests on commercial equivalent ICs demonstrated that the ESD hardness of the radiation-hardened ICs was not significantly less than the ESD hardness of the commercial equivalent ICs. The failure modes and mechanisms of the ICs were evaluated. Most of the ICs that did not have the masking polysilicon ring failed because of input to V/sub DD/ or V/sub SS/ shorts due to degraded protection diodes. ESD tests with the pulse applied between the package metal lid and the package pins were also performed. These lid tests produced permanent input damage, the same as occurred during tests with the pulse applied to the package input, but the damage occurred at lower voltages. ESD pulses with peak voltages as low as 250 volts produced arcs from the lid to the input bond wires, resulting in degraded inputs.

  10. ESD evaluation of radiation-hardened, high reliability CMOS and MNOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, J.M.; Pastorek, R.A.; Stewart, H.D.

    1984-02-01

    Standard human body equivalent circuit electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests were performed on the inputs of high-reliability, radiation-hardened integrated circuits (ICs) designed with seven different technologies. Metal and silicon gate complementary MOS (CMOS) and metal-nitrideoxide-semiconductor (MNOS) ICs with design rules ranging from 10 microns down to 2 microns were evaluated. The ESD hardness of these ICs ranged from 1 kV to greater than 9 kV. The low range ESD hardness ICs were fabricated with a masking polysilicon ring that defined the input protection diodes. Tests on commercial equivalent ICs demonstrated that the ESD hardness of the radiation-hardened ICs was not significantly less than the ESD hardness of the commercial equivalent ICs. The failure modes and mechanisms of the ICs were evaluated. Most of the ICs that did not have the masking polysilicon ring failed because of input to V/sub DD/ or V/sub SS/ shorts due to degraded protection diodes. ESD tests with the pulse applied between the package metal lid and the package pins were also performed. These lid tests produced permanent input damage, the same as occurred during tests with the pulse applied to the package input, but the damage occurred at lower voltages. ESD pulses with peak voltages as low as 250 volts produced arcs from the lid to the input bond wires, resulting in degraded inputs.

  11. ESD evaluation of radiation-hardened, high-reliability CMOS and MNOS ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soden, J. M.; Stewart, H. D.; Pastorek, R. A.

    Standard human-body-equivalent circuit electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests were performed on the inputs of high-reliability, radiation-hardened integrated circuits (ICs) designed with seven different technologies. Metal and silicon gate complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) and metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (MNOS) ICs with design rules ranging from 10 microns down to 2 microns were evaluated. The ESD hardness of these ICs ranged from 1 kV to greater than 9 kV. The low-range ESD hardness ICs were fabricated with a masking polysilicon ring that defined the input protection diodes. Tests on commercial equivalent ICs demonstrated that the ESD hardness of the radiation-hardened ICs was not significantly less than the ESD hardness of the commercial equivalent ICs. The failure modes and mechanisms of the ICs were evaluated. Most of the ICs that did not have the making polysilicon ring failed because of input to V sub DD or V sub SS shorts due to degraded protection diodes. ESD tests with the pulse applied between the package metal lid and the package pins were also performed. These lid tests produced permanent input damage, the same as occurred during tests with the pulse applied to the package input, but the damage occurred at lower voltages. ESD pulses with peak voltages as low as 250 volts produced arcs from the lid to the input bond wires, resulting in degraded inputs.

  12. Semiconductor/High-Tc-Superconductor Hybrid ICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) containing both Si-based semiconducting and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) superconducting circuit elements on sapphire substrates developed. Help to prevent diffusion of Cu from superconductors into semiconductors. These hybrid ICs combine superconducting and semiconducting features unavailable in superconducting or semiconducting circuitry alone. For example, complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout and memory devices integrated with fast-switching Josephson-junction super-conducting logic devices and zero-resistance interconnections.

  13. Semiconductor/High-Tc-Superconductor Hybrid ICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) containing both Si-based semiconducting and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) superconducting circuit elements on sapphire substrates developed. Help to prevent diffusion of Cu from superconductors into semiconductors. These hybrid ICs combine superconducting and semiconducting features unavailable in superconducting or semiconducting circuitry alone. For example, complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout and memory devices integrated with fast-switching Josephson-junction super-conducting logic devices and zero-resistance interconnections.

  14. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    PubMed

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  15. Silicon MCM substrates for integration of III-V photonic devices and CMOS IC`s

    SciTech Connect

    Seigal, P.; Carson, R.; Flores, R.; Rose, B.

    1993-07-01

    The progress made in advanced packaging development at Sandia National Laboratories for integration of III-V photonic devices and CMOS IC`s on Silicon MCM substrates for planar aid stacked applications will be reported. Studies to characterize precision alignment techniques using solder attach materials compatible with both silicon IC`s and III-V devices will be discussed. Examples of the use of back-side alignment and IR through-wafer inspection will be shown along with the extra processing steps that are used. Under bump metallurgy considerations are also addressed.

  16. Changes in hormones, metabolites, and milk after treatment with sometribove (recombinant methionyl bST) in Deutsches Fleckvieh and German black and white cows.

    PubMed

    Schams, D; Graf, F; Meyer, J; Graule, B; Mauthner, M; Wollny, C

    1991-04-01

    Twelve second-lactation Deutsches Fleckvieh cows, (FV, a dual-purpose breed) and 12 German Black and White (BW, a dairy breed) were used to evaluate similarities and differences in the response to a prolonged-release formulation of sometribove (N-methionyl bovine somatotropin, bST). Cows were milked twice daily and fed a basic diet (70% corn silage, 30% alfalfa hay) ad libitum plus 1 kg of concentrate. Additionally, concentrates and supplements were offered at the rate of 1 kg for each 22 kg of milk produced above 12 kg/d. Six cows of each breed were treated s.c. with 500 mg of sometribove at 14-d intervals from wk 9 to 29 postpartum (pp). Blood was collected by jugular vein puncture once weekly from wk 7 to 33 pp and daily for 14 d after the first and last (11th) injection of bST. Somatotropin (ST), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin, thyroid hormones, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), liver enzymes, and blood metabolites were evaluated. During bST treatment, plasma ST increased significantly on d 7 in both breeds and then decreased on d 14 after injection. Plasma IGF-I was positively correlated with ST. Plasma NEFA were high on d 7 and decreased on d 14. In response to bST, the average milk yield increased for FV and BW cows by 5.1 kg/d (29.7%) and 5.0 kg/d (28%), respectively, and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) increased by 5.0 kg/d (28%) and 5.3 kg/d (19.9%), respectively. Milk content of fat, protein, lactose, number of somatic cells, and body weight were similar across treatments.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Banerjee, S.; Jackson, M.; Solheid, P.

    2003-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is a multi-user facility to establish and maintain a state-of-the-art relational database and digital archive for rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to make such data generally available and to provide an information technology infrastructure for these and other research-oriented databases run by the international community. As its name implies, MagIC will not be restricted to paleomagnetic or rock magnetic data only, although MagIC will focus on these kinds of information during its setup phase. MagIC will be hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ where two "integrated" web portals will be developed, one for paleomagnetism (currently functional as a prototype that can be explored via the http://earthref.org/databases/PMAG/ link) and one for rock magnetism. The MagIC database will store all measurements and their derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and their intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). Ultimately, this database will allow researchers to study "on the internet" and to download important data sets that display paleo-secular variations in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field over geological time, or that display magnetic data in typical Zijderveld, hysteresis/FORC and various magnetization/remanence diagrams. The MagIC database is completely integrated in the EarthRef.org relational database structure and thus benefits significantly from already-existing common database components, such as the EarthRef Reference Database (ERR) and Address Book (ERAB). The ERR allows researchers to find complete sets of literature resources as used in GERM (Geochemical Earth Reference Model), REM (Reference Earth Model) and MagIC. The ERAB contains addresses for all contributors to the EarthRef.org databases, and also for those who participated in data collection, archiving and

  18. The H II regions of IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.S.; Mason, S.F.; Gullixson, C.A. Prime Computer, Inc., Bedford, MA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ )

    1990-08-01

    New H-alpha images are presented of IC 1613, a small irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The images, obtained with a CCD on the 42-in telescope at Lowell Observatory, have been calibrated and used to produce an H-alpha luminosity function and a size distribution for the H II regions in IC 1613. The results are compared to results for NGC 6822 and the Magellanic Clouds. The size distribution is found to be Poissonian over a limited range. 24 refs.

  19. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This illustration shows a cutaway drawing with callouts of the major components for the S-IC (first) stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The S-IC stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing more than 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimball for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  20. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This is a cutaway view of the Saturn V first stage, known as the S-IC, detailing the five F-1 engines and fuel cells. The S-IC stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing more than 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through the five F-1 engines that are powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  1. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This cutaway illustration shows the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage with detailed callouts of the components. The S-IC Stage is 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, producing 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines that are powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines are mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine is rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equals the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  2. Two possible active supernovae in IC 2150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Stu; Bock, Greg; Marples, Peter; Drescher, Colin; Pearl, Patrick; BOSS Team; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark; Morrell, Nidia; Hsiao, Eric; Carnegie Supernova Project

    2016-03-01

    Stu Parker and the BOSS team report the discovery of a rare event involving two possible active supernovae in IC 2150 (z=0.010404; NED) which were recorded in images obtained by Stu Parker during the ongoing program by the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) team.

  3. ICS: An Intelligent Vocational Guidance Counseling System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Paul, Jr.; And Others

    Computerized career guidance systems hold the promise of providing a breadth and depth of information for which counselors are not suited. At the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences, Stanford University, an individualized counseling system (ICS) is being developed which integrates advanced techniques from comptuer assisted…

  4. Azimuth correlator design for IC chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyree, V. C.; Wu, C.

    1980-01-01

    Azimuth correlator circuit synthetic-aperature radar (SAR) is designed for single integrated circuit (IC) chip. Azimuth correlator modules constructed with sets of such chips could make real-time signal processing possible. Primary advantages are realized in areas of weight and power requirement reductions.

  5. Measurement selection for parametric IC fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, A.; Meador, J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with the use of measurement reduction for statistical IC fault diagnosis are described. The reduction method used involves data pre-processing in a fashion consistent with a specific definition of parametric faults. The effects of this preprocessing are examined.

  6. IC Fabrication Methods Improve Laser Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.; Pickhardt, V.

    1984-01-01

    Family of high-performance, tunable diode lasers developed for use as local oscillators in passive laser heterodyne spectrometer. Diodes fabricated using standard IC processes include photolithography, selective etching and vacuum deposition of metals and insulators. Packaging refinements improved thermal-cycling characteristics of diodes and increased room-temperature shelf life.

  7. IC Engine Applications of Carbon-Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton; Rivers, H. Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Many of the properties of carbon-carbon make it an ideal material for reciprocating materials of intermittent combustion (IC) engines. Recent diesel engine tests, shown herein, indicate that the thermal and mechanical properties of carbon-carbon are adequate for piston applications, However, reducing the manufacturing costs and providing long term oxidation protection are still issues that need to be addressed.

  8. Embedded I&C for Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A.

    2016-04-01

    This project uses embedded instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies to demonstrate potential performance gains of nuclear power plant components in extreme environments. Extreme environments include high temperature, radiation, high pressure, high vibration, and high EMI conditions. For extreme environments, performance gains arise from moment-to-moment sensing of local variables and immediate application of local feedback control. Planning for embedding I&C during early system design phases contrasts with the traditional, serial design approach that incorporates minimal I&C after mechanical and electrical design is complete. The demonstration application involves the development and control of a novel, proof-of-concept motor/pump design. The motor and pump combination operate within the fluid environment, eliminating the need for rotating seals. Actively controlled magnetic bearings also replace failure-prone mechanical contact bearings that typically suspend rotating components. Such as design has the potential to significantly enhance the reliability and life of the pumping system and would not be possible without embedded I&C.

  9. Parametric Model Checking with VerICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapik, Michał; Niewiadomski, Artur; Penczek, Wojciech; Półrola, Agata; Szreter, Maciej; Zbrzezny, Andrzej

    The paper presents the verification system verICS, extended with the three new modules aimed at parametric verification of Elementary Net Systems, Distributed Time Petri Nets, and a subset of UML. All the modules exploit Bounded Model Checking for verifying parametric reachability and the properties specified in the logic PRTECTL - the parametric extension of the existential fragment of CTL.

  10. TDR method for determine IC's parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoshenkov, V.; Rodionov, D.; Khlybov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Frequency domain simulation is a widely used approach for determine integrated circuits parameters. This approach can be found in most of software tools used in IC industry. Time domain simulation approach shows intensive usage last years due to some advantages. In particular it applicable for analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary systems where frequency domain is inapplicable. Resolution of time domain systems allow see heterogeneities on distance 1mm, determine it parameters and properties. Authors used approach based on detecting reflected signals from heterogeneities - time domain reflectometry (TDR). Field effect transistor technology scaling up to 30-60nm gate length and 10nm gate dielectric, heterojunction bi-polar transistors with 10-30nm base width allows fabricate digital IC's with 20GHz clock frequency and RF-IC's with tens GHz bandwidth. Such devices and operation speed suppose transit signal by use microwave lines. There are local heterogeneities can be found inside of the signal path due to connections between different parts of signal lines (stripe line-RF-connector pin, stripe line - IC package pin). These heterogeneities distort signals that cause bandwidth decrease for RF-devices. Time domain research methods of transmission and reflected signals give the opportunities to determine heterogeneities, it properties, parameters and built up equivalent circuits. Experimental results are provided and show possibility for inductance and capacitance measurement up to 25GHz. Measurements contains result of signal path research on IC and printed circuit board (PCB) used for 12GHz RF chips. Also dielectric constant versus frequency was measured up to 35GHz.

  11. 75 FR 54940 - Agency Information Collection (IC) Activities; Revision of an Approved IC; Accident Recordkeeping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... FMCSA has obtained more accurate data upon which to base calculation of the paperwork burden of this IC.... Improved FMCSA accident data provides a more accurate estimate of the total responses to this information...

  12. A closer look at IC 5201

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-12

    In 1900, astronomer Joseph Lunt made a discovery: Peering through a telescope at Cape Town Observatory, the British–South African scientist spotted this beautiful sight in the southern constellation of Grus (The Crane): a barred spiral galaxy now named IC 5201. Over a century later, the galaxy is still of interest to astronomers. For this image, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope used its Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) to produce a beautiful and intricate image of the galaxy. Hubble’s ACS can resolve individual stars within other galaxies, making it an invaluable tool to explore how various populations of stars have sprung to life, evolved, and died throughout the cosmos. IC 5201 sits over 40 million light-years away from us. As with two thirds of all the spirals we see in the Universe — including the Milky Way, the galaxy has a bar of stars slicing through its centre.

  13. The IC 342-Maffei 1 Group Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, M. L.; Buta, R.

    1996-12-01

    Deep wide-field CCD images of thirteen members of the IC 342-Maffei 1 Group in the Northern Milky Way have been acquired in the Johnson V and Cousins I photometric systems. The observations were obtained with the Kitt Peak Burrell-Schmidt telescope in Arizona during six nights in November 1995. Almost none of these galaxies was effectively studied in the past because of the heavy foreground extinction and significant foreground star contamination in the direction of the group. The tens of thousands of foreground stars included on the Schmidt images have been successfully subtracted using DAOPHOT, revealing the true extent and total brightness of most of the galaxies for the first time. In the absence of galactic extinction, Maffei 1, Maffei 2, and IC 342 would be among the five brightest galaxies in the northern sky, and both Maffei 1 and IC 342 would subtend angles as large as the full Moon. The results are critical for assessing the degree to which the group influenced the dynamical evolution of the Local Group. In this poster, we will present deep photographs, total magnitudes and color indices, luminosity profiles, and distance estimates for the member galaxies.

  14. Abundances in the Planetary Nebula IC 5217

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.; Lee, Woo-Baik; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High resolution optical wavelength spectroscopic data were secured in the optical wavelengths, 3700A - 10,050A, for the planetary nebula IC 5217 with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. These optical spectra have been analyzed along with the near-UV and UV archive data. Diagnostic analyses indicate a nebular physical condition with electron temperature of about 10,700 K (from the [O III] lines) and the density of N(sub epsilon) = 5000/cm. Ionic concentrations have been derived with the representative diagnostics, and with the aid of a photoionization model construction, we derived the elemental abundances. Contrary to the previous studies found in the literature, He and C appear to be depleted compared to the average planetary nebula and to the Sun (and S marginally so), while the remaining elements appear to be close to the average value. IC 5217 may have evolved from an O-rich progenitor and the central star temperature of IC 5217 is likely to be 92,000 K.

  15. Molecular Hydrogen Fluorescence in IC 63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, B-G

    2005-01-01

    This grant has supported the acquisition, reduction and analysis of data targeting the structure and excitation of molecular hydrogen in the reflection nebula IC 63 and in particular the fluorescent emission seen in the UV. In addition to manpower for analyzing the FUSE data, the grant supported the (attempted) acquisition of supporting ground-based data. We proposed for and received observing time for two sets of ground based, data; narrow band imaging ([S II], [O III) at KPNO (July 2002; Observer: Burgh) and imaging spectro-photometry of several of the near-infrared rotation-vibration lines of H2 at the IRTF (October 2003; Observer: Andersson). Unfortunately, both of these runs were failures, primarily because of bad weather, and did not result in any useful data. We combined the FUSE observations with rocket borne observations of the star responsible for exciting the H2 fluorescence in IC 63: gamma Cas, and with archival HUT observations of IC 63, covering the long-wavelength part of the molecular hydrogen fluorescence.

  16. High Rate for Type IC Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; Marvin-Newberg, H.J.; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perlmutter, S.; Sasseen, T.P.; Smith, C.K.

    1991-09-01

    Using an automated telescope we have detected 20 supernovae in carefully documented observations of nearby galaxies. The supernova rates for late spiral (Sbc, Sc, Scd, and Sd) galaxies, normalized to a blue luminosity of 10{sup 10} L{sub Bsun}, are 0.4 h{sup 2}, 1.6 h{sup 2}, and 1.1 h{sup 2} per 100 years for SNe type la, Ic, and II. The rate for type Ic supernovae is significantly higher than found in previous surveys. The rates are not corrected for detection inefficiencies, and do not take into account the indications that the Ic supernovae are fainter on the average than the previous estimates; therefore the true rates are probably higher. The rates are not strongly dependent on the galaxy inclination, in contradiction to previous compilations. If the Milky Way is a late spiral, then the rate of Galactic supernovae is greater than 1 per 30 {+-} 7 years, assuming h = 0.75. This high rate has encouraging consequences for future neutrino and gravitational wave observatories.

  17. Simulation of SEU transients in CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Kerns, S.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that available analytical models of the number of single-event-induced errors (SEU) in combinational logic systems are not easily applicable to real integrated circuits (ICs). An efficient computer simulation algorithm set, SITA, predicts the vulnerability of data stored in and processed by complex combinational logic circuits to SEU. SITA is described in detail to allow researchers to incorporate it into their error analysis packages. Required simulation algorithms are based on approximate closed-form equations modeling individual device behavior in CMOS logic units. Device-level simulation is used to estimate the probability that ion-device interactions produce erroneous signals capable of propagating to a latch (or n output node), and logic-level simulation to predict the spread of such erroneous, latched information through the IC. Simulation results are compared to those from SPICE for several circuit and logic configurations. SITA results are comparable to this established circuit-level code, and SITA can analyze circuits with state-of-the-art device densities (which SPICE cannot). At all IC complexity levels, SITAS offers several factors of 10 savings in simulation time over SPICE.

  18. Molecular Hydrogen Fluorescence in IC 63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersson, B-G

    2005-01-01

    This grant has supported the acquisition, reduction and analysis of data targeting the structure and excitation of molecular hydrogen in the reflection nebula IC 63 and in particular the fluorescent emission seen in the UV. In addition to manpower for analyzing the FUSE data, the grant supported the (attempted) acquisition of supporting ground-based data. We proposed for and received observing time for two sets of ground based, data; narrow band imaging ([S II], [O III) at KPNO (July 2002; Observer: Burgh) and imaging spectro-photometry of several of the near-infrared rotation-vibration lines of H2 at the IRTF (October 2003; Observer: Andersson). Unfortunately, both of these runs were failures, primarily because of bad weather, and did not result in any useful data. We combined the FUSE observations with rocket borne observations of the star responsible for exciting the H2 fluorescence in IC 63: gamma Cas, and with archival HUT observations of IC 63, covering the long-wavelength part of the molecular hydrogen fluorescence.

  19. IC-4, a new irreversible EGFR inhibitor, exhibits prominent anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Bo; Wang, Zhong-Qing; Yan, Xu; Chen, Mei-Wan; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Wu, Guo-Sheng; Ge, Ze-Mei; Zhou, De-Min; Wang, Yi-Tao; Li, Run-Tao

    2013-10-28

    Accumulating evidence suggested that the irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have potential to override the acquired resistance to target-based therapies. Herein, we reported IC-4 as a novel irreversible TKI for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). IC-4 potentially suppressed proliferation, induced apoptosis and a G2/M cell cycle arrest in breast cancer cells, correlating with inhibition of EGF-induced EGFR activation, but independent of DNA damage. In addition, IC-4 exhibited anti-angiogenetic activities both in vitro and in vivo. It suppressed cell viability and proliferation induced by various growth factors in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). IC-4 also inhibited HUVECs migration and tube formation. In transgenic zebrafish embryo model, IC-4 was shown to suppress formation of intersegmental vessel and development of subintestinal vessels. Taken together, these results demonstrated that IC-4 is a new irreversible EGFR-TKI, exhibiting potent anti-breast cancer and anti-angiogenetic effects.

  20. Finding Young Stars in IC417

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odden, Caroline; Rebull, Luisa M.; Sanchez, Richard; Hall, Garrison; Dear, AnnaMaria; Hengel, Cassie; LaRocca, Mia; Lin, Samantha; Nix, Sabine; Sweckard, Teaghan; Wilhelm, Katie

    2016-01-01

    IC 417 is a young cluster in the constellation Auriga, towards the Galactic anti-center in the Perseus arm, at a distance of ~2.3 kpc. Previous studies suggested that there are young stars in this region; Camargo et al. (2012) identified several few-Myr-old clusters in this region from 2MASS clustering, and Jose et al. (2008) identified H-alpha excess sources. Since stars form from clouds of interstellar dust and gas, a signature of star formation is excess infrared (IR) emission, which is interpreted as evidence for circumstellar dust around young stars. We identified new candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in IC 417 by incorporating near- and mid-infrared observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Infrared excess sources were identified by using a series of color cuts in various 2MASS/WISE color-magnitude and color-color diagrams following Koenig & Leisawitz (2014). We also assembled a list of OB and H-alpha stars from the literature, including those from Jose et al. (2008), and H-alpha bright stars from the IPHAS survey (Witham et al. 2008). Starting with this compiled list of approximately 200 interesting objects in the region, we then set about checking their reliability in three ways. We inspected the POSS, 2MASS, and WISE images of the sources. We assembled and inspected spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from archival data ranging from wavelengths of 0.7 to 22 um. Finally, we created and inspected color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. We find enough new YSO candidates to more than double the number yet identified in the IC 417 region. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  1. Ion projection lithography for IC manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrmann, Albrecht; Kaesmaier, Rainer; Loeschner, Hans

    1999-04-01

    Since 1997, a MEDEA project funded by European governments has started which aims to proof the feasibility of ion projection lithography for IC production. An ion 4x reduction stepper is built within the project. The system consists of a multicusp ion source producing He ions, electrostatic lens electrodes, the mask unit, an in-situ beam adjustment unit, an off-axis wafer alignment system and a wafer stage. Before the tool is built, results about ion source capabilities and stochastic space charge have to be obtained. In parallel, a stencil mask technology fulfilling the requirements for the use in the ion projection tool is development.

  2. Discovery of a SN in IC 178

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzini, F.; Dimai, A.

    2005-07-01

    Federico Manzini report the discovery by Alessandro Dimai, on behalf of the CROSS Program (cf. IAUC 7373) with the 0.5-m "Ullrich" telescope of the Col Druscié observatory (Cortina d'Ampezzo- Italy), of an apparent supernova in IC 178 at a magnitude of 15.5 about; two unfiltered CCD images taken on 2005 July 15.05 (limiting magnitude about 19.0) shown the new object. The presence of the object with magnitude 15.4 about, is confirmed by other two unfiltered CCD images taken on 2005 July 16.01 (limiting magnitude about 18.5) with the same telescope.

  3. The beautiful side of IC 335

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-22

    This new NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image shows the galaxy IC 335 in front of a backdrop of distant galaxies. IC 335 is part of a galaxy group containing three other galaxies, and located in the Fornax Galaxy Cluster 60 million light-years away. As seen in this image, the disc of IC 335 appears edge-on from the vantage point of Earth. This makes it harder for astronomers to classify it, as most of the characteristics of a galaxy’s morphology — the arms of a spiral or the bar across the centre — are only visible on its face. Still, the 45 000 light-year-long galaxy could be classified as an S0 type. These lenticular galaxies are an intermediate state in galaxy morphological classification schemes between true spiral and elliptical galaxies. They have a thin stellar disc and a bulge, like spiral galaxies, but in contrast to typical spiral galaxies they have used up most of the interstellar medium. Only a few new stars can be created out of the material that is left and the star formation rate is very low. Hence, the population of stars in S0 galaxies consists mainly of aging stars, very similar to the star population in elliptical galaxies. As S0 galaxies have only ill-defined spiral arms they are easily mistaken for elliptical galaxies if they are seen inclined face-on or edge-on as IC 335 here. And indeed, despite the morphological differences between S0 and elliptical class galaxies, they share a some common characteristics, like typical sizes and spectral features. Both classes are also early-type galaxies, as they are evolving passively. However, elliptical galaxies may be passively evolving when we observe them, but they had violent interactions with other galaxies in their past. Whereas S0 galaxies are either aging and fading spiral galaxies, which never had any interactions with other galaxies, or they are the aging result of a single merger between two spiral galaxies in the past. The exact nature of these galaxies is still a matter of debate

  4. A Way to End the IC Designer Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problem of the shortage of engineers capable of designing advanced integrated circuits (IC) and presents some suggestions for increasing the number of IC designers in universities and semiconductor companies. (HM)

  5. A Way to End the IC Designer Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problem of the shortage of engineers capable of designing advanced integrated circuits (IC) and presents some suggestions for increasing the number of IC designers in universities and semiconductor companies. (HM)

  6. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process improvements

  7. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Roderick

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  8. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  9. IC-Finder: inferring robustly the hierarchical organization of chromatin folding.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Noelle; Vaillant, Cédric; Jost, Daniel

    2017-01-26

    The spatial organization of the genome plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. Recent experimental techniques like Hi-C have emphasized the segmentation of genomes into interaction compartments that constitute conserved functional domains participating in the maintenance of a proper cell identity. Here, we propose a novel method, IC-Finder, to identify interaction compartments (IC) from experimental Hi-C maps. IC-Finder is based on a hierarchical clustering approach that we adapted to account for the polymeric nature of chromatin. Based on a benchmark of realistic in silico Hi-C maps, we show that IC-Finder is one of the best methods in terms of reliability and is the most efficient numerically. IC-Finder proposes two original options: a probabilistic description of the inferred compartments and the possibility to explore the various hierarchies of chromatin organization. Applying the method to experimental data in fly and human, we show how the predicted segmentation may depend on the normalization scheme and how 3D compartmentalization is tightly associated with epigenomic information. IC-Finder provides a robust and generic 'all-in-one' tool to uncover the general principles of 3D chromatin folding and their influence on gene regulation. The software is available at http://membres-timc.imag.fr/Daniel.Jost/DJ-TIMC/Software.html.

  10. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba myosin-IC as a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as "traction-mediated cytokinesis". We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy.

  11. Mass modelling of superthin galaxies: IC5249, UGC7321 and IC2233

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Arunima; Bapat, Disha

    2017-04-01

    Superthin galaxies are low surface brightness (LSB) disc galaxies, characterized by optical discs with strikingly high values of planar-to-vertical axes ratios (>10), the physical origin and evolution of which continue to be a puzzle. We present mass models for three superthin galaxies: IC5249, UGC7321 and IC2233. We use high-resolution rotation curves and gas surface density distributions obtained from H I 21 cm radiosynthesis observations, in combination with their two-dimensional structural surface brightness decompositions at Spitzer 3.6 μm band, all of which were available in the literature. We find that while models with the pseudo-isothermal (PIS) and the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) dark matter density profiles fit the observed rotation curves of IC5249 and UGC7321 equally well, those with the NFW profile do not comply with the slowly rising rotation curve of IC2233. Interestingly, for all of our sample galaxies, the best-fitting mass models with a PIS dark matter density profile indicate a compact dark matter halo, i.e. Rc/RD < 2, where Rc is the core radius of the PIS dark matter halo and RD is the radial scalelength of the exponential stellar disc. The compact dark matter halo may be fundamentally responsible for the superthin nature of the stellar disc, and therefore our results may have important implications for the formation and evolution models of superthin galaxies in the universe.

  12. Magnetic field structure of IC 63 and IC 59 associated with H II region Sh 185

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soam, A.; Maheswar, G.; Lee, Chang Won; Neha, S.; Andersson, B.-G.

    2017-02-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are formed at the periphery of H II regions as the radiation from the central star interacts with dense gas. The ionization and resulting compression of the clouds may lead to cloud disruption causing secondary star formation depending on the stellar and gas parameters. Here we use R-band polarimetry to probe the plane-of-the sky magnetic field for two nearby BRCs, IC 59 and IC 63. Both nebulae are illuminated by γ Cas with the direction of the ionizing radiation being orientated parallel or perpendicular to the local magnetic field, allowing us to probe the importance of magnetic field pressure in the evolution of BRCs. Because of the proximity of the system (˜200 pc), we have acquired a substantial sample of over 500 polarization measurements for stars that form the background to the nebulae. On large scales, the magnetic field geometries of both clouds are anchored to the ambient magnetic field. For IC 63, the magnetic field is aligned parallel to the head-tail morphology of the main condensation, with a convex morphology relative to the direction of the ionizing radiation. We estimate the plane-of-the-sky magnetic field strength in IC 63 to be ˜ 90 μG. In IC 59, the projected magnetic field follows the M-shape morphology of the cloud. Here, field lines present a concave shape with respect to the direction of the ionizing radiation from γ Cas. Comparing our observations to published theoretical models, we find good general agreement, supporting the importance of magnetic fields in BRC evolution.

  13. Module comprising IC memory stack dedicated to and structurally combined with an IC microprocessor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John C. (Inventor); Indin, Ronald J. (Inventor); Shanken, Stuart N. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A computer module is disclosed in which a stack of glued together IC memory chips is structurally integrated with a microprocessor chip. The memory provided by the stack is dedicated to the microprocessor chip. The microprocessor and its memory stack may be connected either by glue and/or by solder bumps. The solder bumps can perform three functions--electrical interconnection, mechanical connection, and heat transfer. The electrical connections in some versions are provided by wire bonding.

  14. Electromigration of damascene copper of IC interconnect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, William Kevin

    Copper metallization patterned with multi-level damascene process is prone to electromigration failure, which affects the reliability and performance of IC interconnect. In typical products, interconnect that is not already constrained by I·R drop or Joule self-heating operates at 'near threshold' conditions. Measurement of electromigration damage near threshold is very difficult due to slow degradation requiring greatly extended stress times, or high currents that cause thermal anomalies. Software simulations of the electromigration mechanism combined with characterization of temperature profiles allows extracting material parameters and calculation of design rules to ensure reliable interconnect. Test structures capable of demonstrating Blech threshold effects while allowing thermal characterization were designed and processed. Electromigration stress tests at various conditions were performed to extract both shortline (threshold) and long-line (above threshold) performance values. The resistance increase time constant shows immortality below Je·L (product of current density and segment length) of 3200 amp/cm. Statistical analysis of times-to-failure show that long lines last 105 hours at 3.1 mA/mum2 (120°C). While this is more robust than aluminum interconnect, the semiconductor industry will be challenged to improve that performance as future products require.

  15. Validating IC early-failure simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosa, Mohamod S.; Poole, Kelvin F.; Grams, Michael L.

    1995-09-01

    Early failures are the dominant concern as integrated circuit technology matures into consistently producing systems of high reliability. These failures are attributed to the presence of randomly occurring defects in elementary objects (contacts, vias, metal runs, gate oxides, bonds etc.) that result in extrinsic rather than intrinsic (wearout-related) mortality. A model relating system failure to failure at the elementary objective level has been developed. Reliability is modeled as a function of circuit architecture, mask layout, material properties, life-test data, worst-case use-conditions and the processing environment. The effects of competing failure mechanisms and the presence of redundant sub-systems are accounted for. Hierarchy is exploited in the analysis, allowing large scale designs to be simulated. Experimental validation of the modeling of oxide leakage related failure, based on correlation between actual failures reported for a production integrated circuit and Monte Carlo simulations that incorporate wafer-level test results and process defect monitor data, is presented. The state of the art in IC reliability simulation is advanced in that a methodology that provides the capability to design-in reliability while accounting for early failures has been developed; applications include process qualification, design assessment and fabrication monitoring.

  16. Design of high speed LVDS transceiver ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Xu; Zhigong, Wang; Xiaokang, Niu

    2010-07-01

    The design of low-power LVDS (low voltage differential signaling) transceiver ICs is presented. The LVDS transmitter integrates a common-mode feedback control on chip, while a specially designed pre-charge circuit is proposed to improve the speed of the circuit, making the highest data rate up to 622 Mb/s. For the LVDS receiver design, the performance degradation issues are solved when handling the large input common mode voltages of the conventional LVDS receivers. In addition, the LVDS receiver also supports the failsafe function. The transceiver chips were verified with the CSMC 0.5-μm CMOS process. The measured results showed that, for the LVDS transmitter with the pre-charge technique proposed, the maximum data rate is higher than 622 Mb/s. The power consumption is 6 mA with a 5-V power supply. The LVDS receiver can work properly with a larger input common mode voltage (0.1-2.4 V) but a differential input voltage as low as 100 mV. The power consumption is only 1.2 mA with a 5-V supply at the highest data rate of 400 Mb/s. The chip set meets the TIA/EIA-644-A standards and shows its potential prospects in LVDS transmission systems.

  17. Computer modeling of complete IC fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Robert W.

    1987-05-01

    The development of fundamental algorithms for process and device modeling as well as novel integration of the tools for advanced Integrated Circuit (IC) technology design is discussed. The development of the first complete 2D process simulator, SUPREM 4, is reported. The algorithms are discussed as well as application to local-oxidation and extrinsic diffusion conditions which occur in CMOS AND BiCMOS technologies. The evolution of 1D (SEDAN) and 2D (PISCES) device analysis is discussed. The application of SEDAN to a variety of non-silicon technologies (GaAs and HgCdTe) are considered. A new multi-window analysis capability for PISCES which exploits Monte Carlo analysis of hot carriers has been demonstrated and used to characterize a variety of silicon MOSFET and GaAs MESFET effects. A parallel computer implementation of PISCES has been achieved using a Hypercube architecture. The PISCES program has been used for a range of important device studies including: latchup, analog switch analysis, MOSFET capacitance studies and bipolar transient device for ECL gates. The program is broadly applicable to RAM and BiCMOS technology analysis and design. In the analog switch technology area this research effort has produced a variety of important modeling and advances.

  18. [Role of ICS/LABA on COPD treatment].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    In the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchodilators such as long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long acting β agonist(LABA) play key roles for improving respiratory function and symptoms, and reducing risk of exacerbation. However, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), a key medicine for bronchial asthma, is limitedly used in COPD treatment. Japanese Respiratory Society recommends to use ICS for severe COPD patients who have been frequently exacerbated, because previous clinical studies indicated that ICS reduces exacerbation in moderate to severe COPD patients. Asthma sometimes overlaps with COPD, and symptoms of those patients are not well controlled by the bronchodilation therapy alone. Therefore, ICS/LABA or ICS/LAMA should be prescribed to those overlapped patients. Concentration of exhaled nitrogen oxide and percentage of peripheral eosinophil may be good biomarkers for discriminating the COPD patients who have good response to ICS treatment.

  19. Variations in IC(50) values with purity of mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Neeley, Elizabeth; Fritch, George; Fuller, Autumn; Wolfe, Jordan; Wright, Jessica; Flurkey, William

    2009-09-02

    The effects of various inhibitors on crude, commercial and partially purified commercial mushroom tyrosinase were examined by comparing IC(50) values. Kojic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, tropolone, methimazole, and ammonium tetrathiomolybdate had relatively similar IC(50) values for the crude, commercial and partially purified enzyme. 4-Hexylresorcinol seemed to have a somewhat higher IC(50) value using crude extracts, compared to commercial or purified tyrosinase. Some inhibitors (NaCl, esculetin, biphenol, phloridzin) showed variations in IC(50) values between the enzyme samples. In contrast, hydroquinone, lysozyme, Zn(2+), and anisaldehyde showed little or no inhibition in concentration ranges reported to be effective inhibitors. Organic solvents (DMSO and ethanol) had IC(50) values that were similar for some of the tyrosinase samples. Depending of the source of tyrosinase and choice of inhibitor, variations in IC(50) values were observed.

  20. Correct CMOS IC defect models for quality testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soden, Jerry M.; Hawkins, Charles F.

    1993-01-01

    Leading edge, high reliability, and low escape CMOS IC test practices have now virtually removed the stuck-at fault model and replaced it with more defect-orientated models. Quiescent power supply current testing (I(sub DDQ)) combined with strategic use of high speed test patterns is the recommended approach to zero defect and high reliability testing goals. This paper reviews the reasons for the change in CMOS IC test practices and outlines an improved CMOS IC test methodology.

  1. Systolic array IC for genetic computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D.

    Measuring similarities between large sequences of genetic information is a formidable task requiring enormous amounts of computer time. Geneticists claim that nearly two months of CRAY-2 time are required to run a single comparison of the known database against the new bases that will be found this year, and more than a CRAY-2 year for next year's genetic discoveries, and so on. The DNA IC, designed at HP-ICBD in cooperation with the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is being implemented in order to move the task of genetic comparison onto workstations and personal computers, while vastly improving performance. The chip is a systolic (pumped) array comprised of 16 processors, control logic, and global RAM, totaling 400,000 FETS. At 12 MHz, each chip performs 2.7 billion 16 bit operations per second. Using 35 of these chips in series on one PC board (performing nearly 100 billion operations per second), a sequence of 560 bases can be compared against the eventual total genome of 3 billion bases, in minutes--on a personal computer. While the designed purpose of the DNA chip is for genetic research, other disciplines requiring similarity measurements between strings of 7 bit encoded data could make use of this chip as well. Cryptography and speech recognition are two examples. A mix of full custom design and standard cells, in CMOS34, were used to achieve these goals. Innovative test methods were developed to enhance controllability and observability in the array. This paper describes these techniques as well as the chip's functionality. This chip was designed in the 1989-90 timeframe.

  2. Systolic array IC for genetic computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.

    1991-01-01

    Measuring similarities between large sequences of genetic information is a formidable task requiring enormous amounts of computer time. Geneticists claim that nearly two months of CRAY-2 time are required to run a single comparison of the known database against the new bases that will be found this year, and more than a CRAY-2 year for next year's genetic discoveries, and so on. The DNA IC, designed at HP-ICBD in cooperation with the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is being implemented in order to move the task of genetic comparison onto workstations and personal computers, while vastly improving performance. The chip is a systolic (pumped) array comprised of 16 processors, control logic, and global RAM, totaling 400,000 FETS. At 12 MHz, each chip performs 2.7 billion 16 bit operations per second. Using 35 of these chips in series on one PC board (performing nearly 100 billion operations per second), a sequence of 560 bases can be compared against the eventual total genome of 3 billion bases, in minutes--on a personal computer. While the designed purpose of the DNA chip is for genetic research, other disciplines requiring similarity measurements between strings of 7 bit encoded data could make use of this chip as well. Cryptography and speech recognition are two examples. A mix of full custom design and standard cells, in CMOS34, were used to achieve these goals. Innovative test methods were developed to enhance controllability and observability in the array. This paper describes these techniques as well as the chip's functionality. This chip was designed in the 1989-90 timeframe.

  3. Hybrid IC / Microfluidic Chips for the Manipulation of Biological Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hakho

    2005-03-01

    A hybrid IC / Microfluidic chip that can manipulate individual biological cells in a fluid with microscopic resolution has been demonstrated. The chip starts with a custom-designed silicon integrated circuit (IC) produced in a foundry using standard processing techniques. A microfluidic chamber is then fabricated on top of the IC to provide a biocompatible environment. The motion of biological cells in the chamber is controlled using a two-dimensional array of micro-scale electromagnets in the IC that generate spatially patterned magnetic fields. A local peak in the magnetic field amplitude will trap a magnetic bead and an attached cell; by moving the peak's location, the bead-bound cell can be moved to any position on the chip surface above the array. By generating multiple peaks, many cells can be moved independently along separate paths, allowing many different manipulations of individual cells. The hybrid IC / Microfluidic chip can be used, for example, to sort cells or to assemble tissue on micrometer length scales. To prove the concept, an IC / Microfluidic chip was fabricated, based on a custom-designed IC that contained a two-dimensional microcoil array with integrated current sources and control circuits. The chip was tested by trapping and moving biological cells tagged with magnetic beads inside the microfluidic chamber over the array. By combining the power of silicon technology with the biocompatibility of microfluidics, IC / Microfluidic chips will make new types of investigations possible in biological and biomedical studies.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  9. IMA (Information Mission Area) Integrated IC (Information Center) Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Visual Information Division; and Wanda Bowman of the Administrative Management Branch. The consensus of the group was that in the future the IC should act...performed in the IC. Ms. Darlene Moore spoke about records management (RM) at FBH. RM includes electronic typewriters and copiers, and the acquisition

  10. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  11. Comparison of IC and MEMS packaging reliability approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the current status of IC and MEMS packaging technology with emphasis on reliability, compares the norm for IC packaging reliability evaluation and identifies challenges for development of reliability methodologies for MEMS, and finally, proposes the use of COTS MEMS in order to start generating statistically meaningful reliability data as a vehicle for future standardization of reliability test methodology for MEMS packaging.

  12. Dark Globule in IC 1396 (IRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of inset

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope image of a glowing stellar nursery provides a spectacular contrast to the opaque cloud seen in visible light (inset). The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas. The dark globule is seen in silhouette at visible-light wavelengths, backlit by the illumination of a bright star located to the left of the field of view.

    The Spitzer Space Telescope pierces through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and previously unseen young stars. The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The image is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red). The filamentary appearance of the globule results from the sculpting effects of competing physical processes. The winds from a massive star, located to the left of the image, produce a dense circular rim comprising the 'head' of the globule and a swept-back tail of gas.

    A pair of young stars (LkHa 349 and LkHa 349c) that formed from the dense gas has cleared a spherical cavity within the globule head. While one of these stars is significantly fainter than the other in the visible-light image, they are of comparable brightness in the infrared Spitzer image. This implies the presence of a thick and dusty disc around LkHa 349c. Such circumstellar discs are the precursors of planetary systems. They are much thicker in the early stages of stellar formation when the placental planet-forming material (gas and dust) is still

  13. Dark Globule in IC 1396 (IRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of inset

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope image of a glowing stellar nursery provides a spectacular contrast to the opaque cloud seen in visible light (inset). The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas. The dark globule is seen in silhouette at visible-light wavelengths, backlit by the illumination of a bright star located to the left of the field of view.

    The Spitzer Space Telescope pierces through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and previously unseen young stars. The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The image is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red). The filamentary appearance of the globule results from the sculpting effects of competing physical processes. The winds from a massive star, located to the left of the image, produce a dense circular rim comprising the 'head' of the globule and a swept-back tail of gas.

    A pair of young stars (LkHa 349 and LkHa 349c) that formed from the dense gas has cleared a spherical cavity within the globule head. While one of these stars is significantly fainter than the other in the visible-light image, they are of comparable brightness in the infrared Spitzer image. This implies the presence of a thick and dusty disc around LkHa 349c. Such circumstellar discs are the precursors of planetary systems. They are much thicker in the early stages of stellar formation when the placental planet-forming material (gas and dust) is still

  14. RT-QuIC Assays for Prion Disease Detection and Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Christina D; Groveman, Bradley R; Hughson, Andrew G; Manca, Matteo; Raymond, Lynne D; Raymond, Gregory J; Campbell, Katrina J; Anson, Kelsie J; Kraus, Allison; Caughey, Byron

    2017-01-01

    In coping with prion diseases, it is important to have tests that are practical enough for routine applications in medicine, agriculture, wildlife biology, and research, yet sensitive enough to detect minimal amounts of infectivity. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays have evolved to the point where they fulfill these criteria in applications to various human and animal prion diseases. For example, RT-QuIC assays of cerebrospinal fluid and nasal brushings allow for highly sensitive (77-97%) and specific (99-100%) identification of human sCJD patients. Recent improvements have markedly enhanced sensitivity and reduced the assay time required for many samples to a matter of hours rather than days. By combining analyses of cerebrospinal fluid and nasal brushings, diagnostic sensitivities and specificities of nearly 100% can be achieved. RT-QuIC assays are based on prion-seeded amyloid fibril formation by recombinant prion protein (rPrP(Sen)) in multiwell plates using a Thioflavin T fluorescence readout. Here we describe our current RT-QuIC methodologies as well as technical considerations in executing, troubleshooting, and adapting the assay to new strains of prions and sample types.

  15. Stability and Reproducibility Underscore Utility of RT-QuIC for Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Maria; Schmitz, Matthias; Karch, André; Mitrova, Eva; Kuhn, Franziska; Schroeder, Bjoern; Raeber, Alex; Varges, Daniela; Kim, Yong-Sun; Satoh, Katsuya; Collins, Steven; Zerr, Inga

    2016-04-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) allows the amplification of miniscule amounts of scrapie prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Recent studies applied the RT-QuIC methodology to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnosing human prion diseases. However, to date, there has not been a formal multi-centre assessment of the reproducibility, validity and stability of RT-QuIC in this context, an indispensable step for establishment as a diagnostic test in clinical practice. In the present study, we analysed CSF from 110 prion disease patients and 400 control patients using the RT-QuIC method under various conditions. In addition, "blinded" ring trials between different participating sites were performed to estimate reproducibility. Using the previously established cut-off of 10,000 relative fluorescence units (rfu), we obtained a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 99%. The multi-centre inter-laboratory reproducibility of RT-QuIC revealed a Fleiss' kappa value of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.40-1.00) indicating an almost perfect agreement. Moreover, we investigated the impact of short-term CSF storage at different temperatures, long-term storage, repeated freezing and thawing cycles and the contamination of CSF with blood on the RT-QuIC seeding response. Our data indicated that the PrP(Sc) seed in CSF is stable to any type of storage condition but sensitive to contaminations with blood (>1250 erythrocytes/μL), which results in a false negative RT-QuIC response. Fresh blood-contaminated samples (3 days) can be rescued by removal of erythrocytes. The present study underlines the reproducibility and high stability of RT-QuIC across various CSF storage conditions with a remarkable sensitivity and specificity, suggesting RT-QuIC as an innovative and robust diagnostic method.

  16. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate.

  17. The broad-lined Type Ic supernova 2003jd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenti, S.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Patat, F.; Mazzali, P.; Turatto, M.; Hurley, K.; Maeda, K.; Gal-Yam, A.; Foley, R. J.; Filippenko, A. V.; Pastorello, A.; Challis, P.; Frontera, F.; Harutyunyan, A.; Iye, M.; Kawabata, K.; Kirshner, R. P.; Li, W.; Lipkin, Y. M.; Matheson, T.; Nomoto, K.; Ofek, E. O.; Ohyama, Y.; Pian, E.; Poznanski, D.; Salvo, M.; Sauer, D. N.; Schmidt, B. P.; Soderberg, A.; Zampieri, L.

    2008-02-01

    The results of a worldwide coordinated observational campaign on the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2003jd are presented. In total, 74 photometric data points and 26 spectra were collected using 11 different telescopes. SN 2003jd is one of the most luminous SN Ic ever observed. A comparison with other Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) confirms that SN 2003jd represents an intermediate case between broad-line events (2002ap, 2006aj) and highly energetic SNe (1997ef, 1998bw, 2003dh, 2003lw), with an ejected mass of Mej = 3.0 +/- 1Msolar and a kinetic energy of Ek(tot) = 7+3-2 × 1051erg. SN 2003jd is similar to SN 1998bw in terms of overall luminosity, but it is closer to SNe 2006aj and 2002ap in terms of light-curve shape and spectral evolution. The comparison with other SNe Ic suggests that the V-band light curves of SNe Ic can be partially homogenized by introducing a time-stretch factor. Finally, because of the similarity of SN 2003jd to the SN 2006aj/XRF 060218 event, we discuss the possible connection of SN 2003jd with a gamma-ray burst (GRB). E-mail: svalenti@eso.org Based on observations at ESO-Paranal, Prog. 074.D-0161A.

  18. Fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) data reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Heiman, M.R.

    1998-09-01

    This report documents the development, verification, and use instructions for an automated K{sub IC} data reduction program written in the Hewlett Packard Visual Engineering Environment (HP VEE) programming language. Currently, when the standard test method Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic materials (K{sub IC}), is performed, the data is reduced manually. Date reduction includes 15 detailed calculations required by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E399 to determine the validity of the computed K{sub IC} value. Manual data reduction is both time consuming, tedious, and prone to errors. Since all K{sub IC} tests are completed using a data acquisition system to digitally record time, load, and crack opening displacement (COD); automation of K{sub IC} data reduction using a computer program to perform all calculations rapidly, enables processing of a large amount of data. The K{sub IC} data reduction program reduces any computer American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) data file. Thus, the K{sub IC} data reduction program is also used to over check tests performed at other facilities. The program was qualified based on mechanical properties of commercial alloy specimens.

  19. Considerations for IC and Component Selection for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the integrated cycling and component selection technologies for aerospace systems. The topics include: 1) Semiconductors: The Evolution of ICs - Availability and Technology; 2) IC Selection Requirements - three fields of thought, "The Good", "The Bad" and "The Ugly"; 3) Reliability and Radiation; 4) Radiation Perspective-Four methods of selecting ICs for space systems, Guaranteed hardness, historical ground-based radiation data, historical flight usage, and unknown assurance; 5) Understanding Risk, including risk trade space and ASICs and FPGA sample selection criteria.

  20. Defect classes - an overdue paradigm for CMOS IC testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.F.; Soden, J.M.; Righter, A.W.; Ferguson, F.J.

    1994-09-01

    The IC test industry has struggled for more than 30 years to establish a test approach that would guarantee a low defect level to the customer. We propose a comprehensive strategy for testing CMOS ICs that uses defect classes based on measured defect electrical properties. Defect classes differ from traditional fault models. Our defect class approach requires that the test strategy match the defect electrical properties, while fault models require that IC defects match the fault definition. We use data from Sandia Labs failure analysis and test facilities and from public literature. We describe test pattern requirements for each defect class and propose a test paradigm.

  1. Membership, lithium and chromospheric activity of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665 from GES (Gaia-ESO Survey) observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Garrido, M.; Montes, D.; Gutiérrez Albarrán, M. L.; Tabernero, H. M.; Gónzalez Hernández, J. I.; GES Survey Builders

    2017-03-01

    We conduct a comparative study of the main properties of the of the young open clusters IC 2391, IC 2602 and IC 4665, focusing on their membership, lithium abundance and level of chromospheric activity and possible accretion. We use the fundamental parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and radial velocity) delivered by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES - https://www.gaia-eso.eu/) consortium in the four internal data release (iDR4) to select the members of these clusters among the UVES and GIRAFFE spectroscopic observations. Chromospheric activity criterium, and iterative process between radial velocity distribution and lithium-temperature diagram are applied to determinate what objects are members or non members of the clusters. All this information allowed us to characterize the properties of the members of these clusters and identify some field contaminant lithium-rich giants.

  2. A novel gene IC53 stimulates ECV304 cell proliferation and is upregulated in failing heart.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingzhou; Liu, Baohua; Liu, Yuqing; Han, Yu; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Yinhui; Lu, Lihe; Zhen, Yisong; Hui, Rutai

    2002-05-31

    C53, cloned from rat brain cDNA library, can bind to p35, the precursor of activator of Cdk5. A novel gene with 84% homolog to C53, named IC53, was cloned from our 5300 EST database of human aorta cDNA library (GenBank Accession No. AF110322). Computational analysis showed that IC53 cDNA is 2538 bp long, encoding 419 amino acids, mapped to chromosome 17q21.31 with 12 exons, ubiquitously expressed in 12 tested normal tissues and 8 tumor cell lines from MTN membranes and vascular endothelial cells by Northern blot and in situ hybridization, and upregulated in the rat models of subacute heart failure and chronic ischemic heart failure by left coronary ligation. Stable transfection of IC53 stimulates ECV304 cell proliferation by 2.1-fold compared to cells with empty vector (P<0.05). The results support that IC53 is a novel gene, mainly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and mediates cell proliferation.

  3. Kinematics around a non thermal superbubble in IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullejos, A.; Rosado, M.

    2000-11-01

    IC 10 has long recognized as a peculiar object (Hubble 1936). Among Local Gr oup dwarf galaxies, IC 10 has the highest surface density of WR stars and the highest current rate of star formation (Mateo 1998). The presence of so many WR stars and the high H alpha luminosity emphasize that IC 10 is undergoing a strong burst of star formation that began at least 10 Myr ago. Based upon radio continuum observations, Yang & Skillman (1993) found a non thermal superbubble in this galaxy. This large superbubble (about 250pc) seems to be associated with a region of star formation containing two of the most luminous H II regions and the most massive H I cloud in IC 10. In this work, we study the kinematics of this non-thermal supperbubble. We present our H alpha and [S II] images as well as the radial velocity field.

  4. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  5. IC 1257: A New Globular Cluster in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. E.; Phelps, R. L.; Madore, B. F.; Pevunova, O.; Skiff, B. A.; Crute, C.; Wilson, B.

    1996-01-01

    New CCD photometry of the faint, compact star cluster IC 1257 (L = 17? = +/- 15?obtained with the Palomar 5m telescope, reveals that it is a highly reddened globular cluster well beyond the Galactic center.

  6. IC 1257: A New Globular Cluster in the Galactic Halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, W. E.; Phelps, R. L.; Madore, B. F.; Pevunova, O.; Skiff, B. A.; Crute, C.; Wilson, B.

    1996-01-01

    New CCD photometry of the faint, compact star cluster IC 1257 (L = 17? = +/- 15?obtained with the Palomar 5m telescope, reveals that it is a highly reddened globular cluster well beyond the Galactic center.

  7. Multi-Wavelength Views of Protostars in IC 1396

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-18

    This archival image from 2003 captured by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope captured the Elephant Trunk Nebula, an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus.

  8. Vaccine adjuvant uses of poly-IC and derivatives.

    PubMed

    Martins, Karen A O; Bavari, Sina; Salazar, Andres M

    2015-03-01

    Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) are stand-alone immunomodulators or 'danger signals,' that are increasingly recognized as critical components of many modern vaccines. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) is a synthetic dsRNA that can activate multiple elements of the host defense in a pattern that parallels that of a viral infection. When properly combined with an antigen, it can be utilized as a PAMP-adjuvant, resulting in modulation and optimization of the antigen-specific immune response. We briefly review the preclinical and clinical uses of poly-IC and two poly-IC derivatives, poly-IC12U (Ampligen) and poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), as vaccine adjuvants.

  9. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  10. Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    Model Checking with Multi-Threaded IC3 Portfolios Sagar Chaki and Derrick Karimi Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University {chaki...generalized to verify software [10, 6]. Our interest is that ic3 is amenable to parallelization [5], and promises new approaches to enhance the capability...Sagar Chaki Derrick 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Software Engineering

  11. Impact of Electrostatics on IC (Integrated Circuit) Fabrication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    necessary and Identify by block number) ntegrated circuit fabrication processes inherently involve materials with a high propensity of triboelectric charge... triboelectrically "hot" materials used in IC fabrication, it must be understood that a device on the wafer can be destroyed or degraded in various ways. This...of the IEEE, Vol. 71, No. 4, April 1983. (7) Bossard, P.R., R.G. Chemelli and B.A. Unger, "ESD Damage from Triboelectrically Charged IC Pins," 1980 EOS

  12. Missing the Mark: Is ICS Training Achieving Its Goal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    that this portion of the brain is crucial in resolving conflict, overcoming fear , and making decisions based upon judgment and critical thought instead...system to engage the social learning required for successful cultural change. The thesis also critiques the ICS training measurement method and...to engage the social learning required for successful cultural change. The thesis also critiques the ICS training measurement method and recommends

  13. A strategy to model nonmonotonic dose-response curve and estimate IC50.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Wang, Jiong; Liang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC[Formula: see text] is an important pharmacodynamic index of drug effectiveness. To estimate this value, the dose response relationship needs to be established, which is generally achieved by fitting monotonic sigmoidal models. However, recent studies on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) mutants developing resistance to antiviral drugs show that the dose response curve may not be monotonic. Traditional models can fail for nonmonotonic data and ignore observations that may be of biologic significance. Therefore, we propose a nonparametric model to describe the dose response relationship and fit the curve using local polynomial regression. The nonparametric approach is shown to be promising especially for estimating the IC[Formula: see text] of some HIV inhibitory drugs, in which there is a dose-dependent stimulation of response for mutant strains. This model strategy may be applicable to general pharmacologic, toxicologic, or other biomedical data that exhibits a nonmonotonic dose response relationship for which traditional parametric models fail.

  14. A nonthermal superbubble in the irregular galaxy IC 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hui; Skillman, Evan D.

    1993-01-01

    We present synthesis radio continuum observations of the nearby irregular galaxy IC 10. These observations, at 6, 20, and 49 cm, allow us to measure the flux and spectral index of a number of resolved sources in IC 10. While most of these are easily identified as thermal emission from H II regions and a few are nonthermal background sources, one extended, nonthermal source appears to be a superbubble in IC 10. Its large size (about 250 pc) implies that it is most likely the product of several supernovae. Comparisons of these radio observations with Halpha, H I, and optical imaging observations reveal that the large nonthermal superbubble is associated with a region of star formation containing two of the most luminous H II regions and the most massive H I cloud in IC 10. We tentatively identify a stellar cluster with two Wolf-Rayet stars in the center of the superbubble. We propose that this superbubble in IC 10 represents a bridge between the giant H II regions and the H I shells and supershells observed in our Galaxy and external galaxies.

  15. Ocular Shock Front in the Colliding Galaxy IC 2163

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Michele; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Bournaud, Frédéric; Brinks, Elias; Juneau, Stephanie; Sheth, Kartik

    2016-11-01

    ALMA observations in the 12CO J=1\\to 0 line of the interacting galaxy pair IC 2163 and NGC 2207 at 2″ × 1.″5 resolution reveal how the encounter drives gas to pile up in narrow, ∼1 kpc wide, “eyelids” in IC 2163. IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are involved in a grazing encounter, which has led to the development in IC 2163 of an eye-shaped (ocular) structure at mid-radius and two tidal arms. The CO data show that there are large velocity gradients across the width of each eyelid, with a mixture of radial and azimuthal streaming of gas at the outer edge of the eyelid relative to its inner edge. The sense of the radial streaming in the eyelids is consistent with the idea that gas from the outer part of IC 2163 flows inward until its radial streaming slows down abruptly and the gas piles up in the eyelids. The radial compression at the eyelids causes an increase in the gas column density by direct radial impact and also leads to a high rate of shear. A linear regression of the molecular column density N({{{H}}}2) on the magnitude of | {dv}/{dR}| across the width of the eyelid at fixed values of azimuth finds a strong correlation between N({{{H}}}2) and | {dv}/{dR}| . Substantial portions of the eyelids have high velocity dispersion in CO, indicative of elevated turbulence there.

  16. Using consumer IC packages in harsh high reliability applications

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, C.A.; Palmer, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    The improvements in purity of molding materials, the IC wafer passivation layers, and manufacturing quality have resulted over the last decade in extremely high reliability in commercial IC packages. In contrast the ceramic/hermetic package world is suffering from limited availability of the newest IC chips, higher cost, larger size, and decreasing quality and fewer manufacturing lines. Traditional manufacturing line qualification tests are a good start for conversion to commercial plastic parts. However, the use of standard sensitive test chips instead of product die is necessary to perform affordable, quantitative evaluations. These test chips have many integrated sensors measuring chemical, mechanical, thermal, and electrical degradation caused by manufacturing and the package environment. Besides visual, electrical test, and burn-in little has been documented on 100% nondestructive screening of plastic molded parts. Based on realistic process control and system engineer cultural expectations, user screening is necessary. Nondestructive tests of moisture and temperature excursion susceptibility are described.

  17. Backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    A new failure analysis technique has been developed for backside and frontside localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. This scanning optical microscopy technique takes advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The method utilizes the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detects shorts. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed.

  18. IC 3418: STAR FORMATION IN A TURBULENT WAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, Janice A.; Neill, James D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Schiminovich, David; Rich, R. Michael

    2010-06-10

    Galaxy Evolution Explorer observations of IC 3418, a low surface brightness galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, revealed a striking 17 kpc UV tail of bright knots and diffuse emission. H{alpha} imaging confirms that star formation is ongoing in the tail. IC 3418 was likely recently ram pressure stripped on its first pass through Virgo. We suggest that star formation is occurring in molecular clouds that formed in IC 3418's turbulent stripped wake. Tides and ram pressure stripping (RPS) of molecular clouds are both disfavored as tail formation mechanisms. The tail is similar to the few other observed star-forming tails, all of which likely formed during RPS. The tails' morphologies reflect the forces present during their formation and can be used to test for dynamical coupling between molecular and diffuse gas, thereby probing the origin of the star-forming molecular gas.

  19. Detection of episomal banana streak badnavirus by IC-PCR.

    PubMed

    Harper, G; Dahal, G; Thottappilly, G; Hull, R

    1999-04-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based strategy to detect episomal banana streak badnavirus (BSV) in banana and plantain plants that carry integrated BSV sequences was developed. Antisera used in immuno-capture polymerase chain reaction (IC-PCR) are capable of binding a large number of BSV serotypes. The primers used for PCR are capable of annealing to and amplifying across the aspartic protease-reverse transcriptase domain boundaries of both episomal and integrated BSV sequences and result in similar or identical sequence size fragments from either template. However, we show that under the conditions selected for IC-PCR, nuclear, mitochondrial or chloroplast genomic sequences are not amplified and thus only captured episomal BSV is amplified. IC-PCR is suitable for the large-scale screening of Musa for episomal BSV which is necessary for germplasm movement.

  20. Knowledge-based IC-CAD software reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yueqiu; Yang, Lin; Tong, Jiarong; Tang, Pushan

    1996-03-01

    This paper discussed a method of knowledge representations to automatically reuse software information, such as, algorithms, designs, documents, reports etc. in the domain of IC-CAD. An architecture of framework ICSDE was presented which consists of four main parts: packaging unit, prototyping unit, reusable library and data base management. Within this framework, time domain knowledge of reusable-software-information (RSI) was represented and abstracted into three concept levels. Based on this representation method, the RSI can be packaged into reusable-software-component in the reusable library, and the function was provided to help IC-CAD software tools or system developers producing their products with low time and low cost. So it is possible to provide the IC-CAD products good reliability and maintainability under this framework.

  1. A Unified Submodular Framework for Multimodal IC Trojan Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koushanfar, Farinaz; Mirhoseini, Azalia; Alkabani, Yousra

    This paper presents a unified formal framework for integrated circuits (IC) Trojan detection that can simultaneously employ multiple noninvasive measurement types. Hardware Trojans refer to modifications, alterations, or insertions to the original IC for adversarial purposes. The new framework formally defines the IC Trojan detection for each measurement type as an optimization problem and discusses the complexity. A formulation of the problem that is applicable to a large class of Trojan detection problems and is submodular is devised. Based on the objective function properties, an efficient Trojan detection method with strong approximation and optimality guarantees is introduced. Signal processing methods for calibrating the impact of inter-chip and intra-chip correlations are presented. We propose a number of methods for combining the detections of the different measurement types. Experimental evaluations on benchmark designs reveal the low-overhead and effectiveness of the new Trojan detection framework and provides a comparison of different detection combining methods.

  2. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS.

  3. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, Joseph J.; Gruber, Michele A.

    2015-01-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS. PMID:26816855

  4. A multiwavelength investigation of the supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mufson, S. L.; Mccollough, M. L.; Dickel, J. R.; Petre, R.; White, R.

    1986-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of the supernova remnant IC 443 at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths are presented. This morphological study of IC 443 presents a detailed picture of an adolescent supernova remnant in a multiphase interstellar medium. Radio observations show that better than 80 percent of the continuum emission at 18 cm is in a large-scale (greater than 18 arcmin) component. Decomposition of the infrared data shows that radiatively heated dust, shocked blackbody dust emission, and infrared line emission are all important components of the observed IRAS fluxes. The morphology of the IC 443 region is consistent with a supernova blast in an interstellar medium with a nonuniform distribution of clouds. The bright northeast rim and the great extent of the remnant to the southwest are most easily explained by a cloud filling factor which is greatest in the northeast and falls off toward the southwest.

  5. Multicolor CCD Photometry of the Open Cluster IC361

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    journal Volume 19 Numbers 1/2 2010 Contents V. Straizys, A. Kazlauskas. Young stars in the Camelopardalis dust and molecular clouds. VI. YSOs...Vilnius + I system for 7250 stars down to 1= 19.6 mag has been obtained in the 20’ x 26’ field of the open cluster IC 361 in Camelopardalis . The catalog...1= 19.6 mag has been obtained in the 20’ x 26’ field of the open cluster IC 361 in Camelopardalis . The catalog of 1420 stars down to V ~ 18.5 mag

  6. Saturn V S-IC (First Stage) Structural Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This illustration, with callouts, shows the structural arrangement of the major components for the S-IC (first) stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The S-IC stage was 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter, and produced more than 7,500,000 pounds of thrust through five F-1 engines that were powered by liquid oxygen and kerosene. Four of the engines were mounted on an outer ring and gimbal for control purposes. The fifth engine was rigidly mounted in the center. When ignited, the roar produced by the five engines equaled the sound of 8,000,000 hi-fi sets.

  7. Flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC with elastomeric microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bowei; Dong, Quan; Korman, Can E.; Li, Zhenyu; Zaghloul, Mona E.

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated flexible packaging and integration of CMOS IC chips with PDMS microfluidics. Microfluidic channels are used to deliver both liquid samples and liquid metals to the CMOS die. The liquid metals are used to realize electrical interconnects to the CMOS chip. As a demonstration we integrated a CMOS magnetic sensor die and matched PDMS microfluidic channels in a flexible package. The packaged system is fully functional under 3cm bending radius. The flexible integration of CMOS ICs with microfluidics enables previously unavailable flexible CMOS electronic systems with fluidic manipulation capabilities, which hold great potential for wearable health monitoring, point-of-care diagnostics and environmental sensing.

  8. Human erythrocytes inhibit complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes by human serum

    SciTech Connect

    Dorval, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an autologus human system to evaluate the effects of human erythrocytes on solubilization of immune complex precipitates (IC) by human serum. Incubation of IC with fresh human serum or guinea pig serum resulted in solubilization of IC. When packed erythrocytes were added to human serum or guinea pig serum binding of IC to the erythrocyte occurred and IC solubilization was inhibited significantly (p <.025). Sheep erythrocytes did not bind IC or inhibit IC solubilization. To evaluate the role of human erythrocyte complement receptor (CR1) on these findings, human erythrocytes were treated with trypsin or anti-CR1 antibodies. Both treatments abrogated IC binding to human erythrocytes but did not affect the ability of the human erythrocyte to inhibit IC solubilization. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure C3, C4 and C5 activation in human serum after incubation with IC, human erythrocytes, human erythrocytes plus IC, whole blood or in whole blood plus IC.

  9. Comparison between conventional indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and simplified icELISA for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Li, Gang; Yi, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Bao-Min; Deng, Ai-Xing; Nan, Tie-Gui; Li, Zhao-Hu; Li, Qing X

    2006-06-30

    A simplified indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) for small molecules was established by modifying the procedure of conventional icELISA. The key change was that the analyte, antibody, and enzyme-labeled second antibody in the simplified icELISA were added in one step, whereas in conventional icELISA these reagents were added in two separate steps. Three small chemicals, namely zeatin riboside, glycyrrhetinic acid, and chlorimuron-ethyl, were used to verify the new assay format and compare the results obtained from conventional icELISA and simplified icELISA. The results indicated that, under optimized conditions, the new assay offered several advantages over the conventional icELISA, which are simpler, less time consuming and higher sensitive although it requires more amount of reagents. The assay sensitivity (IC50) was improved for 1.2-1.4-fold. Four licorice roots samples were analyzed by conventional icELISA and simplified icELISA, as well as liquid chromatography (LC). There was no significant difference among the content obtained from the three methods for each sample. The correlation between data obtained from conventional icELISA and simplified icELISA analyses was 0.9888. The results suggest that the simplified icELISA be useful for high throughput screening of small molecules.

  10. Targeting polyIC to EGFR over-expressing cells using a dsRNA binding protein domain tethered to EGF

    PubMed Central

    Edinger, Nufar; Lebendiker, Mario; Klein, Shoshana; Zigler, Maya; Langut, Yael; Levitzki, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Selective delivery of drugs to tumor cells can increase potency and reduce toxicity. In this study, we describe a novel recombinant chimeric protein, dsRBEC, which can bind polyIC and deliver it selectively into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. dsRBEC, comprises the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) of human PKR (hPKR), which serves as the polyIC binding moiety, fused to human EGF (hEGF), the targeting moiety. dsRBEC shows high affinity towards EGFR and triggers ligand-induced endocytosis of the receptor, thus leading to the selective internalization of polyIC into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. The targeted delivery of polyIC by dsRBEC induced cellular apoptosis and the secretion of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. dsRBEC-delivered polyIC is much more potent than naked polyIC and is expected to reduce the toxicity caused by systemic delivery of polyIC. PMID:27598772

  11. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle-Poly I:C RNA Complexes: Implication as Therapeutics against Experimental Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Meghana; Mudge, Miranda C; Morris, R Tyler; Zhang, Yuntao; Warcholek, Stanislaw A; Hurst, Miranda N; Riviere, Jim E; DeLong, Robert K

    2017-03-06

    There is current interest in harnessing the combined anticancer and immunological effect of nanoparticles (NPs) and RNA. Here, we evaluate the bioactivity of poly I:C (pIC) RNA, bound to anticancer zinc oxide NP (ZnO-NP) against melanoma. Direct RNA association to unfunctionalized ZnO-NP is shown by observing change in size, zeta potential, and absorption/fluorescence spectra upon complexation. RNA corona was visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the first time. Binding constant (Kb = 1.6-2.8 g(-1) L) was determined by modified Stern-Volmer, absorption, and biological surface activity index analysis. The pIC-ZnO-NP complex increased cell death for both human (A375) and mouse (B16F10) cell lines and suppressed tumor cell growth in BALB/C-B16F10 mouse melanoma model. Ex vivo tumor analysis indicated significant molecular activity such as changes in the level of phosphoproteins JNK, Akt, and inflammation markers IL-6 and IFN-γ. High throughput proteomics analysis revealed zinc oxide and poly I:C-specific and combinational patterns that suggested possible utility as an anticancer and immunotherapeutic strategy against melanoma.

  12. Glass encapsulation provides extra protection for IC semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doelp, W. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Oxide-passivated semiconductor chip is given protective glass coating by means of vapor deposition over metallic substrate of integrated circuit (IC). Method provides more reliable oxide-passivation and hermetic sealing in current use. Chips and scratches incurred during dicing, testing, and assembly are markedly reduced.

  13. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations.

  14. Saturn V Stage I (S-IC) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Become familiar with the Saturn V Stage I (S-IC) major structural components: Forward Skirt, Oxidizer Tank, Intertank, Fuel Tank, and Thrust Structure. b) Gain a general understanding of the Stage I subsystems: Fuel, Oxidizer, Instrumentation, Flight Control, Environmental Control, Electrical, Control Pressure, and Ordinance.

  15. The spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.

    1994-07-01

    A detailed high-spectral-resolution study of the spectrum of IC 418 is made for the region 3650 to 10050 A, using the Hamilton echelle spectrograph of Lick Observatory, and of the UV spectral region with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data. From high-resolution images in both the near- and mid-infrared, Hora et al. (1993) showed that IC 418 probably has a compact shell interior to the detached, well-known, main shell emission. If one assumes a black body or Hubeny (or standard LTE) model atmosphere energy distribution, it does not appear possible to construct a fully satisfactory nebula model that will simultaneously represent the H-beta flux, the (O III) 5007/H-beta ratio, and the scale of this planetary nebula (PN). Fortunately, IUE and IR data supply information on ions in addition to those optically observed so that the chemical composition can be reasonably well established by summing over concentrations of observed ions. In spite of the fact that IC 418 is carbon rich in sense of having a C/O ratio exceeding the solar value, it is a 'metal-poor' object. Possibly it resembles IC 4997 but in a more advanced evolutionary phase. The central star is variable and has a strong wind.

  16. Modeling Single Event Transients in Advanced Devices and ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artola, L.; Gaillardin, M.; Hubert, G.; Raine, M.; Paillet, P.

    2015-08-01

    The ability for Single Event Transients (SETs) to induce soft errors in Integrated Circuits (ICs) was predicted for the first time by Wallmark and Marcus in the early 60's and was confirmed to be a serious issue thirty years later. In the 90's microelectronic technologies reached the “deep submicron” era, allowing high density ICs working at frequencies faster than hundreds of MHz. This new paradigm changed the status of SETs to become a major source of reliability losses. Huge efforts have thus been made to characterize SETs in microelectronics, either using experiments or by simulation, in order to reveal key factors leading to SET occurrence, propagation and capture in modern ICs. In this context, modeling and simulation are of primary importance to get accurate SET predictions. This paper focuses on modeling SETs in innovative electronic devices which involves modeling steps at different scales, from ionizing particle to circuit response. After a brief review of the state-of-the art of modeling at each scale, this paper will discuss current capabilities and intrinsic limitations of SET modeling, the incoming challenges in advanced devices and ICs, and finally the methodologies to improve SET simulation and prediction for future technologies.

  17. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in Child Welfare Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhart, Mark G.; Torres, Elisa M.; Wright, Lisa A.; Martinez, Sandra Y.; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization’s climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations. PMID:26563643

  18. The craftsmanship of the "Carolingian" astrolabe, IC 3042.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'E. Turner, G.

    The medieval astrolabe (IC 3042) once owned by the late Marcel Destombes and published by him in 1962, has been examined to discover as many details of the craftsmanship as possible. The conclusion is that the astrolabe was not made by a craftsman, but more likely by a scholar for his own use.

  19. Lithium Abundances in the Young Open Cluster IC 2602

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randich, S.; Aharpour, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Prosser, C. F.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra for 28 candidate late-type stars in the 30 Myr old cluster IC 2602. NLTE Li abundances have been derived from measured equivalent widths. The log n(Li) - T(sub eff) and log n(Li) - mass distributions for our sample stars have been compared with those of the Pleiades and alpha Persei. Our data show that F stars in the three clusters have the same lithium content, which corresponds to the initial content for Pop. I stars. G and early-K IC 2602 stars are, on average, somewhat more Li-rich than their counterparts in the two slightly older clusters. Finally, the latest-type IC 2602 stars are heavily Li depleted, with their Li content being as low as the lowest measured among the Pleiades. As in the Pleiades and alpha Per, a star-to-star scatter in lithium is observed among 30 Myr old late-K/early-K dwarfs in IC 2602, indicating that this spread develops in the pre-main sequence phases.

  20. Proton Ordering of Cubic Ice Ic: Spectroscopy and Computer Simulations.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Philipp; Dellago, Christoph; Macher, Markus; Franchini, Cesare; Kresse, Georg; Bernard, Jürgen; Stern, Josef N; Loerting, Thomas

    2014-05-22

    Several proton-disordered crystalline ice structures are known to proton order at sufficiently low temperatures, provided that the right preparation procedure is used. For cubic ice, ice Ic, however, no proton ordering has been observed so far. Here, we subject ice Ic to an experimental protocol similar to that used to proton order hexagonal ice. In situ FT-IR spectroscopy carried out during this procedure reveals that the librational band of the spectrum narrows and acquires a structure that is observed neither in proton-disordered ice Ic nor in ice XI, the proton-ordered variant of hexagonal ice. On the basis of vibrational spectra computed for ice Ic and four of its proton-ordered variants using classical molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations, we conclude that the features of our experimental spectra are due to partial proton ordering, providing the first evidence of proton ordering in cubic ice. We further find that the proton-ordered structure with the lowest energy is ferroelectric, while the structure with the second lowest energy is weakly ferroelectric. Both structures fit the experimental spectral similarly well such that no unique assignment of proton order is possible based on our results.

  1. Proton Ordering of Cubic Ice Ic: Spectroscopy and Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several proton-disordered crystalline ice structures are known to proton order at sufficiently low temperatures, provided that the right preparation procedure is used. For cubic ice, ice Ic, however, no proton ordering has been observed so far. Here, we subject ice Ic to an experimental protocol similar to that used to proton order hexagonal ice. In situ FT-IR spectroscopy carried out during this procedure reveals that the librational band of the spectrum narrows and acquires a structure that is observed neither in proton-disordered ice Ic nor in ice XI, the proton-ordered variant of hexagonal ice. On the basis of vibrational spectra computed for ice Ic and four of its proton-ordered variants using classical molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations, we conclude that the features of our experimental spectra are due to partial proton ordering, providing the first evidence of proton ordering in cubic ice. We further find that the proton-ordered structure with the lowest energy is ferroelectric, while the structure with the second lowest energy is weakly ferroelectric. Both structures fit the experimental spectral similarly well such that no unique assignment of proton order is possible based on our results. PMID:24883169

  2. Evidence for iC3 generation during cardiopulmonary bypass as the result of blood-gas interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Pekna, M; Nilsson, L; Nilsson-Ekdahl, K; Nilsson, U R; Nilsson, B

    1993-01-01

    Earlier we have shown that iC3 is generated at the blood-gas interface in vitro and that the generation of this molecule is independent of complement activation and the composition of the gas. In order to investigate whether iC3 is also generated during cardiopulmonary bypass where blood comes into contact with oxygen bubbles, two bubble oxygenators were incubated at 37 degrees C with human heparinized blood. A continuous increase in the level of iC3 was shown in the oxygen-perfused bubble oxygenator (up to 100 nmol/l after 180 min) in contrast to the unbubbled control. Similarly, in plasma drawn from patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass using either bubble or membrane oxygenators, the levels of iC3 were shown to increase continuously during the operation. Furthermore, this form of C3 was found to be susceptible to cleavage by factor I. The formation of iC3 at the blood-gas interface in vivo could be a mechanism by which gas bubbles induce clinical manifestations associated with complement activation, e.g. during cardiopulmonary bypass, adult respiratory distress syndrome and decompression sickness. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8443963

  3. High ESD Breakdown-Voltage InP HBT Transimpedance Amplifier IC for Optical Video Distribution Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kimikazu; Nagatani, Munehiko; Mutoh, Miwa; Murata, Koichi

    This paper is a report on a high ESD breakdown-voltage InP HBT transimpedance amplifier IC for optical video distribution systems. To make ESD breakdown-voltage higher, we designed ESD protection circuits integrated in the TIA IC using base-collector/base-emitter diodes of InP HBTs and resistors. These components for ESD protection circuits have already existed in the employed InP HBT IC process, so no process modifications were needed. Furthermore, to meet requirements for use in optical video distribution systems, we studied circuit design techniques to obtain a good input-output linearity and a low-noise characteristic. Fabricated InP HBT TIA IC exhibited high human-body-model ESD breakdown voltages (±1000V for power supply terminals, ±200V for high-speed input/output terminals), good input-output linearity (less than 2.9-% duty-cycle-distortion), and low noise characteristic (10.7pA/√Hz averaged input-referred noise current density) with a -3-dB-down higher frequency of 6.9GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first literature describing InP ICs with high ESD-breakdown voltages.

  4. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of October 10, 1963. Kerosene storage tanks can be seen to the left.

  5. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken April 4, 1963, gives a close up look at the ever-growing four towers of the S-IC Test Stand.

  6. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken from ground level on May 7, 1963, gives a close look at one of the four towers legs of the S-IC test stand nearing its completed height.

  7. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph taken April 17, 1963, gives a look at the four tower legs of the S-IC test stand at their completed height.

  8. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of November 20, 1963.

  9. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of October 10, 1963. Spherical liquid hydrogen tanks can be seen to the left.

  10. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of October 22, 1963. Spherical liquid hydrogen tanks can be seen to the left. Just to the lower front of those are the cylindrical liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks.

  11. ASKAP H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, P.; Koribalski, B.; Kilborn, V.; Allison, J. R.; Amy, S. W.; Ball, L.; Bannister, K.; Bell, M. E.; Bock, D. C.-J.; Bolton, R.; Bowen, M.; Boyle, B.; Broadhurst, S.; Brodrick, D.; Brothers, M.; Bunton, J. D.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, W.; Chippendale, A. P.; Chung, Y.; Cooray, F.; Cornwell, T.; DeBoer, D.; Diamond, P.; Forsyth, R.; Gough, R.; Gupta, N.; Hampson, G. A.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hay, S.; Hayman, D. B.; Heywood, I.; Hotan, A. W.; Hoyle, S.; Humphreys, B.; Indermuehle, B.; Jacka, C.; Jackson, C. A.; Jackson, S.; Jeganathan, K.; Johnston, S.; Joseph, J.; Kamphuis, P.; Leach, M.; Lenc, E.; Lensson, E.; Mackay, S.; Marquarding, M.; Marvil, J.; McClure-Griffiths, N.; McConnell, D.; Meyer, M.; Mirtschin, P.; Neuhold, S.; Ng, A.; Norris, R. P.; O'Sullivan, J.; Pathikulangara, J.; Pearce, S.; Phillips, C.; Popping, A.; Qiao, R. Y.; Reynolds, J. E.; Roberts, P.; Sault, R. J.; Schinckel, A. E. T.; Shaw, R.; Shimwell, T. W.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Storey, M.; Sweetnam, A. W.; Troup, E.; Tzioumis, A.; Voronkov, M. A.; Westmeier, T.; Whiting, M.; Wilson, C.; Wong, O. I.; Wu, X.

    2015-09-01

    We present H I imaging of the galaxy group IC 1459 carried out with six antennas of the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder equipped with phased-array feeds. We detect and resolve H I in 11 galaxies down to a column density of ˜1020 cm-2 inside a ˜6 deg2 field and with a resolution of ˜1 arcmin on the sky and ˜8 km s-1 in velocity. We present H I images, velocity fields and integrated spectra of all detections, and highlight the discovery of three H I clouds - two in the proximity of the galaxy IC 5270 and one close to NGC 7418. Each cloud has an H I mass of ˜109 M⊙ and accounts for ˜15 per cent of the H I associated with its host galaxy. Available images at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths do not reveal any clear stellar counterpart of any of the clouds, suggesting that they are not gas-rich dwarf neighbours of IC 5270 and NGC 7418. Using Parkes data, we find evidence of additional extended, low-column-density H I emission around IC 5270, indicating that the clouds are the tip of the iceberg of a larger system of gas surrounding this galaxy. This result adds to the body of evidence on the presence of intragroup gas within the IC 1459 group. Altogether, the H I found outside galaxies in this group amounts to several times 109 M⊙, at least 10 per cent of the H I contained inside galaxies. This suggests a substantial flow of gas in and out of galaxies during the several billion years of the group's evolution.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Image: Planetary Nebula IC 4406

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image reveals a rainbow of colors in this dying star, called IC 446. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry. The nebula's left and right halves are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC 446 in a spaceship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. We do not see the donut shape in this photograph because we are viewing IC 4406 from the Earth-orbiting HST. From this vantage point, we are seeing the side of the donut. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of material that have been compared to the eye's retina. In fact, IC 4406 is dubbed the 'Retina Nebula.' The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. This image is a composite of data taken by HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 and in January 2002 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators, and in January by the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Image: Planetary Nebula IC 4406

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image reveals a rainbow of colors in this dying star, called IC 446. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry. The nebula's left and right halves are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC 446 in a spaceship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. We do not see the donut shape in this photograph because we are viewing IC 4406 from the Earth-orbiting HST. From this vantage point, we are seeing the side of the donut. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of material that have been compared to the eye's retina. In fact, IC 4406 is dubbed the 'Retina Nebula.' The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. This image is a composite of data taken by HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 and in January 2002 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators, and in January by the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object.

  14. A Spitzer Census of the IC 348 Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, August A.; Lada, Charles J.; Luhman, K. L.; Muzerolle, James; Young, Erick

    2007-07-01

    Spitzer mid-infrared surveys enable an accurate census of young stellar objects by sampling large spatial scales, revealing very embedded protostars, and detecting low-luminosity objects. Taking advantage of these capabilities, we present a Spitzer-based census of the IC 348 nebula and embedded star cluster, covering a 2.5 pc region and comparable in extent to the Orion Nebula. Our Spitzer census supplemented with ground-based spectra has added 42 Class II T Tauri sources to the cluster membership and identified ~20 Class 0/I protostars. The population of IC 348 likely exceeds 400 sources after accounting statistically for unidentified diskless members. Our Spitzer census of IC 348 reveals a population of Class I protostars that is anticorrelated spatially with the Class II/III T Tauri members, which comprise the centrally condensed cluster around a B star. The protostars are instead found mostly at the cluster periphery about ~1 pc from the B star and spread out along a filamentary ridge. We further find that the star formation rate in this protostellar ridge is consistent with that rate which built the older exposed cluster, while the presence of 15 cold, starless, millimeter cores intermingled with this protostellar population indicates that the IC 348 nebula has yet to finish forming stars. Moreover, we show that the IC 348 cluster is of order 3-5 crossing times old, and, as evidenced by its smooth radial profile and confirmed mass segregation, is likely relaxed. While it seems apparent that the current cluster configuration is the result of dynamical evolution and its primordial structure has been erased, our finding of a filamentary ridge of Class I protostars supports a model in which embedded clusters are built up from numerous smaller subclusters. Finally, the results of our Spitzer census indicate that the supposition that star formation must progress rapidly in a dark cloud should not preclude these observations that show it can be relatively long lived.

  15. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of November 20, 1963.

  16. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken May 7, 1963, gives a close look at the four concrete tower legs of the S-IC test stand at their completed height.

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of October 22, 1963. Spherical liquid hydrogen tanks can be seen to the left. Just to the lower front of those are the cylindrical liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks.

  18. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph taken February 25, 1963, gives a close up look at two of the ever-growing four towers of the S-IC Test Stand.

  19. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of October 10, 1963. Kerosene storage tanks can be seen to the left.

  20. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph taken March 29, 1963, gives a close up look at two of the ever-growing four towers of the S-IC Test Stand.

  1. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken April 4, 1963, gives a close up look at the ever-growing four towers of the S-IC Test Stand.

  2. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph taken April 17, 1963, gives a look at the four tower legs of the S-IC test stand at their completed height.

  3. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken from ground level on May 7, 1963, gives a close look at one of the four towers legs of the S-IC test stand nearing its completed height.

  4. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the progress of the S-IC test stand as of October 10, 1963. Spherical liquid hydrogen tanks can be seen to the left.

  5. Poly (I:C), an agonist of toll-like receptor-3, inhibits replication of the Chikungunya virus in BEAS-2B cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and its mimic, polyinosinic acid: polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)], are recognized by toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and induce interferon (IFN)-β in many cell types. Poly (I:C) is the most potent IFN inducer. In in vivo mouse studies, intraperitoneal injection of Poly (I:C) elicited IFN-α/β production and natural killer (NK) cells activation. The TLR3 pathway is suggested to contribute to innate immune responses against many viruses, including influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes simplex virus 2, and murine cytomegalovirus. In Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, the viruses are cleared within 7–10 days postinfection before adaptive immune responses emerge. The innate immune response is important for CHIKV clearance. Results The effects of Poly (I:C) on the replication of CHIKV in human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, were studied. Poly (I:C) suppressed cytopathic effects (CPE) induced by CHIKV infection in BEAS-2B cells in the presence of Poly (I:C) and inhibited the replication of CHIKV in the cells. The virus titers of Poly (I:C)-treated cells were much lower compared with those of untreated cells. CHIKV infection and Poly (I:C) treatment of BEAS-2B cells induced the production of IFN-β and increased the expression of anti-viral genes, including IFN-α, IFN-β, MxA, and OAS. Both Poly (I:C) and CHIKV infection upregulate the expression of TLR3 in BEAS-2B cells. Conclusions CHIKV is sensitive to innate immune response induced by Poly (I:C). The inhibition of CHIKV replication by Poly (I:C) may be through the induction of TLR3, which triggers the production of IFNs and other anti-viral genes. The innate immune response is important to clear CHIKV in infected cells. PMID:22698190

  6. Add-on LABA in a separate inhaler as asthma step-up therapy versus increased dose of ICS or ICS/LABA combination inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Colice, Gene; Israel, Elliot; Roche, Nicolas; Postma, Dirkje S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; van Aalderen, Willem M.C.; Grigg, Jonathan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Thomas, Victoria; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma management guidelines recommend adding a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as step-up therapy for patients with uncontrolled asthma on ICS monotherapy. However, it is uncertain which option works best, which ICS particle size is most effective, and whether LABA should be administered by separate or combination inhalers. This historical, matched cohort study compared asthma-related outcomes for patients (aged 12–80 years) prescribed step-up therapy as a ≥50% extrafine ICS dose increase or add-on LABA, via either a separate inhaler or a fine-particle ICS/LABA fixed-dose combination (FDC) inhaler. Risk-domain asthma control was the primary end-point in comparisons of cohorts matched for asthma severity and control during the baseline year. After 1:2 cohort matching, the increased extrafine ICS versus separate ICS+LABA cohorts included 3232 and 6464 patients, respectively, and the fine-particle ICS/LABA FDC versus separate ICS+LABA cohorts included 7529 and 15 058 patients, respectively (overall mean age 42 years; 61–62% females). Over one outcome year, adjusted OR (95% CI) for achieving asthma control were 1.25 (1.13–1.38) for increased ICS versus separate ICS+LABA and 1.06 (1.05–1.09) for ICS/LABA FDC versus separate ICS+LABA. For patients with asthma, increased dose of extrafine-particle ICS, or add-on LABA via ICS/LABA combination inhaler, is associated with significantly better outcomes than ICS+LABA via separate inhalers. PMID:27730200

  7. Variability in P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potency (IC50) Using Various in Vitro Experimental Systems: Implications for Universal Digoxin Drug-Drug Interaction Risk Assessment Decision Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Joe; O’Connor, Michael P.; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Coleman, JoAnn; Lee, Caroline; Palm, Johan; Pak, Y. Anne; Perloff, Elke S.; Reyner, Eric; Balimane, Praveen; Brännström, Marie; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hanna, Imad; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Hillgren, Kate; Li, Libin; Hollnack-Pusch, Evelyn; Jamei, Masoud; Lin, Xuena; Mason, Andrew K.; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Patel, Aarti; Podila, Lalitha; Plise, Emile; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Sands, Eric; Taub, Mitchell E.; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yabut, Jocelyn; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC50 working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC50 determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC50 values for 16 inhibitors using four different test systems: human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2; eleven laboratories), Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (MDCKII-MDR1; six laboratories), and Lilly Laboratories Cells—Porcine Kidney Nr. 1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (LLC-PK1-MDR1; four laboratories), and membrane vesicles containing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; five laboratories). For cell models, various equations to calculate remaining transport activity (e.g., efflux ratio, unidirectional flux, net-secretory-flux) were also evaluated. The difference in IC50 values for each of the inhibitors across all test systems and equations ranged from a minimum of 20- and 24-fold between lowest and highest IC50 values for sertraline and isradipine, to a maximum of 407- and 796-fold for telmisartan and verapamil, respectively. For telmisartan and verapamil, variability was greatly influenced by data from one laboratory in each case. Excluding these two data sets brings the range in IC50 values for telmisartan and verapamil down to 69- and 159-fold. The efflux ratio-based equation generally resulted in severalfold lower IC50 values compared with unidirectional or net-secretory-flux equations. Statistical analysis indicated that variability in IC50 values was mainly due to interlaboratory variability, rather than an implicit systematic difference between test systems. Potential reasons for variability are discussed and the simplest, most robust experimental design for P-gp IC50 determination proposed. The impact of these findings on drug-drug interaction risk assessment is discussed in the companion article (Ellens et al., 2013) and recommendations

  8. The future impact of GaAs digital IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiling, P. T.

    1985-03-01

    A review of digital GaAs IC technology and an assessment of its future impact on gigabit signal processing is presented. High-speed signal processing and computers will require MSI-complexity interface circuits capable of 1-10 GHz clock frequencies and LSI-complexity digital circuits operating in the 0.2-5 GHz range at tens of microwatts per gate. A wide range of applications exists for frequency counters, multiplexers, A/D converters, FFT's, microprocessors, and memories that operate at speeds significantly higher than on presently available circuits. Issues related to high-speed IC design such as power dissipation, packing density, capacitance effects, design rules, and intra- and interchip propagation delays are discussed.

  9. The latest eruption of planetary nebula IC 2165

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohigas, J.; Rodríguez, M.; Dufour, R. J.

    2013-10-01

    Open slit high dispersion spectroscopic observations of the inner region of planetary nebula (PN) IC 2165 indicate that the object has a relatively uniform and high electron temperature, with its density being much larger close to the PN nucleus. Abundances imply that it is a non-type I PN. Calcium and iron have been heavily depleted into grains. The ionized mass is at least ˜ 0.05 M_⊙. A photoionization model (CLOUDY, version 10.00) assuming an inverse square law for the density and abundances typical of a non-type I PN, produced a fair replica of the spectrum and of all electron density and temperature sensitive line ratios, but not of the global properties of this object. All evidence indicates that IC 2165 was produced by a metal poor 2 M_⊙ A5 V star that took off some 2×10^9 yr ago.

  10. MagIC: Fluid dynamics in a spherical shell simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicht, J.; Gastine, T.; Barik, A.; Putigny, B.; Yadav, R.; Duarte, L.; Dintrans, B.

    2017-09-01

    MagIC simulates fluid dynamics in a spherical shell. It solves for the Navier-Stokes equation including Coriolis force, optionally coupled with an induction equation for Magneto-Hydro Dynamics (MHD), a temperature (or entropy) equation and an equation for chemical composition under both the anelastic and the Boussinesq approximations. MagIC uses either Chebyshev polynomials or finite differences in the radial direction and spherical harmonic decomposition in the azimuthal and latitudinal directions. The time-stepping scheme relies on a semi-implicit Crank-Nicolson for the linear terms of the MHD equations and a Adams-Bashforth scheme for the non-linear terms and the Coriolis force.

  11. IC5063: A merger with a hidden luminous active nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colina, L.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    IC5063 is a nearby galaxy classified as an SO and containing a system of dust lanes parallel to its major optical axis (Danziger, Goss and Wellington, 1981; Bergeron, Durret and Boksenberg, 1983). Extended emission line regions with high excitation properties have been detected over distances of up to 19 kpc from the nucleus. This galaxy has been classified as Seyfert 2 on the basis of its emission line spectrum. These characteristics make IC5063 one of the best candidates for a merger remnant and an excellent candidate for a hidden luminous active nucleus. Based on new broad and narrow band images and long-slit spectroscopy obtained at the ESO 3.6 m telescope, the authors present some preliminary results supporting this hypothesis.

  12. Galaxy IC 3639 with Obscured Active Galactic Nucleus

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-07

    IC 3639, a galaxy with an active galactic nucleus, is seen in this image combining data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the European Southern Observatory. This galaxy contains an example of a supermassive black hole hidden by gas and dust. Researchers analyzed NuSTAR data from this object and compared them with previous observations from NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory and the Japanese-led Suzaku satellite. The findings from NuSTAR, which is more sensitive to higher energy X-rays than these observatories, confirm the nature of IC 3639 as an active galactic nucleus that is heavily obscured, and intrinsically much brighter than observed. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21087

  13. Tests of shock chemistry in IC 443G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. E.; Chan, Kin-Wing; Green, S.; Lubowich, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Eight molecular species, in the hot dense clump IC 443G, believed to be impacted by the shock wave from the SNR IC 443, are investigated. The clump consists of two distinct regions, one relatively cool, and one hotter and denser. Region 1 contains CO, HCO(+), HCN, and CN, whose abundances may be explained either by ion-molecule chemistry, or by a D shock of 60-90 km/s, passing through a clump of about 100,000/cu cm. Region 2 gives rise to SiO, CS, SO, and H2CO, and requires an ND shock of 5-15 km/s passing through a region of about 1,000,000/cu cm. Observed fractional abundances fit ND shock models if L is about 6.6 x 10 exp 15 cm. In general, observed line widths vary inversely with derived excitation density, while centroid velocities of all species are essentially identical.

  14. Poly IC therapy in aleutian disease of mink.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A S; Percy, J S; Cho, H J

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-four virgin female aleutian mink were infected with aleutian disease agent and after 24 hours, 12 of these were treated with a course of polyinosinic acid-polycytidilic acid (Poly IC) injections. After six weeks the gammaglobulin level was significantly lower in the treated group but at 12 weeks this difference was no longer present. Four of the treated mink had normal target organ histology when killed at 20 weeks. The untreated group all showed moderate to marked changes but this difference was not statistically significant. There was a marked increase in the reactive lymphocyte blastogenesis index during the first weeks of infection and the phytohaemagglutinin response was seen to fall progressively. The antiglobulin reaction usually became positive after infection but neither antinuclear nor antierythrocyte antibodies were found. Precipitating antibodies to several polynucleotides were frequently present and were unrelated to infection or to Poly IC treatment. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2A Fig. 2B. PMID:1095164

  15. Tests of shock chemistry in IC 443G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. E.; Chan, Kin-Wing; Green, S.; Lubowich, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Eight molecular species, in the hot dense clump IC 443G, believed to be impacted by the shock wave from the SNR IC 443, are investigated. The clump consists of two distinct regions, one relatively cool, and one hotter and denser. Region 1 contains CO, HCO(+), HCN, and CN, whose abundances may be explained either by ion-molecule chemistry, or by a D shock of 60-90 km/s, passing through a clump of about 100,000/cu cm. Region 2 gives rise to SiO, CS, SO, and H2CO, and requires an ND shock of 5-15 km/s passing through a region of about 1,000,000/cu cm. Observed fractional abundances fit ND shock models if L is about 6.6 x 10 exp 15 cm. In general, observed line widths vary inversely with derived excitation density, while centroid velocities of all species are essentially identical.

  16. Ultrafast VHE Gamma-Ray Flares of IC 310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkov, Maxim V.; Aharonian, Felix; Khangulyan, Dmitriy V.

    In 2012 November MAGIC detected a bright flare from IC 310. The flare consisted of two sharp peaks with a typical duration of ~ 5 min. The energy released during that event has been estimated to be at the level of 2 × 1044 erg s-1. In this work we derive an upper limit on the possible luminosity of flares generated in black hole (BH) magnetosphere, which depends very weakly on the mass of BH and is determined by disk magnetisation, viewing angle, and pair multiplicity. Since all these parameters are smaller than a unit, the luminosity 2 × 1043 erg s-1 can be taken as a strict upper limit for flare luminosity for several minutes variability time. This upper limit appears to be approximately an order of magnitude below the value measured with MAGIC. Thus, we conclude that it seems very unfeasible that the magnetospheric processes can be indeed behind the bright flaring activity recorded from IC 310.

  17. Animal experiments with the microelectronics neural bridge IC.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyuan; Pei, Fei; Wang, Zhigong; Lü, Xiaoying

    2012-01-01

    The combination of the neural science and the microelectronics science offers a new way to restore the function of central nervous system. A neural regeneration module is used to be implanted into body to bridge the damaged nerve. A microelectronics neural bridge IC designed in CSMC 0.5□m CMOS process which can detect the neural signal and stimulate the nerve is presented. The neural regeneration module is composed of the microelectronics neural bridge IC and some discrete devices. An animal experiment has been done to check whether the neural signal can be transmitted with the chip normally or not. The animal experiment results suggest that the neural regeneration module can make the neural signal transmit normally.

  18. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken September 5, 1961, shows pumps used for extracting water emerging form a disturbed natural spring that occurred during the excavation of the site. The pumping became a daily ritual and the site is still pumped today.

  19. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken September 5, 1961, shows pumps used for extracting water emerging form a disturbed natural spring that occurred during the excavation of the site. The pumping became a daily ritual and the site is still pumped today.

  20. LSI/VLSI Ion Implanted GaAs IC Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-10

    insulating High Speed Logic Ion Implantation GaAs IC FET Integrated Circuits MESFET 20. ABSTRACT (Coalki. on.. roersie if oookay and IdoeI by WOOe tw**, This...The goal of this program is to realize the full potential of GaAs digital integrated circuits employing depletion mode MESFETs by developing the...Processing. The main objective of this program is to realize the full potential of GaAs digital integrated circuits by expanding and improving

  1. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    systems , analytical method development, silicon device failure mechanisms, and extensive litera- tI ture surveys related to these topics. References to the...graph is presented in Fig. 44 for this purpose to obviate tedious computations . 2. Passivation Overcoat Analysis on Single IC Pellets Several methods ...No. 1, 144 (1975). 94. I. Fr~nz and W. Langheinrich, Solid State Electronics 18, 209 (1975). f 95. J. A. Keenan, " Computer -Coupled System for X-Ray

  2. Sequential clustering of star formations in IC 1396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya-Fang; Li, Jin-Zeng

    2013-05-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the H II region IC 1396 and its star forming activity, in which multi-wavelength data ranging from the optical to the near- and far-infrared were employed. The surface density distribution of all the 2MASS sources with a certain detection toward IC 1396 indicates the existence of a compact cluster spatially consistent with the position of the exciting source of the H II region, HD 206267. The spatial distribution of the sources with excessive infrared emission, selected based on archived 2MASS data, reveals the existence of four sub-clusters in this region. One is associated with the open cluster Trumpler 37. The other three are found to be spatially coincident with the bright rims of the H II region. All the sources with excessive emission in the near infrared are cross-identified with AKARI IRC data. An analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the resultant sample leads to the identification of eight CLASS I, 15 CLASS II and 15 CLASS III sources in IC 1396. Optical identification of the sample sources with R magnitudes brighter than 17 mag corroborates the results from the SED analysis. Based on the spatial distribution of the infrared young stellar objects at different evolutionary stages, the surrounding sub-clusters located in the bright rims are believed to be younger than the central one. This is consistent with a scenario of sequential star formation in this region. Imaging data of a dark patch in IC 1396 by Herschel SPIRE, on the other hand, indicate the presence of two far-infrared cores in LDN 1111, which are likely to be a new generation of protostellar objects in formation. So we infer that the star formation process in this H II region was not continuous but rather episodic.

  3. Predicting levator avulsion from ICS POP-Q findings.

    PubMed

    Pattillo Garnham, Alejandro; Guzmán Rojas, Rodrigo; Shek, Ka Lai; Dietz, Hans Peter

    2017-06-01

    Levator avulsion is a common consequence of vaginal childbirth. It is associated with symptomatic female pelvic organ prolapse and is also a predictor of recurrence after surgical correction. Skills and hardware necessary for diagnosis by imaging are, however, not universally available. Diagnosis of avulsion may benefit from an elevated index of suspicion. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of the International Continence Society Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (ICS POP-Q) for the diagnosis of levator avulsion by tomographic 4D translabial ultrasound. This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in a tertiary urogynaecological unit. Subjects underwent a standardised interview, POP-Q examination and 4D translabial pelvic floor ultrasound. Avulsion of the puborectalis muscle was diagnosed by tomographic ultrasound imaging. We tested components of the ICS POP-Q associated with symptomatic prolapse and other known predictors of avulsion, including previous prolapse repair and forceps delivery with uni- and multivariate logistic regression. A risk score was constructed for clinical use. The ICS POP-Q components Ba, C, gh and pb were all significantly associated with avulsion on multivariate analysis, along with previous prolapse repair and forceps delivery. A score was assigned for each of these variables and patients were classified as low, moderate or high risk according to total score. The odds of finding an avulsion on ultrasound in patients in the "high risk" group were 12.8 times higher than in the "low risk" group. Levator avulsion is associated with ICS POP-Q measures. Together with simple clinical data, it is possible to predict the risk of avulsion using a scoring system. This may be useful in clinical practice by modifying the index of suspicion for the condition.

  4. Round Robin analysis of G Ic interlaminar fracture test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.

    1996-05-01

    This note presents the results of an exercise to evaluate the variation in values of G Ic at initiation, determined independently by 36 researchers interpreting the same load-displacement curve from a mode I double cantilever beam (DCB) test on unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polymer composite. The results indicate a significantly larger coefficient of variation for values corresponding to a definition of initiation at non-linearity on the load-displacement curve than for a 5% compliance offset criterion.

  5. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In this photo, taken June 24, 1963, the four tower legs of the test stand can be seen at their maximum height.

  6. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, depicts the progress of the stand as of January 14, 1963, with its four towers prominently rising.

  7. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This construction photo depicts the progress of the stand site as of October 8, 1962.

  8. Optical Spectrum of the Compact Planetary Nebula IC 5117

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.; Lee, Seong-Jae; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High resolution spectroscopic data of the very compact planetary nebula IC 5117 are obtained in the optical wavelengths, 3700A - 10050A, with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory, and which have been analyzed along with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) UV archive data. Although a diagnostic diagram shows significant density and temperature fluctuations, our analysis indicates that the nebular gas may be represented by a homogeneous shell of extremely high density gas, N(sub epsilon) approx. 90 000 /cu cm. The average electron temperatures, e.g. indicated by the [OIII] diagnostics, are around 12 000 K. We construct a photoionization model to represent most of the observed line intensities, and the physical condition of this compact nebulosity. Based on the semi-empirical ionization correction approach, and model indications, we derived the elemental abundances: He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar appear to be normal or marginally depleted compared to the average planetary nebula, while the remaining elements, S, Cl, and K appear to be enhanced. IC 5117 is perhaps a very young compact planetary nebula, slightly more evolved than the other well-known compact planetary nebula IC 4997. The central stellar temperature is likely to be around 120 000 K, evolved from a C-rich AGB progenitor.

  9. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Wang, Peng; Shen, Ying; Li, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Jun-Fa; Lai, Guo-Qiao; Li, Hong-Nian

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC60BA and PC71BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C60, C70 and PC61BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC60BA and PC71BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (EICT-), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC71BM. The EICT- of IC60BA is smaller than 4.14 eV.

  10. Competition between ices Ih and Ic in homogeneous water freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza, Alberto; Conde, Maria M.; Espinosa, Jorge R.; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The role of cubic ice, ice Ic, in the nucleation of ice from supercooled water has been widely debated in the past decade. Computer simulations can provide insightful information about the mechanism of ice nucleation at a molecular scale. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study the competition between ice Ic and hexagonal ice, ice Ih, in the process of ice nucleation. Using a seeding approach, in which classical nucleation theory is combined with simulations of ice clusters embedded in supercooled water, we estimate the nucleation rate of ice for a pathway in which the critical nucleus has an Ic structure. Comparing our results with those previously obtained for ice Ih [Sanz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15008 (2013)], we conclude that within the accuracy of our calculations both nucleation pathways have the same rate for the studied water models (TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005). We examine in detail the factors that contribute to the nucleation rate and find that the chemical potential difference with the fluid, the attachment rate of particles to the cluster, and the ice-water interfacial free energy are the same within the estimated margin of error for both ice polymorphs. Furthermore, we study the morphology of the ice clusters and conclude that they have a spherical shape.

  11. Feeding IC 342: The nuclear spiral of a starburst galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D.; Turner, J. L.; Hurt, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    IC 342 is a large nearby (1.8 Mpc, Turner and Hurt, 1991, hereafter T&H) spiral galaxy undergoing a moderate nuclear starburst. T&H have previously mapped the inner arcminute in CO-13(1-0) using the Owens Valley Millimeter Interferometer and found evidence that the nuclear molecular gas takes the form of spiral arms in a density wave pattern. They suggest that radial streaming along the arms may channel gas from the exterior of the galaxy into the nucleus, feeding the starburst. We have mapped the CO-12(1-0) emission of the inner 2 kpc of IC 342 at 2.8 inch resolution using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Interferometer. The greater sensitivity of CO-12 observations has allowed us to trace the spiral pattern out to a total extent of greater than 1 kpc. The CO-12 observations extend considerably the structure observed at CO-13 and offer further evidence that a spiral density wave may extend from the disk into the nucleus of IC 342.

  12. Feeding IC 342: The nuclear spiral of a starburst galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, D.; Turner, J. L.; Hurt, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    IC 342 is a large nearby (1.8 Mpc, Turner and Hurt, 1991, hereafter T&H) spiral galaxy undergoing a moderate nuclear starburst. T&H have previously mapped the inner arcminute in CO-13(1-0) using the Owens Valley Millimeter Interferometer and found evidence that the nuclear molecular gas takes the form of spiral arms in a density wave pattern. They suggest that radial streaming along the arms may channel gas from the exterior of the galaxy into the nucleus, feeding the starburst. We have mapped the CO-12(1-0) emission of the inner 2 kpc of IC 342 at 2.8 inch resolution using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) Millimeter Interferometer. The greater sensitivity of CO-12 observations has allowed us to trace the spiral pattern out to a total extent of greater than 1 kpc. The CO-12 observations extend considerably the structure observed at CO-13 and offer further evidence that a spiral density wave may extend from the disk into the nucleus of IC 342.

  13. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2016-06-01

    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Competition between ices Ih and Ic in homogeneous water freezing.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Alberto; Conde, Maria M; Espinosa, Jorge R; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-10-07

    The role of cubic ice, ice Ic, in the nucleation of ice from supercooled water has been widely debated in the past decade. Computer simulations can provide insightful information about the mechanism of ice nucleation at a molecular scale. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study the competition between ice Ic and hexagonal ice, ice Ih, in the process of ice nucleation. Using a seeding approach, in which classical nucleation theory is combined with simulations of ice clusters embedded in supercooled water, we estimate the nucleation rate of ice for a pathway in which the critical nucleus has an Ic structure. Comparing our results with those previously obtained for ice Ih [Sanz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15008 (2013)], we conclude that within the accuracy of our calculations both nucleation pathways have the same rate for the studied water models (TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005). We examine in detail the factors that contribute to the nucleation rate and find that the chemical potential difference with the fluid, the attachment rate of particles to the cluster, and the ice-water interfacial free energy are the same within the estimated margin of error for both ice polymorphs. Furthermore, we study the morphology of the ice clusters and conclude that they have a spherical shape.

  15. Emergency EC-IC bypass for symptomatic atherosclerotic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Nitta, Junpei; Ishizaka, Shigetoshi; Kanaya, Kohei; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery has no preventive effect on subsequent ipsilateral ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic internal carotid occlusion and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia. A few studies have assessed whether an urgent EC-IC bypass surgery is an effective treatment for main trunk stenosis or occlusion in acute stage. The authors retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients who underwent urgent EC-IC bypass for symptomatic internal carotid artery or the middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion between January 2003 and December 2011. Clinical characteristics and neuroimagings were evaluated and analyzed. Based on preoperative angiogram, responsible lesions were the internal carotid artery in 19 (32.8%) patients and the middle cerebral artery in 39 (67.2%). No hemorrhagic complication occurred. Sixty-nine percent of patients showed improvement of neurological function after surgery, and 74.1% of patients had favorable outcome. Unfavorable outcome was associated with insufficient collateral flow and new infarction after bypass surgery.

  16. NGC 2207/IC 2163: Grazing Encounter with Large Scale Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, M.; Struck, C.; Brinks, E.; Thomasson, M.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Elmegreen, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    The galaxy pair NGC 2207/IC 2163 has an unusually high ratio of radio continuum/IRAS far-IR flux, yet neither galaxy contains an AGN. We present a 4.86 GHz radio continuum image of this pair from VLA observations with 2.5'' resolution. Much of the excess radio emission arises from apparent shock fronts in the outer parts of the companion sides of the galaxies and along the rim of the ocular oval of IC 2163. With a SFR deduced from Hα emission, each galaxy has a SFR/M(HI) typical of normal spiral disks. Unlike the radio continuum emission, the Hα emission is not enhanced on the companion side of NGC 2207. We also present the results of a detailed, hydrodynamic numerical simulation of the encounter, modelling the responses of the stars and gas in both galaxies in three dimensions. The short-lived ocular phase and other features, such as the HI kinematics, set strict constraints on the encounter model. In the model, shocks generated by disk scraping and mass transfer from IC 2163 to NGC 2207 occur and may account for the excess radio emission on the companion sides. Comparison with Spitzer observations of this pair will be made.

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In the early stages of excavation, a natural spring was disturbed that caused a water problem which required constant pumping from the site and is even pumped to this day. Behind this reservoir of pumped water is the S-IC test stand boasting its ever-growing four towers as of March 29, 1963.

  18. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photo of the S-IC test stand, taken October 2, 1963, the flame deflector can be seen in the bottom center portion

  19. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photo of the S-IC test stand, taken September 25, 1963, the flame deflector can be seen rotated to the outside on

  20. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photo of the S-IC test stand, taken October 2, 1963, the flame deflector can be seen in the bottom center portion

  1. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photo of the S-IC test stand, taken September 25, 1963, the flame deflector can be seen rotated to the outside on

  2. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In the early stages of excavation, a natural spring was disturbed that caused a water problem which required constant pumping from the site and is even pumped to this day. Behind this reservoir of pumped water is the S-IC test stand boasting its ever-growing four towers as of March 29, 1963.

  3. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photo, taken September 5, 1963, the flame deflector is being installed in the S-IC test stand.

  4. Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Kuo-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Most studies employ qualitative approach to explore the industrial clusters; however, few research has objectively quantified the evolutions of industry clustering. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze clustering among IC design, IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries by using the foreign direct investment (FDI) data. The Lotka-Volterra system equations are first adopted here to capture the competition or cooperation among such three industries, thus explaining their clustering inclinations. The results indicate that the evolution of FDI into China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDI of IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries. Since IC design industry lie in the upstream stage of IC production, the middle-stream IC manufacturing and downstream IC packing and testing enterprises tend to cluster together with IC design firms, in order to sustain a steady business. Finally, Taiwan IC industry's FDI amount into China is predicted to cumulatively increase, which supports the industrial clustering tendency for Taiwan IC industry. Particularly, the FDI prediction of Lotka-Volterra model performs superior to that of the conventional Bass model after the forecast accuracy of these two models are compared. The prediction ability is dramatically improved as the industrial mutualism among each IC production stage is taken into account.

  5. Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Aminoglycoside-2 ''-Phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2 '')-Ic] From Enterococcus Gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, L.J.; Badarau, A.; Vakulenko, S.B.; Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2{double_prime}-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2{double_prime})-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2{double_prime})-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14-20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.8{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 {angstrom} resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  6. Somato-Motor Haptic Processing in Posterior Inner Perisylvian Region (SII/pIC) of the Macaque Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Fornia, Luca; Grandi, Laura Clara; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII) and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC) has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip) both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48) of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys’ active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45%) began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48) of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE) and precision grasping (PG) execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object. PMID:23936121

  7. Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC) of the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Fornia, Luca; Grandi, Laura Clara; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII) and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC) has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip) both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48) of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys' active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45%) began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48) of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE) and precision grasping (PG) execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object.

  8. First Stellar Abundances in the Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautvaišienė, Gražina; Geisler, Doug; Wallerstein, George; Borissova, Jura; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pagel, Bernard E. J.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Smith, Verne

    2007-12-01

    Chemical abundances in three M supergiants in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined using high-resolution spectra obtained with the UVES spectrograph on the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen telescope. A detailed synthetic-spectrum analysis has been used to determine the atmospheric parameters and abundances of O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, La, and Eu. We find the overall metallicity of the stars to be [Fe/H] = -0.67 ± 0.09 and the age 9-13 Myr, which is in excellent agreement with the present-day values in the age-metallicity relationship model of IC 1613 by Skillman et al. We have found that the three supergiants investigated have a mean [α/Fe] equal to about -0.1, which is lower than seen in Galactic stars at the same metallicity and is in agreement with the results obtained in other dwarf irregular galaxies. The oxygen abundances are in agreement with the upper values of the nebular oxygen determinations in IC 1613. The abundance ratios of s- and r-process elements to iron are enhanced relative to solar by about 0.3 dex. The abundance pattern of the elements studied is similar to that of the Small Magellanic Cloud, except for Co and Ni, which are underabundant in the SMC. The observed elemental abundances are generally in very good agreement with the recent chemical evolution model of Yuk and Lee. Based on observations collected with the Very Large Telescope and the 2.2 m Telescope of the European Southern Observatory within the Observing Programs 70.B-0361(A) and 072.D-0113(D).

  9. Lossless compression algorithm for hierarchical IC layout data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Allan; Zakhor, Avideh

    2007-03-01

    An important step in today's Integrated Circuit (IC) manufacturing is optical proximity correction (OPC). While OPC increases the fidelity of pattern transfer to the wafer, it also significantly increases IC layout file size. This has the undesirable side effect of increasing storage, processing, and I.O. times for subsequent steps of mask preparation. To alleviate the growing volume of layout data, a new layout data format, Open Artwork System Interchange Standard (OASIS), was introduced in 2001 by SEMI's Data Path Task Force. Even though OASIS results in a more efficient representation than the previous industry standard format GDSII, there is still room for improvement by applying data compression techniques. In this paper, we propose two such techniques for compressing layout data, including OPC layout, while remaining complaint with existing industry standard formats such as OASIS and GDSII. Such compliance ensures that the resulting compressed files can be viewed, edited, and manipulated by industry standard CAD viewing and editing tools without the need for a decoder. Our approach is to eliminate redundancies in the representation of the geometrical data by finding repeating groups of geometries between multiple cells and within a cell. We refer to the former as "inter-cell sub-cell detection (InterSCD)" and latter as "intra-cell sub-cell detection (IntraSCD)". We show both problems to be NP hard, and propose two sets of heuristics to solve them. For OPC layout data, we also propose a fast compression method based on IntraSCD which utilizes the hierarchical information in the pre-OPC layout data. We show that the IntraSCD approach can also be effective in reconstructing hierarchy from flattened layout data. We demonstrate the results of our proposed algorithms on actual IC layouts for 90nm, 130nm, and 180nm feature size circuit designs.

  10. The size and structure of the spheroid of IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battinelli, P.; Demers, S.; Artigau, É.

    2007-05-01

    Context: Nearby galaxies, spirals as well as irregulars, have been found to be much larger than previously believed. The structure of the huge spheroid surrounding dwarf galaxies could give clues to their past gravitational history. Thanks to wide field imagers, nearby galaxies with diameter of dozens of arcmin can be effectively surveyed. Aims: We obtain, from the CFHT archives, a series of i' and g' MegaCam images of IC 1613 in order to determine the stellar surface density of the field and determine the shape of its spheroid. Methods: From the colour magnitude diagram we select some 36 000 stars, in the first three magnitudes of the red giant branch. The spatial distribution of these stars is used to establish the structure of the spheroid. Results: The position angle of the major axis of the stellar spheroid is found to be ≈90°, some 30° from the major axis of the HI cloud surrounding IC 1613. The surface density profile of the spheroid is not exponential over all the length of the major axis. A King profile, with a core radius of 4.5' and a tidal radius of 24' fits the data. The tidal truncation of the spheroid suggests that IC 1613 is indeed a satellite of M 31. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.

  11. Neutral hydrogen in the starburst galaxy NGC3690/IC694

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolstoy, E.; Dickey, John M.; Israel, F. P.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers made observations of the neutral hydrogen (HI) emission structure surrounding the very deep absorption peak (observed earlier by Dickey (1986)) in the galaxy pair NGC3690/IC694. This galaxy pair is highly luminous in the far infrared, and known to exhibit extensive star formation as well as nuclear activity. Knowledge of the spatial distribution and velocity structure of the HI emission is of great importance to the understanding of the dynamics of the interaction and the resulting environmental effects on the galaxies.

  12. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. After a 6 month delay in construction due to size reconfiguration of the Saturn booster, the site was revisited for modifications. The original foundation walls built in the prior year had to be torn down and re-poured to accommodate the larger booster. The demolition can be seen in this photograph taken on May 21, 1962.

  13. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. After a six month delay in construction due to size reconfiguration of the Saturn booster, the site was revisited for modifications in March 1962. The original foundation walls built in the prior year were torn down and re-poured to accommodate the larger boosters. This photo depicts that modification progress as of June 13,1962.

  14. ERRATUM; A Deep X-Ray Image of IC 2391

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Theodore; Patten, Brian M.

    1998-06-01

    In the paper ``A Deep X-Ray Image of IC 2391'' by Theodore Simon and Brian M. Patten (PASP, 110, 283 [1998]), there is a typographical error in the mean energy conversion factor given on page 284, column (2). The correct value is (2.8+/-0.1)x10^-11 ergs cm^-2 s^-1 per HRI count s^-1. The factor ``x10^-11'' was omitted from the published version of the paper. The Press apologizes for this error.

  15. Compaction and Circuit Extraction in the MAGIC IC Layout System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    the extractor. Thariks are also due to Randy Katz of UC Berkeley and the Fall 1Q84 VLSI design class, for their willingness to use the extractor...34Q-353. [McC84] S. P. McCormick, "EXCL: A Circuit Extractor for IC Designs", Proceedings of the £1st Design Automation Conference, 1Q84 , 624-628...Conference, 1Q84 , 137-143. (Mos81] R. C. Mosteller, "REST: A Leaf Cell Design System", in VLSI81, J. P. Gray (editor), Academic Press, 1Q81, 163-172

  16. IC 1689: S0 galaxy with inner polar disk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Reshetnikov, V. P.

    1997-03-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of the S0 galaxy IC 1689 are given. The radial velocity curves constructed from the measurements of Hα and [NII]λ6583 lines show that in the galaxy interior there is a gas disk (r=~3kpc) rotating around the axis placed in the main plane of the galaxy (polar disk). Active star formation occurs in the outer part of the disk (in the ring). Both Hα and [NII]λ6583 emission lines are observed here. Only collisionally excited [NII] radiates in the inner regions of the disk.

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo shows the construction progress of the test stand as of August 14, 1961. Water gushing in from the disturbance of a natural spring contributed to constant water problems during the construction process. It was necessary to pump water from the site on a daily basis and is still pumped from the site today. The equipment is partially submerged in the water emerging from the spring.

  18. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken September 5, 1961, shows the construction of forms which became the concrete foundation for the massive stand. The lower right hand corner reveals a pump used for extracting water emerging from a disturbed natural spring that occurred during excavation of the site. The pumping became a daily ritual and the site is still pumped today.

  19. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken September 5, 1961, shows the construction of forms which became the concrete foundation for the massive stand. The lower right hand corner reveals a pump used for extracting water emerging from a disturbed natural spring that occurred during excavation of the site. The pumping became a daily ritual and the site is still pumped today.

  20. Ion Implanted GaAs I.C. Process Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    in ion implantation in GaAs, coupled with better control of the substrate material. 1 Once ion implantation became a reliable processing technology it... Processing Technology for Planar GaAs Integrated Circuits," GaAs IC Symposium, Lake Tahoe, CA., Sept. 1979. 20. R.C. Eden, "GaAs Integrated Circuit Device...1980. 25. B.M. Welch, "Advances in GaAs LSI!VLSI Processing Technology ," Sol. St. Tech., Feb. 1980, pp. 95-101. 27. R. Zucca, B.M. Welch, P.M

  1. A Census of the Young Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Stauffer, John R.; Muench, A. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Lada, E. A.; Bouvier, J.; Lada, C. J.

    2003-08-01

    We present a new census of the stellar and substellar members of the young cluster IC 348. We have obtained images at I and Z for a 42'×28' field encompassing the cluster and have combined these measurements with previous optical and near-infrared photometry. From spectroscopy of candidate cluster members appearing in these data, we have identified 122 new members, 15 of which have spectral types of M6.5-M9, corresponding to masses of ~0.08-0.015 Msolar by recent evolutionary models. The latest census for IC 348 now contains a total of 288 members, 23 of which are later than M6 and thus are likely to be brown dwarfs. From an extinction-limited sample of members (AV<=4) for a 16'×14' field centered on the cluster, we construct an initial mass function (IMF) that is unbiased in mass and nearly complete for M/Msolar>=0.03 (<~M8). In logarithmic units where the Salpeter slope is 1.35, the mass function for IC 348 rises from high masses down to a solar mass, rises more slowly down to a maximum at 0.1-0.2 Msolar, and then declines into the substellar regime. In comparison, the similarly derived IMF for Taurus from Briceño et al. and Luhman et al. rises quickly to a peak near 0.8 Msolar and steadily declines to lower masses. The distinctive shapes of the IMFs in IC 348 and Taurus are reflected in the distributions of spectral types, which peak at M5 and K7, respectively. These data provide compelling, model-independent evidence for a significant variation of the IMF with star-forming conditions. Based on observations obtained at Keck Observatory, Steward Observatory, the MMT Observatory, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  2. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast east was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph of the Pump House area was taken August 13, 1963. The massive round water storage tanks can be seen to the left of

  3. Status of the ITER IC H and CD System

    SciTech Connect

    Lamalle, P. U.; Beaumont, B.; Gassmann, T.; Kazarian, F.; Arambhadiya, B.; Bora, D.; Jacquinot, J.; Mitteau, R.; Schueller, F. C.; Tanga, A.; Baruah, U.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Singh, N. P.; Singh, R.; Goulding, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Swain, D.; Agarici, G.

    2009-11-26

    The ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system will deliver 20 MW of radio frequency power to the plasma in quasi continuous operation during the different phases of the experimental programme. The system also has to perform conditioning of the tokamak first wall at low power between main plasma discharges. This broad range of requirements imposes a high flexibility and a high availability. The paper highlights the physics and design requirements on the IC system, the main features of its subsystems, the predicted performance, and the current procurement and installation schedule.

  4. The remarkable infrared galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Helou, G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Hacking, P.; Rice, W.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    IRAS observations of the peculiar galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553 show that it is extremely luminous in the far-infrared, with a total luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 12th solar luminosities. The infrared-to-blue luminosity ratio of this galaxy is about 80, which is the largest value of the ratio for galaxies in the UGC catalog, and places it in the range of the 'unidentified' infrared sources recently reported by Houck et al. in the IRAS all-sky survey. Other observations of Arp 220, combined with the luminosity in the infrared, allow either a Seyfert-like or starburst origin for this luminosity.

  5. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast east was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph of the Pump House area was taken August 13, 1963. The massive round water storage tanks can be seen to the left of

  6. Construction Progress S-IC Test Stand Block House Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. This photograph, taken August 12, 1963, offers a view of the Block House interior.

  7. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. After a six month delay in construction due to size reconfiguration of the Saturn booster, the site was revisited for modifications in March 1962. The original foundation walls built in the prior year were torn down and re-poured to accommodate the larger boosters. This photo depicts that modification progress as of June 13,1962.

  8. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. After a 6 month delay in construction due to size reconfiguration of the Saturn booster, the site was revisited for modifications. The original foundation walls built in the prior year had to be torn down and re-poured to accommodate the larger booster. The demolition can be seen in this photograph taken on May 21, 1962.

  9. X-Ray Activity in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamapapa, Mark S.; Prosser, Charles F.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a joint ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) and optical investigation of the open cluster IC 4665. The ROSAT data contains detections for 28 stellar sources in the field, including 22 cluster members and candidate members spanning the color range -0.18 less than or equal to (B - V(sub o)) less than or equal to +1.63 (approx. B3 - M3). Upper limits are given for the remaining members (or candidate members) in the HRI field. Keck HIRES spectra have been obtained that yield radial and rotational velocity measures, respectively, for faint, low mass candidate members located within the field of the ROSAT HRI observation. In addition, photometry of possible optical counterparts to previously uncatalogued X-ray sources in the HRI field is presented. The trends in X-ray properties with (B - V) color in IC 4665 are found to be quite similar to that for other, more nearby young clusters such as the Pleiades and alpha Persei. In particular, a maximum in normalized X-ray luminosity of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol)) approx. equal 3 is observed, beginning in the color range of (B - V)(sub o) = 0.7 - 0.8. This is similar to the corresponding color range among Pleiades members, in agreement with the earlier estimate, that the age of IC 4665 is similar to the age of the Pleiades. The correlation of rotation and X-ray emission levels is consistent with that in other young clusters. Among the high mass stars in IC 4665, five B stars are detected as X-ray sources. Of these, one is a spectroscopic binary while the remaining objects are apparently single staxs. The level of intrinsic X-ray emission observed in the rapidly rotating (v sini greater than 200 km/ s), single B stars is consistent with an origin due to shock heating of the ambient medium by radiatively driven, rotationally enhanced winds. On the basis of these observations and the results for other clusters, we argue that observed levels of X-ray emission in high mass stars of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol

  10. Evaluation of in-plane local stress distribution in stacked IC chip using dynamic random access memory cell array for highly reliable three-dimensional IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Seiya; Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    As three-dimensional (3D) ICs have many advantages, IC performances can be enhanced without scaling down of transistor size. However, 3D IC has mechanical stresses inside Si substrates owing to its 3D stacking structure, which induces negative effects on transistor performances such as carrier mobility changes. One of the mechanical stresses is local bending stress due to organic adhesive shrinkage among stacked IC chips. In this paper, we have proposed an evaluation method for in-plane local stress distribution in the stacked IC chips using retention time modulation of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell array. We fabricated a test structure composed of a DRAM chip bonded on a Si interposer with dummy Cu/Sn microbumps. As a result, we clarified that the DRAM cell array can precisely evaluate the in-plane local stress distribution in the stacked IC chips.

  11. Botulinum toxin in the treatment of OAB, BPH, and IC.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christopher P

    2009-10-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are well known for their ability to potently and selectively disrupt and modulate neurotransmission. BoNT is currently undergoing regulatory evaluation for urological disorders in the United States and the European Union and is not FDA approved for urologic use. Overactive bladder (OAB) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are common urologic conditions characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence and, in the case of BPH, decreased urine flow that are currently being evaluated in clinical trials with BoNT-A. Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic condition in which patients describe urinary frequency, urgency and associated bladder/pelvic pain. In the two former conditions, BoNT-A is currently being evaluated in Phase II or Phase III clinical trials as a therapeutic agent. Evidence for BoNT in the treatment of IC is limited to small case series. The purpose of this article is to provide up to date clinical evidence regarding the use of BoNT to treat these three urologic problems. For the sake of clarity, BoNT-A describes the use of Botox unless otherwise specified. In addition, when describing OAB, two sub-populations exist: those with OAB of neurogenic origin (NDO) and those with OAB of unknown (idiopathic) origin (IDO).

  12. Application of concept selection methodology in IC process design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Kul

    1993-01-01

    Search for an effective methodology practical in IC manufacturing process development led to trial of quantitative 'concept selection' methodology in selecting the 'best' alternative for interlevel dielectric (ILD) processes. A cross-functional team selected multi-criteria with scoring guidelines to be used in the definition of the 'best'. The project was targeted for the 3 level metal backend process for sub-micron gate array product. The outcome of the project showed that the maturity of the alternatives has strong influence on the scores, because scores on the adopted criteria such as yield, reliability and maturity will depend on the maturity of a particular process. At the same time, the project took longer than expected since it required data for the multiple criteria. These observations suggest that adopting a simpler procedure that can analyze total inherent controllability of a process would be more effective. The methodology of the DFS (design for simplicity) tools used in analyzing the manufacturability of such electronics products as computers, phones and other consumer electronics products could be used as an 'analogy' in constructing an evaluation method for IC processes that produce devices used in those electronics products. This could be done by focusing on the basic process operation elements rather than the layers that are being built.

  13. Safety integrity requirements for computer based I&C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, N.N.Q.; Ficheux-Vapne, F.

    1997-12-01

    In order to take into account increasingly demanding functional requirements, many instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants are implemented with computers. In order to ensure the required safety integrity of such equipment, i.e., to ensure that they satisfactorily perform the required safety functions under all stated conditions and within stated periods of time, requirements applicable to these equipment and to their life cycle need to be expressed and followed. On the other hand, the experience of the last years has led EDF (Electricite de France) and its partners to consider three classes of systems and equipment, according to their importance to safety. In the EPR project (European Pressurized water Reactor), these classes are labeled E1A, E1B and E2. The objective of this paper is to present the outline of the work currently done in the framework of the ETC-I (EPR Technical Code for I&C) regarding safety integrity requirements applicable to each of the three classes. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Low electron beam energy CIVA analysis of passivated ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Dodd, B.A.; Henderson, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    Low Energy Charge-Induced Voltage Alteration (LECIVA) is a new scanning electron microscopy technique developed to localize open conductors in passivated ICs. LECIVA takes advantage of recent experimental work showing that the dielectric surface equilibrium voltage has an electron flux density dependence at low electron beam energies ({le}1.0 keV). The equilibrium voltage changes from positive to negative as the electron flux density is increased. Like Charge-Induced Voltage Alteration (CIVA), LECIVA images are produced from the voltage fluctuations of a constant current power supply as an electron beam is scanned over the IC surface. LECIVA image contrast is generated only by the electrically open part of a conductor, yielding, the same high selectivity demonstrated by CIVA. Because LECIVA is performed at low beam energies, radiation damage by the primary electrons and x-rays to MOS structures is far less than that caused by CIVA. LECIVA may also be performed on commercial electron beam test systems that do not have high primary electron beam energy capabilities. The physics of LECIVA signal generation are described. LECIVA imaging examples illustrate its utility on both a standard scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a commercial electron beam test system.

  15. Measuring RNA structure transcriptome-wide with icSHAPE.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dalen; Feng, Chao; Spitale, Robert C

    2017-03-20

    RNA molecules can be found at the heart of nearly every aspect of gene regulation: from gene expression to protein translation. The ability of RNA molecules to fold into intricate structures guides their function. Chemical methods to measure RNA structure have been part of the RNA biologists toolkit for several decades. These methods, although often cumbersome and difficult to perform on large RNAs, are notable for their accuracy and precision of structural measurements. Recent extension of these methods to transcriptome-wide analyses has opened the door to interrogating the structure of complete RNA molecules inside cells. Within this manuscript we describe the biochemical basis for the methodology behind a novel technology, icSHAPE, which measures RNA flexibility and single-strandedness in RNA. Novel methods such as icSHAPE have greatly expanded our understanding of RNA function and have paved the way to expansive analyses of large groups of RNA structures as they function inside the native environment of the cell.

  16. HUNTING FOR YOUNG DISPERSING STAR CLUSTERS IN IC 2574

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, Anne; Meyer, Martin M.; Calzetti, Daniella; Harris, Jason E-mail: martin.meyer@uwa.edu.au E-mail: jharris@30doradus.org

    2012-12-01

    Dissolving stellar groups are very difficult to detect using traditional surface photometry techniques. We have developed a method to find and characterize non-compact stellar systems in galaxies where the young stellar population can be spatially resolved. By carrying out photometry on individual stars, we are able to separate the luminous blue stellar population from the star field background. The locations of these stars are used to identify groups by applying the HOP algorithm, which are then characterized using color-magnitude and stellar density radial profiles to estimate age, size, density, and shape. We test the method on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys archival images of IC 2574 and find 75 dispersed stellar groups. Of these, 20 highly dispersed groups are good candidates for dissolving systems. We find few compact systems with evidence of dissolution, potentially indicating that star formation in this galaxy occurs mostly in unbound clusters or groups. These systems indicate that the dispersion rate of groups and clusters in IC 2574 is at most 0.45 pc Myr{sup -1}. The location of the groups found with HOP correlate well with H I contour map features. However, they do not coincide with H I holes, suggesting that those holes were not created by star-forming regions.

  17. Spectral Line Survey toward a Molecular Cloud in IC10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Shimonishi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Aikawa, Yuri; Kawamura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey observation in the 3 mm band toward the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy IC10 with the 45 m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory to explore its chemical composition at a molecular-cloud scale (∼80 pc). The CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO+, and HNC lines are detected for the first time in this galaxy in addition to the CO and 13CO lines, while the c-C3H2, CH3OH, CN, C18O, and N2H+ lines are not detected. The spectral intensity pattern is found to be similar to those observed toward molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), whose metallicity is as low as IC10. Nitrogen-bearing species are deficient in comparison with the Galactic molecular clouds due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen. CCH is abundant in comparison with Galactic translucent clouds, whereas CH3OH may be deficient. These characteristic trends for CCH and CH3OH are also seen in the LMC, and seem to originate from photodissociation regions more extended in the peripheries of molecular clouds due to the lower metallicity condition.

  18. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the SNR IC443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1998-01-01

    IC 443 is a supernova remnant of intermediate age, i.e. a few thousand years. It is especially interesting because part of its periphery is expanding into a molecular cloud while other sections are expanding into a typical interstellar medium of much lower density. Since the evolution of a supernova remnant through its various phases is affected by the density of the medium it expands into with the reasonable assumption that the supernova explosion was approximately symmetric we have an opportunity to observe a single object in two phases simultaneously. It was observed by ASCA in April, 1993 for a short period during the PV phase and more thoroughly in a 42 ksec exposure in March, 1994. The latter measurement provides most of the results that have been reported. Most of the analysis took place after the grant ended but is included here for completeness. The data was sent simultaneously to US and Japanese Pls. We worked independently. The software set of FTOOLs was used to construct images and spectra. They were judged to be rather unintuitive and not at all user friendly. I found I was using one FTOOL to read the header to obtain information that would only be provided to another FTOOL. The Japanese investigators were more successful. They analyzed the data and published results more rapidly. The scientific results summarized below are based primarily on their publications. Since IC 443 is an interesting example of a middle aged SNR in which a variety of processes are occurring it is one of a class. IC 443 exhibits shell-like emission in hard X-rays and extended soft X-rays with thin thermal spectra. It resembles SN 1006 in these respects. IC 443 contains hard X-rays in a semi-circular shell surrounding the thermal component. The total hard X-ray flux in the ASCA FOV is only a half of the Ginga hard component; which suggests that the hard X-rays are not confined only in the shell but some are extended larger than the ASCA FOV of eq 1 degree diameter. Japanese

  19. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the SNR IC443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1998-07-01

    IC 443 is a supernova remnant of intermediate age, i.e. a few thousand years. It is especially interesting because part of its periphery is expanding into a molecular cloud while other sections are expanding into a typical interstellar medium of much lower density. Since the evolution of a supernova remnant through its various phases is affected by the density of the medium it expands into with the reasonable assumption that the supernova explosion was approximately symmetric we have an opportunity to observe a single object in two phases simultaneously. It was observed by ASCA in April, 1993 for a short period during the PV phase and more thoroughly in a 42 ksec exposure in March, 1994. The latter measurement provides most of the results that have been reported. Most of the analysis took place after the grant ended but is included here for completeness. The data was sent simultaneously to US and Japanese Pls. We worked independently. The software set of FTOOLs was used to construct images and spectra. They were judged to be rather unintuitive and not at all user friendly. I found I was using one FTOOL to read the header to obtain information that would only be provided to another FTOOL. The Japanese investigators were more successful. They analyzed the data and published results more rapidly. The scientific results summarized below are based primarily on their publications. Since IC 443 is an interesting example of a middle aged SNR in which a variety of processes are occurring it is one of a class. IC 443 exhibits shell-like emission in hard X-rays and extended soft X-rays with thin thermal spectra. It resembles SN 1006 in these respects. IC 443 contains hard X-rays in a semi-circular shell surrounding the thermal component. The total hard X-ray flux in the ASCA FOV is only a half of the Ginga hard component; which suggests that the hard X-rays are not confined only in the shell but some are extended larger than the ASCA FOV of eq 1 degree diameter. Japanese

  20. Development of a New Calibration Method for an Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M.; Vandenboer, T.; Murphy, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    Fine atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere as they alter the radiative balance of the Earth through direct and indirect climate effects, reduce visibility, participate in acid rain formation and affect human health. The motivation for chemically and temporally resolved measurements of fine aerosol composition has lead to the development of the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) system by Dionex/URG. This instrument is capable of simultaneously monitoring fine aerosols (<2.5μm) and associated precursor gases on a nearly continuous basis with a time resolution of 1 hour. The instrument utilizes a parallel-plate wet denuder with a constantly regenerated surface for collection of gases and a particle condensation chamber for the collection of aerosols. AIM-IC is capable of monitoring HCl(g), HONO(g), HNO3(g), SO2(g), NH3(g), Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ , and some water soluble organic acids and amines. Standard calibration of the AIM-IC is carried out by injecting a series of mixed standards directly onto the ion chromatographs, bypassing the sampling component of the instrument. This results in calculated detection limits on the order of 10-200 pptv for gases and 10-500 of ng/m3 for individual particle constituents when collecting at 3 L/min for 55 minutes. In this work, we present a new method for the calibration of the AIM-IC for both gas and particle collection that enables us to evaluate the entire system from size-selection to detection. This external calibration method is assessed for the gases HNO3(g), SO2(g), and NH3(g), and for particles containing (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and Na2SO4. Quantitative collection of SO2 is found to require careful optimization of the H2O2 concentration of the denuder liquid, while the replacement of a cyclone with an impactor improves the sampling efficiency of NH3 and HNO3.

  1. [Study on cytotoxicity tests of medical devices based on IC50].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenghu; Wu, Shifu; Hou, Li; Wang, Xin; Wang, Luanluan; Shi, Yanping

    2014-11-01

    To discuss IC50 application in cytotoxicity tests of medical devices, we firstly investigated the vibrating condition and endpoint of MTT method specified in ISO 10993-5: 2009. Furthermore, we demonstrated the application of IC50 in the result evaluation of MTT method. The experimental results show that usage of IC50 in quantitative evaluation of MTT method is feasible.

  2. User's guide for the ICS (Integrated Communications System) database system: Version 1. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, A.

    1987-08-01

    The ICS database was implemented in support of the Integrated Communications System (ICS) Project. Additionally, it is linked to the LBLSTAFF database using the OCTOPUS, ICS, and SERVICE subfiles so that staff need not maintain employee information such as mailstop, payroll account number, termination date, etc. This relieves the staff of tracking mailstop changes and other personal information.

  3. 76 FR 59672 - Notice of Change In IC Docket Numbering Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Change In IC Docket Numbering Policy Notice is hereby given that the Commission is modifying the numbering system for the docket prefix IC. These IC docket notices...

  4. A multi-channel analog IC for in vitro neural recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhigong, Wang; Xiaoying, Lü

    2016-02-01

    Recent work in the field of neurophysiology has demonstrated that, by observing the firing characteristic of action potentials (AP) and the exchange pattern of signals between neurons, it is possible to reveal the nature of “memory” and “thinking” and help humans to understand how the brain works. To address these needs, we developed a prototype fully integrated circuit (IC) with micro-electrode array (MEA) for neural recording. In this scheme, the microelectrode array is composed by 64 detection electrodes and 2 reference electrodes. The proposed IC consists of 8 recording channels with an area of 5 × 5 mm2. Each channel can operate independently to process the neural signal by amplifying, filtering, etc. The chip is fabricated in 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The simulated and measured results show the system provides an effective device for recording feeble signal such as neural signals. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076118).

  5. Testing the Physics and Chemistry of Radiation Driven Cloud Evolution - [C II] Mapping of IC 59 and IC 63

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.

    The interaction of newly formed stars with their natal clouds give rise to a number of dynamical and chemical effects, forming H II regions, injecting energy in the surrounding ISM and, potentially giving ride to triggered star formation. When an expanding H II region encounters density enhancements, Bright Rimmed Clouds (BRC) are formed, containing photo-dissociation regions (PDR). These provide valuable laboratories of radiation driven dynamics both for cloud dynamics and the physical and chemical evolution of the gas and dust. We propose to map the near-by pair of BRCs IC59 and IC 63, in the [C II] line, a well-known PDR tracer, with the upGREAT LFA array. These observations will complement a significant amount of existing data tracing the molecular gas and dust in the clouds. The parallel CO (J=11-10) data from the L1 channel will provide important information about the dense warm molecular gas to be compared e.g. to existing low-J CO transitions. Although at similar distance from the illuminating star gamma Cas, the two nebulae show dramatic differences in their structure. Because of their relative vicinity ( 190pc), the clouds provide a unique environment to acquire high spatial resolution observation of BRC and PDRs. Because of the high spectral resolution of upGREAT, our observations will provide detailed information about gas flows and turbulent motions, providing important constraints and test for models of radiation driven cloud evolution and the chemistry and physics of PDRs.

  6. Growing Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnections in ICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Qi; Cassell, Alan; Ng, Hou Tee; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-01-01

    A process for growing multiwalled carbon nanotubes anchored at specified locations and aligned along specified directions has been invented. Typically, one would grow a number of the nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to a silicon integrated-circuit (IC) substrate, starting from (and anchored on) patterned catalytic spots on the substrate. Such arrays of perpendicular carbon nanotubes could be used as electrical interconnections between levels of multilevel ICs. The process (see Figure 1) begins with the formation of a layer, a few hundred nanometers thick, of a compatible electrically insulating material (e.g., SiO(x) or Si(y)N(z) on the silicon substrate. A patterned film of a suitable electrical conductor (Al, Mo, Cr, Ti, Ta, Pt, Ir, or doped Si), having a thickness between 1 nm and 2 m, is deposited on the insulating layer to form the IC conductor pattern. Next, a catalytic material (usually, Ni, Fe, or Co) is deposited to a thickness between 1 and 30 nm on the spots from which it is desired to grow carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Unlike the matted and tangled carbon nanotubes grown by thermal CVD, the carbon nanotubes grown by PECVD are perpendicular and freestanding because an electric field perpendicular to the substrate is used in PECVD. Next, the free space between the carbon nanotubes is filled with SiO2 by means of CVD from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), thereby forming an array of carbon nanotubes embedded in SiO2. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is then performed to remove excess SiO2 and form a flat-top surface in which the outer ends of the carbon nanotubes are exposed. Optionally, depending on the application, metal lines to connect selected ends of carbon nanotubes may be deposited on the top surface. The top part of Figure 2 is a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of carbon nanotubes grown, as described above, on catalytic spots of about 100 nm diameter patterned by

  7. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF A NEW ARSINE SULFIDE CONTAINING ARSENOSUGAR IN MOLLUSCS BY IC-ICP-MS AND IC-ESI-MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using IC-ICP-MS and IC-ESI-MS/MS, an unknown arsenical compound in mollusks has been identified as a new arsine sulfide containing analog of a known arsenosugar and is referred to as As(498). This species has been observed in four separate shellfish species following a mild metha...

  8. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  9. Giant Spherical Cluster with I-C140 Fullerene Topology**

    PubMed Central

    Heinl, Sebastian; Peresypkina, Eugenia; Sutter, Jörg; Scheer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    We report on an effective cluster expansion of CuBr-linked aggregates by the increase of the steric bulk of the CpR ligand in the pentatopic molecules [CpRFe(η5-P5)]. Using [CpBIGFe(η5-P5)] (CpBIG=C5(4-nBuC6H4)5), the novel multishell aggregate [{CpBIGFe(η5:2:1:1:1:1:1-P5)}12(CuBr)92] is obtained. It shows topological analogy to the theoretically predicted I-C140 fullerene molecule. The spherical cluster was comprehensively characterized by various methods in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26411255

  10. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. 60 V tolerance full symmetrical switch for battery monitor IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qidong; Yang, Yintang; Chai, Changchun

    2017-06-01

    For stacked battery monitoring IC high speed and high precision voltage acquisition requirements, this paper introduces a kind of symmetrical type high voltage switch circuit. This kind of switch circuit uses the voltage following structure, which eliminates the leakage path of input signals. At the same time, this circuit adopts a high speed charge pump structure, in any case the input signal voltage is higher than the supply voltage, it can fast and accurately turn on high voltage MOS devices, and convert the battery voltage to an analog to digital converter. The proposed high voltage full symmetry switch has been implemented in a 0.18 μm BCD process; simulated and measured results show that the proposed switch can always work properly regardless of the polarity of the voltage difference between the input signal ports and an input signal higher than the power supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61334003).

  12. Explosive Nucleosynthesis of Ultra-Stripped Type Ic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Suwa, Yudai; Umeda, Hideyuki; Shibata, Masaru; Takahashi, Koh

    We investigate the explosive nucleosynthesis of ultra-stripped Type Ic supernovae (SNe) evolved from 1.45 and 1.5 M ⊙ CO stars. We calculate the SN explosions using two-dimensional neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics code. The explosion energy of these SNe is about 1050 erg and the ejecta mass is about 0.1 M ⊙ . The 56Ni yield is (6-10) × 10-3 M ⊙ . Light curve of ultra-stripped SNe would be fast-fading and subluminous like SN 2005ek. Neutrino-driven winds contain neutron-rich materials and the first-peak r-process elements are produced. Ultra-stripped SNe and sub-energetic SNe evolved from single stars having a small CO core could be sources of light r-elements.

  13. MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF PROTOSTARS IN IC 1396A

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Calderon, M.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L.; Ardila, D. R.; Whitney, B. A.; Song, I.; Brooke, T. Y.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2009-09-10

    We have used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to conduct a photometric monitoring program of the IC1396A dark globule in order to study the mid-IR (3.6-8 {mu}m) variability of the heavily embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) present in that area. We obtained light curves covering a 14 day timespan with a twice daily cadence for 69 YSOs, and continuous light curves with approximately 12 s cadence over 7 hr for 38 YSOs. Typical accuracies for our relative photometry were 1%-2% for the long timespan data and a few millimagnitude, corresponding to less than 0.5%, for the 7 hr continuous 'staring-mode' data. More than half of the YSOs showed detectable variability, with amplitudes from {approx}0.05 mag to {approx}0.2 mag. About 30% of the YSOs showed quasi-sinusoidal light-curve shapes with apparent periods from 5 to 12 days and light-curve amplitudes approximately independent of wavelength over the IRAC bandpasses. We have constructed models which simulate the time-dependent spectral energy distributions of Class I and II YSOs in order to attempt to explain these light curves. Based on these models, the apparently periodic light curves are best explained by YSO models where one or two high-latitude photospheric spots heat the inner wall of the circumstellar disk, and where we view the disk at fairly large inclination angle. Disk inhomogeneities, such as increasing the height where the accretion funnel flows to the stellar hot spot, enhances the light-curve modulations. The other YSOs in our sample show a range of light-curve shapes, some of which are probably due to varying accretion rate or disk shadowing events. One star, IC1396A-47, shows a 3.5 hr periodic light curve; this object may be a PMS Delta Scuti star.

  14. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  15. An Infrared Search for Young Stellar Objects in IC 1396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Chelen H.; Linahan, Marcella; Gibbs, John; Rebull, Luisa M.; Archibald, Andrew R.; Dickmann, Samantha Rose; Hart, Erica A.; Hedlund, Audrey R.; Hilfer, Shannon L.; Lacher, Thomas; McKernan, John T.; Medeiros, Emma M.; Nelson, Samantha Brooks; O'Leary, Harrison; Peña, Nicholas D.; Peterson, Alexis; Reader, Livia K.; Ropinski, Brandi Lucia; Scarpa, Gabriella; Sundeen, Kiera A.; Takara, Amber L.; Thiel, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    About 700 parsecs away from Earth, IC1396 lies along the galactic plane, in the direction of the constellation Cepheus, and includes many dark nebulae, including the Elephant’s Trunk Nebula. IC 1396A has been examined with a variety of telescopes, including Spitzer, 2MASS, IPHAS, Chandra, and WISE. The YSOVAR project (Rebull et al. 2014) also has Spitzer monitoring data in this region at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. Our team has merged these catalogs and identified candidate YSOs using IR color selection, X-ray detection, and variability metrics. In order to interpret the YSOVAR light curves, it is critical to understand which of the 700+ YSO candidates in this region are likely YSOs, and which are foreground/background stars or are extragalactic objects. As a first attempt to confirm these candidate YSOs, we have created spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for wavelengths from IPHAS r band to 24 microns, which we use, coupled with image inspection, to confirm (or refute) YSO candidates from this list of identified YSO candidates. We will then compare our vetted list of YSO candidates to the lists of YSO candidates already identified in the literature in this region. The goal of this study is to identify candidate YSO sources, as well as support the greater understanding of the variety, evolution and variability of young stars. This project is a collaborative effort of high school students from three states. They analyzed data individually and later collaborated online to compare results. This project is the result of many years of work with the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP).

  16. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC.

    PubMed

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-09-30

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm². A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions.

  17. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2014-02-12

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  18. Spectroscopic study of the peculiar galaxy IC 883

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, V. A.; Merkulova, O. A.; Karataeva, G. M.; Shalyapina, L. V.; Yablokova, N. V.; Burenkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze new optical spectroscopic observations obtained at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the SCORPIO focal reducer (in the modes of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and long-slit spectroscopy) and the Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph for the galaxy IC 883. We have confirmed that the main body of the galaxy rotates around its minor axis. The positions of the dynamical axes of the stellar and gaseous components have been found to differ by ~10°. The velocities in the SE tail do not correspond to the circular rotation around the galaxy's minor axis. This structure is probably a fragment of an unwound curved spiral arm. Regions with high velocity dispersions and peculiarities in the velocity fields have been found along the minor axis. Our study of the age and metallicity of the galaxy's stellar population has shown that the mean values of these parameters in the stellar disk, except for the central region ( r ≤ 5"), are ≈1 Gyr and ≈-0.4 dex, respectively. Both young (2-5 × 108 yr) and old (5-10 × 109 yr) stellar populations are present in the circumnuclear region. Our analysis of the spectroscopic data for the bright feature 8" south of the nucleus coincident in position with a compact X-ray source has shown that this is apparently a dwarf galaxy or a remnant of a companion galaxy. Our FPI observations in the Hα emission line and direct images have revealed a region of ionized gas that together with the already known structures along the minor axis forms a clumpy tidal structure of ionized gas pulled from the companion galaxy. The results of our study confirm the previously proposed hypothesis that the observed peculiar structures were formed by the merger of two galaxies. However, it can be said that IC 883 does not belong to the class of polar-ring galaxies.

  19. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2014-02-01

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  20. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-01-01

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 µm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm2. A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 µVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions. PMID:26437404

  1. Dual-broadband rotational CARS measurements in an IC engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, P.E.; Martinsson, L.; Alden, M.; Johansson, B.; Lassesson, B.; Marforio, K.; Lundholm, G.

    1994-12-31

    This is the first report of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurements in an internal combustion (IC) engine. Single-shot, dual-broadband rotational CARS (DB-RCARS) spectra were recorded both prior to ignition and in the postcombustion gases. From these spectra, both temperature and relative oxygen concentrations were evaluated. The pressure was registered simultaneously with the CARS measurements in the spark-ignition engine burning natural gas and air. Prior to ignition, normally at temperatures below 1,000 K and pressures below 2 MPa, a rotational CARS spectrum is very temperature sensitive, and the technique can be used for temperature measurements with high accuracy. Evaluated temperatures show a negligible dependence on uncertainties in parameters such as the nonresonant susceptibility of the gas and slit width. Moreover, no collisional narrowing of the lines has to be taken into account. The relative standard deviation of evaluated temperatures and of relative oxygen concentrations from single-shot measurements were as low as 1, and 1.4--1.9%, respectively. In the postcombustion gases at temperatures above 2,000 K and pressures above 1.5 MPa, the nonresonant CARS background gave a large contribution to the total spectrum. In this temperature and pressure range, the evaluated values of temperature and nonresonant susceptibility are not independent, and the nonresonant susceptibility had to be fixed at a precalculated value to get a reliable temperature evaluation. The advantages and disadvantages of rotational CARS in comparison with vibrational CARS for IC engine measurements are discussed.

  2. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Nonno, Romolo; Zou, Wenquan; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Caughey, Byron

    2015-06-01

    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested.

  3. RNA and a cell wall component of Enterococcus faecalis IC-1 are required for phagocytosis and interleukin 12 production by the mouse macrophage cell line J774.1.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Junpei; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Takemoto, Syoji; Kubo, Takayoshi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Aoki-Yoshida, Ayako; Totsuka, Mamoru

    2017-04-13

    Enterococcus faecalis is a resident lactic acid bacterium in the human intestine. Its immunostimulatory action was reported to be enhanced by heat sterilization. To investigate its beneficial actions, we evaluated the ability of 10 E. faecalis strains to induce interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in a mouse macrophage cell line, J774.1 and found that the strain, E. faecalis IC-1, had a potent IL-12-inducing ability. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism by treating IC-1 cells with RNase or lysozyme. Its activity almost disappeared and an antagonist of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 inhibited this activity. Moreover, lysozyme-treated IC-1 bacteria were not phagocytized by J774.1 cells, and did not induce IL-12 production. Based on our results, we propose that macrophages recognize the cell wall components of IC-1, leading to phagocytosis. The IC-1 RNA is then recognized by TLR7, which induces the production of IL-12.

  4. A functional variant of IC53 correlates with the late onset of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingzhou; Shi, Yi; Li, Ziyu; Yu, Hui; Han, Yu; Wang, Xiaojian; Sun, Kai; Yang, Tao; Lou, Kejia; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yinhui; Zhen, Yisong; Zhang, Guiguo; Hu, Ying; Ji, Jiafu; Hui, Rutai

    2011-01-01

    The IC53 gene was reported to be upregulated in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW480. Here, we show that the expression level of IC53 is positively correlated with the grade and depth of invasion in adenocarcinoma of the colon. Injection of IC53 stably transfected HCT-116 cells into athymic nude mice promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, overexpression of IC53 increased cell invasive growth, which could be dramatically prevented by knocking down IC53 with siRNA. The effects of IC53 on cell-invasive growth were mediated by upregulation of integrins, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt. A single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2737 in the IC53 gene created a potential microRNA379 target site, and microRNA379 expression inhibited IC53 translation. Among 222 patients with colorectal cancer, the C/C rs2737 genotype was associated with late onset of colorectal cancer (median age 63.0 versus 55.3 years, P = 0.003). The frequency of the C/C rs2737 genotype was much lower in patients who developed colorectal cancer below the age of 45 years than in individuals over age 45 years (10.8% versus 26.6%, P = 0.039). These data indicated that IC53 is a positive mediator for colon cancer progression, and IC53-rs2737 may serve as protection from the onset of colorectal cancer.

  5. A Functional Variant of IC53 Correlates with the Late Onset of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingzhou; Shi, Yi; Li, Ziyu; Yu, Hui; Han, Yu; Wang, Xiaojian; Sun, Kai; Yang, Tao; Lou, Kejia; Song, Yan; Zhang, Yinhui; Zhen, Yisong; Zhang, Guiguo; Hu, Ying; Ji, Jiafu; Hui, Rutai

    2011-01-01

    The IC53 gene was reported to be upregulated in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line SW480. Here, we show that the expression level of IC53 is positively correlated with the grade and depth of invasion in adenocarcinoma of the colon. Injection of IC53 stably transfected HCT-116 cells into athymic nude mice promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, overexpression of IC53 increased cell invasive growth, which could be dramatically prevented by knocking down IC53 with siRNA. The effects of IC53 on cell-invasive growth were mediated by upregulation of integrins, activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt. A single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2737 in the IC53 gene created a potential microRNA379 target site, and microRNA379 expression inhibited IC53 translation. Among 222 patients with colorectal cancer, the C/C rs2737 genotype was associated with late onset of colorectal cancer (median age 63.0 versus 55.3 years, P = 0.003). The frequency of the C/C rs2737 genotype was much lower in patients who developed colorectal cancer below the age of 45 years than in individuals over age 45 years (10.8% versus 26.6%, P = 0.039). These data indicated that IC53 is a positive mediator for colon cancer progression, and IC53-rs2737 may serve as protection from the onset of colorectal cancer. PMID:21394385

  6. The OptIC Data Assimilation Intercomparison: A Statistical Critique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enting, I. G.; Clisby, N.

    2008-12-01

    The development of improved terrestrial carbon models has assumed great importance because of concerns about significant climate-to-carbon feedback processes. The complexity of the interactions leads to considerable difficulties in the process of model calibration. The OptIC intercomparison explored some aspects of model calibration, using an idealised terrestrial carbon model. Participants were invited to estimate model parameters in various cases defined by specified time series of the model state, with various forms of added noise. The study identified the crucial importance of the choice of cost function. The present analysis revisits the OptIC study, by considering it as an exercise in statistical estimation. This treats the observations as random variables. Consequently parameter estimates, â, based on observations will also be random variables whose distribution is known as the 'sampling distribution'. Key questions for any specific case are: Are departures from â/a_true =1 indication of bias or sampling error? Under what circumstance are uncertainty estimates (of Var[â]) reliable? We consider cases where the estimate is obtained by minimising a cost function, ΘX. Assuming that we know the true form of ℓ, the log likelihood, there are three different characterisations of uncertainty that should be distinguished: (i) The uncertainty from maximum-likelihood estimates, corresponding (either exactly or asymptotically) to the Cramer-Rao bound. In a realistic calibration situation, we won't be able to determine this because the 'true' form of the likelihood is unknown. (ii) The actual uncertainty associated with using a particular cost function. If the true noise distribution is known, this can be calculated in simple cases and determined from simulations in more complicated cases. (iii) The 'formal uncertainty' based on assuming (usually incorrectly) that ΘX is the true likelihood. In the first stage of the analysis, the distinctions are illustrated by

  7. Young T-dwarf candidates in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, A. S. M.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Marmo, C.; Albert, L.; Bouy, H.

    2009-12-01

    Context: The determination of the lower-end of the initial mass function (IMF) provides strong constraints on star formation theories. Aims: We report here on a search for isolated planetary-mass objects in the 3 Myr-old star-forming region IC 348. Methods: Deep, narrowband CH4off and CH4on images were obtained with CFHT/WIRCam over 0.11 sq. deg. in the central part of IC 348 to identify young T-dwarfs from their 1.6 μm methane absorption bands. Results: We report three faint T-dwarf candidates with CH4on-CH4off colours >0.4 mag. Extinction was estimated for each candidate and lies in the range AV ~ 5-12 mag. Comparisons with T-dwarf spectral models, and colour/colour and colour/magnitude diagrams, reject two of the three candidates because of their extreme z'-J blueness. The one remaining object is not thought to be a foreground field dwarf because of a number density argument and also its strong extinction AV ~ 12 mag, or thought to be a background field T-dwarf which would be expected to be much fainter. Models and diagrams give this object a preliminary T6 spectral type. Conclusions: With a few Jupiter masses, the young T-dwarf candidate reported here is potentially amongst the youngest, lowest mass objects detected in a star-forming region so far. Its frequency is consistent with the extrapolation of current lognormal IMF estimates down to the planetary mass domain. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the “University of Hawaii. Research supported by the Marie Curie Research Training Network CONSTELLATION” under grant no. MRTN-CT-2006-035890.

  8. ICES IN THE QUIESCENT IC 5146 DENSE CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Chiar, J. E.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T. P.; Roellig, T. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Keane, J. V.; Lada, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.

    2011-04-10

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 {mu}m range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H{sub 2}O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03 {+-} 0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH{sub 3}OH and NH{sub 3} in the ices, present at the {approx}2% and {approx}5% levels, respectively, relative to H{sub 2}O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J - K) color excess is found to follow a much shallower slope relative to lines of sight that probe diffuse clouds, supporting the previous results by Chiar et al.

  9. IRNSS/NavIC L5 Attitude Determination.

    PubMed

    Zaminpardaz, Safoora; Teunissen, Peter J G; Nadarajah, Nandakumaran

    2017-01-30

    The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) has recently (May 2016) become fully-operational and has been provided with the operational name of NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation). It has been developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) with the objective of offering positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) to the users in its service area. This contribution provides for the first time an assessment of the IRNSS L5-signal capability to achieve instantaneous attitude determination on the basis of data collected in Perth, Australia. Our evaluations are conducted for both a linear array of two antennas and a planar array of three antennas. A pre-requisite for precise and fast IRNSS attitude determination is the successful resolution of the double-differenced (DD) integer carrier-phase ambiguities. In this contribution, we will compare the performances of different such methods, amongst which the unconstrained and the multivariate-constrained LAMBDA method for both linear and planar arrays. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous ambiguity success rates increase from 15% to 90% for the linear array and from 5% to close to 100% for the planar array, thus showing that standalone IRNSS can realize 24-h almost instantaneous precise attitude determination with heading and elevation standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.10 degrees, respectively.

  10. UX Ori Variables in the Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Sergeev, S. G.; Semenov, A. O.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Results are presented from many years of photometric (VRCIC) observations of three variable T Tauri type stars in the cluster IC 348: V712 Per, V719 Per, and V909 Per. All three stars have photometric activity characteristic of UX Ori stars. The activity of V719 Per has increased significantly over the last 10 years: the amplitude of its Algol-like minima has increased by roughly a factor of 4 and has reached three stellar magnitudes in the I band. Periodograms of the light curves do not confirm the periods found previously by other authors on the basis of shorter series of observations. The slope of the color tracks on "color-magnitude" diagrams is used to determine the reddening law for these stars owing to selective absorption by circumstellar dust. Modelling of these parameters by the Mie theory shows that the maximum size amax of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disks of these stars is 1.5-2 times greater than in the interstellar medium. In V712 Per and V909 Per, the bulk of the mass of the dust particles is concentrated near amax, while in V719 Per the average mass of the dust particles is determined by the minimum size of the particles. It should be emphasized that these conclusions rely on an analysis of the optical variability of these stars.

  11. SPH Simulations on Triggered Star Formation in Brc IC 1848

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jingqi; Thompson, Mark; Morgan, Larry; White, Glenn

    SPH simulations have been carried out in the study of three bright-rimmed clouds (SFO 11 SFO 11NE and SFO 11E) associated with the HII region IC1848 in order to explore the possibility of star formation in these cloud structures trace back the likely past and future evolution of these clouds and explain what we observed in a recent star formation census of SFO BRCs. In our modelling we include both the effect of an ionising radiation field and self-gravitational collapse also a larger chemical network refined chemical and dust properties the calculation of the molecule lines. The influence of the magnetic field and chaotic motion of the molecular clouds are included as well. Therefore our upgraded model could present relatively complete evolutionary pictures of molecule clouds under the consideration. The results from our simulations exhibit the radial striations for a photoevaporated flow of gas from the clouds surface and shows the signals of star formation within all three clouds cores which have the same physical properties as protostellar core also some outflows are appearing in one of the structures which are in good agreement with observational pictures.

  12. Searching for signs of triggered star formation toward IC 1848

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M. A.; White, G. J.; Morgan, L. K.; Miao, J.; Fridlund, C. V. M.; Huldtgren-White, M.

    2004-02-01

    We have carried out an in-depth study of three bright-rimmed clouds SFO 11, SFO 11NE and SFO 11E associated with the HII region IC 1848, using observations carried out at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), plus archival data from IRAS, 2MASS and the NVSS. We show that the overall morphology of the clouds is reasonably consistent with that of radiative-driven implosion (RDI) models developed to predict the evolution of cometary globules. There is evidence for a photoevaporated flow from the surface of each cloud and, based upon the morphology and pressure balance of the clouds, it is possible that D-critical ionisation fronts are propagating into the molecular gas. The primary O star responsible for ionising the surfaces of the clouds is the 06V star HD 17505. Each cloud is associated with either recent or ongoing star formation: we have detected 8 sub-mm cores which possess the hallmarks of protostellar cores and identify YSO candidates from 2MASS data. We infer the past and future evolution of the clouds and demonstrate via a simple pressure-based argument that the UV illumination may have induced the collapse of the dense molecular cores found at the head of SFO 11 and SFO 11E.

  13. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

    1999-08-03

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

  14. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  15. MagIC: Geomagnetic Applications from Earth History to Archeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.

    2016-12-01

    Major scientific challenges increasingly require an interdisciplinary approach, and highlight the need for open archives, incorporating visualization and analysis tools that are flexible enough to address novel research problems. Increasingly modern standards for publication are (or should be) demanding direct links to data, data citations, and adequate documentation that allow other researchers direct access to the fundamental measurements and analyses producing the results. Carefully documented metadata are essential and data models may need considerable complexity to accommodate re-use of observations originally collected with a different purpose in mind. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) provides an online home for all kinds of paleo-, archeo-magnetic, rock, and environmental magnetic data, from documentation of fieldwork, through lab protocols, to interpretations in terms of geomagnetic history. Examples of their application to understanding geomagnetic field behavior, archeological dating, and voyages of exploration to discover America will be used to highlight best practices and illustrate unexpected benefits of data archived using best practices with the goal of maintaining high standards for reproducibility.

  16. IC 630: Piercing the Veil of the Nuclear Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy; Schartmann, Marc; Ashraf Uddin, Syed; Cotter, Garrett

    2017-04-01

    IC 630 is a nearby early-type galaxy with a mass of 6× {10}10 M ⊙ with an intense burst of recent (6 Myr) star formation (SF). It shows strong nebular emission lines, with radio and X-ray emission, which classifies it as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). With VLT-SINFONI and Gemini North-NIFS adaptive optics observations (plus supplementary ANU 2.3 m WiFeS optical IFU observations), the excitation diagnostics of the nebular emission species show no sign of standard AGN engine excitation; the stellar velocity dispersion also indicates that a supermassive black hole (if one is present) is small ({M}\\bullet =2.25× {10}5 {M}⊙ ). The luminosity at all wavelengths is consistent with SF at a rate of about 1-2 M ⊙ yr-1. We measure gas outflows driven by SF at a rate of 0.18 M ⊙ yr-1 in a face-on truncated cone geometry. We also observe a nuclear cluster or disk and other clusters. Photoionization from young, hot stars is the main excitation mechanism for [Fe ii] and hydrogen, whereas shocks are responsible for the H2 excitation. Our observations are broadly comparable with simulations where a Toomre-unstable, self-gravitating gas disk triggers a burst of SF, peaking after about 30 Myr and possibly cycling with a period of about 200 Myr.

  17. Nondestructive fault localization of IC interconnection by using ultrasonic heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Takuto; Hozumi, Naohiro; Otaka, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Toru

    2017-07-01

    A nondestructive method of ultrasonic fault localization of IC interconnection without mold decapsulation was proposed instead of the optical-beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH) method. The signal principle of the proposed method is based on the resistance change induced by local ultrasonic heating. To investigate the principle, numerical analysis constructed by sound and temperature field simulations is carried out and its results were compared with experimental results. The sound field is calculated by Fourier analysis. The temperature field is discretized using an equivalent thermal network circuit. Numerical simulation results show a good agreement with experimental results, suggesting that the signal in the proposed method was induced by ultrasonic heating. Moreover, ultrasonic heating induced the signal of the proposed method in a sample covered with commercially available resin including fillers (average diameter: 16 µm), and electro-static discharge (ESD) damage was localized by ultrasonic heating without mold decapsulation. These results suggest that the signal induced by ultrasonic stimulation is detectable and available for use in analysis.

  18. Characterization Of Deformation Properties Of Metals In 3D ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittler, Olaf; Mroßko, Raul; Huber, Saskia; Dowhan, Lukasz; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-09-01

    The properties of the materials involved in the set-up of 3D ICs need to be known, when the occurring mechanical stresses are to be modeled. Especially elastic-plastic properties are relevant for the metal layers, which form redistribution layers and the through silicon vias. These can be characterized by the nanoindentation experiment, which is an established technique for the determination of Hardness and Young's modulus of thin films. But this standard data set is not sufficient to be used as input to finite element simulations, because stress strain curves are required for the analysis of reliability of metal layers. These stress-strain curves can be obtained by fitting the force displacement curves of the experiment with a finite-element model. This approach enables additionally a solution for the so called substrate effect, because the stiffness of the substrate can be considered in the fitting model. This known approach is being applied and tested on thin (300 nm) gold layers deposited on silicon. It is shown that a good sensitivity for Young's Modulus can be reached even for indents that exceed 10% of the film thickness, but for the plastic data the results are not unique and a range of plastic properties can be fitted.

  19. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    PubMed

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects.

  20. IRNSS/NavIC L5 Attitude Determination

    PubMed Central

    Zaminpardaz, Safoora; Teunissen, Peter J.G.; Nadarajah, Nandakumaran

    2017-01-01

    The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) has recently (May 2016) become fully-operational and has been provided with the operational name of NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation). It has been developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) with the objective of offering positioning, navigation and timing (PNT) to the users in its service area. This contribution provides for the first time an assessment of the IRNSS L5-signal capability to achieve instantaneous attitude determination on the basis of data collected in Perth, Australia. Our evaluations are conducted for both a linear array of two antennas and a planar array of three antennas. A pre-requisite for precise and fast IRNSS attitude determination is the successful resolution of the double-differenced (DD) integer carrier-phase ambiguities. In this contribution, we will compare the performances of different such methods, amongst which the unconstrained and the multivariate-constrained LAMBDA method for both linear and planar arrays. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous ambiguity success rates increase from 15% to 90% for the linear array and from 5% to close to 100% for the planar array, thus showing that standalone IRNSS can realize 24-h almost instantaneous precise attitude determination with heading and elevation standard deviations of 0.05° and 0.10°, respectively. PMID:28146107

  1. RR Lyrae stars in Local Group galaxies. IV - IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, A.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Hoessel, John G.; Mossman, Amy E.

    1992-09-01

    Deep charge-coupled device images of a field in IC 1613 away from the star forming central regions were taken with the '4-shooter' on the Hale 5 m telescope, and processed to find photometrically measure variable stars. Fifteen RR Lyrae stars were found, and periods, light curves, and finding charts for them are presented. The mean magnitude of RR Lyrae stars in this galaxy is deduced to be 24.90 mag. Assuming the absolute g magnitude for RR Lyraes to be Mg = 0.73 mag, and using extinction Ag = 0.07 mag, a distance modulus of 24.10 +/- 0.27 mag is derived. The finding of RR Lyrae stars indicates the unambiguous presence of an old population. The distance modulus derived from them is smaller than that derived from the Cepheids by an amount which is dependent upon the RR Lyrae zero-point calibration adopted, and may be as large as 0.3 mag. The difference has the same sense and magnitude as the discrepancy in the LMC. The probable sources of the problem are discussed.

  2. YBCO step-edge junctions with high IcRn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, E. E.; Foley, C. P.

    2010-06-01

    Step-edge junctions represent one type of grain boundary Josephson junction employed in high-temperature superconducting junction technology. To date, the majority of results published in the literature focus on [001]-tilt grain boundary junctions (GBJs) produced using bicrystal substrates. We investigate the step morphology and YBCO (yttrium barium copper oxide) film structure of YBCO-based step-edge junctions on MgO [001] substrates which structurally resemble [100]-tilt junctions. High-resolution electron microscopy reveals a clean GBJ interface of width ~ 1 nm and a single junction at the top edge. The dependence of the transport properties on the MgO step-edge and junction morphology is examined at 4.2 K, to enable direct comparison with results for other junction studies such as [001]-tilt and [100]-tilt junctions and building on previously published 77 K data. MgO step-edge junctions show a slower reduction in critical current density with step angle compared with [001]-tilt junctions. For optimized step parameters, transport measurements revealed large critical current and normal resistance (IcRN) products (~3-5 mV), comparable with the best results obtained in other kinds of [100]-tilt GBJs in YBCO at 4.2 K. Junction-based devices such as SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) and THz imagers show excellent performance when MgO-based step-edge junctions are used.

  3. Constructing Cost-Effective and Targetable ICS Honeypots Suited for Production Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    CONSTRUCTING COST- EFFECTIVE AND TARGETABLE ICS HONEYPOTS SUITED FOR PRODUCTION NETWORKS THESIS Michael M. Winn, Major, U.S. Army AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-045...U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-045 CONSTRUCTING COST- EFFECTIVE AND TARGETABLE ICS...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-MS-15-M-045 CONSTRUCTING COST- EFFECTIVE AND TARGETABLE ICS HONEYPOTS SUITED FOR PRODUCTION NETWORKS THESIS

  4. 1 Mpc giant radio galaxy IC 711 - 3 km Westerbork observations at 92 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallee, J.P.; Strom, R.G.

    1988-05-01

    New Westerbork obsevations at 92 cm of the galaxy IC 711 show a radio trail that extends 1 Mpc long, much farther out than previously observed at shorter wavelengths. These new observations confirm IC 711 as the longest head-tail galaxy known, and move IC 711 to the fifth rank among galaxies with the largest radio extension from an optical galaxy nucleus (after the classical double sources 3C 236, 3C 326, HB 13, and MSH 05-22). 20 references.

  5. Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza vaccine induces heterologous protective immunity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs.

  6. Polymeric nanoparticles for co-delivery of synthetic long peptide antigen and poly IC as therapeutic cancer vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Sima; Fransen, Marieke F; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Christensen, Jonatan Riis; Amidi, Maryam; Hennink, Wim E; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2015-04-10

    The aim of the current study was to develop a cancer vaccine formulation for treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies. Synthetic long peptides (SLPs) derived from HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have been used for therapeutic vaccination in clinical trials with promising results. In preclinical and clinical studies adjuvants based on mineral oils (such as incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and Montanide) are used to create a sustained release depot at the injection site. While the depot effect of mineral oils is important for induction of robust immune responses, their administration is accompanied with severe adverse and long lasting side effects. In order to develop an alternative for IFA family of adjuvants, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on hydrophilic polyester (poly(d,l lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (pLHMGA)) were prepared. These NPs were loaded with a synthetic long peptide (SLP) derived from HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and a toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand (poly IC) by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The therapeutic efficacy of the nanoparticulate formulations was compared to that of HPV SLP+poly IC formulated in IFA. Encapsulation of HPV SLP antigen in NPs substantially enhanced the population of HPV-specific CD8+ T cells when combined with poly IC either co-encapsulated with the antigen or in its soluble form. The therapeutic efficacy of NPs containing poly IC in tumor eradication was equivalent to that of the IFA formulation. Importantly, administration of pLHMGA nanoparticles was not associated with adverse effects and therefore these biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent substitutes for IFA in cancer vaccines.

  7. Poly-IC preconditioning protects against cerebral and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Packard, Amy E B; Hedges, Jason C; Bahjat, Frances R; Stevens, Susan L; Conlin, Michael J; Salazar, Andres M; Stenzel-Poore, Mary P

    2012-02-01

    Preconditioning induces ischemic tolerance, which confers robust protection against ischemic damage. We show marked protection with polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly-IC) preconditioning in three models of murine ischemia-reperfusion injury. Poly-IC preconditioning induced protection against ischemia modeled in vitro in brain cortical cells and in vivo in models of brain ischemia and renal ischemia. Further, unlike other Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, which generally induce significant inflammatory responses, poly-IC elicits only modest systemic inflammation. Results show that poly-IC is a new powerful prophylactic treatment that offers promise as a clinical therapeutic strategy to minimize damage in patient populations at risk of ischemic injury.

  8. The Kinematics of the Ionized Gas in IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Joshua C.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2005-02-01

    We present the results of a WIYN integral field unit study of the kinematics of the ionized gas in IC 10, a dwarf irregular starburst galaxy in the Local Group. Though the velocity field of the ionized gas closely matches that of the H I, there are several kinematically interesting features in the galaxy. The diffuse ionized gas in the galaxy exhibits larger Hα line widths than the bright complexes. In one case this is due to an infusion of energy into the gas associated with the radio superbubble discovered by Yang & Skillman. We find that the amount of energy in this region is consistent with their hypothesis that the region contains 10 supernova remnants. We also detect a high-velocity (70 km s-1) expanding shell in the ionized gas, which is likely driven by three confirmed Wolf-Rayet stars that are located within the shell. Extrapolating from Hunter's initial mass function, we find that the central starburst region contains approximately equal energy contributions from stellar winds and supernovae (SNe), suggesting that SNe are just beginning to play a significant role in shaping the kinematics of the ionized gas. However, all of this energy cannot be easily accounted for in the kinematics of the gas. We detect an energetic flow of gas (3×1052 ergs), which we believe originates from the starburst region. We also detect a high-velocity (70 km s-1) feature not coincident with any structure in our Hα image. This feature, along with the flow and shell, can account for the energy produced by stellar wind and SNe. The flow resembles one discovered by Wilcots & Thurow in NGC 4214; together they suggest that the porosity of the interstellar medium contributes significantly to the high velocity of some portion of the ionized gas in irregular galaxies.

  9. Distribution of Late-type Stars around IC 4665

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronto, A.; Balazs, L. G.; Paparo, M.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated 424 stars of F8 spectral types and later in a 19.5 sq. degree field around IC 4665. The main purpose of our study in this low latitude field (b = +16.5 in our case) was the testing of the plane-parallel hypothesis of the density distribution, i.e. the hypothesis that the spatial density of the Population I stars observed at great angular distance from the galactic caps is well approximated by the z = r sin (b) scaling of the distributions obtained in the polar regions. We used the factor analysis of multivariate mathematical statistics in order to extract the effect of absorption from the photometric data. To identify the factor component describing the interstellar reddening we invoked the corresponding IRAS Sky Flux Data. We computed the spatial densities for the F8 - G5 dwarfs and the K giants separately. We used a maximum likelihood algorithm for oblating the space densities. We arrived at the following main conclusions in our paper: The absorbing material concentrates closer than 150 pc in our area. There is a weak but still significant correlation between the optical measures of absorption and the IRAS 100 micron Sky Flux Maps data. The spatial densities of F8 - G5 dwarfs essentially reflect the densities obtained in the galactic plane. The distribution of distance moduli of K giants in our sample can be well modelled by the z = sin (b) scaling of Upgren's data from the North Polar region. The actual form of the space density curve of the K giants can be satisfactorily fitted both by an isothermal model and an exponential model.

  10. X-ray Emission from Megamaser Galaxy IC 2560

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; Done, Chris; Zycki, Piotr; Greenhill, Lincoln; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2005-09-12

    Observation of the H{sub 2}O megamaser galaxy IC 2560 with the Chandra Observatory reveals a complex spectrum composed of soft X-ray emission due to multi-temperature thermal plasma, and a hard continuum with strong emission lines. The continuum is most likely a Compton reflection (reprocessing) of primary emission that is completely absorbed at least up to 7 keV. The lines can be identified with fluorescence from Si, S and Fe in the lowest ionization stages. The equivalent widths of the Si and S lines are broadly compatible with those anticipated for reprocessing by optically thick cold plasma of Solar abundances, while the large equivalent width of the Fe line requires some overabundance of iron. A contribution to the line from a transmitted component cannot be ruled out, but the limits on the strength of the Compton shoulder make it less likely. From the bolometric luminosity of the nuclear region, we infer that the source radiates at 1-10% of its Eddington luminosity, for an adopted central mass of 3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The overall spectrum is consistent with the hypotheses that the central engines powering the detected megamsers in accretion disks are obscured from direct view by the associated accretion disk material itself, and that there is a correlation between the occurrence of megamaser emission and Compton-thick absorption columns. For the 11 known galaxies with both column density measurements and maser emission believed to arise from accretion disks, eight AGN are Compton thick.

  11. Evidence for axisymmetric halos: The case of IC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franx, Marijn; van Gorkom, J. H.; de Zeeuw, Tim

    1994-12-01

    We present a new method to derive the shape of the potential from the velocity field of a gas ring, or a gas disk with a flat rotation curve. The method is an extension of previous work by Binney and Teuben, and it can detect deviations from axisymmetry at the level of a few percent. The velocity field of the ring or disk is expanded into harmonics, and we present analytic expressions which relate these harmonic terms to the intrinsic parameters, and the viewing angles. We show that both the velocity field and the geometry of the ring are necessary to give complete information on the shape of the potential in the plane of the ring. The velocity field alone gives incomplete information for small ellipticities. We present new neutral hydrogen data on the H I ring around the early-type galaxy IC 2006, which was discovered by Schweizer, van Gorkom, & Seitzer (1989). The new data show that the ring is filled and has a remarkably regular velocity field. Application of our method to this gas ring shows that the halo must be close to perfectly axisymmetric. We detect a nonsignificant ellipticity of the potential of 0.012 +/- 0.026. The 95% confidence limit on the ellipticity is 0.05. This implies that the potential is nearly circular in the plane of the ring. The analysis indicates that the circular velocity is nearly constant from 0.5 Re to 6.5 Re. We confirm that the M/L ration in the outer parts increases (Schweizer et al. 1989). The stellar component probably has a strong disk. The data demonstrate that galaxies other than spiral galaxies have massive halos. The inferred shape of the halo can be contrasted to the strongly triaxial halos found in simulations of dissipationless halo formation. As suggested by Katz & Gunn (1991), the inclusion of baryonic matter in the simulations may be necessary to resolve this issue.

  12. Qualification and Reliability for MEMS and IC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Advanced IC electronic packages are moving toward miniaturization from two key different approaches, front and back-end processes, each with their own challenges. Successful use of more of the back-end process front-end, e.g. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Wafer Level Package (WLP), enable reducing size and cost. Use of direct flip chip die is the most efficient approach if and when the issues of know good die and board/assembly are resolved. Wafer level package solve the issue of known good die by enabling package test, but it has its own limitation, e.g., the I/O limitation, additional cost, and reliability. From the back-end approach, system-in-a-package (SIAP/SIP) development is a response to an increasing demand for package and die integration of different functions into one unit to reduce size and cost and improve functionality. MEMS add another challenging dimension to electronic packaging since they include moving mechanical elements. Conventional qualification and reliability need to be modified and expanded in most cases in order to detect new unknown failures. This paper will review four standards that already released or being developed that specifically address the issues on qualification and reliability of assembled packages. Exposures to thermal cycles, monotonic bend test, mechanical shock and drop are covered in these specifications. Finally, mechanical and thermal cycle qualification data generated for MEMS accelerometer will be presented. The MEMS was an element of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) qualified for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity that successfully is currently roaring the Martian surface

  13. Qualification and Reliability for MEMS and IC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Advanced IC electronic packages are moving toward miniaturization from two key different approaches, front and back-end processes, each with their own challenges. Successful use of more of the back-end process front-end, e.g. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Wafer Level Package (WLP), enable reducing size and cost. Use of direct flip chip die is the most efficient approach if and when the issues of know good die and board/assembly are resolved. Wafer level package solve the issue of known good die by enabling package test, but it has its own limitation, e.g., the I/O limitation, additional cost, and reliability. From the back-end approach, system-in-a-package (SIAP/SIP) development is a response to an increasing demand for package and die integration of different functions into one unit to reduce size and cost and improve functionality. MEMS add another challenging dimension to electronic packaging since they include moving mechanical elements. Conventional qualification and reliability need to be modified and expanded in most cases in order to detect new unknown failures. This paper will review four standards that already released or being developed that specifically address the issues on qualification and reliability of assembled packages. Exposures to thermal cycles, monotonic bend test, mechanical shock and drop are covered in these specifications. Finally, mechanical and thermal cycle qualification data generated for MEMS accelerometer will be presented. The MEMS was an element of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) qualified for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity that successfully is currently roaring the Martian surface

  14. Effect of toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly I:C on intestinal mucosa and epithelial barrier function in mouse models of acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Yue, Yue-Hong; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiu-Li; Lu, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Ji-Min; Hou, Hong-Tao; Lang, Xiao-Meng; He, Li-Li; Hu, Qi-Lu; Dun, Zi-Qian

    2017-01-01

    -γ. CONCLUSION Our study suggested that poly I:C may protect against DSS-induced colitis through maintaining integrity of the epithelial barrier and regulating innate immune responses, which may shed light on the therapeutic potential of poly I:C in human colitis. PMID:28246473

  15. Innovative Teaching of IC Design and Manufacture Using the Superchip Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. R.; Wilcock, R.; McNally, I.; Swabey, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an intelligent chip architecture has allowed a large cohort of undergraduate (UG) students to be given effective practical insight into integrated circuit (IC) design by designing and manufacturing their own ICs. To achieve this, an efficient chip architecture, the "Superchip," was developed, which allows multiple student…

  16. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  17. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22310 Electrical cables (I-C mines). Electrical cables used to power submersible sump pumps shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22310 Electrical cables (I-C mines). Electrical cables used to power submersible sump pumps shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22310 Electrical cables (I-C mines). Electrical cables used to power submersible sump pumps shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22310 Electrical cables (I-C mines). Electrical cables used to power submersible sump pumps shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Equipment § 57.22310 Electrical cables (I-C mines). Electrical cables used to power submersible sump pumps shall be accepted or approved by MSHA as flame...

  2. Mutations in the aph(2")-Ic Gene Are Responsible for Increased Levels of Aminoglycoside Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Kyung; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Clewell, Don B.; Lerner, Stephen A.; Chow, Joseph W.

    2002-01-01

    Random PCR mutagenesis of the enterococcal aph(2")-Ic gene followed by selection for mutant enzymes that confer enhanced levels of aminoglycoside resistance resulted in mutants of APH(2")-Ic with His-258-Leu and Phe-108-Leu substitutions, all of which conferred rises in the MICs of several aminoglycosides. The mutated residues are located outside conserved regions of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases. PMID:12234853

  3. IC [Interior Communications] Electrician 3 and 2: Rate Training Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Interior Communications (IC) Electricians Third and Second Class who operate and maintain the interior communications systems and associated equipment. Chapter one discusses career challenges for the IC Electrician in terms of responsibilities, advancement…

  4. 30 CFR 57.22216 - Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22216 Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines). The main intake and return air currents in single shafts shall...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22216 - Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22216 Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines). The main intake and return air currents in single shafts shall...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22216 - Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22216 Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines). The main intake and return air currents in single shafts shall...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22216 - Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22216 Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines). The main intake and return air currents in single shafts shall...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22216 - Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22216 Separation of intake and return air (I-C mines). The main intake and return air currents in single shafts shall...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  11. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  12. 30 CFR 57.22225 - Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines). 57.22225 Section 57.22225 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... equipment stations (I-C mines). Battery charging stations, compressor stations, and electrical substations...

  13. The German Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS-G): Reliability and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Sandra; Rietz, Christian; Stenneken, Prisca

    Background: In 2012 the Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) was published as a parent-report screening assessment that considers parents' perceptions of their children's functional intelligibility with a range of communication partners that differ in levels of authority and familiarity in real-life situations. To date, the ICS has been…

  14. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22210 In-line filters (I-C mines). Filters or separators shall be installed on air-lift fan systems to prevent explosive concentrations of... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section...

  15. Innovative Teaching of IC Design and Manufacture Using the Superchip Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. R.; Wilcock, R.; McNally, I.; Swabey, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an intelligent chip architecture has allowed a large cohort of undergraduate (UG) students to be given effective practical insight into integrated circuit (IC) design by designing and manufacturing their own ICs. To achieve this, an efficient chip architecture, the "Superchip," was developed, which allows multiple student…

  16. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22210 In-line filters (I-C mines). Filters or separators shall be installed on air-lift fan systems to prevent explosive concentrations of...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place is...

  2. A Solder Based Self Assembly Project in an Introductory IC Fabrication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Madhav; Lusth, John C.; Burkett, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) fabrication principles is an elective course in a senior undergraduate and early graduate student's curriculum. Over the years, the semiconductor industry relies heavily on students with developed expertise in the area of fabrication techniques, learned in an IC fabrication theory and laboratory course. The theory course…

  3. The Shock Structure of Supernova Remnant IC443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael R.; Higdon, S. J. U.; Burton, M. G.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We present and discuss ISO observations of IC443, a supernova remnant interacting with a molecular cloud. An SWS spectrum centered on molecular hydrogen clump R10E (RA(2000) = 6 17 7.6, Decl(2000) = 22 25 34.6) is dominated by strong [SiII] (34 microns) emission and the pure rotational transitions of molecular hydrogen ranging from 0-0 S(1) to 0-0 S(13). Fits to these H$-2$ lines imply a large column (approx. 7E19 cm$ {-2)$) of warm (T approx. 700 K) gas and an ortho/para ratio for hydrogen near 3. LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of [OI] (63 microns) and [CII] (158 microns) at positions R10E and C (RA(2000) = 6 17 42.8, Decl(2000) = 22 21 38.1) find broad (approx. 75 km/s), blue-shifted (-40 km/s) line profiles; their similarity strongly suggests a common, shock-generated origin for these two lines. The surprisingly large [CII]/[OI] ratio (approx. 0.1 to 0.2) confirms previous observations with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These [CII] and [OI] line intensities, the [SiII] intensity (above), and LWS grating measurements of OH (119 microns) and [OI] (145 microns) are all readily fit by a single, fast J-shock model. Although the [OI] (63) emission can alternatively be produced by a slow C-shock, this ensemble of lines can not be produced by such a shock and provides strong evidence for the existence of a J-shock. A 24-arcmin strip map shows that this far-infrared line emission is spatially correlated with the H$-2$ 1-0 S(1) emission, which most likely arises in an associated C-shock. In addition to this spatially correlated shock emission, the strip map identifies extended [CII] and [OI] emission with a significantly larger line ratio (approx. 0.6); this 'background' component is compared with current J-shock, C-shock, photo-dissociation region (PDR), and X-ray dissociation region (XDR) models in an effort to explain its origin.

  4. Multi-Wavelength Views of Protostars in IC 1396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on individual images below for larger view

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has captured a glowing stellar nursery within a dark globule that is opaque at visible light. These new images pierce through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and young stars never before seen.

    The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas.

    The large composite image above is a product of combining data from the observatory's multiband imaging photometer and the infrared array camera. The thermal emission at 24 microns measured by the photometer (red) is combined with near-infrared emission from the camera at 3.6/4.5 microns (blue) and from 5.8/8.0 microns (green). The colors of the diffuse emission and filaments vary, and are a combination of molecular hydrogen (which tends to be green) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (brown) emissions.

    Within the globule, a half dozen newly discovered protostars, or embryonic stars, are easily discernible as the bright red-tinted objects, mostly along the southern rim of the globule. These were previously undetected at visible wavelengths due to obscuration by the thick cloud ('globule body') and by dust surrounding the newly forming stars. The newborn stars form in the dense gas because of compression by the wind and radiation from a nearby massive star (located outside the field of view to the left). The winds from this unseen star are also responsible for producing the

  5. Multi-Wavelength Views of Protostars in IC 1396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on individual images below for larger view

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has captured a glowing stellar nursery within a dark globule that is opaque at visible light. These new images pierce through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and young stars never before seen.

    The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas.

    The large composite image above is a product of combining data from the observatory's multiband imaging photometer and the infrared array camera. The thermal emission at 24 microns measured by the photometer (red) is combined with near-infrared emission from the camera at 3.6/4.5 microns (blue) and from 5.8/8.0 microns (green). The colors of the diffuse emission and filaments vary, and are a combination of molecular hydrogen (which tends to be green) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (brown) emissions.

    Within the globule, a half dozen newly discovered protostars, or embryonic stars, are easily discernible as the bright red-tinted objects, mostly along the southern rim of the globule. These were previously undetected at visible wavelengths due to obscuration by the thick cloud ('globule body') and by dust surrounding the newly forming stars. The newborn stars form in the dense gas because of compression by the wind and radiation from a nearby massive star (located outside the field of view to the left). The winds from this unseen star are also responsible for producing the

  6. A learning-enabled neuron array IC based upon transistor channel models of biological phenomena.

    PubMed

    Brink, S; Nease, S; Hasler, P; Ramakrishnan, S; Wunderlich, R; Basu, A; Degnan, B

    2013-02-01

    We present a single-chip array of 100 biologically-based electronic neuron models interconnected to each other and the outside environment through 30,000 synapses. The chip was fabricated in a standard 350 nm CMOS IC process. Our approach used dense circuit models of synaptic behavior, including biological computation and learning, as well as transistor channel models. We use Address-Event Representation (AER) spike communication for inputs and outputs to this IC. We present the IC architecture and infrastructure, including IC chip, configuration tools, and testing platform. We present measurement of small network of neurons, measurement of STDP neuron dynamics, and measurement from a compiled spiking neuron WTA topology, all compiled into this IC.

  7. Nasal and skin delivery of IC31(®)-adjuvanted recombinant HSV-2 gD protein confers protection against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Wizel, Benjamin; Persson, Josefine; Thörn, Karolina; Nagy, Eszter; Harandi, Ali M

    2012-06-19

    Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) remains the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Given the disappointing results of the recent genital herpes vaccine trials in humans, development of novel vaccine strategies capable of eliciting protective mucosal and systemic immune responses to HSV-2 is urgently required. Here we tested the ability of the adjuvant IC31(®) in combination with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) used through intranasal (i.n.), intradermal (i.d.), or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization routes for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization with gD plus IC31(®) through all three routes of immunization developed elevated gD-specific serum antibody responses with HSV-2 neutralizing activity. Whereas the skin routes promoted the induction of a mixed IgG2c/IgG1 isotype profile, the i.n. route only elicited IgG1 antibodies. All immunization routes were able to induce gD-specific IgG antibody responses in the vaginas of mice immunized with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD. Although specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in splenocytes from mice of most groups vaccinated with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD, only i.d. immunization resulted in a significant splenic IFN-γ response. Further, immunization with gD plus IC31(®) conferred 80-100% protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge with amelioration of viral replication and disease severity in the vagina. These results warrant further exploration of IC31(®) for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes and other sexually transmitted infections.

  8. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    PubMed

    Vascellari, Sarah; Orrù, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; King, Declan; Barron, Rona; Wilham, Jason M; Baron, Gerald S; Race, Brent; Pani, Alessandra; Caughey, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc)) can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc) propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C), by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen)) as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc) (PrP(Res)). Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8) and 10(-13) were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res) levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C). Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res), RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res) strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res) levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc) immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  9. Prion Seeding Activities of Mouse Scrapie Strains with Divergent PrPSc Protease Sensitivities and Amyloid Plaque Content Using RT-QuIC and eQuIC

    PubMed Central

    Vascellari, Sarah; Orrù, Christina D.; Hughson, Andrew G.; King, Declan; Barron, Rona; Wilham, Jason M.; Baron, Gerald S.; Race, Brent; Pani, Alessandra; Caughey, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE)-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrPSc) can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrPSc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrPC, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrPSen) as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrPSc (PrPRes). Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10−8 and 10−13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrPRes levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrPC. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrPRes, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrPRes strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrPRes levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrPSc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML scrapie strains. Overall

  10. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero

    2017-09-06

    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  11. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Ryan S; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z S A; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms.

  12. Long gamma-ray Bursts and Type Ic Core CollapseSupernovae have Similar Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.L.; Kirshner, R.P.; Pahre, M.

    2007-12-04

    When the afterglow fades at the site of a long-duration {gamma}-ray burst (LGRB), Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic) are the only type of core collapse supernova observed. Recent work found that a sample of LGRB had different environments from a collection of core-collapse supernovae identified in a high-redshift sample from colors and light curves. LGRB were in the brightest regions of their hosts, but the core-collapse sample followed the overall distribution of the galaxy light. Here we examine 263 fully spectroscopically-typed supernovae found in nearby (z < 0.06) galaxies for which we have constructed surface photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The distributions of the thermonuclear supernovae (SN Ia) and some varieties of core-collapse supernovae (SN II and SN Ib) follow the galaxy light, but the SN Ic (like LGRB) are much more likely to erupt in the brightest regions of their hosts. The high-redshift hosts of LGRB are overwhelmingly irregulars, without bulges, while many low redshift SN Ic hosts are spirals with small bulges. When we remove the bulge light from our low-redshift sample, the SN Ic and LGRB distributions agree extremely well. If both LGRB and SN Ic stem from very massive stars, then it seems plausible that the conditions necessary for forming SN Ic are also required for LGRB. Additional factors, including metallicity, may determine whether the stellar evolution of a massive star leads to a LGRB with an underlying broad-lined SN Ic, or simply a SN Ic without a {gamma}-ray burst.

  13. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A.

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ► Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ► Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ► First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  14. Early BVRcIc imaging and the discovery of the optical afterglow of GRB 041218

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Tsunemi, H.

    2005-07-01

    We report early BVR_cIc imaging of the INTEGRAL GRB 041218. The observation started 129 s after the burst and a sequence of exposures in V, R_c, I_c, and B bands were repeated. The optical afterglow is detected in Rc and Ic bands while it was not detected in B and V. We find that the early afterglow deviates from a single power law decay and identify two characteristic timescales (breaks). Such breaks are theoretically expected from synchrotron cooling in the relativistic fireball (Sari et al. 1998, ApJ, 497, L17) and we crudely constrain the physical condition of the relativistic shock.

  15. International Space Agency CIO Forum Industrial Control System (ICS) and Cyber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This briefing covers Industrial Control System (ICS) best practices for enhancing cyber protection. The briefing provides a very high-level overview of best practices currently being pursued by NASA as well as by other US government agencies such as NIST and DHS ICS-CERT. All information presented in this slide deck is publicly available and no sensitive information is provided in these slides. These slides will be used to generate discussion around best practices within the international community in the area of ICS cyber protections.

  16. On the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 (c i/c a) derived from ecosystem flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zheng-Hong; Wu, Zhi-Xiang; Hughes, Alice C.; Schaefer, Douglas; Zeng, Jiye; Lan, Guo-Yu; Yang, Chuang; Tao, Zhong-Liang; Chen, Bang-Qian; Tian, Yao-Hua; Song, Liang; Jatoi, Muhammad Tahir; Zhao, Jun-Fu; Yang, Lian-Yan

    2017-07-01

    The ratio of intercellular to ambient CO2 concentrations (c i/c a) plays a key role in ecophysiology, micrometeorology, and global climatic change. However, systematic investigation on c i/c a variation and its determinants are rare. Here, the c i/c a was derived from measuring ecosystem fluxes in an even-aged monoculture of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis). We tested whether c i/c a is constant across environmental gradients and if not, which dominant factors control c i/c a variations. Evidence indicates that c i/c a is not a constant. The c i/c a exhibits a clear "V"-shaped diurnal pattern and varies across the environmental gradient. Water vapor pressure deficit (D) is the dominant factor controls over the c i/c a variations. c i/c a consistently decreases with increasing D. c i/c a decreases with square root of D as predicted by the optimal stomatal model. The D-driving single-variable model could simulate c i/c a as well as that of sophisticated model. Many variables function on longer timescales than a daily cycle, such as soil water content, could improve c i/c a model prediction ability. Ecosystem flux can be effectively used to calculate c i/c a and use it to better understand various natural cycles.

  17. X-rays of IC443 - remnant of Tang dynasty supernova.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenru

    Hard X-rays with energies up to 20 keV were observed from IC443 by the X-ray satellite Ginga. The X-ray flux below 6 keV is found consistent with that of earlier observations with Einstein and HEAO 1, and the X-ray spectrum smoothly extends to 20 keV. The feature of Fe K line is not conspicuous; an upper limit of the equivalent width for its emission is 250 eV. It is likely that the hard X-rays are emitted from a shock-heated plasma with a temperature higher than 10 keV and a number density smaller than 0.1 cm-3 which is probably located in the SW and W regions of IC443. This model predicts the age of IC443 to be about 1000 years. It is suggested that IC443 is the remnant of a supernova in AD 837.

  18. Research on Methods of Processing Transit IC Card Information and Constructing Transit OD Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiuhua; Li, Jin; Peng, Han

    Transit OD matrix is of vital importance when planning urban transit system. Traditional transit OD matrix constructing method needs a large range of spot check survey. It is expensive and needs long cycle time to process information. Recently transit IC card charging systems have been widely applied in big cities. Being processed reasonably, transit passenger information stored in IC card database can turn into information resource. It will reduce survey cost a lot. The concept of transit trip chain is put forward in this paper. According to the characteristics of closed transit trip chain, it discusses how to process IC card information and construct transit OD matrix. It also points out that urban transit information platform and data warehouse should be constructed, and how to integrate IC card information.

  19. A Twisted Star-Forming Web in the Galaxy IC 342

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-20

    Looking like a spider web swirled into a spiral, galaxy IC 342 presents its delicate pattern of dust in this infrared light image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The very center glows especially brightly in the infrared.

  20. Dr. Wernher Von Braun leads a tour of the S-IC checkout area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees, Charles Schultze, James Webb, Elmer Staats, Comptroller General of the United States, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun tour the S-IC checkout area in the Marshall Space Flight Center quality lab.

  1. Achieving asthma control with ICS/LABA: A review of strategies for asthma management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, René; Vogelmeier, Claus; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-02-01

    Maintenance treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) is recommended for patients whose asthma is not controlled with a low-to-moderate dose of ICS alone; a separate reliever medication is used on an as-needed basis. The Gaining Optimal Asthma ControL (GOAL) study demonstrated that salmeterol/fluticasone maintenance treatment can improve asthma control and reduce future risk compared with fluticasone alone, although the dose escalation design of this study meant that most patients treated with salmeterol/fluticasone were receiving the highest dose of ICS at the end of the study. Similarly, budesonide/formoterol maintenance therapy improved asthma control and reduced future risk compared with budesonide alone in the Formoterol and Corticosteroids Establishing Therapy (FACET) study. An alternative approach to asthma management is to use an ICS/LABA for both maintenance and reliever therapy. A large body of clinical evidence has shown that the use of budesonide/formoterol in this way improves both current control and reduces future risk compared with ICS/LABA plus as-needed short-acting β2-agonist (SABA), even when patients receive lower maintenance doses of ICS as part of the maintenance and reliever therapy regimen. In addition, one study has shown that beclometasone/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy reduces exacerbations more effectively than beclometasone/formoterol plus as-needed SABA. The use of ICS/LABA as both maintenance and reliever therapy ensures that an increase in reliever use in response to worsening symptoms is automatically matched by an increase in ICS.

  2. Factors That Improve RT-QuIC Detection of Prion Seeding Activity.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; Groveman, Bradley R; Campbell, Katrina J; Anson, Kelsie J; Manca, Matteo; Kraus, Allison; Caughey, Byron

    2016-05-23

    Rapid and sensitive detection of prions is important in managing prion diseases. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay for prion seeding activity has been applied to many prion diseases and provides for specific antemortem diagnostic testing. We evaluated RT-QuIC's long-term consistency and varied multiple reaction parameters. Repeated assays of a single scrapie sample using multiple plate readers and recombinant prion protein (rPrP(Sen)) substrates gave comparable results. N-terminal truncated hamster rPrP(Sen) (residues 90-231) hastened both prion-seeded and prion-independent reactions but maintained a clear kinetic distinction between the two. Raising temperatures or shaking speeds accelerated RT-QuIC reactions without compromising specificity. When applied to nasal brushings from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, higher temperatures accelerated RT-QuIC kinetics, and the use of hamster rPrP(Sen) (90-231) strengthened RT-QuIC responses. Elongation of shaking periods reduced scrapie-seeded reaction times, but continuous shaking promoted false-positive reactions. Furthermore, pH 7.4 provided for more rapid RT-QuIC reactions than more acidic pHs. Additionally, we show that small variations in the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly impacted the assay. Finally, RT-QuIC performed in multiplate thermoshakers followed by fluorescence readings in separate plate readers enhanced assay throughput economically. Collectively, these results demonstrate improved speed, efficacy and practicality of RT-QuIC assays and highlight variables to be optimized for future applications.

  3. Estimation of Ksub Ic from slow bend precracked Charpy specimen strength ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succop, G.; Brown, W. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Strength ratios are reported which were derived from slow bend tests on 0.25 inch thick precracked Charpy specimens of steels, aluminum alloys, and a titanium alloy for which valid K sub Ic values were established. The strength ratios were used to develop calibration curves typical of those that could be useful in estimating K sub Ic for the purposes of alloy development of quality control.

  4. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation changes shall be made to reduce the level of methane. Until methane is reduced to less than 0.5 percent, no... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation changes shall be made to reduce the level of methane. Until methane is reduced to less than 0.5 percent, no... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation changes shall be made to reduce the level of methane. Until methane is reduced to less than 0.5 percent, no... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57...

  7. Local and commissural IC neurons make axosomatic inputs on large GABAergic tectothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L

    2014-10-15

    Large GABAergic (LG) neurons are a distinct type of neuron in the inferior colliculus (IC) identified by their dense vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2)-containing axosomatic synaptic terminals. Yet the sources of these terminals are unknown. Since IC glutamatergic neurons express VGLUT2, and IC neurons are known to have local collaterals, we tested the hypothesis that these excitatory, glutamatergic axosomatic inputs on LG neurons come from local axonal collaterals and commissural IC neurons. We injected a recombinant viral tracer into the IC which enabled Golgi-like green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling in both dendrites and axons. In all cases, we found terminals positive for both GFP and VGLUT2 (GFP+/VGLUT2+) that made axosomatic contacts on LG neurons. One to six axosomatic contacts were made on a single LG cell body by a single axonal branch. The GFP-labeled neurons giving rise to the VGLUT2+ terminals on LG neurons were close by. The density of GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals on the LG neurons was related to the number of nearby GFP-labeled cells. On the contralateral side, a smaller number of LG neurons received axosomatic contacts from GFP+/VGLUT2+ terminals. In cases with a single GFP-labeled glutamatergic neuron, the labeled axonal plexus was flat, oriented in parallel to the fibrodendritic laminae, and contacted 9-30 LG cell bodies within the plexus. Our data demonstrated that within the IC microcircuitry there is a convergence of inputs from local IC excitatory neurons on LG cell bodies. This suggests that LG neurons are heavily influenced by the activity of the nearby laminar glutamatergic neurons in the IC.

  8. AVP-IC50 Pred: Multiple machine learning techniques-based prediction of peptide antiviral activity in terms of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abid; Tandon, Himani; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-11-01

    Peptide-based antiviral therapeutics has gradually paved their way into mainstream drug discovery research. Experimental determination of peptides' antiviral activity as expressed by their IC50 values involves a lot of effort. Therefore, we have developed "AVP-IC50 Pred," a regression-based algorithm to predict the antiviral activity in terms of IC50 values (μM). A total of 759 non-redundant peptides from AVPdb and HIPdb were divided into a training/test set having 683 peptides (T(683)) and a validation set with 76 independent peptides (V(76)) for evaluation. We utilized important peptide sequence features like amino-acid compositions, binary profile of N8-C8 residues, physicochemical properties and their hybrids. Four different machine learning techniques (MLTs) namely Support vector machine, Random Forest, Instance-based classifier, and K-Star were employed. During 10-fold cross validation, we achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) of 0.66, 0.64, 0.56, 0.55, respectively, for the above MLTs using the best combination of feature sets. All the predictive models also performed well on the independent validation dataset and achieved maximum PCCs of 0.74, 0.68, 0.59, 0.57, respectively, on the best combination of feature sets. The AVP-IC50 Pred web server is anticipated to assist the researchers working on antiviral therapeutics by enabling them to computationally screen many compounds and focus experimental validation on the most promising set of peptides, thus reducing cost and time efforts. The server is available at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/ic50avp.

  9. Silicon photonics-wireless interface ICs for micro-/millimeter-wave fiber-wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Ko, Minsu; Lee, Myung-Jae; Rücker, Holger; Choi, Woo-Young

    2013-09-23

    We present two types of Si photonics-wireless interface (PWI) integrated circuits (ICs) realized in standard Si technology. Our PWI ICs convert optical signals into radio-frequency (RF) signals for downlink remote antenna units in fiber-wireless networks. Characterization and modeling of Si avalanche photodetectors (APDs) fabricated in two different Si technologies are carried out and used for PWI IC design. A 5-GHz RF-over-fiber PWI IC composed of APD, preamplifier, and power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and its performance is verified by 54-Mb/s wireless local area network data transmission. A 60-GHz baseband-over-fiber PWI IC containing APD, baseband photoreceiver, 60-GHz binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulator, and 60-GHz PA is realized in 0.25-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Error-free transmission of 1.6-Gb/s BPSK data in 60 GHz with this PWI IC is successfully achieved.

  10. α-Conotoxin MrIC is a biased agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Alexander; Starobova, Hana; Inserra, Marco C; Jin, Ai-Hua; Deuis, Jennifer R; Dutertre, Sébastien; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F; Daly, Norelle L; Vetter, Irina

    2015-03-15

    MrIC is a recently described selective agonist of endogenously expressed α7 nAChR. In this study, we further characterize the pharmacological activity of MrIC using Ca(2+) imaging approaches in SH-SY5Y cells endogenously expressing α7 nAChR and demonstrate that MrIC exclusively activates α7 nAChR modulated by type II positive allosteric modulators, including PNU120596. MrIC was a full agonist at PNU120596-modulated α7 nAChR compared with choline, albeit with slower kinetics, but failed to elicit a Ca(2+) response in the absence of PNU120596. Interestingly, the NMR structure of MrIC showed a typical 4/7 α-conotoxin fold, indicating that its unusual pharmacological activity is likely sequence-dependent. Overall, our results suggest that MrIC acts as a biased agonist that can only activate α7 nAChR modified by type II positive allosteric modulators, and thus represents a valuable tool to probe the pharmacological properties of this important ion channel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Interface for the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Shaar, R.; Jonestrask, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of uploading data, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Data uploading has been simplified and no longer requires the use of the Excel SmartBook interface. Instead, properly formatted MagIC text files can be dragged-and-dropped onto an HTML 5 web interface. Data can be uploaded one table at a time to facilitate ease of uploading and data error checking is done online on the whole dataset at once instead of incrementally in an Excel Console. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the ability to use them in complex combinations. Searches may also be saved as permanent URLs for easy reference or for use as a citation in a publication. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. Data from the MagIC database may be downloaded from individual contributions or from online searches for offline use and analysis in the tab delimited MagIC text file format. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  12. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-08-25

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Immune complexed (IC) hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronically and acutely HCV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Riva, E; Maggi, F; Abbruzzese, F; Bellomi, F; Giannelli, G; Picardi, A; Scagnolari, C; Folgori, A; Spada, E; Piccolella, E; Dianzani, F; Antonelli, G

    2009-02-01

    In infected individuals, hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists in various forms of circulating particles which role in virus persistence and in HCV resistance to IFN therapy is still debated. Here, the proportion of HCV bound to immunoglobulin was determined in plasma of 107 chronically infected patients harbouring different HCV genotypes and, for comparison, of six patients with acute HCV infection. The results showed that, in spite of wide individual variability, chronically HCV-infected patients exhibited an extremely high proportion of immune complexed (IC) virus regardless of plasma HCV load and infecting genotype. Moreover, no significant association was found between baseline proportion of IC HCV and response to IFN treatment. Plasma samples collected within 2 weeks of treatment from 20 patients revealed a significant decline of mean IC HCV values relative to baseline that clearly paralleled the decay of total HCV load. In acutely infected patients, circulating HCV was not IC or IC at very low levels only in patients developing chronic HCV infection. Collectively, these findings strengthen the possibility that IC virus could play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV infection.

  14. From behavioral context to receptors: serotonergic modulatory pathways in the IC.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M; Sullivan, Megan R

    2012-01-01

    In addition to ascending, descending, and lateral auditory projections, inputs extrinsic to the auditory system also influence neural processing in the inferior colliculus (IC). These types of inputs often have an important role in signaling salient factors such as behavioral context or internal state. One route for such extrinsic information is through centralized neuromodulatory networks like the serotonergic system. Serotonergic inputs to the IC originate from centralized raphe nuclei, release serotonin in the IC, and activate serotonin receptors expressed by auditory neurons. Different types of serotonin receptors act as parallel pathways regulating specific features of circuitry within the IC. This results from variation in subcellular localizations and effector pathways of different receptors, which consequently influence auditory responses in distinct ways. Serotonin receptors may regulate GABAergic inhibition, influence response gain, alter spike timing, or have effects that are dependent on the level of activity. Serotonin receptor types additionally interact in nonadditive ways to produce distinct combinatorial effects. This array of effects of serotonin is likely to depend on behavioral context, since the levels of serotonin in the IC transiently increase during behavioral events including stressful situations and social interaction. These studies support a broad model of serotonin receptors as a link between behavioral context and reconfiguration of circuitry in the IC, and the resulting possibility that plasticity at the level of specific receptor types could alter the relationship between context and circuit function.

  15. Multichannel analog front-end and analog-to-digital converter ICs for silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocharov, Y. I.; Butuzov, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) of multichannel analog front-end and a mixed-signal chip of multichannel analog-to-digital converter are presented. A chipset of these two ICs is intended for readout, analog preprocessing and analog to digital conversion of silicon photomultiplier array signals. The number of channels of the analog front-end IC as well as the types of their input stages depends on the application. The current test version of the chip contains three current-input channels and three voltage-input channels. Each of the channels includes a programmable pre-amplifier, integrator with baseline-holder, code-controlled amplifier, amplitude discriminator, two programmable timers, pulse-shaping low-pass filter, peak detector, and an output buffer with baseline tuning circuitry. The analog IC has code-configurable architecture. The mixed-signal IC includes nine main channels and one auxiliary channel, containing 10-bit analog-to-digital converter in each channel. It also has a buffer memory and a voltage reference. The chip features low power consumption, which is less than 0.5 mW per channel at a sampling rate of 100 kHz. Both ICs are implemented in 0.35 μm CMOS technology.

  16. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Systems will hold a meeting on...--8:30 a.m. until 12 p.m. The Subcommittee will review Digital I&C Interim Staff Guidance on...

  17. Qualification of the First ICS-3000 ION Chromatograph for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-13 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a head to head comparison of the ICS-3000 with the currently used DX-500 IC system. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. Based upon the successful qualification of the ICS-3000 in M-13, it is recommended that this task proceed in developing the data to qualify, by a head to head comparison of the two ICS-3000 instruments, a second ICS-3000 to be installed in M-14. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, organic acid constituents, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has been using Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems since 1998. The vendor informed DWPF in 2006 that the instruments would no longer be supported by service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance

  18. A contact-lens-shaped IC chip technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ching-Yu; Yang, Frank; Teng, Chih-Chiao; Fan, Long-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    We report on novel contact-lens-shaped silicon integrated circuit chip technology for applications such as forming a conforming retinal prosthesis. This is achieved by means of patterning thin films of high residual stress on top of a shaped thin silicon substrate. Several strategies are employed to achieve curvatures of various amounts. Firstly, high residual stress on a thin film makes a thin chip deform into a designed three-dimensional shape. Also, a series of patterned stress films and ‘petal-shaped’ chips were fabricated and analyzed. Large curvatures can also be formed and maintained by the packaging process of bonding the chips to constraining elements such as thin-film polymer ring structures. As a demonstration, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor (CMOS) image-sensing retina chip is made into a contact-lens shape conforming to a human eyeball 12.5 mm in radius. This non-planar and flexible chip technology provides a desirable device surface interface to soft tissues or non-planar bio surfaces and opens up many other possibilities for biomedical applications.

  19. ICS logging solution for network-based attacks using Gumistix technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Jeremy R.; Berman, Dustin; Butts, Jonathan; Lopez, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) monitor and control operations associated with the national critical infrastructure (e.g., electric power grid, oil and gas pipelines and water treatment facilities). These systems rely on technologies and architectures that were designed for system reliability and availability. Security associated with ICS was never an inherent concern, primarily due to the protections afforded by network isolation. However, a trend in ICS operations is to migrate to commercial networks via TCP/IP in order to leverage commodity benefits and cost savings. As a result, system vulnerabilities are now exposed to the online community. Indeed, recent research has demonstrated that many exposed ICS devices are being discovered using readily available applications (e.g., ShodanHQ search engine and Google-esque queries). Due to the lack of security and logging capabilities for ICS, most knowledge about attacks are derived from real world incidents after an attack has already been carried out and the damage has been done. This research provides a method for introducing sensors into the ICS environment that collect information about network-based attacks. The sensors are developed using an inexpensive Gumstix platform that can be deployed and incorporated with production systems. Data obtained from the sensors provide insight into attack tactics (e.g., port scans, Nessus scans, Metasploit modules, and zero-day exploits) and characteristics (e.g., attack origin, frequency, and level of persistence). Findings enable security professionals to draw an accurate, real-time awareness of the threats against ICS devices and help shift the security posture from reactionary to preventative.

  20. Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure versus IC/TLC ratio as predictors of mortality in COPD.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alastair J; Soler, Rosa Suades; Cetti, Edward J; Amanda Sathyapala, S; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Roughton, Michael; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I

    2010-09-01

    Hyperinflation is a recognized adverse prognostic factor in COPD. As the sniff inspiratory nasal pressure (SnIP) principally reflects the severity of hyperinflation in COPD, we hypothesized that it might also be a predictor of mortality. We therefore compared the SnIP to the inspiratory capacity-to-total lung capacity (IC/TLC) ratio as predictors of mortality in advanced COPD. A retrospective mortality analysis of 110 patients with COPD (mean FEV(1) 1.01litres, 37% predicted; 66% male) was performed. All patients had SnIP and lung volume measurements performed. The power of each test to predict mortality was determined, and predicted survival curves were created for both the SnIP and IC/TLC ratio. 37 patients (34%) died during the study period (29 male, 8 female). Mortality rates were analysed with a Chi(2) test; there was a significant trend towards male death (mortality rate male vs. female; 39.7% vs. 21.6% respectively; chi(2)p=0.058, Chi 3.6). ROC curves demonstrated that both SnIP and IC/TLC ratio are predictors of mortality, but analysis by Cox proportional hazards suggested the SnIP has a stronger predictive power (SnIP vs. IC/TLC ratio; p=0.017 vs 0.525; HR 0.97 vs 0.99 respectively), and analysis of the area under ROC curves (AUC) suggest that SnIP is a better discriminator than IC/TLC ratio (AUC SnIP vs IC/TLC; 0.679 vs 0.618). The SnIP conveys at least as much predictive power for mortality in COPD as hyperinflation determined by IC/TLC ratio. This test is cheaper, quicker and easier than measuring lung volumes by plethysmography.

  1. Factors That Improve RT-QuIC Detection of Prion Seeding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Christina D.; Hughson, Andrew G.; Groveman, Bradley R.; Campbell, Katrina J.; Anson, Kelsie J.; Manca, Matteo; Kraus, Allison; Caughey, Byron

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of prions is important in managing prion diseases. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay for prion seeding activity has been applied to many prion diseases and provides for specific antemortem diagnostic testing. We evaluated RT-QuIC’s long-term consistency and varied multiple reaction parameters. Repeated assays of a single scrapie sample using multiple plate readers and recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen) substrates gave comparable results. N-terminal truncated hamster rPrPSen (residues 90–231) hastened both prion-seeded and prion-independent reactions but maintained a clear kinetic distinction between the two. Raising temperatures or shaking speeds accelerated RT-QuIC reactions without compromising specificity. When applied to nasal brushings from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, higher temperatures accelerated RT-QuIC kinetics, and the use of hamster rPrPSen (90–231) strengthened RT-QuIC responses. Elongation of shaking periods reduced scrapie-seeded reaction times, but continuous shaking promoted false-positive reactions. Furthermore, pH 7.4 provided for more rapid RT-QuIC reactions than more acidic pHs. Additionally, we show that small variations in the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly impacted the assay. Finally, RT-QuIC performed in multiplate thermoshakers followed by fluorescence readings in separate plate readers enhanced assay throughput economically. Collectively, these results demonstrate improved speed, efficacy and practicality of RT-QuIC assays and highlight variables to be optimized for future applications. PMID:27223300

  2. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-12-20

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s{sup –1} lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s{sup –1} across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10{sup 7} (d/805 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉} and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10{sup 5} (d/805 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}. An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Badarau, Adriana; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2008-02-01

    APH(2′′)-Ic is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. gallinarum isolates. Crystals of the wild-type enzyme and three mutants have been prepared and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2′′)-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14–20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 Å, β = 108.8°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  4. Impact of impurities on IC50 values of P450 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zeqi

    2011-08-01

    During early drug discovery, the synthetic pathways for test compounds are not well defined and impurities in the test compounds are inevitable. Compounds undergo serial screening tests at this stage to assess their biological activities and drug-like properties. Impurities in the test compounds can produce false positive results and therefore complicate the interpretation of data. P450 inhibition is one of the screens used in the early drug discovery process to assess the potential of drug-drug interactions caused by the inhibition of P450 enzymes. The impact of impurities on P450 inhibition has not been investigated. In this study, the impact of impurities on CYP2D6 IC(50) values was evaluated using model compounds. Cimetidine was chosen as the test compound. Quinidine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and ibuprofen were chosen to represent impurities as they inhibit CYP2D6 to varying degrees. The IC(50) values of these model impurities for CYP2D6 were 0.11 µM, 0.98 µM, 13.4 µM, and >100 µM, respectively. Impurities with potent CYP2D6 inhibition, such as quinidine, can significantly decrease the apparent IC(50) value for the mixture. With the addition of only 2% quinidine to cimetidine (mol/mol), the apparent IC(50) value of cimetidine decreased from 98 µM to 4.4 µM. With the addition of 10% quinidine, the apparent IC(50) decreased to 1.04 µM. Such a significant decrease in apparent IC(50) values can produce a false alert and cause the inappropriate elimination of good compounds at an early stage. Impur6ities with low inhibitory potential, such as fluvoxamine and ibuprofen, did not cause a significant change in apparent IC(50) values. An impurity can have a similar effect on the IC(50) values for inhibition of other biological activities. The effect of an impurity on apparent IC(50) values can be predicted by using a simulation curve if the potency of the impurity is characterized.

  5. MrIC, a novel α-conotoxin agonist in the presence of PNU at endogenous α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ai-Hua; Vetter, Irina; Dutertre, Sébastien; Abraham, Nikita; Emidio, Nayara B; Inserra, Marco; Murali, Swetha S; Christie, MacDonald J; Alewood, Paul F; Lewis, Richard J

    2014-01-14

    α-Conotoxins are competitive antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Their high selectivity and affinity for the various subtypes of nAChRs have led to significant advances in our understanding of the structure and function of these key ion channels. Here we report the discovery of a novel 4/7 α-conotoxin, MrIC from the venom duct of Conus marmoreus, which acts as an agonist at the endogenous human α7 nAChR in SH-SY5Y cells pretreated with PNU120596 (PNU). This unique agonist activity of MrIC at α7 nAChRs may guide the development of novel α7 nAChR modulators.

  6. A nu-space for ICS: characterization and application to measure protein transport in live cells.

    PubMed

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Chen, Lingfeng; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Wiseman, Paul W

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new generalized theoretical framework for image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). Using this framework, we extend the ICS method in time-frequency (ν, nu) space to map molecular flow of fluorescently tagged proteins in individual living cells. Even in the presence of a dominant immobile population of fluorescent molecules, nu-space ICS (nICS) provides an unbiased velocity measurement, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the flow, without requiring filtering. We also develop and characterize a tunable frequency-filter for STICS that allows quantification of the density, the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of biased diffusion. We show that the techniques are accurate over a wide range of parameter space in computer simulation. We then characterize the retrograde flow of adhesion proteins (α6- and αLβ2-GFP integrins and mCherry-paxillin) in CHO.B2 cells plated on laminin and ICAM ligands respectively. STICS with a tunable frequency filter, in conjunction with nICS, measures two new transport parameters, the density and transport bias coefficient (a measure of the diffusive character of a flow/biased diffusion), showing that molecular flow in this cell system has a significant diffusive component. Our results suggest that the integrinligand interaction, along with the internal myosin-motor generated force, varies for different integrin-ligand pairs, consistent with previous results.

  7. A CCD color-magnitude diagram for the globular cluster IC 4499

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarajedini, Ata

    1993-01-01

    A color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based on CCD observations in B and V is presented for the Galactic globular cluster IC 4499. The CMD reaches the main-sequence turnoff and reveals a horizontal branch (HB) similar to that of M3 in morphology; however, RR Lyrae variables compose 68 percent of the HB stars in IC 4499. We find V(HB) = 17.68 +/- 0.03 mag and, after adopting a metal abundance of (Fe/H)=- 1.65 +/- 0.10, derive a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.15 +/- 0.03 using the color of the red giant branch. We show that the (B-V) color extent of the IC 4499 HB is significantly smaller than that of M3 and NGC 3201. In particular, the red HBs of these clusters appear morphologically indistinguishable, whereas the blue HBs of M3 and NGC 3201 are more extended than that of IC 4499. If this difference is due to a variation in the mass range along the blue HB, we estimate that, in the mean, stars on the blue HB of IC 4499 are at least roughly 0.02 solar mass more massive than similar stars in M3 and NGC 3201.

  8. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  9. Improvements to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of data uploading and editing, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Online data editing is now available and the need for proprietary spreadsheet software is therefore entirely negated. The data owner can change values in the database or delete entries through an HTML 5 web interface that resembles typical spreadsheets in behavior and uses. Additive uploading now allows for additions to data sets to be uploaded with a simple drag and drop interface. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the facility to use them in complex combinations. A comprehensive summary view of a search result has been added for increased quick data comprehension while a raw data view is available if one desires to see all data columns as stored in the database. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. MagIC data associated with individual contributions or from online searches may be downloaded in the tab delimited MagIC text file format for susbsequent offline use and analysis. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  10. Protective efficacy of the chimeric Staphylococcus aureus vaccine candidate IC in sepsis and pneumonia models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liuyang; Cai, Changzhi; Feng, Qiang; Shi, Yun; Zuo, Qianfei; Yang, Huijie; Jing, Haiming; Wei, Chao; Zhuang, Yuan; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes serious sepsis and necrotic pneumonia worldwide. Due to the spread of multidrug-resistant strains, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating S. aureus infection. In this study, based on the immune-dominant areas of the iron surface determinant B (IsdB) and clumping factor A (ClfA), we designed the novel chimeric vaccine IsdB151-277ClfA33-213 (IC). IC formulated with the AlPO4 adjuvant induced higher protection in an S. aureus sepsis model compared with the single components alone and showed broad immune protection against several clinical S. aureus isolates. Immunisation with IC induced strong antibody responses. The protective effect of antibodies was demonstrated through the opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) and passive immunisation experiment. Moreover, this new chimeric vaccine induced Th1/Th17-skewed cellular immune responses based on cytokine profiles and CD4+ T cell stimulation tests. Neutralisation of IL-17A alone (but not IFN-γ) resulted in a significant decrease in vaccine immune protection. Finally, we found that IC showed protective efficacy in a pneumonia model. Taken together, these data provide evidence that IC is a potentially promising vaccine candidate for combating S. aureus sepsis and pneumonia. PMID:26865417

  11. Interdisciplinary Collaboration amongst Colleagues and between Initiatives with the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.; Shaar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Earth science grand challenges often require interdisciplinary and geographically distributed scientific collaboration to make significant progress. However, this organic collaboration between researchers, educators, and students only flourishes with the reduction or elimination of technological barriers. The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the geo-, paleo-, and rock magnetic scientific community to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples. MagIC is dedicated to facilitating scientific progress towards several highly multidisciplinary grand challenges and the MagIC Database team is currently beta testing a new MagIC Search Interface and API designed to be flexible enough for the incorporation of large heterogeneous datasets and for horizontal scalability to tens of millions of records and hundreds of requests per second. In an effort to reduce the barriers to effective collaboration, the search interface includes a simplified data model and upload procedure, support for online editing of datasets amongst team members, commenting by reviewers and colleagues, and automated contribution workflows and data retrieval through the API. This web application has been designed to generalize to other databases in MagIC's umbrella website (EarthRef.org) so the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal, Seamount Biogeosciences Network (http://earthref.org/SBN/), EarthRef Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/ERDA/) and EarthRef Reference Database (http://earthref.org/ERR/) will benefit from its development.

  12. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  13. Determination of halogens and sulfur in high-purity polyimide by IC after digestion by MIC.

    PubMed

    Krzyzaniak, Sindy R; Santos, Rafael F; Dalla Nora, Flavia M; Cruz, Sandra M; Flores, Erico M M; Mello, Paola A

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A relatively high polyimide mass (600mg) was completely digested by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) using 20bar of O2 and 50mmolL(-1) NH4OH as absorbing solution. These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content (<10mgL(-1)) and suitable pH for analysis by both IC and ICP-MS. The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes. No statistical difference (t-test, 95% of confidence level) was observed between the results obtained for Cl, Br and S by IC after MIC and the certified values. In addition, spike recoveries obtained for F, Cl, Br, I and S ranged from 94% to 101%. The proposed method was suitable for polyimide decomposition for further determination of halogens and sulfur by IC and by ICP-MS (Br and I only). Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Removal of Flame Deflector From the S-IC Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was originally designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage. Modifications to the S-IC Test Stand began in 1975 to accommodate space shuttle external tank testing. This photo depicts the removal of the flame deflector which was originally used to provide water to the 5 F-1 engines of the S-IC stage during testing.

  15. 50-Gb/s NRZ and RZ Modulator Driver ICs Based on Functional Distributed Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Mamada, Masayuki

    We have developed two modulator driver ICs that are based on the functional distributed circuit (FDC) topology for over 40-Gb/s optical transmission systems using InP HBT technology. The FDC topology enables both a wide bandwidth amplifier and high-speed digital functions. The none-return-to-zero (NRZ) driver IC, which is integrated with a D-type flip-flop, exhibits 2.6-Vp-p (differential output: 5.2Vp-p) output-voltage swings with a high signal quality at 43 and 50Gb/s. The return-to-zero (RZ) driver IC, which is integrated with a NRZ to RZ converter, produces 2.4-Vp-p (differential output: 4.8Vp-p) output-voltage swings and excellent eye openings at 43 and 50Gb/s. Furthermore, we conducted electro-optical modulation experiments using the developed modulator driver ICs and a dual drive LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulator. We were able to obtain NRZ and RZ clear optical eye openings with low jitters and sufficient extinction ratios of more than 12dB, at 43 and 50Gb/s. These results indicate that the FDC has the potential to achieve a large output voltage and create high-speed functional ICs for over-40-Gb/s transmission systems.

  16. Use of optical technique for inspection of warpage of IC packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Siew-Lok; Chau, Fook S.; Ong, Sim Heng

    2001-06-01

    The packaging of IC packages has changed over the years, form dual-in-line, wire-bond, and pin-through-hole in printed wiring board technologies in the 1970s to ball grid array, chip scale and surface mount technologies in the 1990s. Reliability has been a big problem for manufacturers for some moisture-sensitive packages. One of the potential problems in plastic IC packages is moisture-induced popcorn effect which can arise during the reflow process. Shearography is a non-destructive inspection technique that may be used to detect the delamination and warpage of IC packages. It is non-contacting and permits a full-field observation of surface displacement derivatives. Another advantage of this technique is that it is able to give the real-time formation of the fringes which indicate flaws in the IC package under real-time simulation condition of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) IR reflow profile. It is extremely fast and convenient to study the true behavior of the packaging deformation during the SMT process. It can be concluded that shearography has the potential for the real- time detection, in situ and non-destructive inspection of IC packages during the surface mount process.

  17. Protective efficacy of the chimeric Staphylococcus aureus vaccine candidate IC in sepsis and pneumonia models.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liuyang; Cai, Changzhi; Feng, Qiang; Shi, Yun; Zuo, Qianfei; Yang, Huijie; Jing, Haiming; Wei, Chao; Zhuang, Yuan; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao

    2016-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus causes serious sepsis and necrotic pneumonia worldwide. Due to the spread of multidrug-resistant strains, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating S. aureus infection. In this study, based on the immune-dominant areas of the iron surface determinant B (IsdB) and clumping factor A (ClfA), we designed the novel chimeric vaccine IsdB151-277ClfA33-213 (IC). IC formulated with the AlPO4 adjuvant induced higher protection in an S. aureus sepsis model compared with the single components alone and showed broad immune protection against several clinical S. aureus isolates. Immunisation with IC induced strong antibody responses. The protective effect of antibodies was demonstrated through the opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) and passive immunisation experiment. Moreover, this new chimeric vaccine induced Th1/Th17-skewed cellular immune responses based on cytokine profiles and CD4(+) T cell stimulation tests. Neutralisation of IL-17A alone (but not IFN-γ) resulted in a significant decrease in vaccine immune protection. Finally, we found that IC showed protective efficacy in a pneumonia model. Taken together, these data provide evidence that IC is a potentially promising vaccine candidate for combating S. aureus sepsis and pneumonia.

  18. A High-Resolution Radio Continuum Study Of The Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westcott, J.; Brinks, E.; Beswick, R. J.; Heesen, V.; Argo, M. K.; Baldi, R. D.; Fenech, D. M.; McHardy, I. M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Williams, D. R. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present high-resolution e-MERLIN radio continuum maps of the Dwarf Irregular galaxy IC 10 at 1.5 GHz and 5 GHz. We detect 11 compact sources at 1.5 GHz, 5 of which have complementary detections at 5 GHz. We classify 3 extended sources as compact HII regions within IC 10, 5 sources as contaminating background galaxies and identify 3 sources which require additional observations to classify. We do not expect that any of these 3 sources are Supernova Remnants as they will likely be resolved out at the assumed distance of IC 10 (0.7 Mpc). We correct integrated flux densities of IC 10 from the literature for contamination by unrelated background sources and obtain updated flux density measurements of 354 ± 11 mJy at 1.5 GHz and 199 ± 9 mJy at 4.85 GHz. The background contamination does not contribute significantly to the overall radio emission from IC 10, so previous analysis concerning its integrated radio properties remain valid.

  19. Men Working on Mock-Up of S-IC Thrust Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photograph depicts Marshall Space Flight Center employees, James Reagin, machinist (top); Floyd McGinnis, machinist; and Ernest Davis, experimental test mechanic (foreground), working on a mock up of the S-IC thrust structure. The S-IC stage is the first stage, or booster, of the 364-foot long Saturn V rocket that ultimately took astronauts to the Moon. The S-IC stage, burned over 15 tons of propellant per second during its 2.5 minutes of operation to take the vehicle to a height of about 36 miles and to a speed of about 6,000 miles per hour. The stage was 138 feet long and 33 feet in diameter. Operating at maximum power, all five of the engines produced 7,500,000 pounds of thrust.

  20. Evidence for genetic modifiers of postnatal lethality in PWS-IC deletion mice.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Stormy J; Johnstone, Karen A; DuBose, Amanda J; Simon, Thomas A; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Resnick, James L; Brannan, Camilynn I

    2004-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), most notably characterized by infantile hypotonia, short stature and morbid obesity, results from deficiencies in multiple genes that are subject to genomic imprinting. The usefulness of current mouse models of PWS has been limited by postnatal lethality in affected mice. Here, we report the survival of the PWS-imprinting center (IC) deletion mice on a variety of strain backgrounds. Expression analyses of the genes affected in the PWS region suggest that while there is low-level expression from both parental alleles in PWS-IC deletion pups, this expression does not explain their survival on certain strain backgrounds. Rather, the data provide evidence for strain-specific modifier genes that support the survival of PWS-IC deletion mice.

  1. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC Atlas experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Osamu; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro

    1999-12-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC Atlas experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The IC also has analog output of the preamplifier. The equivalent noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7,500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 {Omega} load) is 59mW/ch.

  2. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  3. QUALIFICATION OF THE SECOND ICS-3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPH FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2009-12-03

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification testing was a head to head comparison of the second ICS-3000 with the initial ICS-3000 system that was installed in 221-S M-13. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has recently replaced the Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems that had been used since 1998 by the first of two new ICS-3000 systems. The replacement effort was necessary due to the vendor of the DX-500 systems no longer supporting service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance due to the pump configuration only using water versus the current system where the pump uses various hydroxide concentrations. The ICS-3000

  4. Inhibition of human aromatase by myosmine.

    PubMed

    Doering, Irene L; Richter, Elmar

    2009-04-01

    Myosmine, a minor tobacco alkaloid widely occurring in food products of plant and animal origin, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to estradiol by human aromatase (IC(50): 33+/-2 microM) sevenfold more potent than nicotine (IC(50): 223+/-10 microM) and may have implications for sexual hormone homoeostasis.

  5. DIONEX ICS3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPHY SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND INSTRUMENT ASSESSMENT FOR SRNL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B.; White, T.

    2009-11-16

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is routinely used at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for sample analysis and characterization. Results from IC analysis are valued in corrosion control maintenance and measurement programs, remediation waste process control, soil and ground water measurement, nuclear materials processing, and various other research and development programs. Presented in this report are analytical methods developed on a DIONEX ICS3000 Reagent Free Ion Chromatography (RFIC) system located in AD at SRNL. This IC system contains two independent analysis channels comprising of a mobile phase generator, a pump, stationary phase columns, a suppressor and a conductivity detector. One channel is dedicated to anion analysis using Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) as the mobile phase while a second channel is configured for cation analysis using Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) as the mobile phase. Both channels share an autosampler and the peak analysis software, Chromeleon{reg_sign} v.6.8. Instrument configuration is modified from the manufacturer for radiological service. Listed within this report are Dionex ICS3000 parameters and results for the analysis of routine anions and cations. Additional method parameters and discussion are presented on the analysis of Acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup -}) and Iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}). Previous IC analysis instruments at AD have been based upon carbonate/bicarbonate buffer mobile phase chemistry. This report represents a transition to hydroxide as a mobile phase eluent. The hydroxide eluent offers a lower baseline conductivity, which allows for greater sample dilution and/or lower detection limits. Also the hydroxide mobile phase and column set has a significant separation of the phosphate peak from the nitrate and sulfate peaks vs. the carbonate/bicarbonate mobile phase and column set, an advantage for the industrial waste analyzed at SRNL.

  6. Potential Sources of the 1995 Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Subtype IC Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Aaron C.; Powers, Ann M.; Medina, Gladys; Wang, Eryu; Kang, Wenli; Salas, Rosa Alba; De Siger, Julieta; Weaver, Scott C.

    2001-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV) belonging to subtype IC have caused three (1962–1964, 1992–1993 and 1995) major equine epizootics and epidemics. Previous sequence analyses of a portion of the envelope glycoprotein gene demonstrated a high degree of conservation among isolates from the 1962–1964 and the 1995 outbreaks, as well as a 1983 interepizootic mosquito isolate from Panaquire, Venezuela. However, unlike subtype IAB VEEV that were used to prepare inactivated vaccines that probably initiated several outbreaks, subtype IC viruses have not been used for vaccine production and their conservation cannot be explained in this way. To characterize further subtype IC VEEV conservation and to evaluate potential sources of the 1995 outbreak, we sequenced the complete genomes of three isolates from the 1962–1964 outbreak, the 1983 Panaquire interepizootic isolate, and two isolates from 1995. The sequence of the Panaquire isolate, and that of virus isolated from a mouse brain antigen prepared from subtype IC strain P676 and used in the same laboratory, suggested that the Panaquire isolate represents a laboratory contaminant. Some authentic epizootic IC strains isolated 32 years apart showed a greater degree of sequence identity than did isolates from the same (1962–1964 or 1995) outbreak. If these viruses were circulating and replicating between 1964 and 1995, their rate of sequence evolution was at least 10-fold lower than that estimated during outbreaks or that of closely related enzootic VEEV strains that circulate continuously. Current understanding of alphavirus evolution is inconsistent with this conservation. This subtype IC VEEV conservation, combined with phylogenetic relationships, suggests the possibility that the 1995 outbreak was initiated by a laboratory strain. PMID:11390583

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical & Spitzer photometry in IC 1805 (Sung+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, H.; Bessell, M. S.; Chun, M.-Y.; Yi, J.; Naze, Y.; Lim, B.; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, B.-G.; Hur, H.

    2017-06-01

    For a study of the IMF and the star-formation history of the young open cluster IC 1805, we obtained deep wide-field VRI and Hα images of IC 1805 using the CFH12K mosaic CCD camera of the CFHT on 2002 January 6 and 7. We also observed several regions in IC 1805, for a study of the reddening and massive star content, using the SITe 2000x800 CCD (Maidanak 2k CCD) and standard UBVRI filters of the AZT-22 1.5m telescope at the Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan on 2003 August 18 and 2004 december 25,30. Later, we obtained additional images of the central region of IC 1805 with the Fairchild 486 CCD (SNUCam) and UBVI and Hα filters of the AZT-22 telescope on 2007 October 7 and 2009 January 19. The Spitzer mapping observations were performed on 2006 September 20 under program ID 20052 (PI: S. Wolff). For complete photometry of stars in the CFH12K FOV in 3.6 and 4.5um, we also downloaded and reduced the GLIMPSE360 data (AOR: 38753280, 38763264, 38769408, 38799104, 38798592, 38784512, PI: B. A. Whitney). MIPS scans of IC 1805 were obtained on 2005 August 31 and 2005 September 2 (PID 3234, PI: J. S. Greeves). The Chandra X-ray Observatory Observations of IC 1805 (ObsID: 7033, PI: L. Townley) were made on 2006 November 25. The total exposure time was about 79ks. The properties of 647 X-ray sources were published in Townsley+ (2014,J/ApJS/213/1). We searched for the optical and MIR counterparts of these X-ray sources with a matching radius of up to 1.5". (4 data files).

  8. Poly I:C induces development of diabetes mellitus in BB rat.

    PubMed

    Sobel, D O; Newsome, J; Ewel, C H; Bellanti, J A; Abbassi, V; Creswell, K; Blair, O

    1992-04-01

    Polyinosinic polycytidilic acid (poly I:C), an inducer of alpha-interferon, accelerates the development of diabetes in diabetes-prone (DP) BioBreeding (BB) rats. This study investigates the effect of administering poly I:C to a diabetes-resistant (DR) strain of BB rats. We compared the incidence of diabetes, the degree of insulitis, the number of NK cells, helper-inducer cells, cytotoxic-suppressor cells, Ia+ T cells, RT6.1+ T cells, and NK cell bioactivity in DR rats treated with saline and with a 5 micrograms/g body wt (poly-5) dose and a 10 micrograms/g body wt (poly-10) dose of poly I:C. The incidence of diabetes was also compared with that of DP rats receiving poly-5. We found that both doses of poly I:C significantly induce the development of diabetes in the DR BB rat. However, treatment of DR rats with the higher dose induces a greater rate of development of diabetes and earlier onset of diabetes than the lower poly-5 dose. The rate of diabetes development and the mean age of onset were similar in poly-10-treated DR and poly-5-treated DP rats. A significant degree of insulitis occurred in all the poly I:C-treated DR rats, even those not developing diabetes. Peripheral blood NK cell number was greater in poly I:C than in saline-treated rats, after 2 wk of treatment and when killed. The percentage of OX19+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells expressing RT6.1 allotype or Ia antigen were similar in poly I:C- and saline-treated rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL

    SciTech Connect

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Smith, K.; Chen, T.-W.; Kotak, R.; Nicholl, M.; Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Botticella, M. T.; Ergon, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; and others

    2013-06-20

    We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I {lambda}10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Co, and would require 1-4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni to produce the luminosity. These {sup 56}Ni masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 {approx}< E(10{sup 51} erg) {approx}< 6.9 and ejecta masses of 2.3 {approx}< M{sub ej}(M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx-the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far-points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

  10. bop5 mutations reveal new roles for the IC138 phosphoprotein in the regulation of flagellar motility and asymmetric waveforms

    PubMed Central

    VanderWaal, Kristyn E.; Yamamoto, Ryosuke; Wakabayashi, Ken-ichi; Fox, Laura; Kamiya, Ritsu; Dutcher, Susan K.; Bayly, Phillip V.; Sale, Winfield S.; Porter, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    I1 dynein, or dynein f, is a highly conserved inner arm isoform that plays a key role in the regulation of flagellar motility. To understand how the IC138 IC/LC subcomplex modulates I1 activity, we characterized the molecular lesions and motility phenotypes of several bop5 alleles. bop5-3, bop5-4, and bop5-5 are null alleles, whereas bop5-6 is an intron mutation that reduces IC138 expression. I1 dynein assembles into the axoneme, but the IC138 IC/LC subcomplex is missing. bop5 strains, like other I1 mutants, swim forward with reduced swimming velocities and display an impaired reversal response during photoshock. Unlike mutants lacking the entire I1 dynein, however, bop5 strains exhibit normal phototaxis. bop5 defects are rescued by transformation with the wild-type IC138 gene. Analysis of flagellar waveforms reveals that loss of the IC138 subcomplex reduces shear amplitude, sliding velocities, and the speed of bend propagation in vivo, consistent with the reduction in microtubule sliding velocities observed in vitro. The results indicate that the IC138 IC/LC subcomplex is necessary to generate an efficient waveform for optimal motility, but it is not essential for phototaxis. These findings have significant implications for the mechanisms by which IC/LC complexes regulate dynein motor activity independent of effects on cargo binding or complex stability. PMID:21697502

  11. An HI and Optical Study of Interacting Galaxies NGC 672 and IC 1727

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanchfield, Sara; Wilcots, E.; Prescott, M.

    2012-05-01

    We present VLA HI radio data and WIYN broadband optical observations of NGC 672 and IC 1727, two nearby, late-type, spiral galaxies. In the optical NGC 672 appears as a symmetric barred spiral with defined spiral arms and a scale length of 1.2 kpc. IC 1727 is asymmetric, lacks a true bar, and has a scale length of 2. 4 kpc. In the HI, we see tidal bridge, indicating interaction between the two galaxies. We map the distribution and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen gas in order to understand the nature of the true distribution of mass in these systems and present the resulting mass models.

  12. New method for the determination of the half inhibition concentration (IC50) of cholinesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kovárová, Markéta; Komers, Karel; Stepánková, Sárka; Parík, Patrik; Cegan, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A new and simple analytical method is described for the determination of the IC50 values of the inhibitors of the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh) or acetylthiocholine (ATCh) by cholinesterases. The method is based on monitoring the time course of the pH value during the uninhibited and inhibited reaction. It requires only a pH meter with a suitable pH measuring cell and a small thermostated stirred batch reactor. The method has been validated for twelve different types of cholinesterase inhibitors. The determined IC50 values are comparable to those obtained by independent, more complicated, and expensive methods (Ellman's and pH-stat).

  13. Piezo-fluidic Gaseous Fuel MPI System for Natural Gas Fuelled IC Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui

    A fast response piezo-fluidic gaseous fuel injector system designed for natural gas fuelled internal combustion (IC) engines is described in this paper. The system consists mainly of no moving part fluidic gas injector and piezo controlling interface. It can be arranged as a multi-point injection (MPI) system for IC engine fuel control. Both steady state and dynamic characteristics were investigated on a laboratory test rig. A comprehensive jet attachment and switching simulation model was also developed and reported. The agreement between predicted and experimental results is shown to be good.

  14. Size Distribution of Star Clusters and Stellar Groups in IC2574

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Anne; Meyer, Martin J.; Calzetti, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    We present an HST/ACS archival study of compact and dispersed star clusters and stellar groups found in the nearby galaxy IC 2574. In this work, we identified and characterized the properties of clusters with spatially unresolved stars. We combined these properties with those found in a companion work on the dispersed stellar groups in IC 2574 with spatially resolved stars. We find that the size distribution of all young stellar groups, sparse and compact together, is consistent with the hierarchical model of star formation.

  15. Silicon MCM substrates for integration of 3-5 photonic devices and CMOS IC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seigal, P.; Carson, R.; Flores, R.; Rose, B.

    The progress made in advanced packaging development at Sandia National Laboratories for integration of 3-5 photonic devices and CMOS IC's on Silicon MCM substrates for planar aid stacked applications will be reported. Studies to characterize precision alignment techniques using solder attach materials compatible with both silicon IC's and 3-5 devices will be discussed. Examples of the use of back-side alignment and IR through-wafer inspection will be shown along with the extra processing steps that are used. Under bump metallurgy considerations are also addressed.

  16. Assessment of I.C. engines as drivers for heat actuated heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, J. C.; Teagan, W. P.; Goff, P. G.

    The present suitability and future potential of gas-fired and oil-fired internal combustion (IC) engines for use in heat-actuated heat pumps for space conditioning applications are assessed. Drives for residential and light commercial machines up to 100 KW output or approximately 50 HP engine input are considered. A conceptual design identifying major generic elements was prepared to serve as a basis for estimating performance maintenance costs. A review of prior experiences with IC engines with heat pumps used in similar situations was conducted. Capital costs and maintenance costs were estimated and diesel and spark ignition engine efficiencies were determined. Institutional and operational considerations were identified.

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Complex Bunker House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC stand, additional related facilities were built during this time frame. Built to the east of the S-IC stand, the block house served as the control room. To the south of the blockhouse was a newly constructed pump house used for delivering water to the S-IC stand during testing. North of the massive test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built for testing a single F-1 engine. Just southeast of the S-IC stand a concrete bunker house was constructed. The bunker housed

  18. Illuminating the Depths of the MagIC (Magnetics Information Consortium) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A. A. P.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.; Jonestrask, L.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the paleo-, geo-, and rock magnetic scientific community. Its mission is to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from magnetics studies on natural and synthetic samples. Many of these valuable data are legacy datasets that were never published in their entirety, some resided in other databases that are no longer maintained, and others were never digitized from the field notebooks and lab work. Due to the volume of data collected, most studies, modern and legacy, only publish the interpreted results and, occasionally, a subset of the raw data. MagIC is making an extraordinary effort to archive these data in a single data model, including the raw instrument measurements if possible. This facilitates the reproducibility of the interpretations, the re-interpretation of the raw data as the community introduces new techniques, and the compilation of heterogeneous datasets that are otherwise distributed across multiple formats and physical locations. MagIC has developed tools to assist the scientific community in many stages of their workflow. Contributors easily share studies (in a private mode if so desired) in the MagIC Database with colleagues and reviewers prior to publication, publish the data online after the study is peer reviewed, and visualize their data in the context of the rest of the contributions to the MagIC Database. From organizing their data in the MagIC Data Model with an online editable spreadsheet, to validating the integrity of the dataset with automated plots and statistics, MagIC is continually lowering the barriers to transforming dark data into transparent and reproducible datasets. Additionally, this web application generalizes to other databases in MagIC's umbrella website (EarthRef.org) so that the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal, Seamount Biogeosciences

  19. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Complex Bunker House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC stand, additional related facilities were built during this time frame. Built to the east of the S-IC stand, the block house served as the control room. To the south of the blockhouse was a newly constructed pump house used for delivering water to the S-IC stand during testing. North of the massive test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built for testing a single F-1 engine. Just southeast of the S-IC stand a concrete bunker house was constructed. The bunker housed

  20. IC 1795

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-16

    This image from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, is a view within the constellation Cassiopeia of another portion of the vast star forming complex that makes up part of the Perseus spiral arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

  1. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  2. ON THE ANCESTRY OF THE ICS CLONES OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theobroma cacao L. or cacao is a tropical fruit tree species cultivated as the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery and cosmetic industries. The ICS (Imperial College Selections) are cacao clones of Trinidad and Tobago that were selected by F.J. Pound from 1933 to 1935 from farms ...

  3. AN/AIC-22(V) Intercommunications Set (ICS) fiber optic link engineering analysis report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minter, Richard; Blocksom, Roland; Ling, Christopher

    1990-08-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems constitute a serious threat to operational Navy aircraft systems. The application of fiber optic technology is a potential solution to these problems. EMI reported problems in the P-3 patrol aircraft AN/AIC-22(V) Intercommunications System (ICS) were selected from an EMI problem database for investigation and possible application of fiber optic technology. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to demonstrate the level of EMI immunity of fiber optics when used in an ICS. A full duplex single channel fiber optic audio link was designed and assembled from modified government furnished equipment (GFE) previously used in another Navy fiber optic application. The link was taken to the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) Patuxent River, Maryland and temporarily installed in a Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) P-3A aircraft for a side-by-side comparison test with the installed ICS. With regards to noise reduction, the fiber optic link provided a qualitative improvement over the conventional ICS. In an effort to obtain a quantitative measure of comparison, audio frequency range both with and without operation of the aircraft VHF and UHF radio transmitters.

  4. Revealing the binary origin of Type Ic superluminous supernovae through nebular hydrogen emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Liu, Zheng-Wei; Mackey, Jonathan; Chen, Ting-Wan; Langer, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    We propose that nebular Hα emission, as detected in the Type Ic superluminous supernova iPTF13ehe, stems from matter that is stripped from a companion star when the supernova ejecta collide with it. The temporal evolution, the line broadening, and the overall blueshift of the emission are consistent with this interpretation. We scale the nebular Hα luminosity predicted for Type Ia supernovae in single-degenerate systems to derive the stripped mass required to explain the Hα luminosity of iPTF13ehe. We find a stripped mass of 0.1-0.9 solar masses, assuming that the supernova luminosity is powered by radioactivity or magnetar spin down. Because a central heating source is required to excite the Hα emission, an interaction-powered model is not favored for iPTF13ehe if the Hα emission is from stripped matter. We derive a companion mass of more than 20 solar masses and a binary separation of less than about 20 companion radii based on the stripping efficiency during the collision, indicating that the supernova progenitor and the companion formed a massive close binary system. If Type Ic superluminous supernovae generally occur in massive close binary systems, the early brightening observed previously in several Type Ic superluminous supernovae may also be due to the collision with a close companion. Observations of nebular hydrogen emission in future Type Ic superluminous supernovae will enable us to test this interpretation.

  5. Using Tablet PCs and Interactive Software in IC Design Courses to Improve Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an initial study of using tablet PCs and interactive course software in integrated circuit (IC) design courses. A rapidly growing community is demonstrating how this technology can improve learning and retention of material by facilitating interaction between faculty and students via cognitive exercises during lectures. While…

  6. A Planar IC-Compatible Transferred Electron Device for Millimeter-Wave Operation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-31

    RD-RI92 702 R PLRNAR IC-COMPRTIBLE TRANSFERRED ELECTRONI DEVICE FOR III MILLIMETER-UMV OPERRTION(U) JOHANNES KEPLER UNIV LINZ (AUSTRIA...lower in a shorter gate region. Personnel Dr. Kurt Lubke, Helmut Scheiber, Thomas Neugebauer, Christoph Schonherr, Gabriele Roitmayr and Johann

  7. An E-beam fabricated GaAs D-type flip-flop IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloanec, M.; Nuzillat, G.; Arnodo, C.; Peltier, M.

    1980-05-01

    The paper describes an E-beam fabricated GaAs D-type flip-flop integrated circuit (IC). Initially, monolithic digital IC's using normally-on GaAs MESFET's with 1.2 micron gate length was developed; this led to logic gates with propagation delays in the 130-170 ps range. This method was applied to the fabrication of an edge-triggered D-type flip-flop IC whose minimum data pulsewidth, the maximum toggle frequency, and data input sensitivity are presented. An improved technology intended for higher speeds is under development; it utilizes direct-writing E-beam lithography to delineate 0.75 micron gate length devices with extremely high alignment accuracy; this process leads to 61 ps or 68 ps propagation delays measured on a dual-ring oscillator test circuit. D-type flip-flop IC's have been fabricated with new epitaxial deposition techniques using a reduced pinchoff voltage value, and obtaining stable D-type operation up to 3-GHz clocking frequencies with a corresponding speed-power product of 2.6 pJ/gate.

  8. Installation of C-6533(XE-2)/ARC ICS in UH-1H helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnat, J. A.

    1980-07-01

    This report documents the results of the installation of the C-6533(XE-2)/ARC ICS in UH-1H helicopter. Installation was performed at the AEL, Inc., Monmouth County Airport facility. Design of each installation was coordinated and approved by the Government. The mechanical and electrical installation drawings for the helicopter are attached as Appendix A of this report. The new ICS system consisted of new cabling, new intercoms and helmets rewired with new microphones. All four crew stations of the helicopter were reconfigured with the new system. Existing cabling for the standard ICS system remained in the aircraft but was securely stowed for later restoration of the aircraft. The helmets (4) were rewired using separate jacks for headphones and microphone lines. Transmit and receive cables were installed in the aircraft with a minimum separation of one inch between cables. A junction box was fabricated and installed on the aft end of the console to house the fan-out terminal strips. Transmit and receive lines' separation was maintained in the junction box. During the test phase the onboard radios were used with the new ICS system.

  9. Transcriptome-wide interrogation of RNA secondary structure in living cells with icSHAPE

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Spitale, Robert C; Lee, Byron; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-01-01

    icSHAPE (in vivo click selective 2-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment) captures RNA secondary structure at a transcriptome-wide level by measuring nucleotide flexibility at base resolution. Living cells are treated with the icSHAPE chemical NAI-N3 followed by selective chemical enrichment of NAI-N3–modified RNA, which provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with similar methods leveraging deep sequencing. Purified RNA is then reverse-transcribed to produce cDNA, with SHAPE-modified bases leading to truncated cDNA. After deep sequencing of cDNA, computational analysis yields flexibility scores for every base across the starting RNA population. The entire experimental procedure can be completed in ~5 d, and the sequencing and bioinformatics data analysis take an additional 4–5 d with no extensive computational skills required. Comparing in vivo and in vitro icSHAPE measurements can reveal in vivo RNA-binding protein imprints or facilitate the dissection of RNA post-transcriptional modifications. icSHAPE reactivities can additionally be used to constrain and improve RNA secondary structure prediction models. PMID:26766114

  10. On the Spin of the Black Hole in IC 10 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, James F.; Walton, Dominic J.; García, Javier A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Laycock, Silas G. T.; Middleton, Matthew J.; Barnard, Robin; Madsen, Kristin K.

    2016-02-01

    The compact X-ray source in the eclipsing X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has reigned for years as ostensibly the most massive stellar-mass black hole, with a mass estimated to be about twice that of its closest rival. However, striking results presented recently by Laycock et al. reveal that the mass estimate, based on emission-line velocities, is unreliable and that the mass of the X-ray source is essentially unconstrained. Using Chandra and NuSTAR data, we rule against a neutron-star model and conclude that IC 10 X-1 contains a black hole. The eclipse duration of IC 10 X-1 is shorter and its depth shallower at higher energies, an effect consistent with the X-ray emission being obscured during eclipse by a Compton-thick core of a dense wind. The spectrum is strongly disk-dominated, which allows us to constrain the spin of the black hole via X-ray continuum fitting. Three other wind-fed black hole systems are known; the masses and spins of their black holes are high: M˜ 10{--}15{M}⊙ and {a}*\\gt 0.8. If the mass of IC 10 X-1's black hole is comparable, then its spin is likewise high.

  11. Dynamical histories of the IC 348 and NGC 1333 star-forming regions in Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Richard J.; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    We present analyses of the spatial distributions of stars in the young (1-3 Myr) star-forming regions IC 348 and NGC 1333 in the Perseus giant molecular cloud. We quantify the spatial structure using the Q-parameter and find that both IC 348 and NGC 1333 are smooth and centrally concentrated with Q-parameters of 0.98 and 0.89, respectively. Neither region exhibits mass segregation (Λ _MSR = 1.1^{+0.2}_{-0.3} for IC 348 and Λ _MSR = 1.2^{+0.4}_{-0.3} for NGC 1333, where ΛMSR ˜ 1 corresponds to no mass segregation) nor do the most massive stars reside in areas of enhanced stellar surface density compared to the average surface density, according to the ΣLDR method. We then constrain the dynamical histories and hence initial conditions of both regions by comparing the observed values to N-body simulations at appropriate ages. Stars in both regions likely formed with subvirial velocities that contributed to merging of substructure and the formation of smooth clusters. The initial stellar densities were no higher than ρ ˜ 100-500 M⊙ pc-3 for IC 348 and ρ ˜ 500-2000 M⊙ pc-3 for NGC 1333. These initial densities, in particular that of NGC 1333, are high enough to facilitate dynamical interactions that would likely affect ˜10 per cent of protoplanetary discs and binary stars.

  12. The double mode RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster IC 4499.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, C. M.; Nemec, J. M.

    The southern globular cluster IC 4499 has the highest frequency of RR Lyrae stars of any globular cluster in the Galaxy. These variables were studied by Clement, Dickens, & Bingham (1979). An inspection of their light curves shows a great deal of scatter among the long period RRc stars. Thus the cluster is a prime candidate for an investigation of double-mode pulsation.

  13. Using Tablet PCs and Interactive Software in IC Design Courses to Improve Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an initial study of using tablet PCs and interactive course software in integrated circuit (IC) design courses. A rapidly growing community is demonstrating how this technology can improve learning and retention of material by facilitating interaction between faculty and students via cognitive exercises during lectures. While…

  14. The use of light emission in failure analysis of CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.F. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Soden, J.M.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Snyder, E.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The use of photon emission for analyzing failure mechanisms and defects in CMOS ICs is presented. Techniques are given for accurate identification and spatial localization of failure mechanisms and physical defects, including defects such as short and open circuits which do not themselves emit photons.

  15. Long-term photometry of IC 348 with the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzewski, D. J.; Kitze, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.; Adam, C.; Briceño, C.; Buder, S.; Butterley, T.; Chen, W.-P.; Dinçel, B.; Dhillon, V. S.; Errmann, R.; Garai, Z.; Gilbert, H. F. W.; Ginski, C.; Greif, J.; Hardy, L. K.; Hernández, J.; Huang, P. C.; Kellerer, A.; Kundra, E.; Littlefair, S. P.; Mallonn, M.; Marka, C.; Pannicke, A.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, J. G.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Wilson, R. W.; Wolf, V.

    2016-11-01

    We present long-term photometric observations of the young open cluster IC 348 with a baseline time-scale of 2.4 yr. Our study was conducted with several telescopes from the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) network in the Bessel R band to find periodic variability of young stars. We identified 87 stars in IC 348 to be periodically variable; 33 of them were unreported before. Additionally, we detected 61 periodic non-members of which 41 are new discoveries. Our wide field of view was the key to those numerous newly found variable stars. The distribution of rotation periods in IC 348 has always been of special interest. We investigate it further with our newly detected periods but we cannot find a statistically significant bimodality. We also report the detection of a close eclipsing binary in IC 348 composed of a low-mass stellar component (M ≳ 0.09 M⊙) and a K0 pre-main-sequence star (M ≈ 2.7 M⊙). Furthermore, we discovered three detached binaries among the background stars in our field of view and confirmed the period of a fourth one.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines.... Tests for methane shall be made at electric auxiliary fans before they are started. Such fans shall not be operated when air passing over or through them contains 0.5 percent or more methane....

  17. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section 57.22210 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section 57.22210 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines). 57.22106 Section 57.22106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines). 57.22106 Section 57.22106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203 Section 57.22203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22225 - Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines). 57.22225 Section 57.22225 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203 Section 57.22203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines). 57.22106 Section 57.22106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203 Section 57.22203 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22313 - Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). 57.22313 Section 57.22313 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22313 - Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). 57.22313 Section 57.22313 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22313 - Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). 57.22313 Section 57.22313 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22313 - Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). 57.22313 Section 57.22313 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL...

  14. The Evolution of Stellar Coronae: Initial Results from a ROSAT PSPC Observation of IC 2391

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, Brian M.; Simon, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    A 23 ks ROSAT PSPC image of the young star cluster, IC 2391, reveals 76 soft x-ray sources with L(sub x)(0.2-2.0 keV) greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s in the direction of the cluster center. Nineteen of these sources are associated with known cluster members. We find that x-ray emission from the IC 2391 B stars deviates widely from the L(sub x)/L(sub bol) = 10(exp -7) relation based on Einstein observations of O and early B stars. Instead, we observe a wide range in L(sub x) with an order of magnitude spread at any given mass and no apparent dependence on spectral type. A comparison of the spread of L(sub x) as a function of B-V for low-mass stars between IC 2391 and the much older Hyades cluster shows that despite the factor of approx. 10 difference in their ages, these two clusters exhibit very similar dispersions in levels of stellar activity. We conclude that the low-mass stars in IC 2391 have arrived on the ZAMS with a wide range of coronal activity levels, from very strong to very weak, and that existing empirical activity-age scaling laws therefore cannot be valid.

  15. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines.... Tests for methane shall be made at electric auxiliary fans before they are started. Such fans shall not be operated when air passing over or through them contains 0.5 percent or more methane....

  16. A Livšic type theorem for germs of analytic diffeomorphisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, Andrés; Ponce, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We deal with the problem of the validity of the Livšic theorem for cocycles of diffeomorphisms over a hyperbolic dynamics that satisfy the periodic orbit condition. We give a result in the positive direction for cocycles of germs of analytic diffeomorphisms at the origin.

  17. Advanced digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants: Risk- sensitivities to environmental stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant`s risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I&C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF). We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I&C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment`s reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I&C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located.

  18. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines.... Tests for methane shall be made at electric auxiliary fans before they are started. Such fans shall not be operated when air passing over or through them contains 0.5 percent or more methane. ...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines.... Tests for methane shall be made at electric auxiliary fans before they are started. Such fans shall not be operated when air passing over or through them contains 0.5 percent or more methane. ...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines.... Tests for methane shall be made at electric auxiliary fans before they are started. Such fans shall not be operated when air passing over or through them contains 0.5 percent or more methane. ...

  1. Biosynthesis of the lipophilic side chain in the cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic IC101.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yoko; Naganawa, Hiroshi; Kondo, Shinichi

    2002-12-01

    Antibiotic IC101 is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide having a C(15) lipophilic side chain. The side chain was shown to be synthesized in Streptomyces from acetate, propionate, and 3-methylbutyrate derived from leucine. Thus, the terminal isopentyl structure came from leucine and not from the mevalonate pathway.

  2. 30 CFR 57.22313 - Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Explosion-protection systems (I-C mines). 57.22313 Section 57.22313 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... of vent for each 80 cubic feet of volume or space. ...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57.22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... mine opening is covered. The cover shall be a substantial material, such as metal or wood, topped...

  4. The red extended structure of IC 10, the nearest blue compact galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie A. N.; McConnachie, Alan W.; Irwin, Mike

    2015-11-01

    The Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10 is the closest example of a blue compact galaxy. Here, we use optical gi imaging from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam and near infrared JHK imaging from United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Camera to conduct a comprehensive survey of the structure of IC 10. We examine the spatial distribution of its resolved young, intermediate and old stellar populations to large radius and low effective surface brightness levels. Akin to other dwarfs with multiple populations of different ages, stellar populations of decreasing average age are increasingly concentrated in this galaxy. We find that the young, starbursting population and the asymptotic giant branch population are both offset from the geometric centre of the older red giant branch (RGB) population by a few hundred parsecs, implying that the younger star formation occurred significantly away from the centre of the galaxy. The RGB population traces an extended structure that is typical of blue compact galaxies, with an effective radius of ˜5.75 arcmin (˜1.25 kpc). These measurements show that IC 10 is much more extended than has previously been realized, and this blue compact galaxy is one of the most extended dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. The outermost isophotes of this galaxy are very regular in shape and essentially circular in morphology. Based on this analysis, we do not find any evidence to suggest that IC 10 has undergone a recent, significant, interaction with an unknown companion.

  5. Sensitivity of drug-resistant mutants of hepatitis B virus to poly-IC.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q; Chen, E; Chen, L; Nong, Y; Cheng, X; He, M; Tang, H

    2014-01-01

    The long-term benefits of antiviral treatment are limited by the resistance of hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, the effect of interferon (IFN)α treatment on drug-resistant HBVs is so far unknown. We, therefore, investigated the effects of IFN-α inducer poly-IC on the replication of HBV mutants resistant to drugs such as lamivudine (LAM), adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and entecavir (ETV) in mice. HBV DNA and HBV DNA intermediate (RI) were employed as markers of the virus replication and 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthase (OAS) mRNA as a marker of IFN-α/β induction. Poly-IC inhibited wtHBV replication and increased levels of OAS mRNA. Compared to the wt virus, the capacity of virus replication was reduced in most LAMr and ETVr mutants except those with mutations rtM(204V+L180M+V173L), and was similary in the ADVr mutants except rt(A121V+N236T). The virus replication was reduced after poly-IC treatment with LAMr and ADVr mutants similary to the wt virus. In contrast, ETVr mutants were resistant to the poly-IC treatment. In conclusion, the capacity of HBV replication and the sensitivity to IFN therapy are influenced by drug-resistant mutations. The IFN therapy may effectively inhibit HBV replication in particular in patients with LAMr or ADVr mutations but not in patients with ETVr mutations.

  6. Blue Supergiant X-Ray Binaries in the Nearby Dwarf Galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas G. T.; Christodoulou, Dimitris M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Binder, Breanna; Prestwich, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    In young starburst galaxies, the X-ray population is expected to be dominated by the relics of the most massive and short-lived stars, black hole and neutron-star high-mass X-ray binaries (XRBs). In the closest such galaxy, IC 10, we have made a multi-wavelength census of these objects. Employing a novel statistical correlation technique, we have matched our list of 110 X-ray point sources, derived from a decade of Chandra observations, against published photometric data. We report an 8σ correlation between the celestial coordinates of the two catalogs, with 42 X-ray sources having an optical counterpart. Applying an optical color-magnitude selection to isolate blue supergiant (SG) stars in IC 10, we find 16 matches. Both cases show a statistically significant overabundance versus the expectation value for chance alignments. The blue objects also exhibit systematically higher {f}x/{f}v ratios than other stars in the same magnitude range. Blue SG-XRBs include a major class of progenitors of double-degenerate binaries, hence their numbers are an important factor in modeling the rate of gravitational-wave sources. We suggest that the anomalous features of the IC 10 stellar population are explained if the age of the IC 10 starburst is close to the time of the peak of interaction for massive binaries.

  7. Results from KMOS: Unravelling the origin of the counter-rotating core in IC 1459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prichard, Laura

    2015-08-01

    IC 1459 is the archetype of a massive early-type galaxy with a rapidly counter-rotating core. Previous studies of IC 1459 have revealed the outer part of the galaxy and the ionized gas in the central region are rotating in one direction, while the central stellar component is rapidly rotating in the opposite direction. We present new NIR integral field spectroscopic data from the K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph (KMOS) on the VLT. NIR observations help probe through the dense gas and dust at the centre of this E3 galaxy to study the kinematically distinct stellar core. By combining the 24 integral field units of KMOS to make a 67” by 44” mosaic, we generate over 4500 spectra spanning this bright galaxy. We use this data to trace the kinematics and study the stellar populations of IC 1459 to better understand the origin of the counter-rotating core. In particular, we study dwarf-sensitive absorption features to place constraints on the spatial variation of the initial mass function. Investigating IC 1459 provides insights into how early-type galaxies evolve from high redshift to the local Universe. We present results from this work and demonstrate the science capabilities and potential of KMOS.

  8. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  9. ATel 7467: VLA observation of the type Ic supernova PSN J23355226+2336521

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamble, Atish

    2015-05-01

    We report radio observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) of supernova PSN J23355226+2336521 in galaxy NGC 7712, discovered by Koichi Itagaki on April 25, 2015 and classified by AZTEC (Arizona Transient Exploration and Characterization) as a Type Ic supernova (ATel #7456). ...

  10. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, A. V.; Mavritskii, O. B.; Egorov, A. N.; Pechenkin, A. A.; Savchenkov, D. V.

    2014-12-01

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed.

  11. Determining the size and concentration dependence of gold nanoparticles in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) test using WST-1 assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Nur Shafawati binti; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Shamsuddin, Shaharum

    2015-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) received a great deal of attention for biomedical applications, especially in diagnostic imaging and therapeutics. Even though AuNPs have potential benefits in biomedical applications, the impact of AuNPs on human and environmental health still remains unclear. The use of AuNPs which is a high-atomic-number materials, provide advantages in terms of radiation dose enhancement. However, before this can become a clinical reality, cytotoxicity of the AuNPs has to be carefully evaluated. Cytotoxicity test is a rapid, standardized test that is very sensitive to determine whether the nanoparticles produced are harmful or benign on cellular components. In this work the size and concentration dependence of AuNPs cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) are tested by using WST-1 assay. The sizes of AuNPs tested were 13 nm, 50 nm, and 70 nm. The cells were seeded in the 96-well plate and were treated with different concentrations of AuNPs by serial dilution for each size of AuNPs. The high concentration of AuNPs exhibit lower cell viability compared to low concentration of AuNPs. We quantified the toxicity of AuNPs in MCF-7 cell lines by determining the IC50 values in WST-1 assays. The IC50 values (inhibitory concentrations that effected 50% growth inhibition) of 50 nm AuNPs is lower than 13 nm and 70 nm AuNPs. Mean that, 50nm AuNPs are more toxic to the MCF-7 cells compared to smaller and larger sizes AuNPs. The presented results clearly indicate that the cytotoxicity of AuNPs depend not only on the concentration, but also the size of the nanoparticles.

  12. Intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS) on polymer-based, nano-coated disposable targets.

    PubMed

    Bugovsky, Stefan; Winkler, Wolfgang; Balika, Werner; Koranda, Manfred; Allmaier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Identification and differentiation of microorganisms has and still is a long arduous task, involving culturing of the organism in question on different growth media. This procedure, which is still commonly applied, is an established method, but takes a lot of time, up to several days or even longer. It has thus been a great achievement when other analytical tools like matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry were introduced for faster analysis based on the surface protein pattern. Differentiation and identification of human pathogens as well as plant/animal pathogens is of increasing importance in medical care (e.g. infection, sepsis, and antibiotics resistance), biotechnology, food sciences and detection of biological warfare agents. A distinction between microorganisms on the species and strain level was made by comparing peptide/protein profiles to patterns already stored in databases. These profiles and patterns were obtained from the surface of vegetative forms of microorganisms or even their spores by MALDI MS. Thus, an unknown sample can be compared against a database of known pathogens or microorganisms of interest. To benefit from newly available, metal-based disposable microscope-slide format MALDI targets that promise a clean and even surface at a fraction of the cost from full metal targets or MTP (microtiter plate) format targets, IC/ISMS analysis was performed on these and the data evaluated. Various types of bacteria as well as fungal spores were identified unambiguously on this disposable new type of metal nano-coated targets. The method even allowed differentiation between strains of the same species. The results were compared with those gained from using full metal standard targets and found to be equal or even better in several aspects, making the use of disposable MALDI targets a viable option for use in IC/ISMS, especially e.g. for large sample throughput and highly pathogenic species.

  13. Construction Progress of the S-IC and F-1 Test Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC test stand, related facilities were built during this time. Built to the north of the massive S-IC test stand, was the F-1 Engine test stand. The F-1 test stand, a vertical engine firing test stand, 239 feet in elevation and 4,600 square feet in area at the base, was designed to assist in the development of the F-1 Engine. Capability was provided for static firing of 1.5 million pounds of thrust using liquid oxygen and kerosene. Like the S-IC stand, the foundation of

  14. Predictors of ICS/LABA prescribing in COPD patients: a study from general practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A combination of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2 agonist (ICS/LABA) is used frequently to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The aim of the study was to determine whether prescribing ICS/LABA to COPD patients in primary care in 2009/10 was within the GOLD guidelines and whether and to what degree patient characteristics were associated with prescription of these drugs by GPs. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in seven Norwegian GP practices. Patients registered with a diagnosis of asthma or COPD in the previous five years were included. Results Among the 376 patients included in the analysis, 149 patients had COPD, defined as a post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7 and 55.6% of these patients were treated with ICS/LABA. The rate of prescribing was significantly higher in the COPD patients also diagnosed with asthma than in those with COPD as the only diagnosis, 66.7%, and 39.0%, respectively (P = 0.001). The prescribing rate in the latter subgroup would have been 18.6% if the 2007 GOLD guidelines had been followed. One or more exacerbations in the previous year was the strongest predictor of ICS/LABA prescribing in the COPD patients who were not registered with a concomitant diagnosis of asthma (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0–10.0) but this association was limited to the patients with severe disease (FEV1% predicted <50) (OR 13.5, 95% CI 1.8–101.1). Cardiovascular disease was associated with decreased ICS/LABA prescribing (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.8) in the COPD group. A Kappa coefficient of 0.32 was found between the actual prescribing rate and that recommended in the 2007 GOLD guidelines. Conclusions Overprescribing of ICS/LABA for the COPD patients was shown. Previous exacerbation was a strong predictor of ICS/LABA prescribing only in patients with severe COPD. Because of the low emphasis on previous exacerbation when prescribing for COPD patients with mild to moderate disease, the actual prescribing rate agreed

  15. Construction Progress of the S-IC and F-1 Test Stands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC test stand, related facilities were built during this time. Built to the north of the massive S-IC test stand, was the F-1 Engine test stand. The F-1 test stand, a vertical engine firing test stand, 239 feet in elevation and 4,600 square feet in area at the base, was designed to assist in the development of the F-1 Engine. Capability was provided for static firing of 1.5 million pounds of thrust using liquid oxygen and kerosene. Like the S-IC stand, the foundation of

  16. NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-09-01

    Context: IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims: We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH binary systems. Methods: We have examined all four XMM-Newton observations of NGC 300 X-1, as well as the single XMM-Newton observation of IC 10 X-1. For each observation, we extracted lightcurves and spectra from the pn, MOS1 and MOS2 cameras; power density spectra were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Results: Each source exhibits power density spectra that are well described by a power law with index, γ, ~1. Such variability is characteristic of turbulence in wind accretion or disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 in the XMM-Newton observations are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC 300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC 10 X-1. Conclusions: The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC 300 X-1 in Observation 1 and that of IC 10 X-1 lends strong evidence for NGC 300 X-1 being a BH+WR binary. Our spectral modeling rules out Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a neutron star (NS) for NGC 300 X-1, but not a disc-accreting NS+WR system, nor a NS low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is merely coincident with the WR. We favour disc accretion for both systems, but cannot exclude Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a BH. The unusual spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 may be due to these systems existing in a persistently high state, whereas all known BH LMXBs

  17. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4,5]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [6,7] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [8] and other group's work [9] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Moreover, the stacking faults lead to kinks in the outer shapes of the minute ice Ic crystals as seen by cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM); these defective sites are likely to play some role in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. The cryo-SEM work suggests that stacking-faulty ice Ic has many more active centres for such reactions than the usually considered thermodynamically stable form, ice Ih. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] DM Murphy (2003) Dehydration in cold clouds is enhanced by a transition from from cubic to hexagonal ice. Geophys.Res.Lett.,30, 2230, doi:10.1029/2003GL018566. [3] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004

  18. Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of IC 1613. II. The Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Saha, Abhijit; Gallagher, J. S.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Mateo, Mario

    2003-10-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I, 16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (MV=+3.4) and I=27.1 (MI=+2.8) at the 50% completeness level, the deepest to date for an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We analyze the resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and compare it with CMDs created from theoretical stellar models using three different methods to derive a star formation history (SFH) as well as constrain the chemical evolution for IC 1613. All three methods find an enhanced star formation rate (SFR), at roughly the same magnitude (factor of 3), over roughly the same period (from 3 to 6 Gyr ago). Additionally, all three methods were driven to similar age-metallicity relationships (AMR) that show an increase from [Fe/H]~-1.3 at earliest times to [Fe/H]~-0.7 at present. Good agreement is found between the AMR which is derived from the CMD analysis and that which can be inferred from the derived SFH at all but the earliest ages. The agreement between the three models and the self-consistency of the derived chemical enrichment history support the reality of the derived SFH of IC 1613 and, more generally, are supportive of the practice of constructing galaxy SFHs from CMDs. A comparison of the newly observed outer field with an earlier studied central field of IC 1613 shows that the SFR in the outer field has been significantly depressed during the last Gyr. This implies that the optical scale length of the galaxy has been decreasing with time and that comparison of galaxies at intermediate redshift with present-day galaxies should take this effect into account. Comparing the CMD of the outer field of IC 1613 with CMDs of Milky Way dSph companions, we find strong similarities between IC 1613 and the more distant dSph companions (Carina, Fornax, Leo I, and Leo II) in that all are dominated

  19. Winds of low-metallicity OB-type stars: HST-COS spectroscopy in IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Miriam; Najarro, Francisco; Herrero, Artemio; Urbaneja, Miguel Alejandro

    2014-06-10

    We present the first quantitative ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of resolved OB stars in IC 1613. Because of its alleged very low metallicity (≲1/10 Z {sub ☉}, from H II regions), studies in this Local Group dwarf galaxy could become a significant step forward from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) toward the extremely metal-poor massive stars of the early universe. We present HST-COS data covering the ∼1150-1800 Å wavelength range with resolution R ∼ 2500. We find that the targets do exhibit wind features, and these are similar in strength to SMC stars. Wind terminal velocities were derived from the observed P Cygni profiles with the Sobolev plus Exact Integration method. The v {sub ∞}-Z relationship has been revisited. The terminal velocity of IC 1613 O stars is clearly lower than Milky Way counterparts, but there is no clear difference between IC 1613 and SMC or LMC analog stars. We find no clear segregation with host galaxy in the terminal velocities of B-supergiants, nor in the v {sub ∞}/v {sub esc} ratio of the whole OB star sample in any of the studied galaxies. Finally, we present the first evidence that the Fe-abundance of IC 1613 OB stars is similar to the SMC, which is in agreement with previous results on red supergiants. With the confirmed ∼1/10 solar oxygen abundances of B-supergiants, our results indicate that IC 1613's α/Fe ratio is sub-solar.

  20. Development of voice navigation system for the visually impaired by using IC tags.

    PubMed

    Takatori, Norihiko; Nojima, Kengo; Matsumoto, Masashi; Yanashima, Kenji; Magatani, Kazushige

    2006-01-01

    There are about 300,000 visually impaired persons in Japan. Most of them are old persons and, cannot become skillful in using a white cane, even if they make effort to learn how to use a white cane. Therefore, some guiding system that supports the independent activities of the visually impaired are required. In this paper, we will describe about a developed white cane system that supports the independent walking of the visually impaired in the indoor space. This system is composed of colored navigation lines that include IC tags and an intelligent white cane that has a navigation computer. In our system colored navigation lines that are put on the floor of the target space from the start point to the destination and IC tags that are set at the landmark point are used for indication of the route to the destination. The white cane has a color sensor, an IC tag transceiver and a computer system that includes a voice processor. This white cane senses the navigation line that has target color by a color sensor. When a color sensor finds the target color, the white cane informs a white cane user that he/she is on the navigation line by vibration. So, only following this vibration, the user can reach the destination. However, at some landmark points, guidance is necessary. At these points, an IC tag is set under the navigation line. The cane makes communication with the tag and informs the user about the land mark pint by pre recorded voice. Ten normal subjects who were blindfolded were tested with our developed system. All of them could walk along navigation line. And the IC tag information system worked well. Therefore, we have concluded that our system will be a very valuable one to support activities of the visually impaired.