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Sample records for ic recombinant-methionyl human

  1. Therapeutic use of recombinant methionyl human leptin.

    PubMed

    Vatier, Camille; Gautier, Jean-François; Vigouroux, Corinne

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) was first used as a replacement therapy in patients bearing inactivating mutations in the leptin gene. In this indication, it was shown since 1999 to be very efficient in inducing a dramatic weight loss in rare children and adults with severe obesity due to the lack of leptin. These first clinical trials clearly showed that r-metHuLeptin acted centrally to reduce food intake, inducing loss of fat mass, and to correct metabolic alterations, immune and neuroendocrine defects. A few years later, r-metHuLeptin was also shown to reverse the metabolic complications associated with lipodystrophic syndromes, due to primary defects in fat storage, which induce leptin deficiency. The beneficial effects, which could be mediated by central and/or peripheral mechanisms, are thought to mainly involve the lowering effects of leptin on ectopic lipid storage, in particular in liver and muscles, reducing insulin resistance. Interestingly, r-metHuLeptin therapy also reversed the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis dysfunctions associated with hypothalamic amenorrhea. However, if r-metHuLeptin treatment has been shown to be dramatically efficient in leptin-deficient states, its very limited effect in inducing weight loss in common obese patients revealed that, in patients with adequate leptin secretion, mechanisms of leptin resistance and leptin tolerance prevent r-metHuLeptin from inducing any additional effects. This review will present the current data about the effects of r-metHuLeptin therapy in humans, and discuss the recent perspectives of this therapy in new indications.

  2. Differentiation and quantification of endogenous and recombinant-methionyl human leptin in clinical plasma samples by immunocapture/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Heilig, Joseph S

    2012-11-01

    Therapeutic recombinant-methionyl human leptin (r-metHu-Leptin, Mr 16155) shares an identical amino acid sequence with endogenous leptin (endo-leptin, Mr 16024), with the addition of an N-terminal methionyl incorporated during recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Current immunochemistry-based assays do not allow discrimination between the drug and endo-leptin because of cross reactivity. Using the immunoassay, the total plasma concentration measured in some clinical study subjects receiving r-metHu-Leptin can reach supra-physiological levels. To determine which leptin species contributes to the elevated concentrations detected in some subjects, a mass spectrometry-based method allowing discrimination and quantification of both leptin species was developed. Endo-leptin and r-metHu-Leptin were enriched from plasma matrix proteins by immuno capture, and subsequently injected onto a reversed phase analytical column coupled to an API 4000 Q-TRAP LC-MS/MS system. Multiple charge state ions and specific MRMs were monitored to provide unambiguous differentiation between endo-leptin and r-metHu-Leptin. A "top down" assay distinguishing the two forms of leptin was successfully developed and had a linear range from 15.63 to 1000 ng/ml, low limit of quantification of 15.63 ng/ml. The method was applied to selected clinical samples and revealed that the elevated leptin concentrations observed in some subjects reflected accumulation of r-metHu-Leptin. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for unambiguous differentiation of r-metHu-Leptin from endogenous leptin in human plasma. Using this method, specific quantitative information was obtained for pharmacokinetic studies in a clinical trial. The method should prove useful in quantifying this investigational drug against endo-leptin background in future clinical studies. PMID:22795822

  3. Category-Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex Follows Cortical Topology: A Grouped icEEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Christopher Richard; Whaley, Meagan Lee; Baboyan, Vatche George; Tandon, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest that category-selective regions in higher-order visual cortex are topologically organized around specific anatomical landmarks: the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS) in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC) and lateral occipital sulcus (LOS) in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC). To derive precise structure-function maps from direct neural signals, we collected intracranial EEG (icEEG) recordings in a large human cohort (n = 26) undergoing implantation of subdural electrodes. A surface-based approach to grouped icEEG analysis was used to overcome challenges from sparse electrode coverage within subjects and variable cortical anatomy across subjects. The topology of category-selectivity in bilateral VTC and LOC was assessed for five classes of visual stimuli—faces, animate non-face (animals/body-parts), places, tools, and words—using correlational and linear mixed effects analyses. In the LOC, selectivity for living (faces and animate non-face) and non-living (places and tools) classes was arranged in a ventral-to-dorsal axis along the LOS. In the VTC, selectivity for living and non-living stimuli was arranged in a latero-medial axis along the MFS. Written word-selectivity was reliably localized to the intersection of the left MFS and the occipito-temporal sulcus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence for topological information structuring of functional representations within higher-order visual cortex. PMID:27272936

  4. Antiviral responses of human Leydig cells to mumps virus infection or poly I:C stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Le Tortorec, A.; Denis, H.; Satie, A-P.; Patard, J-J.; Ruffault, A.; Jégou, B.; Dejucq-Rainsford, N.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The immuno-privileged status of the testis is essential to the maintenance of its functions, and innate immunity is likely to play a key role in limiting harmful viral infections, as demonstrated in the rat. In men mumps virus infects Leydig cells and has deleterious effects on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of this study was to test whether mumps virus infection of isolated human Leydig cells was associated with an inhibition of their innate antiviral defences. METHODS Leydig cell production of mRNA and protein for interferons (IFNs) and of three antiviral proteins—2′5′ oligoadenylate synthetase (2′5′OAS), double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) and MxA—was investigated, in the absence or presence of mumps virus or viral stimuli including poly I:C, a mimetic of RNA viruses replication product. RESULTS Stimulated or not, human Leydig cells appeared unable to produce routinely detectable IFNs α, β and γ. Although the level of PKR remained unchanged after stimulation, the expression of 2′5′OAS and MxA was enhanced following either mumps virus or poly I:C exposure (P < 0.05 versus control). CONCLUSIONS Overall, our results demonstrate that mumps virus replication in human Leydig cells is not associated with a specific inhibition of IFNs or 2′5′OAS, MxA and PKR production and that these cells display relatively weak endogenous antiviral abilities, as opposed to their rat counterparts. PMID:18567898

  5. IC14, an anti-CD14 antibody, inhibits endotoxin-mediated symptoms and inflammatory responses in humans.

    PubMed

    Verbon, A; Dekkers, P E; ten Hove, T; Hack, C E; Pribble, J P; Turner, T; Souza, S; Axtelle, T; Hoek, F J; van Deventer, S J; van der Poll, T

    2001-03-01

    CD14 is a receptor for cell wall components of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria that has been implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory response to sepsis. To determine the role of CD14 in LPS-induced effects in humans, 16 healthy subjects received an i.v. injection of LPS (4 ng/kg) preceded (-2 h) by i.v. IC14, a recombinant chimeric mAb against human CD14, at a dose of 1 mg/kg over 1 h, or placebo. In subjects receiving IC14, saturation of CD14 on circulating monocytes and granulocytes was >90% at the time of LPS injection. IC14 attenuated LPS-induced clinical symptoms and strongly inhibited LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine release, while only delaying the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokines soluble TNF receptor type I and IL-1 receptor antagonist. IC14 also inhibited leukocyte activation, but more modestly reduced endothelial cell activation and the acute phase protein response. The capacity of circulating monocytes and granulocytes to phagocytose Escherichia coli was only marginally reduced after infusion of IC14. These data provide the first proof of principle that blockade of CD14 is associated with reduced LPS responsiveness in humans in vivo.

  6. Interim Human Factors Guidance for Hybrid and Digital I&C System

    SciTech Connect

    J.Naser, G.Morris

    2003-08-15

    OAK- B135 To help nuclear power plant operators and suppliers plan, specify, design and implement the modernization of control rooms and other HSI in a way that takes advantage of digital systems and HSI technologies, reflects practical constraints associated with modernizing existing control rooms and I&C systems, and addresses issues associated with hybrid control room HSI.

  7. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is activated in human interstitial cystitis (IC) and rat protamine sulfate induced cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Long; Liu, Qina; Song, Bo; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is currently unclear. However, inflammation has been suggested to play an important role in BPS/IC. JNK downstream signaling plays an important role in numerous chronic inflammatory diseases. However, studies of the JNK pathway in BPS/IC are limited. In this study, we investigated the role of the JNK pathway in human BPS/IC and rat protamine sulfate (PS)-induced cystitis and examined the effect of the selective JNK inhibitor SP600125 on rat bladder cystitis. In our study, we demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway was activated (the expression of JNK, c-Jun, p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly increasing in BPS/IC compared to the non-BPS/IC patients) and resulted in inflammation in human BPS/IC. Further animal models showed that the JNK pathway played an important role in the pathogenesis of cystitis. JNK inhibitors, SP600125, effectively inhibited the expression of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, IL-6 and TNF-α. The inhibition of these pathways had a protective effect on PS-induced rat cystitis by significantly decreasing histological score and mast cell count and improving bladder micturition function (micturition frequency significantly decreasing and bladder capacity significantly increasing). Therefore, JNK inhibition could be used as a potential treatment for BPS/IC. PMID:26883396

  8. Immune complexes (IC) down-regulate the basal and interferon-γ-induced expression of MHC Class II on human monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barrionuevo, P; Beigier-Bompadre, M; De La Barrera, S; Alves-Rosa, M F; Fernandez, G; Palermo, M S; Isturiz, M A

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of Fc receptors for IgG (FcγRs) on monocytes/macrophages with immune complexes (IC) triggers regulatory and effector functions. Previous studies have shown that FcγR–IC interactions inhibit the IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II in murine macrophages. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for these effects have not been elucidated. In addition, whether this IC-dependent effect also occurs in human cells is not known. Taking into account the fact that IC and IFN-γ are frequently found in infections and autoimmune disorders, together with the crucial role MHC class II molecules play in the regulation of immune response, we explored the effect and mechanism of IC-induced MHC class II down-regulation in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). This effect was studied either in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We demonstrate that IC exert a drastic inhibition of basal and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II on human monocytes. This effect was mediated through the interaction of IC with both FcγRI and FcγRII. Moreover, similar results were obtained using supernatants from IC-treated PBMC. The IC-induced down-regulation of MHC class II is abrogated by pepstatin and phosphoramidon, supporting the role of aspartic protease(s) and metalloprotease(s) in this process. In parallel with MHC class II expression, antigen presentation was markedly inhibited in the presence of IC. PMID:11529917

  9. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic ... Call to Action Stamp Out IC How to Schedule an IC Advocacy District Visit IC Advocates in ...

  10. Crystal structure of human dynein light chain Dnlc2A: Structural insights into the interaction with IC74

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Junfeng; Wang Zhanxin; Wang Xinquan; Tang Qun; An Xiaomin; Gui Lulu; Liang Dongcai . E-mail: dcliang@sun5.ibp.ac.cn

    2006-10-27

    The human light chain of the motor protein dynein, Dnlc2A, is also a novel TGF-{beta}-signaling component, which is altered with high frequency in epithelial ovarian cancer. It is an important mediator of dynein and the development of cancer, owing to its ability to bind to the dynein intermediate light chain (DIC) IC74 and to regulate TGF-{beta}-dependent transcriptional events. Here we report the 2.1-A crystal structure of Dnlc2A using single anomalous diffraction. The proteins form a homodimer in solution and interact mainly through the helix {alpha}{sub 2}, strand {beta}{sub 3}, and the loop following this strand in each protein to generate a 10-stranded {beta}-sheet core. The surface of the {beta}-sheet core is mainly positively charged and predicted (by software PPI-Pred) to be the site that interacts with other partners. At the same time, the residues 79-82, 88, and 90 of each molecule formed two holes in the core. Residue 89 of each molecule, which is crucial for the DIC binding function of Dnlc2A, is within the holes. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the homodimer is the structural and functional unit maintained by hydrogen bonding interactions and hydrophobic packing, and that the patch of the surface of the {beta}-sheet core is the main area of interaction with other partners. Furthermore, the two holes would be the key sites to interact with IC74.

  11. Glycoprotein Ic-IIa functions as an activation-independent fibronectin receptor on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, R S; Orchekowski, R P; Nugent, D J; Yamada, K Y; Kunicki, T J

    1988-04-01

    Soluble fibronectin binds specifically to glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa on thrombin-activated platelets, and this binding is not observed with platelets of patients with Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) which lack GPIIb-IIIa. Here we report that GT platelets retain the ability to interact with fibronectin-coated surfaces. Adhesion to fibronectin does not require platelet activation and is inhibited by soluble fibronectin, antibodies specific for fibronectin, peptides containing the sequence Arg-Gly-Asp and polyclonal antibodies specific for band 3 of the chicken embryo fibroblast fibronectin receptor (anti-band 3). Using anti-band 3, we have purified a second fibronectin receptor from human platelets, a heterodimer composed of glycoproteins previously designated GPIc and GPIIa. The GPIc-IIa complex is found on both GT and normal platelets and appears to be identical to the GP138 kD-GP160 kD complex recently immunopurified by Giancotti et al. (1986. Exp. Cell Res. 163:47-62) and by Sonnenberg et al. (1987. J. Biol. Chem. 268:10376-10383). In this report, we provide the first evidence that GPIc-IIa actually mediates adhesion of platelets to fibronectin-coated surfaces. GPIc-IIa thus represents a second functional fibronectin receptor, distinct from GPIIb-IIIa, that is largely responsible for the adhesion of nonactivated platelets to fibronectin-coated surfaces.

  12. IC Treatment: Antidepressants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic ... Children & IC La Cistitis Intersticial IC in Other Languages Associated Conditions Allergies and Sensitivities Celiac Disease Chronic ...

  13. An automated photolithography facility for IC's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1980-01-01

    Report discusses subsystems that will constitute fully-automated photolithography facility for IC's. Facility being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center will produce ultrareliable IC's with minimal human intervention.

  14. Complement fragments C3b and iC3b coupled to latex induce a respiratory burst in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hoogerwerf, M; Weening, R S; Hack, C E; Roos, D

    1990-02-01

    The complement fragments C3b and iC3b were purified from human serum by affinity chromatography with Sepharose-coupled monoclonal antibody against the C3d region of C3. The resulting preparations were more than 95% pure and contained less than 0.1% native IgG. Purified C3b and iC3b were coupled to latex beads (0.8 micron diameter) by means of F(ab')2 fragments of monoclonal antibodies against the beta chain or the C3d region of C3, thus orienting the C3b and the iC3b on the latex with the C3b- and iC3b-specific regions outwards. These particles were found to activate the respiratory burst of freshly isolated human neutrophils to 20-30% of the maximal capacity. Latex particles randomly coated with C3b or iC3b were about 3 times less stimulatory. C3b, iC3b and IgG coupled to latex in an oriented fashion were about equally effective in stimulating the respiratory burst. Neutrophils from a patient with a total deficiency of CR3 responded normally to C3b-coated latex but did not respond to iC3b-coated latex. A monoclonal antibody against the alpha chain of CR3 inhibited the activation by iC3b-coated latex and a polyclonal antibody against CR1 partially inhibited the activation by C3b-coated latex. We found an additive effect between IgG-coated latex and C3b-coated latex, regardless of the presence of IgG and C3b on the same particle or on different particles. Thus, binding of ligands to either CR1 or CR3 per se is sufficient to induce an activating signal to the NADPH oxidase in human neutrophils.

  15. Human Anti-CD40 Antibody and Poly IC:LC Adjuvant Combination Induces Potent T Cell Responses in the Lung of Non-Human Primates1

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Elizabeth A; Liang, Frank; Lindgren, Gustaf; Sandgren, Kerrie J; Quinn, Kylie M; Darrah, Patricia A; Koup, Richard A; Seder, Robert A; Kedl, Ross M; Loré, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Non-live vaccine platforms that induce potent cellular immune responses in mucosal tissue would have broad application for vaccines against infectious diseases and tumors. Induction of cellular immunity could be optimized by targeted activation of multiple innate and co-stimulatory signaling pathways, such as CD40 or toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this study, we evaluated immune activation and elicitation of T cell responses in non-human primates (NHPs) after immunization with peptide antigens adjuvanted with an agonistic αCD40Ab, with or without the TLR3 ligand poly IC:LC. We found that intravenous administration of the αCD40Ab induced rapid and transient innate activation characterized by IL-12 production and upregulated co-stimulatory and lymph node homing molecules on dendritic cells. Using fluorescently-labeled Abs for in vivo tracking, the αCD40Ab bound to all leucocytes, except T cells, and disseminated to multiple organs. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were significantly enhanced when the αCD40Ab was co-administered with poly IC:LC compared to either adjuvant given alone and were almost exclusively compartmentalized to the lung. Notably, antigen-specific T cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage were sustained at ~5–10%. These data indicate that systemic administration of αCD40Ab may be particularly advantageous for vaccines and/or therapies requiring T cell immunity in the lung. PMID:26123354

  16. Effects of IC14, an anti-CD14 antibody, on coagulation and fibrinolysis during low-grade endotoxemia in humans.

    PubMed

    Verbon, Annelies; Meijers, Joost C M; Spek, C Arnold; Hack, C Erik; Pribble, John P; Turner, Terence; Dekkers, Pascale E P; Axtelle, Tim; Levi, Marcel; van Deventer, Sander J H; Reitsma, Pieter H; van der Poll, Tom

    2003-01-01

    To determine the role of CD14 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis in humans, 16 healthy subjects received an intravenous injection of LPS preceded by intravenous IC14, a recombinant chimeric monoclonal antibody against human CD14, or placebo. LPS-induced coagulation activation (tissue-factor mRNA in whole blood cells and plasma concentrations of F1+2) was not influenced by IC14, whereas the antibody reduced the increase in thrombin-antithrombin complexes and soluble fibrin. LPS injection also was associated with an early activation of fibrinolysis (plasma concentrations of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes), followed by an inhibitory response (plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), which were attenuated by IC14. Furthermore, LPS reduced thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis-inhibitor antigen levels and increased soluble thrombomodulin levels, which were not influenced by IC14. These results suggest that different hemostatic responses during endotoxemia may proceed via CD14-dependent and -independent pathways.

  17. Characterization of a cDNA encoding a novel human Golgi alpha 1, 2-mannosidase (IC) involved in N-glycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, L O; Herscovics, A

    2000-10-13

    A human cDNA encoding a 70.9-kDa type II membrane protein with sequence similarity to class I alpha1,2-mannosidases was isolated. The enzymatic properties of the novel alpha1,2-mannosidase IC were studied by expressing its catalytic domain in Pichia pastoris as a secreted glycoprotein. alpha1,2-Mannosidase IC sequentially hydrolyzes the alpha1,2-linked mannose residues of [(3)H]mannose-labeled Man(9)GlcNAc to form [(3)H]Man(6)GlcNAc and a small amount of [(3)H]Man(5)GlcNAc. The enzyme requires calcium for activity and is inhibited by both 1-deoxymannojirimycin and kifunensine. The order of mannose removal was determined by separating oligosaccharide isomers formed from pyridylaminated Man(9)GlcNAc(2) by high performance liquid chromatography. The terminal alpha1,2-linked mannose residue from the middle branch is the last mannose removed by the enzyme. This residue is the mannose cleaved from Man(9)GlcNAc(2) by the endoplasmic reticulum alpha1, 2-mannosidase I to form Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B. The order of mannose hydrolysis from either pyridylaminated Man(9)GlcNAc(2) or Man(8)GlcNAc(2) isomer B differs from that previously reported for mammalian Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases IA and IB. The full-length alpha1,2-mannosidase IC was localized to the Golgi of MDBK and MDCK cells by indirect immunofluorescence. Northern blot analysis showed tissue-specific expression of a major transcript of 3.8 kilobase pairs. The expression pattern is different from that of human Golgi alpha1,2-mannosidases IA and IB. Therefore, the human genome contains at least three differentially regulated Golgi alpha1, 2-mannosidase genes encoding enzymes with similar, but not identical specificities. PMID:10915796

  18. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J.; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  19. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs.

  20. Men and IC

    MedlinePlus

    ... benign prostatic hyperplasia, or prostate enlargement. Is it CP/CPPS or IC? CP/CPPS is a relatively new term used to ... or chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. Some researchers believe that CP/CPPS and IC may really be the same ...

  1. Analysis of human blood monocyte activation at the level of gene expression. Expression of alpha interferon genes during activation of human monocytes by poly IC/LC and muramyl dipeptide

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Human monocytes were activated to secrete alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) by poly IC/LC but not by other monocyte activators, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP). In contrast, monocytes were activated to secrete fibroblast growth factor (FGF) release by MDP but not by poly IC/LC. The amount of total RNA present in unactivated and activated human monocytes was similar. Using two 32P-labeled cDNA probes (pLM001 and HuIFN-alpha 2) for human IFN-alpha genes in hybridization studies, we analyzed messenger RNA species from this gene family in activated human monocytes. After activation with poly IC/LC, two other mRNA species (2.8 and 5.5 kb) were detected in addition to the 1.0 kb mRNA normally associated with IFN-alpha secretion. Unexpectedly, monocytes activated with MDP also contained 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA. There was associated with this 2.8 kb IFN-alpha mRNA, found in MDP-activated monocytes, appreciable levels of intracellular IFN-alpha activity in the absence of detectable secreted IFN-alpha. Thus the secretion of IFN-alpha in activated human monocytes can be correlated with the appearance of a 1.0 kb mRNA species after poly IC/LC exposure. Secretion appears to be defective in MDP-stimulated monocytes even though they contain active intracellular IFN-alpha apparently translated from the 2.8 kb mRNA. PMID:3838335

  2. Lymphoblastoid cell supernatants increase expression of C3b receptors on human polymorphonuclear leucocytes: direct binding studies with 125I-C3b.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, M; Cross, A S

    1984-01-01

    Human PMN incubated in culture supernatants of the Raji long-term human lymphoblastoid cell line showed increased rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes coated with C3b (EIgM C4b3b) but no change in rosette formation with IgG-coated erythrocytes. This suggested a specific increase in cell surface C3b receptors, which was further investigated using 125I-C3b for direct binding studies. The results confirmed that specific binding of 125I-C3b to PMN incubated in culture supernatants increased up to three- to four-fold over binding to PMN incubated in control media alone. Scatchard analysis revealed that the apparent Ka for supernatant-treated cells, 3.36 +/- 0.89 X 10(7) L/M did not differ from the Ka for cells incubated in control media, 3.76 +/- 0.75 X 10(7) L/M, suggesting an increase in a single class of C3b receptors. Kinetic studies revealed that the active factor was present within 24 hr of culture of the Raji cells, and that neutrophils incubated in culture supernatants increased their C3b receptors continuously for up to 4 hr, the longest interval tested. The effect of the culture supernatant was lost with dilution beyond eight- to 10-fold. The results suggest that culture supernatants of this long-term lymphoblastoid cell line contain soluble factors that induce increased expression of C3b receptors on PMN and may thus serve as a model for study of important physiologic effects of lymphocyte products on PMN in vivo. PMID:6230308

  3. A comparative analytical assessment of iodides in healthy and pathological human thyroids based on IC-PAD method preceded by microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Błażewicz, Anna; Orlicz-Szczęsna, Grażyna; Szczęsny, Piotr; Prystupa, Andrzej; Grzywa-Celińska, Anna; Trojnar, Marcin

    2011-03-15

    The aim of the study was to examine correlations between the content of iodides in 66 nodular goiters and 100 healthy human thyroid tissues (50- frozen and 50 formalin-fixed). A fast, accurate and precise ion chromatography method on IonPac AS11 chromatographic column (Dionex, USA) with a pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD) followed by alkaline digestion with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in a closed system and with the assistance of microwaves was developed and used for the comparative analysis of two types of human thyroid samples. Statistical analysis revealed over eightfold reduction of iodine concentration in the pathological tissues (the mean value was 77.13±14.02 ppm) in comparison with the control group (622.62±187.11 ppm for frozen samples and 601.49±192.11 ppm for formalin-fixed ones). A good correspondence (for 10 additional determinations) between the certified (3.38±0.02 ppm with variation coefficient (V.C.) of 0.59% for Standard Reference Material (SRM) NIST 1549-non-fat milk powder) and the measured iodine concentrations (3.52±0.29 ppm; V.C.=10%) was achieved. It was pointed out that the way of tissue preservation (either in formalin or by freezing) had no significant effect on the iodine determination result (α=0.1). Significantly lower iodide content was found in nodular goiter thyroid samples. The applied conditions of digestion, reinforced by the action of microwaves, brought about a decidedly shorter (less than 20 min) sample preparation time. Suitability of the developed IC method was supported by validation results.

  4. Pregnancy and IC

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of deformities and premature labor. Fitness and Physical Therapy to Keep You Comfortable Along with diet, a ... and relaxation, IC and pregnancy-friendly exercise, and physical therapy. During pregnancy, there’s a lot of weight on ...

  5. Momordin Ic couples apoptosis with autophagy in human hepatoblastoma cancer cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mi, Yashi; Xiao, Chunxia; Du, Qingwei; Wu, Wanqiang; Qi, Guoyuan; Liu, Xuebo

    2016-01-01

    Momordin Ic is a principal saponin constituent of Fructus Kochiae, which acts as an edible and pharmaceutical product more than 2000 years in China. Our previous research found momordin Ic induced apoptosis by PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways in HepG2 cells. While the role of autophagy in momordin Ic induced cell death has not been discussed, and the connection between the apoptosis and autophagy is not clear yet. In this work, we reported momordin Ic promoted the formation of autophagic vacuole and expression of Beclin 1 and LC-3 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared with momordin Ic treatment alone, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) also can inhibit apoptosis, while autophagy activator rapamycin (RAP) has the opposite effect, and the apoptosis inhibitor ZVAD-fmk also inhibited autophagy induced by momordin Ic. Momordin Ic simultaneously induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing the ROS-mediated PI3K/Akt and activating the ROS-related JNK and P38 pathways. Additionally, momordin Ic induces apoptosis by suppressing PI3K/Akt-dependent NF-κB pathways and promotes autophagy by ROS-mediated Erk signaling pathway. Those results suggest that momordin Ic has great potential as a nutritional preventive strategy in cancer therapy. PMID:26593748

  6. Loss-of-Function Mutations in a Human Gene Related to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dynein IC78 Result in Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Pennarun, Gaëlle; Escudier, Estelle; Chapelin, Catherine; Bridoux, Anne-Marie; Cacheux, Valère; Roger, Gilles; Clément, Annick; Goossens, Michel; Amselem, Serge; Duriez, Bénédicte

    1999-01-01

    Summary Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a group of heterogeneous disorders of unknown origin, usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Its phenotype is characterized by axonemal abnormalities of respiratory cilia and sperm tails leading to bronchiectasis and sinusitis, which are sometimes associated with situs inversus (Kartagener syndrome) and male sterility. The main ciliary defect in PCD is an absence of dynein arms. We have isolated the first gene involved in PCD, using a candidate-gene approach developed on the basis of documented abnormalities of immotile strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which carry axonemal ultrastructural defects reminiscent of PCD. Taking advantage of the evolutionary conservation of genes encoding axonemal proteins, we have isolated a human sequence (DNAI1) related to IC78, a C. reinhardtii gene encoding a dynein intermediate chain in which mutations are associated with the absence of outer dynein arms. DNAI1 is highly expressed in trachea and testis and is composed of 20 exons located at 9p13-p21. Two loss-of-function mutations of DNAI1 have been identified in a patient with PCD characterized by immotile respiratory cilia lacking outer dynein arms. In addition, we excluded linkage between this gene and similar PCD phenotypes in five other affected families, providing a clear demonstration of locus heterogeneity. These data reveal the critical role of DNAI1 in the development of human axonemal structures and open up new means for identification of additional genes involved in related developmental defects. PMID:10577904

  7. IC handling robot

    SciTech Connect

    Law, D.O.

    1986-09-01

    Allied Corporation, Bendix Kansas City Division uses many integrated circuits (ICs) which are 100% tested by receiving inspection prior to installation into the next assemblies. Testing includes functional testing followed by a burn-in cycle then additional functional testing. Before an IC can be functionally tested, it must be inserted into a custom plastic carrier which is placed into a metal magazine that fits the functional tester. The ICs are removed from both tester magazines and carriers prior to being placed into connectors mounted on a printed wiring board for burn-in. Then they are removed from the burn-in board and re-inserted into carriers and magazines for additional functional testing. Each device is handled manually a minimum of 12 times before it is accepted. This project established a robotic workcell which automatically prepares a dual in-line packaged (DIP) integrated circuit for several types of inspection operations performed by Receiving Inspection. Specific activities required to accomplish this goal included definition of the work cell, preparation of the robot and other equipment specifications, installation planning, establishment of programming routines and logic, design of operator safeguards, and development of the work cell concept into an operational unit capable of supporting production.

  8. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    PubMed

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  9. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice. PMID:26519466

  10. Information Commons for Rice (IC4R).

    PubMed

    Hao, Lili; Zhang, Huiyong; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Xue, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population and also a key model organism for plant research. Here, we present Information Commons for Rice (IC4R; http://ic4r.org), a rice knowledgebase featuring adoption of an extensible and sustainable architecture that integrates multiple omics data through community-contributed modules. Each module is developed and maintained by different committed groups, deals with data collection, processing and visualization, and delivers data on-demand via web services. In the current version, IC4R incorporates a variety of rice data through multiple committed modules, including genome-wide expression profiles derived entirely from RNA-Seq data, resequencing-based genomic variations obtained from re-sequencing data of thousands of rice varieties, plant homologous genes covering multiple diverse plant species, post-translational modifications, rice-related literatures and gene annotations contributed by the rice research community. Unlike extant related databases, IC4R is designed for scalability and sustainability and thus also features collaborative integration of rice data and low costs for database update and maintenance. Future directions of IC4R include incorporation of other omics data and association of multiple omics data with agronomically important traits, dedicating to build IC4R into a valuable knowledgebase for both basic and translational researches in rice.

  11. Determining the IC50 Values for Vorozole and Letrozole, on a Series of Human Liver Cytochrome P450s, to Help Determine the Binding Site of Vorozole in the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Lendelle; Rayani, Nikita; Polson, Grace; Sikorski, Kylie; Lian, Ailin; VanAlstine-Parris, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Vorozole and letrozole are third-generation aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1) inhibitors. [11C]-Vorozole can be used as a radiotracer for aromatase in living animals but when administered by IV, it collects in the liver. Pretreatment with letrozole does not affect the binding of vorozole in the liver. In search of finding the protein responsible for the accumulation of vorozole in the liver, fluorometric high-throughput screening assays were used to test the inhibitory capability of vorozole and letrozole on a series of liver cytochrome P450s (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4). It was determined that vorozole is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 (IC50 = 0.469 μM) and a moderate inhibitor of CYP2A6 and CYP3A4 (IC50 = 24.4 and 98.1 μM, resp.). Letrozole is only a moderate inhibitor of CYP1A1 and CYP2A6 (IC50 = 69.8 and 106 μM) and a very weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (<10% inhibition at 1 mM). Since CYP3A4 makes up the majority of the CYP content found in the human liver, and vorozole inhibits it moderately well but letrozole does not, CYP3A4 is a good candidate for the protein that [11C]-vorozole is binding to in the liver. PMID:26635974

  12. R&D100: IC ID

    SciTech Connect

    Hamlet, Jason; Pierson, Lyndon; Bauer, Todd

    2015-11-19

    Supply chain security to detect, deter, and prevent the counterfeiting of networked and stand-alone integrated circuits (ICs) is critical to cyber security. Sandia National Laboratory researchers have developed IC ID to leverage Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) and strong cryptographic authentication to create a unique fingerprint for each integrated circuit. IC ID assures the authenticity of ICs to prevent tampering or malicious substitution.

  13. Photometric Study of IC 2156

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadross, A. L.; Hendy, Y. H. M.

    2016-04-01

    We present an optical UBVRI photometric analysis of the poorly studied open star cluster IC 2156 using Sloan Digital Sky Survey data in order to estimate its astrophysical properties. We compare these with results from our previous studies that relied on the 2MASS JHK near-infrared photometry. The stellar density distributions and color-magnitude diagrams of the cluster are used to determine its geometrical structure, real radius, core and tidal radii, and its distance from the Sun, the Galactic plane, and the Galactic center. We also estimate, the age, color excesses, reddening-free distance modulus, membership, total mass, luminosity function, mass function, and relaxation time of the cluster.

  14. Institutional computing (IC) information session

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kenneth R; Lally, Bryan R

    2011-01-19

    The LANL Institutional Computing Program (IC) will host an information session about the current state of unclassified Institutional Computing at Los Alamos, exciting plans for the future, and the current call for proposals for science and engineering projects requiring computing. Program representatives will give short presentations and field questions about the call for proposals and future planned machines, and discuss technical support available to existing and future projects. Los Alamos has started making a serious institutional investment in open computing available to our science projects, and that investment is expected to increase even more.

  15. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  16. IC and Component Selection for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the integrated circuit (IC) and selections of the IC components for space systems. Included in the discussion are a overview of semiconductors and the evolution of integrated circuit. It also reviews the three different viewpoints of the IC selection: technical, programmatic, and risk. From a radiation perspective there are four criteria for selecting ICs for space systems: guaranteed hardness, historical ground-based data, historical flight usage, and unknown assurance.

  17. Rocket Observations of IC 405

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, K.; McCandliss, S. R.; Feldman, P. D.; Burgh, E. B.

    2001-12-01

    We present the preliminary results from a NASA/JHU sounding rocket mission (36.198 UG), launched on 09 February 2001 at 21:00 MST, to obtain a long slit (200\\arcsec x 12\\arcsec) spectrum of the reflection nebula IC 405 in the 900 -- 1400 Å wavelength region. Several pointings within the nebula were obtained, including a high quality (S/N ≈ 10-15 at R = 300) spectrum of the central star, HD 34078, which clearly shows absorption from molecular hydrogen (H2). Observations of the nebula reveal a surface brightness to stellar flux ratio that rises by two orders of magnitude between 1400 and 900 Å. This is in contrast with the relatively flat nebular dust scattering observed during a prior sounding rocket observation of the reflection nebula NGC 2023. We will also present additional nebular pointings within IC 405, including a region observed by the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope showing evidence of H2 fluorescent emission. These observations were supported by NASA grant NAG5-5122 to the Johns Hopkins University.

  18. Thackeray's Globules in IC 2944

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Strangely glowing dark clouds float serenely in this remarkable and beautiful image taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. These dense, opaque dust clouds - known as 'globules' - are silhouetted against nearby bright stars in the busy star-forming region, IC 2944. These globules were first found in IC 2944 by astronomer A.D. Thackeray in 1950. Although globules like these have been known since Dutch-American astronomer Bart Bok first drew attention to such objects in 1947, little is still known about their origin and nature, except that they are generally associated with areas of star formation, called 'HII regions' due to the presence of hydrogen gas. The largest of the globules in this image is actually two separate clouds that gently overlap along our line of sight. Each cloud is nearly 1.4 light-years (50 arcseconds) along its longest dimension, and collectively, they contain enough material to equal over 15 solar masses. IC 2944, the surrounding HII region, is filled with gas and dust that is illuminated and heated by a loose cluster of O-type stars. These stars are much hotter and much more massive than our Sun. IC 2944 is relatively close by, located only 5900 light-years (1800 parsecs) away in the constellation Centaurus. Thanks to the remarkable resolution offered by the Hubble Space Telescope, astronomers can for the first time study the intricate structure of these globules. The globules appear to be heavily fractured, as if major forces were tearing them apart. When radio astronomers observed the faint hiss of molecules within the globules, they realized that the globules are actually in constant, churning motion, moving supersonically among each other. This may be caused by the powerful ultraviolet radiation from the luminous, massive stars, which also heat up the gas in the HII region, causing it to expand and stream against the globules, leading to their destruction. Despite their serene appearance, the globules may actually be likened to clumps

  19. I&C Modeling in SPAR Models

    SciTech Connect

    John A. Schroeder

    2012-06-01

    The Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) models for the U.S. commercial nuclear power plants currently have very limited instrumentation and control (I&C) modeling [1]. Most of the I&C components in the operating plant SPAR models are related to the reactor protection system. This was identified as a finding during the industry peer review of SPAR models. While the Emergency Safeguard Features (ESF) actuation and control system was incorporated into the Peach Bottom Unit 2 SPAR model in a recent effort [2], various approaches to expend resources for detailed I&C modeling in other SPAR models are investigated.

  20. Semiconductor/High-Tc-Superconductor Hybrid ICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid integrated circuits (ICs) containing both Si-based semiconducting and YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) superconducting circuit elements on sapphire substrates developed. Help to prevent diffusion of Cu from superconductors into semiconductors. These hybrid ICs combine superconducting and semiconducting features unavailable in superconducting or semiconducting circuitry alone. For example, complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) readout and memory devices integrated with fast-switching Josephson-junction super-conducting logic devices and zero-resistance interconnections.

  1. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    PubMed

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  2. Development of grouped icEEG for the study of cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Kadipasaoglu, Cihan M.; Forseth, Kiefer; Whaley, Meagan; Conner, Christopher R.; Rollo, Matthew J.; Baboyan, Vatche G.; Tandon, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    Invasive intracranial EEG (icEEG) offers a unique opportunity to study human cognitive networks at an unmatched spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the contributions of icEEG have been limited to the individual-level analyses or cohorts whose data are not integrated in any way. Here we discuss how grouped approaches to icEEG overcome challenges related to sparse-sampling, correct for individual variations in response and provide statistically valid models of brain activity in a population. By the generation of whole-brain activity maps, grouped icEEG enables the study of intra and interregional dynamics between distributed cortical substrates exhibiting task-dependent activity. In this fashion, grouped icEEG analyses can provide significant advances in understanding the mechanisms by which cortical networks give rise to cognitive functions. PMID:26257673

  3. A high ratio of IC31® adjuvant to antigen is necessary for H4 TB vaccine immunomodulation

    PubMed Central

    Aboutorabian, Sepideh; Hakimi, Jalil; Boudet, Florence; Montano, Sandrine; Dookie, Annie; Roque, Cristopher; Ausar, Salvador F; Rahman, Nausheen; Brookes, Roger H

    2015-01-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) vaccine consisting of a recombinant fusion protein (H4) and a novel TLR9 adjuvant (IC31) is in clinical development. To better understand the H4-IC31 ratio, we measured the binding capacity of IC31 for H4 protein and immunized mice with formulations that contained limiting to excess ratios of IC31 to H4. An immunomodulated H4-specific IFNγ response was only observed when IC31 was present in excess of H4. Since TLR expression is species-specific and the vaccine is intended to boost BCG-primed immunity, we questioned whether data in mice would translate to humans. To address this question, we used the fresh human Whole Blood (hWB) recovered from BCG-vaccinated subjects to screen H4-IC31 formulations. We found IC31 modulation in hWB to be quite distinct from the TLR4-Adjuvant. Unlike TLR4-Adjuvant, IC31 formulations did not induce the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, but modulated a robust H4-specific IFNγ response after 12 d of culture. We then re-stimulated the fresh hWB of 5 BCG-primed subjects with formulations that had excess or limiting IC31 binding for H4 protein and again found that an immunomodulated H4-specific IFNγ response needed an excess of IC31. Finally, we monitored the zeta (ζ) potential of H4-IC31 formulations and found that the overall charge of H4-IC31 particles changes from negative to positive once IC31 is in greater than 9-fold excess. Using two diverse yet mutually supportive approaches, we confirm the need for an excess of IC31 adjuvant in H4 TB vaccine formulations and suggest surface potential may be an important factor. PMID:25997147

  4. A high ratio of IC31(®) adjuvant to antigen is necessary for H4 TB vaccine immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Aboutorabian, Sepideh; Hakimi, Jalil; Boudet, Florence; Montano, Sandrine; Dookie, Annie; Roque, Cristopher; Ausar, Salvador F; Rahman, Nausheen; Brookes, Roger H

    2015-01-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) vaccine consisting of a recombinant fusion protein (H4) and a novel TLR9 adjuvant (IC31) is in clinical development. To better understand the H4-IC31 ratio, we measured the binding capacity of IC31 for H4 protein and immunized mice with formulations that contained limiting to excess ratios of IC31 to H4. An immunomodulated H4-specific IFNγ response was only observed when IC31 was present in excess of H4. Since TLR expression is species-specific and the vaccine is intended to boost BCG-primed immunity, we questioned whether data in mice would translate to humans. To address this question, we used the fresh human Whole Blood (hWB) recovered from BCG-vaccinated subjects to screen H4-IC31 formulations. We found IC31 modulation in hWB to be quite distinct from the TLR4-Adjuvant. Unlike TLR4-Adjuvant, IC31 formulations did not induce the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, but modulated a robust H4-specific IFNγ response after 12 d of culture. We then re-stimulated the fresh hWB of 5 BCG-primed subjects with formulations that had excess or limiting IC31 binding for H4 protein and again found that an immunomodulated H4-specific IFNγ response needed an excess of IC31. Finally, we monitored the zeta (ζ) potential of H4-IC31 formulations and found that the overall charge of H4-IC31 particles changes from negative to positive once IC31 is in greater than 9-fold excess. Using two diverse yet mutually supportive approaches, we confirm the need for an excess of IC31 adjuvant in H4 TB vaccine formulations and suggest surface potential may be an important factor. PMID:25997147

  5. A high ratio of IC31(®) adjuvant to antigen is necessary for H4 TB vaccine immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Aboutorabian, Sepideh; Hakimi, Jalil; Boudet, Florence; Montano, Sandrine; Dookie, Annie; Roque, Cristopher; Ausar, Salvador F; Rahman, Nausheen; Brookes, Roger H

    2015-01-01

    A tuberculosis (TB) vaccine consisting of a recombinant fusion protein (H4) and a novel TLR9 adjuvant (IC31) is in clinical development. To better understand the H4-IC31 ratio, we measured the binding capacity of IC31 for H4 protein and immunized mice with formulations that contained limiting to excess ratios of IC31 to H4. An immunomodulated H4-specific IFNγ response was only observed when IC31 was present in excess of H4. Since TLR expression is species-specific and the vaccine is intended to boost BCG-primed immunity, we questioned whether data in mice would translate to humans. To address this question, we used the fresh human Whole Blood (hWB) recovered from BCG-vaccinated subjects to screen H4-IC31 formulations. We found IC31 modulation in hWB to be quite distinct from the TLR4-Adjuvant. Unlike TLR4-Adjuvant, IC31 formulations did not induce the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα, but modulated a robust H4-specific IFNγ response after 12 d of culture. We then re-stimulated the fresh hWB of 5 BCG-primed subjects with formulations that had excess or limiting IC31 binding for H4 protein and again found that an immunomodulated H4-specific IFNγ response needed an excess of IC31. Finally, we monitored the zeta (ζ) potential of H4-IC31 formulations and found that the overall charge of H4-IC31 particles changes from negative to positive once IC31 is in greater than 9-fold excess. Using two diverse yet mutually supportive approaches, we confirm the need for an excess of IC31 adjuvant in H4 TB vaccine formulations and suggest surface potential may be an important factor.

  6. The H II regions of IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J.S.; Mason, S.F.; Gullixson, C.A. Prime Computer, Inc., Bedford, MA Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ )

    1990-08-01

    New H-alpha images are presented of IC 1613, a small irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The images, obtained with a CCD on the 42-in telescope at Lowell Observatory, have been calibrated and used to produce an H-alpha luminosity function and a size distribution for the H II regions in IC 1613. The results are compared to results for NGC 6822 and the Magellanic Clouds. The size distribution is found to be Poissonian over a limited range. 24 refs.

  7. Two possible active supernovae in IC 2150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Stu; Bock, Greg; Marples, Peter; Drescher, Colin; Pearl, Patrick; BOSS Team; Contreras, Carlos; Phillips, Mark; Morrell, Nidia; Hsiao, Eric; Carnegie Supernova Project

    2016-03-01

    Stu Parker and the BOSS team report the discovery of a rare event involving two possible active supernovae in IC 2150 (z=0.010404; NED) which were recorded in images obtained by Stu Parker during the ongoing program by the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS) team.

  8. Measurement selection for parametric IC fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, A.; Meador, J.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results obtained with the use of measurement reduction for statistical IC fault diagnosis are described. The reduction method used involves data pre-processing in a fashion consistent with a specific definition of parametric faults. The effects of this preprocessing are examined.

  9. TLR3 activation efficiency by high or low molecular mass poly I:C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Guo, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jielang; Wang, Yizhong; Ye, Li; Dai, Ming; Zhou, Li; Persidsky, Yuri; Ho, Wenzhe

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) plays a critical role in initiating type I IFN-mediated innate immunity against viral infections. TLR3 recognizes various forms of double stranded (ds) RNA, including viral dsRNA and a synthetic mimic of dsRNA, poly I:C, which has been used extensively as a TLR3 ligand to induce antiviral immunity. The activation efficiency of TLR3 by poly I:C is influenced by various factors, including size of the ligands, delivery methods and cell types. In this study, we examined the stimulatory effect of two commercially-available poly I:Cs [high molecular mass (HMM) and low molecular mass (LMM)] on TLR3 activation in various human cell types by determining the induction of type I and type III IFNs, as well as the antiviral effect. We demonstrated that the direct addition of both HMM- and LMM-poly I:C to the cultures of primary macrophages or a neuroplastoma cell line could activate TLR3. However, the transfection of poly I:C was necessary to induce TLR3 activation in other cell types studied. In all the cell lines tested, the efficiency of TLR3 activation by HMM-poly I:C was significantly higher than that by LMM-poly I:C. These observations indicate the importance and necessity of developing effective TLR3 ligands for antiviral therapy.

  10. High Rate for Type IC Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, R.A.; Marvin-Newberg, H.J.; Pennypacker, Carl R.; Perlmutter, S.; Sasseen, T.P.; Smith, C.K.

    1991-09-01

    Using an automated telescope we have detected 20 supernovae in carefully documented observations of nearby galaxies. The supernova rates for late spiral (Sbc, Sc, Scd, and Sd) galaxies, normalized to a blue luminosity of 10{sup 10} L{sub Bsun}, are 0.4 h{sup 2}, 1.6 h{sup 2}, and 1.1 h{sup 2} per 100 years for SNe type la, Ic, and II. The rate for type Ic supernovae is significantly higher than found in previous surveys. The rates are not corrected for detection inefficiencies, and do not take into account the indications that the Ic supernovae are fainter on the average than the previous estimates; therefore the true rates are probably higher. The rates are not strongly dependent on the galaxy inclination, in contradiction to previous compilations. If the Milky Way is a late spiral, then the rate of Galactic supernovae is greater than 1 per 30 {+-} 7 years, assuming h = 0.75. This high rate has encouraging consequences for future neutrino and gravitational wave observatories.

  11. Simulation of SEU transients in CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Kerns, S.E. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that available analytical models of the number of single-event-induced errors (SEU) in combinational logic systems are not easily applicable to real integrated circuits (ICs). An efficient computer simulation algorithm set, SITA, predicts the vulnerability of data stored in and processed by complex combinational logic circuits to SEU. SITA is described in detail to allow researchers to incorporate it into their error analysis packages. Required simulation algorithms are based on approximate closed-form equations modeling individual device behavior in CMOS logic units. Device-level simulation is used to estimate the probability that ion-device interactions produce erroneous signals capable of propagating to a latch (or n output node), and logic-level simulation to predict the spread of such erroneous, latched information through the IC. Simulation results are compared to those from SPICE for several circuit and logic configurations. SITA results are comparable to this established circuit-level code, and SITA can analyze circuits with state-of-the-art device densities (which SPICE cannot). At all IC complexity levels, SITAS offers several factors of 10 savings in simulation time over SPICE.

  12. Abundances in the Planetary Nebula IC 5217

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.; Lee, Woo-Baik; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High resolution optical wavelength spectroscopic data were secured in the optical wavelengths, 3700A - 10,050A, for the planetary nebula IC 5217 with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. These optical spectra have been analyzed along with the near-UV and UV archive data. Diagnostic analyses indicate a nebular physical condition with electron temperature of about 10,700 K (from the [O III] lines) and the density of N(sub epsilon) = 5000/cm. Ionic concentrations have been derived with the representative diagnostics, and with the aid of a photoionization model construction, we derived the elemental abundances. Contrary to the previous studies found in the literature, He and C appear to be depleted compared to the average planetary nebula and to the Sun (and S marginally so), while the remaining elements appear to be close to the average value. IC 5217 may have evolved from an O-rich progenitor and the central star temperature of IC 5217 is likely to be 92,000 K.

  13. Wire-bond inspection in IC assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Mandava; Rodd, Mike G.

    1996-02-01

    Wire-bonding in IC assembly process involves making a physical connection between the IC 'die' and the 'lead' by bonding wires between the two. Inspection of wire-bond quality is a' highly labor-intensive process and currently efforts are being made to automate it. This paper presents the results of a research conducted into developing a comprehensive automated wire- bond visual inspection system that is capable of performing final accept/reject inspection, providing on-line process feedback, and assisting in process validation. The proposed inspection system consists of the inspection of the bond on a bond pad, the bond on a lead and the inter-connecting wire between a bond pad and its corresponding lead. The algorithms are based on simple and easily extractable features that ensure achieving the desired accuracy and speed. A novel but simple illumination system is proposed to obtain the images of the inter- connecting wires. The proposed system is validated using several state-of-the-art IC samples. This work is sponsored by the Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Malaysia and Intel Technology Pvt. Ltd., Malaysia.

  14. TLR3 Agonist Poly-IC Induces IL-33 and Promotes Myelin Repair

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Chandramohan; Yao, Song-Yi; Sriram, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired remyelination of demyelinated axons is a major cause of neurological disability. In inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS), although remyelination does happen, it is often incomplete, resulting in poor clinical recovery. Poly-IC a known TLR3 agonist and IL-33, a cytokine which is induced by poly-IC are known to influence recovery and promote repair in experimental models of CNS demyelination. Methodology and Principal Findings We examined the effect of addition of poly-IC and IL-33 on the differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPC) cultured in vitro. Both Poly-IC and IL-33 induced transcription of myelin genes and the differentiation of OPC to mature myelin forming cells. Poly-IC induced IL-33 in OPC and addition of IL-33 to in vitro cultures, amplified further, IL-33 expression suggesting an autocrine regulation of IL-33. Poly-IC and IL-33 also induced phosphorylation of p38MAPK, a signaling molecule involved in myelination. Following the induction of gliotoxic injury with lysolecithin to the corpus callosum (CC), treatment of animals with poly-IC resulted in greater recruitment of OPC and increased staining for myelin in areas of demyelination. Also, poly-IC treated animals showed greater expression of IL-33 and higher expression of M2 phenotype macrophages in the CC. Conclusion/Significance Our studies suggest that poly-IC and IL-33 play a role in myelin repair by enhancing expression of myelin genes and are therefore attractive therapeutic agents for use as remyelinating agents in human demyelinating disease. PMID:27022724

  15. Finding Young Stars in IC417

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odden, Caroline; Rebull, Luisa M.; Sanchez, Richard; Hall, Garrison; Dear, AnnaMaria; Hengel, Cassie; LaRocca, Mia; Lin, Samantha; Nix, Sabine; Sweckard, Teaghan; Wilhelm, Katie

    2016-01-01

    IC 417 is a young cluster in the constellation Auriga, towards the Galactic anti-center in the Perseus arm, at a distance of ~2.3 kpc. Previous studies suggested that there are young stars in this region; Camargo et al. (2012) identified several few-Myr-old clusters in this region from 2MASS clustering, and Jose et al. (2008) identified H-alpha excess sources. Since stars form from clouds of interstellar dust and gas, a signature of star formation is excess infrared (IR) emission, which is interpreted as evidence for circumstellar dust around young stars. We identified new candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in IC 417 by incorporating near- and mid-infrared observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS). Infrared excess sources were identified by using a series of color cuts in various 2MASS/WISE color-magnitude and color-color diagrams following Koenig & Leisawitz (2014). We also assembled a list of OB and H-alpha stars from the literature, including those from Jose et al. (2008), and H-alpha bright stars from the IPHAS survey (Witham et al. 2008). Starting with this compiled list of approximately 200 interesting objects in the region, we then set about checking their reliability in three ways. We inspected the POSS, 2MASS, and WISE images of the sources. We assembled and inspected spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from archival data ranging from wavelengths of 0.7 to 22 um. Finally, we created and inspected color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. We find enough new YSO candidates to more than double the number yet identified in the IC 417 region. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  16. A Way to End the IC Designer Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Arthur L.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problem of the shortage of engineers capable of designing advanced integrated circuits (IC) and presents some suggestions for increasing the number of IC designers in universities and semiconductor companies. (HM)

  17. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba myosin-IC as a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as "traction-mediated cytokinesis". We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  18. Evaluation of Acanthamoeba Myosin-IC as a Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E.; Valladares, Basilio; Maciver, Sutherland K.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a fatal encephalitis. We have targeted myosin-IC by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) silencing as a therapeutic approach, since it is known that the function of this protein is vital for the amoeba. In this work, specific siRNAs against the Acanthamoeba myosin-IC gene were developed. Treated and control amoebae were cultured in growth and encystment media to evaluate the induced effects after myosin-IC gene knockdown, as we have anticipated that cyst formation may be impaired. The effects of myosin-IC gene silencing were inhibition of cyst formation, inhibition of completion of cytokinesis, inhibition of osmoregulation under osmotic stress conditions, and death of the amoebae. The finding that myosin-IC silencing caused incompletion of cytokinesis is in agreement with earlier suggestions that the protein plays a role in cell locomotion, which is necessary to pull daughter cells apart after mitosis in a process known as “traction-mediated cytokinesis”. We conclude that myosin-IC is a very promising potential drug target for the development of much-needed antiamoebal drugs and that it should be further exploited for Acanthamoeba therapy. PMID:24468784

  19. The Violent Interstellar Medium of IC 2574

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, F.; Brinks, E.; Duric, N.; Kerp, J.; Klein, U.

    1998-12-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of the Violent Interstellar Medium of the nearby dwarf galaxy IC 2574, a member of the M81 group of galaxies. In particular, we concentrate on the most prominent supergiant shell in IC 2574 which was detected in neutral hydrogen (H I) observations obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA). This shell is thought to be produced by the combined effects of stellar winds and supernova explosions. Massive star forming regions, as traced by Hα emission, are situated predominantly on the rim of this H I shell. This supports the view that the accumulated H I on the rim has reached densities which are high enough for secondary star formation to commence. Soft X-ray emission from within the H I hole is detected by a pointed ROSAT PSPC observation. The emission is extended and has the same size and orientation as the H I shell. These spatial properties together with a first-order spectral analysis suggest that the emission is generated by an X-ray emitting plasma located within the H I shell. However, a contribution from X-ray binaries cannot be completely ruled out at this point.

  20. CO observation of SNR IC 443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Gao, Yu; Wang, Junzhi

    2010-07-01

    We present our 12CO and 13CO mapping observations of SNR IC 443 interacting with molecular clouds. It is the first large-scale high-resolution 13CO mapping observation in the surrounding region. The morphologies of IC 443 in 12CO and 13CO are compared with the optical, infrared, Spitzer far-infrared, X-ray, and neutral atomic gas (HI). We also make comparison and analysis in the kinematics, using the date-cubes of 12CO, 13CO and HI, to help distinguish the complicated gas motions in the shocked regions. Based on the work of Wang & Scoville (1992), we present a new model to explain the coexistence of multiple shocks with different speeds in a pc-scale region at the central clump B. We test this new model by analyzing the HI and CO distribution in both velocity and space domain. We also establish the relationship between the dissociation rate of shocked molecular gas and the shock velocity in this region. Finally, we derive the optical depth of 12CO with the 13CO spectra in clump B, and discuss the validity of the assumption of optically thin emission for the shocked 12CO.

  1. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process improvements

  2. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Loewen, Roderick

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  3. Module comprising IC memory stack dedicated to and structurally combined with an IC microprocessor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John C. (Inventor); Indin, Ronald J. (Inventor); Shanken, Stuart N. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A computer module is disclosed in which a stack of glued together IC memory chips is structurally integrated with a microprocessor chip. The memory provided by the stack is dedicated to the microprocessor chip. The microprocessor and its memory stack may be connected either by glue and/or by solder bumps. The solder bumps can perform three functions--electrical interconnection, mechanical connection, and heat transfer. The electrical connections in some versions are provided by wire bonding.

  4. [Role of ICS/LABA on COPD treatment].

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    In the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchodilators such as long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long acting β agonist(LABA) play key roles for improving respiratory function and symptoms, and reducing risk of exacerbation. However, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), a key medicine for bronchial asthma, is limitedly used in COPD treatment. Japanese Respiratory Society recommends to use ICS for severe COPD patients who have been frequently exacerbated, because previous clinical studies indicated that ICS reduces exacerbation in moderate to severe COPD patients. Asthma sometimes overlaps with COPD, and symptoms of those patients are not well controlled by the bronchodilation therapy alone. Therefore, ICS/LABA or ICS/LAMA should be prescribed to those overlapped patients. Concentration of exhaled nitrogen oxide and percentage of peripheral eosinophil may be good biomarkers for discriminating the COPD patients who have good response to ICS treatment. PMID:27254954

  5. Deposition uniformity inspection in IC wafer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. C.; Lin, Y. T.; Jeng, J. J.; Chang, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    This paper focuses on the task of automatic visual inspection of color uniformity on the surface of integrated circuits (IC) wafers arising from the layering process. The oxide thickness uniformity within a given wafer with a desired target thickness is of great importance for modern semiconductor circuits with small oxide thickness. The non-uniform chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on a wafer surface will proceed to fail testing in Wafer Acceptance Test (WAT). Early detection of non-uniform deposition in a wafer surface can reduce material waste and improve production yields. The fastest and most low-priced inspection method is a machine vision-based inspection system. In this paper, the proposed visual inspection system is based on the color representations which were reflected from wafer surface. The regions of non-uniform deposition present different colors from the uniform background in a wafer surface. The proposed inspection technique first learns the color data via color space transformation from uniform deposition of normal wafer surfaces. The individual small region statistical comparison scheme then proceeds to the testing wafers. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively detect the non-uniform deposition regions on the wafer surface. The inspection time of the deposited wafers is quite compatible with the atmospheric pressure CVD time.

  6. Computer modeling of complete IC fabrication process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutton, Robert W.

    1987-05-01

    The development of fundamental algorithms for process and device modeling as well as novel integration of the tools for advanced Integrated Circuit (IC) technology design is discussed. The development of the first complete 2D process simulator, SUPREM 4, is reported. The algorithms are discussed as well as application to local-oxidation and extrinsic diffusion conditions which occur in CMOS AND BiCMOS technologies. The evolution of 1D (SEDAN) and 2D (PISCES) device analysis is discussed. The application of SEDAN to a variety of non-silicon technologies (GaAs and HgCdTe) are considered. A new multi-window analysis capability for PISCES which exploits Monte Carlo analysis of hot carriers has been demonstrated and used to characterize a variety of silicon MOSFET and GaAs MESFET effects. A parallel computer implementation of PISCES has been achieved using a Hypercube architecture. The PISCES program has been used for a range of important device studies including: latchup, analog switch analysis, MOSFET capacitance studies and bipolar transient device for ECL gates. The program is broadly applicable to RAM and BiCMOS technology analysis and design. In the analog switch technology area this research effort has produced a variety of important modeling and advances.

  7. Systolic array IC for genetic computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D.

    1991-01-01

    Measuring similarities between large sequences of genetic information is a formidable task requiring enormous amounts of computer time. Geneticists claim that nearly two months of CRAY-2 time are required to run a single comparison of the known database against the new bases that will be found this year, and more than a CRAY-2 year for next year's genetic discoveries, and so on. The DNA IC, designed at HP-ICBD in cooperation with the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is being implemented in order to move the task of genetic comparison onto workstations and personal computers, while vastly improving performance. The chip is a systolic (pumped) array comprised of 16 processors, control logic, and global RAM, totaling 400,000 FETS. At 12 MHz, each chip performs 2.7 billion 16 bit operations per second. Using 35 of these chips in series on one PC board (performing nearly 100 billion operations per second), a sequence of 560 bases can be compared against the eventual total genome of 3 billion bases, in minutes--on a personal computer. While the designed purpose of the DNA chip is for genetic research, other disciplines requiring similarity measurements between strings of 7 bit encoded data could make use of this chip as well. Cryptography and speech recognition are two examples. A mix of full custom design and standard cells, in CMOS34, were used to achieve these goals. Innovative test methods were developed to enhance controllability and observability in the array. This paper describes these techniques as well as the chip's functionality. This chip was designed in the 1989-90 timeframe.

  8. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    SciTech Connect

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  9. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Smoking (I-C mines). 57.22102 Section 57.22102... Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a) Persons shall not smoke or carry smoking materials, matches, or lighters underground or within 50 feet...

  14. Dark Globule in IC 1396 (IRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of inset

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope image of a glowing stellar nursery provides a spectacular contrast to the opaque cloud seen in visible light (inset). The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas. The dark globule is seen in silhouette at visible-light wavelengths, backlit by the illumination of a bright star located to the left of the field of view.

    The Spitzer Space Telescope pierces through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and previously unseen young stars. The infrared image was obtained by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The image is a four-color composite of invisible light, showing emissions from wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8.0 microns (red). The filamentary appearance of the globule results from the sculpting effects of competing physical processes. The winds from a massive star, located to the left of the image, produce a dense circular rim comprising the 'head' of the globule and a swept-back tail of gas.

    A pair of young stars (LkHa 349 and LkHa 349c) that formed from the dense gas has cleared a spherical cavity within the globule head. While one of these stars is significantly fainter than the other in the visible-light image, they are of comparable brightness in the infrared Spitzer image. This implies the presence of a thick and dusty disc around LkHa 349c. Such circumstellar discs are the precursors of planetary systems. They are much thicker in the early stages of stellar formation when the placental planet-forming material (gas and dust) is still

  15. Momordin Ic induces HepG2 cell apoptosis through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated mitochondrial pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yuan, Li; Xiao, Haifang; Xiao, Chunxia; Wang, Yutang; Liu, Xuebo

    2013-06-01

    Momordin Ic is a natural triterpenoid saponin enriched in various Chinese and Japanese natural medicines such as the fruit of Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. So far, there is little scientific evidence for momordin Ic with regard to the anti-tumor activities. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anti-tumor effect of momordin Ic and the signal transduction pathways involved. We found that momordin Ic induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, which were supported by DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Meanwhile, momordin Ic triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) production together with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax expression. The activation of p38 and JNK, inactivation of Erk1/2 and Akt were also demonstrated. Although ROS production rather than NO was stimulated, the expression of iNOS and HO-1 were altered after momordin Ic treatment for 4 h. Furthermore, the cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, Bax/Bcl-2 expression and PARP cleavage were promoted with LY294002 and U0126 intervention but were blocked by SB203580, SP600125, PI3K activator, NAC and 1,400 W pretreatment, demonstrating the mitochondrial disruption. Furthermore, momordin Ic combination with NAC influenced MAPK, PI3K/Akt and HO-1, iNOS pathways, MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways also regulated the expression of HO-1 and iNOS. These results indicated that momordin Ic induced apoptosis through oxidative stress-regulated mitochondrial dysfunction involving the MAPK and PI3K-mediated iNOS and HO-1 pathways. Thus, momordin Ic might represent a potential source of anticancer candidate. PMID:23417763

  16. The IC138 and IC140 intermediate chains of the I1 axonemal dynein complex bind directly to tubulin.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Triscia W; Goss, Jonathan L; Seaton, Charles A; Rohrs, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    Dyneins are minus end directed microtubule motors that play a critical role in ciliary and flagellar movement. Ciliary dyneins, also known as axonemal dyneins, are characterized based on their location on the axoneme, either as outer dynein arms or inner dynein arms. The I1 dynein is the best-characterized subspecies of the inner dynein arms; however the interactions between many of the components of the I1 complex and the axoneme are not well defined. In an effort to elucidate the interactions in which the I1 components are involved, we performed zero-length crosslinking on axonemes and studied the crosslinked products formed by the I1 intermediate chains, IC138 and IC140. Our data indicate that IC138 and IC140 bind directly to microtubules. Mass-spectrometry analysis of the crosslinked product identified both α- and β-tubulin as the IC138 and IC140 binding partners. This was further confirmed by crosslinking experiments carried out on purified I1 fractions bound to Taxol-stabilized microtubules. Furthermore, the interaction between IC140 and tubulin is lost when IC138 is absent. Our studies support previous findings that intermediate chains play critical roles in the assembly, axonemal targeting and regulation of the I1 dynein complex.

  17. Fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) data reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Heiman, M.R.

    1998-09-01

    This report documents the development, verification, and use instructions for an automated K{sub IC} data reduction program written in the Hewlett Packard Visual Engineering Environment (HP VEE) programming language. Currently, when the standard test method Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic materials (K{sub IC}), is performed, the data is reduced manually. Date reduction includes 15 detailed calculations required by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E399 to determine the validity of the computed K{sub IC} value. Manual data reduction is both time consuming, tedious, and prone to errors. Since all K{sub IC} tests are completed using a data acquisition system to digitally record time, load, and crack opening displacement (COD); automation of K{sub IC} data reduction using a computer program to perform all calculations rapidly, enables processing of a large amount of data. The K{sub IC} data reduction program reduces any computer American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) data file. Thus, the K{sub IC} data reduction program is also used to over check tests performed at other facilities. The program was qualified based on mechanical properties of commercial alloy specimens.

  18. Considerations for IC and Component Selection for Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses the integrated cycling and component selection technologies for aerospace systems. The topics include: 1) Semiconductors: The Evolution of ICs - Availability and Technology; 2) IC Selection Requirements - three fields of thought, "The Good", "The Bad" and "The Ugly"; 3) Reliability and Radiation; 4) Radiation Perspective-Four methods of selecting ICs for space systems, Guaranteed hardness, historical ground-based radiation data, historical flight usage, and unknown assurance; 5) Understanding Risk, including risk trade space and ASICs and FPGA sample selection criteria.

  19. Defect classes: An overdue paradigm for CMOS IC testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, C. F.; Soden, J. M.; Righter, A. W.; Ferguson, F. J.

    The IC test industry has struggled for more than 30 years to establish a test approach that would guarantee a low defect level to the customer. We propose a comprehensive strategy for testing CMOS IC's that uses defect classes based on measured defect electrical properties. Defect classes differ from traditional fault models. Our defect class approach requires that the test strategy match the defect electrical properties, while fault models require that IC defects match the fault definition. We use data from Sandia Labs failure analysis and test facilities and from public literature. We describe test pattern requirements for each defect class and propose a test paradigm.

  20. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  1. IC-BASED CONTROLS FOR ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHTING

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Zhang

    2005-03-01

    A new approach for driving high frequency energy saving ballasts is developed and documented in this report. The developed approach utilizes an IC-based platform that provides the benefits of reduced system cost, reduced ballast size, and universal application to a wide range of lamp technologies, such as linear fluorescent lamps (LFL), compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) and high intensity discharge lamps (HID). The control IC chip set developed for the platform includes dual low voltage (LV) IC gate drive that provides gate drive for high and low side power switches in typical ballast circuits, and ballast controller IC that provides control functionalities optimal for different lamps and digital interface for future extension to more sophisticated control and communication.

  2. BCH codes for large IC random-access memory systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this report some shortened BCH codes for possible applications to large IC random-access memory systems are presented. These codes are given by their parity-check matrices. Encoding and decoding of these codes are discussed.

  3. Microstereolithography and its application to biochemical IC chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikuta, Koji; Maruo, Shoji; Hasegawa, Tadahiro; Adachi, Takao

    2001-06-01

    The world's first micro stereo lithography, named IH process, was proposed and developed by the speaker in 1992. By now, several types of micro stereo lithography systems have been developed. Three-dimensional resolution of solidification has reached to 0.2 micron at present. These 3D micro fabrication processes using UV curable polymer gave a big impact on not only MEMS but also optics. The latest version of IH process enables us to make a movable micro mechanism without assemble process or sacrificial layer technique often used in silicon process. It is well known that the IH process is the mother of two-photon micro stereo lithography and its applications. Recently new micro chemical device named Biochemical IC Chip was proposed and developed by the speaker. This chip is based on the module IC chip-set like today's TTL family. IH process enable to make the biochemical IC including real three-dimensional micro fluid channels. Various kinds of Biochemical IC chips such as micro pump, switching valve, reactor, concentrator and detector have already been fabricated successfully. Basic performance of micro chemical devices constructed by the biochemical IC chips were demonstrated. The biochemical IC chips will open new bioscience and medicine based on innovative technology.

  4. 76 FR 59672 - Notice of Change In IC Docket Numbering Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... the Commission is modifying the numbering system for the docket prefix IC. These IC docket notices... Commission adopted the current IC docket prefix \\1\\ in order to properly track any comments it receives in... the way the IC docket prefix is set up. Beginning on October 1, 2011, IC dockets will continue to...

  5. Backside localization of open and shorted IC interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Tangyunyong, P.; Barton, D.L.

    1998-07-01

    A new failure analysis technique has been developed for backside and frontside localization of open and shorted interconnections on ICs. This scanning optical microscopy technique takes advantage of the interactions between IC defects and localized heating using a focused infrared laser ({lambda} = 1,340 nm). Images are produced by monitoring the voltage changes across a constant current supply used to power the IC as the laser beam is scanned across the sample. The method utilizes the Seebeck Effect to localize open interconnections and Thermally-Induced Voltage Alteration (TIVA) to detects shorts. The interaction physics describing the signal generation process and several examples demonstrating the localization of opens and shorts are described. Operational guidelines and limitations are also discussed.

  6. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS.

  7. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS

    PubMed Central

    Janicki, Joseph J.; Gruber, Michele A.

    2015-01-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS. PMID:26816855

  8. A multiwavelength investigation of the supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mufson, S. L.; Mccollough, M. L.; Dickel, J. R.; Petre, R.; White, R.

    1986-01-01

    Multiwavelength observations of the supernova remnant IC 443 at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths are presented. This morphological study of IC 443 presents a detailed picture of an adolescent supernova remnant in a multiphase interstellar medium. Radio observations show that better than 80 percent of the continuum emission at 18 cm is in a large-scale (greater than 18 arcmin) component. Decomposition of the infrared data shows that radiatively heated dust, shocked blackbody dust emission, and infrared line emission are all important components of the observed IRAS fluxes. The morphology of the IC 443 region is consistent with a supernova blast in an interstellar medium with a nonuniform distribution of clouds. The bright northeast rim and the great extent of the remnant to the southwest are most easily explained by a cloud filling factor which is greatest in the northeast and falls off toward the southwest.

  9. Intravesical liposome drug delivery and IC/BPS.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Joseph J; Gruber, Michele A; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-10-01

    Intravesical therapy has previously shown to be effective in delaying or preventing recurrence of superficial bladder cancer. This local route of drug administration is now demonstrating promise in the treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) with the benefit of minimal systemic side effects. Liposomes (LPs) are lipid vesicles composed of phospholipid bilayers surrounding an aqueous core. They can incorporate drug molecules, both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and vastly improve cellular uptake of these drug molecules via endocytosis. Intravesical LPs have therapeutic effects on IC/BPS patients, mainly due to their ability to form a protective lipid film on the urothelial surface and repair the damaged urothelium. This review considers the current status of intravesical LPs and LP mediated drug delivery for the treatment of IC/BPS. PMID:26816855

  10. IC 3418: STAR FORMATION IN A TURBULENT WAKE

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, Janice A.; Neill, James D.; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F.; Gil de Paz, Armando; Schiminovich, David; Rich, R. Michael

    2010-06-10

    Galaxy Evolution Explorer observations of IC 3418, a low surface brightness galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, revealed a striking 17 kpc UV tail of bright knots and diffuse emission. H{alpha} imaging confirms that star formation is ongoing in the tail. IC 3418 was likely recently ram pressure stripped on its first pass through Virgo. We suggest that star formation is occurring in molecular clouds that formed in IC 3418's turbulent stripped wake. Tides and ram pressure stripping (RPS) of molecular clouds are both disfavored as tail formation mechanisms. The tail is similar to the few other observed star-forming tails, all of which likely formed during RPS. The tails' morphologies reflect the forces present during their formation and can be used to test for dynamical coupling between molecular and diffuse gas, thereby probing the origin of the star-forming molecular gas.

  11. Targeting polyIC to EGFR over-expressing cells using a dsRNA binding protein domain tethered to EGF.

    PubMed

    Edinger, Nufar; Lebendiker, Mario; Klein, Shoshana; Zigler, Maya; Langut, Yael; Levitzki, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Selective delivery of drugs to tumor cells can increase potency and reduce toxicity. In this study, we describe a novel recombinant chimeric protein, dsRBEC, which can bind polyIC and deliver it selectively into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. dsRBEC, comprises the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) of human PKR (hPKR), which serves as the polyIC binding moiety, fused to human EGF (hEGF), the targeting moiety. dsRBEC shows high affinity towards EGFR and triggers ligand-induced endocytosis of the receptor, thus leading to the selective internalization of polyIC into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. The targeted delivery of polyIC by dsRBEC induced cellular apoptosis and the secretion of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. dsRBEC-delivered polyIC is much more potent than naked polyIC and is expected to reduce the toxicity caused by systemic delivery of polyIC. PMID:27598772

  12. Targeting polyIC to EGFR over-expressing cells using a dsRNA binding protein domain tethered to EGF

    PubMed Central

    Edinger, Nufar; Lebendiker, Mario; Klein, Shoshana; Zigler, Maya; Langut, Yael; Levitzki, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Selective delivery of drugs to tumor cells can increase potency and reduce toxicity. In this study, we describe a novel recombinant chimeric protein, dsRBEC, which can bind polyIC and deliver it selectively into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. dsRBEC, comprises the dsRNA binding domain (dsRBD) of human PKR (hPKR), which serves as the polyIC binding moiety, fused to human EGF (hEGF), the targeting moiety. dsRBEC shows high affinity towards EGFR and triggers ligand-induced endocytosis of the receptor, thus leading to the selective internalization of polyIC into EGFR over-expressing tumor cells. The targeted delivery of polyIC by dsRBEC induced cellular apoptosis and the secretion of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. dsRBEC-delivered polyIC is much more potent than naked polyIC and is expected to reduce the toxicity caused by systemic delivery of polyIC. PMID:27598772

  13. Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Nova in IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S. C.; Darnley, M. J.

    2015-09-01

    We obtained a spectrum of the transient PNV J01044358+0203419 in the IC 1613 field (see CBAT TOCP) with the SPRAT spectrograph on the Liverpool Telescope (Steele et al. 2004) on 2015 September 17.1 UT. The spectrum shows strong Balmer emission lines, along with Fe II (4924, 5018 and 5169 & Aring), Na I and O I (7773 & Aring) emission features.

  14. Proton Ordering of Cubic Ice Ic: Spectroscopy and Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Several proton-disordered crystalline ice structures are known to proton order at sufficiently low temperatures, provided that the right preparation procedure is used. For cubic ice, ice Ic, however, no proton ordering has been observed so far. Here, we subject ice Ic to an experimental protocol similar to that used to proton order hexagonal ice. In situ FT-IR spectroscopy carried out during this procedure reveals that the librational band of the spectrum narrows and acquires a structure that is observed neither in proton-disordered ice Ic nor in ice XI, the proton-ordered variant of hexagonal ice. On the basis of vibrational spectra computed for ice Ic and four of its proton-ordered variants using classical molecular dynamics and ab initio simulations, we conclude that the features of our experimental spectra are due to partial proton ordering, providing the first evidence of proton ordering in cubic ice. We further find that the proton-ordered structure with the lowest energy is ferroelectric, while the structure with the second lowest energy is weakly ferroelectric. Both structures fit the experimental spectral similarly well such that no unique assignment of proton order is possible based on our results. PMID:24883169

  15. Saturn V Stage I (S-IC) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Become familiar with the Saturn V Stage I (S-IC) major structural components: Forward Skirt, Oxidizer Tank, Intertank, Fuel Tank, and Thrust Structure. b) Gain a general understanding of the Stage I subsystems: Fuel, Oxidizer, Instrumentation, Flight Control, Environmental Control, Electrical, Control Pressure, and Ordinance.

  16. Lithium Abundances in the Young Open Cluster IC 2602

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randich, S.; Aharpour, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Prosser, C. F.; Stauffer, J. R.

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained high-resolution spectra for 28 candidate late-type stars in the 30 Myr old cluster IC 2602. NLTE Li abundances have been derived from measured equivalent widths. The log n(Li) - T(sub eff) and log n(Li) - mass distributions for our sample stars have been compared with those of the Pleiades and alpha Persei. Our data show that F stars in the three clusters have the same lithium content, which corresponds to the initial content for Pop. I stars. G and early-K IC 2602 stars are, on average, somewhat more Li-rich than their counterparts in the two slightly older clusters. Finally, the latest-type IC 2602 stars are heavily Li depleted, with their Li content being as low as the lowest measured among the Pleiades. As in the Pleiades and alpha Per, a star-to-star scatter in lithium is observed among 30 Myr old late-K/early-K dwarfs in IC 2602, indicating that this spread develops in the pre-main sequence phases.

  17. The spectrum of the planetary nebula IC 418

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed high-spectral-resolution study of the spectrum of IC 418 is made for the region 3650 to 10050 A, using the Hamilton echelle spectrograph of Lick Observatory, and of the UV spectral region with archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) data. From high-resolution images in both the near- and mid-infrared, Hora et al. (1993) showed that IC 418 probably has a compact shell interior to the detached, well-known, main shell emission. If one assumes a black body or Hubeny (or standard LTE) model atmosphere energy distribution, it does not appear possible to construct a fully satisfactory nebula model that will simultaneously represent the H-beta flux, the (O III) 5007/H-beta ratio, and the scale of this planetary nebula (PN). Fortunately, IUE and IR data supply information on ions in addition to those optically observed so that the chemical composition can be reasonably well established by summing over concentrations of observed ions. In spite of the fact that IC 418 is carbon rich in sense of having a C/O ratio exceeding the solar value, it is a 'metal-poor' object. Possibly it resembles IC 4997 but in a more advanced evolutionary phase. The central star is variable and has a strong wind.

  18. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations. PMID:26563643

  19. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations.

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Image: Planetary Nebula IC 4406

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image reveals a rainbow of colors in this dying star, called IC 446. Like many other so-called planetary nebulae, IC 4406 exhibits a high degree of symmetry. The nebula's left and right halves are nearly mirror images of the other. If we could fly around IC 446 in a spaceship, we would see that the gas and dust form a vast donut of material streaming outward from the dying star. We do not see the donut shape in this photograph because we are viewing IC 4406 from the Earth-orbiting HST. From this vantage point, we are seeing the side of the donut. This side view allows us to see the intricate tendrils of material that have been compared to the eye's retina. In fact, IC 4406 is dubbed the 'Retina Nebula.' The donut of material confines the intense radiation coming from the remnant of the dying star. Gas on the inside of the donut is ionized by light from the central star and glows. Light from oxygen atoms is rendered blue in this image; hydrogen is shown as green, and nitrogen as red. The range of color in the final image shows the differences in concentration of these three gases in the nebula. This image is a composite of data taken by HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 in June 2001 and in January 2002 by Bob O'Dell (Vanderbilt University) and collaborators, and in January by the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI). Filters used to create this color image show oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen gas glowing in this object.

  1. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph taken April 17, 1963, gives a look at the four tower legs of the S-IC test stand at their completed height.

  2. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Tower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken from ground level on May 7, 1963, gives a close look at one of the four towers legs of the S-IC test stand nearing its completed height.

  3. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photograph, taken April 4, 1963, gives a close up look at the ever-growing four towers of the S-IC Test Stand.

  4. Add-on LABA in a separate inhaler as asthma step-up therapy versus increased dose of ICS or ICS/LABA combination inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Colice, Gene; Israel, Elliot; Roche, Nicolas; Postma, Dirkje S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; van Aalderen, Willem M.C.; Grigg, Jonathan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Thomas, Victoria; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma management guidelines recommend adding a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as step-up therapy for patients with uncontrolled asthma on ICS monotherapy. However, it is uncertain which option works best, which ICS particle size is most effective, and whether LABA should be administered by separate or combination inhalers. This historical, matched cohort study compared asthma-related outcomes for patients (aged 12–80 years) prescribed step-up therapy as a ≥50% extrafine ICS dose increase or add-on LABA, via either a separate inhaler or a fine-particle ICS/LABA fixed-dose combination (FDC) inhaler. Risk-domain asthma control was the primary end-point in comparisons of cohorts matched for asthma severity and control during the baseline year. After 1:2 cohort matching, the increased extrafine ICS versus separate ICS+LABA cohorts included 3232 and 6464 patients, respectively, and the fine-particle ICS/LABA FDC versus separate ICS+LABA cohorts included 7529 and 15 058 patients, respectively (overall mean age 42 years; 61–62% females). Over one outcome year, adjusted OR (95% CI) for achieving asthma control were 1.25 (1.13–1.38) for increased ICS versus separate ICS+LABA and 1.06 (1.05–1.09) for ICS/LABA FDC versus separate ICS+LABA. For patients with asthma, increased dose of extrafine-particle ICS, or add-on LABA via ICS/LABA combination inhaler, is associated with significantly better outcomes than ICS+LABA via separate inhalers. PMID:27730200

  5. On the nature of supernovae Ib and Ic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessart, Luc; Hillier, D. John; Li, Chengdong; Woosley, Stan

    2012-08-01

    Utilizing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium time-dependent radiative-transfer calculations, we investigate the impact of mixing and non-thermal processes associated with radioactive decay on Type IIb/Ib/Ic supernova (SN IIb/Ib/Ic) light curves and spectra. Starting with short-period binary models of ≲5 M⊙ helium-rich stars, originally 18 and 25 M⊙ on the main sequence, we produce 1.2 B ejecta which we artificially mix to alter the chemical stratification. While the total 56Ni mass influences the light-curve peak, the spatial distribution of 56Ni, controlled by mixing processes, impacts both the multiband light curves and spectra. With enhanced mixing, our synthetic light curves start their post-breakout re-brightening phase earlier, follow a more gradual rise to peak, appear redder and fade faster after peak due to enhanced γ-ray escape. Non-thermal electrons, crucial for the production of He i lines, deposit a large fraction of their energy as heat, and this fraction approaches 100 per cent under fully ionized conditions. Because energy deposition is generally local well after the light-curve peak, the broad He i line characteristics of maximum-light SN IIb/Ib spectra require mixing that places 56Ni and helium nuclei to within a γ-ray mean free path. This requirement indicates that SNe IIb and Ib most likely arise from the explosion of stripped-envelope massive stars (main-sequence masses ≲25 M⊙) that have evolved through mass transfer in a binary system, rather than from more massive single Wolf-Rayet stars. In contrast, the lack of He i lines in SNe Ic may result from a variety of causes: a genuine helium deficiency; strongly asymmetric mixing; weak mixing; or a more massive, perhaps single, progenitor characterized by a larger oxygen-rich core. Helium deficiency is not a prerequisite for SNe Ic. Our models, subject to different mixing magnitudes, can produce a variety of SN types, including IIb, IIc, Ib and Ic. As it is poorly constrained by

  6. The violent interstellar medium of the dwarf galaxy IC 2574.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, F.; Brinks, E.

    The authors present VLA H I-synthesis observations of the Violent Interstellar Medium of the nearby dwarf galaxy IC 2574 (a member of the M81 group of galaxies) at high spatial and velocity resolution. The H I-observations show a stunning amount of detail in the form of H I shells and holes in the neutral interstellar medium of IC 2574, ranging in size from 100 to 1500 pc. The most likely explanation, as has been proposed by previous studies, is combined effects of stellar winds and supernova-explosions of the most massive stars, blowing holes and shells into the interstellar medium. This picture is confirmed by a striking correlation between Hα emission and H I-shells: the smaller holes tend to be filled with Hα emission whereas for the larger H I holes the Hα seems to be restricted to the edges.

  7. Saturn V S-IC Stage Fuel Tank Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The components of the Saturn V booster (S-IC stage) fuel tank are shown in this photograph. The liquid oxygen tank bulkhead on the left and both halves of the fuel tank were in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory, building 4707. These components were used at MSFC in structural testing to prove that they could withstand the forces to which they were subjected in flight. Each S-IC stage has two tanks, one for kerosene and one for liquid oxygen, made from such components as these. Thirty-three feet in diameter, they hold a total of 4,400,000 pounds of fuel. Although this tankage was assembled at MSFC, the elements were made by the Boeing Company at Wichita and the Michoud Operations at New Orleans.

  8. 3D-ICs created using oblique processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce

    2016-03-01

    This paper demonstrates that another class of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) exists, distinct from through silicon via centric and monolithic 3D-ICs. Furthermore, it is possible to create devices that are 3D at the device level (i.e. with active channels oriented in each of the three coordinate axes), by performing standard CMOS fabrication operations at an angle with respect to the wafer surface into high aspect ratio silicon substrates using membrane projection lithography (MPL). MPL requires only minimal fixturing changes to standard CMOS equipment, and no change to current state-of-the-art lithography. Eliminating the constraint of 2D planar device architecture enables a wide range of new interconnect topologies which could help reduce interconnect resistance/capacitance, and potentially improve performance.

  9. Tests of shock chemistry in IC 443G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, B. E.; Chan, Kin-Wing; Green, S.; Lubowich, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Eight molecular species, in the hot dense clump IC 443G, believed to be impacted by the shock wave from the SNR IC 443, are investigated. The clump consists of two distinct regions, one relatively cool, and one hotter and denser. Region 1 contains CO, HCO(+), HCN, and CN, whose abundances may be explained either by ion-molecule chemistry, or by a D shock of 60-90 km/s, passing through a clump of about 100,000/cu cm. Region 2 gives rise to SiO, CS, SO, and H2CO, and requires an ND shock of 5-15 km/s passing through a region of about 1,000,000/cu cm. Observed fractional abundances fit ND shock models if L is about 6.6 x 10 exp 15 cm. In general, observed line widths vary inversely with derived excitation density, while centroid velocities of all species are essentially identical.

  10. Study of IC Compatible On-Chip Thermoelectric Coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Seong-Ho; Wijngaards, Davey D. L.; Wolffenbuttel, Reinoud F.

    2005-07-01

    A thin-film-based thermoelectric micro-cooler has been studied and realized using the standard integrated circuit (IC) fabrication technology and bulk micromachining technology in sequence. The whole fabrication process is kept IC compatible by postponing potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching step to the last part of the fabrication sequence. Considering the fabrication compatibility, polycrystalline silicon germanium (polySiGe) is chosen as thermoelectric material even though bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is one of the most effective thermoelectric materials. The influence of non-idealities on device performance, such as Joule heating due to contact resistance and parasitic heat loss through supporting membrane, is analyzed. The characterized thermoelectric, thermal and electric properties of the fabricated polySiGe thermoelectric material correspond well to those from literatures. Measured cooling performance demonstrates that an on-chip micro-cooler can be applied for thermal stabilization near ambient temperature.

  11. IC5063: A merger with a hidden luminous active nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colina, L.; Sparks, W. B.; Macchetto, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    IC5063 is a nearby galaxy classified as an SO and containing a system of dust lanes parallel to its major optical axis (Danziger, Goss and Wellington, 1981; Bergeron, Durret and Boksenberg, 1983). Extended emission line regions with high excitation properties have been detected over distances of up to 19 kpc from the nucleus. This galaxy has been classified as Seyfert 2 on the basis of its emission line spectrum. These characteristics make IC5063 one of the best candidates for a merger remnant and an excellent candidate for a hidden luminous active nucleus. Based on new broad and narrow band images and long-slit spectroscopy obtained at the ESO 3.6 m telescope, the authors present some preliminary results supporting this hypothesis.

  12. SN 2004aw: confirming diversity of Type Ic supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubenberger, S.; Pastorello, A.; Mazzali, P. A.; Valenti, S.; Pignata, G.; Sauer, D. N.; Arbey, A.; Bärnbantner, O.; Benetti, S.; Della Valle, A.; Deng, J.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Goobar, A.; Kotak, R.; Li, W.; Meikle, P.; Mendez, J.; Patat, F.; Pian, E.; Ries, C.; Ruiz-Lapuente, P.; Salvo, M.; Stanishev, V.; Turatto, M.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2006-09-01

    Optical and near-infrared (near-IR) observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2004aw are presented, obtained from -3 to +413 d with respect to the B-band maximum. The photometric evolution is characterized by a comparatively slow post-maximum decline of the light curves. The peaks in redder bands are significantly delayed relative to the bluer bands, the I-band maximum occurring 8.4 d later than that in B. With an absolute peak magnitude of -18.02 in the V band the SN can be considered fairly bright, but not exceptional. This also holds for the U through I bolometric light curve, where SN 2004aw has a position intermediate between SNe 2002ap and 1998bw. Spectroscopically SN 2004aw provides a link between a normal SN Ic like SN 1994I and the group of broad-lined SNe Ic. The spectral evolution is rather slow, with a spectrum at day +64 being still predominantly photospheric. The shape of the nebular [OI] λλ6300, 6364 line indicates a highly aspherical explosion. Helium cannot be unambiguously identified in the spectra, even in the near-IR. Using an analytical description of the light-curve peak we find that the total mass of the ejecta in SN 2004aw is 3.5-8.0Msolar, significantly larger than that in SN 1994I, although not as large as in SN 1998bw. The same model suggests that about 0.3Msolar of 56Ni has been synthesized in the explosion. No connection to a GRB can be firmly established. Based on observations at ESO-Paranal, Prog. 074.D-0161(A). E-mail: tauben@mpa-garching.mpg.de

  13. Photonic IC design software and process design kits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korthorst, Twan; Stoffer, Remco; Bakker, Arjen

    2015-04-01

    This review discusses photonic IC design software tools, examines existing design flows for photonics design and how these fit different design styles and describes the activities in collaboration and standardization within the silicon photonics group from Si2 and by members of the PDAFlow Foundation to improve design flows. Moreover, it will address the lowering of access barriers to the technology by providing qualified process design kits (PDKs) and improved integration of photonic integrated circuit simulations, physical simulations, mask layout, and verification.

  14. Saturn V S-IC Stage Liquid Oxygen Tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This photograph depicts a forward skirt being placed on the liquid oxygen tank for Saturn V S-IC (first) stage in the Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Thirty-three feet in diameter, the fuel tanks hold a total of 4,400,000 pounds of fuel. Although this tankage was assembled at MSFC, the elements were made by the Boeing Company at Wichita and the Michoud Operations at New Orleans.

  15. Sequential clustering of star formations in IC 1396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ya-Fang; Li, Jin-Zeng

    2013-05-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the H II region IC 1396 and its star forming activity, in which multi-wavelength data ranging from the optical to the near- and far-infrared were employed. The surface density distribution of all the 2MASS sources with a certain detection toward IC 1396 indicates the existence of a compact cluster spatially consistent with the position of the exciting source of the H II region, HD 206267. The spatial distribution of the sources with excessive infrared emission, selected based on archived 2MASS data, reveals the existence of four sub-clusters in this region. One is associated with the open cluster Trumpler 37. The other three are found to be spatially coincident with the bright rims of the H II region. All the sources with excessive emission in the near infrared are cross-identified with AKARI IRC data. An analysis of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the resultant sample leads to the identification of eight CLASS I, 15 CLASS II and 15 CLASS III sources in IC 1396. Optical identification of the sample sources with R magnitudes brighter than 17 mag corroborates the results from the SED analysis. Based on the spatial distribution of the infrared young stellar objects at different evolutionary stages, the surrounding sub-clusters located in the bright rims are believed to be younger than the central one. This is consistent with a scenario of sequential star formation in this region. Imaging data of a dark patch in IC 1396 by Herschel SPIRE, on the other hand, indicate the presence of two far-infrared cores in LDN 1111, which are likely to be a new generation of protostellar objects in formation. So we infer that the star formation process in this H II region was not continuous but rather episodic.

  16. Competition between ices Ih and Ic in homogeneous water freezing.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Alberto; Conde, Maria M; Espinosa, Jorge R; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The role of cubic ice, ice Ic, in the nucleation of ice from supercooled water has been widely debated in the past decade. Computer simulations can provide insightful information about the mechanism of ice nucleation at a molecular scale. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study the competition between ice Ic and hexagonal ice, ice Ih, in the process of ice nucleation. Using a seeding approach, in which classical nucleation theory is combined with simulations of ice clusters embedded in supercooled water, we estimate the nucleation rate of ice for a pathway in which the critical nucleus has an Ic structure. Comparing our results with those previously obtained for ice Ih [Sanz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15008 (2013)], we conclude that within the accuracy of our calculations both nucleation pathways have the same rate for the studied water models (TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005). We examine in detail the factors that contribute to the nucleation rate and find that the chemical potential difference with the fluid, the attachment rate of particles to the cluster, and the ice-water interfacial free energy are the same within the estimated margin of error for both ice polymorphs. Furthermore, we study the morphology of the ice clusters and conclude that they have a spherical shape. PMID:26450320

  17. Design and implementation of the Interactive Communications Simulator (ICS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modestino, J. W.; Matis, K. R.; Jung, K. Y.; Vickers, A. L.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the development and capabilities of a fairly comprehensive system for the digital simulation of a wide variety of point-to-point digital communication systems. This system is called the Interactive Communications Simulator (ICS). The ICS is a flexible, graphics oriented, high speed, and highly interactive hardware/software system consisting of a PDP 11-40 minicomputer acting as host to a fast peripheral array processor, the Floating Point Systems AP-120B. Its modeling structure is the classical breakout of the various generic signal processing functions in any communication link, from source to sink. The signal processing functions are predominantly modeled in terms of their complex envelope representations for uniformity, ease, and accuracy of analyses. It is fully supported by an extensive graphics support package and many powerful analysis subroutines, to facilitate user-interactions, analyses, and output displays. The modeling and simulation tasks are optimally partitioned between the PDP 11/40 host and the AP-120B peripheral array processor to ensure ease-of-use and highly efficient manipulations. The ICS also features realistic channel models, in addition to the analytically expedient Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, so that the performance and behavior of all modeled transceiver functions can be more exactly assessed and specified. All simulation modules are written in the AP Assembly Language, and the system software, graphics support package and analysis subroutines are written in DEC FORTRAN IV.

  18. Competition between ices Ih and Ic in homogeneous water freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaragoza, Alberto; Conde, Maria M.; Espinosa, Jorge R.; Valeriani, Chantal; Vega, Carlos; Sanz, Eduardo

    2015-10-01

    The role of cubic ice, ice Ic, in the nucleation of ice from supercooled water has been widely debated in the past decade. Computer simulations can provide insightful information about the mechanism of ice nucleation at a molecular scale. In this work, we use molecular dynamics to study the competition between ice Ic and hexagonal ice, ice Ih, in the process of ice nucleation. Using a seeding approach, in which classical nucleation theory is combined with simulations of ice clusters embedded in supercooled water, we estimate the nucleation rate of ice for a pathway in which the critical nucleus has an Ic structure. Comparing our results with those previously obtained for ice Ih [Sanz et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 15008 (2013)], we conclude that within the accuracy of our calculations both nucleation pathways have the same rate for the studied water models (TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005). We examine in detail the factors that contribute to the nucleation rate and find that the chemical potential difference with the fluid, the attachment rate of particles to the cluster, and the ice-water interfacial free energy are the same within the estimated margin of error for both ice polymorphs. Furthermore, we study the morphology of the ice clusters and conclude that they have a spherical shape.

  19. Discovery in IC10 of the farthest known symbiotic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Magrini, Laura; Munari, Ulisse; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Costa, Roberto D. D.

    2008-11-01

    We report the discovery of the first known symbiotic star in IC10, a starburst galaxy belonging to the Local Group, at a distance of ~750 kpc. The symbiotic star was identified during a survey of emission-line objects. It shines at V = 24.62 +/- 0.04,V - RC = 2.77 +/- 0.05 and RC - IC = 2.39 +/- 0.02, and suffers from EB- V = 0.85 +/- 0.05 reddening. The spectrum of the cool component well matches that of solar neighbourhood M8III giants. The observed emission lines belong to Balmer series, [SII], [NII] and [OIII]. They suggest a low electronic density, negligible optical depth effects and 35000 < Teff < 90000 K for the ionizing source. The spectrum of the new symbiotic star in IC10 is an almost perfect copy of that of Hen 2-147, a well-known Galactic symbiotic star and Mira. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership. We also retrieved UBVRI images of the `Survey of Local Group Galaxies Currently Forming Stars', Massey et al. (2007). E-mail: denise@ov.ufrj.br

  20. Ultra-stripped Type Ic Supernovae from Close Binary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.; Moriya, T. J.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Yoon, S.-C.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Recent discoveries of weak and fast optical transients raise the question of their origin. We investigate the minimum ejecta mass associated with core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of Type Ic. We show that mass transfer from a helium star to a compact companion can produce an ultra-stripped core which undergoes iron core collapse and leads to an extremely fast and faint SN Ic. In this Letter, a detailed example is presented in which the pre-SN stellar mass is barely above the Chandrasekhar limit, resulting in the ejection of only ~0.05-0.20 M ⊙ of material and the formation of a low-mass neutron star (NS). We compute synthetic light curves of this case and demonstrate that SN 2005ek could be explained by our model. We estimate that the fraction of such ultra-stripped to all SNe could be as high as 10-3-10-2. Finally, we argue that the second explosion in some double NS systems (for example, the double pulsar PSR J0737-3039B) was likely associated with an ultra-stripped SN Ic.

  1. Optical Spectrum of the Compact Planetary Nebula IC 5117

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, Siek; Aller, Lawrence H.; Feibelman, Walter A.; Lee, Seong-Jae; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    High resolution spectroscopic data of the very compact planetary nebula IC 5117 are obtained in the optical wavelengths, 3700A - 10050A, with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph at Lick Observatory, and which have been analyzed along with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) UV archive data. Although a diagnostic diagram shows significant density and temperature fluctuations, our analysis indicates that the nebular gas may be represented by a homogeneous shell of extremely high density gas, N(sub epsilon) approx. 90 000 /cu cm. The average electron temperatures, e.g. indicated by the [OIII] diagnostics, are around 12 000 K. We construct a photoionization model to represent most of the observed line intensities, and the physical condition of this compact nebulosity. Based on the semi-empirical ionization correction approach, and model indications, we derived the elemental abundances: He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar appear to be normal or marginally depleted compared to the average planetary nebula, while the remaining elements, S, Cl, and K appear to be enhanced. IC 5117 is perhaps a very young compact planetary nebula, slightly more evolved than the other well-known compact planetary nebula IC 4997. The central stellar temperature is likely to be around 120 000 K, evolved from a C-rich AGB progenitor.

  2. Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Kuo-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Most studies employ qualitative approach to explore the industrial clusters; however, few research has objectively quantified the evolutions of industry clustering. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze clustering among IC design, IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries by using the foreign direct investment (FDI) data. The Lotka-Volterra system equations are first adopted here to capture the competition or cooperation among such three industries, thus explaining their clustering inclinations. The results indicate that the evolution of FDI into China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDI of IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries. Since IC design industry lie in the upstream stage of IC production, the middle-stream IC manufacturing and downstream IC packing and testing enterprises tend to cluster together with IC design firms, in order to sustain a steady business. Finally, Taiwan IC industry's FDI amount into China is predicted to cumulatively increase, which supports the industrial clustering tendency for Taiwan IC industry. Particularly, the FDI prediction of Lotka-Volterra model performs superior to that of the conventional Bass model after the forecast accuracy of these two models are compared. The prediction ability is dramatically improved as the industrial mutualism among each IC production stage is taken into account.

  3. Potent inhibition of Hendra virus infection via RNA interference and poly I:C immune activation.

    PubMed

    McCaskill, Jana L; Marsh, Glenn A; Monaghan, Paul; Wang, Lin-Fa; Doran, Timothy; McMillan, Nigel A J

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) is a highly pathogenic zoonotic paramyxovirus that causes fatal disease in a wide range of species, including humans. HeV was first described in Australia in 1994, and has continued to re-emerge with increasing frequency. HeV is of significant concern to human health due to its high mortality rate, increasing emergence, absence of vaccines and limited post exposure therapies. Here we investigate the use of RNA interference (RNAi) based therapeutics targeting HeV in conjunction with the TLR3 agonist Poly I:C and show that they are potent inhibitors of HeV infection in vitro. We found that short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the abundantly expressed N, P and M genes of HeV caused over 95% reduction of HeV virus titre, protein and mRNA. Furthermore, we found that the combination of HeV targeting siRNA and Poly I:C had an additive effect in suppressing HeV infection. Our results demonstrate for the first time that RNAi and type I interferon stimulation are effective inhibitors of HeV replication in vitro and may provide an effective therapy for this highly lethal, zoonotic pathogen.

  4. The spectra of IC 418 and IC 5117 from 1.5 to 1.75 microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. Y.; Kwok, Sun

    1992-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra of planetary nebulae IC 418 and IC 5117 in the wavelength range 1.5-1.75 microns are reported. More than 10 members of the Brackett line series are detected superposed on a strong continuum. Analysis of the spectra shows that the observed flux ratios of the Brackett lines are in good agreement with the recombination line theory after correction for extinction by the extinction law of Draine. An He I triplet line at 1.7 microns is identified in both nebulae. An Mg I line at 1.504 microns, and a few Si I lines are also seen in the spectra. After subtraction of the nebular and central star continua by modeling the spectral energy distributions, a near-infrared excess is revealed. After correction for contribution from line emission, this excess can be explained by a hot dust component.

  5. Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Analysis of Aminoglycoside-2 ''-Phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2 '')-Ic] From Enterococcus Gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, L.J.; Badarau, A.; Vakulenko, S.B.; Smith, C.A.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2{double_prime}-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2{double_prime})-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2{double_prime})-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14-20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 {angstrom}, {beta} = 108.8{sup o}. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 {angstrom} resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  6. Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC) of the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroaki; Fornia, Luca; Grandi, Laura Clara; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII) and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC) has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip) both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48) of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys' active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45%) began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48) of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE) and precision grasping (PG) execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object.

  7. Evaluation of in-plane local stress distribution in stacked IC chip using dynamic random access memory cell array for highly reliable three-dimensional IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanikawa, Seiya; Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    As three-dimensional (3D) ICs have many advantages, IC performances can be enhanced without scaling down of transistor size. However, 3D IC has mechanical stresses inside Si substrates owing to its 3D stacking structure, which induces negative effects on transistor performances such as carrier mobility changes. One of the mechanical stresses is local bending stress due to organic adhesive shrinkage among stacked IC chips. In this paper, we have proposed an evaluation method for in-plane local stress distribution in the stacked IC chips using retention time modulation of a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell array. We fabricated a test structure composed of a DRAM chip bonded on a Si interposer with dummy Cu/Sn microbumps. As a result, we clarified that the DRAM cell array can precisely evaluate the in-plane local stress distribution in the stacked IC chips.

  8. The IC3D Classification of the Corneal Dystrophies

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jayne S.; Møller, H. U.; Lisch, Walter; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Aldave, Anthony J.; Belin, Michael W.; Kivelä, Tero; Busin, Massimo; Munier, Francis L.; Seitz, Berthold; Sutphin, John; Bredrup, Cecilie; Mannis, Mark J.; Rapuano, Christopher J.; Van Rij, Gabriel; Kim, Eung Kweon; Klintworth, Gordon K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The recent availability of genetic analyses has demonstrated the shortcomings of the current phenotypic method of corneal dystrophy classification. Abnormalities in different genes can cause a single phenotype, whereas different defects in a single gene can cause different phenotypes. Some disorders termed corneal dystrophies do not appear to have a genetic basis. Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a new classification system for corneal dystrophies, integrating up-to-date information on phenotypic description, pathologic examination, and genetic analysis. Methods The International Committee for Classification of Corneal Dystrophies (IC3D) was created to devise a current and accurate nomenclature. Results This anatomic classification continues to organize dystrophies according to the level chiefly affected. Each dystrophy has a template summarizing genetic, clinical, and pathologic information. A category number from 1 through 4 is assigned, reflecting the level of evidence supporting the existence of a given dystrophy. The most defined dystrophies belong to category 1 (a well-defined corneal dystrophy in which a gene has been mapped and identified and specific mutations are known) and the least defined belong to category 4 (a suspected dystrophy where the clinical and genetic evidence is not yet convincing). The nomenclature may be updated over time as new information regarding the dystrophies becomes available. Conclusions The IC3D Classification of Corneal Dystrophies is a new classification system that incorporates many aspects of the traditional definitions of corneal dystrophies with new genetic, clinical, and pathologic information. Standardized templates provide key information that includes a level of evidence for there being a corneal dystrophy. The system is user-friendly and upgradeable and can be retrieved on the website www.corneasociety.org/ic3d. PMID:19337156

  9. The remarkable infrared galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.; Helou, G.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Hacking, P.; Rice, W.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Rowan-Robinson, M.

    1984-01-01

    IRAS observations of the peculiar galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553 show that it is extremely luminous in the far-infrared, with a total luminosity of 2 x 10 to the 12th solar luminosities. The infrared-to-blue luminosity ratio of this galaxy is about 80, which is the largest value of the ratio for galaxies in the UGC catalog, and places it in the range of the 'unidentified' infrared sources recently reported by Houck et al. in the IRAS all-sky survey. Other observations of Arp 220, combined with the luminosity in the infrared, allow either a Seyfert-like or starburst origin for this luminosity.

  10. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided.

  11. Status of the ITER IC H and CD System

    SciTech Connect

    Lamalle, P. U.; Beaumont, B.; Gassmann, T.; Kazarian, F.; Arambhadiya, B.; Bora, D.; Jacquinot, J.; Mitteau, R.; Schueller, F. C.; Tanga, A.; Baruah, U.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Singh, N. P.; Singh, R.; Goulding, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Swain, D.; Agarici, G.

    2009-11-26

    The ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive system will deliver 20 MW of radio frequency power to the plasma in quasi continuous operation during the different phases of the experimental programme. The system also has to perform conditioning of the tokamak first wall at low power between main plasma discharges. This broad range of requirements imposes a high flexibility and a high availability. The paper highlights the physics and design requirements on the IC system, the main features of its subsystems, the predicted performance, and the current procurement and installation schedule.

  12. Construction Progress of S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast east was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph of the Pump House area was taken August 13, 1963. The massive round water storage tanks can be seen to the left of

  13. X-Ray Activity in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giamapapa, Mark S.; Prosser, Charles F.; Fleming, Thomas A.

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of a joint ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) and optical investigation of the open cluster IC 4665. The ROSAT data contains detections for 28 stellar sources in the field, including 22 cluster members and candidate members spanning the color range -0.18 less than or equal to (B - V(sub o)) less than or equal to +1.63 (approx. B3 - M3). Upper limits are given for the remaining members (or candidate members) in the HRI field. Keck HIRES spectra have been obtained that yield radial and rotational velocity measures, respectively, for faint, low mass candidate members located within the field of the ROSAT HRI observation. In addition, photometry of possible optical counterparts to previously uncatalogued X-ray sources in the HRI field is presented. The trends in X-ray properties with (B - V) color in IC 4665 are found to be quite similar to that for other, more nearby young clusters such as the Pleiades and alpha Persei. In particular, a maximum in normalized X-ray luminosity of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol)) approx. equal 3 is observed, beginning in the color range of (B - V)(sub o) = 0.7 - 0.8. This is similar to the corresponding color range among Pleiades members, in agreement with the earlier estimate, that the age of IC 4665 is similar to the age of the Pleiades. The correlation of rotation and X-ray emission levels is consistent with that in other young clusters. Among the high mass stars in IC 4665, five B stars are detected as X-ray sources. Of these, one is a spectroscopic binary while the remaining objects are apparently single staxs. The level of intrinsic X-ray emission observed in the rapidly rotating (v sini greater than 200 km/ s), single B stars is consistent with an origin due to shock heating of the ambient medium by radiatively driven, rotationally enhanced winds. On the basis of these observations and the results for other clusters, we argue that observed levels of X-ray emission in high mass stars of log (L(sub x)/L(sub bol

  14. A Census of the Young Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Stauffer, John R.; Muench, A. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Lada, E. A.; Bouvier, J.; Lada, C. J.

    2003-08-01

    We present a new census of the stellar and substellar members of the young cluster IC 348. We have obtained images at I and Z for a 42'×28' field encompassing the cluster and have combined these measurements with previous optical and near-infrared photometry. From spectroscopy of candidate cluster members appearing in these data, we have identified 122 new members, 15 of which have spectral types of M6.5-M9, corresponding to masses of ~0.08-0.015 Msolar by recent evolutionary models. The latest census for IC 348 now contains a total of 288 members, 23 of which are later than M6 and thus are likely to be brown dwarfs. From an extinction-limited sample of members (AV<=4) for a 16'×14' field centered on the cluster, we construct an initial mass function (IMF) that is unbiased in mass and nearly complete for M/Msolar>=0.03 (<~M8). In logarithmic units where the Salpeter slope is 1.35, the mass function for IC 348 rises from high masses down to a solar mass, rises more slowly down to a maximum at 0.1-0.2 Msolar, and then declines into the substellar regime. In comparison, the similarly derived IMF for Taurus from Briceño et al. and Luhman et al. rises quickly to a peak near 0.8 Msolar and steadily declines to lower masses. The distinctive shapes of the IMFs in IC 348 and Taurus are reflected in the distributions of spectral types, which peak at M5 and K7, respectively. These data provide compelling, model-independent evidence for a significant variation of the IMF with star-forming conditions. Based on observations obtained at Keck Observatory, Steward Observatory, the MMT Observatory, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation.

  15. User's guide for the ICS (Integrated Communications System) database system: Version 1. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, A.

    1987-08-01

    The ICS database was implemented in support of the Integrated Communications System (ICS) Project. Additionally, it is linked to the LBLSTAFF database using the OCTOPUS, ICS, and SERVICE subfiles so that staff need not maintain employee information such as mailstop, payroll account number, termination date, etc. This relieves the staff of tracking mailstop changes and other personal information.

  16. Heterokaryon formation in Thanatephorus cucumeris (Rhizoctonia solani) AG-1 IC.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ping; Yamashita, Koji; Toda, Takeshi; Priyatmojo, Achmadi; Kubota, Mayumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2008-09-01

    Approximately 50 single-basidiospore isolates (SBIs) obtained from each of 16 field isolates of Thanatephorus cucumeris AG-1 IC were examined for heterokaryon formation. All SBIs obtained from each field isolate were divided into two mating groups (SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2), and tufts of mycelia were formed in the contact zone between colonies of paired SBIs-M1 and -M2 based on 0.5 % charcoal agar medium. Tufts were produced from all possible pairing between SBIs from non-parental field isolates. Hyphal anastomosis reactions indicated no cell death and random cell death at the contact cell, and was not related to tuft formation. AFLP phenotypes of SBIs from each field isolate were not identical to each other and were different from their parental field isolate. AFLP phenotypes of the tuft isolates formed from SBIs-M1 and SBIs-M2 from each field isolate were heterokaryotic. Moreover, several SBIs also formed tufts with their parental and non-parental field isolates. AFLP phenotypes of these tuft isolates suggested that they were all heterokaryotic. Results of these experiments suggest that T. cucumeris AG-1 IC is heterothallic and bipolar, and that genetic exchange can occur between homokaryotic and heterokaryotic isolates (Buller phenomenon).

  17. Spectral Line Survey toward a Molecular Cloud in IC10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yuri; Shimonishi, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; Aikawa, Yuri; Kawamura, Akiko; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    We have conducted a spectral line survey observation in the 3 mm band toward the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy IC10 with the 45 m radio telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory to explore its chemical composition at a molecular-cloud scale (∼80 pc). The CS, SO, CCH, HCN, HCO+, and HNC lines are detected for the first time in this galaxy in addition to the CO and 13CO lines, while the c-C3H2, CH3OH, CN, C18O, and N2H+ lines are not detected. The spectral intensity pattern is found to be similar to those observed toward molecular clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), whose metallicity is as low as IC10. Nitrogen-bearing species are deficient in comparison with the Galactic molecular clouds due to a lower elemental abundance of nitrogen. CCH is abundant in comparison with Galactic translucent clouds, whereas CH3OH may be deficient. These characteristic trends for CCH and CH3OH are also seen in the LMC, and seem to originate from photodissociation regions more extended in the peripheries of molecular clouds due to the lower metallicity condition.

  18. From incoherent to coherent x-rays with ICS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Graves, William S.; Moncton, David E.

    2015-08-01

    We present the design and performance parameters for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS), which is presently under construction, based on inverse Compton scattering (ICS) of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The flux and brilliance of this source are orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources. The accelerator operates at a repetition rate of 1 kHz with 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns, in each shot. The entire CXLS is a few meters in length and produces hard x-rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The scattering laser is a Yb:YAG solid-state amplifier producing 100 mJ pulses at 1030 nm. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and coupled into a ringdown cavity to match the linac pulse structure. At a photon energy of 12.4 keV, the predicted x-ray flux is 5×1011 photons/second in a 5% bandwidth and the brilliance is 2×1012 photons/(secmm2mrad20.1%) with a RMS pulse length of 490 fs. Novel concepts for improving the performance of the CXLS with the generation of relativistic electron beams having current modulation at nanometer scale and below are also discussed. This tunable longitudinal modulation enables the production of coherent hard x-rays with ICS.

  19. Clinical course and outcome in class IC antiarrhythmic overdose.

    PubMed

    Köppel, C; Oberdisse, U; Heinemeyer, G

    1990-01-01

    120 cases of class IC antiarrhythmic overdose, including propafenone, flecainide, ajmaline and prajmaline overdose, were evaluated with respect to clinical course, therapy and outcome. Whereas drug overdose in general has an overall mortality of less than 1%, intoxication with antiarrhythmic drugs of class IC was associated with a mean mortality of 22.5%. Nausea, which occurred within the first 30 minutes after ingestion, was the earliest symptom. Spontaneous vomiting probably led to self-detoxication in about half the patients. Cardiac symptoms including bradycardia and, less frequently, tachyrhythmia occurred after about 30 minutes to 2 hours. Therapeutic measures included administration of activated charcoal, gastric lavage and a saline laxative, catecholamines, and in some patients, hypertonic sodium bicarbonate, insertion of a transvenous pacemaker and hemoperfusion. Fatal outcome was mainly due to cardiac conduction disturbances progressing to electromechanical dissociation or asystolia. Resuscitation, which had to be performed in 29 patients, was successful in only two of them. No correlation was found between fatal outcome, the type of antiarrhythmic, and ingested dose. Since a specific treatment is not available and resuscitive procedures including sodium bicarbonate and insertion of a pacemaker are of limited therapeutic value, early diagnosis and primary detoxification are most important for prevention of fatal outcome. PMID:2176700

  20. HUNTING FOR YOUNG DISPERSING STAR CLUSTERS IN IC 2574

    SciTech Connect

    Pellerin, Anne; Meyer, Martin M.; Calzetti, Daniella; Harris, Jason E-mail: martin.meyer@uwa.edu.au E-mail: jharris@30doradus.org

    2012-12-01

    Dissolving stellar groups are very difficult to detect using traditional surface photometry techniques. We have developed a method to find and characterize non-compact stellar systems in galaxies where the young stellar population can be spatially resolved. By carrying out photometry on individual stars, we are able to separate the luminous blue stellar population from the star field background. The locations of these stars are used to identify groups by applying the HOP algorithm, which are then characterized using color-magnitude and stellar density radial profiles to estimate age, size, density, and shape. We test the method on Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys archival images of IC 2574 and find 75 dispersed stellar groups. Of these, 20 highly dispersed groups are good candidates for dissolving systems. We find few compact systems with evidence of dissolution, potentially indicating that star formation in this galaxy occurs mostly in unbound clusters or groups. These systems indicate that the dispersion rate of groups and clusters in IC 2574 is at most 0.45 pc Myr{sup -1}. The location of the groups found with HOP correlate well with H I contour map features. However, they do not coincide with H I holes, suggesting that those holes were not created by star-forming regions.

  1. Genetic variation in uncontrolled childhood asthma despite ICS treatment.

    PubMed

    Leusink, M; Vijverberg, S J H; Koenderman, L; Raaijmakers, J A M; de Jongste, J C; Sterk, P J; Duiverman, E J; Onland-Moret, N C; Postma, D S; de Boer, A; de Bakker, P I W; Koppelman, G H; Maitland-van der Zee, A H

    2016-04-01

    Genetic variation may partly explain asthma treatment response heterogeneity. We aimed to identify common and rare genetic variants associated with asthma that was not well controlled despite inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. Data of 110 children was collected in the Children Asthma Therapy Optimal trial. Associations of genetic variation with measures of lung function (FEV1%pred), airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine (Mch PD20) and treatment response outcomes were analyzed using the exome chip. The 17q12-21 locus (containing ORMDL3 and GSMDB) previously associated with childhood asthma was investigated separately. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12-21 locus were found nominally associated with the outcomes. The strongest association in this region was found for rs72821893 in KRT25 with FEV1%pred (P=3.75*10(-5)), Mch PD20 (P=0.00095) and Mch PD20-based treatment outcome (P=0.006). No novel single SNPs or burden tests were significantly associated with the outcomes. The 17q12-21 region was associated with FEV1%pred and AHR, and additionally with ICS treatment response.

  2. Kinematics of the dE Galaxy IC 225

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Miller, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    We present the preliminary findings of a kinematic study of the low luminosity elliptical galaxy IC 225. This object is of considerable interest as it contains two bright nuclei which could give credence to the theory of dwarf elliptical (dE) formation through mergers. We present Integral Field Unit (IFU) data of the dE from the Gemini-North Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral Field Unit (IFU) taken December of 2005. We present a new comprehensive reduction plan for data of this sort. From the reduced IFU data, we present several 2D maps of the region including higher order Balmer lines and the [OIII] doublet at λ4959, 5007. From these images we conclude that within IC 225, the off-center nucleus is almost certainly associated with a large cloud of gas. There is evidence that the gas is rotating about the geometrical center of the galaxy but that the stellar velocity of the young star cluster, or off-center nucleus, is distinct from the velocities of the stars in the main body of the galaxy.

  3. A multi-channel analog IC for in vitro neural recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuan; Zhigong, Wang; Xiaoying, Lü

    2016-02-01

    Recent work in the field of neurophysiology has demonstrated that, by observing the firing characteristic of action potentials (AP) and the exchange pattern of signals between neurons, it is possible to reveal the nature of “memory” and “thinking” and help humans to understand how the brain works. To address these needs, we developed a prototype fully integrated circuit (IC) with micro-electrode array (MEA) for neural recording. In this scheme, the microelectrode array is composed by 64 detection electrodes and 2 reference electrodes. The proposed IC consists of 8 recording channels with an area of 5 × 5 mm2. Each channel can operate independently to process the neural signal by amplifying, filtering, etc. The chip is fabricated in 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The simulated and measured results show the system provides an effective device for recording feeble signal such as neural signals. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61076118).

  4. A quantitative histomorphometric classifier (QuHbIC) identifies aggressive versus indolent p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James S; Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus-related (p16-positive) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients develop recurrent disease, mostly distant metastasis, in approximately 10% of cases, and the remaining patients, despite cure, can have major morbidity from treatment. Identifying patients with aggressive versus indolent tumors is critical. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides of a microarray cohort of p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases were digitally scanned. A novel cluster cell graph was constructed using the nuclei as vertices to characterize and measure spatial distribution and cell clustering. A series of topological features defined on each node of the subgraph were analyzed, and a random forest decision tree classifier was developed. The classifier (QuHbIC) was validated over 25 runs of 3-fold cross-validation using case subsets for independent training and testing. Nineteen (11.9%) of the 160 patients on the array developed recurrence. QuHbIC correctly predicted outcomes in 140 patients (87.5% accuracy). There were 23 positive patients, of whom 11 developed recurrence (47.8% positive predictive value), and 137 negative patients, of whom only 8 developed recurrence (94.2% negative predictive value). The best other predictive features were stage T4 (18 patients; 83.1% accuracy) and N3 nodal disease (10 patients; 88.6% accuracy). QuHbIC-positive patients had poorer overall, disease-free, and disease-specific survival (P<0.001 for each). In multivariate analysis, QuHbIC-positive patients still showed significantly poorer disease-free and disease-specific survival, independent of all other variables. In summary, using just tiny hematoxylin and eosin punches, a computer-aided histomorphometric classifier (QuHbIC) can strongly predict recurrence risk. With prospective validation, this testing may be useful to stratify patients into different treatment groups.

  5. A quantitative histomorphometric classifier (QuHbIC) identifies aggressive versus indolent p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James S; Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Luo, Jingqin; Thorstad, Wade L; Madabhushi, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus-related (p16-positive) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients develop recurrent disease, mostly distant metastasis, in approximately 10% of cases, and the remaining patients, despite cure, can have major morbidity from treatment. Identifying patients with aggressive versus indolent tumors is critical. Hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides of a microarray cohort of p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cases were digitally scanned. A novel cluster cell graph was constructed using the nuclei as vertices to characterize and measure spatial distribution and cell clustering. A series of topological features defined on each node of the subgraph were analyzed, and a random forest decision tree classifier was developed. The classifier (QuHbIC) was validated over 25 runs of 3-fold cross-validation using case subsets for independent training and testing. Nineteen (11.9%) of the 160 patients on the array developed recurrence. QuHbIC correctly predicted outcomes in 140 patients (87.5% accuracy). There were 23 positive patients, of whom 11 developed recurrence (47.8% positive predictive value), and 137 negative patients, of whom only 8 developed recurrence (94.2% negative predictive value). The best other predictive features were stage T4 (18 patients; 83.1% accuracy) and N3 nodal disease (10 patients; 88.6% accuracy). QuHbIC-positive patients had poorer overall, disease-free, and disease-specific survival (P<0.001 for each). In multivariate analysis, QuHbIC-positive patients still showed significantly poorer disease-free and disease-specific survival, independent of all other variables. In summary, using just tiny hematoxylin and eosin punches, a computer-aided histomorphometric classifier (QuHbIC) can strongly predict recurrence risk. With prospective validation, this testing may be useful to stratify patients into different treatment groups. PMID:24145650

  6. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the SNR IC443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1998-07-01

    IC 443 is a supernova remnant of intermediate age, i.e. a few thousand years. It is especially interesting because part of its periphery is expanding into a molecular cloud while other sections are expanding into a typical interstellar medium of much lower density. Since the evolution of a supernova remnant through its various phases is affected by the density of the medium it expands into with the reasonable assumption that the supernova explosion was approximately symmetric we have an opportunity to observe a single object in two phases simultaneously. It was observed by ASCA in April, 1993 for a short period during the PV phase and more thoroughly in a 42 ksec exposure in March, 1994. The latter measurement provides most of the results that have been reported. Most of the analysis took place after the grant ended but is included here for completeness. The data was sent simultaneously to US and Japanese Pls. We worked independently. The software set of FTOOLs was used to construct images and spectra. They were judged to be rather unintuitive and not at all user friendly. I found I was using one FTOOL to read the header to obtain information that would only be provided to another FTOOL. The Japanese investigators were more successful. They analyzed the data and published results more rapidly. The scientific results summarized below are based primarily on their publications. Since IC 443 is an interesting example of a middle aged SNR in which a variety of processes are occurring it is one of a class. IC 443 exhibits shell-like emission in hard X-rays and extended soft X-rays with thin thermal spectra. It resembles SN 1006 in these respects. IC 443 contains hard X-rays in a semi-circular shell surrounding the thermal component. The total hard X-ray flux in the ASCA FOV is only a half of the Ginga hard component; which suggests that the hard X-rays are not confined only in the shell but some are extended larger than the ASCA FOV of eq 1 degree diameter. Japanese

  7. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the SNR IC443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.

    1998-01-01

    IC 443 is a supernova remnant of intermediate age, i.e. a few thousand years. It is especially interesting because part of its periphery is expanding into a molecular cloud while other sections are expanding into a typical interstellar medium of much lower density. Since the evolution of a supernova remnant through its various phases is affected by the density of the medium it expands into with the reasonable assumption that the supernova explosion was approximately symmetric we have an opportunity to observe a single object in two phases simultaneously. It was observed by ASCA in April, 1993 for a short period during the PV phase and more thoroughly in a 42 ksec exposure in March, 1994. The latter measurement provides most of the results that have been reported. Most of the analysis took place after the grant ended but is included here for completeness. The data was sent simultaneously to US and Japanese Pls. We worked independently. The software set of FTOOLs was used to construct images and spectra. They were judged to be rather unintuitive and not at all user friendly. I found I was using one FTOOL to read the header to obtain information that would only be provided to another FTOOL. The Japanese investigators were more successful. They analyzed the data and published results more rapidly. The scientific results summarized below are based primarily on their publications. Since IC 443 is an interesting example of a middle aged SNR in which a variety of processes are occurring it is one of a class. IC 443 exhibits shell-like emission in hard X-rays and extended soft X-rays with thin thermal spectra. It resembles SN 1006 in these respects. IC 443 contains hard X-rays in a semi-circular shell surrounding the thermal component. The total hard X-ray flux in the ASCA FOV is only a half of the Ginga hard component; which suggests that the hard X-rays are not confined only in the shell but some are extended larger than the ASCA FOV of eq 1 degree diameter. Japanese

  8. Growing Aligned Carbon Nanotubes for Interconnections in ICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun; Ye, Qi; Cassell, Alan; Ng, Hou Tee; Stevens, Ramsey; Han, Jie; Meyyappan, M.

    2005-01-01

    A process for growing multiwalled carbon nanotubes anchored at specified locations and aligned along specified directions has been invented. Typically, one would grow a number of the nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to a silicon integrated-circuit (IC) substrate, starting from (and anchored on) patterned catalytic spots on the substrate. Such arrays of perpendicular carbon nanotubes could be used as electrical interconnections between levels of multilevel ICs. The process (see Figure 1) begins with the formation of a layer, a few hundred nanometers thick, of a compatible electrically insulating material (e.g., SiO(x) or Si(y)N(z) on the silicon substrate. A patterned film of a suitable electrical conductor (Al, Mo, Cr, Ti, Ta, Pt, Ir, or doped Si), having a thickness between 1 nm and 2 m, is deposited on the insulating layer to form the IC conductor pattern. Next, a catalytic material (usually, Ni, Fe, or Co) is deposited to a thickness between 1 and 30 nm on the spots from which it is desired to grow carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Unlike the matted and tangled carbon nanotubes grown by thermal CVD, the carbon nanotubes grown by PECVD are perpendicular and freestanding because an electric field perpendicular to the substrate is used in PECVD. Next, the free space between the carbon nanotubes is filled with SiO2 by means of CVD from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), thereby forming an array of carbon nanotubes embedded in SiO2. Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is then performed to remove excess SiO2 and form a flat-top surface in which the outer ends of the carbon nanotubes are exposed. Optionally, depending on the application, metal lines to connect selected ends of carbon nanotubes may be deposited on the top surface. The top part of Figure 2 is a scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of carbon nanotubes grown, as described above, on catalytic spots of about 100 nm diameter patterned by

  9. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF A NEW ARSINE SULFIDE CONTAINING ARSENOSUGAR IN MOLLUSCS BY IC-ICP-MS AND IC-ESI-MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using IC-ICP-MS and IC-ESI-MS/MS, an unknown arsenical compound in mollusks has been identified as a new arsine sulfide containing analog of a known arsenosugar and is referred to as As(498). This species has been observed in four separate shellfish species following a mild metha...

  10. Bonding of IC bare chips for microsystems using Ar atom bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohno, Akiomi; Sasaki, Yasuhiko; Udo, Ryujirou; Harada, Takeshi; Usami, Mitsuo

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes integrated circuit (IC) bare chip bonding to micromechanical devices and discusses factors affecting bond and IC qualities. Test element group (TEG) with protective diode and TEG with transistors, small-scale circuits and junctions were used here as the IC chips. Some of the TEG dies were thinned into films. In the bonding process, an Ar atom beam is used to sputter clean the surface to be bonded. After contaminants on the surfaces to be bonded are removed by the Ar atomic beam irradiation, the IC chip, a die or a film is bonded to a silicon substrate. The IC dies and the films can be bonded at low temperature and under low pressure. The strengths of the joints are good enough for use in microsystems. There is no difference in current-voltage properties of the IC films before and after the irradiation. The shapes of the ring osillator waves of the bonded IC films are not distorted by the thermal tests. This suggests that the thermal tests do not cause electrical damage to the IC chips. Although the joints of IC film/Si substrate have a few fine voids at the interface, the thermal conductivities of the joints are compared to those of IC films before bonding. The results given show the feasibility of mounting bare IC chips onto substrates of microsystems.

  11. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Lynne D.; Hughson, Andrew G.; Nonno, Romolo; Zou, Wenquan; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Caughey, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far – a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested. PMID:26086786

  12. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Nonno, Romolo; Zou, Wenquan; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Caughey, Byron

    2015-06-01

    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested.

  13. Bank Vole Prion Protein As an Apparently Universal Substrate for RT-QuIC-Based Detection and Discrimination of Prion Strains.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Groveman, Bradley R; Raymond, Lynne D; Hughson, Andrew G; Nonno, Romolo; Zou, Wenquan; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Caughey, Byron

    2015-06-01

    Prions propagate as multiple strains in a wide variety of mammalian species. The detection of all such strains by a single ultrasensitive assay such as Real Time Quaking-induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) would facilitate prion disease diagnosis, surveillance and research. Previous studies have shown that bank voles, and transgenic mice expressing bank vole prion protein, are susceptible to most, if not all, types of prions. Here we show that bacterially expressed recombinant bank vole prion protein (residues 23-230) is an effective substrate for the sensitive RT-QuIC detection of all of the different prion types that we have tested so far--a total of 28 from humans, cattle, sheep, cervids and rodents, including several that have previously been undetectable by RT-QuIC or Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification. Furthermore, comparison of the relative abilities of different prions to seed positive RT-QuIC reactions with bank vole and not other recombinant prion proteins allowed discrimination of prion strains such as classical and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical and atypical Nor98 scrapie in sheep, and sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans. Comparison of protease-resistant RT-QuIC conversion products also aided strain discrimination and suggested the existence of several distinct classes of prion templates among the many strains tested. PMID:26086786

  14. In-Cylinder Flow Through An Internal Combustion (IC) Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Samira; Gibson, Kendrick; Puzinauskas, Paulius; Qi, Yongli

    2008-11-01

    IC engine performance is strongly influenced by large-scale in-cylinder motion developed during the intake process. This work was part of a larger effort to characterize and augment in-cylinder flow structures to improve lean limit and exhaust gas recirculation tolerance. Ultimately the flow structures are to be characterized with unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. This study provided digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) flow visualization data under steady conditions to improve the calibration of the CFD work. An engine cylinder head was mounted on a transparent cylinder with a fixed piston. Air was drawn through using a steady flow bench, and DPIV images were obtained from the cylinder. Measurements were made at four suction pressures and four valve lift to diameter ratios for a total of sixteen cases. After initial measurements, intake port modifications were made to enhance tumble. The modifications created more definitive tumble flow.

  15. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  16. Analysis of microwave characteristics of photoconductive IC structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Robert B.

    1987-03-01

    A one-dimensional analytic solution for the microwave photoresponse of an optically modulated semiconductor channel is presented. This extends the existing treatments by including the effects of nonuniform channel cross sections and conductivity, nonuniform optical illumination, field-dependent mobilities, nonzero dielectric relaxation times, arbitrary electrical and optical excitation frequencies, and full coupled bipolar carrier transport. The solution is continuous over the full range of electric field intensities and thereby describes both the saturated and nonsaturated regimes of the photocurrent. Only the low-level generation case is considered, and trapping effects and diffusion are not included. This model allows the effects of optical stimulation in many typical IC structures to be assessed from dc up through the microwave range of frequencies.

  17. Laser evaporation of metal sandwich layers for improved IC metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielmeier, R.; Bollmann, D.; Haberger, K.

    1990-12-01

    With the further shrink of IC dimensions, metallization becomes the most crucial layer because conductivity and contact resistivity determine the RC constants and thus the speed of the circuits. With our Q-switched Nd:YAG laser we have evaporated different materials (Al, Ti, W, Pt, Au), alloys (Ta-Si) and dielectrics (ZrO 2, Al 2O 3). We also produced sandwich layers (Al-Au, Ti-Al). The layers were investigated with regard to deposition rate, homogeneity, adhesion, step coverage and surface roughness. Deposition rates in the order of 60 nm/min were achieved. At a power of 10 W and a repetition rate of about 5 kHz we could form ohmic contacts to silicon with a good step coverage in the contact.

  18. Giant Spherical Cluster with I-C140 Fullerene Topology**

    PubMed Central

    Heinl, Sebastian; Peresypkina, Eugenia; Sutter, Jörg; Scheer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    We report on an effective cluster expansion of CuBr-linked aggregates by the increase of the steric bulk of the CpR ligand in the pentatopic molecules [CpRFe(η5-P5)]. Using [CpBIGFe(η5-P5)] (CpBIG=C5(4-nBuC6H4)5), the novel multishell aggregate [{CpBIGFe(η5:2:1:1:1:1:1-P5)}12(CuBr)92] is obtained. It shows topological analogy to the theoretically predicted I-C140 fullerene molecule. The spherical cluster was comprehensively characterized by various methods in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26411255

  19. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  20. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  1. PELE-IC. Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.

    1992-01-13

    PELE-IC is a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics program for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The code was developed to calculate fluid-structure interactions and bubble dynamics of a pressure-suppression system following a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of benchmark problems and air and steam blowdown experiments. The code is written for both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a wide variety of structural shapes. The concepts of void fractions and interface orientation are used to track the movement of free surfaces, allowing great versatility in following fluid-gas interfaces both for bubble definition and water surface motion without the use of marker particles.

  2. Spectroscopic study of the peculiar galaxy IC 883

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakovleva, V. A.; Merkulova, O. A.; Karataeva, G. M.; Shalyapina, L. V.; Yablokova, N. V.; Burenkov, A. N.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze new optical spectroscopic observations obtained at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the SCORPIO focal reducer (in the modes of a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) and long-slit spectroscopy) and the Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph for the galaxy IC 883. We have confirmed that the main body of the galaxy rotates around its minor axis. The positions of the dynamical axes of the stellar and gaseous components have been found to differ by ~10°. The velocities in the SE tail do not correspond to the circular rotation around the galaxy's minor axis. This structure is probably a fragment of an unwound curved spiral arm. Regions with high velocity dispersions and peculiarities in the velocity fields have been found along the minor axis. Our study of the age and metallicity of the galaxy's stellar population has shown that the mean values of these parameters in the stellar disk, except for the central region ( r ≤ 5"), are ≈1 Gyr and ≈-0.4 dex, respectively. Both young (2-5 × 108 yr) and old (5-10 × 109 yr) stellar populations are present in the circumnuclear region. Our analysis of the spectroscopic data for the bright feature 8" south of the nucleus coincident in position with a compact X-ray source has shown that this is apparently a dwarf galaxy or a remnant of a companion galaxy. Our FPI observations in the Hα emission line and direct images have revealed a region of ionized gas that together with the already known structures along the minor axis forms a clumpy tidal structure of ionized gas pulled from the companion galaxy. The results of our study confirm the previously proposed hypothesis that the observed peculiar structures were formed by the merger of two galaxies. However, it can be said that IC 883 does not belong to the class of polar-ring galaxies.

  3. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R.

    2014-02-12

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  4. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC.

    PubMed

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-01-01

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 μm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm². A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 μVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions. PMID:26437404

  5. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  6. Fully Integrated Biopotential Acquisition Analog Front-End IC

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haryong; Park, Yunjong; Kim, Hyungseup; Ko, Hyoungho

    2015-01-01

    A biopotential acquisition analog front-end (AFE) integrated circuit (IC) is presented. The biopotential AFE includes a capacitively coupled chopper instrumentation amplifier (CCIA) to achieve low input referred noise (IRN) and to block unwanted DC potential signals. A DC servo loop (DSL) is designed to minimize the offset voltage in the chopper amplifier and low frequency respiration artifacts. An AC coupled ripple rejection loop (RRL) is employed to reduce ripple due to chopper stabilization. A capacitive impedance boosting loop (CIBL) is designed to enhance the input impedance and common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) without additional power consumption, even under an external electrode mismatch. The AFE IC consists of two-stage CCIA that include three compensation loops (DSL, RRL, and CIBL) at each CCIA stage. The biopotential AFE is fabricated using a 0.18 µm one polysilicon and six metal layers (1P6M) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The core chip size of the AFE without input/output (I/O) pads is 10.5 mm2. A fourth-order band-pass filter (BPF) with a pass-band in the band-width from 1 Hz to 100 Hz was integrated to attenuate unwanted signal and noise. The overall gain and band-width are reconfigurable by using programmable capacitors. The IRN is measured to be 0.94 µVRMS in the pass band. The maximum amplifying gain of the pass-band was measured as 71.9 dB. The CIBL enhances the CMRR from 57.9 dB to 67 dB at 60 Hz under electrode mismatch conditions. PMID:26437404

  7. MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF PROTOSTARS IN IC 1396A

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Calderon, M.; Barrado y Navascues, D.; Stauffer, J. R.; Rebull, L.; Ardila, D. R.; Whitney, B. A.; Song, I.; Brooke, T. Y.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.

    2009-09-10

    We have used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to conduct a photometric monitoring program of the IC1396A dark globule in order to study the mid-IR (3.6-8 {mu}m) variability of the heavily embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) present in that area. We obtained light curves covering a 14 day timespan with a twice daily cadence for 69 YSOs, and continuous light curves with approximately 12 s cadence over 7 hr for 38 YSOs. Typical accuracies for our relative photometry were 1%-2% for the long timespan data and a few millimagnitude, corresponding to less than 0.5%, for the 7 hr continuous 'staring-mode' data. More than half of the YSOs showed detectable variability, with amplitudes from {approx}0.05 mag to {approx}0.2 mag. About 30% of the YSOs showed quasi-sinusoidal light-curve shapes with apparent periods from 5 to 12 days and light-curve amplitudes approximately independent of wavelength over the IRAC bandpasses. We have constructed models which simulate the time-dependent spectral energy distributions of Class I and II YSOs in order to attempt to explain these light curves. Based on these models, the apparently periodic light curves are best explained by YSO models where one or two high-latitude photospheric spots heat the inner wall of the circumstellar disk, and where we view the disk at fairly large inclination angle. Disk inhomogeneities, such as increasing the height where the accretion funnel flows to the stellar hot spot, enhances the light-curve modulations. The other YSOs in our sample show a range of light-curve shapes, some of which are probably due to varying accretion rate or disk shadowing events. One star, IC1396A-47, shows a 3.5 hr periodic light curve; this object may be a PMS Delta Scuti star.

  8. Ice Chemistry Through Quiescent Dust In IC5146

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Pendleton, Y.; Chiar, J.; Roellig, T.; Mason, R.; Kornei, K.; Keane, J.; Lada, C.; Greene, T.; Tokunaga, A.

    2006-01-01

    IC 5146 is a nearby (200pc) dark cloud complex in Cygnus. The lack of star formation activity makes it an excellent laboratory for the study of the chemical complexity in the earliest stages of dense molecular cloud evolution. We have used the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) to probe dust along 10 sight-lines toward K-Giant background stars, sampling a range of visual extinction from 2-20mag. Here we present 5-20micron spectra and correlation studies of the 6.0micron water-ice band and 9.7micron silicate absorption band with Av for a sample of our Spitzer program sources. Our IC5146 Spitzer data indicate grain growth and ice formation occurs early in the history of dense cloud formation. Each sight-line observed reveals the 9.7micron amorphous silicate absorption band. The highest Av sightlines show clear detections of ices at 6.0micron (water-ice mixture), 6.85micron (processed ice) and 15.2micron (CO2). However, sight-lines in the low-to-mid Av range provide intriguing variations. We may have the first example of two objects, one with ice features and one without, seen through the same cloud sightline with similar Av approx. 6 and similar silicate band optical depths. Also, the nominally expected linear correlation of Av with silicate band depth does not appear to hold for this cloud (turnover at Av approx.10-12). Both trends imply complexities in the grain growth at one of the earliest stages of dust and ice interaction ever observed. The highest extinction source in our sample, Av=20, reveals the 6.0micron (water), 6.85micron (processed ice), 9.7micron silicate and 15.2micron CO2 ice bands. Until recently, the 6.85micron band had only been detected towards embedded protostellar objects. Two additional quiescent dust sightlines from the C2D results now also indicate the 6.85micron band (Taurus and Serpens) by Knez et al. 2005, demonstrating the role of energetic processing within pristine ices prior to the onset of star formation.

  9. Young T-dwarf candidates in IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, A. S. M.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Marmo, C.; Albert, L.; Bouy, H.

    2009-12-01

    Context: The determination of the lower-end of the initial mass function (IMF) provides strong constraints on star formation theories. Aims: We report here on a search for isolated planetary-mass objects in the 3 Myr-old star-forming region IC 348. Methods: Deep, narrowband CH4off and CH4on images were obtained with CFHT/WIRCam over 0.11 sq. deg. in the central part of IC 348 to identify young T-dwarfs from their 1.6 μm methane absorption bands. Results: We report three faint T-dwarf candidates with CH4on-CH4off colours >0.4 mag. Extinction was estimated for each candidate and lies in the range AV ~ 5-12 mag. Comparisons with T-dwarf spectral models, and colour/colour and colour/magnitude diagrams, reject two of the three candidates because of their extreme z'-J blueness. The one remaining object is not thought to be a foreground field dwarf because of a number density argument and also its strong extinction AV ~ 12 mag, or thought to be a background field T-dwarf which would be expected to be much fainter. Models and diagrams give this object a preliminary T6 spectral type. Conclusions: With a few Jupiter masses, the young T-dwarf candidate reported here is potentially amongst the youngest, lowest mass objects detected in a star-forming region so far. Its frequency is consistent with the extrapolation of current lognormal IMF estimates down to the planetary mass domain. Based on observations obtained with WIRCam, a joint project of CFHT, Taiwan, Korea, Canada, France, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the “University of Hawaii. Research supported by the Marie Curie Research Training Network CONSTELLATION” under grant no. MRTN-CT-2006-035890.

  10. ICES IN THE QUIESCENT IC 5146 DENSE CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Chiar, J. E.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T. P.; Roellig, T. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Keane, J. V.; Lada, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.

    2011-04-10

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 {mu}m range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H{sub 2}O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03 {+-} 0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH{sub 3}OH and NH{sub 3} in the ices, present at the {approx}2% and {approx}5% levels, respectively, relative to H{sub 2}O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J - K) color excess is found to follow a much shallower slope relative to lines of sight that probe diffuse clouds, supporting the previous results by Chiar et al.

  11. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    PubMed

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects. PMID:10642203

  12. High frame rate measurements of semiconductor pixel detector readout IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczygiel, R.; Grybos, P.; Maj, P.

    2012-07-01

    We report on high count rate and high frame rate measurements of a prototype IC named FPDR90, designed for readouts of hybrid pixel semiconductor detectors used for X-ray imaging applications. The FPDR90 is constructed in 90 nm CMOS technology and has dimensions of 4 mm×4 mm. Its main part is a matrix of 40×32 pixels with 100 μm×100 μm pixel size. The chip works in the single photon counting mode with two discriminators and two 16-bit ripple counters per pixel. The count rate per pixel depends on the effective CSA feedback resistance and can be set up to 6 Mcps. The FPDR90 can operate in the continuous readout mode, with zero dead time. Due to the architecture of digital blocks in pixel, one can select the number of bits read out from each counter from 1 to 16. Because in the FPDR90 prototype only one data output is available, the frame rate is 9 kfps and 72 kfps for 16 bits and 1 bit readout, respectively (with nominal clock frequency of 200 MHz).

  13. UX Ori Variables in the Cluster IC 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsunova, O. Yu.; Grinin, V. P.; Sergeev, S. G.; Semenov, A. O.; Shugarov, S. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Results are presented from many years of photometric (VRCIC) observations of three variable T Tauri type stars in the cluster IC 348: V712 Per, V719 Per, and V909 Per. All three stars have photometric activity characteristic of UX Ori stars. The activity of V719 Per has increased significantly over the last 10 years: the amplitude of its Algol-like minima has increased by roughly a factor of 4 and has reached three stellar magnitudes in the I band. Periodograms of the light curves do not confirm the periods found previously by other authors on the basis of shorter series of observations. The slope of the color tracks on "color-magnitude" diagrams is used to determine the reddening law for these stars owing to selective absorption by circumstellar dust. Modelling of these parameters by the Mie theory shows that the maximum size amax of the dust particles in the protoplanetary disks of these stars is 1.5-2 times greater than in the interstellar medium. In V712 Per and V909 Per, the bulk of the mass of the dust particles is concentrated near amax, while in V719 Per the average mass of the dust particles is determined by the minimum size of the particles. It should be emphasized that these conclusions rely on an analysis of the optical variability of these stars.

  14. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Malba, V.

    1999-08-03

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips is disclosed. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM. 12 figs.

  15. Attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    1999-01-01

    An attachment method for stacked integrated circuit (IC) chips. The method involves connecting stacked chips, such as DRAM memory chips, to each other and/or to a circuit board. Pads on the individual chips are rerouted to form pads on the side of the chip, after which the chips are stacked on top of each other whereby desired interconnections to other chips or a circuit board can be accomplished via the side-located pads. The pads on the side of a chip are connected to metal lines on a flexible plastic tape (flex) by anisotropically conductive adhesive (ACA). Metal lines on the flex are likewise connected to other pads on chips and/or to pads on a circuit board. In the case of a stack of DRAM chips, pads to corresponding address lines on the various chips may be connected to the same metal line on the flex to form an address bus. This method has the advantage of reducing the number of connections required to be made to the circuit board due to bussing; the flex can accommodate dimensional variation in the alignment of chips in the stack; bonding of the ACA is accomplished at low temperature and is otherwise simpler and less expensive than solder bonding; chips can be bonded to the ACA all at once if the sides of the chips are substantially coplanar, as in the case for stacks of identical chips, such as DRAM.

  16. The Nuclear Ring in the Barred Spiral Galaxy IC 4933

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Stuart D.; Illingworth, Samuel M.; Sharp, Robert G.; Farage, Catherine L.

    2010-03-01

    We present infrared imaging from IRIS2 on the Anglo-Australian Telescope that shows the barred spiral galaxy IC 4933 has not just an inner ring encircling the bar, but also a star-forming nuclear ring 1.5 kpc in diameter. Imaging in the u' band with GMOS on Gemini South confirms that this ring is not purely an artifact due to dust. Optical and near-infrared colours alone however cannot break the degeneracy between age, extinction, and burst duration that would allow the star formation history of the ring to be unraveled. Integral field spectroscopy with the GNIRS spectrograph on Gemini South shows the equivalent width of the Paβ line to peak in the north and south quadrants of the ring, indicative of a bipolar azimuthal age gradient around the ring. The youngest star-forming regions do not appear to correspond to where we expect to find the contact points between the offset dust lanes and the nuclear ring unless the nuclear ring is oval in shape, causing the contact points to lead the bar by more than 90°.

  17. Multi-band implications of external-IC flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Stephan; Spanier, Felix

    2015-02-01

    Very fast variability on scales of minutes is regularly observed in Blazars. The assumption that these flares are emerging from the dominant emission zone of the very high energy (VHE) radiation within the jet challenges current acceleration and radiation models. In this work we use a spatially resolved and time dependent synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) model that includes the full time dependence of Fermi-I acceleration. We use the (apparent) orphan γ -ray flare of Mrk501 during MJD 54952 and test various flare scenarios against the observed data. We find that a rapidly variable external radiation field can reproduce the high energy lightcurve best. However, the effect of the strong inverse Compton (IC) cooling on other bands and the X-ray observations are constraining the parameters to rather extreme ranges. Then again other scenarios would require parameters even more extreme or stronger physical constraints on the rise and decay of the source of the variability which might be in contradiction with constraints derived from the size of the black hole's ergosphere.

  18. Polymeric nanoparticles for co-delivery of synthetic long peptide antigen and poly IC as therapeutic cancer vaccine formulation.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Sima; Fransen, Marieke F; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Christensen, Jonatan Riis; Amidi, Maryam; Hennink, Wim E; Ossendorp, Ferry

    2015-04-10

    The aim of the current study was to develop a cancer vaccine formulation for treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies. Synthetic long peptides (SLPs) derived from HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have been used for therapeutic vaccination in clinical trials with promising results. In preclinical and clinical studies adjuvants based on mineral oils (such as incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) and Montanide) are used to create a sustained release depot at the injection site. While the depot effect of mineral oils is important for induction of robust immune responses, their administration is accompanied with severe adverse and long lasting side effects. In order to develop an alternative for IFA family of adjuvants, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on hydrophilic polyester (poly(d,l lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (pLHMGA)) were prepared. These NPs were loaded with a synthetic long peptide (SLP) derived from HPV16 E7 oncoprotein and a toll like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand (poly IC) by double emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The therapeutic efficacy of the nanoparticulate formulations was compared to that of HPV SLP+poly IC formulated in IFA. Encapsulation of HPV SLP antigen in NPs substantially enhanced the population of HPV-specific CD8+ T cells when combined with poly IC either co-encapsulated with the antigen or in its soluble form. The therapeutic efficacy of NPs containing poly IC in tumor eradication was equivalent to that of the IFA formulation. Importantly, administration of pLHMGA nanoparticles was not associated with adverse effects and therefore these biodegradable nanoparticles are excellent substitutes for IFA in cancer vaccines. PMID:25660830

  19. Poly I:C adjuvanted inactivated swine influenza vaccine induces heterologous protective immunity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh

    2015-01-15

    Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs.

  20. The Kinematics of the Ionized Gas in IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, Joshua C.; Wilcots, Eric M.

    2005-02-01

    We present the results of a WIYN integral field unit study of the kinematics of the ionized gas in IC 10, a dwarf irregular starburst galaxy in the Local Group. Though the velocity field of the ionized gas closely matches that of the H I, there are several kinematically interesting features in the galaxy. The diffuse ionized gas in the galaxy exhibits larger Hα line widths than the bright complexes. In one case this is due to an infusion of energy into the gas associated with the radio superbubble discovered by Yang & Skillman. We find that the amount of energy in this region is consistent with their hypothesis that the region contains 10 supernova remnants. We also detect a high-velocity (70 km s-1) expanding shell in the ionized gas, which is likely driven by three confirmed Wolf-Rayet stars that are located within the shell. Extrapolating from Hunter's initial mass function, we find that the central starburst region contains approximately equal energy contributions from stellar winds and supernovae (SNe), suggesting that SNe are just beginning to play a significant role in shaping the kinematics of the ionized gas. However, all of this energy cannot be easily accounted for in the kinematics of the gas. We detect an energetic flow of gas (3×1052 ergs), which we believe originates from the starburst region. We also detect a high-velocity (70 km s-1) feature not coincident with any structure in our Hα image. This feature, along with the flow and shell, can account for the energy produced by stellar wind and SNe. The flow resembles one discovered by Wilcots & Thurow in NGC 4214; together they suggest that the porosity of the interstellar medium contributes significantly to the high velocity of some portion of the ionized gas in irregular galaxies.

  1. Qualification and Reliability for MEMS and IC Packages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2004-01-01

    Advanced IC electronic packages are moving toward miniaturization from two key different approaches, front and back-end processes, each with their own challenges. Successful use of more of the back-end process front-end, e.g. microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Wafer Level Package (WLP), enable reducing size and cost. Use of direct flip chip die is the most efficient approach if and when the issues of know good die and board/assembly are resolved. Wafer level package solve the issue of known good die by enabling package test, but it has its own limitation, e.g., the I/O limitation, additional cost, and reliability. From the back-end approach, system-in-a-package (SIAP/SIP) development is a response to an increasing demand for package and die integration of different functions into one unit to reduce size and cost and improve functionality. MEMS add another challenging dimension to electronic packaging since they include moving mechanical elements. Conventional qualification and reliability need to be modified and expanded in most cases in order to detect new unknown failures. This paper will review four standards that already released or being developed that specifically address the issues on qualification and reliability of assembled packages. Exposures to thermal cycles, monotonic bend test, mechanical shock and drop are covered in these specifications. Finally, mechanical and thermal cycle qualification data generated for MEMS accelerometer will be presented. The MEMS was an element of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) qualified for NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), Spirit and Opportunity that successfully is currently roaring the Martian surface

  2. Guidance for implementing digital I&C upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Betlack, J.; Fink, R.; Torok, R.

    1994-12-31

    Use of the guideline will help ensure that issues associated with digital systems are properly addressed. The guideline provides a process to ensure that the design and development of an upgrade and the basis for licensing the upgrade will be thorough. Properly addressing the issues associated with digital upgrades fundamentally involves the application of sound engineering practices. Understanding the issues and applying the guideline approach will help foster the use of sound engineering practices in digital upgrades. Lessons learned from recent experiences with digital upgrades point to a number of practical recommendations for use with the guideline: 1. Be cautious about incorporating additional complexity, functionality, or features unless there is a clear need and the risks associated with added complexity are considered acceptable. 2. The same process and methods used for treating the digital issues in safety systems also apply for upgrades to important non-safety-related systems. 3. Ensure that the digital equipment is well understood by the utility engineering, operating, and maintenance staffs. Treating digital equipment as a set of {open_quotes}black boxes{close_quotes} is not recommended. 4. Specific activities and methods that should be applied in the design and evaluation of a digital upgrade depend on the specifics of the particular application - decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis, following an acceptable upgrade process. There are no generic, detailed cookbooks for upgrading to digital I&C equipment. 5. Carefully document the design and implementation of the upgrade, including the bases for engineering judgments made in support of the design and licensing evaluations.

  3. X-ray Emission from Megamaser Galaxy IC 2560

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; Done, Chris; Zycki, Piotr; Greenhill, Lincoln; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2005-09-12

    Observation of the H{sub 2}O megamaser galaxy IC 2560 with the Chandra Observatory reveals a complex spectrum composed of soft X-ray emission due to multi-temperature thermal plasma, and a hard continuum with strong emission lines. The continuum is most likely a Compton reflection (reprocessing) of primary emission that is completely absorbed at least up to 7 keV. The lines can be identified with fluorescence from Si, S and Fe in the lowest ionization stages. The equivalent widths of the Si and S lines are broadly compatible with those anticipated for reprocessing by optically thick cold plasma of Solar abundances, while the large equivalent width of the Fe line requires some overabundance of iron. A contribution to the line from a transmitted component cannot be ruled out, but the limits on the strength of the Compton shoulder make it less likely. From the bolometric luminosity of the nuclear region, we infer that the source radiates at 1-10% of its Eddington luminosity, for an adopted central mass of 3 x 10{sup 6} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The overall spectrum is consistent with the hypotheses that the central engines powering the detected megamsers in accretion disks are obscured from direct view by the associated accretion disk material itself, and that there is a correlation between the occurrence of megamaser emission and Compton-thick absorption columns. For the 11 known galaxies with both column density measurements and maser emission believed to arise from accretion disks, eight AGN are Compton thick.

  4. Characterization of tumor binding by the IC-21 macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Crawford, E K; Latham, P S; Shah, E M; Hasday, J D

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the SV40-transformed murine macrophage cell line IC-21 is a suitable model to study the selective high avidity binding of tumor cells by subpopulations of activated macrophages. IC-21 macrophages bound P815, RBL5, and EL-4 murine tumor cells with high avidity, as measured by the inverted centrifugation method. Tumor binding by IC-21 macrophages was competitively inhibited by crude membrane vesicles prepared from tumor cells but not by cell membranes prepared from nontransformed splenic leukocytes, suggesting that this process was mediated by tumor-specific binding sites. IC-21 macrophages and primary cultures of pyran copolymer-elicited peritoneal macrophages demonstrated similar tumor binding avidity, kinetics, saturability, and metabolic requirements for optimal high avidity tumor binding. However, compared with primary cultures of pyran copolymer-elicited peritoneal macrophages, IC-21 macrophages bound 4-fold more tumor cells and were more homogeneous for tumor binding capability. Finally, one third of maximal tumor cell binding by IC-21 macrophages was completed within 5 min of contact with tumor, suggesting that IC-21 macrophages constitutively expressed some high avidity tumor binding sites. Their stable and homogeneous capability for binding tumor cells and their ease of growth make the IC-21 macrophage cell line a potentially valuable model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for selective high avidity tumor binding by subpopulations of activated macrophages. PMID:2164442

  5. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C mines). (a) Open flames, including cutting and welding, shall not be used underground. (b) Welding...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C mines). (a) Open flames, including cutting and welding, shall not be used underground. (b) Welding...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C mines). (a) Open flames, including cutting and welding, shall not be used underground. (b) Welding...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C mines). (a) Open flames, including cutting and welding, shall not be used underground. (b) Welding...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open flames (I-C mines). 57.22104 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C mines). (a) Open flames, including cutting and welding, shall not be used underground. (b) Welding...

  10. IC [Interior Communications] Electrician 3 and 2: Rate Training Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual provides information related to the tasks assigned to the Interior Communications (IC) Electricians Third and Second Class who operate and maintain the interior communications systems and associated equipment. Chapter one discusses career challenges for the IC Electrician in terms of responsibilities, advancement…

  11. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22210 In-line filters (I-C mines). Filters or separators shall be installed on air-lift fan systems to prevent explosive concentrations...

  12. A Solder Based Self Assembly Project in an Introductory IC Fabrication Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Madhav; Lusth, John C.; Burkett, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) fabrication principles is an elective course in a senior undergraduate and early graduate student's curriculum. Over the years, the semiconductor industry relies heavily on students with developed expertise in the area of fabrication techniques, learned in an IC fabrication theory and laboratory course. The theory course…

  13. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22233 - Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). 57... MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22233 Actions at 0.5 percent methane (I-C mines). If methane reaches 0.5 percent in the mine atmosphere, ventilation...

  16. Innovative Teaching of IC Design and Manufacture Using the Superchip Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. R.; Wilcock, R.; McNally, I.; Swabey, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an intelligent chip architecture has allowed a large cohort of undergraduate (UG) students to be given effective practical insight into integrated circuit (IC) design by designing and manufacturing their own ICs. To achieve this, an efficient chip architecture, the "Superchip," was developed, which allows multiple student…

  17. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  18. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress....

  2. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress....

  4. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress....

  5. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress....

  6. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress....

  7. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section...

  8. CMOS IC fault models, physical defect coverage, and I sub DDQ testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzemeier, R.R.; Soden, J.M. ); Hawkins, C.F. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    The development of the stuck-at fault (SAF) model is reviewed with emphasis on its relationship to CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technologies. The ability of the SAF model to represent common physical defects in CMOS ICs is evaluated. A test strategy for defect detection, which includes I{sub DDQ} testing is presented. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Photometric and Kinematical Study of Nearby Groups of Galaxies Around IC 65 and NGC 6962

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennik, J.; Tago, E.

    The IC 65 group (z = 0.0089) of four late type galaxies - IC 65, UGC 608, UGC 622, and PGC 138291 - has been studied earlier in the 21 cm HI line by van Moorsel (1983, A&AS, 54, 1), who found disturbed HI envelopes of bright group members, and detected a new HI-rich LSB galaxy.

  10. Effect of local stress induced by thermal expansion of underfill in three-dimensional stacked IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kino, Hisashi; Hashiguchi, Hideto; Tanikawa, Seiya; Sugawara, Youhei; Ikegaya, Shunsuke; Fukushima, Takafumi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2016-04-01

    A three-dimensional stacked IC (3D IC) is a one of the promising structures for enhancing IC performances. A 3D IC consists of several materials such as a Si substrate, metal for through Si via (TSV) and microbump, organic adhesive called the underfill, and so on. These materials generate a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch. On the other hand, heat is generated in the Si substrate during circuit operation and in the environment outside 3D IC, for example. Both the CTE mismatch and heat generation induce local stress caused by expansion of the underfill injected around metal microbumps. In this paper, we report our investigation results of the effects of adhesive expansion on transistor performances by finite element method (FEM) simulation and measurement of transistor characteristics.

  11. Nasal and skin delivery of IC31(®)-adjuvanted recombinant HSV-2 gD protein confers protection against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Wizel, Benjamin; Persson, Josefine; Thörn, Karolina; Nagy, Eszter; Harandi, Ali M

    2012-06-19

    Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) remains the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Given the disappointing results of the recent genital herpes vaccine trials in humans, development of novel vaccine strategies capable of eliciting protective mucosal and systemic immune responses to HSV-2 is urgently required. Here we tested the ability of the adjuvant IC31(®) in combination with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) used through intranasal (i.n.), intradermal (i.d.), or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization routes for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization with gD plus IC31(®) through all three routes of immunization developed elevated gD-specific serum antibody responses with HSV-2 neutralizing activity. Whereas the skin routes promoted the induction of a mixed IgG2c/IgG1 isotype profile, the i.n. route only elicited IgG1 antibodies. All immunization routes were able to induce gD-specific IgG antibody responses in the vaginas of mice immunized with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD. Although specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in splenocytes from mice of most groups vaccinated with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD, only i.d. immunization resulted in a significant splenic IFN-γ response. Further, immunization with gD plus IC31(®) conferred 80-100% protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge with amelioration of viral replication and disease severity in the vagina. These results warrant further exploration of IC31(®) for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:22682292

  12. Multi-Wavelength Views of Protostars in IC 1396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on individual images below for larger view

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has captured a glowing stellar nursery within a dark globule that is opaque at visible light. These new images pierce through the obscuration to reveal the birth of new protostars, or embryonic stars, and young stars never before seen.

    The Elephant's Trunk Nebula is an elongated dark globule within the emission nebula IC 1396 in the constellation of Cepheus. Located at a distance of 2,450 light-years, the globule is a condensation of dense gas that is barely surviving the strong ionizing radiation from a nearby massive star. The globule is being compressed by the surrounding ionized gas.

    The large composite image above is a product of combining data from the observatory's multiband imaging photometer and the infrared array camera. The thermal emission at 24 microns measured by the photometer (red) is combined with near-infrared emission from the camera at 3.6/4.5 microns (blue) and from 5.8/8.0 microns (green). The colors of the diffuse emission and filaments vary, and are a combination of molecular hydrogen (which tends to be green) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (brown) emissions.

    Within the globule, a half dozen newly discovered protostars, or embryonic stars, are easily discernible as the bright red-tinted objects, mostly along the southern rim of the globule. These were previously undetected at visible wavelengths due to obscuration by the thick cloud ('globule body') and by dust surrounding the newly forming stars. The newborn stars form in the dense gas because of compression by the wind and radiation from a nearby massive star (located outside the field of view to the left). The winds from this unseen star are also responsible for producing the

  13. Prenatal exposure to the viral mimetic poly I:C alters fetal brain cytokine expression and postnatal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Udani; Quinn, Tracey; LaRosa, Domenic A; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W

    2014-01-01

    An increased incidence of mental illness disorders is found in children and adolescents born to mothers who experienced an infection-based illness during pregnancy. Animal models to study the prenatal origin of such outcomes of pregnancy have largely used conventional rodents, which are immature (altricial) at birth compared with the human neonate. In this study, we used the precocial spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), whose offspring have completed organogenesis at birth, and administered a single subcutaneous injection of a 5 mg/kg dose of the viral mimetic poly I:C (polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid) at mid gestation (20 days; term is 39 days). Prenatal exposure to poly I:C caused a transient weight loss in the pregnant dam, produced a downregulation of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α in the fetal brain, and resulted in abnormalities in sensorimotor gating and reduced social interaction, memory and learning in juvenile offspring. No changes in exploratory activity or anxiety and fear behaviours were found between the treatment groups. This study provides evidence that, in a rodent model that more closely resembles human brain development, prenatal infection can lead to behavioural abnormalities in postnatal life. PMID:24863806

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IC 4651 uvby photometry (Meibom, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, S.

    2000-08-01

    New accurate CCD photometry in the u, v, b and y bands of the Stroemgren system filters has been obtained for 17640 stars to approximately. V=20mag in a approximately 21' x 21' field centered on the intermediate-age open cluster IC 4651. The observations was obtained with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Table 1 contains information about the Date, Night, Filter, Exposure time, Airmass, CCD rotation angle, and RA- , DE-offsets for all 89 frames. Table 2 gives cross-references between the MEI-system (this paper) and the Lindoff (1972A&AS....7..231L, IC 4651 NNN), Eggen (1971ApJ...166...87E, Cl* IC 4651 Egg NN), Anthony-Twarog & Twarog (1987AJ.....94.1222A, Cl* IC 4651 AT 1-NNN, Cl* IC 4651 AT 2-NN), and Anthony-Twarog et al. (1988AJ.....95.1453A, Cl* IC 4651 AMC I-NNN, Cl* IC 4651 AMC NNNN) identification numbers. Table 3 is the final catalogue of the new Stroemgren uvby photometry, ordered by MEI identification number. For each star, it gives the MEI number, Global CCD x- and y-coordinates, J2000 coordinates , the new y, b, v, and u magnitudes on the standard system, number of detections of the individual stars, and their mean errors. (3 data files).

  15. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera; Hofmann, Wilma A.

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ► Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ► Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ► First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  16. Long gamma-ray Bursts and Type Ic Core CollapseSupernovae have Similar Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.L.; Kirshner, R.P.; Pahre, M.

    2007-12-04

    When the afterglow fades at the site of a long-duration {gamma}-ray burst (LGRB), Type Ic supernovae (SN Ic) are the only type of core collapse supernova observed. Recent work found that a sample of LGRB had different environments from a collection of core-collapse supernovae identified in a high-redshift sample from colors and light curves. LGRB were in the brightest regions of their hosts, but the core-collapse sample followed the overall distribution of the galaxy light. Here we examine 263 fully spectroscopically-typed supernovae found in nearby (z < 0.06) galaxies for which we have constructed surface photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The distributions of the thermonuclear supernovae (SN Ia) and some varieties of core-collapse supernovae (SN II and SN Ib) follow the galaxy light, but the SN Ic (like LGRB) are much more likely to erupt in the brightest regions of their hosts. The high-redshift hosts of LGRB are overwhelmingly irregulars, without bulges, while many low redshift SN Ic hosts are spirals with small bulges. When we remove the bulge light from our low-redshift sample, the SN Ic and LGRB distributions agree extremely well. If both LGRB and SN Ic stem from very massive stars, then it seems plausible that the conditions necessary for forming SN Ic are also required for LGRB. Additional factors, including metallicity, may determine whether the stellar evolution of a massive star leads to a LGRB with an underlying broad-lined SN Ic, or simply a SN Ic without a {gamma}-ray burst.

  17. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Nabki, Frederic; El Gamal, Mourad

    2013-06-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration.

  18. Influence of ionic strength, EDTA concentration, endogenous C1q and polyanions on the 125I-C1q-binding test.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Huijbregts, C C; Paardekooper, J

    1984-08-01

    Several parameters of the 125I-C1q-binding test were investigated: ionic strength, pH, concentration of EDTA, influence of serum C1q and the possibility of interference by polyanions. Lowering the ionic strength of the borate buffer resulted in increased precipitation of 125I-C1q in normal human serum. This increase was dependent on the presence of serum proteins, probably immunoglobulins. When the concentration of the EDTA was decreased, increased precipitation of 125I-C1q in normal human serum was also observed. This was prevented by adding NaCl to the EDTA solution. However at very low concentrations of EDTA (too low to chelate all calcium ions in the serum), increased precipitation of 125I-C1q in normal human serum was observed even in the presence of added NaCl. Addition of purified C1q to sera from patients with very low C1q levels had varying effects on the results of the C1q-binding test: (a) it decreased the C1q-binding activity of some sera, probably by competition with 125I-C1q for binding sites on the immune complexes; (b) it increased the C1q-binding activity of other sera, probably by enhancing the precipitation of immune complexes as a consequence of the cross-linking effect of C1q; or (c) it had no influence, possibly due to the opposite effects of (a) and (b). The addition of dextran sulphate resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the 125I-C1q-binding activity of normal human serum. This effect was dependent on the interaction of dextran sulphate with either C1q or low-density lipoproteins and was prevented by addition of polybrene to the assay. However, addition of polybrene to sera with a high C1q-binding activity scarcely influenced binding activity.

  19. Development of Novel Coupling Method for Biochemical IC Family and Micro Chemical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tadahiro; Ikuta, Koji

    We developed a simple and effective coupling method “silicone rubber coupling method” for interconnecting modular micro fluidic devices such as “Biochemical IC Family” proposed by Ikuta. This coupling method utilizes thin silicone rubber films and the holder unit. The biochemical IC chips are stacked up into the holder unit. And reusable thin silicone rubber films formed by a polymer mold are sandwiched between the IC chips. This simple coupler provided a good seal under high pressure (>400 kPa). Moreover, the experiments of this method showed that the maximum leakage pressure increases while the thickness of the silicone rubber gets thin, differing from general sealing technology “O-ring”. Thin coupling part is effective in practical use. This method is useful not only for the biochemical IC chips but also other micro fluidic devices.

  20. 89. PARTIAL VIEW OF THE IC&C CO. SITE SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. PARTIAL VIEW OF THE IC&C CO. SITE SHOWING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AERIAL TIPPLE, BATHHOUSE, CARPENTER SHOP AND TANK BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  1. ASASSN-16fv: Discovery of A Nuclear Transient in IC 4705

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Nicholls, B.; Brown, J. S.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Basu, U.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Fernandez, J. M.; Masi, G.; Wiethoff, W.

    2016-06-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a nuclear transient in the galaxy IC 4705.

  2. Dr. Wernher Von Braun leads a tour of the S-IC checkout area.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees, Charles Schultze, James Webb, Elmer Staats, Comptroller General of the United States, and Dr. Wernher Von Braun tour the S-IC checkout area in the Marshall Space Flight Center quality lab.

  3. Factors That Improve RT-QuIC Detection of Prion Seeding Activity.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; Groveman, Bradley R; Campbell, Katrina J; Anson, Kelsie J; Manca, Matteo; Kraus, Allison; Caughey, Byron

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of prions is important in managing prion diseases. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay for prion seeding activity has been applied to many prion diseases and provides for specific antemortem diagnostic testing. We evaluated RT-QuIC's long-term consistency and varied multiple reaction parameters. Repeated assays of a single scrapie sample using multiple plate readers and recombinant prion protein (rPrP(Sen)) substrates gave comparable results. N-terminal truncated hamster rPrP(Sen) (residues 90-231) hastened both prion-seeded and prion-independent reactions but maintained a clear kinetic distinction between the two. Raising temperatures or shaking speeds accelerated RT-QuIC reactions without compromising specificity. When applied to nasal brushings from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, higher temperatures accelerated RT-QuIC kinetics, and the use of hamster rPrP(Sen) (90-231) strengthened RT-QuIC responses. Elongation of shaking periods reduced scrapie-seeded reaction times, but continuous shaking promoted false-positive reactions. Furthermore, pH 7.4 provided for more rapid RT-QuIC reactions than more acidic pHs. Additionally, we show that small variations in the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly impacted the assay. Finally, RT-QuIC performed in multiplate thermoshakers followed by fluorescence readings in separate plate readers enhanced assay throughput economically. Collectively, these results demonstrate improved speed, efficacy and practicality of RT-QuIC assays and highlight variables to be optimized for future applications. PMID:27223300

  4. Factors That Improve RT-QuIC Detection of Prion Seeding Activity.

    PubMed

    Orrú, Christina D; Hughson, Andrew G; Groveman, Bradley R; Campbell, Katrina J; Anson, Kelsie J; Manca, Matteo; Kraus, Allison; Caughey, Byron

    2016-05-23

    Rapid and sensitive detection of prions is important in managing prion diseases. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay for prion seeding activity has been applied to many prion diseases and provides for specific antemortem diagnostic testing. We evaluated RT-QuIC's long-term consistency and varied multiple reaction parameters. Repeated assays of a single scrapie sample using multiple plate readers and recombinant prion protein (rPrP(Sen)) substrates gave comparable results. N-terminal truncated hamster rPrP(Sen) (residues 90-231) hastened both prion-seeded and prion-independent reactions but maintained a clear kinetic distinction between the two. Raising temperatures or shaking speeds accelerated RT-QuIC reactions without compromising specificity. When applied to nasal brushings from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, higher temperatures accelerated RT-QuIC kinetics, and the use of hamster rPrP(Sen) (90-231) strengthened RT-QuIC responses. Elongation of shaking periods reduced scrapie-seeded reaction times, but continuous shaking promoted false-positive reactions. Furthermore, pH 7.4 provided for more rapid RT-QuIC reactions than more acidic pHs. Additionally, we show that small variations in the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly impacted the assay. Finally, RT-QuIC performed in multiplate thermoshakers followed by fluorescence readings in separate plate readers enhanced assay throughput economically. Collectively, these results demonstrate improved speed, efficacy and practicality of RT-QuIC assays and highlight variables to be optimized for future applications.

  5. Fuel Tank Assembly of the Saturn V S-IC Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The fuel tank assembly of the Saturn V S-IC (first) stage is readied to be mated to the liquid oxygen tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The fuel tank carried kerosene as its fuel. The S-IC stage utilized five F-1 engines that used kerosene and liquid oxygen as propellant. Each engine provided 1,500,000 pounds of thrust. This stage lifted the entire vehicle and Apollo spacecraft from the launch pad.

  6. Functional Analysis of a Rickettsial OmpA Homology Domain of Shigella flexneri IcsA

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Macarthur; Magdalena, Juana; Theriot, Julie A.; Goldberg, Marcia B.

    1999-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is a gram-negative bacterium that causes diarrhea and dysentery by invasion and spread through the colonic epithelium. Bacteria spread by assembling actin and other cytoskeletal proteins of the host into “actin tails” at the bacterial pole; actin tail assembly provides the force required to move bacteria through the cell cytoplasm and into adjacent cells. The 120-kDa S. flexneri outer membrane protein IcsA is essential for actin assembly. IcsA is anchored in the outer membrane by a carboxy-terminal domain (the β domain), such that the amino-terminal 706 amino acid residues (the α domain) are exposed on the exterior of the bacillus. The α domain is therefore likely to contain the domains that are important to interactions with host factors. We identify and characterize a domain of IcsA within the α domain that bears significant sequence similarity to two repeated domains of rickettsial OmpA, which has been implicated in rickettsial actin tail formation. Strains of S. flexneri and Escherichia coli that carry derivatives of IcsA containing deletions within this domain display loss of actin recruitment and increased accessibility to IcsA-specific antibody on the surface of intracytoplasmic bacteria. However, site-directed mutagenesis of charged residues within this domain results in actin assembly that is indistinguishable from that of the wild type, and in vitro competition of a polypeptide of this domain fused to glutathione S-transferase did not alter the motility of the wild-type construct. Taken together, our data suggest that the rickettsial homology domain of IcsA is required for the proper conformation of IcsA and that its disruption leads to loss of interactions of other IcsA domains within the amino terminus with host cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:9922250

  7. Magnetic force microscopy/current contrast imaging: A new technique for internal current probing of ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Dodd, B.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This invited paper describes recently reported work on the application of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image currents in IC conductors [1]. A computer model for MFM imaging of IC currents and experimental results demonstrating the ability to determine current direction and magnitude with a resolution of {approximately} 1 mA dc and {approximately} 1 {mu}A ac are presented. The physics of MFM signal generation and applications to current imaging and measurement are described.

  8. AVP-IC50 Pred: Multiple machine learning techniques-based prediction of peptide antiviral activity in terms of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abid; Tandon, Himani; Kumar, Manoj

    2015-11-01

    Peptide-based antiviral therapeutics has gradually paved their way into mainstream drug discovery research. Experimental determination of peptides' antiviral activity as expressed by their IC50 values involves a lot of effort. Therefore, we have developed "AVP-IC50 Pred," a regression-based algorithm to predict the antiviral activity in terms of IC50 values (μM). A total of 759 non-redundant peptides from AVPdb and HIPdb were divided into a training/test set having 683 peptides (T(683)) and a validation set with 76 independent peptides (V(76)) for evaluation. We utilized important peptide sequence features like amino-acid compositions, binary profile of N8-C8 residues, physicochemical properties and their hybrids. Four different machine learning techniques (MLTs) namely Support vector machine, Random Forest, Instance-based classifier, and K-Star were employed. During 10-fold cross validation, we achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) of 0.66, 0.64, 0.56, 0.55, respectively, for the above MLTs using the best combination of feature sets. All the predictive models also performed well on the independent validation dataset and achieved maximum PCCs of 0.74, 0.68, 0.59, 0.57, respectively, on the best combination of feature sets. The AVP-IC50 Pred web server is anticipated to assist the researchers working on antiviral therapeutics by enabling them to computationally screen many compounds and focus experimental validation on the most promising set of peptides, thus reducing cost and time efforts. The server is available at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/ic50avp.

  9. Silicon photonics-wireless interface ICs for micro-/millimeter-wave fiber-wireless networks.

    PubMed

    Ko, Minsu; Lee, Myung-Jae; Rücker, Holger; Choi, Woo-Young

    2013-09-23

    We present two types of Si photonics-wireless interface (PWI) integrated circuits (ICs) realized in standard Si technology. Our PWI ICs convert optical signals into radio-frequency (RF) signals for downlink remote antenna units in fiber-wireless networks. Characterization and modeling of Si avalanche photodetectors (APDs) fabricated in two different Si technologies are carried out and used for PWI IC design. A 5-GHz RF-over-fiber PWI IC composed of APD, preamplifier, and power amplifier (PA) is fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS technology and its performance is verified by 54-Mb/s wireless local area network data transmission. A 60-GHz baseband-over-fiber PWI IC containing APD, baseband photoreceiver, 60-GHz binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulator, and 60-GHz PA is realized in 0.25-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. Error-free transmission of 1.6-Gb/s BPSK data in 60 GHz with this PWI IC is successfully achieved. PMID:24104180

  10. A New Interface for the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Shaar, R.; Jonestrask, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of uploading data, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Data uploading has been simplified and no longer requires the use of the Excel SmartBook interface. Instead, properly formatted MagIC text files can be dragged-and-dropped onto an HTML 5 web interface. Data can be uploaded one table at a time to facilitate ease of uploading and data error checking is done online on the whole dataset at once instead of incrementally in an Excel Console. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the ability to use them in complex combinations. Searches may also be saved as permanent URLs for easy reference or for use as a citation in a publication. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. Data from the MagIC database may be downloaded from individual contributions or from online searches for offline use and analysis in the tab delimited MagIC text file format. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  11. Length of dsRNA (poly I:C) drives distinct innate immune responses, depending on the cell type.

    PubMed

    Mian, M Firoz; Ahmed, Amna N; Rad, Mehrnaz; Babaian, Artem; Bowdish, Dawn; Ashkar, Ali A

    2013-11-01

    Poly I:C, a synthetic dsRNA analogue, has been used extensively for decades to study innate responses in vivo and in different cell types. We have found substantial variability while using poly I:C from different sources. In this study we found that poly I:C from 2 commercial sources induced sharply opposite responses in myeloid and fibroblasts, depending on the length of the poly I:C. Although short poly I:C (≈ 1-1.5 kb) induced greater amounts of TNF-α, IL-8, and IFN-β and a stronger antiviral response in myeloid cells, it was a poor inducer in fibroblasts. By contrast, long poly I:C (>5 kb) preferentially elicited higher cytokine and antiviral responses in fibroblasts and showed diminished responses in myeloid cells. Poly I:C activated NF-κB and STAT-1 signaling in a length- and cell-type-dependent fashion. Mechanistically, short poly I:C was better internalized in the myeloid cells and long poly I:C in the fibroblasts. Finally, long poly I:C required SR-A, whereas short poly I:C required RIG-I and Raftlin. We provide evidence that the length of dsRNA drives distinct innate responses in different cell lineages. These findings may augment in selecting the appropriate poly I:C type to design cell-type-specific potent adjuvants for vaccines against infectious diseases or cancers. PMID:23911868

  12. Qualification of the First ICS-3000 ION Chromatograph for use at the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T; Mahannah, R.

    2011-07-05

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-13 has been qualified for use. The qualification was a head to head comparison of the ICS-3000 with the currently used DX-500 IC system. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. Based upon the successful qualification of the ICS-3000 in M-13, it is recommended that this task proceed in developing the data to qualify, by a head to head comparison of the two ICS-3000 instruments, a second ICS-3000 to be installed in M-14. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, organic acid constituents, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has been using Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems since 1998. The vendor informed DWPF in 2006 that the instruments would no longer be supported by service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance

  13. Modulation of human neutrophil apoptosis by immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Gamberale, R; Giordano, M; Trevani, A S; Andonegui, G; Geffner, J R

    1998-10-01

    In the present study we examined whether immune complexes (IC) are able to modulate human neutrophil apoptosis. We observed different effects depending on the type of IC employed. Precipitating IC (pIC) and Ab-coated erythrocytes (E-IgG) triggered a marked stimulation of apoptosis, while heat-aggregated IgG and soluble IC, significantly delayed spontaneous apoptosis. Blocking Abs directed to Fcgamma receptor type II (FcgammaRII), but not to FcgammaRIII, markedly diminished the acceleration of apoptosis triggered by either pIC or E-IgG, supporting a critical role for FcgammaRII in apoptosis stimulation. This phenomenon, on the other hand, does not appear to involve IC phagocytosis or the participation of CR3. Acceleration of neutrophil apoptosis triggered by either pIC or E-IgG seems to require the activation of the respiratory burst, as suggested by 1) the ability of catalase to prevent apoptosis stimulation; 2) the effect of azide, an heme enzyme inhibitor, which dramatically enhanced apoptosis induced by pIC or E-IgG; and 3) the inability of pIC or E-IgG to accelerate apoptosis of neutrophils isolated from CGD patients. It is well established that IC affect the course of inflammation by inducing the release of inflammatory cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, oxidative agents, and other toxic molecules. Our results suggest that IC may also affect the course of inflammation by virtue of their ability to modulate neutrophil apoptosis.

  14. A contact-lens-shaped IC chip technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ching-Yu; Yang, Frank; Teng, Chih-Chiao; Fan, Long-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    We report on novel contact-lens-shaped silicon integrated circuit chip technology for applications such as forming a conforming retinal prosthesis. This is achieved by means of patterning thin films of high residual stress on top of a shaped thin silicon substrate. Several strategies are employed to achieve curvatures of various amounts. Firstly, high residual stress on a thin film makes a thin chip deform into a designed three-dimensional shape. Also, a series of patterned stress films and ‘petal-shaped’ chips were fabricated and analyzed. Large curvatures can also be formed and maintained by the packaging process of bonding the chips to constraining elements such as thin-film polymer ring structures. As a demonstration, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor (CMOS) image-sensing retina chip is made into a contact-lens shape conforming to a human eyeball 12.5 mm in radius. This non-planar and flexible chip technology provides a desirable device surface interface to soft tissues or non-planar bio surfaces and opens up many other possibilities for biomedical applications.

  15. Knockdown of Inner Arm Protein IC138 in Trypanosoma brucei Causes Defective Motility and Flagellar Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Corinne S.; Chang, Alex J.; Greene, Rebecca; Machado, Sulynn; Parsons, Matthew W.; Takats, Taylor A.; Zambetti, Luke J.; Springer, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Motility in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is conferred by a single flagellum, attached alongside the cell, which moves the cell forward using a beat that is generated from tip-to-base. We are interested in characterizing components that regulate flagellar beating, in this study we extend the characterization of TbIC138, the ortholog of a dynein intermediate chain that regulates axonemal inner arm dynein f/I1. TbIC138 was tagged In situ-and shown to fractionate with the inner arm components of the flagellum. RNAi knockdown of TbIC138 resulted in significantly reduced protein levels, mild growth defect and significant motility defects. These cells tended to cluster, exhibited slow and abnormal motility and some cells had partially or fully detached flagella. Slight but significant increases were observed in the incidence of mis-localized or missing kinetoplasts. To document development of the TbIC138 knockdown phenotype over time, we performed a detailed analysis of flagellar detachment and motility changes over 108 hours following induction of RNAi. Abnormal motility, such as slow twitching or irregular beating, was observed early, and became progressively more severe such that by 72 hours-post-induction, approximately 80% of the cells were immotile. Progressively more cells exhibited flagellar detachment over time, but this phenotype was not as prevalent as immotility, affecting less than 60% of the population. Detached flagella had abnormal beating, but abnormal beating was also observed in cells with no flagellar detachment, suggesting that TbIC138 has a direct, or primary, effect on the flagellar beat, whereas detachment is a secondary phenotype of TbIC138 knockdown. Our results are consistent with the role of TbIC138 as a regulator of motility, and has a phenotype amenable to more extensive structure-function analyses to further elucidate its role in the control of flagellar beat in T. brucei. PMID:26555902

  16. Knockdown of Inner Arm Protein IC138 in Trypanosoma brucei Causes Defective Motility and Flagellar Detachment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Corinne S; Chang, Alex J; Greene, Rebecca; Machado, Sulynn; Parsons, Matthew W; Takats, Taylor A; Zambetti, Luke J; Springer, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Motility in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is conferred by a single flagellum, attached alongside the cell, which moves the cell forward using a beat that is generated from tip-to-base. We are interested in characterizing components that regulate flagellar beating, in this study we extend the characterization of TbIC138, the ortholog of a dynein intermediate chain that regulates axonemal inner arm dynein f/I1. TbIC138 was tagged In situ-and shown to fractionate with the inner arm components of the flagellum. RNAi knockdown of TbIC138 resulted in significantly reduced protein levels, mild growth defect and significant motility defects. These cells tended to cluster, exhibited slow and abnormal motility and some cells had partially or fully detached flagella. Slight but significant increases were observed in the incidence of mis-localized or missing kinetoplasts. To document development of the TbIC138 knockdown phenotype over time, we performed a detailed analysis of flagellar detachment and motility changes over 108 hours following induction of RNAi. Abnormal motility, such as slow twitching or irregular beating, was observed early, and became progressively more severe such that by 72 hours-post-induction, approximately 80% of the cells were immotile. Progressively more cells exhibited flagellar detachment over time, but this phenotype was not as prevalent as immotility, affecting less than 60% of the population. Detached flagella had abnormal beating, but abnormal beating was also observed in cells with no flagellar detachment, suggesting that TbIC138 has a direct, or primary, effect on the flagellar beat, whereas detachment is a secondary phenotype of TbIC138 knockdown. Our results are consistent with the role of TbIC138 as a regulator of motility, and has a phenotype amenable to more extensive structure-function analyses to further elucidate its role in the control of flagellar beat in T. brucei. PMID:26555902

  17. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    SciTech Connect

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-12-20

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s{sup –1} lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s{sup –1} across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10{sup 7} (d/805 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉} and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10{sup 5} (d/805 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}. An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall.

  18. ICS logging solution for network-based attacks using Gumistix technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Jeremy R.; Berman, Dustin; Butts, Jonathan; Lopez, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) monitor and control operations associated with the national critical infrastructure (e.g., electric power grid, oil and gas pipelines and water treatment facilities). These systems rely on technologies and architectures that were designed for system reliability and availability. Security associated with ICS was never an inherent concern, primarily due to the protections afforded by network isolation. However, a trend in ICS operations is to migrate to commercial networks via TCP/IP in order to leverage commodity benefits and cost savings. As a result, system vulnerabilities are now exposed to the online community. Indeed, recent research has demonstrated that many exposed ICS devices are being discovered using readily available applications (e.g., ShodanHQ search engine and Google-esque queries). Due to the lack of security and logging capabilities for ICS, most knowledge about attacks are derived from real world incidents after an attack has already been carried out and the damage has been done. This research provides a method for introducing sensors into the ICS environment that collect information about network-based attacks. The sensors are developed using an inexpensive Gumstix platform that can be deployed and incorporated with production systems. Data obtained from the sensors provide insight into attack tactics (e.g., port scans, Nessus scans, Metasploit modules, and zero-day exploits) and characteristics (e.g., attack origin, frequency, and level of persistence). Findings enable security professionals to draw an accurate, real-time awareness of the threats against ICS devices and help shift the security posture from reactionary to preventative.

  19. Factors That Improve RT-QuIC Detection of Prion Seeding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Orrú, Christina D.; Hughson, Andrew G.; Groveman, Bradley R.; Campbell, Katrina J.; Anson, Kelsie J.; Manca, Matteo; Kraus, Allison; Caughey, Byron

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of prions is important in managing prion diseases. The real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay for prion seeding activity has been applied to many prion diseases and provides for specific antemortem diagnostic testing. We evaluated RT-QuIC’s long-term consistency and varied multiple reaction parameters. Repeated assays of a single scrapie sample using multiple plate readers and recombinant prion protein (rPrPSen) substrates gave comparable results. N-terminal truncated hamster rPrPSen (residues 90–231) hastened both prion-seeded and prion-independent reactions but maintained a clear kinetic distinction between the two. Raising temperatures or shaking speeds accelerated RT-QuIC reactions without compromising specificity. When applied to nasal brushings from Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients, higher temperatures accelerated RT-QuIC kinetics, and the use of hamster rPrPSen (90–231) strengthened RT-QuIC responses. Elongation of shaking periods reduced scrapie-seeded reaction times, but continuous shaking promoted false-positive reactions. Furthermore, pH 7.4 provided for more rapid RT-QuIC reactions than more acidic pHs. Additionally, we show that small variations in the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) significantly impacted the assay. Finally, RT-QuIC performed in multiplate thermoshakers followed by fluorescence readings in separate plate readers enhanced assay throughput economically. Collectively, these results demonstrate improved speed, efficacy and practicality of RT-QuIC assays and highlight variables to be optimized for future applications. PMID:27223300

  20. An IC-PLS framework for group corticomuscular coupling analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; He, Chen; Wang, Z Jane; McKeown, Martin J

    2013-07-01

    Corticomuscular coupling analysis, i.e., examining the relations between simultaneously recorded brain (e.g., electroencephalography--EEG) and muscle (e.g., electro-myography-EMG) signals, is a useful tool for understanding aspects of human motor control. Traditionally, the most popular method to assess corticomuscular coupling has been the pairwise magnitude-squared coherence (MSC) between EEG and concomitant EMG recordings. In this paper, we propose assessing corticomuscular coupling by combining partial least squares (PLS) and independent component analysis (ICA), which addresses many of the limitations of MSC, such as difficulty in robustly assessing group inference and relying on the biologically implausible assumption of pairwise interaction between brain and muscle recordings. In the proposed framework, response relevance and statistical independence are jointly incorporated into a multiobjective optimization function to meaningfully combine the goals of PLS and ICA under the same mathematical umbrella. Simulations, performed under realistic assumptions, illustrated the utility of such an approach. The method was extended to address intersubject variability to robustly discover common corticomuscular coupling patterns across subjects. We then applied the proposed framework to concurrent EEG and EMG data collected in a Parkinson's disease (PD) study. The results from applying the proposed technique revealed temporal components in the EEG and EMG that were significantly correlated with one another. In addition to the expected motor areas, the corresponding spatial activation patterns demonstrated enhanced occipital connectivity in PD subjects, consistent with previous studies suggesting that PD subjects rely excessively on visual information to counteract the deficiency in being able to generate internal commands from their affected basal ganglia.

  1. Cloning of a novel cryIC-type gene from a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae.

    PubMed

    Kalman, S; Kiehne, K L; Libs, J L; Yamamoto, T

    1993-04-01

    A novel cryIC-type gene was isolated from a strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae. A new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique with a set of several oligonucleotide primer pairs specific to the cryIC gene was used to screen a number of B. thuringiensis strains. PCR amplified several DNA fragments ranging from 100 bp to 1 kb for B. thuringiensis strains containing a cryIC gene. PCR fragments amplified from the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae HD29 DNA differed from the fragments amplified from other cryIC-containing strains, indicating strain HD29 contained a novel cryIC-type gene. To isolate crystal genes homologous to cryIC, an HD29 gene library was probed with a 984-bp fragment of the amino-terminal coding region of the cryIC gene cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai HD229. A putative toxin gene was isolated from a phage that hybridized strongly to the cryIC probe. Translation of the putative toxin DNA sequence revealed an open reading frame of 1,176 amino acids whose predicted molecular mass was 132.8 kDa. Comparisons of the toxin gene sequence with sequences of other cry genes indicated that this gene is a subclass of cryIC. We propose to designate this gene cryIC(b). In Escherichia coli, the cryIC(b) gene produced a protein of approximately 130 kDa toxic to Spodoptera exigua and Trichoplusia ni.

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum

    SciTech Connect

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Badarau, Adriana; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2008-02-01

    APH(2′′)-Ic is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. gallinarum isolates. Crystals of the wild-type enzyme and three mutants have been prepared and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2′′)-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14–20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl{sub 2}, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg{sub 2}GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 Å, β = 108.8°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA.

  3. Development of Quantum Chemical Method to Calculate Half Maximal Inhibitory Concentration (IC50 ).

    PubMed

    Bag, Arijit; Ghorai, Pradip Kr

    2016-05-01

    Till date theoretical calculation of the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of a compound is based on different Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models which are empirical methods. By using the Cheng-Prusoff equation it may be possible to compute IC50 , but this will be computationally very expensive as it requires explicit calculation of binding free energy of an inhibitor with respective protein or enzyme. In this article, for the first time we report an ab initio method to compute IC50 of a compound based only on the inhibitor itself where the effect of the protein is reflected through a proportionality constant. By using basic enzyme inhibition kinetics and thermodynamic relations, we derive an expression of IC50 in terms of hydrophobicity, electric dipole moment (μ) and reactivity descriptor (ω) of an inhibitor. We implement this theory to compute IC50 of 15 HIV-1 capsid inhibitors and compared them with experimental results and available other QASR based empirical results. Calculated values using our method are in very good agreement with the experimental values compared to the values calculated using other methods. PMID:27492086

  4. Determination of halogens and sulfur in high-purity polyimide by IC after digestion by MIC.

    PubMed

    Krzyzaniak, Sindy R; Santos, Rafael F; Dalla Nora, Flavia M; Cruz, Sandra M; Flores, Erico M M; Mello, Paola A

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A relatively high polyimide mass (600mg) was completely digested by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) using 20bar of O2 and 50mmolL(-1) NH4OH as absorbing solution. These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content (<10mgL(-1)) and suitable pH for analysis by both IC and ICP-MS. The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes. No statistical difference (t-test, 95% of confidence level) was observed between the results obtained for Cl, Br and S by IC after MIC and the certified values. In addition, spike recoveries obtained for F, Cl, Br, I and S ranged from 94% to 101%. The proposed method was suitable for polyimide decomposition for further determination of halogens and sulfur by IC and by ICP-MS (Br and I only). Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS. PMID:27343595

  5. Protective efficacy of the chimeric Staphylococcus aureus vaccine candidate IC in sepsis and pneumonia models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liuyang; Cai, Changzhi; Feng, Qiang; Shi, Yun; Zuo, Qianfei; Yang, Huijie; Jing, Haiming; Wei, Chao; Zhuang, Yuan; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes serious sepsis and necrotic pneumonia worldwide. Due to the spread of multidrug-resistant strains, developing an effective vaccine is the most promising method for combating S. aureus infection. In this study, based on the immune-dominant areas of the iron surface determinant B (IsdB) and clumping factor A (ClfA), we designed the novel chimeric vaccine IsdB151-277ClfA33-213 (IC). IC formulated with the AlPO4 adjuvant induced higher protection in an S. aureus sepsis model compared with the single components alone and showed broad immune protection against several clinical S. aureus isolates. Immunisation with IC induced strong antibody responses. The protective effect of antibodies was demonstrated through the opsonophagocytic assay (OPA) and passive immunisation experiment. Moreover, this new chimeric vaccine induced Th1/Th17-skewed cellular immune responses based on cytokine profiles and CD4+ T cell stimulation tests. Neutralisation of IL-17A alone (but not IFN-γ) resulted in a significant decrease in vaccine immune protection. Finally, we found that IC showed protective efficacy in a pneumonia model. Taken together, these data provide evidence that IC is a potentially promising vaccine candidate for combating S. aureus sepsis and pneumonia. PMID:26865417

  6. Determination of halogens and sulfur in high-purity polyimide by IC after digestion by MIC.

    PubMed

    Krzyzaniak, Sindy R; Santos, Rafael F; Dalla Nora, Flavia M; Cruz, Sandra M; Flores, Erico M M; Mello, Paola A

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a method for sample preparation of high-purity polyimide was proposed for halogens and sulfur determination by ion chromatography (IC) with conductivity detection and, alternatively, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A relatively high polyimide mass (600mg) was completely digested by microwave-induced combustion (MIC) using 20bar of O2 and 50mmolL(-1) NH4OH as absorbing solution. These conditions allowed final solutions with low carbon content (<10mgL(-1)) and suitable pH for analysis by both IC and ICP-MS. The accuracy was evaluated using a certified reference material of polymer for Cl, Br and S and spike recovery experiments for all analytes. No statistical difference (t-test, 95% of confidence level) was observed between the results obtained for Cl, Br and S by IC after MIC and the certified values. In addition, spike recoveries obtained for F, Cl, Br, I and S ranged from 94% to 101%. The proposed method was suitable for polyimide decomposition for further determination of halogens and sulfur by IC and by ICP-MS (Br and I only). Taking into account the lack of methods and the difficulty of bringing this material into solution, MIC can be considered as a suitable alternative for the decomposition of polyimide for routine quality control of halogens and sulfur using IC or ICP-MS.

  7. Optical observations of the broad-lined type Ic supernova SN 2012ap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Zhao, Xu-Lin; Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Tian-Meng; Chen, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Tong-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The optical observations of the type Ic supernova (SN Ic) SN 2012ap in NGC 1729 are presented. A comparison with other SNe Ic indicates that SN 2012ap is highly reddened (with E(B — V)host~0.8 mag) and may represent one of the most luminous SNe Ic ever observed, with an absolute V-band peak magnitude of ~ -19.3±0.5 mag after extinction correction. The near-maximum-light spectrum shows wide spectral features that are typical of broad-lined SNe Ic. One interesting feature in the spectrum is the appearance of some narrow absorption features that can be attributed to the diffuse interstellar bands, consistent with the large reddening inferred from the photometric method. Based on the light curves and the spectral data, we estimate that SN 2012ap produced a 56Ni mass of ~ 0.3 ± 0.1Msolar 1 in the explosion, with an ejecta mass of 2.4-0.7+0.7Msolar and a kinetic energy of EK = 1.1-0.4+0.4 × 1052 erg. The properties of its progenitor are also briefly discussed.

  8. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  9. Poly I:C induced microglial activation impairs motor activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Patro, I K; Amit; Shrivastava, M; Bhumika, S; Patro, N

    2010-02-01

    Polyinosinic:polycytidic acid (poly I:C) is a synthetic double stranded RNA, which mimics with viral genome and mediates immune activation response similar to double stranded RNA virus infection into the brain. Microglial cells are the immune competent cells of the central nervous system having Toll like receptors-3 on their surface. Upon establishing that poly I:C infusion into the brain causes microgliosis by creating a viral infection model, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of microglial activation following poly I:C infusion on motor activity. We infused 100 microl of 1% solution of Poly I:C in TBE buffer directly into the lateral ventricle and TBE buffer as vehicle to controls. A significantly higher microglial cell count as compared to control on 2, 3 and 7 days post infusion was recorded. Motor activity and microglial cell count was assessed in both controls and poly I:C infused rats on 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post infusion. A significant decrease in motor activity and motor coordination occurred with respect to control. The results clearly demonstrate that microglial activation has a direct relevance with decreased motor activity. Findings could also have their importance in understanding the role of microglial cells on behavioral aspects in viral diseases.

  10. Improvements to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Paleo and Rock Magnetic Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Tauxe, L.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetic Information Consortium (MagIC) database (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) continues to improve the ease of data uploading and editing, the creation of complex searches, data visualization, and data downloads for the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities. Online data editing is now available and the need for proprietary spreadsheet software is therefore entirely negated. The data owner can change values in the database or delete entries through an HTML 5 web interface that resembles typical spreadsheets in behavior and uses. Additive uploading now allows for additions to data sets to be uploaded with a simple drag and drop interface. Searching the database has improved with the addition of more sophisticated search parameters and with the facility to use them in complex combinations. A comprehensive summary view of a search result has been added for increased quick data comprehension while a raw data view is available if one desires to see all data columns as stored in the database. Data visualization plots (ARAI, equal area, demagnetization, Zijderveld, etc.) are presented with the data when appropriate to aid the user in understanding the dataset. MagIC data associated with individual contributions or from online searches may be downloaded in the tab delimited MagIC text file format for susbsequent offline use and analysis. With input from the paleomagnetic, geomagnetic, and rock magnetic communities, the MagIC database will continue to improve as a data warehouse and resource.

  11. Constraining the Cosmic-ray Acceleration Efficiency in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchey, Adam Michael; Federman, Steven R.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Caprioli, Damiano; Wallerstein, George

    2015-08-01

    Supernova remnants are widely believed to be the sources responsible for the acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays. Over the last several years, observations made with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have confirmed that cosmic-ray nuclei are indeed accelerated in some supernova remnants, including IC 443, which is a prototype for supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds. However, the details concerning the particle acceleration processes in middle aged remnants are not fully understood, in part because the basic model parameters are not always well constrained. Here, we present preliminary results of a Hubble Space Telescope investigation into the physical conditions in diffuse molecular gas interacting with IC 443. We examine high-resolution FUV spectra of two stars, one that probes the interior region of the supernova remnant, and the other located just outside the visible edge of IC 443. With this arrangement, we are able to evaluate the densities and temperatures in neutral gas clumps positioned both ahead of and behind the supernova shock front. From these measurements, we obtain estimates for the post-shock temperature and the shock velocity in the interclump medium. We discuss the efficacy of these results for constraining both the age of IC 443, and also the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency. Finally, we report the first detection of boron in a supernova remnant, and discuss the usefulness of the B/O ratio in constraining the cosmic-ray content of the gas interacting with IC 443.

  12. A nu-space for ICS: characterization and application to measure protein transport in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Chen, Lingfeng; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new generalized theoretical framework for image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). Using this framework, we extend the ICS method in time-frequency (ν, nu) space to map molecular flow of fluorescently tagged proteins in individual living cells. Even in the presence of a dominant immobile population of fluorescent molecules, nu-space ICS (nICS) provides an unbiased velocity measurement, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the flow, without requiring filtering. We also develop and characterize a tunable frequency-filter for STICS that allows quantification of the density, the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of biased diffusion. We show that the techniques are accurate over a wide range of parameter space in computer simulation. We then characterize the retrograde flow of adhesion proteins (α6- and αLβ2-GFP integrins and mCherry-paxillin) in CHO.B2 cells plated on laminin and ICAM ligands respectively. STICS with a tunable frequency filter, in conjunction with nICS, measures two new transport parameters, the density and transport bias coefficient (a measure of the diffusive character of a flow/biased diffusion), showing that molecular flow in this cell system has a significant diffusive component. Our results suggest that the integrinligand interaction, along with the internal myosin-motor generated force, varies for different integrin-ligand pairs, consistent with previous results. PMID:24223019

  13. Use of optical technique for inspection of warpage of IC packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, Siew-Lok; Chau, Fook S.; Ong, Sim Heng

    2001-06-01

    The packaging of IC packages has changed over the years, form dual-in-line, wire-bond, and pin-through-hole in printed wiring board technologies in the 1970s to ball grid array, chip scale and surface mount technologies in the 1990s. Reliability has been a big problem for manufacturers for some moisture-sensitive packages. One of the potential problems in plastic IC packages is moisture-induced popcorn effect which can arise during the reflow process. Shearography is a non-destructive inspection technique that may be used to detect the delamination and warpage of IC packages. It is non-contacting and permits a full-field observation of surface displacement derivatives. Another advantage of this technique is that it is able to give the real-time formation of the fringes which indicate flaws in the IC package under real-time simulation condition of Surface Mount Technology (SMT) IR reflow profile. It is extremely fast and convenient to study the true behavior of the packaging deformation during the SMT process. It can be concluded that shearography has the potential for the real- time detection, in situ and non-destructive inspection of IC packages during the surface mount process.

  14. Interdisciplinary Collaboration amongst Colleagues and between Initiatives with the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.; Shaar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Earth science grand challenges often require interdisciplinary and geographically distributed scientific collaboration to make significant progress. However, this organic collaboration between researchers, educators, and students only flourishes with the reduction or elimination of technological barriers. The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the geo-, paleo-, and rock magnetic scientific community to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from studies on natural and synthetic samples. MagIC is dedicated to facilitating scientific progress towards several highly multidisciplinary grand challenges and the MagIC Database team is currently beta testing a new MagIC Search Interface and API designed to be flexible enough for the incorporation of large heterogeneous datasets and for horizontal scalability to tens of millions of records and hundreds of requests per second. In an effort to reduce the barriers to effective collaboration, the search interface includes a simplified data model and upload procedure, support for online editing of datasets amongst team members, commenting by reviewers and colleagues, and automated contribution workflows and data retrieval through the API. This web application has been designed to generalize to other databases in MagIC's umbrella website (EarthRef.org) so the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal, Seamount Biogeosciences Network (http://earthref.org/SBN/), EarthRef Digital Archive (http://earthref.org/ERDA/) and EarthRef Reference Database (http://earthref.org/ERR/) will benefit from its development.

  15. A CCD color-magnitude diagram for the globular cluster IC 4499

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarajedini, Ata

    1993-01-01

    A color-magnitude diagram (CMD) based on CCD observations in B and V is presented for the Galactic globular cluster IC 4499. The CMD reaches the main-sequence turnoff and reveals a horizontal branch (HB) similar to that of M3 in morphology; however, RR Lyrae variables compose 68 percent of the HB stars in IC 4499. We find V(HB) = 17.68 +/- 0.03 mag and, after adopting a metal abundance of (Fe/H)=- 1.65 +/- 0.10, derive a reddening of E(B-V) = 0.15 +/- 0.03 using the color of the red giant branch. We show that the (B-V) color extent of the IC 4499 HB is significantly smaller than that of M3 and NGC 3201. In particular, the red HBs of these clusters appear morphologically indistinguishable, whereas the blue HBs of M3 and NGC 3201 are more extended than that of IC 4499. If this difference is due to a variation in the mass range along the blue HB, we estimate that, in the mean, stars on the blue HB of IC 4499 are at least roughly 0.02 solar mass more massive than similar stars in M3 and NGC 3201.

  16. A modified competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay for the detection of C3a. Use of 125I-C3 instead of 125I-C3a.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Paardekooper, J; Eerenberg, A J; Navis, G O; Nijsten, M W; Thijs, L G; Nuijens, J H

    1988-04-01

    Levels of C3a in plasma are currently measured by a competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay (RIA) in which 125I-C3a is used as a tracer. In this paper, we describe a modification of this RIA: 125I-C3 instead of 125I-C3a is used. The lower limit of detection of this modified RIA is 6 ng of C3a per ml of plasma (i.e. 0.66 nmol/l). This RIA, performed with polyclonal anti-C3a antibodies coupled to a solid phase, appeared to be 30 times more sensitive compared with an RIA in which a monoclonal antibody against C3a is used. In vitro activation of the complement system in serum by aggregated IgG, zymosan, and cobra venom factor resulted in the generation of significant amounts of C3a. Assessment of the C3a levels by the modified RIA in serial plasma samples from patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass, yielded results very similar to those described in the literature for the established C3a-RIA. Thus, the modified C3a-RIA offers a convenient alternative for the detection of C3a in plasma samples.

  17. Enhanced monitoring protocol guidelines for IC engine parameter based compliance monitoring systems. Final report - addendum I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document presents the test plan for testing reciprocating IC engines at natural gas transmission facilities. The testing effort consists of a combination of two industry funded research programs: (1) The Pipeline Research Committee (PRC)/Gas Research Institute (GRI) co-funded program entitled {open_quotes}Development of EMP Guidelines for IC Engine Parameter Monitoring Systems{close_quotes} managed by SECOR International Incorporated; and (2) The Gas Research Institute sponsored program entitled {open_quotes}Measurement of Air Toxics in Engine Exhaust{close_quotes} managed by Radian Corporation. Although these programs have different objectives, as detailed following, the programs share the need for rigorously conducted field testing of IC engines; often referred to as engine {open_quotes}mapping{close_quotes}. Additionally, these programs compete for limited and qualified resources, hence the need and decision to cooperate in the field testing phase of each program.

  18. QUALIFICATION OF THE SECOND ICS-3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPH FOR USE AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T.; Mahannah, R.

    2009-12-03

    The ICS-3000 Ion Chromatography (IC) system installed in 221-S M-14 has been qualified for use. The qualification testing was a head to head comparison of the second ICS-3000 with the initial ICS-3000 system that was installed in 221-S M-13. The crosscheck work included standards for instrument calibration and calibration verifications and standards for individual anion analysis, where the standards were traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In addition the crosscheck work included the analysis of simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt, SRAT Product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) samples, along with radioactive Sludge Batch 5 material from the SRAT and SME tanks. The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requires the analysis of specific anions at various stages of its processing of high level waste (HLW). The anions of interest to the DWPF are fluoride, formate, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate. The anion analysis is used to evaluate process chemistry including formic acid/nitric acid additions to establish optimum conditions for mercury stripping, reduction-oxidation (REDOX) chemistry for the melter, nitrite destruction, etc. The DWPF Laboratory (Lab) has recently replaced the Dionex DX-500 ion chromatography (IC) systems that had been used since 1998 by the first of two new ICS-3000 systems. The replacement effort was necessary due to the vendor of the DX-500 systems no longer supporting service contracts after 2008. DWPF purchased three new ICS-3000 systems in September of 2006. The ICS-3000 instruments are (a) designed to be more stable using an eluent generator to make eluent, (b) require virtually no daily chemical handling by the analysts, (c) require less line breaks in the hood, and (d) generally require less maintenance due to the pump configuration only using water versus the current system where the pump uses various hydroxide concentrations. The ICS-3000

  19. Cryogen-free lkA-class Ic measurement system featuring an 8 T HTS magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, N. M.; Hoffmann, C.; Wimbush, S. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Huang, T.; Lazic, Z.; Chamritski, V.; Talantsev, E. F.; Long, N. J.; Tallon, J. L.

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a cryogen-free critical-current (Ic) measuring system comprising a conduction-cooled 8 T HTS magnet and convection-cooled sample, both cooled by commercial cryocoolers. The sample can be rotated and transport currents of up to 800 A delivered with less than 0.5 K temperature rise during the Ic measurement. The system is automated with respect to variations in temperature (30-90 K), field (0-8 T), and field angle (0-360°). We have used this system to measure HTS wire samples, concentrating on metal-organic deposited YBCO on RABiTS substrates. Particular emphasis is given to the evolution of Ic anisotropy with temperature, and the dangers of extrapolating from 77 K to 30 K.

  20. SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL

    SciTech Connect

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Smith, K.; Chen, T.-W.; Kotak, R.; Nicholl, M.; Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Botticella, M. T.; Ergon, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; and others

    2013-06-20

    We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I {lambda}10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of {sup 56}Co, and would require 1-4 M{sub Sun} of {sup 56}Ni to produce the luminosity. These {sup 56}Ni masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 {approx}< E(10{sup 51} erg) {approx}< 6.9 and ejecta masses of 2.3 {approx}< M{sub ej}(M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx-the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far-points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

  1. Insights Gained for Updating an Analog I&C System to a Digital System

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Carte, N.; Hardesty, Duane; Hardin, LeRoy A; Wilson, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Licensees at both Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) and Non-Power Reactors (NPRs) are increasing their use of state-of-the-art digital technology in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems because digital systems offer improved reactor control, information processing, and information storage over analog. Digital I&C systems can range from experimental systems for reactor control research (at NPRs), to measurement and display systems, to complete reactor console replacements. Because of the increasing difficulty in finding spare parts for their original analog I&C systems, many licensees have begun or have plans to upgrade, refurbish, or replace their old analog I&C systems with digital systems. The perception is that upgrading to a digital I&C system will solve all of a facility s obsolescence problems. However, licensees need to be aware of several issues associated with upgrading to a digital system including obsolescence of the digital system (hardware and software) because of the short product life cycle and the associated cost to acquire, store, and maintain a long-term supply of spare parts. Configuration management and cyber security are also vitally important for any upgrade. Further, it must be recognized that the introduction of software and microprocessors could create new failure mechanisms, such as software errors and increased susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. In fact, experience has shown that these failure mechanisms may cause the reactor to malfunction in a way not previously considered. Thus, a conversion from analog to digital I&C systems solves some problems while potentially introducing others. Recognition of the additional risks coupled with good design, engineering, review, and testing can identify and minimize these risks.

  2. DIONEX ICS3000 ION CHROMATOGRAPHY SYSTEM INSTALLATION AND INSTRUMENT ASSESSMENT FOR SRNL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedenman, B.; White, T.

    2009-11-16

    Ion Chromatography (IC) is routinely used at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for sample analysis and characterization. Results from IC analysis are valued in corrosion control maintenance and measurement programs, remediation waste process control, soil and ground water measurement, nuclear materials processing, and various other research and development programs. Presented in this report are analytical methods developed on a DIONEX ICS3000 Reagent Free Ion Chromatography (RFIC) system located in AD at SRNL. This IC system contains two independent analysis channels comprising of a mobile phase generator, a pump, stationary phase columns, a suppressor and a conductivity detector. One channel is dedicated to anion analysis using Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) as the mobile phase while a second channel is configured for cation analysis using Methanesulfonic Acid (MSA) as the mobile phase. Both channels share an autosampler and the peak analysis software, Chromeleon{reg_sign} v.6.8. Instrument configuration is modified from the manufacturer for radiological service. Listed within this report are Dionex ICS3000 parameters and results for the analysis of routine anions and cations. Additional method parameters and discussion are presented on the analysis of Acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup -}) and Iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup -}). Previous IC analysis instruments at AD have been based upon carbonate/bicarbonate buffer mobile phase chemistry. This report represents a transition to hydroxide as a mobile phase eluent. The hydroxide eluent offers a lower baseline conductivity, which allows for greater sample dilution and/or lower detection limits. Also the hydroxide mobile phase and column set has a significant separation of the phosphate peak from the nitrate and sulfate peaks vs. the carbonate/bicarbonate mobile phase and column set, an advantage for the industrial waste analyzed at SRNL.

  3. Piezo-fluidic Gaseous Fuel MPI System for Natural Gas Fuelled IC Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rui

    A fast response piezo-fluidic gaseous fuel injector system designed for natural gas fuelled internal combustion (IC) engines is described in this paper. The system consists mainly of no moving part fluidic gas injector and piezo controlling interface. It can be arranged as a multi-point injection (MPI) system for IC engine fuel control. Both steady state and dynamic characteristics were investigated on a laboratory test rig. A comprehensive jet attachment and switching simulation model was also developed and reported. The agreement between predicted and experimental results is shown to be good.

  4. High resolution X-ray images of Puppis A and IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Winkler, P. F.; Seward, F. D.; Willingale, R.; Rolf, D.; Woods, N.; Canizares, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Soft X-ray photomosaic images of two supernova remnants, Puppis A and IC 443, constructed from a series of exposures by the Einstein imaging instruments, are presented. The complex morphologies displayed in these images reflect the interaction between 'middle-aged' supernova remnants and various components of the interstellar medium. Surface brightness variations across Puppis A suggest that inhomogeneities on scales from 0.2 to 30 pc are present in the interstellar medium, while the structure of IC 443 is apparently dominated by the interaction between the remnant and a giant molecular cloud.

  5. Illuminating the Depths of the MagIC (Magnetics Information Consortium) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppers, A. A. P.; Minnett, R.; Jarboe, N.; Jonestrask, L.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (http://earthref.org/MagIC/) is a grass-roots cyberinfrastructure effort envisioned by the paleo-, geo-, and rock magnetic scientific community. Its mission is to archive their wealth of peer-reviewed raw data and interpretations from magnetics studies on natural and synthetic samples. Many of these valuable data are legacy datasets that were never published in their entirety, some resided in other databases that are no longer maintained, and others were never digitized from the field notebooks and lab work. Due to the volume of data collected, most studies, modern and legacy, only publish the interpreted results and, occasionally, a subset of the raw data. MagIC is making an extraordinary effort to archive these data in a single data model, including the raw instrument measurements if possible. This facilitates the reproducibility of the interpretations, the re-interpretation of the raw data as the community introduces new techniques, and the compilation of heterogeneous datasets that are otherwise distributed across multiple formats and physical locations. MagIC has developed tools to assist the scientific community in many stages of their workflow. Contributors easily share studies (in a private mode if so desired) in the MagIC Database with colleagues and reviewers prior to publication, publish the data online after the study is peer reviewed, and visualize their data in the context of the rest of the contributions to the MagIC Database. From organizing their data in the MagIC Data Model with an online editable spreadsheet, to validating the integrity of the dataset with automated plots and statistics, MagIC is continually lowering the barriers to transforming dark data into transparent and reproducible datasets. Additionally, this web application generalizes to other databases in MagIC's umbrella website (EarthRef.org) so that the Geochemical Earth Reference Model (http://earthref.org/GERM/) portal, Seamount Biogeosciences

  6. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Complex Bunker House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the S-IC stand, additional related facilities were built during this time frame. Built to the east of the S-IC stand, the block house served as the control room. To the south of the blockhouse was a newly constructed pump house used for delivering water to the S-IC stand during testing. North of the massive test stand, the F-1 Engine test stand was built for testing a single F-1 engine. Just southeast of the S-IC stand a concrete bunker house was constructed. The bunker housed

  7. The MagIC Online Database: Improving the Archive Quality via a New Review System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constable, C.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.; Jarboe, N. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is committed to providing the paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and affiliated scientific communities on-line access to peer-reviewed, published, and raw data, and interpretations, along with online analytics and visualization tools. The MagIC Database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/) is growing rapidly with new rock and paleomagnetic datasets being uploaded daily. Users can upload contributions for private viewing in the context of published data in the MagIC Database and can elect to share an unpublished dataset with a small group of users (e.g. collaborators, journal reviewers, editors, etc.). Once the data are published, the contribution can be associated with a citable reference and made visible to the general public. Rock and paleomagnetic studies vary considerably in complexity and types of results. To accommodate these variable datasets, the MagIC Data Model has evolved into a large collection of tables with hundreds of fields available. Many of these are recommended for use, but not required, providing great flexibility to accommodate minimal information available from legacy datasets at the same time as detailed modern studies. These published and contributed results are priceless to the scientific community, but are not easily accessible for further use without appropriate metadata describing the methods employed in the study. MagIC has developed an internal review system to rapidly assess the accuracy and completeness of the metadata used and to ensure appropriate placement and descriptions of data in the contributions. Experts in the field have volunteered as MagIC editors and reviewers: they comment on the technicalities of archiving the data, (not their scientific merit which remains a task for the journal peer-review system), and provide feedback to the contributor. Successfully reviewed contributions are free of data entry errors and misunderstandings about the data model, and fully document the methods in the

  8. Intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS) on polymer-based, nano-coated disposable targets.

    PubMed

    Bugovsky, Stefan; Winkler, Wolfgang; Balika, Werner; Koranda, Manfred; Allmaier, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Identification and differentiation of microorganisms has and still is a long arduous task, involving culturing of the organism in question on different growth media. This procedure, which is still commonly applied, is an established method, but takes a lot of time, up to several days or even longer. It has thus been a great achievement when other analytical tools like matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry were introduced for faster analysis based on the surface protein pattern. Differentiation and identification of human pathogens as well as plant/animal pathogens is of increasing importance in medical care (e.g. infection, sepsis, and antibiotics resistance), biotechnology, food sciences and detection of biological warfare agents. A distinction between microorganisms on the species and strain level was made by comparing peptide/protein profiles to patterns already stored in databases. These profiles and patterns were obtained from the surface of vegetative forms of microorganisms or even their spores by MALDI MS. Thus, an unknown sample can be compared against a database of known pathogens or microorganisms of interest. To benefit from newly available, metal-based disposable microscope-slide format MALDI targets that promise a clean and even surface at a fraction of the cost from full metal targets or MTP (microtiter plate) format targets, IC/ISMS analysis was performed on these and the data evaluated. Various types of bacteria as well as fungal spores were identified unambiguously on this disposable new type of metal nano-coated targets. The method even allowed differentiation between strains of the same species. The results were compared with those gained from using full metal standard targets and found to be equal or even better in several aspects, making the use of disposable MALDI targets a viable option for use in IC/ISMS, especially e.g. for large sample throughput and highly pathogenic species.

  9. Determining the size and concentration dependence of gold nanoparticles in vitro cytotoxicity (IC50) test using WST-1 assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosli, Nur Shafawati binti; Rahman, Azhar Abdul; Aziz, Azlan Abdul; Shamsuddin, Shaharum

    2015-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) received a great deal of attention for biomedical applications, especially in diagnostic imaging and therapeutics. Even though AuNPs have potential benefits in biomedical applications, the impact of AuNPs on human and environmental health still remains unclear. The use of AuNPs which is a high-atomic-number materials, provide advantages in terms of radiation dose enhancement. However, before this can become a clinical reality, cytotoxicity of the AuNPs has to be carefully evaluated. Cytotoxicity test is a rapid, standardized test that is very sensitive to determine whether the nanoparticles produced are harmful or benign on cellular components. In this work the size and concentration dependence of AuNPs cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7) are tested by using WST-1 assay. The sizes of AuNPs tested were 13 nm, 50 nm, and 70 nm. The cells were seeded in the 96-well plate and were treated with different concentrations of AuNPs by serial dilution for each size of AuNPs. The high concentration of AuNPs exhibit lower cell viability compared to low concentration of AuNPs. We quantified the toxicity of AuNPs in MCF-7 cell lines by determining the IC50 values in WST-1 assays. The IC50 values (inhibitory concentrations that effected 50% growth inhibition) of 50 nm AuNPs is lower than 13 nm and 70 nm AuNPs. Mean that, 50nm AuNPs are more toxic to the MCF-7 cells compared to smaller and larger sizes AuNPs. The presented results clearly indicate that the cytotoxicity of AuNPs depend not only on the concentration, but also the size of the nanoparticles.

  10. Neuron-synapse IC chip-set for large-scale chaotic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Horio, Y; Aihara, K; Yamamoto, O

    2003-01-01

    We propose a neuron-synapse integrated circuit (IC) chip-set for large-scale chaotic neural networks. We use switched-capacitor (SC) circuit techniques to implement a three-internal-state transiently-chaotic neural network model. The SC chaotic neuron chip faithfully reproduces complex chaotic dynamics in real numbers through continuous state variables of the analog circuitry. We can digitally control most of the model parameters by means of programmable capacitive arrays embedded in the SC chaotic neuron chip. Since the output of the neuron is transfered into a digital pulse according to the all-or-nothing property of an axon, we design a synapse chip with digital circuits. We propose a memory-based synapse circuit architecture to achieve a rapid calculation of a vast number of weighted summations. Both of the SC neuron and the digital synapse circuits have been fabricated as IC forms. We have tested these IC chips extensively, and confirmed the functions and performance of the chip-set. The proposed neuron-synapse IC chip-set makes it possible to construct a scalable and reconfigurable large-scale chaotic neural network with 10000 neurons and 10000/sup 2/ synaptic connections. PMID:18244585

  11. The use of light emission in failure analysis of CMOS ICs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.F. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Soden, J.M.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Snyder, E.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The use of photon emission for analyzing failure mechanisms and defects in CMOS ICs is presented. Techniques are given for accurate identification and spatial localization of failure mechanisms and physical defects, including defects such as short and open circuits which do not themselves emit photons.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HII regions in IC342 galaxy (Vucetic+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetic, M. M.; Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Dobardzic, A.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Pannuti, T. G.; Petrov, N.

    2013-11-01

    We present HII regions in the portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342. In this table we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. (1 data file).

  13. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  14. Biosynthesis of the lipophilic side chain in the cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic IC101.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yoko; Naganawa, Hiroshi; Kondo, Shinichi

    2002-12-01

    Antibiotic IC101 is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide having a C(15) lipophilic side chain. The side chain was shown to be synthesized in Streptomyces from acetate, propionate, and 3-methylbutyrate derived from leucine. Thus, the terminal isopentyl structure came from leucine and not from the mevalonate pathway. PMID:12502350

  15. Polysaccharide of Radix Pseudostellariae Improves Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Induced by Poly I:C in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Rong; Xu, Xianxiang; Tang, Qin; Bian, Difei; Li, Ying; Qian, Cheng; He, Xin; Gao, Xinghua; Pan, Rong; Wang, Chong; Luo, Yubin; Xia, Yufeng; Dai, Yue

    2011-01-01

    Radix Pseudostellariae is used as a tonic drug in traditional Chinese medicine with immunomodulating and anti-fatigue activities, and the polysaccharide is considered as the main active component. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the polysaccharide isolated from Radix Pseudostellariae (PRP) on mouse chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) induced by intraperitoneal injection of polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C), a double-stranded synthetic RNA. It has shown that the fatigue symptom of mice lasted at least 1 week as evaluated by forced swimming time. PRP (100, 200, 400 mg kg−1), orally administered 3 days before poly I:C injection, showed dose-dependent anti-fatigue effects. In addition, poly I:C led to evident alternations in neuroendocrine and immune systems of mice, such as reduced spontaneous activity and learning ability, declined serum level of corticosterone, increased weight indexes and T lymphocyte numbers in thymuses and spleens, and increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio but decreased proliferation ability of T lymphocytes in spleens. PRP alleviated the abnormalities caused by poly I:C, and restored the function of hosts to normal conditions. The findings suggest that PRP is beneficial to CFS, and the underlying mechanisms of action involve neuroendocrine and immune systems. PMID:20008077

  16. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  17. Transcriptome-wide interrogation of RNA secondary structure in living cells with icSHAPE

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Spitale, Robert C; Lee, Byron; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-01-01

    icSHAPE (in vivo click selective 2-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment) captures RNA secondary structure at a transcriptome-wide level by measuring nucleotide flexibility at base resolution. Living cells are treated with the icSHAPE chemical NAI-N3 followed by selective chemical enrichment of NAI-N3–modified RNA, which provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with similar methods leveraging deep sequencing. Purified RNA is then reverse-transcribed to produce cDNA, with SHAPE-modified bases leading to truncated cDNA. After deep sequencing of cDNA, computational analysis yields flexibility scores for every base across the starting RNA population. The entire experimental procedure can be completed in ~5 d, and the sequencing and bioinformatics data analysis take an additional 4–5 d with no extensive computational skills required. Comparing in vivo and in vitro icSHAPE measurements can reveal in vivo RNA-binding protein imprints or facilitate the dissection of RNA post-transcriptional modifications. icSHAPE reactivities can additionally be used to constrain and improve RNA secondary structure prediction models. PMID:26766114

  18. Debug of IC-card chips assisted by FIB and in-situ mechanical microprobing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao D.; Yu, Xiang H.; Lundquist, Theodore R.

    2001-10-01

    The value of mechanical micro-probes and FIB in IC design-debug is well understood. As device dimensions shrink, navigating micro-probes within a light microscope is almost impossible. SEM or FIB, which have higher resolution as well as greater depth of focus, overcome this limitation. FIB is, also, preferred for DUT probe-point creation because its higher milling resolution capability can provide better access to lower level metallizations. IC-card chips present an unique challenge; the backside of these are often insulated so grounding must occur on the exposed front-side. Further, because these IC-card chips are small, very careful setups are required before undertaking FIB modifications. Micro-probes within the FIB chamber solved this problem. Three micro-probes were used to stimulate the chip (input-clock, ground and power) with a fourth probe used to measure output nodes. Requested FIB modifications, including rewiring of poly-silicon traces, were completed. Contacting poly-silicon requires FIB-assisted XeF2 etching through the inter-level dielectric and both fast termination and removal of XeF2 from the chamber upon poly-silicon exposure. The technique for exposing poly-silicon is described in detail. The synergy of mechanical micro-probes within the FIB chamber benefited both techniques in the design-debug task. We summarize various IC-card packaging styles and requirements to ground, micro-probe, and establish a debug platform.

  19. ASASSN-16jw: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in IC 1780

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Bock, G.; Cruz, I.; Kiyota, S.; Marples, P.; Masi, G.; Nicholls, B.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.

    2016-09-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy IC 1780.

  20. Transcriptome-wide interrogation of RNA secondary structure in living cells with icSHAPE.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Spitale, Robert C; Lee, Byron; Mumbach, Maxwell R; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-02-01

    icSHAPE (in vivo click selective 2-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment) captures RNA secondary structure at a transcriptome-wide level by measuring nucleotide flexibility at base resolution. Living cells are treated with the icSHAPE chemical NAI-N3 followed by selective chemical enrichment of NAI-N3-modified RNA, which provides an improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with similar methods leveraging deep sequencing. Purified RNA is then reverse-transcribed to produce cDNA, with SHAPE-modified bases leading to truncated cDNA. After deep sequencing of cDNA, computational analysis yields flexibility scores for every base across the starting RNA population. The entire experimental procedure can be completed in ∼5 d, and the sequencing and bioinformatics data analysis take an additional 4-5 d with no extensive computational skills required. Comparing in vivo and in vitro icSHAPE measurements can reveal in vivo RNA-binding protein imprints or facilitate the dissection of RNA post-transcriptional modifications. icSHAPE reactivities can additionally be used to constrain and improve RNA secondary structure prediction models.

  1. ON THE ANCESTRY OF THE ICS CLONES OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Theobroma cacao L. or cacao is a tropical fruit tree species cultivated as the source of cocoa butter and powder for the confectionery and cosmetic industries. The ICS (Imperial College Selections) are cacao clones of Trinidad and Tobago that were selected by F.J. Pound from 1933 to 1935 from farms ...

  2. ASASSN-16fj: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in IC 1289

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, I.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Basu, U.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Chen, Ping; Kiyota, S.; Koff, R. A.; Monard, L. A. G.

    2016-05-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Brutus" telescope in Haleakala, Hawaii, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy IC 1289.

  3. Long-term photometry of IC 348 with the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzewski, D. J.; Kitze, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.; Adam, C.; Briceño, C.; Buder, S.; Butterley, T.; Chen, W.-P.; Dinçel, B.; Dhillon, V. S.; Errmann, R.; Garai, Z.; Gilbert, H. F. W.; Ginski, C.; Greif, J.; Hardy, L. K.; Hernández, J.; Huang, P. C.; Kellerer, A.; Kundra, E.; Littlefair, S. P.; Mallonn, M.; Marka, C.; Pannicke, A.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, J. G.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Wilson, R. W.; Wolf, V.

    2016-11-01

    We present long-term photometric observations of the young open cluster IC 348 with a baseline time-scale of 2.4 yr. Our study was conducted with several telescopes from the Young Exoplanet Transit Initiative (YETI) network in the Bessel R band to find periodic variability of young stars. We identified 87 stars in IC 348 to be periodically variable; 33 of them were unreported before. Additionally, we detected 61 periodic non-members of which 41 are new discoveries. Our wide field of view was the key to those numerous newly found variable stars. The distribution of rotation periods in IC 348 has always been of special interest. We investigate it further with our newly detected periods but we cannot find a statistically significant bimodality. We also report the detection of a close eclipsing binary in IC 348 composed of a low-mass stellar component (M ≳ 0.09 M⊙) and a K0 pre-main-sequence star (M ≈ 2.7 M⊙). Furthermore, we discovered three detached binaries among the background stars in our field of view and confirmed the period of a fourth one.

  4. AN/AIC-22(V) Intercommunications Set (ICS) fiber optic link engineering analysis report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minter, Richard; Blocksom, Roland; Ling, Christopher

    1990-08-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems constitute a serious threat to operational Navy aircraft systems. The application of fiber optic technology is a potential solution to these problems. EMI reported problems in the P-3 patrol aircraft AN/AIC-22(V) Intercommunications System (ICS) were selected from an EMI problem database for investigation and possible application of fiber optic technology. A proof-of-concept experiment was performed to demonstrate the level of EMI immunity of fiber optics when used in an ICS. A full duplex single channel fiber optic audio link was designed and assembled from modified government furnished equipment (GFE) previously used in another Navy fiber optic application. The link was taken to the Naval Air Test Center (NATC) Patuxent River, Maryland and temporarily installed in a Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) P-3A aircraft for a side-by-side comparison test with the installed ICS. With regards to noise reduction, the fiber optic link provided a qualitative improvement over the conventional ICS. In an effort to obtain a quantitative measure of comparison, audio frequency range both with and without operation of the aircraft VHF and UHF radio transmitters.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section 57.22310 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section 57.22310 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section 57.22310 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section 57.22310 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22310 - Electrical cables (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Electrical cables (I-C mines). 57.22310 Section 57.22310 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. The Evolution of Stellar Coronae: Initial Results from a ROSAT PSPC Observation of IC 2391

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, Brian M.; Simon, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    A 23 ks ROSAT PSPC image of the young star cluster, IC 2391, reveals 76 soft x-ray sources with L(sub x)(0.2-2.0 keV) greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s in the direction of the cluster center. Nineteen of these sources are associated with known cluster members. We find that x-ray emission from the IC 2391 B stars deviates widely from the L(sub x)/L(sub bol) = 10(exp -7) relation based on Einstein observations of O and early B stars. Instead, we observe a wide range in L(sub x) with an order of magnitude spread at any given mass and no apparent dependence on spectral type. A comparison of the spread of L(sub x) as a function of B-V for low-mass stars between IC 2391 and the much older Hyades cluster shows that despite the factor of approx. 10 difference in their ages, these two clusters exhibit very similar dispersions in levels of stellar activity. We conclude that the low-mass stars in IC 2391 have arrived on the ZAMS with a wide range of coronal activity levels, from very strong to very weak, and that existing empirical activity-age scaling laws therefore cannot be valid.

  11. Advanced digital I&C systems in nuclear power plants: Risk- sensitivities to environmental stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan, M.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-06-01

    Microprocessor-based advanced digital systems are being used for upgrading analog instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. A concern with using such advanced systems for safety-related applications in NPPs is the limited experience with this equipment in these environments. In this study, we investigate the risk effects of environmental stressors by quantifying the plant`s risk-sensitivities to them. The risk- sensitivities are changes in plant risk caused by the stressors, and are quantified by estimating their effects on I&C failure occurrences and the consequent increase in risk in terms of core damage frequency (CDF). We used available data, including military and NPP operating experience, on the effects of environmental stressors on the reliability of digital I&C equipment. The methods developed are applied to determine and compare risk-sensitivities to temperature, humidity, vibration, EMI (electromagnetic interference) from lightning and smoke as stressors in an example plant using a PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment). Uncertainties in the estimates of the stressor effects on the equipment`s reliability are expressed in terms of ranges for risk-sensitivities. The results show that environmental stressors potentially can cause a significant increase in I&C contributions to the CDF. Further, considerable variations can be expected in some stressor effects, depending on where the equipment is located.

  12. Using Tablet PCs and Interactive Software in IC Design Courses to Improve Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an initial study of using tablet PCs and interactive course software in integrated circuit (IC) design courses. A rapidly growing community is demonstrating how this technology can improve learning and retention of material by facilitating interaction between faculty and students via cognitive exercises during lectures. While…

  13. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines). 57.22106 Section 57.22106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22210 - In-line filters (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-line filters (I-C mines). 57.22210 Section 57.22210 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22225 - Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Auxiliary equipment stations (I-C mines). 57.22225 Section 57.22225 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines). 57.22106 Section 57.22106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241 Section 57.22241 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22106 - Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dust containing volatile matter (I-C mines). 57.22106 Section 57.22106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND...

  19. A clinical trial of the ReSound IC4 hearing device.

    PubMed

    Walden, B E; Surr, R K; Cord, M T; Pavlovic, C V

    1999-06-01

    A manufacturer-sponsored clinical trial was conducted of ReSound Corporation's IC4 hearing device (HD), an in-the-ear application of their two-channel, fast-acting, wide-dynamic range compression sound processor. This study was a follow-up to an earlier clinical trial of ReSound's behind-the-ear version of the same sound processor, the BT2 Personal Hearing System (Walden, B. E., Surr, R. K., Cord, M. T., & Pavlovic, C. V. (1998). A clinical trial of the ReSound BT2 Personal Hearing System. American Journal of Audiology, 7, 85-100). Forty adult males with gradually sloping, moderate sensorineural hearing losses participated. All were experienced hearing aid users who wore linear Class D instruments with input compression limiting at the time of their enrollment in this study. The Connected Speech Test, presented at several presentation levels and under various conditions of signal degradation, and the scales and subscales of the Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit were used to evaluate hearing aid performance and benefit under four relatively independent prototype listening situations (Walden, B. E., Demorest, M. E., & Hepler, E. L. (1984). Self-report approach to assessing benefit derived from amplification. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 27, 49-56). Aided performance with the IC4 HD was compared with (a) unaided performance, (b) performance of persons with normal hearing, and (c) performance with linear amplification. Participants with hearing loss obtained significant benefit from the IC4 HD, although IC4-aided performance remained well below that of unaided performance of persons with normal hearing, especially on laboratory measures of speech recognition. Furthermore, small mean performance advantages were observed for the IC4 HD compared to linear hearing aids, although there was substantial variability across participants. Finally, when given a choice to either purchase the IC4 HD at a discount from the manufacturer or continue using their own government

  20. NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-09-01

    Context: IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims: We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH binary systems. Methods: We have examined all four XMM-Newton observations of NGC 300 X-1, as well as the single XMM-Newton observation of IC 10 X-1. For each observation, we extracted lightcurves and spectra from the pn, MOS1 and MOS2 cameras; power density spectra were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Results: Each source exhibits power density spectra that are well described by a power law with index, γ, ~1. Such variability is characteristic of turbulence in wind accretion or disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 in the XMM-Newton observations are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC 300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC 10 X-1. Conclusions: The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC 300 X-1 in Observation 1 and that of IC 10 X-1 lends strong evidence for NGC 300 X-1 being a BH+WR binary. Our spectral modeling rules out Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a neutron star (NS) for NGC 300 X-1, but not a disc-accreting NS+WR system, nor a NS low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) that is merely coincident with the WR. We favour disc accretion for both systems, but cannot exclude Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a BH. The unusual spectra of NGC 300 X-1 and IC 10 X-1 may be due to these systems existing in a persistently high state, whereas all known BH LMXBs

  1. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4,5]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [6,7] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [8] and other group's work [9] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Moreover, the stacking faults lead to kinks in the outer shapes of the minute ice Ic crystals as seen by cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM); these defective sites are likely to play some role in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. The cryo-SEM work suggests that stacking-faulty ice Ic has many more active centres for such reactions than the usually considered thermodynamically stable form, ice Ih. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] DM Murphy (2003) Dehydration in cold clouds is enhanced by a transition from from cubic to hexagonal ice. Geophys.Res.Lett.,30, 2230, doi:10.1029/2003GL018566. [3] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004

  2. Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of IC 1613. II. The Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Saha, Abhijit; Gallagher, J. S.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Mateo, Mario

    2003-10-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I, 16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (MV=+3.4) and I=27.1 (MI=+2.8) at the 50% completeness level, the deepest to date for an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We analyze the resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and compare it with CMDs created from theoretical stellar models using three different methods to derive a star formation history (SFH) as well as constrain the chemical evolution for IC 1613. All three methods find an enhanced star formation rate (SFR), at roughly the same magnitude (factor of 3), over roughly the same period (from 3 to 6 Gyr ago). Additionally, all three methods were driven to similar age-metallicity relationships (AMR) that show an increase from [Fe/H]~-1.3 at earliest times to [Fe/H]~-0.7 at present. Good agreement is found between the AMR which is derived from the CMD analysis and that which can be inferred from the derived SFH at all but the earliest ages. The agreement between the three models and the self-consistency of the derived chemical enrichment history support the reality of the derived SFH of IC 1613 and, more generally, are supportive of the practice of constructing galaxy SFHs from CMDs. A comparison of the newly observed outer field with an earlier studied central field of IC 1613 shows that the SFR in the outer field has been significantly depressed during the last Gyr. This implies that the optical scale length of the galaxy has been decreasing with time and that comparison of galaxies at intermediate redshift with present-day galaxies should take this effect into account. Comparing the CMD of the outer field of IC 1613 with CMDs of Milky Way dSph companions, we find strong similarities between IC 1613 and the more distant dSph companions (Carina, Fornax, Leo I, and Leo II) in that all are dominated

  3. Solving the 56Ni Puzzle of Magnetar-powered Broad-lined Type IC Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ling-Jun; Han, Yan-Hui; Xu, Dong; Wang, Shan-Qin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL) are of great importance because their association with long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) holds the key to deciphering the central engine of LGRBs, which refrains from being unveiled despite decades of investigation. Among the two popularly hypothesized types of central engine, i.e., black holes and strongly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars), there is mounting evidence that the central engine of GRB-associated SNe (GRB-SNe) is rapidly rotating magnetars. Theoretical analysis also suggests that magnetars could be the central engine of SNe Ic-BL. What puzzled the researchers is the fact that light-curve modeling indicates that as much as 0.2{--}0.5 {M}ȯ of 56Ni was synthesized during the explosion of the SNe Ic-BL, which is unfortunately in direct conflict with current state-of-the-art understanding of magnetar-powered 56Ni synthesis. Here we propose a dynamic model of magnetar-powered SNe to take into account the acceleration of the ejecta by the magnetar, as well as the thermalization of the injected energy. Assuming that the SN kinetic energy comes exclusively from the magnetar acceleration, we find that although a major fraction of the rotational energy of the magnetar is to accelerate the SN ejecta, a tiny fraction of this energy deposited as thermal energy of the ejecta is enough to reduce the needed 56Ni to 0.06 M ⊙ for both SN 1997ef and SN 2007ru. We therefore suggest that magnetars could power SNe Ic-BL in aspects both of energetics and of 56Ni synthesis.

  4. Molecular basis of hERG potassium channel blockade by the class Ic antiarrhythmic flecainide

    PubMed Central

    Melgari, Dario; Zhang, Yihong; El Harchi, Aziza; Dempsey, Christopher E.; Hancox, Jules C.

    2015-01-01

    The class Ic antiarrhythmic drug flecainide inhibits KCNH2-encoded “hERG” potassium channels at clinically relevant concentrations. The aim of this study was to elucidate the underlying molecular basis of this action. Patch clamp recordings of hERG current (IhERG) were made from hERG expressing cells at 37 °C. Wild-type (WT) IhERG was inhibited with an IC50 of 1.49 μM and this was not significantly altered by reversing the direction of K+ flux or raising external [K+]. The use of charged and uncharged flecainide analogues showed that the charged form of the drug accesses the channel from the cell interior to produce block. Promotion of WT IhERG inactivation slowed recovery from inhibition, whilst the N588K and S631A attenuated-inactivation mutants exhibited IC50 values 4–5 fold that of WT IhERG. The use of pore-helix/selectivity filter (T623A, S624A V625A) and S6 helix (G648A, Y652A, F656A) mutations showed < 10-fold shifts in IC50 for all but V625A and F656A, which respectively exhibited IC50s 27-fold and 142-fold their WT controls. Docking simulations using a MthK-based homology model suggested an allosteric effect of V625A, since in low energy conformations flecainide lay too low in the pore to interact directly with that residue. On the other hand, the molecule could readily form π–π stacking interactions with aromatic residues and particularly with F656. We conclude that flecainide accesses the hERG channel from the cell interior on channel gating, binding low in the inner cavity, with the S6 F656 residue acting as a principal binding determinant. PMID:26159617

  5. Winds of low-metallicity OB-type stars: HST-COS spectroscopy in IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Miriam; Najarro, Francisco; Herrero, Artemio; Urbaneja, Miguel Alejandro

    2014-06-10

    We present the first quantitative ultraviolet spectroscopic analysis of resolved OB stars in IC 1613. Because of its alleged very low metallicity (≲1/10 Z {sub ☉}, from H II regions), studies in this Local Group dwarf galaxy could become a significant step forward from the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) toward the extremely metal-poor massive stars of the early universe. We present HST-COS data covering the ∼1150-1800 Å wavelength range with resolution R ∼ 2500. We find that the targets do exhibit wind features, and these are similar in strength to SMC stars. Wind terminal velocities were derived from the observed P Cygni profiles with the Sobolev plus Exact Integration method. The v {sub ∞}-Z relationship has been revisited. The terminal velocity of IC 1613 O stars is clearly lower than Milky Way counterparts, but there is no clear difference between IC 1613 and SMC or LMC analog stars. We find no clear segregation with host galaxy in the terminal velocities of B-supergiants, nor in the v {sub ∞}/v {sub esc} ratio of the whole OB star sample in any of the studied galaxies. Finally, we present the first evidence that the Fe-abundance of IC 1613 OB stars is similar to the SMC, which is in agreement with previous results on red supergiants. With the confirmed ∼1/10 solar oxygen abundances of B-supergiants, our results indicate that IC 1613's α/Fe ratio is sub-solar.

  6. A Census of Young Stars and Brown Dwarfs in IC 348 and NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members of the star-forming clusters IC 348 and NGC 1333. We classify 100 and 42 candidates as new members of the clusters, respectively, which brings the total numbers of known members to 478 and 203. We also have performed spectroscopy on a large majority of the previously known members of NGC 1333 in order to provide spectral classifications that are measured with the same scheme that has been applied to IC 348 in previous studies. The new census of members is nearly complete for K s < 16.8 at A J < 1.5 in IC 348 and for K s < 16.2 at A J < 3 in NGC 1333, which correspond to masses of ≳0.01 M ⊙ for ages of 3 Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. The faintest known members extend below these completeness limits and appear to have masses of ˜0.005 M ⊙. In extinction-limited samples of cluster members, NGC 1333 exhibits a higher abundance of objects at lower masses than IC 348. It would be surprising if the initial mass functions of these clusters differ significantly given their similar stellar densities and formation environments. Instead, it is possible that average extinctions are lower for less massive members of star-forming clusters, in which case extinction-limited samples could be biased in favor of low-mass objects in the more heavily embedded clusters like NGC 1333. In the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, the median sequences of IC 348 and NGC 1333 coincide with each other for the adopted distances of 300 and 235 pc, which would suggest that they have similar ages. However, NGC 1333 is widely believed to be younger than IC 348 based on its higher abundance of disks and protostars and its greater obscuration. Errors in the adopted distances may be responsible for this discrepancy. Based on data from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini Observatory, Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, Keck Observatory, Subaru Telescope, the Digitized Sky Survey, and the Two Micron All

  7. A Census of Young Stars and Brown Dwarfs in IC 348 and NGC 1333

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L.; Loutrel, N. P.

    2016-08-01

    We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members of the star-forming clusters IC 348 and NGC 1333. We classify 100 and 42 candidates as new members of the clusters, respectively, which brings the total numbers of known members to 478 and 203. We also have performed spectroscopy on a large majority of the previously known members of NGC 1333 in order to provide spectral classifications that are measured with the same scheme that has been applied to IC 348 in previous studies. The new census of members is nearly complete for K s < 16.8 at A J < 1.5 in IC 348 and for K s < 16.2 at A J < 3 in NGC 1333, which correspond to masses of ≳0.01 M ⊙ for ages of 3 Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. The faintest known members extend below these completeness limits and appear to have masses of ˜0.005 M ⊙. In extinction-limited samples of cluster members, NGC 1333 exhibits a higher abundance of objects at lower masses than IC 348. It would be surprising if the initial mass functions of these clusters differ significantly given their similar stellar densities and formation environments. Instead, it is possible that average extinctions are lower for less massive members of star-forming clusters, in which case extinction-limited samples could be biased in favor of low-mass objects in the more heavily embedded clusters like NGC 1333. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, the median sequences of IC 348 and NGC 1333 coincide with each other for the adopted distances of 300 and 235 pc, which would suggest that they have similar ages. However, NGC 1333 is widely believed to be younger than IC 348 based on its higher abundance of disks and protostars and its greater obscuration. Errors in the adopted distances may be responsible for this discrepancy. Based on data from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Gemini Observatory, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Keck Observatory, Subaru Telescope, the Digitized Sky Survey, and the Two Micron All

  8. iPTF15dtg: a double-peaked Type Ic supernova from a massive progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddia, F.; Fremling, C.; Sollerman, J.; Corsi, A.; Gal-Yam, A.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Lunnan, R.; Bue, B.; Ergon, M.; Kasliwal, M.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic) arise from the core-collapse of H- (and He-) poor stars, which could either be single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars or lower-mass stars stripped of their envelope by a companion. Their light curves are radioactively powered and usually show a fast rise to peak (~10-15 d), without any early (in the first few days) emission bumps (with the exception of broad-lined SNe Ic) as sometimes seen for other types of stripped-envelope SNe (e.g., Type IIb SN 1993J and Type Ib SN 2008D). Aims: We have studied iPTF15dtg, a spectroscopically normal SN Ic with an early excess in the optical light curves followed by a long (~30 d) rise to the main peak. It is the first spectroscopically-normal double-peaked SN Ic to be observed. Our aim is to determine the properties of this explosion and of its progenitor star. Methods: Optical photometry and spectroscopy of iPTF15dtg was obtained with multiple telescopes. The resulting light curves and spectral sequence are analyzed and modeled with hydrodynamical and analytical models, with particular focus on the early emission. Results: iPTF15dtg is a slow rising SN Ic, similar to SN 2011bm. Hydrodynamical modeling of the bolometric properties reveals a large ejecta mass (~10 M⊙) and strong 56Ni mixing. The luminous early emission can be reproduced if we account for the presence of an extended (≳500 R⊙), low-mass (≳0.045 M⊙) envelope around the progenitor star. Alternative scenarios for the early peak, such as the interaction with a companion, a shock-breakout (SBO) cooling tail from the progenitor surface, or a magnetar-driven SBO are not favored. Conclusions: The large ejecta mass and the presence of H- and He-free extended material around the star suggest that the progenitor of iPTF15dtg was a massive (≳35 M⊙) WR star that experienced strong mass loss.

  9. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Crane Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. This photo, taken at the S-IC test stand on October 2, 1963, is of a crane control. It was from here that the massive cranes were operated. Seen in the background is the F-1 Test Stand. Designed to assist in the development of the F-1 Engine, the F-1 test stand is a vertical engine firing test stand, 239 feet in elevation and 4,600 square feet in area at the base. Capability was provided for static firing of 1.5 million pounds of thrust using liquid oxygen and kerosene. Like the S-IC stand

  10. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  11. Microtubules Depolymerization Caused by the CK1 Inhibitor IC261 May Be Not Mediated by CK1 Blockage

    PubMed Central

    Banting, George; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Knippschild, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine specific casein kinase 1 (CK1) family plays important roles in the regulation of various physiological processes. Small-molecule inhibitors, such as the CK1δ/ε selectively inhibitor IC261, have been used to antagonize CK1 phosphorylation events in cells in many studies. Here we present data to show that, similarly to the microtubule destabilizing agent nocodazole, IC261 depolymerizes microtubules in interphase cells. IC261 treatment of interphase cells affects the morphology of the TGN and Golgi apparatus as well as the localization of CK1δ, which co-localizes with COPI positive membranes. IC261-induced depolymerization of microtubules is rapid, reversible and can be antagonized by pre-treatment of cells with taxol. At lower concentrations of IC261, mitotic spindle microtubule dynamics are affected; this leads to cell cycle arrest and, depending on the cellular background, to apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FACS analysis revealed that IC261 could induce apoptosis independent of cell cycle arrest. In summary this study provides additional and valuable information about various IC261-induced effects that could be caused by microtubule depolymerization rather than by inhibition of CK1. Data from studies that have used IC261 as an inhibitor of CK1 should be interpreted in light of these observations. PMID:24937750

  12. The gene ICS3 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in copper homeostasis dependent on extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Alesso, C A; Discola, K F; Monteiro, G

    2015-09-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes are involved in the uptake, transport, storage and detoxification of copper. Large scale studies have noted that deletion of the gene ICS3 increases sensitivity to copper, Sortin 2 and acid exposure. Here, we report a study on the Δics3 strain, in which ICS3 is related to copper homeostasis, affecting the intracellular accumulation of this metal. This strain is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and copper exposure, but not to other tested transition metals. At pH 6.0, the Δics3 strain accumulates a larger amount of intracellular copper than the wild-type strain, explaining the sensitivity to oxidants in this condition. Unexpectedly, sensitivity to copper exposure only occurs in acidic conditions. This can be explained by the fact that the exposure of Δics3 cells to high copper concentrations at pH 4.0 results in over-accumulation of copper and iron. Moreover, the expression of ICS3 increases in acidic pH, and this is correlated with CCC2 gene expression, since both genes are regulated by Rim101 from the pH regulon. CCC2 is also upregulated in Δics3 in acidic pH. Together, these data indicate that ICS3 is involved in copper homeostasis and is dependent on extracellular pH.

  13. The gene ICS3 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in copper homeostasis dependent on extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Alesso, C A; Discola, K F; Monteiro, G

    2015-09-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes are involved in the uptake, transport, storage and detoxification of copper. Large scale studies have noted that deletion of the gene ICS3 increases sensitivity to copper, Sortin 2 and acid exposure. Here, we report a study on the Δics3 strain, in which ICS3 is related to copper homeostasis, affecting the intracellular accumulation of this metal. This strain is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and copper exposure, but not to other tested transition metals. At pH 6.0, the Δics3 strain accumulates a larger amount of intracellular copper than the wild-type strain, explaining the sensitivity to oxidants in this condition. Unexpectedly, sensitivity to copper exposure only occurs in acidic conditions. This can be explained by the fact that the exposure of Δics3 cells to high copper concentrations at pH 4.0 results in over-accumulation of copper and iron. Moreover, the expression of ICS3 increases in acidic pH, and this is correlated with CCC2 gene expression, since both genes are regulated by Rim101 from the pH regulon. CCC2 is also upregulated in Δics3 in acidic pH. Together, these data indicate that ICS3 is involved in copper homeostasis and is dependent on extracellular pH. PMID:26127016

  14. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Systems will hold a meeting...

  15. 77 FR 67688 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C will hold a meeting on November 16, 2012, Room...

  16. Hall current sensor IC with integrated Co-based alloy thin film magnetic concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, V.; Marchesi, M.; Chiesi, V.; Paci, D.; Iuliano, P.; Toia, F.; Casoli, F.; Ranzieri, P.; Albertini, F.; Morelli, M.

    2013-01-01

    This work deals with a cobalt-based alloy thin film magnetic concentrator (MC) which is fully integrated on a Hall sensor integrated circuit (IC) developed in the 0.35 µm Bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) technology on 8" silicon wafer. An amorphous magnetic film with a thickness of 1µm, coercitive field Hc<10A/m and saturation magnetization (µ0MS) of 0.45T has been obtained with a sputtering process. The Hall sensor IC has shown sensitivity to magnetic field at room temperature of 240V/AT without concentrator and 2550V/AT with concentrator, gaining a factor of 10.5. A current sensor demonstrator has been realized showing linear response in the range -50 to 50A.

  17. Optical polarization of the Seyfert galaxies IC 4329A and MRK 376

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, P. G.; Stockman, H. S.; Angel, J. R. P.; Maza, J.; Beaver, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the optical polarizations of the two highly polarized Seyfert 1 galaxies IC 4329A and Mrk 376 are presented. Continuum and line polarization of the two objects were observed with the Steward Observatory 2.25-m telescope using a two-channel photoelectric Pockels cell polarimeter, a single-channel scanner, and a digicon attached to a flint prism spectrograph. Results indicate that, for both galaxies, the emission line polarization and underlying continuum polarization are identical, rising toward short wavelengths, and therefore must be explained by a common mechanism. Such a mechanism is suggested to involve polarization produced by aligned grains in the galactic disk. A model for polarization in IC 4329A by this mechanism predicts a grain size three times smaller than Galactic polarizing grains, as well as a visual extinction of about 2 magnitudes, a gas to dust mass ratio close to 100 and a polarization to extinction ratio comparable to the Galactic ratio.

  18. A Decade in the Life of the Massive Black-Hole Binary IC10 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas

    2014-11-01

    Chandra thanks to its angular resolution, sensitivity and endurance has been able to monitor individual X-ray binaries in the starburst galaxy IC 10. The WR+BH binary known as IC10 X-1 is regarded as one of the most massive stellar black holes; a class of objects representing the pinnacle of the stellar mass function. BH binaries occupy key roles in seeding SMBHs, producing long GRBs at birth, and gravitational waves at death. We report our use of Chandra to refine the orbital ephemeris of X1 and match-up the radial velocity curve of the optical spectral lines with the X-ray eclipse. The resulting phase offset has fascinating implications for our understanding of the interactions between the WR star, its wind, and the radiation field of the BH.

  19. A low noise multi-channel readout IC for X-ray cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wang; Hongyan, Yang; Ying, Yuan; Wuchen, Wu

    2013-04-01

    A low noise multi-channel readout integrated circuit (IC) which converts a detector current to analog voltage for X-ray cargo inspection is described. The readout IC provides 32 channels of a circuit having a maximum dynamic range of 15 bit and is comprised of integrator gain selection, timing generator, shift register chain, integrator array, sample/hold (S/H) stage amplifier etc. It was fabricated using 0.6 μm standard CMOS process, and occupies a die area of 2.7 × 13.9 mm2. It operates at 1 MHz, consumes 100 mW from a 5 V supply and 4.096 V as reference, and has a measured output noise of 85 μ Vrms on 63 pF of integrator gain capacitance and 440 pF of photodiode terminal capacitance so that steel plate penetration thickness can reach more than 400 mm.

  20. Observation of Nonthermal Emission from the Supernova Remnant IC443 with RXTE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturner, S. J.; Keohane, J. W.; Reimer, O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present analysis of X-ray spectra from the supernova remnant IC443 obtained using the PCA on RXTE. The spectra in the 3 - 20 keV band are well fit by a two-component model consisting of thermal and nonthermal components. We compare these results with recent results of other X-ray missions and discuss the need for a cut-off in the nonthermal spectrum. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations suggest that much of the nonthermal emission from IC443 can be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula. We present the results of our search for periodic emission in the RXTE PCA data. We then discuss the origin o f the nonthermal component and its possible association with the unidentified EGRET source.

  1. Intracellular kinetics of the androgen receptor shown by multimodal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (mICS)

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Li; Patsch, Katherin; Cutrale, Francesco; Soundararajan, Anjana; Agus, David B.; Fraser, Scott E.; Ruderman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) pathway plays a central role in prostate cancer (PCa) growth and progression and is a validated therapeutic target. In response to ligand binding AR translocates to the nucleus, though the molecular mechanism is not well understood. We therefore developed multimodal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (mICS) to measure anisotropic molecular motion across a live cell. We applied mICS to AR translocation dynamics to reveal its multimodal motion. By integrating fluorescence imaging methods we observed evidence for diffusion, confined movement, and binding of AR within both the cytoplasm and nucleus of PCa cells. Our findings suggest that in presence of cytoplasmic diffusion, the probability of AR crossing the nuclear membrane is an important factor in determining the AR distribution between cytoplasm and the nucleus, independent of functional microtubule transport. These findings may have implications for the future design of novel therapeutics targeting the AR pathway in PCa. PMID:26936218

  2. Transient power supply voltage (v{sub DDT}) analysis for detecting IC defects

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.; Beegle, R.W.

    1997-04-01

    Transient power supply voltage (V{sub DDT}) analysis is a new testing technique demonstrated as a powerful alternative and complement to I{sub DDQ} testing. V{sub DDT} takes advantage of the limited response time of a voltage supply to the changing power demands of an IC during operation. Changes in the V{sub DD} response time are used to detect increases in power demand with resolutions of 100 nA at 100 kHz, 1 {mu}A at 1 MHz, and 2.5 {mu}A at 1.5 MHz. These current sensitivities have been shown for ICs with quiescent currents < 0.1 {mu}A and > 300 {mu}A. The V{sub DDT} signal acquisition protocols, frequency versus sensitivity tradeoffs, hardware considerations and limitations, data examples, and areas for future research are described.

  3. A nano-power energy harvesting IC for arrays of piezoelectric transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dini, M.; Filippi, M.; Romani, A.; Bottarel, V.; Ricotti, G.; Tartagni, M.

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-source energy harvester IC for arrays of independent transducers, designed in a 0.32μm STMicroelectronics BCD technology, that can manage up to 5 AC-DC channels (e.g. piezoelectric transducers). The IC implements a boost converter based on synchronous electrical charge extraction. A single external inductor is time-shared among all transducers and access conflicts are handled by an arbiter circuit implemented as an asynchronous FSM. The designed converter is fully autonomous and suitable for battery-less operation. The circuit area is 4.6 mm2 and has a power consumption of 175 nW/source at 2.5 V while efficiency ranges between 70% and over than 85%.

  4. Spectrum and chemical analysis of the double-ring planetary nebula IC 1297

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.; Keyes, Charles D.; Feibelman, Walter A.

    1986-01-01

    The double-ring planetary nebula IC 1297 resembles NGC 7662 in appearance, although it is of much lower surface brightness. What is remarkable is the great strength of the dielectronic recombination O V line. Although this line is seen as a P Cygni feature in a number of planetary nebulae, it is in those instances accompanied by a strong continuum and other easily recognized features of stellar origin. No star is visible on CCD images of IC 1297. Optical region measurements are supplemented by IUE observations. The following logarithmic abundance values are found: log N(He) = 11.065; log N(forbidden C) = 8.6; log N(N) = 8.1; log N(O) = 8.74; log N(Ne) = 8.16; log N(S) = 7.0; log N(Cl) = 5.4; log N(Ar) = 6.2. The nebula shows no dramatic pattern of nucleogenesis events.

  5. The Fast and Furious Decay of the Peculiar Type Ic Supernova 2005ek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drout, M. R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Mazzali, P. A.; Parrent, J. T.; Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Sanders, N. E.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Brown, P. J.; Cenko, S. B.; Chakraborti, S.; Challis, P.; Friedman, A.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Hicken, M.; Jensen, C.; Modjaz, M.; Perets, H. B.; Silverman, J. M.; Wong, D. S.

    2013-09-01

    We present extensive multi-wavelength observations of the extremely rapidly declining Type Ic supernova (SN Ic), SN 2005ek. Reaching a peak magnitude of MR = -17.3 and decaying by ~3 mag in the first 15 days post-maximum, SN 2005ek is among the fastest Type I supernovae observed to date. The spectra of SN 2005ek closely resemble those of normal SN Ic, but with an accelerated evolution. There is evidence for the onset of nebular features at only nine days post-maximum. Spectroscopic modeling reveals an ejecta mass of ~0.3 M ⊙ that is dominated by oxygen (~80%), while the pseudo-bolometric light curve is consistent with an explosion powered by ~0.03 M ⊙ of radioactive 56Ni. Although previous rapidly evolving events (e.g., SN 1885A, SN 1939B, SN 2002bj, SN 2010X) were hypothesized to be produced by the detonation of a helium shell on a white dwarf, oxygen-dominated ejecta are difficult to reconcile with this proposed mechanism. We find that the properties of SN 2005ek are consistent with either the edge-lit double detonation of a low-mass white dwarf or the iron-core collapse of a massive star, stripped by binary interaction. However, if we assume that the strong spectroscopic similarity of SN 2005ek to other SNe Ic is an indication of a similar progenitor channel, then a white-dwarf progenitor becomes very improbable. SN 2005ek may be one of the lowest mass stripped-envelope core-collapse explosions ever observed. We find that the rate of such rapidly declining Type I events is at least 1%-3% of the normal SN Ia rate.

  6. Good Trellises for IC Implementation of Viterbi Decoders for Linear Block Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorthy, Hari T.; Lin, Shu; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates trellis structures of linear block codes for the integrated circuit (IC) implementation of Viterbi decoders capable of achieving high decoding speed while satisfying a constraint on the structural complexity of the trellis in terms of the maximum number of states at any particular depth. Only uniform sectionalizations of the code trellis diagram are considered. An upper-bound on the number of parallel and structurally identical (or isomorphic) subtrellises in a proper trellis for a code without exceeding the maximum state complexity of the minimal trellis of the code is first derived. Parallel structures of trellises with various section lengths for binary BCH and Reed-Muller (RM) codes of lengths 32 and 64 are analyzed. Next, the complexity of IC implementation of a Viterbi decoder based on an L-section trellis diagram for a code is investigated. A structural property of a Viterbi decoder called add-compare-select (ACS)-connectivity which is related to state connectivity is introduced. This parameter affects the complexity of wire-routing (interconnections within the IC). The effect of five parameters namely: (1) effective computational complexity; (2) complexity of the ACS-circuit; (3) traceback complexity; (4) ACS-connectivity; and (5) branch complexity of a trellis diagram on the very large scale integration (VISI) complexity of a Viterbi decoder is investigated. It is shown that an IC implementation of a Viterbi decoder based on a nonminimal trellis requires less area and is capable of operation at higher speed than one based on the minimal trellis when the commonly used ACS-array architecture is considered.

  7. Saturn V S-IC (First) Stage for Apollo 8 in the Vehicle Assembly Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The S-IC stage being erected for the final assembly of the Saturn V launch vehicle for the Apollo 8 mission (AS-503), is photographed in the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) high bay at the Kennedy Space Center. The Apollo 8 mission was the first Saturn V manned mission with astronauts Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, and William Anders. They escaped Earth's gravity and traveled to lunar vicinity. The launch of Apollo 8 occurred on December 21, 1968.

  8. Good trellises for IC implementation of viterbi decoders for linear block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Moorthy, Hari T.; Uehara, Gregory T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates trellis structures of linear block codes for the IC (integrated circuit) implementation of Viterbi decoders capable of achieving high decoding speed while satisfying a constraint on the structural complexity of the trellis in terms of the maximum number of states at any particular depth. Only uniform sectionalizations of the code trellis diagram are considered. An upper bound on the number of parallel and structurally identical (or isomorphic) subtrellises in a proper trellis for a code without exceeding the maximum state complexity of the minimal trellis of the code is first derived. Parallel structures of trellises with various section lengths for binary BCH and Reed-Muller (RM) codes of lengths 32 and 64 are analyzed. Next, the complexity of IC implementation of a Viterbi decoder based on an L-section trellis diagram for a code is investigated. A structural property of a Viterbi decoder called ACS-connectivity which is related to state connectivity is introduced. This parameter affects the complexity of wire-routing (interconnections within the IC). The effect of five parameters namely: (1) effective computational complexity; (2) complexity of the ACS-circuit; (3) traceback complexity; (4) ACS-connectivity; and (5) branch complexity of a trellis diagram on the VLSI complexity of a Viterbi decoder is investigated. It is shown that an IC implementation of a Viterbi decoder based on a non-minimal trellis requires less area and is capable of operation at higher speed than one based on the minimal trellis when the commonly used ACS-array architecture is considered.

  9. An extremely prolific supernova factory in the buried nucleus of the starburst galaxy IC 694

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Alberdi, A.; Polatidis, A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: The central kiloparsec of many local uminous infrared galaxies are known to host intense bursts of massive star formation, leading to numerous explosions of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). However, the dust-enshrouded regions where those supernovae explode hamper their detection at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Aims: We investigate the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 694 (=Arp 299-A) at radio wavelengths, aimed at discovering recently exploded CCSNe, as well as determining their rate of explosion, which carries crucial information about star formation rates, the initial mass function, and the starburst processes in action. Methods: We use the electronic European VLBI Network to image with milliarcsecond resolution the 5.0 GHz compact radio emission of the innermost nuclear region of IC 694. Results: Our observations detect a rich cluster of 26 compact radio emitting sources in the central 150 pc of the nuclear starburst in IC 694. The high brightness temperatures observed for the compact sources are indicative of a non-thermal origin for the observed radio emission, implying that most, if not all, of those sources are young radio supernovae (RSNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). We find evidence of at least three relatively young, slowly evolving, long-lasting RSNe (A0, A12, and A15) that appear to have unusual properties, suggesting that the conditions in the local circumstellar medium (CSM) play a significant role in determining the radio behaviour of expanding SNe. Their radio luminosities are typical of normal RSNe, which result from the explosion of type IIP/b and type IIL SNe. All of these results provide support for a recent (less than 10-15 Myr) instantaneous starburst in the innermost regions of IC 694. Tables 1, 2 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. THE FAST AND FURIOUS DECAY OF THE PECULIAR TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA 2005ek

    SciTech Connect

    Drout, M. R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Margutti, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Sanders, N. E.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; Chakraborti, S.; Challis, P.; Friedman, A.; Hicken, M.; Jensen, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Parrent, J. T.; Filippenko, A. V.; Li, W.; Cenko, S. B.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Brown, P. J.; and others

    2013-09-01

    We present extensive multi-wavelength observations of the extremely rapidly declining Type Ic supernova (SN Ic), SN 2005ek. Reaching a peak magnitude of M{sub R} = -17.3 and decaying by {approx}3 mag in the first 15 days post-maximum, SN 2005ek is among the fastest Type I supernovae observed to date. The spectra of SN 2005ek closely resemble those of normal SN Ic, but with an accelerated evolution. There is evidence for the onset of nebular features at only nine days post-maximum. Spectroscopic modeling reveals an ejecta mass of {approx}0.3 M{sub Sun} that is dominated by oxygen ({approx}80%), while the pseudo-bolometric light curve is consistent with an explosion powered by {approx}0.03 M{sub Sun} of radioactive {sup 56}Ni. Although previous rapidly evolving events (e.g., SN 1885A, SN 1939B, SN 2002bj, SN 2010X) were hypothesized to be produced by the detonation of a helium shell on a white dwarf, oxygen-dominated ejecta are difficult to reconcile with this proposed mechanism. We find that the properties of SN 2005ek are consistent with either the edge-lit double detonation of a low-mass white dwarf or the iron-core collapse of a massive star, stripped by binary interaction. However, if we assume that the strong spectroscopic similarity of SN 2005ek to other SNe Ic is an indication of a similar progenitor channel, then a white-dwarf progenitor becomes very improbable. SN 2005ek may be one of the lowest mass stripped-envelope core-collapse explosions ever observed. We find that the rate of such rapidly declining Type I events is at least 1%-3% of the normal SN Ia rate.

  11. The global regulator genes from biocontrol strain Serratia plymuthica IC1270: cloning, sequencing, and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Ovadis, Marianna; Liu, Xiaoguang; Gavriel, Sagi; Ismailov, Zafar; Chet, Ilan; Chernin, Leonid

    2004-08-01

    The biocontrol activity of various fluorescent pseudomonads towards plant-pathogenic fungi is dependent upon the GacA/GacS-type two-component system of global regulators and the RpoS transcription sigma factor. In particular, these components are required for the production of antifungal antibiotics and exoenzymes. To investigate the effects of these global regulators on the expression of biocontrol factors by plant-associated bacteria other than Pseudomonas spp., gacA/gacS and rpoS homologues were cloned from biocontrol strain IC1270 of Serratia plymuthica, which produces a set of antifungal compounds, including chitinolytic enzymes and the antibiotic pyrrolnitrin. The nucleotide and deduced protein sequence alignments of the cloned gacA/gacS-like genes-tentatively designated grrA (global response regulation activator) and grrS (global response regulation sensor) and of the cloned rpoS gene revealed 64 to 93% identity with matching genes and proteins of the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli, Pectobacterium carotovora subsp. carotovora, and Serratia marcescens. grrA, grrS, and rpoS gene replacement mutants of strain IC1270 were deficient in the production of pyrrolnitrin, an exoprotease, and N-acylhomoserine lactone quorum-sensing signal molecules. However, neither mutant appeared to differ from the parental strain in the production of siderophores, and only grrA and grrS mutants were deficient in the production of a 58-kDa endochitinase, representing the involvement of other sigma factors in the regulation of strain IC1270's chitinolytic activity. Compared to the parental strain, the grrA, grrS, and rpoS mutants were markedly less capable of suppressing Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium aphanidermatum under greenhouse conditions, indicating the dependence of strain IC1270's biocontrol property on the GrrA/GrrS and RpoS global regulators.

  12. Type Ic core-collapse supernova explosions evolved from very massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takashi; Okita, Shinpei; Umeda, Hideyuki

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of a superluminous Type Ic core-collapse supernovae (SNe) producing a large amount of 56Ni. Very massive stars with a main-sequence mass larger than 100 M⊙ and a metallicity 0.001 < Z ≲ 0.004 are expected to explode as superluminous Type Ic SNe. Stars with ˜110-150 M⊙ and Z ≲ 0.001 would explode as Type Ic pulsational pair-instability SNe if the whole H and He layer has been lost by the mass-loss during pulsational pair instability. We evaluate the total ejecta mass and the yields of 56Ni, O and Si in core-collapse SNe evolved from very massive stars. We adopt 43.1 and 61.1 M⊙ WO stars with Z = 0.004 as SN progenitors expected to explode as Type Ic core-collapse SNe. These progenitors have masses of 110 and 250 M⊙ at the zero-age main sequence. Spherical explosions with an explosion energy larger than 2 × 1052 erg produce more than 3.5 M⊙56Ni, enough to reproduce the light curve of SN 2007bi. Asphericity of the explosion affects the total ejecta mass as well as the yields of 56Ni, O and Si. Aspherical explosions of the 110 and 250 M⊙ models reproduce the 56Ni yield of SN 2007bi. These explosions will also show large velocity dispersion. An aspherical core-collapse SN evolved from a very massive star is a possibility of the explosion of SN 2007bi.

  13. The external origin of the polar gaseous disk of the S0 galaxy IC 5181

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzella, A.; Morelli, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Cesetti, M.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Galaxies accrete material from the environment through acquisition and merging events. These processes contribute to galaxy assembly and leave their fingerprints on the galactic morphology, internal kinematics of gas and stars, and stellar populations. Aims: We study the nearby S0 galaxy IC 5181 to address the origin of the ionized gas component that orbits the galaxy on polar orbits. Methods: We measure the surface brightness distribution of the stars and ionized gas of IC 5181 from broadband and narrow-band imaging. The structural parameters of the galaxy are obtained with a photometric decomposition assuming a Sérsic and exponential profile for the bulge and disk, respectively. We measure the ionized-gas and stellar kinematics and the line strengths of the Lick indices of the stellar component along both the major and minor axis. The age, metallicity, and [α/Fe] enhancement of the stellar populations are derived using single stellar population models with variable element abundance ratios. The ionized-gas metallicity is obtained from the equivalent width of the emission lines. Results: The galaxy IC 5181 is a morphologically undisturbed S0 galaxy with a classical bulge made by old stars with super solar metallicity and overabundance. Stellar age and metallicity decrease in the disk region. The galaxy hosts a geometrically and kinematically decoupled component of ionized gas. It is elongated along the galaxy minor axis and in orthogonal rotation with respect to the galaxy disk. Conclusions: We interpret the kinematical decoupling as suggesting that there is a component of gas, which is not related to the stars and having an external origin. The gas was accreted by IC 5181 on polar orbits from the surrounding environment. Based on observation collected at the European Southern Observatory for the programme 63.N-0327(A).Tables 1-3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. A transient supergiant X-ray binary in IC 10: An extragalactic SFXT?

    SciTech Connect

    Laycock, Silas; Cappallo, Rigel; Oram, Kathleen; Balchunas, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of a large amplitude (factor of ∼100) X-ray transient (IC 10 X-2, CXOU J002020.99+591758.6) in the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy IC 10 during our Chandra monitoring project. Based on the X-ray timing and spectral properties, and an optical counterpart observed with Gemini, the system is a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a luminous blue supergiant and a neutron star. The highest measured luminosity of the source was 1.8 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}during an outburst in 2003. Observations before, during, and after a second outburst in 2010 constrain the outburst duration to be less than 3 months (with no lower limit). The X-ray spectrum is a hard power law (Γ = 0.3) with fitted column density (N{sub H} = 6.3 × 10{sup 21} atom cm{sup –2}), consistent with the established absorption to sources in IC 10. The optical spectrum shows hydrogen Balmer lines strongly in emission at the correct blueshift (-340 km s{sup –1}) for IC 10. The N III triplet emission feature is seen, accompanied by He II [4686] weakly in emission. Together these features classify the star as a luminous blue supergiant of the OBN subclass, characterized by enhanced nitrogen abundance. Emission lines of He I are seen, at similar strength to Hβ. A complex of Fe II permitted and forbidden emission lines are seen, as in B[e] stars. The system closely resembles galactic supergiant fast X-ray transients, in terms of its hard spectrum, variability amplitude, and blue supergiant primary.

  15. IC-51, an injectable vaccine for the prevention of Japanese encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Taff

    2009-02-01

    The mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the major etiological agent of viral encephalitis in children living in South-East Asia, causing comas, seizures and Parkinson's disease-like movement disorders. Travelers and military personnel visiting the region are also highly susceptible to the disease. As the population in South-East Asia increases, more land is irrigated to produce rice paddies (the ideal breeding habitat for mosquitoes), and pig breeding (a zoonotic host for mosquitoes) becomes more widespread. Given the exponential growth in tourism to the region and the globalization of business and commerce, an enhanced requirement for mass vaccination exists. In the West, the current licensed vaccine against JE, JE-VAX, has been highly effective; however, the use of mouse brain-derived virus has been linked to cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Intercell AG, under license from VaccGen International LLC, is developing IC-51, a formalin-inactivated vaccine derived from cell culture-based attenuated virus that has been adapted to grow in Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells). In extensive clinical trials performed to date, IC-51 was safe, with mild to moderate adverse events reported. In terms of immunogenicity, IC-51 was highly effective, demonstrating rapid seroconversion rates and long-term maintenance of geometric mean titers that exceeded the protective titer. The results suggests that IC-51 is fully compliant with the stringent regulatory requirements set by the WHO, has an acceptable safety profile and is non-inferior to JE-VAX.

  16. Long-term prediction test procedure for most ICs, based on linear response theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litovchenko, V.; Ivakhnenko, I.

    1991-01-01

    Experimentally, thermal annealing is known to be a factor which enables a number of different integrated circuits (IC's) to recover their operating characteristics after suffering radiation damage in the space radiation environment; thus, decreasing and limiting long term cumulative total-dose effects. This annealing is also known to be accelerated at elevated temperatures both during and after irradiation. Linear response theory (LRT) was applied, and a linear response function (LRF) to predict the radiation/annealing response of sensitive parameters of IC's for long term (several months or years) exposure to the space radiation environment were constructed. Compressing the annealing process from several years in orbit to just a few hours or days in the laboratory is achieved by subjecting the IC to elevated temperatures or by increasing the typical spaceflight dose rate by several orders of magnitude for simultaneous radiation/annealing only. The accomplishments are as follows: (1) the test procedure to make predictions of the radiation response was developed; (2) the calculation of the shift in the threshold potential due to the charge distribution in the oxide was written; (3) electron tunneling processes from the bulk Si to the oxide region in an MOS IC were estimated; (4) in order to connect the experimental annealing data to the theoretical model, constants of the model of the basic annealing process were established; (5) experimental data obtained at elevated temperatures were analyzed; (6) time compression and reliability of predictions for the long term region were shown; (7) a method to compress test time and to make predictions of response for the nonlinear region was proposed; and (8) nonlinearity of the LRF with respect to log(t) was calculated theoretically from a model.

  17. The presence of internal dust in the nebulae M 20 and IC 5146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozhkovskij, D. A.

    1989-06-01

    Photographic observations of M 20 and IC 5146 were used to determine the radiation fluxes in the H-alpha spectral region and in two regions of the continuum. The observational data were introduced into a model of a nebula with internal dust which absorbs and scatters the radiation from the H II region and the central star. This made it possible to obtain probable estimates of the optical depth of the dust atmosphere of the nebula.

  18. A SCUBA-2 850-μm survey of protoplanetary discs in the IC 348 cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieza, L.; Williams, J.; Kourkchi, E.; Andrews, S.; Casassus, S.; Graves, S.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present 850-μm observations of the 2-3 Myr cluster IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Our SCUBA-2 map has a diameter of 30 arcmin and contains ˜370 cluster members, including ˜200 objects with IR excesses. We detect a total of 13 discs. Assuming standard dust properties and a gas-to-dust-mass ratio of 100, we derive disc masses ranging from 1.5 to 16 MJUP. We also detect six Class 0/I protostars. We find that the most massive discs (MD > 3 MJUP; 850-μm flux > 10 mJy) in IC 348 tend to be transition objects according to the characteristic `dip' in their infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs). This trend is also seen in other regions. We speculate that this could be an initial conditions effect (e.g. more massive discs tend to form giant planets that result in transition disc SEDs) and/or a disc evolution effect (the formation of one or more massive planets results in both a transition disc SED and a reduction of the accretion rate, increasing the lifetime of the outer disc). A stacking analysis of the discs that remain undetected in our SCUBA-2 observations suggests that their median 850-μm flux should be ≲1 mJy, corresponding to a disc mass ≲0.3 MJUP (gas plus dust) or ≲1 M⊕ of dust. While the available data are not deep enough to allow a meaningful comparison of the disc luminosity functions between IC 348 and other young stellar clusters, our results imply that disc masses exceeding the minimum-mass solar nebula are very rare (≲1per cent) at the age of IC 348, especially around very low-mass stars.

  19. DAO spectroscopic classification of AT2016ccm in IC983 as a core-collapse supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balam, D. D.; Graham, M. L.

    2016-05-01

    A spectrum was obtained on UT May 09.36 of AT2016ccm in IC 983 using the 1.82-m Plaskett telescope (National Research Council of Canada) covering the range 365-710 nm (resolution 0.35 nm). Cross-correlation with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows AT2016ccm to be a core-collapse supernova approximately 1 week post maximum light.

  20. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr.

    PubMed

    Paragi, Z; Taylor, G B; Kouveliotou, C; Granot, J; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Bietenholz, M; van der Horst, A J; Pidopryhora, Y; van Langevelde, H J; Garrett, M A; Szomoru, A; Argo, M K; Bourke, S; Paczyński, B

    2010-01-28

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft gamma-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60 days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities approximately 6,000 km s(-1), much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical.

  1. Interpretation of two compact planetary nebulae, IC 4997 and NGC 6572, with aid of theoretical models.

    PubMed

    Hyung, S; Aller, L H

    1993-01-15

    Observations of two dense compact planetary nebulae secured with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph at Lick Observatory combined with previously published UV spectra secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer enable us to probe the electron densities and temperatures (plasma diagnostics) and ionic concentrations in these objects. The diagnostic diagrams show that no homogenous model will work for these nebulae. NGC 6572 may consist of an inner torordal ring of density 25,000 atoms/cm3 and an outer conical shell of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The simplest model of IC 4997 suggests a thick inner shell with a density of about 107 atoms/cm3 and an outer envelope of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The abundances of all elements heavier than He appear to be less than the solar values in NGC 6572, whereas He, C, N, and O may be more abundant in IC 4997 than in the sun. IC 4997 presents puzzling problems. PMID:11607347

  2. Dislocation mechanism for transformation between cubic ice Ic and hexagonal ice Ih

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondoh, T.

    2015-11-01

    Cubic ice Ic is metastable, yet can form by the freezing of supercooled water, vapour deposition at low temperatures and by depressurizing high-pressure forms of ice. Its structure differs from that of common hexagonal ice Ih in the order its molecular layers are stacked. This stacking order, however, typically has considerable disorder; that is, not purely cubic, but alternating in hexagonal and cubic layers. In time, stacking-disordered ice gradually decreases in cubicity (fraction having cubic structure), transforming to hexagonal ice. But, how does this disorder originate and how does it transform to hexagonal ice? Here we use numerical data on dislocations in hexagonal ice Ih to show that (1) stacking-disordered ice (or Ic) can be viewed as fine-grained polycrystalline ice with a high density of extended dislocations, each a widely extended stacking fault bounded by partial dislocations, and (2) the transformation from ice Ic to Ih is caused by the reaction and motion of these partial dislocations. Moreover, the stacking disorder may be in either a higher stored energy state consisting of a sub-boundary network arrangement of partial dislocations bounding stacking faults, or a lower stored energy state consisting of a grain structure with a high density of stacking faults, but without bounding partial dislocations. Each state transforms to Ih differently, with a duration to fully transform that strongly depends on temperature and crystal grain size. The results are consistent with the observed transformation rates, transformation temperatures and wide range in heat of transformation.

  3. Iterative cluster-NMA (icNMA): A tool for generating conformational transitions in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schuyler, Adam D.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Qasba, Pradman K.; Ramakrishnan, Boopathy; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Computational models provide insight into the structure-function relationship in proteins. These approaches, especially those based on normal mode analysis, can identify the accessible motion space around a given equilibrium structure. The large magnitude, collective motions identified by these methods are often well aligned with the general direction of the expected conformational transitions. However, these motions cannot realistically be extrapolated beyond the local neighborhood of the starting conformation. In this paper, the icNMA method is presented for traversing the energy landscape from a starting conformation to a desired goal conformation. This is accomplished by allowing the evolving geometry of the intermediate structures to define the local accessible motion space, and thus produce an appropriate displacement. Following the derivation of the icNMA method, a set of sample simulations are performed to probe the robustness of the model. A detailed analysis of β1,4-galactosyltransferase-T1 is also given, to highlight many of the capabilities of icNMA. Remarkably, during the transition, a helix is seen to be extended by an additional turn, emphasizing a new unknown role for secondary structures to absorb slack during transitions. The transition pathway for adenylate kinase, which has been frequently studied in the literature, is also discussed. PMID:18712827

  4. Integrated pressure-sensing microsystem by CMOS IC technology for barometal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Minxin; Huang, Qing-An

    2001-10-01

    Most currently integrated silicon microsystems available for pressure sensing are based on preprocessing before CMOS IC technology. These microsystems are generally very sensitive to parasitism effect and not available for IC-compatible process. This limits the accuracy of the microsystem and batch-fabrication. Calibration cost is also increased. To overcome these problems, a new generation of pressure microsystems without preprocessing CMOS IC technology has been proposed. This pressure-sensing system consists of a miniature silicon capacitive sensor, fabricated with silicon-silicon bonding technique, and a detection integrated circuit. Only the standard layers of CMOS process are used to build the system and only several photolithography steps are necessary to achieve the micromachined structure in postprocessing, so a high long-term stability could be assured. The entire system converts absolute pressure changes, in the pressure range useful for barometal applications, to frequency changes. A reference capacitor is used in the system and a (delta) C model is applied to cancel out temperature dependence and to compensate non-linearity. The pressure range of the sensor is from 0.5 bar to 1.5bar and the temperature varies between -25 degree(s)C and -60 degree(s)C. A sensitivity of 50Hz/Torr could be achieved.

  5. Resolving the hadronic accelerator IC 443 with Fermi-LAT and VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, John W.; Hays, Elizabeth A.; Tajima, Hiro; Schmid, Julia; LAT Collaboration, VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) close to molecular clouds are ideal astrophysical laboratories to study cosmic ray acceleration and injection into the Galaxy. The Galactic SNR IC 443 is among the brightest and best-studied of such systems, detected as an extended gamma-ray source at both GeV and TeV energies. Previous observations with the AGILE and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray space telescopes have shown a low-energy cutoff at <200 MeV indicating relativistic protons are responsible for gamma-ray emission. Observations by the MAGIC and VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray telescopes show a steepening spectrum at TeV energies. Now, with updated Fermi-LAT observations using 7 yr of Pass 8 data above 1 GeV, the gamma-ray morphology of IC 443 is revealed as an inhomogeneous shell. Multi-wavelength observations have mapped the detailed physical conditions across the interaction site between the SNR and cloud, allowing us to separately study gamma-ray emission regions on scales less than 10 pc. We find an excellent correlation between GeV gamma-rays and the TeV morphology determined by VERITAS. The combination of new VERITAS and Fermi-LAT observations of IC 443 allows an unprecedented study of the environmental dependence of cosmic-ray diffusion in and around a hadronic accelerator.

  6. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  7. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-01-01

    The third International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Madrid, Spain, from Thursday 28 to Sunday 31 August 2014. The Conference was attended by more than 200 participants and hosted about 350 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. More than 600 pre-registered authors were also counted. The third IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral sessions and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  8. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences 2013 (IC-MSQUARE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    The second International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Prague, Czech Republic, from Sunday 1 September to Thursday 5 September 2013. The Conference was attended by more than 280 participants and hosted about 400 oral, poster, and virtual presentations while counted more than 600 pre-registered authors. The second IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel sessions were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee. Further information on the editors, speakers and committees is available in the attached pdf.

  9. Evidence for photometric contamination in key observations of Cepheids in the benchmark galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaess, D.; Turner, D. G.; Gieren, W.; Ngeow, C.

    2014-12-01

    This study helps increase awareness of the pernicious effects of photometric contamination (crowding/blending), since it can propagate an undesirable systematic offset into the cosmic distance scale. The latest Galactic Cepheid Wesenheit (VIc) and Spitzer calibrations were employed to establish distances for classical Cepheids in IC 1613 and NGC 6822, thus enabling the impact of photometric contamination to be assessed in concert with metallicity. Distances (WVIc, [3.6]) for Cepheids in IC 1613 exhibit a galactocentric dependence, whereby Cepheids near the core appear (spuriously) too bright (rg< 2'). That effect is attributed to photometric contamination from neighboring (unresolved) stars, since the stellar density and surface brightness may increase with decreasing galactocentric distance. The impact is relatively indiscernible for a comparison sample of Cepheids occupying NGC 6822, a result that is partly attributable to that sample being nearer than the metal-poor galaxy IC 1613. WVIc and [3.6] distances for relatively uncontaminated Cepheids in each galaxy are comparable, thus confirming that period-magnitude relations (Leavitt Law) in those bands are relatively insensitive to metallicity (Δ [ Fe/H ] ≃ 1).

  10. A mildly relativistic radio jet from the otherwise normal type Ic supernova 2007gr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragi, Z.; Taylor, G. B.; Kouveliotou, C.; Granot, J.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Bietenholz, M.; van der Horst, A. J.; Pidopryhora, Y.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Garrett, M. A.; Szomoru, A.; Argo, M. K.; Bourke, S.; Paczyński, B.

    2010-01-01

    The class of type Ic supernovae have drawn increasing attention since 1998 owing to their sparse association (only four so far) with long duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs). Although both phenomena originate from the core collapse of a massive star, supernovae emit mostly at optical wavelengths, whereas GRBs emit mostly in soft γ-rays or hard X-rays. Though the GRB central engine generates ultra-relativistic jets, which beam the early emission into a narrow cone, no relativistic outflows have hitherto been found in type Ib/c supernovae explosions, despite theoretical expectations and searches. Here we report radio (interferometric) observations that reveal a mildly relativistic expansion in a nearby type Ic supernova, SN 2007gr. Using two observational epochs 60days apart, we detect expansion of the source and establish a conservative lower limit for the average apparent expansion velocity of 0.6c. Independently, a second mildly relativistic supernova has been reported. Contrary to the radio data, optical observations of SN 2007gr indicate a typical type Ic supernova with ejecta velocities ~6,000kms-1, much lower than in GRB-associated supernovae. We conclude that in SN 2007gr a small fraction of the ejecta produced a low-energy mildly relativistic bipolar radio jet, while the bulk of the ejecta were slower and, as shown by optical spectropolarimetry, mildly aspherical.

  11. X-ray Properties of the Young Open Clusters HM1 and IC 2944-2948

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naze, Y.; Rauw, G.; Sana, H.; Corcoran, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Using XMM-Newton data, we study for the first time the X-ray emission of HM1 and IC 2944/2948. Low-mass, pre-main-sequence objects with an age of a few Myr are detected, as well as a few background or foreground objects. Most massive stars in both clusters display the usual high-energy properties of that type of objects, though with log [L(sub X)/L(sub BOL)] apparently lower in HM1 than in IC2944/2948. Compared with studies of other clusters, it seems that a low signal-to-noise ratio at soft energies, due to the high extinction, may be the main cause of this difference. In HM1, the two Wolf-Rayet stars show contrasting behaviors:WR89 is extremely bright, but much softer than WR87. It remains to be seen whether wind-wind collisions or magnetically confined winds can explain these emissions. In IC 2944/2948, the X-ray sources concentrate around HD 101205; a group of massive stars to the north of this object is isolated, suggesting that there exist two subclusters in the field-of-view.

  12. Chemical Abundances of the Planetary Nebula IC 4634 and Its Central Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyung, S.; Aller, L. H.; Feibelman, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    We have measured the spectral line intensities of the metal poor planetary nebula IC 4634. Using a photo-ionization model calculation, we try to fit the the optical and UV region spectra, i.e., Hamilton Echelle and IUE observations. From direct images, one expects complicated density variations, but the model predicts a range in densities that may be smaller than actually exist. We find N(sub epsilon) approximates 5000 /cubic meter. In spite of the geometrical complexity of the S shaped double-lobed structure, the simple photoionization model with a spherical symmetry can fit most emission lines, fairly well. The derived chemical composition has been compared with previous estimates and also with the Sun - The metallicity in IC 4634 appears to be lower than in the Sun or the average planetary nebula. The most likely temperature of the central ionizing source of IC 4634 appears to be about 55,000 K. We find a central star mass of about 0.55 Solar Mass from comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks.

  13. ULTRA-STRIPPED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE FROM CLOSE BINARY EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tauris, T. M.; Langer, N.; Moriya, T. J.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Yoon, S.-C.; Blinnikov, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    Recent discoveries of weak and fast optical transients raise the question of their origin. We investigate the minimum ejecta mass associated with core-collapse supernovae (SNe) of Type Ic. We show that mass transfer from a helium star to a compact companion can produce an ultra-stripped core which undergoes iron core collapse and leads to an extremely fast and faint SN Ic. In this Letter, a detailed example is presented in which the pre-SN stellar mass is barely above the Chandrasekhar limit, resulting in the ejection of only ∼0.05-0.20 M {sub ☉} of material and the formation of a low-mass neutron star (NS). We compute synthetic light curves of this case and demonstrate that SN 2005ek could be explained by our model. We estimate that the fraction of such ultra-stripped to all SNe could be as high as 10{sup –3}-10{sup –2}. Finally, we argue that the second explosion in some double NS systems (for example, the double pulsar PSR J0737–3039B) was likely associated with an ultra-stripped SN Ic.

  14. Investigation of the bases for use of the K sub Ic curve

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.E.; Nanstad, R.K. ); Rosenfield, A.R.; Marschall, C.W. ); Irwin, G.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50 (10CFR50), Appendix G, establishes the bases for setting allowable pressure and temperature limits on reactors during heatup and cooldown operation. Both the K{sub Ic} and K{sub Ia} curves are utilized in prescribed ways to maintain reactor vessel structural integrity in the presence of an assumed or actual flaw and operating stresses. Currently, the code uses the K{sub Ia} curve, normalized to the RT{sub NDT}, to represent the fracture toughness trend for unirradiated and irradiated pressure vessel steels. Although this is clearly a conservative policy, it has been suggested that the K{sub Ic} curve is the more appropriate for application to a non-accident operating condition. A number of uncertainties have been identified, however, that might convert normal operating transients into a dynamic loading situation. Those include the introduction of running cracks from local brittle zones, crack pop-ins, reduced toughness from arrested cleavage cracks, description of the K{sub Ic} curve for irradiated materials, and other related unresolved issues relative to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Some observations and conclusions can be made regarding various aspects of those uncertainties and they are discussed in this paper. A discussion of further work required and under way to address the remaining uncertainties is also presented.

  15. Stress Voiding in IC Interconnects - Rules of Evidence for Failure Analysts

    SciTech Connect

    FILTER, WILLIAM F.

    1999-09-17

    Mention the words ''stress voiding'', and everyone from technology engineer to manager to customer is likely to cringe. This IC failure mechanism elicits fear because it is insidious, capricious, and difficult to identify and arrest. There are reasons to believe that a damascene-copper future might be void-free. Nevertheless, engineers who continue to produce ICs with Al-alloy interconnects, or who assess the reliability of legacy ICs with long service life, need up-to-date insights and techniques to deal with stress voiding problems. Stress voiding need not be fearful. Not always predictable, neither is it inevitable. On the contrary, stress voids are caused by specific, avoidable processing errors. Analytical work, though often painful, can identify these errors when stress voiding occurs, and vigilance in monitoring the improved process can keep it from recurring. In this article, they show that a methodical, forensics approach to failure analysis can solve suspected cases of stress voiding. This approach uses new techniques, and patiently applies familiar ones, to develop evidence meeting strict standards of proof.

  16. Iron Abundances and Atmospheric Parameters of Red Giants in the Open Cluster IC 4756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Julie O.

    Three red giants were investigated within the open cluster IC 4756 using observations taken from the McDonald Observatory's 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope and the Sandiford Cassegrain Echelle Spectrometer (SES). Iron abundances were calculated for each star based on the equivalent widths of Fe I and Fe II lines measured using the line lists of Bubar and King (2010) and Schuler et al. (2005). Also derived were the basic atmospheric parameters: effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and microturbulence. Her 35, Her 85, and Her 249 were found to have corresponding [Fe I/H] of 0.06 +/- 0.04, -0.16 +/- 0.03, and -0.16 +/- 0.06 as derived from the neutral lines. These values, when compared to the results of other studies, suggest that the cluster has an overall metallicity within the solar to subsolar value. This would indicate IC 4756 as a slightly metal-poor object. The star Her 85 is also examined to determine if derived atmospheric parameters support the classification of more recent studies as a nonmember of the cluster. The studies base their decisions on its deviation in radial velocity from the cluster mean. It is concluded that there is little solid evidence to support the dismissal of Her 85 from metallicity studies of IC 4756 and present-day membership and proper motion studies with modern equipment are required to confirm or reject this theory.

  17. Metabolic Effects Associated with ICS in Patients with COPD and Comorbid Type 2 Diabetes: A Historical Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Price, David B.; Burden, Anne; Skinner, Derek; Mikkelsen, Helga; Ding, Cherlyn; Brice, Richard; Chavannes, Niels H.; Kocks, Janwillem W. H.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Haughney, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Management guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend that inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are prescribed to patients with the most severe symptoms. However, these guidelines have not been widely implemented by physicians, leading to widespread use of ICS in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD. Of particular concern is the potential risk of worsening diabetic control associated with ICS use. Here we investigate whether ICS therapy in patients with COPD and comorbid type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has a negative impact on diabetic control, and whether these negative effects are dose-dependent. Methods and Findings This was a historical matched cohort study utilising primary care medical record data from two large UK databases. We selected patients aged ≥40 years with COPD and T2DM, prescribed ICS (n = 1360) or non-ICS therapy (n = 2642) between 2008 and 2012. The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c between the baseline and outcome periods. After 1:1 matching, each cohort consisted of 682 patients. Over the 12–18-month outcome period, patients prescribed ICS had significantly greater increases in HbA1c values compared with those prescribed non-ICS therapies; adjusted difference 0.16% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.05–0.27%) in all COPD patients, and 0.25% (95% CI: 0.10–0.40%) in mild-to-moderate COPD patients. Patients in the ICS cohort also had significantly more diabetes-related general practice visits per year and received more frequent glucose strip prescriptions, compared with those prescribed non-ICS therapies. Patients prescribed higher cumulative doses of ICS (>250 mg) had greater odds of increased HbA1c and/or receiving additional antidiabetic medication, and increased odds of being above the Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) target for HbA1c levels, compared with those prescribed lower cumulative doses (≤125 mg). Conclusion For patients with COPD and comorbid T2DM, ICS therapy may have a negative impact on

  18. Recent Progresses in Laboratory Astrophysics with Ames’ COSmIC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, Cesar; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-06-01

    We present and discuss the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nano particles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. COSmIC is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a plasma in free supersonic jet expansion coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [2].Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be presented, in particular the progress that has been achieved in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) [3] and in monitoring, in the laboratory, the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as stellar/circumstellar outflows [4] and planetary atmospheres [5]. Plans for future, next generation, laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed as well as the implications of the current studies for astronomy.References: [1] Salama F., In Organic Matter in Space, IAU Symposium 251, Kwok & Sandford Eds.Cambridge University Press, Vol. 4, S251, p. 357 (2008) and references therein.[2] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300, 26 (2011)[3] Salama F., Galazutdinov G., Krelowski J

  19. Laboratory Astrophysics Studies with the COSmIC Facility: Interstellar and Planetary Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Contreras, Cesar S.; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2015-08-01

    We present and discuss the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nano particles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. COSmIC is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a plasma in free supersonic jet expansion coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [2].Recent laboratory astrophysics results that were obtained using COSmIC will be presented, in particular the progress that has been achieved in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) and in monitoring, in the laboratory, the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as stellar/circumstellar outflows [3] and planetary atmospheres [4]. Plans for future, next generation, laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed as well as the implications of the current studies for astronomy.References:[1] Salama F., In Organic Matter in Space, IAU Symposium 251, Kwok & Sandford Eds.Cambridge University Press, Vol. 4, S251, p. 357 (2008) and references therein.[2] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300, 26 (2011)[3] Cesar Contreras and Farid Salama, The

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AMBIENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS ASSOCIATED WITH GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jae-Joon; Koo, Bon-Chul; Snell, Ronald L.; Yun, Min S.; Heyer, Mark H.; Burton, Michael G.

    2012-04-10

    The Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 is one of the most studied core-collapse SNRs for its interaction with molecular clouds. However, the ambient molecular clouds with which IC 443 is interacting have not been thoroughly studied and remain poorly understood. Using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope, we obtained fully sampled maps of the {approx}1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region toward IC 443 in the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 and HCO{sup +} J = 1-0 lines. In addition to the previously known molecular clouds in the velocity range v{sub LSR} = -6 to -1 km s{sup -1} (-3 km s{sup -1} clouds), our observations reveal two new ambient molecular cloud components: small ({approx}1') bright clouds in v{sub LSR} = -8 to -3 km s{sup -1} (SCs) and diffuse clouds in v{sub LSR} = +3 to +10 km s{sup -1} (+5 km s{sup -1} clouds). Our data also reveal the detailed kinematics of the shocked molecular gas in IC 443; however, the focus of this paper is the physical relationship between the shocked clumps and the ambient cloud components. We find strong evidence that the SCs are associated with the shocked clumps. This is supported by the positional coincidence of the SCs with shocked clumps and other tracers of shocks. Furthermore, the kinematic features of some shocked clumps suggest that these are the ablated material from the SCs upon the impact of the SNR shock. The SCs are interpreted as dense cores of parental molecular clouds that survived the destruction by the pre-supernova evolution of the progenitor star or its nearby stars. We propose that the expanding SNR shock is now impacting some of the remaining cores and the gas is being ablated and accelerated, producing the shocked molecular gas. The morphology of the +5 km s{sup -1} clouds suggests an association with IC 443. On the other hand, the -3 km s{sup -1} clouds show no evidence for interaction.

  1. PREFACE: IC-MSQUARE 2012: International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmas, Theocharis; Vagenas, Elias; Vlachos, Dimitrios

    2013-02-01

    The first International Conference on Mathematical Modelling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Budapest, Hungary, from Monday 3 to Friday 7 September 2012. The conference was attended by more than 130 participants, and hosted about 290 oral, poster and virtual papers by more than 460 pre-registered authors. The first IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields in which mathematical modelling is used, such as theoretical/mathematical physics, neutrino physics, non-integrable systems, dynamical systems, computational nanoscience, biological physics, computational biomechanics, complex networks, stochastic modelling, fractional statistics, DNA dynamics, and macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, two parallel sessions ran every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful; thus all attendees had a creative time. The mounting question is whether this occurred accidentally, or whether IC-MSQUARE is a necessity in the field of physical and mathematical modelling. For all of us working in the field, the existing and established conferences in this particular field suffer from two distinguished and recognized drawbacks: the first is the increasing orientation, while the second refers to the extreme specialization of the meetings. Therefore, a conference which aims to promote the knowledge and development of high-quality research in mathematical fields concerned with applications of other scientific fields as well as modern technological trends in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, economics, sociology, environmental sciences etc., appears to be a necessity. This is the key role that IC-MSQUARE will play. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contributions to IC-MSQUARE. We would also

  2. Recent Progress in Planetary Laboratory Astrophysics achieved with NASA Ames' COSmIC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for "Cosmic Simulation Chamber" and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate various space environments such as planetary atmospheres. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. The COSmIC experimental setup is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion, that generates a plasma in the stream of a free supersonic jet expansion, coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection [2, 3], and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [4].Recent results obtained using COSmIC will be highlighted. In particular, the progress that has been achieved in an on-going study investigating the formation and the characterization of laboratory analogs of Titan's aerosols generated from gas-phase molecular precursors [5] will be presented. Plans for future laboratory experiments on planetary molecules and aerosols in the growing field of planetary laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed, as well as the implications of studies underway for astronomical observations.References: [1] Salama F., in Organic Matter in Space, IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds, CUP, S251, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Biennier L., Salama, F., Allamandola L., & Scherer J., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[3] Tan X, & Salama F., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 84318 (2005)[4] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300

  3. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand- Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small

  4. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House Waterline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  5. Humanized H19/Igf2 locus reveals diverged imprinting mechanism between mouse and human and reflects Silver-Russell syndrome phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hur, Stella K; Freschi, Andrea; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Thorvaldsen, Joanne L; Luense, Lacey J; Weller, Angela H; Berger, Shelley L; Cerrato, Flavia; Riccio, Andrea; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2016-09-27

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals, such that they are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin-specific manner. These genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), cis-regulatory elements that exhibit allele-specific differential DNA methylation. Although genomic imprinting is conserved in mammals, ICRs are genetically divergent across species. This raises the fundamental question of whether the ICR plays a species-specific role in regulating imprinting at a given locus. We addressed this question at the H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted locus, the misregulation of which is associated with the human imprinting disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). We generated a knock-in mouse in which the endogenous H19/Igf2 ICR (mIC1) is replaced by the orthologous human ICR (hIC1) sequence, designated H19(hIC1) We show that hIC1 can functionally replace mIC1 on the maternal allele. In contrast, paternally transmitted hIC1 leads to growth restriction, abnormal hIC1 methylation, and loss of H19 and Igf2 imprinted expression. Imprint establishment at hIC1 is impaired in the male germ line, which is associated with an abnormal composition of histone posttranslational modifications compared with mIC1. Overall, this study reveals evolutionarily divergent paternal imprinting at IC1 between mice and humans. The conserved maternal imprinting mechanism and function at IC1 demonstrates the possibility of modeling maternal transmission of hIC1 mutations associated with BWS in mice. In addition, we propose that further analyses in the paternal knock-in H19(+/hIC1) mice will elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie SRS.

  6. Humanized H19/Igf2 locus reveals diverged imprinting mechanism between mouse and human and reflects Silver-Russell syndrome phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Hur, Stella K; Freschi, Andrea; Ideraabdullah, Folami; Thorvaldsen, Joanne L; Luense, Lacey J; Weller, Angela H; Berger, Shelley L; Cerrato, Flavia; Riccio, Andrea; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2016-09-27

    Genomic imprinting affects a subset of genes in mammals, such that they are expressed in a monoallelic, parent-of-origin-specific manner. These genes are regulated by imprinting control regions (ICRs), cis-regulatory elements that exhibit allele-specific differential DNA methylation. Although genomic imprinting is conserved in mammals, ICRs are genetically divergent across species. This raises the fundamental question of whether the ICR plays a species-specific role in regulating imprinting at a given locus. We addressed this question at the H19/insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) imprinted locus, the misregulation of which is associated with the human imprinting disorders Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). We generated a knock-in mouse in which the endogenous H19/Igf2 ICR (mIC1) is replaced by the orthologous human ICR (hIC1) sequence, designated H19(hIC1) We show that hIC1 can functionally replace mIC1 on the maternal allele. In contrast, paternally transmitted hIC1 leads to growth restriction, abnormal hIC1 methylation, and loss of H19 and Igf2 imprinted expression. Imprint establishment at hIC1 is impaired in the male germ line, which is associated with an abnormal composition of histone posttranslational modifications compared with mIC1. Overall, this study reveals evolutionarily divergent paternal imprinting at IC1 between mice and humans. The conserved maternal imprinting mechanism and function at IC1 demonstrates the possibility of modeling maternal transmission of hIC1 mutations associated with BWS in mice. In addition, we propose that further analyses in the paternal knock-in H19(+/hIC1) mice will elucidate the molecular mechanisms that may underlie SRS. PMID:27621468

  7. Down-regulation of CD53 expression in Epinephelus coioides under LPS, poly (I:C), and cytokine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Chia-Yi; Lin, John Han-You; Lin, Shih-Jie; Kuo, Wan-Ching; Lin, Han-Tso

    2016-04-01

    Tetraspanins are a group of cell surface molecules involved in cell adhesion, motility, metastasis, signal transduction, and immune cell activation. Members of the tetraspanin family include CD9, CD37, CD63, CD53, and others. However, few tetraspanins have been investigated in teleosts. In this study, we obtained the open reading frame of CD53 cDNA from orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioices), an economically important fish. The predicted amino acid structure contains four membrane-spanning domains and a conserved CCG motif. The amino acid identity between human and grouper CD53 was only 38%; however, both CD53 proteins share the same structure. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that mRNA is abundant in immune organs, including the head and trunk kidneys, spleen, thymus, gill, and blood. Immunochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses further revealed that CD53 was majorly expressed in the leukocytes of various organs. Finally, mRNA and protein expression for CD53 was down-regulated in fish treated with immune stimulators, including LPS, Poly (I:C), Vibrio, recombinant grouper IL-6, and CCL4. Our results indicate that the expression of CD53 may play important roles in pathogen invasion and inflammation reaction. PMID:26631805

  8. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, A V; Mavritskii, O B; Egorov, A N; Pechenkin, A A; Savchenkov, D V

    2014-12-31

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  9. Direct exposure to nitrogen dioxide fails to induce the expression of some inflammatory cytokines in an IC-21 murine macrophage cell model.

    PubMed

    Tu, B; Wallin, A; Moldéus, P; Cotgreave, I A

    1995-12-15

    Biologically-active molecules secreted from alveolar macrophages, such as cytokines, have been proposed to be involved in the induction of pulmonary toxicity and inflammation in response to the inhalation of oxidant gas pollutants such as NO2 and O3. Despite this, mechanistic studies are hampered by the difficulty in obtaining control macrophages from human subjects, and the intrinsic variability of such primary cells. It is, thus, of importance to develop alternative models for such studies. Here, we have characterised expression kinetics of the mRNAs for tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) in confluent cultures of the murine IC-21 macrophage line in response to LPS. The secretion of TNF-alpha protein into the medium, assayed by L-929 cell bioassay, closely followed the expression of its mRNA in response to the LPS stimulus. In contrast to LPS, the exposure of IC-21 cells to either air or various concentrations of NO2 in air between 2 and 20 ppm, in an inverted plate exposure model, failed to induce the expression of any of the cytokine mRNAs probed. We conclude that the IC-21 cell line may represent a suitable model for studying the role of stimulated cytokine gene expression in inflammation and that the early events in the pulmonary inflammatory response to the inhalation of NO2 do not involve stimulated release of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta or MIP-1 alpha/MIP-1 beta from macrophages. PMID:8560494

  10. Co-stimulation with LPS or Poly I:C markedly enhances the anti-platelet immune response and severity of fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Conglei; Chen, Pingguo; Vadasz, Brian; Ma, Li; Zhou, Hui; Lang, Sean; Freedman, John; Ni, Heyu

    2013-12-01

    Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a life-threatening bleeding disorder caused by maternal antibodies against fetal/neonatal platelets. FNAIT is also linked with miscarriages, although the incidence and mechanisms of fetal death have not been well studied. IntegrinαIIbβ3 (GPIIbIIIa) and the GPIbα complex are major glycoproteins expressed on platelets and are also major antigens targeted in autoimmune thrombocytopenia (ITP), but reported cases of anti-GPIb-mediated FNAIT are rare. Bacterial and viral infections have been causally linked with the pathogenesis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP); however, it is unknown whether these infections contribute to the severity of FNAIT. Here, immune responses against platelet antigens were examined by transfusing wild-type (WT) mouse platelets into β3-/- or GPIbα-/- mice. To mimic bacterial or viral infections, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) were injected intraperitoneally following platelet transfusions. The FNAIT model was established by breeding the immunised female mice with WT male mice. We demonstrated for the first time that the platelet GPIbα has lower immunogenicity compared to β3 integrin. Interestingly, co-stimulation with LPS or Poly I:C markedly enhanced the immune response against platelet GPIbα and caused severe pathology of FNAIT (i.e. miscarriages). LPS or Poly I:C also enhanced the immune response against platelet β3 integrin. Our data suggest that bacterial and viral infections facilitate the anti-platelet GPIbα response, which may lead to a severe non-classical FNAIT (i.e. miscarriage but not neonatal bleeding) that has not been adequately reported in humans.

  11. Molecular environment of the supernova remnant IC 443: Discovery of the molecular shells surrounding the remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yang; Fang, Min; Yang, Ji; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang

    2014-06-20

    We have carried out {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.°5 × 1.°5 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5' extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant's bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant's radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of –5 km s{sup –1} to –2 km s{sup –1}, which is consistent with that of the –4 km s{sup –1} molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V {sub LSR} ∼ –4 km s{sup –1} is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443's massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant's bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

  12. A sensitive data extraction algorithm based on the content associated encryption technology for ICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Hao, Huang; Xie, Changsheng

    With the development of HD video, the protection of copyright becomes more complicated. More advanced copyright protection technology is needed. Traditional digital copyright protection technology generally uses direct or selective encryption algorithm and the key does not associate with the video content [1]. Once the encryption method is cracked or the key is stolen, the copyright of the video will be violated. To address this issue, this paper proposes a Sensitive Data Extraction Algorithm (SDEA) based on the content associated encryption technology which applies to the Internet Certification Service (ICS). The principle of content associated encryption is to extract some data from the video and use this extracted data as the key to encrypt the rest data. The extracted part from video is called sensitive data, and the rest part is called the main data. After extraction, the main data will not be played or poorly played. The encrypted sensitive data reach the terminal device through the safety certificated network and the main data are through ICS disc. The terminal equipments are responsible for synthesizing and playing these two parts of data. Consequently, even if the main data on disc is illegally obtained, the video cannot be played normally due to the lack of necessary sensitive data. It is proved by experiments that ICS using SDEA can destruct the video effectively with 0.25% extraction rates and the destructed video cannot be played well. It can also guarantee the consistency of the destructive effect on different videos with different contents. The sensitive data can be transported smoothly under the home Internet bandwidth.

  13. ULTRA-BRIGHT OPTICAL TRANSIENTS ARE LINKED WITH TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorello, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Botticella, M. T.; Maguire, K.; Fraser, M.; Smith, K.; Kotak, R.; Magill, L.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Gezari, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R.; Howell, D. A.; Rest, A.; Metcalfe, N.; Huang, K. Y.; Urata, Y.

    2010-11-20

    Recent searches by unbiased, wide-field surveys have uncovered a group of extremely luminous optical transients. The initial discoveries of SN 2005ap by the Texas Supernova Search and SCP-06F6 in a deep Hubble pencil beam survey were followed by the Palomar Transient Factory confirmation of host redshifts for other similar transients. The transients share the common properties of high optical luminosities (peak magnitudes {approx}-21 to -23), blue colors, and a lack of H or He spectral features. The physical mechanism that produces the luminosity is uncertain, with suggestions ranging from jet-driven explosion to pulsational pair instability. Here, we report the most detailed photometric and spectral coverage of an ultra-bright transient (SN 2010gx) detected in the Pan-STARRS 1 sky survey. In common with other transients in this family, early-time spectra show a blue continuum and prominent broad absorption lines of O II. However, about 25 days after discovery, the spectra developed type Ic supernova features, showing the characteristic broad Fe II and Si II absorption lines. Detailed, post-maximum follow-up may show that all SN 2005ap and SCP-06F6 type transients are linked to supernovae Ic. This poses problems in understanding the physics of the explosions: there is no indication from late-time photometry that the luminosity is powered by {sup 56}Ni, the broad light curves suggest very large ejected masses, and the slow spectral evolution is quite different from typical Ic timescales. The nature of the progenitor stars and the origin of the luminosity are intriguing and open questions.

  14. The new primary X-ray component confirmed in the Seyfert I galaxy IC 4329A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Katsuma; Noda, Hirofumi; Yamada, Shin'ya; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    The bright and highly variable Seyfert I active galactic nucleus IC 4329A was observed with Suzaku five times in 2007 August, with intervals of ˜5 days and a net exposure of 24-31 ks each. Another longer observation was carried out in 2012 August with a net exposure of 118 ks. In the six observations, a source was detected in 2-45 keV with an average 2-10 keV fluxes of (0.67-1.2) × 10-10 erg cm-2 s-1. Its intensity changed by a factor of 2 among the five observations in 2007, and 1.5 within the 2012 observation. A difference of spectrum among these observations revealed that the variability of IC 4329A was carried mainly by a power-law component with a photon index Γ ˜ 2.0. However, in addition to this primary component and its associated reflection, the broad-band Suzaku data required another, harder, and less-variable component with Γ ˜ 1.4. The presence of this new continuum was also confirmed by analyzing the same six data sets through the spectral decomposition technique developed by Noda et al. (2013a, ApJ, 771, 100). This Γ ˜ 1.4 continuum is considered to be a new primary component that has not been recognized in the spectra of IC 4329A so far, although it was recently identified in those of several other Seyfert I galaxies (Noda et al. 2013a, ApJ, 771, 100; Noda et al. 2014, ApJ, 794, 2).

  15. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  16. Multispectral analysis of Cygnus Loop and IC 443 with iFTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alarie, Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    Cygnus Loop and IC 443 are supernova remnants (SNRs) recognized as excellent laboratories to study the interaction between the SNR and the surrounding interstellar medium. The overall complex morphologies and large dimensions of those SNRs have always represented an observational challenge. This is especially true for optical observations for which the data available are very scarce. In order to palliate this scarcity in the optical regime, we are using two wide field-imaging Fourier transform spectrometers (iFTS): SpIOMM, attached to the Mont Megantic 1.6-m telescope and SITELLE recently installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Both instruments are capable of obtaining the spatially resolved visible spectrum of every source of light in an 11 arc minute field of view, in selected bandpasses. Using those iFTS on extended object such as Cygnus Loop and IC 443, we have obtained millions of spectra covering all major emission lines. Due to the large projected surface of Cygnus Loop and IC 443, we started a survey and the latest dataset will be presented. The extended 2D mappings of several emission lines ([O II] 3727, [O III] 4363, Hb, [O III] 4959, 5007, Ha, [N II] 6548, 6583 and [S II] 6716, 6731) allowed the creation of numerous ratios maps useful for shock diagnostics: shock velocity, electronic and temperature densities, location of incomplete shocks and extinction maps. These maps are then used to determine key parameters needed to compare the observations with theoretical shock models. Using the shock modeling code MAPPINGS, we can create abundances maps of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur for an appreciable fraction of the observed regions. Furthermore, using the radial velocity as well as the spectro-imagery capability of the iFTS, we can have a glimpse of the three-dimensional structure of the remnants. All those data allow us to forge a coherent analysis of the complex interaction between the SNRs and their surrounding environment.

  17. The Magnetized Galactic Wind and Synchrotron Halo of the Starburst Dwarf Galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyży, Krzysztof T.; Drzazga, Robert T.; Beck, Rainer; Urbanik, Marek; Heesen, Volker; Bomans, Dominik J.

    2016-03-01

    We aim to explore whether strong magnetic fields can be effectively generated in low-mass dwarf galaxies and, if so, whether such fields can be affected by galactic outflows and spread out into the intergalactic medium (IGM). We performed a radio continuum polarimetry study of IC 10, the nearest starbursting dwarf galaxy, using a combination of multifrequency interferometric (VLA) and single-dish (Effelsberg) observations. VLA observations at 1.43 GHz reveal an extensive and almost spherical radio halo of IC 10 in total intensity, extending twice more than the infrared-emitting galactic disk. The halo is magnetized with a magnetic field strength of 7 μG in the outermost parts. Locally, the magnetic field reaches about 29 μ {{G}} in H ii complexes, becomes more ordered, and weakens to 22 μ {{G}} in the synchrotron superbubble and to 7-10 μG within H i holes. At the higher frequency of 4.86 GHz, we found a large-scale magnetic field structure of X-shaped morphology, similar to that observed in several edge-on spiral galaxies. The X-shaped magnetic structure can be caused by the galactic wind, advecting magnetic fields injected into the interstellar medium by stellar winds and supernova explosions. The radio continuum scale heights at 1.43 GHz indicate the bulk speed of cosmic-ray electrons outflowing from H ii complexes of about 60 km s-1, exceeding the escape velocity of 40 km s-1. Hence, the magnetized galactic wind in IC 10 inflates the extensive radio halo visible at 1.43 GHz and can seed the IGM with both random and ordered magnetic fields. These are signatures of intense material feedback onto the IGM, expected to be prevalent in the protogalaxies of the early universe.

  18. Developing a Decision Support System for Flood Response: NIMS/ICS Fundamentals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhang, X.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Zhu, L.

    2015-12-01

    Effective response to regional disasters such as floods requires a multipronged, non-linear approach to reduce loss of life, property and harm to the environment. These coordinated response actions are typically undertaken by multiple jurisdictions, levels of government, functional agencies and other responsible entities. A successful response is highly dependent on the effectiveness and efficiency of each coordinated response action undertaken across a broad spectrum of organizations and activities. In order to provide a unified framework for those responding to incidents or planned events, FEMA provides a common and flexible approach for managing incidents, regardless of cause, size, location or complexity, referred to as the National Incident Management System (NIMS). Integral to NIMS is the Incident Command System (ICS), which establishes a common, pre-defined organizational structure to ensure coordination and management of procedures, resources and communications, for efficient incident management. While being both efficient and rigorous, NIMS, and ICS to a lesser extent, is an inherently complex framework that requires significant amount of training for planners, responders and managers to master, especially considering the wide array of incident types that Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) must be prepared to respond to. The existing Water-Wizard Decision Support System (DSS), developed to support water distribution system recovery operations for Decontamination (Decon), Operational Optimization (WDS), and Economic Consequence Assessment (Econ), is being evolved to integrate incident response functions. Water-Wizard runs on both mobile and desktop devices, and is being extended to utilize smartphone and mobile device specific data streams (e.g GPS location) to augment its fact-base in real-time for situational-aware DSS recommendations. In addition, the structured NIMS and ICS frameworks for incident management and response are being incorporated

  19. Ultra-bright Optical Transients are Linked with Type Ic Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Botticella, M. T.; Maguire, K.; Fraser, M.; Smith, K.; Kotak, R.; Magill, L.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.; Gezari, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R.; Howell, D. A.; Rest, A.; Metcalfe, N.; Mattila, S.; Kankare, E.; Huang, K. Y.; Urata, Y.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Dombeck, T.; Flewelling, H.; Grav, T.; Heasley, J. N.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Luppino, G. A.; Lupton, R. H.; Magnier, E. A.; Monet, D. G.; Morgan, J. S.; Onaka, P. M.; Price, P. A.; Rhoads, P. H.; Siegmund, W. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sweeney, W. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waterson, M. F.; Waters, C.; Wynn-Williams, C. G.

    2010-11-01

    Recent searches by unbiased, wide-field surveys have uncovered a group of extremely luminous optical transients. The initial discoveries of SN 2005ap by the Texas Supernova Search and SCP-06F6 in a deep Hubble pencil beam survey were followed by the Palomar Transient Factory confirmation of host redshifts for other similar transients. The transients share the common properties of high optical luminosities (peak magnitudes ~-21 to -23), blue colors, and a lack of H or He spectral features. The physical mechanism that produces the luminosity is uncertain, with suggestions ranging from jet-driven explosion to pulsational pair instability. Here, we report the most detailed photometric and spectral coverage of an ultra-bright transient (SN 2010gx) detected in the Pan-STARRS 1 sky survey. In common with other transients in this family, early-time spectra show a blue continuum and prominent broad absorption lines of O II. However, about 25 days after discovery, the spectra developed type Ic supernova features, showing the characteristic broad Fe II and Si II absorption lines. Detailed, post-maximum follow-up may show that all SN 2005ap and SCP-06F6 type transients are linked to supernovae Ic. This poses problems in understanding the physics of the explosions: there is no indication from late-time photometry that the luminosity is powered by 56Ni, the broad light curves suggest very large ejected masses, and the slow spectral evolution is quite different from typical Ic timescales. The nature of the progenitor stars and the origin of the luminosity are intriguing and open questions.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Time-series photometry of IC 348 (Fritzewski+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzewski, D. J.; Kitze, M.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhauser, R.; Adam, C.; Briceno, C.; Buder, S.; Butterley, T.; Chen, W.-P.; Dincel, B.; Dhillon, V. S.; Errmann, R.; Garai, Z.; Gilbert, H. F. W.; Ginski, C.; Greif, J.; Hardy, L. K.; Hernandez, J.; Huang, P. C.; Kellerer, A.; Kundra, E.; Littlefair, S. P.; Mallonn, M.; Marka, C.; Pannicke, A.; Pribulla, T.; Raetz, St.; Schmidt, J. G.; Schmidt, T. O. B.; Seeliger, M.; Wilson, R. W.; Wolf, V.

    2016-08-01

    Our Bessell R band photometric study of IC 348 used data from eight observatories. The observations were conducted between 2012 August 22 and 2015 January 18 in 125 nights. All telescopes had observed slightly different fields, while all stars were included in the field observed from the University Observatory Jena with the Schmidt telescope (centred at RA=3:45:20, DEC=+32:04:50). This telescope has a 2048x2048 CCD and a FoV of 52.8'x58.2'. In this work we present rotation periods for members and non-members alike. (1 data file).

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BVRcIC photometry of V2615 Oph (Munari+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, U.; Henden, A.; Valentini, M.; Siviero, A.; Dallaporta, S.; Ochner, P.; Tomasoni, S.

    2009-06-01

    The BVRcIc photometric evolution of NOph07 has been monitored, for seven months and over a 7mag decline, with three different telescopes: (a) the Sonoita Research Observatory (SRO) 0.35-m Celestron C14 robotic telescope (b) the 0.30-m Meade RCX-400 f/8 Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope owned by Associazione Astrofili Valle di Cembra (Trento, Italy), and (c) the 0.50-m f/8 Ritchey-Cretien telescope operated on top of Mt. Zugna by Museo Civico di Rovereto (Trento, Italy) (1 data file).

  2. An XMM-Newton and Chandra study of the starburst galaxy IC 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Williams, Rosa

    2005-09-01

    We present an X-ray study of our nearest starburst galaxy IC 10, based on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. A list of 73 XMM-Newton and 28 Chandra detections of point-like X-ray sources in the field is provided; a substantial fraction of them are likely stellar objects in the Milky Way due to the low Galactic latitude location of IC 10. The brightest source in the IC 10 field, X-1, has a mean 0.3-8.0 keV luminosity of ~1.2 × 1038ergs-1 and shows a large variation by a factor of up to ~6 on time-scales of ~104 s during the XMM-Newton observation. The X-ray spectra of the source indicate the presence of a multicolour blackbody accretion disc with an inner disc temperature Tin~ 1.1 keV. These results are consistent with the interpretation of the source as a stellar mass black hole (BH), probably accreting from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star companion. We infer the mass of this BH to be ~4Msolar if it is not spinning, or a factor of up to ~6 higher if there is significant spinning. We also detect an apparent diffuse soft X-ray emission component of IC 10. An effective method is devised to remove the X-ray CCD-readout streaks of X-1 that strongly affect the study of the diffuse component in the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We find that the diffuse X-ray morphology is oriented along the optical body of the galaxy and is chiefly associated with starburst regions. The diffuse component can be characterized by an optically thin thermal plasma with a mean temperature of ~4 × 106 K and a 0.5-2 keV luminosity of ~8 × 1037ergs-1, representing only a small fraction of the expected mechanical energy inputs from massive stars in the galaxy. There is evidence that the hot gas is driving outflows from the starburst regions; therefore, the bulk of the energy inputs may be released in a galactic wind.

  3. Low-energy X-ray line emission from IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, P. A.; Kahn, S. M.; Mason, K. O.; Tuohy, I. R.

    1981-01-01

    HEAO 1 observations of the spectrum of the supernova remnant IC 443 in the energy range of 0.4-3 keV reveal the presence of a complex structure suggestive of emission from Fe XVIII-XX, S XV-XVI, and Si XIII-XIV ions. The best electron temperature in the band for simple model fits is about (6-11) x 10 to the 6th K. Raymond and Smith collisional equilibrium emission models do not adequately fit the data. These results are discussed in terms of possible nonequilibrium effects in the remnant.

  4. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  5. Photometric variability of 14 PMS stars in the NGC 7000/IC 5070 complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, Sunay I.; Semkov, Evgeni H.

    2016-01-01

    New photometric data from CCD multicolour BVRI observations of 14 pre-main sequence stars during the period from 2013 April to 2015 September are presented. The studied objects are located in the field of 'Gulf of Mexico' in the NGC 7000/IC 5070 star-forming complex. The stars from our study exhibit different types of photometric variability in all optical passbands. Using our long-term observations and data published by other authors, we tried to define the reasons for the observed brightness variations. On the basis of our new data previously unknown periodicity in the light curve of the star LkHα 189 (2.45 days) was registered.

  6. Surprisingly high-pressure shocks in the supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhouse, A.; Brand, P. W. J. L.; Geballe, T. R.; Burton, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The intensities of several lines of molecular hydrogen have been measured from two regions of the supernova-remnant/molecular-cloud shock in IC 443. The lines measured have upper-state energies ranging from 7000 K to 23,000 K. Their relative intensities differ in the two regions, but are consistent with those predicted from the post-shock regions of simple jump-type shocks of different pressure. The pressures so derived are far higher than the pressure in the supernova remnant itself, and a possible reason for this discrepancy is discussed.

  7. The UspIC: Performing Scan Matching Localization Using an Imaging Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Burguera, Antoni; Gonzàlez, Yolanda; Oliver, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to localize an underwater mobile robot based on scan matching using a Mechanically Scanned Imaging Sonar (MSIS). When used to perform scan matching, this sensor presents some problems such as significant uncertainty in the measurements or large scan times, which lead to a motion induced distortion. This paper presents the uspIC, which deals with these problems by adopting a probabilistic scan matching strategy and by defining a method to strongly alleviate the motion induced distortion. Experimental results evaluating our approach and comparing it to previously existing methods are provided. PMID:22969375

  8. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  9. Analog/digital pH meter system I.C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Paul; Park, Jea

    1992-01-01

    The project utilizes design automation software tools to design, simulate, and fabricate a pH meter integrated circuit (IC) system including a successive approximation type seven-bit analog to digital converter circuits using a 1.25 micron N-Well CMOS MOSIS process. The input voltage ranges from 0.5 to 1.0 V derived from a special type pH sensor, and the output is a three-digit decimal number display of pH with one decimal point.

  10. Estudio Fotométrico en la región de IC 2944/2948

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M. J.; Panei, J. A.; Corti, M. A.; Baume, G. L.; Carraro, G.

    Deep images in several bands corresponding to the area of IC 2944/2948 obtained using a wide-field camera (WFI/2.2m MPG / ESO); have been used in this work. Then we carried out PSF photometry of the combined images. Thus the behavior of the lower main sequence from the stellar population in this area has been studied. Our data were supplemented with information of the brightest objects available in different previous work and/or public databases. The preliminary analysis of the obtained data has allowed us to estimate the characteristics of the stellar population in this direction of the Galaxy. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  11. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  12. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small

  13. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House Water Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  14. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small

  15. Construction Progress of the S-IC Pump House Water Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This close up photograph, taken September 5, 1963, shows the ground level frame work for the Pump House and its massive

  16. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  17. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow access tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through

  18. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built to the northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. This photograph, taken September 25, 1963, depicts the construction progress of the Pump House and massive round water

  19. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand-Pump House

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built directly east of the test stand was the Block House, which served as the control center for the test stand. The two were connected by a narrow tunnel which housed the cables for the controls. Again to the east, just south of the Block House, was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small

  20. Construction Progress of the S-IC Test Stand Water Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    At its founding, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) inherited the Army's Jupiter and Redstone test stands, but much larger facilities were needed for the giant stages of the Saturn V. From 1960 to 1964, the existing stands were remodeled and a sizable new test area was developed. The new comprehensive test complex for propulsion and structural dynamics was unique within the nation and the free world, and they remain so today because they were constructed with foresight to meet the future as well as on going needs. Construction of the S-IC Static test stand complex began in 1961 in the west test area of MSFC, and was completed in 1964. The S-IC static test stand was designed to develop and test the 138-ft long and 33-ft diameter Saturn V S-IC first stage, or booster stage, weighing in at 280,000 pounds. Required to hold down the brute force of a 7,500,000-pound thrust produced by 5 F-1 engines, the S-IC static test stand was designed and constructed with the strength of hundreds of tons of steel and 12,000,000 pounds of cement, planted down to bedrock 40 feet below ground level. The foundation walls, constructed with concrete and steel, are 4 feet thick. The base structure consists of four towers with 40-foot-thick walls extending upward 144 feet above ground level. The structure was topped by a crane with a 135-foot boom. With the boom in the upright position, the stand was given an overall height of 405 feet, placing it among the highest structures in Alabama at the time. In addition to the stand itself, related facilities were constructed during this time. Built northeast of the stand was a newly constructed Pump House. Its function was to provide water to the stand to prevent melting damage during testing. The water was sprayed through small holes in the stand's 1900 ton flame deflector at the rate of 320,000 gallons per minute. In this photograph, a construction worker demonstrates the size of the massive water valve that was used in the testing cooling

  1. Custom IC/Embedded IP design for histogram in video processing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Manoj; Chaturvedi, Richa; Rai, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Histogram is an integral part of video processing applications. Either of the design methods ASIC or Embedded, histogram computation is an important functional block. This paper proposes the custom Integrated Circuit (IC) as an ASIC and an embedded IP to compute the colored histogram function. Histogram computation has two features: color and spatial. Color feature has been calculated using find_bin and spatial feature is calculated using kernel function. The design is verified using NCSIM Cadence tool, while it is synthesized using RTL compiler. Finally, the embedded IP has interfaced with Kernel based mean shift algorithm in tracking a moving object and implemented on Xilinx Spartan 6 LX150T FPGA.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XMM sources in IC 1805 (Rauw+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Naze, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The table provides the full catalogue of X-ray sources detected with the EPIC instruments onboard XMM-Newton inside the IC1805 cluster. The sources are ordered by increasing right ascension. The coordinates of the sources were cross-correlated with the optical and IR catalogues of Straizys et al. (2013, Cat. J/A+A/554/A3), Wolff et al. (2011, Cat. J/ApJ/726/19), and the SIMBAD catalogue. We adopted in each case a correlation radius of 4 arcsec. (1 data file).

  3. Recent Observations of IC443 with the Whipple 10m Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, J.; Badran, H.M.; Blaylock, G.; Bond, I.H.; Boyle, P.J.; Bradbury, S.M.; Buckley, J.H.; Byrum, K.; Carter-Lewis, D.A.; Celik, O.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Calle Perez, I. de la; Daniel, M.K.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, D.J.; Fegan, S.J.; Finley, J.P.; Fortson, L.F.

    2005-02-21

    We present here the results of recent observations made with the Whipple 10m imaging Cherenkov telescope of the region of the supernova remnant IC443. No evidence for gamma-ray emission was found, and we obtain an upper limit above 500 GeV (99.9% confidence) of 0.6 x 10-7 ph m-2 s-1 (0.11 Crab) at the location of the recently identified X-ray plerion nebula and 0.8 x 10-7 ph m-2 s-1 (0.14 Crab) at the site of the OH maser at the densest part of the molecular cloud.

  4. The uspIC: performing scan matching localization using an imaging sonar.

    PubMed

    Burguera, Antoni; Gonzàlez, Yolanda; Oliver, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to localize an underwater mobile robot based on scan matching using a Mechanically Scanned Imaging Sonar (MSIS). When used to perform scan matching, this sensor presents some problems such as significant uncertainty in the measurements or large scan times, which lead to a motion induced distortion. This paper presents the uspIC, which deals with these problems by adopting a probabilistic scan matching strategy and by defining a method to strongly alleviate the motion induced distortion. Experimental results evaluating our approach and comparing it to previously existing methods are provided.

  5. Design of a 3D-IC multi-resolution digital pixel sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochard, N.; Nebhen, J.; Dubois, J.; Ginhac, D.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a digital pixel sensor (DPS) integrating a sigma-delta analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at pixel level. The digital pixel includes a photodiode, a delta-sigma modulation and a digital decimation filter. It features adaptive dynamic range and multiple resolutions (up to 10-bit) with a high linearity. A specific row decoder and column decoder are also designed to permit to read a specific pixel chosen in the matrix and its neighborhood of 4 x 4. Finally, a complete design with the CMOS 130 nm 3D-IC FaStack Tezzaron technology is also described, revealing a high fill-factor of about 80%.

  6. New features of the IC(4) code and comparison of internal conversion coefficient calculations.

    PubMed

    Gorozhankin, V M; Coursol, N; Yakushev, E A; Vylov, Ts; Briançon, C

    2002-01-01

    The IC(4) software developed to compare calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC) has been enhanced by adding new features through the use of Borland Delphi and TeeChart. Particularly, the 3D-graph option enhances the possibilities of analyzing calculated ICC values. For example, the comparison between the results given by three sets of theoretical ICC tables for any arbitrary pair of calculated ICC can be presented in a much clearer manner. Their differences can be displayed as energy vs. atomic number surfaces. Results from the analyses of K-shell and total ICCs for E2, E3, M2, M3, and M4 multipolarity are discussed. PMID:11839014

  7. Network security system for health and medical information using smart IC card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanai, Yoichi; Yachida, Masuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroharu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1998-07-01

    A new network security protocol that uses smart IC cards has been designed to assure the integrity and privacy of medical information in communication over a non-secure network. Secure communication software has been implemented as a library based on this protocol, which is called the Integrated Secure Communication Layer (ISCL), and has been incorporated into information systems of the National Cancer Center Hospitals and the Health Service Center of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Both systems have succeeded in communicating digital medical information securely.

  8. Static and dynamic properties of incommensurate smectic-A(IC) liquid crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubensky, T. C.; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Toner, John

    1988-01-01

    The elasticity, topological defects, and hydrodynamics of the incommensurate smectic A(IC) phase liquid crystals are studied. The phase is characterized by two colinear mass density waves of incommensurate spatial frequency. The elastic free energy is formulated in terms of a displacement field and a phason field. It is found that the topological defects of the system are dislocations with a nonzero phason field and phason field components. A two-dimensional Burgers lattice for these dislocations is introduced. It is shown that the hydrodynamic modes of the phase include first- and second-sound modes whose direction-dependent velocities are identical to those in ordinary smectics.

  9. Tick saliva regulates migration, phagocytosis, and gene expression in the macrophage-like cell line, IC-21.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Carolyn D; Poole, Nina M; Coons, Lewis B; Cole, Judith A

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effects of tick saliva on cell migration, cell signaling, phagocytosis, and gene expression in the murine macrophage cell line, IC-21. Saliva increased both basal- and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated migration in IC-21 cells. However, saliva did not affect PDGF-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Zymosan-mediated interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK) activity increased when cells were pretreated with saliva. Saliva suppressed phagocytosis of zymosan particles by IC-21 cells. An RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array revealed that saliva regulates gene expression in a manner consistent with an immune response skewed toward a Th2 reaction, which is characterized by production of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Our results using IC-21 cells suggest that Dermacentor variabilis has evolved a mechanism for regulating macrophage function, which may contribute to the tick's ability to modulate immune function. PMID:21145320

  10. Rotational Periods and Starspot Activity of Young Solar-Type Dwarfs in the Open Cluster IC 4665

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allain, S.; Bouvier, J.; Prosser, C.; Marschall, L. A.; Laaksonen, B. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a V-band photometric monitoring survey of 15 late-type dwarfs in the young open cluster IC 4665. Low-amplitude periodic light variations are found for 8 stars and ascribed to the modulation by starspots that cover typically a few percent of the stellar disk. Periods range from 0.6 to 3.7 d, translating to equatorial velocities between 13 and 93 km/s. That no period longer than 4 d was detected suggests a relative paucity of extremely slow rotators (V(sub eq) much less than 10 km/s) among late-type dwarfs in IC 4665. The fractional number of slow rotators in IC 4665 is similar to that of Alpha Per cluster, suggesting that IC 4665 is close in age to Alpha Per (approx. 50 Myr).

  11. A fully integrated CMOS VCXO-IC with low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanjun, Yang; Yun, Zeng

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity CMOS voltage controlled crystal oscillator IC (VCXO-IC) with LVCMOS and LVPECL output. A differential coupled frequency doubling Colpitts oscillator is adopted to obtain low noise 2× frequency output. Wide tuning range and high linearity are simultaneously achieved by using MOS varactor arrays. The measurement results show that the designed VCXO-IC achieves -134 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 kHz offset frequency and ± 135 ppm output frequency tuning range within 3% linearity by using 40 MHz fundamental AT-cut crystal. The VCXO-IC is fabricated in the chartered 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and occupies a total silicon area of 2.4 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61350007).

  12. BLACK HOLE POWERED NEBULAE AND A CASE STUDY OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE IC 342 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, David; Corbel, Stephane; Paragi, Zsolt; Tzioumis, Anastasios; Tudose, Valeriu; Feng Hua

    2012-04-10

    We present new radio, optical, and X-ray observations of three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that are associated with large-scale nebulae. We report the discovery of a radio nebula associated with the ULX IC 342 X-1 using the Very Large Array (VLA). Complementary VLA observations of the nebula around Holmberg II X-1, and high-frequency Australia Telescope Compact Array and Very Large Telescope spectroscopic observations of NGC 5408 X-1 are also presented. We study the morphology, ionization processes, and the energetics of the optical/radio nebulae of IC 342 X-1, Holmberg II X-1, and NGC 5408 X-1. The energetics of the optical nebula of IC 342 X-1 is discussed in the framework of standard bubble theory. The total energy content of the optical nebula is 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg. The minimum energy needed to supply the associated radio nebula is 9.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg. In addition, we detected an unresolved radio source at the location of IC 342 X-1 at the VLA scales. However, our Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations using the European VLBI Network likely rule out the presence of any compact radio source at milliarcsecond (mas) scales. Using a simultaneous Swift X-ray Telescope measurement, we estimate an upper limit on the mass of the black hole in IC 342 X-1 using the 'fundamental plane' of accreting black holes and obtain M{sub BH} {<=} (1.0 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Arguing that the nebula of IC 342 X-1 is possibly inflated by a jet, we estimate accretion rates and efficiencies for the jet of IC 342 X-1 and compare with sources like S26, SS433, and IC 10 X-1.

  13. 30 CFR 57.22212 - Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22212... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22212 Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). Air flow across each working face shall be sufficient to carry away any accumulation of methane,...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22212 - Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22212... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22212 Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). Air flow across each working face shall be sufficient to carry away any accumulation of methane,...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22212 - Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). 57.22212... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22212 Air flow (I-C, II-A, and V-A mines). Air flow across each working face shall be sufficient to carry away any accumulation of methane,...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from...

  1. Two promoters and two translation start sites control the expression of the Shigella flexneri outer membrane protease IcsP

    PubMed Central

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Kamneva, Olga K.; Levy, Karen M.; Labahn, Stephanie K.; Africa, Lia A.; Wing, Helen J.

    2011-01-01

    The Shigella flexneri outer membrane protease IcsP proteolytically cleaves the actin-based motility protein IcsA from the bacterial surface. The icsP gene is monocistronic and lies downstream of an unusually large intergenic region on the Shigella virulence plasmid. In silico analysis of this region predicts a second transcription start site 84 bp upstream of the first. Primer extension analyses and beta-galactosidase assays demonstrate that both transcription start sites are used. Both promoters are regulated by the Shigella virulence gene regulator VirB and both respond similarly to conditions known to influence Shigella virulence gene expression (iron concentration, pH, osmotic pressure, and phase of growth). The newly identified promoter lies upstream of a Shine-Dalgarno sequence and second 5’-ATG-3’, which is in frame with the annotated icsP gene. The use of either translation start site leads to the production of IcsP capable of proteolytically cleaving IcsA. A bioinformatic scan of the Shigella genome reveals multiple occurrences of in-frame translation start sites associated with putative Shine –Dalgarno sequences, immediately upstream and downstream of annotated open reading frames. Taken together, our observations support the possibility that the use of in-frame translation start sites may generate different protein isoforms, thereby expanding the proteome encoded by bacterial genomes. PMID:21225241

  2. Titanium particles and surface-bound LPS activate different pathways in IC-21 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Luciana P; Xing, Zhiqing; Hasty, Karen A; Smith, Richard A

    2006-10-01

    It is still unknown if wear-debris particles themselves induce osteolysis or if they serve a functional role as receptors for ligands that incite an inflammatory response that ultimately leads to bone resorption. In this study, commercially pure titanium particles (cpTi) were subjected to a serial combination of different cleaning methods to remove Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or were incubated in LPS solutions of known concentrations. Then, the response of the macrophage cell line IC-21 to the cleaned particles, LPS-bound Ti particles, and soluble LPS was examined. It was found that cleaned particles up to 1000 particles per cell did not stimulate macrophages to release Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or Interleukin 6 (IL-6), but they significantly increased the release of Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) when the particle concentration was higher than 500 particles per cell. At one particle per cell, Ti particles bound with LPS stimulated the release of IL-6 and TNF-alpha by macrophages. The level of released cytokines was dependent on, and correlated with, the amount of LPS present on the particles. The macrophages were more sensitive to soluble LPS than to particle-bound LPS, and the simultaneous addition of cleaned Ti particles did not have additional effects on the effects of soluble LPS. This study shows evidence that, cpTi particles and LPS have distinct mechanisms of action on the IC-21 macrophages, but that both contribute to the development of an inflammatory response. PMID:16544307

  3. Use of ICS/LABA (extra-fine and non-extra-fine) in elderly asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Benfante, Alida; Basile, Marco; Battaglia, Salvatore; Spatafora, Mario; Scichilone, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Age represents an exclusion criterion in randomized clinical trials designed to test the efficacy and safety of inhaled drugs in asthma. As a consequence, data on efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) combinations in elderly asthmatics are scanty. Older age is associated with an increased proportion of comorbid conditions; in addition, all organ functions undergo a process of senescence, thus reducing their ability to metabolize the agents. Overall, these age-associated conditions may variably, and often unpredictably, affect the metabolism and excretion of respiratory drugs. However, pharmacological treatment of asthma does not follow specific recommendations in the elderly. In the elderly, the ICS/LABA combinations may carry an increased risk of local indesiderable effects, primarily due to the lack of coordination between activation of the device and inhalation, and systemic adverse events, mainly due to the greater amount of active drug that is available because of the age-associated changes in organ functions as well as drug-to-drug and drug-to-concomitant disease interactions. The extra-fine formulations of ICSs/LABAs, which allow for a more favorable drug deposition in the lungs at a reduced dose, may contribute to overcome this issue. This review revises the efficacy and safety of treatment with ICSs/LABAs, focusing on the main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs and highlighting the potential risks in the elderly asthmatic population. PMID:27789954

  4. Antipurinergic Therapy Corrects the Autism-Like Features in the Poly(IC) Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Naviaux, Robert K.; Zolkipli, Zarazuela; Wang, Lin; Nakayama, Tomohiro; Naviaux, Jane C.; Le, Thuy P.; Schuchbauer, Michael A.; Rogac, Mihael; Tang, Qingbo; Dugan, Laura L.; Powell, Susan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Mitochondria act to connect genes and environment by regulating gene-encoded metabolic networks according to changes in the chemistry of the cell and its environment. Mitochondrial ATP and other metabolites are mitokines—signaling molecules made in mitochondria—that undergo regulated release from cells to communicate cellular health and danger to neighboring cells via purinergic signaling. The role of purinergic signaling has not yet been explored in autism spectrum disorders. Objectives and Methods We used the maternal immune activation (MIA) mouse model of gestational poly(IC) exposure and treatment with the non-selective purinergic antagonist suramin to test the role of purinergic signaling in C57BL/6J mice. Results We found that antipurinergic therapy (APT) corrected 16 multisystem abnormalities that defined the ASD-like phenotype in this model. These included correction of the core social deficits and sensorimotor coordination abnormalities, prevention of cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, correction of the ultrastructural synaptic dysmorphology, and correction of the hypothermia, metabolic, mitochondrial, P2Y2 and P2X7 purinergic receptor expression, and ERK1/2 and CAMKII signal transduction abnormalities. Conclusions Hyperpurinergia is a fundamental and treatable feature of the multisystem abnormalities in the poly(IC) mouse model of autism spectrum disorders. Antipurinergic therapy provides a new tool for refining current concepts of pathogenesis in autism and related spectrum disorders, and represents a fresh path forward for new drug development. PMID:23516405

  5. The TeV morphology of the interacting supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humensky, Thomas B.

    2016-06-01

    IC443 is a Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) in which there is clear evidence for the interaction of a dense molecular cloud with the supernova blast wave. This interaction makes the region an excellent laboratory in which to study the connection between particle acceleration and gamma ray emission in SNRs. Previous observations in the GeV to TeV band with MAGIC and VERITAS showed gamma-ray emission coincident with an extended region of interaction between the shock wave and the molecular cloud. At lower energies (MeV to GeV), Fermi-LAT observations have revealed the signature of hadronic emission with its characteristic “pion bump”. Furthermore, observations in other wavelengths such as radio, infrared, optical and X-rays indicate that the environment around the remnant is complex, with a range of different densities. In this new study, with the help of additional data, VERITAS observations have been used to resolve the TeV morphology of IC443 at the few arc-minute scale. We will present results on the gamma-ray morphology and discuss possible sources of the emission, including the shell of the remnant and other gaseous structures in the vicinity.

  6. Discussion of integrated circuit (IC), multichip module (MCM), and MEMS applications fabricated through MOSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Jennifer; Hansford, Wes

    1997-11-01

    Since inception 16 years ago, the MOSIS Service at the Information Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California has processed over thirty thousand IC Designs. Three years ago, it added access to commercial MultiChip Module (MCM) fabrication through MIDAS. To the list of standard offerings, MOSIS now introduces back end processing of MOSIS custom VLSI circuits for both suspended structure and diaphragm style MEMS. MOSIS presents an array of high- end VLSI technologies from various domestic foundries' standard processes for prototype and small volume quantities. Thus designers can develop low-cost IC's, MCM's and MEMS with a one-stop-shopping commerce style service. MOSIS functions as a 'transparent' third party interface between design and fabrication. The service offers ease of use through supported standard cell libraries and design tools, and with Internet design submission.Sharing the costs of NRE, masks and fabrication provides a low cost environment for users. MOSIS handles the front-end foundry tasks of data preparation and mask fabricate with fixed domestic and international price lists. MOSIS utilizes volume production lines at AMI, HP, Orbit, Vitesse, and MicroModule Systems. This paper discusses what MOSIS offers to the VLSI deign community, various applications fabricated through the service, as well as a conceptual design that draws from the various technologies discussed.

  7. Discussion of integrated circuit (IC), multichip module (MCM), and MEMS applications fabricated through MOSIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltier, Jennifer; Hansford, Wes

    1997-11-01

    Since inception 16 years ago, the MOSIS Service at the Information Sciences Institute of the University of Southern California has processed over thirty thousand (30 K) IC Designs. Three years ago, it added access to commercial multichip module (MCM) fabrication through MIDAS. To the list of standard offerings, MOSIS now introduces back end processing of MOSIS custom VLSI circuits for both suspended structure and diaphragm style MEMS. MOSIS presents an array of high-end VLSI technologies from various domestic foundries' standard processes for prototype and small volume quantities. Thus designers can develop low-cost ICs, MCMs and (now) MEMS with a one-stop-shopping electronic commerce style service. MOSIS functions as a 'transparent' third party interface between design and fabrication. The service offers ease of use through supported standard cell libraries and design tools, and with Internet design submission. Sharing the costs of NRE, masks and fabrication provides a low cost environment for users. MOSIS handles the front-end foundry tasks of data preparation and mask fabrication with fixed domestic and international price lists. MOSIS utilizes volume production lines at AMI, HP, Orbit, Vitesse, and MicroModule Systems (MMS). This paper discusses what MOSIS offers to the VLSI design community, various applications fabricated through the service, as well as a conceptual design that draws from the various technologies discussed.

  8. Front-end IC for a muon spectrometer with cathode strip chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baturitsky, M. A.; Dvornikov, O. V.; Emeliantchik, I. F.; Golutvin, I. A.; Mikhailov, V. A.; Solin, A. V.

    1996-02-01

    The first iteration step of a custom front-end readout integrated circuit design for muon spectrometer cathode strip chambers is reported. It was intended for the GEM experiment at the SSC supercollider (USA, Texas), however, it can be applied in CMS or ATLAS projects (the LHC supercollider, CERN, Switzerland). The IC was produced using BJT-JFET technology. It contains of a BJT-inputted charge-sensitive preamplifier followed by a slow shaper in a signal path and a fast shaper in a trigger path. A noise performance ENC = {1980 e + 7 e}/{pF} has been achieved for detector capacitance up to 600 pF at a peaking time of 300 ns and a power dissipation of 67 mW per channel. A low power comparator made with the same technology, when connected to the fast shaper output, has provided a time walk and jitter of approximately 2 ns. The IC appears to have good radiation tolerance for neutrons.

  9. The IC1396N proto-cluster at a scale of ~250 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, R.; Fuente, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Caselli, P.; Johnstone, D.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wyrowski, F.; Tafalla, M.; Lefloch, B.; Plume, R.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We investigate the mm-morphology of IC 1396 N with unprecedented spatial resolution to analyze its dust and molecular gas properties, and draw comparisons with objects of similar mass. Methods: We have carried out sensitive observations in the most extended configurations of the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer, to map the thermal dust emission at 3.3 and 1.3 mm, and the emission from the J=13_k→ 12k hyperfine transitions of methyl cyanide (CH3CN). Results: We unveil the existence of a sub-cluster of hot cores in IC 1396 N, distributed in a direction perpendicular to the emanating outflow. The cores are embedded in a common envelope of extended and diffuse dust emission. We find striking differences in the dust properties of the cores (β≃ 0) and the surrounding envelope (β≃ 1), very likely testifying to differences in the formation and processing of dust material. The CH3CN emission peaks towards the most massive hot core and is marginally extended in the outflow direction. Based on observations obtained at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). IRAM is funded by the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (France), the Max-Planck Gesellschaft (Germany), and the Instituto Geográfico Nacional (Spain).

  10. THE CARNEGIE HUBBLE PROGRAM: THE INFRARED LEAVITT LAW IN IC 1613

    SciTech Connect

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Melbourne, Jason E-mail: wendy@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: amonson@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: mseibert@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: jmel@caltech.edu

    2013-08-20

    We have observed the dwarf galaxy IC 1613, at multiple epochs in the mid-infrared using Spitzer and contemporaneously in the near-infrared using the new FourStar near-infrared camera on Magellan. We have constructed Cepheid period-luminosity relations in the J, H, K{sub s} , [3.6] and [4.5] bands and have used the run of their apparent distance moduli as a function of wavelength to derive the line-of-sight reddening and distance to IC 1613. Using a nine-band fit, we find E(B - V) = 0.05 {+-} 0.01 mag and an extinction-corrected distance modulus of {mu}{sub 0} = 24.29 {+-} 0.03{sub statistical} {+-} 0.03{sub systematic} mag. By comparing our multi-band and [3.6] distance moduli to results from the tip of the red giant branch and red clump distance indicators, we find that metallicity has no measurable effect on Cepheid distances at 3.6 {mu}m in the metallicity range -1.0 {<=} [Fe/H] {<=} 0.2, hence derivations of the Hubble constant at this wavelength require no correction for metallicity.

  11. PREFACE: International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-11-01

    Quantum Information can be understood as being naturally derived from a new understanding of information theory when quantum systems become information carriers and quantum effects become non negligible. Experiments and the realization of various interesting phenomena in quantum information within the established field of quantum optics have been reported, which has provided a very convenient framework for the former. Together, quantum optics and quantum information are among the most exciting areas of interdisciplinary research in modern day science which cover a broad spectrum of topics, from the foundations of quantum mechanics and quantum information science to the introduction of new types of quantum technologies and metrology. The International Conference on Quantum Optics and Quantum Information (icQoQi) 2013 was organized by the Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia with the objective of bringing together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars in the domain of interest from around the world to share their experiences and research results about all aspects of quantum optics and quantum information. While the event was organized on a somewhat modest scale, it was in fact a rather fruitful meeting for established researchers and students as well, especially for the local scene where the field is relatively new. We would therefore, like to thank the organizing committee, our advisors and all parties for having made this event successful and last but not least would extend our sincerest gratitude to IOP for publishing these selected papers from icQoQi2013 in Journal of Physics: Conference Series.

  12. CO mapping of the nuclear region of NGC 6946 and IC 342 with Nobeyama millimeter array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishizuki, Sumio; Kawabe, Ryohei; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Ishiguro, Masato

    1990-01-01

    CO observations of nearby galaxies with nuclear active star forming regions (and starburst galaxies) with angular resolutions around 7 seconds revealed that molecular bars with a length of a few kiloparsecs have been formed in the central regions of the galaxies. The molecular bar is interpreted as part of shock waves induced by an oval or barred potential field. By shock dissipation or dissipative cloud-cloud collisions, the molecular gas gains an infall motion and the nuclear star formation activity is fueled. But the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the nuclear regions, which are sites of active star formation, remain unknown. Higher angular resolutions are needed to investigate the gas in the nuclear regions. Researchers made aperture synthesis observations of the nuclear region of the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342 with resolutions of 7.6 seconds x 4.2 seconds (P.A. = 147 deg) and 2.4 seconds x 2.3 seconds (P.A. = 149 deg), respectively. The distances to NGC 6496 and IC 342 are assumed to be 5.5 Mpc and 3.9 Mpc, respectively. Researchers have found 100-300 pc nuclear gas disk and ring inside a few kpc molecular gas bars. Researchers present the results of the observations and propose a possible mechanism of active star formation in the nuclear region.

  13. Understanding compact object formation and natal kicks. IV. The case of IC 10 X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Valsecchi, Francesca; Ansari, Asna; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Fragos, Tassos; McClintock, Jeffrey; Glebbeek, Evert E-mail: francesca@u.northwestern.edu E-mail: tfragos@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: ansari@ldeo.columbia.edu

    2014-08-01

    The extragalactic X-ray binary IC 10 X-1 has attracted attention as it is possibly the host of the most massive stellar-mass black-hole (BH) known to date. Here we consider all available observational constraints and construct its evolutionary history up to the instant just before the formation of the BH. Our analysis accounts for the simplest possible history, which includes three evolutionary phases: binary orbital dynamics at core collapse, common envelope (CE) evolution, and evolution of the BH-helium star binary progenitor of the observed system. We derive the complete set of constraints on the progenitor system at various evolutionary stages. Specifically, right before the core collapse event, we find the mass of the BH immediate progenitor to be ≳ 31 M{sub ☉} (at 95% of confidence, same hereafter). The magnitude of the natal kick imparted to the BH is constrained to be ≲ 130 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, we find that the 'enthalpy' formalism recently suggested by Ivanova and Chaichenets is able to explain the existence of IC 10 X-1 without the need to invoke unreasonably high CE efficiencies. With this physically motivated formalism, we find that the CE efficiency required to explain the system is in the range of ≅ 0.6-1.

  14. DISK EVOLUTION IN OB ASSOCIATIONS: DEEP SPITZER/IRAC OBSERVATIONS OF IC 1795

    SciTech Connect

    Roccatagliata, Veronica; Bouwman, Jeroen; Henning, Thomas; Gennaro, Mario; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Feigelson, Eric; Kim, Jinyoung Serena; Lawson, Warrick A.

    2011-06-01

    We present a deep Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) survey of the OB association IC 1795 carried out to investigate the evolution of protoplanetary disks in regions of massive star formation. Combining Spitzer/IRAC data with Chandra/Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer observations, we find 289 cluster members. An additional 340 sources with an infrared excess, but without X-ray counterpart, are classified as cluster member candidates. Both surveys are complete down to stellar masses of about 1 M{sub sun}. We present pre-main-sequence isochrones computed for the first time in the Spitzer/IRAC colors. The age of the cluster, determined via the location of the Class III sources in the [3.6]-[4.5]/[3.6] color-magnitude diagram, is in the range of 3-5 Myr. As theoretically expected, we do not find any systematic variation in the spatial distribution of disks within 0.6 pc of either O-type star in the association. However, the disk fraction in IC 1795 does depend on the stellar mass: sources with masses >2 M{sub sun} have a disk fraction of {approx}20%, while lower mass objects (2-0.8 M{sub sun}) have a disk fraction of {approx}50%. This implies that disks around massive stars have a shorter dissipation timescale.

  15. SVX4: A New Deep-Submicron Readout IC for the Tevatron Collider at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, B.; Alfonsi, S.; Bacchetta, N.; Centro, S.; Christofek, L.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Haber, C.; Hanagaki, K.; Hoff, J.; Johnson, M.; vonderLippe, H.; Lujan, P.; Mandelli, E.; Meng, G.; Nomerotski, A.; Pellet, D.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; Walder, J.-P.; Weber, M.; Wester, W.; /LBL, Berkeley /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Kansas U. /Fermilab /UC, Davis

    2003-10-01

    SVX4 is the new silicon strip readout IC designed to meet the increased radiation tolerance requirements for Run IIb at the Tevatron collider. Devices have been fabricated, tested, and approved for production. The SVX4 design is a technology migration of the SVX3D design currently in use by CDF. Whereas SVX3D was fabricated in a 0.8 {micro}m radiation-hard process, SVX4 was fabricated in a standard 0.25 {micro}m mixed-signal CMOS technology using the ''radiation tolerant by design'' transistor topologies devised by the RD-49 collaboration. The specific cell layouts include digital cells developed by the ATLAS Pixel group, and full-custom analog blocks. Unlike its predecessors, the new design also includes the necessary features required for generic use by both the CDF and D0 experiments at Fermilab. Performance of the IC includes >20 MRad total dose tolerance, and {approx}2000 e-rms equivalent input noise charge with 40 pF input capacitance, when sampled at 132 ns period with an 80 ns preamp risetime. At the nominal digitize/readout rate of 106/53 MHz, the 9 mm x 6.3 mm die dissipates {approx}2 mW/channel average at 2.5 V. A review of typical operation, details of the design conversion process, and performance measurements are covered.

  16. ARTMAP-IC and medical diagnosis: Instance counting and inconsistent cases.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, G A; Markuzon, N

    1998-03-01

    For complex database prediction problems such as medical diagnosis, the ARTMAP-IC neural network adds distributed prediction and category instance counting to the basic fuzzy ARTMAP system. For the ARTMAP match tracking algorithm, which controls search following a predictive error, a new version facilitates prediction with sparse or inconsistent data. Compared to the original match tracking algorithm (MT+), the new algorithm (MT-) better approximates the real-time network differential equations and further compresses memory without loss of performance. Simulations examine predictive accuracy on four medical databases: Pima Indian diabetes, breast cancer, heart disease, and gall bladder removal. ARTMAP-IC results are equal to or better than those of logistic regression, K nearest neighbour (KNN), the ADAP preceptron, multisurface pattern separation, CLASSIT, instance-based (IBL), and C4. ARTMAP dynamics are fast, stable, and scalable. A voting strategy improves prediction by training the system several times on different orderings of an input set. Voting, instance counting, and distributed representations combine to form confidence estimates for competing predictions.

  17. Infrared tip of the red giant branch and distances to the MAFFEI/IC 342 group

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R. Brent; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Karachentsev, Igor D.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we extend the use of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method to near-infrared wavelengths from the previously used I-band, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Upon calibration of a color dependency of the TRGB magnitude, the IR TRGB yields a random uncertainty of ∼5% in relative distance. The IR TRGB methodology has an advantage over the previously used Advance Camera for Surveys F606W and F814W filter set for galaxies that suffer from severe extinction. Using the IR TRGB methodology, we obtain distances toward three principal galaxies in the Maffei/IC 342 complex, which are located at low Galactic latitudes. New distance estimates using the TRGB method are 3.45{sub −0.13}{sup +0.13} Mpc for IC 342, 3.37{sub −0.23}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 1, and 3.52{sub −0.30}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 2. The uncertainties are dominated by uncertain extinction, especially for Maffei 1 and Maffei 2. Our IR calibration demonstrates the viability of the TRGB methodology for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Supernova 2013E in IC 2532 = PSN J10000552-3414013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-01-01

    Announcement of the discovery of Supernova 2013E in IC 2532 = PSN J10000552-3414013 by Stuart Parker (Canterbury, New Zealand) on 2013 Jan. 4.58 UT at red mag 14.8 on a 30-s unfiltered CCD image taken in the course of the Backyard Observatory Supernova Search (BOSS). Coordinates (2000.0): R.A. 10 00 05 .52 Decl. -34 14 01.3; SN 2013E is 2" east and 19" south of the nucleus of IC 2532. Spectroscopy obtained 2013 Jan. 6.16 UT by the Carnegie Supernova Project and reported by N. Morrell (LCO) et al. indicates that SN 2013E is a type-Ia supernova several days before maximum brightness. Announced on IAU CBET 3378 (Daniel W. E. Green, ed.). Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  19. Pocket EZPIN device for healthcare IC cards to enhance the security and convenience of senior citizens.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jiun-Tze; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2008-04-01

    An application that adopts smart cards often requires users to enter a PIN (Personal Identification Number) code. In Taiwan's healthcare system, a PIN is used to protect a card holder's private data. However, should one forget one's PIN, the procedure to set up a new PIN is inconvenient. There is a higher probability that senior citizens may forget their PINs. We propose a device which stores the PIN of the cardholder's Healthcare IC card. When the healthcare IC card reader requires the cardholder to enter his/her PIN, the cardholder pushes a button of the device to remotely sends the cardholder's encrypted PIN, for example by Infra Red. The device is designed to be low cost and easy to carry, and, hence, affordable to be a gift to senior citizens. Moreover, if the cardholder should forget to take the device with him/her, the card still works as normal. The device would be helpful in ensuring the public's privacy and convenience in Taiwan's healthcare system.

  20. Fusion of HPV L1 into Shigella surface IcsA: a new approach in developing live attenuated Shigella-HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Wang, Depu; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cao, Meng; Yu, Jun; Wang, Yili

    2014-02-01

    Despite the success of L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccines in prevention of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer, extraordinary high cost for the complete vaccination has impeded widespread use of the vaccine in resource-poor countries, where cervical cancers impose greater challenge. Presentation of HPV L1 protein by attenuated pathogenic bacteria through natural infection provides a promising low-cost and convenient alternative. Here, we describe the construction and characterization of attenuated L1-expressing Shigella vaccine candidate, by fusion of L1 into the autotransporter of Shigella sonnei, IcsA, an essential virulence factor responsible for actin-based motility. The functional α domain of IcsA was replaced by codon-optimized L1 gene with independent open reading frames (ORFs) facilitated by suicide vector pJCB12. The L1 gene was stabilized in the genome of recombinant S. sonnei with protein expression and assembly of VLPs in the bacterial cytoplasm. Through conjunctival route vaccination in guinea pigs, L1-containing S. sonnei was able to elicit specific immune response to HPV16 L1 VLP as well as bacterial antigens. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the novel stratagem to develop prophylactic Shigella-HPV vaccines. PMID:24333518

  1. PREFACE: 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Lars E.; Bäck, S.; Ceberg, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    IC3DDose 2014, the 8th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry was held in Ystad, Sweden, from 4-7 September 2014. This grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The 7th and last meeting was held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012. It is worth remembering that the conference series started at the very beginning of the intensity modulated radiotherapy era and that the dosimeters being developed then were, to some extent, ahead of the clinical need of radiotherapy. However, since then the technical developments in radiation therapy have been dramatic, with dynamic treatments, including tracking, gating and volumetric modulated arc therapy, widely introduced in the clinic with the need for 3D dosimetry thus endless. This was also reflected by the contributions at the meeting in Ystad. Accordingly the scope of the meeting has also broadened to IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose. A multitude of dosimetry techniques and radiation detectors are now represented, all with the common denominator: three-dimensional or 3D. Additionally, quality assurance (QA) procedures and other aspects of clinical dosimetry are represented. The implementation of new dosimetric techniques in radiotherapy is a process that needs every kind of caution, carefulness and thorough validation. Therefore, the clinical needs, reformulated as the aims for IC3DDOSE - I See Three-Dimensional Dose, are: • Enhance the quality and accuracy of radiation therapy treatments through improved clinical dosimetry. • Investigate and understand the dosimetric challenges of modern radiation treatment techniques. • Provide

  2. Detection of the lithium depletion boundary in the young open cluster IC 4665

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzi, S.; Randich, S.; de Wit, W. J.; Palla, F.

    2008-02-01

    Context: The so-called lithium depletion boundary (LDB) provides a secure and independent tool for deriving the ages of young open clusters. Aims: In this context, our goal is to determine membership for a sample of 147 photometrically selected candidates of the young open cluster IC 4665 and to use confirmed members to establish an age based on the LDB. Methods: Employing the FLAMES multi-object spectrograph on VLT/UT2, we have obtained intermediate-resolution spectra of the cluster candidates. The spectra were used to measure radial velocities and to infer the presence of the Li I 670.8 nm doublet and Hα emission. Results: We have identified 39 bona fide cluster members based on radial velocity, Hα emission, and Li absorption. The mean radial velocity of IC 4665 is found to be V_rad = -15.95 ± 1.13 km s-1. Confirmed cluster members display a sharp transition in magnitude between stars with and without lithium, both in the Im vs. I_m-z and in the Ks vs. I_C-Ks diagrams. From this boundary, we deduce a cluster age of 27.7+4.2-3.5 ± 1.1 ± 2 Myr. Conclusions: IC 4665 is the fifth cluster for which an LDB age has been determined, and it is the youngest cluster among these five. Thus, the LDB is established from relatively bright stars still in the contracting pre-main sequence phase. The mass of the boundary is M_ast=0.24 ± 0.04 M_⊙. The LDB age agrees well with the ages derived from isochrone fitting of both low and high mass, turn-off stars, a result similar to what is found in the slightly older NGC 2547. Based on observations collected at ESO-VLT, Paranal Observatory, Chile. Program number 073.D-0587(A). Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the massive young open cluster IC 1805

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, G.; Nazé, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Very young open clusters are ideal places to study the X-ray properties of a homogeneous population of early-type stars. In this respect, the IC 1805 open cluster is very interesting as it hosts the O4 If+ star HD 15570 thought to be in an evolutionary stage intermediate between a normal O-star and a Wolf-Rayet star. Aims: Such a star could provide a test for theoretical models aiming at explaining the empirical scaling relation between the X-ray and bolometric luminosities of O-type stars. Methods: We have observed IC 1805 with XMM-Newton and further collected optical spectroscopy of some of the O-star members of the cluster. Results: The optical spectra allow us to revisit the orbital solutions of BD+60° 497 and HD 15558, and provide the first evidence of binarity for BD+60° 498. X-ray emission from colliding winds does not appear to play an important role among the O-stars of IC 1805. Notably, the X-ray fluxes do not vary significantly between archival X-ray observations and our XMM-Newton pointing. The very fast rotator BD+60° 513, and to a lesser extent the O4 If+ star HD 15570 appear somewhat underluminous. Whilst the underluminosity of HD 15570 is only marginally significant, its amplitude is found to be compatible with theoretical expectations based on its stellar and wind properties. A number of other X-ray sources are detected in the field, and the brightest objects, many of which are likely low-mass pre-main sequence stars, are analyzed in detail. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA), and with the TIGRE telescope (La Luz, Mexico).Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A82

  4. Shock chemistry in the molecular clouds associated with SNR IC 443.

    PubMed

    Ziurys, L M; Snell, R L; Dickman, R L

    1989-06-15

    Several interstellar molecules have been detected toward the highly perturbed B and G clouds associated with the supernova remnant IC 443 via their 3 mm transitions, including N2H+, SiO, SO, CN, HNC, and H13CO+. The (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines of metastable ammonia have also been observed, as well as the J = 3-2 transition of HCO+ at 1.2 mm. Analysis of the (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines of NH3 indicates minimum gas kinetic temperatures of TK = 70 K toward cloud B, and TK = 33 K in cloud G. Modeling of the J = 1-0 and J = 3-2 transitions of HCO+ implies densities greater than 10(5) cm-3 toward both positions. These data clearly show that hot and dense material is present in IC 443, and they suggest the presence of shocks in both regions. A careful analysis of the HCO+ lines indicates that the HCO+ abundance is at most enhanced by factors of a few over that found in cold, quiescent gas. This conclusion contradicts past claims of HCO+ abundance enhancements of several orders of magnitude in the perturbed regions. The N2H+ abundance was also found to be similar to that in cold gas, suggesting that there is no increase in ionization in the clouds. The abundances of SO and CS, as well as CN and NH3, do not appear to differ significantly from those found in cold dark clouds, although chemistry models predict sulfur-containing species to undergo high-temperature enhancements. SiO, however, is found to have an abundance in the perturbed gas 100 times larger than the upper limits observed in the dark cloud TMC 1, a result in agreement with high temperature chemistry models. In addition, the HNC/HCN ratio in both IC 443 B and G was found to be approximately 0.1--far from the ratio of 1 predicted by low-temperature ion-molecule chemistry, but similar to the values observed in clouds where elevated temperatures are present.

  5. Triggered star-formation in the bright rimmed globule IC1396A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Goldsmith, Paul

    2015-01-01

    IC1396 is a well known HII region and molecular cloud complex surrounding the Trumpler 37 cluster of OB stars in the Cepheus OB2 association. The dense, elephant trunk shaped globules in this region typically show bright rims facing the central exciting O6 star HD~206267. This region, at a distance of 870 pc, is an excellent astrophysical laboratory for studying the feedback effects of massive stars on neighboring molecular clouds. Triggered star formation occurs when dense cores (which would otherwise remain stable) are compressed and made unstable by the sustained energy input from the OB association. Observationally it remains challenging to prove whether the onset of star-formation in such globules is triggered or spontaneous.Using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), we observed IC1396 globule A (Pottasch 1958 nomenclature), targeting four newly discovered protostars from recent Herschel PACS observations. Here we present 230 GHz molecular line (CO, 13CO, C18O, N2D+ and H2CO) and continuum results for the source IC1396A-PACS-1 (Sicilia-Aguilar et al. 2014). This is a Class 0 source very close to the edge of the ionization front and Herschel observations show this to be a most promisingcase of triggered star-formation. The SMA 230 GHz continuum source has a flux density of 280 mJy. We estimate a dust mass of about 0.1 Msun in this source which appears very compact in our 5" beam. CO, 13CO and C18O emission is largely resolved out by the interferometer and will require combined imaging with single-dish observations. (We have a parallel ongoing study being carried out with the IRAM 30m telescope). SMA N2D+ emission peaks on the continuum sourceand is partially resolved. H2CO emission appears to avoid the peak of continuum and N2D+, suggesting depletion. Both the morphology and kinematics in H2CO emission are indicative of internal disturbance, away from the PDR region into the globule.

  6. Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

  7. In-situ volumetric topography of IC chips for defect detection using infrared confocal measurement with active structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Cong Phuc, Dao; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2014-09-01

    The article presents the development of in-situ integrated circuit (IC) chip defect detection techniques for automated clipping detection by proposing infrared imaging and full-field volumetric topography. IC chip inspection, especially held during or post IC packaging, has become an extremely critical procedure in IC fabrication to assure manufacturing quality and reduce production costs. To address this, in the article, microscopic infrared imaging using an electromagnetic light spectrum that ranges from 0.9 to 1.7 µm is developed to perform volumetric inspection of IC chips, in order to identify important defects such as silicon clipping, cracking or peeling. The main difficulty of infrared (IR) volumetric imaging lies in its poor image contrast, which makes it incapable of achieving reliable inspection, as infrared imaging is sensitive to temperature difference but insensitive to geometric variance of materials, resulting in difficulty detecting and quantifying defects precisely. To overcome this, 3D volumetric topography based on 3D infrared confocal measurement with active structured light, as well as light refractive matching principles, is developed to detect defects the size, shape and position of defects in ICs. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and suitable for in-situ defect detection of IC semiconductor packaging. The quality of defect detection, such as measurement repeatability and accuracy, is addressed. Confirmed by the experimental results, the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.3 µm, and the depth measurement uncertainty with one standard deviation was verified to be less than 1.0% of the full-scale depth-measuring range.

  8. Development of Long Coated Conductors with High In-field Ic Performance by PLD Method at High Production Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibi, Akira; Yoshida, Tomo; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh; Yokoe, Daisaku; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    We fabricated short samples and a 93 m long coated conductor (C. C.) of EuBa2Cu3O7-δ (EuBCO) with BaHfO3 (BHO) by the IBAD and the PLD methods, which exhibited the high in-field minimum Ic value, (Ic(min)), performance of 141.2 (77 K in 3 T) and 411.3 (65 K in 3 T) A/cm-w for a short sample, and 133.9 (77 K in 3 T) A/cm-w for 93 m long C. C. with 3.6 μm in thickness, respectively. Moreover, this long EuBCO with BHO coated conductor also showed high uniform longitudinal Ic distributions and n-value in magnetic fields. However, the deposition rate for obtaining the high in-field Ic performance was comparatively slow down to 10 μm/h. To realize the low production cost for EuBCO with BHO coated conductors, improvement of the deposition rate of the EuBCO with BHO layer with high Ic is required. To solve this problem, we optimized growth conditions including deposition conditions. One of the objectives of this work was changing the layer growth mode from the vapor-solid (VS) mode to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) one to fabricate EuBCO with BHO layers for achievement of high production rate and maintaining the high in-field Ic and Jc performance of the films deposited at slow deposition rates. As a result, we fabricated EuBCO with BHO coated conductors at a high deposition rate of about 40 μm/h and production rate of about 10 m/h, which revealed the Ic(min) value of 48.7 A/cm-w at 77 K in 3 T for 1.35 μm in thickness.

  9. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, D. A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V. E.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; O'Dell, S. L.; vanderHorst, A J.; Yukita, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222117, in the supernova remnant IC443 reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by the pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest (or, equivalently, flow of ambient medium to the northeast), appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock, and the circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  10. Toward high-performance quality meeting IC device manufacturing requirements with AZ SMART DSA process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, JiHoon; Yin, Jian; Cao, Yi; Her, YoungJun; Petermann, Claire; Wu, Hengpeng; Shan, Jianhui; Tsutsumi, Tomohiko; Lin, Guanyang

    2015-03-01

    Significant progresses on 300 mm wafer level DSA (Directed Self-Assembly) performance stability and pattern quality were demonstrated in recent years. DSA technology is now widely regarded as a leading complementary patterning technique for future node integrated circuit (IC) device manufacturing. We first published SMARTTM DSA flow in 2012. In 2013, we demonstrated that SMARTTM DSA pattern quality is comparable to that generated using traditional multiple patterning technique for pattern uniformity on a 300 mm wafer. In addition, we also demonstrated that less than 1.5 nm/3σ LER (line edge roughness) for 16 nm half pitch DSA line/space pattern is achievable through SMARTTM DSA process. In this publication, we will report impacts on SMARTTM DSA performances of key pre-pattern features and processing conditions. 300mm wafer performance process window, CD uniformity and pattern LER/LWR after etching transfer into carbon-hard mask will be discussed as well.

  11. Excitation of emission lines by fluorescence and recombination in IC 418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante, Vladimir; Morisset, Cristophe; Georgiev, Leonid

    2012-08-01

    We predict intensities of lines of CII, NI, NII, OI and OII and compare them with a deep spectroscopic survey of IC 418 to test the effect of excitation of nebular emission lines by continuum fluorescence of starlight. Our calculations use a nebular model and a synthetic spectrum of its central star to take into account excitation of the lines by continuum fluorescence and recombination. The NII spectrum is mostly produced by fluorescence due to the low excitation conditions of the nebula, but many CII and OII lines have more excitation by fluorescence than recombination. In the neutral envelope, the NI permitted lines are excited by fluorescence, and almost all the OI lines are excited by recombination. Electron excitation produces the forbidden optical lines of OI, but continuum fluorescence excites most of the NI forbidden line intensities. Lines excited by fluorescence of light below the Lyman limit thus suggest a new diagnostic to explore the photodissociation region of a nebula.

  12. Automatic parameter extraction techniques in IC-CAP for a compact double gate MOSFET model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun; Alvarado, Joaquín; Cerdeira, Antonio; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, automatic parameter extraction techniques of Agilent's IC-CAP modeling package are presented to extract our explicit compact model parameters. This model is developed based on a surface potential model and coded in Verilog-A. The model has been adapted to Trigate MOSFETs, includes short channel effects (SCEs) and allows accurate simulations of the device characteristics. The parameter extraction routines provide an effective way to extract the model parameters. The techniques minimize the discrepancy and error between the simulation results and the available experimental data for more accurate parameter values and reliable circuit simulation. Behavior of the second derivative of the drain current is also verified and proves to be accurate and continuous through the different operating regimes. The results show good agreement with measured transistor characteristics under different conditions and through all operating regimes.

  13. Pre-main-sequence stars in the young cluster IC 2391

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John; Hartmann, Lee W.; Jones, Burton F.; Mcnamara, Brian R.

    1989-01-01

    Seven or eight new, late-type members of the poor open cluster IC 2391 are identified, and membership is confirmed for two other stars. The new members fall approximately along a 3 x 10 to the 7th yr isochrone, which is the age estimated for the cluster on the basis of it super main-seqence turnoff. Echelle spectra were obtained for the most probable cluster members. Most show H-alpha in emission and a strong Li 6707 A absorption line, and a few are rapid rotators. The Li abundances for cluster stars cooler than the sun are considerably less than the primordial Li abundance, providing the first direct evidence for substantial premain-sequence Li burning. The rotational velocities show a range from about 15 to 150 km/s, with a distribution of rotational velocities not significantly different from that observed for low-mass stars in the Pleiades.

  14. The Statistical Analysis of stars with Hα emission in IC 348 Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoghosyan, E. H.; Vardanyan, A. V.; Khachatryan, K. G.

    2016-09-01

    In this work the results of the statistical analysis of the ˜200 stars with Hα emission in the IC 348 cluster are presented. The sample is completed up to R < 20.0. The percentage of emission stars increases from bright to fainter objects and to the range of 13.0 ≤ R-AR ≤ 19.0 reaches 80%. The ratio between WTTau and CTTau objects is 64% and 36%. The 70% of X-ray sources are WTTau stars. The age of WTTau and CTTau objects are ˜2·10^6 years. The age of the non emission stars with a mass less solar is ˜2·10^6 years also, but non emission more massive objects are "older", the age of them is ˜7·10^6 years.

  15. Discovery of Two Supernovae in the Nuclear Regions of the Luminous Infrared Galaxy IC 883

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, E.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.; Väisänen, P.; Alberdi, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Colina, L.; Efstathiou, A.; Kotilainen, J.; Melinder, J.; Pérez-Torres, M.-A.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Takalo, A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of two consecutive supernovae (SNe), 2010cu and 2011hi, located at 0farcs37 (180 pc) and 0farcs79 (380 pc) projected distance, respectively, from the center of the K-band nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 883. The SNe were discovered in an ongoing near-infrared K-band search for core-collapse SNe in such galaxies using the ALTAIR/NIRI adaptive optics system with laser guide star at the Gemini-North Telescope. These are thus the closest SNe yet discovered to an LIRG nucleus in optical or near-infrared wavelengths. The near-infrared light curves and colors of both SNe are consistent with core-collapse events. Both SNe seem to suffer from relatively low host galaxy extinction suggesting that regardless of their low projected galactocentric distances, they are not deeply buried in the nuclear regions of the host galaxy.

  16. Far-infrared spectroscopy of NGC 6946, IC 342, and Arp 299

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers investigated the physical conditions in the infrared bright galaxies NGC 6946, IC 342, and Arp 299 through measurements of far-infrared emission lines from Si II, O I, C II, and O III using the facility Cooled Grating Spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These data are interpreted using our theoretical models for photodissociation regions and H II regions. For the central 45 inches of these galaxies, researchers determined that the dominant excitation mechanism for the far infrared radiation (FIR) lines is far ultraviolet radiation (FUR) radiation from young stars, and the authors derived the total mass, density, and temperature of the warm atomic gas and the typical sizes, number densities, and filling factors for the interstellar clouds.

  17. AmeriFlux US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra

    SciTech Connect

    Bret-Harte, Syndonia; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Shaver, Gaius

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra. Site Description - The Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra (Fen Station) is located near Imnavait Creek in Alaska, north of the Brooks Range in the Kuparuk basin near Lake Toolik and the Toolik Field Station. The Kuparuk River has its headwaters in the Brooks Range and drains through northern Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. Within these headwaters lies the Imnavait basin at an average elevation of 930 m. Water tracks run down the hill in parallel zones with a spacing of approximately 10 m. The Fen Station was deployed at the end of Summer 2007.

  18. NGC 2207/IC 2163: A GRAZING ENCOUNTER WITH LARGE-SCALE SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Michele; Grupe, Dirk; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Struck, Curtis; Brinks, Elias E-mail: dxg35@psu.edu E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu E-mail: E.Brinks@herts.ac.uk

    2012-11-01

    Radio continuum, Spitzer infrared, optical, and XMM-Newton X-ray and ultraviolet observations (UVW1 and UVM2) are used to study large-scale shock fronts, young star complexes, and the galactic nuclei in the interacting galaxies NGC 2207/IC 2163. There are two types of large-scale shock fronts in this galaxy pair. The large-scale shock front along the rim of the ocular oval in IC 2163 has produced vigorous star formation in a dusty environment, bright in the Spitzer 8 {mu}m and 24 {mu}m images. In the outer part of the companion side of NGC 2207, a large-scale front attributed to halo scraping is particularly bright in the {lambda}6 cm and {lambda}20 cm radio continuum but not in any tracers of recent star formation (H{alpha}, 8 {mu}m, 24 {mu}m, or ultraviolet emission) or in X-rays. This radio-continuum front may be from compression of the halo magnetic field on the back side of NGC 2207, between the two galaxies. The X-ray emission sets an upper limit to the gas density in the halo. Values of the flux density ratio S{sub {nu}}(8 {mu}m)/S{sub {nu}}(6 cm) of prominent, kiloparsec-size, Spitzer/IRAC star-forming clumps in NGC 2207/IC 2163 are compared with those of giant radio H II regions in M81. For the bright clumps in NGC 2207, the mean value of this ratio is the same as for the M81 H II regions, whereas for the bright clumps on the rim of the IC 2163 ocular oval, the mean value is nearly a factor of two greater. Possible explanations for this are discussed. The galaxy pair has global values of the ratios of infrared-to-radio continuum flux density in the Spitzer 8 {mu}m, 24 {mu}m, and 70 {mu}m bands, and the IRAS FIR significantly below the medians/means for large samples of galaxies. Feature i, a mini-starburst on an outer arm of NGC 2207 on its anti-companion side, is the most luminous 8 {mu}m, 24 {mu}m, 70 {mu}m, radio continuum, and H{alpha} source in the galaxy pair. We find evidence that a radio supernova was present in the core of feature i in 2001. X

  19. Dust grain alignment in IC 63 - H2 formation enhancement and collisional disalignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, B.-G.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Acosta-Pulido, Jose; Fernandez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Interstellar dust grain alignment gives rise to polarization from UV to mm wavelengths, allowing the study of the geometry and strength of the magnetic field. Over the last couple of decades observations and theory have led to the establishment of the Radiative Alignment Torque (RAT) mechanism as the leading candidate to explain the effect. With a quantitatively well constrained theory, polarization can be used not only to study the interstellar magnetic field, but also the dust and other environmental parameters. Photo-dissociation Regions (PDRs), with their intense, anisotropic radiation fields, consequent rapid H2 formation, and high spatial density-contrast provide a rich environment for such studies. Here we discuss an expanded optical, NIR and mm-wave study (cf. Andersson et al. 2013) of the IC 63 reflection nebula, showing strong H2 formation-enhanced alignment and the first direct, empirical, evidence for disalignment due to gas-grain collisions.

  20. IC defect-sensitivity: Theory and computational models for yield prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedadegyvez, Jose De Jesus

    1991-08-01

    Spot defects caused in the manufacturing processes of Integrated Circuits (ICs) and their effect in the layout geometry as regards yield losses are investigated. A formal semantic model for process induced spot defects is presented to show the relationship among defects, technological process and circuit malfunction. A mathematical analysis of the geometrical properties of critical area and a taxonomy of defect sensitive models based on the prescence of single or multiple faults, induced by single or multiple defects placed on single or multiple layers are presented. A practical method to correctly find critical areas in single layers is presented and extended to consider multiple layers. The multiple layer approach is shown to provide the means for a more accurate yield prediction by a comparison of the single and multiple methods on a basis of several case study designs.

  1. The fast molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Tadhunter, Clive

    2015-08-01

    We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC 5063. The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (~1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot spot in the western lobe. The ALMA data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650kms-1 of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to the outflow detected earlier in warm H2, H i and ionized gas. All phases of the gas outflow show similar kinematics. IC 5063 appears to be one of the best examples of the multi-phase nature of AGN-driven outflows. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow, however, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is an important result because IC 5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P1.4 GHz = 3 × 1023 W Hz-1). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter western lobe. This interaction may also be responsible for the asymmetry in the radio brightness of the two lobes. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, we find that the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8 × 107 M⊙, of which between 0.5 and 1.3 × 107 M⊙ is associated with the fast outflow at the location of the western lobe. These amounts are much larger than those of the

  2. Mars Science Laboratory CHIMRA/IC/DRT Flight Software for Sample Acquisition and Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S.; Leger, Chris; Carsten, Joseph; Helmick, Daniel; Kuhn, Stephen; Redick, Richard; Trujillo, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The design methodologies of using sequence diagrams, multi-process functional flow diagrams, and hierarchical state machines were successfully applied in designing three MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) flight software modules responsible for handling actuator motions of the CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for In Situ Martian Rock Analysis), IC (Inlet Covers), and DRT (Dust Removal Tool) mechanisms. The methodologies were essential to specify complex interactions with other modules, support concurrent foreground and background motions, and handle various fault protections. Studying task scenarios with multi-process functional flow diagrams yielded great insight to overall design perspectives. Since the three modules require three different levels of background motion support, the methodologies presented in this paper provide an excellent comparison. All three modules are fully operational in flight.

  3. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; van der Horst, A.; Yukita, M.

    2013-04-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXO J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant IC443 confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by a pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The observations further reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest, appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock and the ring, presumably formed at a wind termination shock, is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  4. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    SciTech Connect

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  5. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  6. Periodic Forcing of a 555-IC Based Electronic Oscillator in the Strong Coupling Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillán, Moisés

    We designed and developed a master-slave electronic oscillatory system (based on the 555-timer IC working in the astable mode), and investigated its dynamic behavior regarding synchronization. For that purpose, we measured the rotation numbers corresponding to the phase-locking rhythms achieved in a large set of values of the normalized forcing frequency (NFF) and of the coupling strength between the master and the slave oscillators. In particular, we were interested in the system behavior in the strong-coupling limit, because such problem has not been extensively studied from an experimental perspective. Our results indicate that, in such a limit, a degenerate codimension-2 bifurcation point at NFF = 2 exists, in which all the phase-locking regions converge. These findings were corroborated by means of a mathematical model developed to that end, as well as by ad hoc further experiments.

  7. An investigation of the chemical stability of arsenosugars in simulated gastric juice and acidic environments using IC-ICP-MS and IC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Bryan M; Gallagher, Patricia A; Shoemaker, Jody A; Wei, Xinyi; Schwegel, Carol A; Creed, John T

    2002-06-01

    A more quantitative extraction of arsenic-containing compounds from seafood matrices is essential in developing better dietary exposure estimates. More quantitative extraction often implies a more chemically aggressive set of extraction conditions. However, these conditions may result in undesirable chemical changes in the native arsenicals which may further complicate the toxicological risk assessment. This balance between quantitative extraction and species-specific integrity may be best addressed by using simulated gastric juice as an extraction solvent to mimic 'bioavailability'. This, conceptually, should extract the bioavailable fraction and induce any chemical changes that would occur because of ingestion. The most chemically labile species associated with seafood are thought to be the arsenosugars and for this reason their chemical stability is investigated in this study. Four arsenosugars (3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxy]-2-hydroxypropylene glycol, As(328); 3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxy]-2-hydroxypropanesulfonic acid, As(392); 3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxyl-2-hydroxypropyl hydrogen sulfate, As(408); and 3-[5'-deoxy-5'-(dimethylarsinoyl)-beta-ribofuranosyloxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-hydroxypropyl phosphate, As(482)) were isolated from seaweed extracts and subjected to simulated gastric juice and acidic conditions which mimic the stomach's pH of 1.1. Three acid solutions were used to test the chemical stability of the arsenosugars: simulated gastric juice, 78 mM nitric acid and 78 mM hydrochloric acid. The composition of the solutions was monitored over time (up to 48 h) using IC-ICP-MS for detection. The arsenosugars were found to degrade at the rate of 1.4% per h at 38 degrees C and 12.2% per h at 60 degrees C. The plots of percent conversion versus time were found to be independent of the starting arsenosugar and all had r2 values of greater than 0.97. A single common degradation

  8. Intravenous and standard immune serum globulin preparations interfere with uptake of /sup 125/I-C3 onto sensitized erythrocytes and inhibit hemolytic complement activity

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, M.; Rosenkranz, P.; Brown, C.Y.

    1985-02-01

    Antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes were used as a model to determine the effects of therapeutic immune serum globulin (ISG) preparations on the ability of this particulate activator to fix C3 and initiate hemolysis. Both standard and intravenous forms of ISG inhibit uptake of /sup 125/I-C3, presumably by competing for the deposition of ''nascent'' C3b molecules onto the erythrocytes. Both forms of ISG also inhibit hemolytic activity of whole serum or purified complement components. The inhibition appears to be a specific property of IgG itself, since similar inhibition was not caused by equivalent concentrations of human serum albumin, and was not affected by the buffer in which the ISG was dissolved. Interference with C3 uptake onto antibody-sensitized platelets and/or inhibition of hemolytic complement activity could contribute to the efficacy of high dose intravenous ISG in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

  9. Clinical performance of KeraSoft® IC in irregular corneas

    PubMed Central

    Su, Stephanie; Johns, Lynette; Rah, Marjorie J; Ryan, Robert; Barr, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the clinical performance of KeraSoft® IC (KIC) soft contact lenses in subjects with irregular corneas. Patients and methods This was a 12-month, prospective, open-label, observational study, which enrolled 43 subjects who were 18 years of age or older with irregular corneas. Subjects were fit according to the KIC Fitting Manual (kerasoftic.com). After achieving best fit according to the fitting manual, lenses were assessed for comfort, vision, centration, rotation, and movement. Subjects were instructed to wear their lenses between 8 and 16 hours each day. Assessments at the exit visit included logMAR visual acuity with high and low contrast, spherocylindrical overrefraction, slit-lamp findings, adverse events, and subjective outcomes. Results The average base curve was 8.17±0.32 mm (n=70 eyes), and the average diameter dispensed was 14.53±0.12 mm (n=70 eyes). From the baseline to 12 months, there was statistically significant improvement in logMAR visual acuity with high contrast (P=0.038), but no significant difference in low-contrast visual acuity was observed (P>0.05). Slit-lamp findings were ≤ grade 1 for the majority of subjects (89%). Two nonserious adverse events were reported for two of the 84 enrolled eyes (two subjects). At 12 months, subjects reported improvements from habitual baseline for comfort and vision, both upon insertion and just before removal of lenses. Conclusion Clinical outcomes at 12 months showed good visual, safety, and subjective outcomes for subjects with corneal irregularities who wore KeraSoft® IC soft contact lenses. PMID:26543347

  10. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies - I. AGB evolution and dust production in IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Boyer, M. L.; García-Hernández, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    We used models of thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, which also describe the dust-formation process in the wind, to interpret the combination of near- and mid-infrared photometric data of the dwarf galaxy IC 1613. This is the first time that this approach is extended to an environment different from the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). Our analysis, based on synthetic population techniques, shows nice agreement between the observations and the expected distribution of stars in the colour-magnitude diagrams obtained with JHK and Spitzer bands. This allows a characterization of the individual stars in the AGB sample in terms of mass, chemical composition and formation epoch of the progenitors. We identify the stars exhibiting the largest degree of obscuration as carbon stars evolving through the final AGB phases, descending from 1-1.25 M⊙ objects of metallicity Z = 10-3 and from 1.5-2.5 M⊙ stars with Z = 2 × 10-3. Oxygen-rich stars constitute the majority of the sample (˜65 per cent), mainly low-mass stars (<2 M⊙) that produce a negligible amount of dust (≤10-7 M⊙ yr-1). We predict the overall dust-production rate from IC 1613, mostly determined by carbon stars, to be ˜6 × 10-7 M⊙ yr-1 with an uncertainty of 30 per cent. The capability of the current generation of models to interpret the AGB population in an environment different from the MCs opens the possibility to extend this kind of analysis to other Local Group galaxies.

  11. Characterization of emission microscopy and liquid crystal thermography in IC fault localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, C. K.; Sim, K. S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper characterizes two fault localization techniques - Emission Microscopy (EMMI) and Liquid Crystal Thermography (LCT) by using integrated circuit (IC) leakage failures. The majority of today's semiconductor failures do not reveal a clear visual defect on the die surface and therefore require fault localization tools to identify the fault location. Among the various fault localization tools, liquid crystal thermography and frontside emission microscopy are commonly used in most semiconductor failure analysis laboratories. Many people misunderstand that both techniques are the same and both are detecting hot spot in chip failing with short or leakage. As a result, analysts tend to use only LCT since this technique involves very simple test setup compared to EMMI. The omission of EMMI as the alternative technique in fault localization always leads to incomplete analysis when LCT fails to localize any hot spot on a failing chip. Therefore, this research was established to characterize and compare both the techniques in terms of their sensitivity in detecting the fault location in common semiconductor failures. A new method was also proposed as an alternative technique i.e. the backside LCT technique. The research observed that both techniques have successfully detected the defect locations resulted from the leakage failures. LCT wass observed more sensitive than EMMI in the frontside analysis approach. On the other hand, EMMI performed better in the backside analysis approach. LCT was more sensitive in localizing ESD defect location and EMMI was more sensitive in detecting non ESD defect location. Backside LCT was proven to work as effectively as the frontside LCT and was ready to serve as an alternative technique to the backside EMMI. The research confirmed that LCT detects heat generation and EMMI detects photon emission (recombination radiation). The analysis results also suggested that both techniques complementing each other in the IC fault localization

  12. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ∼19,000 km s{sup –1}). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (∼8-9 M{sub ☉}) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  13. Optical Observations of the Type Ic Supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Li, Junzheng; Steele, Thea

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = -8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ~19,000 km s-1). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (~8-9 M ⊙) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  14. WIDE-FIELD SURVEY OF EMISSION-LINE STARS IN IC 1396

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Sugitani, K.; Watanabe, M.; Fukuda, N.; Ishihara, D.; Ueno, M.

    2012-03-15

    We have made an extensive survey of emission-line stars in the IC 1396 H II region to investigate the low-mass population of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. A total of 639 H{alpha} emission-line stars were detected in an area of 4.2 deg{sup 2} and their i' photometry was measured. Their spatial distribution exhibits several aggregates near the elephant trunk globule (Rim A) and bright-rimmed clouds at the edge of the H II region (Rim B and SFO 37, 38, 39, 41), and near HD 206267, which is the main exciting star of the H II region. Based on the extinction estimated from the near-infrared color-color diagram, we have selected PMS star candidates associated with IC 1396. The age and mass were derived from the extinction-corrected color-magnitude diagram and theoretical PMS tracks. Most of our PMS candidates have ages of <3 Myr and masses of 0.2-0.6 M{sub Sun }. Although it appears that only a few stars were formed in the last 1 Myr in the east region of the exciting star, the age difference among subregions in our surveyed area is not clear from the statistical test. Our results may suggest that massive stars were born after the continuous formation of low-mass stars for 10 Myr. The birth of the exciting star could be the late stage of slow but contiguous star formation in the natal molecular cloud. It may have triggered the formation of many low-mass stars at the dense inhomogeneity in and around the H II region by a radiation-driven implosion.

  15. OptIC project: An intercomparison of optimization techniques for parameter estimation in terrestrial biogeochemical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudinger, Cathy M.; Raupach, Michael R.; Rayner, Peter J.; Kattge, Jens; Liu, Qing; Pak, Bernard; Reichstein, Markus; Renzullo, Luigi; Richardson, Andrew D.; Roxburgh, Stephen H.; Styles, Julie; Wang, Ying Ping; Briggs, Peter; Barrett, Damian; Nikolova, Sonja

    2007-06-01

    We describe results of a project known as OptIC (Optimisation InterComparison) for comparison of parameter estimation methods in terrestrial biogeochemical models. A highly simplified test model was used to generate pseudo-data to which noise with different characteristics was added. Participants in the OptIC project were asked to estimate the model parameters used to generate this data, and to predict model variables into the future. Ten participants contributed results using one of the following methods: Levenberg-Marquardt, adjoint, Kalman filter, Markov chain Monte Carlo and genetic algorithm. Methods differed in how they locate the minimum (gradient-descent or global search), how observations are processed (all at once sequentially), or the number of iterations used, or assumptions about the statistics (some methods assume Gaussian probability density functions; others do not). We found the different methods equally successful at estimating the parameters in our application. The biggest variation in parameter estimates arose from the choice of cost function, not the choice of optimization method. Relatively poor results were obtained when the model-data mismatch in the cost function included weights that were instantaneously dependent on noisy observations. This was the case even when the magnitude of residuals varied with the magnitude of observations. Missing data caused estimates to be more scattered, and the uncertainty of predictions increased correspondingly. All methods gave biased results when the noise was temporally correlated or non-Gaussian, or when incorrect model forcing was used. Our results highlight the need for care in choosing the error model in any optimization.

  16. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered by NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.; Boggs, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stern, D.; Treister, E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition from a Compton-thick ({N}{{H}}≃ 2× {10}24 {{cm}}-2) to a Compton-thin ({N}{{H}}≃ 4× {10}23 {{cm}}-2) state on timescales of ≲ 3 months, which makes IC 751 the first changing look AGN discovered by NuSTAR. Changes of the line of sight column density at the ˜2σ level are also found on a timescale of ˜48 hr ({{Δ }}{N}{{H}}˜ {10}23 {{cm}}-2). From the lack of spectral variability on timescales of ˜100 ks, we infer that the varying absorber is located beyond the emission-weighted average radius of the broad-line region (BLR), and could therefore be related either to the external part of the BLR or a clumpy molecular torus. By adopting a physical torus X-ray spectral model, we are able to disentangle the column density of the non-varying absorber ({N}{{H}}˜ 3.8× {10}23 {{cm}}-2) from that of the varying clouds [{N}{{H}}˜ (1-150) × {10}22 {{cm}}-2], and to constrain that of the material responsible for the reprocessed X-ray radiation ({N}{{H}}˜ 6× {10}24 {{cm}}-2). We find evidence of significant intrinsic X-ray variability, with the flux varying by a factor of five on timescales of a few months in the 2-10 and 10-50 keV band.

  17. The Local Group Galaxy IC 1613 and its asymptotic giant branch variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies, John W.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Feast, Michael W.

    2015-09-01

    JHKS photometry is presented from a 3-yr survey of the central regions of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613. The morphologies of the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams are discussed with particular reference to the supergiants and M- and C-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Mean JHKS magnitudes, amplitudes and periods are given for five O-rich and nine C-rich Mira variables for which bolometric magnitudes are also estimated. A distance of 750 kpc ((m - M)0 = 24.37 ± 0.08 mag) is derived for IC 1613 by fitting a period-luminosity (PL) relation to the C-rich Miras. This is in agreement with values from the literature. The AGB stars exhibit a range of ages. A comparison with theoretical isochrones suggests that four luminous O-rich Miras are as young as 2 × 108 yr. One of these has a lithium absorption line in its spectrum, demonstrating that it is undergoing hot bottom burning (HBB). This supports the idea that HBB is the cause of the high luminosity of these AGB stars, which puts them above the fundamental PL relation. Further studies of similar stars, selected from their positions in the PL diagram, could provide insight into HBB. A much fainter, presumed O-rich, Mira is similar to those found in Galactic globular clusters. The C Miras are of intermediate age. The O-rich variables are not all recognized as O-rich, or even as AGB stars, on the basis of their J - KS colour. It is important to appreciate this when using near-infrared surveys to classify AGB stars in more distant galaxies.

  18. The Role of a Physical Analysis Laboratory in a 300 mm IC Development and Manufacturing Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwakman, L. F. Tz.; Bicais-Lepinay, N.; Courtas, S.; Delille, D.; Juhel, M.; Trouiller, C.; Wyon, C.; de la Bardonnie, M.; Lorut, F.; Ross, R.

    2005-09-01

    To remain competitive IC manufacturers have to accelerate the development of most advanced (CMOS) technology and to deliver high yielding products with best cycle times and at a competitive pricing. With the increase of technology complexity, also the need for physical characterization support increases, however many of the existing techniques are no longer adequate to effectively support the 65-45 nm technology node developments. New and improved techniques are definitely needed to better characterize the often marginal processes, but these should not significantly impact fabrication costs or cycle time. Hence, characterization and metrology challenges in state-of-the-art IC manufacturing are both of technical and economical nature. TEM microscopy is needed for high quality, high volume analytical support but several physical and practical hurdles have to be taken. The success rate of FIB-SEM based failure analysis drops as defects often are too small to be detected and fault isolation becomes more difficult in the nano-scale device structures. To remain effective and efficient, SEM and OBIRCH techniques have to be improved or complemented with other more effective methods. Chemical analysis of novel materials and critical interfaces requires improvements in the field of e.g. SIMS, ToF-SIMS. Techniques that previously were only used sporadically, like EBSD and XRD, have become a `must' to properly support backend process development. At the bright side, thanks to major technical advances, techniques that previously were practiced at laboratory level only now can be used effectively for at-line fab metrology: Voltage Contrast based defectivity control, XPS based gate dielectric metrology and XRD based control of copper metallization processes are practical examples. In this paper capabilities and shortcomings of several techniques and corresponding equipment are presented with practical illustrations of use in our Crolles facilities.

  19. HERschel Observations of Edge-on Spirals (HEROES). III. Dust energy balance study of IC 2531

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosenkov, Aleksandr V.; Allaert, Flor; Baes, Maarten; Bianchi, Simone; Camps, Peter; De Geyter, Gert; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Gentile, Gianfranco; Hughes, Thomas M.; Lewis, Fraser; Verstappen, Joris; Verstocken, Sam; Viaene, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the dust energy balance for the edge-on galaxy IC 2531, one of the seven galaxies in the HEROES sample. We perform a state-of-the-art radiative transfer modelling based, for the first time, on a set of optical and near-infrared galaxy images. We show that by taking into account near-infrared imaging in the modelling significantly improves the constraints on the retrieved parameters of the dust content. We confirm the result from previous studies that including a young stellar population in the modelling is important to explain the observed stellar energy distribution. However, the discrepancy between the observed and modelled thermal emission at far-infrared wavelengths, the so-called dust energy balance problem, is still present: the model underestimates the observed fluxes by a factor of about two. We compare two different dust models, and find that dust parameters, and thus the spectral energy distribution in the infrared domain, are sensitive to the adopted dust model. In general, the THEMIS model reproduces the observed emission in the infrared wavelength domain better than the popular BARE-GR-S model. Our study of IC 2531 is a pilot case for detailed and uniform radiative transfer modelling of the entire HEROES sample, which will shed more light on the strength and origins of the dust energy balance problem. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The reduced images (as FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A71

  20. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner’s lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion—starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  1. Poly (I:C) downregulates platelet production and function through type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Rivadeneyra, Leonardo; Pozner, Roberto Gabriel; Meiss, Roberto; Fondevila, Carlos; Gómez, Ricardo Martin; Schattner, Mirta

    2015-11-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a frequent complication of viral infections; the underlying mechanisms appear to depend on the identity of the virus involved. Previous research, including reports from our group, indicates that as well as having antiviral activity type I interferons (IFN I) selectively downregulate platelet production. In this study we extended understanding of the role of endogenous IFN I in megakaryo/thrombopoiesis by evaluating platelet and megakaryocyte physiology in mice treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], a synthetic analogue of double-stranded RNA, Toll-like receptor-3 ligand and strong IFNβ inducer. Mice-treated with poly (I:C) showed thrombocytopaenia, an increase in mean platelet volume and abnormal haemostatic and inflammatory platelet-mediated functionality, indicated by decreased fibrinogen binding and platelet adhesion, prolonged tail bleeding times and impaired P-Selectin externalisation, RANTES release and thrombin-induced platelet-neutrophil aggregate formation. These changes were associated with an increase in size and an abnormal distribution of bone marrow megakaryocytes within the vascular niche and were directly correlated with the plasmatic and bone marrow IFNβ levels. All these effects were absent in genetically modified mice lacking the IFN I receptor. Our results suggest that IFN I is the central mediator of poly (I:C)-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction and indicate that these abnormalities are due to changes in the last stages of megakaryocyte development. These data provide new evidence for the role of IFN I in megakaryocyte distribution in the bone marrow niches and its influence on thrombopoiesis and haemostasis. PMID:26134179

  2. Clinical presentation and treatment of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) in India.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nagendra Nath

    2015-10-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a chronic disease characterized by pelvic pain urgency and frequency. Patients with severe symptoms lead a very miserable life. North American, European and Asian guidelines have been recently promulgated but they differ on many important issues. There is no consensus on its name, definition, investigations and management. Indian guidelines have also been developed and they give more importance to the symptoms in relation to micturition. Though initially believed to be rare or non-existent in India the situation has changed. In Indian patients the presentation is more or less same as the rest of the world but a large percentage have obstructive symptoms and unusual urinary symptoms. Anal discomfort is also common. In India the commonest investigation in all cases of lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction is ultrasonography of kidney ureter and bladder with measurement of the post void residual urine volume. Cystoscopy is also done in all the cases to rule out presence of tuberculosis or carcinoma in situ. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is not considered to be a clinical disease as it is difficult to rule out all differential diagnosis only from history. Hunner's lesion is very rare. Cystoscopy with hydro distension, oral therapy, intravesical therapy and surgical therapy form the back bone of management. It is difficult to know which treatment is best for a given patient. A staged protocol is followed and all the treatment modalities are applied to the patients in a sequential fashion-starting from the non-invasive to more invasive. Intravesical botox has not been found to be effective and there is no experience with interstim neuromodulation. PMID:26816851

  3. Stress-induced Effects Caused by 3D IC TSV Packaging in Advanced Semiconductor Device Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Sukharev, V.; Kteyan, A.; Choy, J.-H.; Hovsepyan, H.; Markosian, A.; Zschech, E.; Huebner, R.

    2011-11-10

    Potential challenges with managing mechanical stress and the consequent effects on device performance for advanced 3D through-silicon-via (TSV) based technologies are outlined. The paper addresses the growing need in a simulation-based design verification flow capable to analyze a design of 3D IC stacks and to determine across-die out-of-spec variations in device electrical characteristics caused by the layout and through-silicon-via (TSV)/package-induced mechanical stress. The limited characterization/measurement capabilities for 3D IC stacks and a strict ''good die'' requirement make this type of analysis critical for the achievement of an acceptable level of functional and parametric yield and reliability. The paper focuses on the development of a design-for-manufacturability (DFM) type of methodology for managing mechanical stresses during a sequence of designs of 3D TSV-based dies, stacks and packages. A set of physics-based compact models for a multi-scale simulation to assess the mechanical stress across the device layers in silicon chips stacked and packaged with the 3D TSV technology is proposed. A calibration technique based on fitting to measured stress components and electrical characteristics of the test-chip devices is presented. A strategy for generation of a simulation feeding data and respective materials characterization approach are proposed, with the goal to generate a database for multi-scale material parameters of wafer-level and package-level structures. For model validation, high-resolution strain measurements in Si channels of the test-chip devices are needed. At the nanoscale, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is the only technique available for sub-10 nm strain measurements so far.

  4. The ACS LCID project. X. the star formation history of IC 1613: Revisiting the over-cooling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Skillman, Evan D.; Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es E-mail: carme@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of a field near the half-light radius in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-off, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ∼1 Gyr. Our analysis shows that the SFH of the observed field in IC 1613 is consistent with being constant over the entire lifetime of the galaxy. These observations rule out an early dominant episode of star formation in IC 1613. We compare the SFH of IC 1613 with expectations from cosmological models. Since most of the mass is in place at early times for low-mass halos, a naive expectation is that most of the star formation should have taken place at early times. Models in which star formation follows mass accretion result in too many stars formed early and gas mass fractions that are too low today (the 'over-cooling problem'). The depth of the present photometry of IC 1613 shows that, at a resolution of ∼1 Gyr, the star formation rate is consistent with being constant, at even the earliest times, which is difficult to achieve in models where star formation follows mass assembly.

  5. Crystallographic Studies of Two Bacterial AntibioticResistance Enzymes: Aminoglycoside Phosphotransferase (2')-Ic and GES-1\\beta-lactamase

    SciTech Connect

    Brynes, Laura; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-10-31

    Guiana Extended-Spectrum-1 (GES-1) and Aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (2')-Ic (APH(2')-Ic) are two bacteria-produced enzymes that essentially perform the same task: they provide resistance to an array of antibiotics. Both enzymes are part of a growing resistance problem in the medical world. In order to overcome the ever-growing arsenal of antibiotic-resistance enzymes, it is necessary to understand the molecular basis of their action. Accurate structures of these proteins have become an invaluable tool to do this. Using protein crystallography techniques and X-ray diffraction, the protein structure of GES-1 bound to imipenem (an inhibitor) has been solved. Also, APH(2')-Ic has been successfully crystallized, but its structure was unable to be solved using molecular replacement using APH(2')-Ib as a search model. The structure of GES-1, with bound imipenem was solved to a resolution of 1.89A, and though the inhibitor is bound with only moderate occupancy, the structure shows crucial interactions inside the active site that render the enzyme unable to complete the hydrolysis of the {beta}-lactam ring. The APH(2')-Ic dataset could not be matched to the model, APH(2')-Ib, with which it shares 25% sequence identity. The structural information gained from GES-1, and future studies using isomorphous replacement to solve the APH(2')-Ic structure can aid directly to the creation of novel drugs to combat both of these classes of resistance enzymes.

  6. PmagPy: Software Package for Paleomagnetic Data Analysis and Gateway to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonestrask, L.; Tauxe, L.; Shaar, R.; Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many data types and methods of analysis in rock and paleomagnetic investigations. The MagIC database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC) was designed to accommodate the vast majority of data used in such investigations. Yet getting data from the laboratory into the database, and visualizing and re-analyzing data downloaded from the database, makes special demands on data formatting. There are several recently published programming packages that deal with single types of data: demagnetization experiments (e.g., Lurcock et al., 2012), paleointensity experiments (e.g., Leonhardt et al., 2004), and FORC diagrams (e.g., Harrison et al., 2008). However, there is a need for a unified set of open source, cross-platform software that deals with the great variety of data types in a consistent way and facilitates importing data into the MagIC format, analyzing them and uploading them into the MagIC database. The PmagPy software package (http://earthref.org/PmagPy/cookbook/) comprises a such a comprehensive set of tools. It facilitates conversion of many laboratory formats into the common MagIC format and allows interpretation of demagnetization and Thellier-type experimental data. With some 175 programs and over 250 functions, it can be used to create a wide variety of plots and allows manipulation of downloaded data sets as well as preparation of new contributions for uploading to the MagIC database.

  7. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  8. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-01-01

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs. PMID:27040163

  9. Multiple mechanisms determine the sensitivity of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to the inducible caspase-9 safety switch.

    PubMed

    Yagyu, Shigeki; Hoyos, Valentina; Del Bufalo, Francesca; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the inducible caspase-9 (iC9) suicide gene is one of the most appealing safety strategies for cell therapy and has been applied for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to control the cell fate of hiPSC. iC9 can induce cell death of over 99% of iC9-transduced hiPSC (iC9-hiPSC) in less than 24 hours after exposure to chemical inducer of dimerization (CID). There is, however, a small number of resistant cells that subsequently outgrows. To ensure greater uniformity of the hiPSC response to iC9 activation, we purified a resistant population by culturing iC9-hiPSC with CID and analyzing the mechanisms by which the cells evade killing. We found that iC9-resistant hiPSC have significant heterogeneity in terms of their escape mechanisms from caspase-dependent apoptosis including reduced expression of iC9 by promoter silencing and overexpression of BCL2. As a consequence, modifying a single element alone will be insufficient to ensure sustained susceptibility of iC9 in all cells and prevent the eventual outgrowth of a resistant population. To solve this issue, we propose to isolate an iC9-sensitive population and show that this hiPSC line has sustained a uniform responsiveness to iC9-mediated growth control. PMID:27626039

  10. Multiple mechanisms determine the sensitivity of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to the inducible caspase-9 safety switch

    PubMed Central

    Yagyu, Shigeki; Hoyos, Valentina; Del Bufalo, Francesca; Brenner, Malcolm K.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the inducible caspase-9 (iC9) suicide gene is one of the most appealing safety strategies for cell therapy and has been applied for human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) to control the cell fate of hiPSC. iC9 can induce cell death of over 99% of iC9-transduced hiPSC (iC9-hiPSC) in less than 24 hours after exposure to chemical inducer of dimerization (CID). There is, however, a small number of resistant cells that subsequently outgrows. To ensure greater uniformity of the hiPSC response to iC9 activation, we purified a resistant population by culturing iC9-hiPSC with CID and analyzing the mechanisms by which the cells evade killing. We found that iC9-resistant hiPSC have significant heterogeneity in terms of their escape mechanisms from caspase-dependent apoptosis including reduced expression of iC9 by promoter silencing and overexpression of BCL2. As a consequence, modifying a single element alone will be insufficient to ensure sustained susceptibility of iC9 in all cells and prevent the eventual outgrowth of a resistant population. To solve this issue, we propose to isolate an iC9-sensitive population and show that this hiPSC line has sustained a uniform responsiveness to iC9-mediated growth control. PMID:27626039

  11. Effects of chitin and its derivatives on human cancer cells lines.

    PubMed

    Bouhenna, M; Salah, R; Bakour, R; Drouiche, N; Abdi, N; Grib, H; Lounici, H; Mameri, N

    2015-10-01

    The present study is focused on the effect of chitin derivatives against human cancer cell lines RD and Hep2. As an outcome from this research, chitin was cytotoxic at IC50 = 400 μg/ml and 200 μg/ml against Hep2 cells and RD cells lines, respectively. Irradiated chitin had an IC50 value of 450 μg/ml for Hep2 and an IC50 of 200 μg/ml for RD. The lowest IC50 is attributed to chitosan, 300 μg/ml in Hep2 and 190 μg/ml in RD.

  12. The mass distribution and the law of gravity in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, George; Skillman, Evan D.

    1989-10-01

    Results are presented on the H I spectral-line distribution and velocity field of the Local Group dwarf galaxy IC 1613, which were obtained using VLA of the NRAO. The rotation curve of IC 1613 was determined, and Newtonian and non-Newtonian mass models were built. It was found that the H I is lumpy in the inner parts, but H I contours in the outer parts of the galaxy are smooth. The velocity field is regular, and the line of nodes is coincident with the major axis of the gas distribution. The rotation curve of IC 1613 shows evidence of dark matter in the outer parts. However, the maximum density of a dark halo that can be tolerated is an order of magnitude lower than that needed to explain the velocity dispersions of the extreme dwarf spheroidals.

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE TYPE M MORPHOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF IC59: A NEW MODEL FOR BRIGHT RIM CLOUDS?

    SciTech Connect

    Miao Jingqi; Sugitani, Koji; White, Glenn J.; Nelson, Richard P.

    2010-07-10

    We report the results from a smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation designed to model recent observational data on the nebula and Bright Rim Cloud IC59. We further examine, in the context of radiative-driven implosion (RDI) models, the possible formation mechanisms of the morphological structure of IC59. The results of the simulation reveal the existence of a new, fourth morphological state for Bright Rim Clouds (BRCs)-which we propose to call a Type M BRC morphology. We discuss the necessary conditions for the appearance of Type M BRCs, based on analytical and numerical simulations. The simulated physical properties from our model are consistent with the available observations of IC59. We further show that the prospect of RDI triggered star formation in all Type M BRCs is not supported by the simulations.

  14. An asymmetric energetic type Ic supernova viewed off-axis, and a link to gamma ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Kawabata, Koji S; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Benetti, Stefano; Pian, Elena; Deng, Jinsong; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ohyama, Youichi; Iye, Masanori; Foley, Ryan J; Matheson, Thomas; Wang, Lifan; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2005-05-27

    Type Ic supernovae, the explosions after the core collapse of massive stars that have previously lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes, are particularly interesting because of their link with long-duration gamma ray bursts. Although indications exist that these explosions are aspherical, direct evidence has been missing. Late-time observations of supernova SN 2003jd, a luminous type Ic supernova, provide such evidence. Recent Subaru and Keck spectra reveal double-peaked profiles in the nebular lines of neutral oxygen and magnesium. These profiles are different from those of known type Ic supernovae, with or without a gamma ray burst, and they can be understood if SN 2003jd was an aspherical axisymmetric explosion viewed from near the equatorial plane. If SN 2003jd was associated with a gamma ray burst, we missed the burst because it was pointing away from us.

  15. An asymmetric energetic type Ic supernova viewed off-axis, and a link to gamma ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Kawabata, Koji S; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Benetti, Stefano; Pian, Elena; Deng, Jinsong; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ohyama, Youichi; Iye, Masanori; Foley, Ryan J; Matheson, Thomas; Wang, Lifan; Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2005-05-27

    Type Ic supernovae, the explosions after the core collapse of massive stars that have previously lost their hydrogen and helium envelopes, are particularly interesting because of their link with long-duration gamma ray bursts. Although indications exist that these explosions are aspherical, direct evidence has been missing. Late-time observations of supernova SN 2003jd, a luminous type Ic supernova, provide such evidence. Recent Subaru and Keck spectra reveal double-peaked profiles in the nebular lines of neutral oxygen and magnesium. These profiles are different from those of known type Ic supernovae, with or without a gamma ray burst, and they can be understood if SN 2003jd was an aspherical axisymmetric explosion viewed from near the equatorial plane. If SN 2003jd was associated with a gamma ray burst, we missed the burst because it was pointing away from us. PMID:15919986

  16. On the convergence of ionospheric constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) based on undifferential uncombined raw GNSS observations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications. PMID:24253190

  17. On the convergence of ionospheric constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) based on undifferential uncombined raw GNSS observations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-11-18

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications.

  18. Recent Advances in the MagIC Online Database: Rock- and Paleomagnetic Data Archiving, Analysis, and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is deeply committed to empowering the paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, and affiliated scientific communities with an invaluable wealth of peer-reviewed published raw data and interpretations, along with online analytics and visualization tools. The MagIC Online Database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC/) has been designed and implemented with the goal of rapidly advancing science by providing the scientific community with a free and easily accessible means for attacking some of the most challenging research problems in Earth sciences. Such a database must not only allow for data to be contributed and indefinitely archived, but also provide a powerful suite of highly integrated tools for data retrieval, analysis, and visualization. MagIC has already successfully addressed many of the issues of contributing and archiving vast quantities of heterogeneous data by creating a flexible and comprehensive Oracle Database schema professionally maintained at the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) with off-site back-ups at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences (COAS) in Oregon. MagIC is now focused on developing and improving the tools for retrieving and visualizing the data from over four thousand published rock- and paleomagnetic studies. New features include a much more responsive online interface, result set filtering, integrated and asynchronous plotting and mapping, advanced saving options, and a rich personalized tabular layout. The MagIC Database is continuously striving to enrich and promote Rock- and Paleomagnetic research by providing the scientific community with the tools for retrieving and analyzing previous studies, and for organizing and collaborating on new activities. The MagIC Database Search Interface

  19. On the Convergence of Ionospheric Constrained Precise Point Positioning (IC-PPP) Based on Undifferential Uncombined Raw GNSS Observations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongping; Gao, Zhouzheng; Ge, Maorong; Niu, Xiaoji; Huang, Ling; Tu, Rui; Li, Xingxing

    2013-01-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) has become a very hot topic in GNSS research and applications. However, it usually takes about several tens of minutes in order to obtain positions with better than 10 cm accuracy. This prevents PPP from being widely used in real-time kinematic positioning services, therefore, a large effort has been made to tackle the convergence problem. One of the recent approaches is the ionospheric delay constrained precise point positioning (IC-PPP) that uses the spatial and temporal characteristics of ionospheric delays and also delays from an a priori model. In this paper, the impact of the quality of ionospheric models on the convergence of IC-PPP is evaluated using the IGS global ionospheric map (GIM) updated every two hours and a regional satellite-specific correction model. Furthermore, the effect of the receiver differential code bias (DCB) is investigated by comparing the convergence time for IC-PPP with and without estimation of the DCB parameter. From the result of processing a large amount of data, on the one hand, the quality of the a priori ionosphere delays plays a very important role in IC-PPP convergence. Generally, regional dense GNSS networks can provide more precise ionosphere delays than GIM and can consequently reduce the convergence time. On the other hand, ignoring the receiver DCB may considerably extend its convergence, and the larger the DCB, the longer the convergence time. Estimating receiver DCB in IC-PPP is a proper way to overcome this problem. Therefore, current IC-PPP should be enhanced by estimating receiver DCB and employing regional satellite-specific ionospheric correction models in order to speed up its convergence for more practical applications. PMID:24253190

  20. Optical Observations of the Nearby Galaxy IC342 with Narrow Band [SII] and H_alpha Filters. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucetic, M. M.; Arbutina, B.; Urosevic, D.; Dobardzic, A.; Pavlovic, M. Z.; Pannuti, T. G.; Petrov, N.

    2013-12-01

    We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy.