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Sample records for ice cream mix

  1. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-01

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream.

  2. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-01

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream. PMID:27083350

  3. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  8. Flow properties of ice cream mix prepared from palm oil: anhydrous milk fat blends.

    PubMed

    Rosnani, A I Wan; Aini, I Nor; Yazid, A M M; Dzulkifly, M H

    2007-05-15

    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF.

  9. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  10. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.

  11. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    PubMed

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  12. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  13. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    PubMed

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  14. The physics of ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  15. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  16. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream.

  17. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream. PMID:26139868

  18. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    PubMed

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  19. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  20. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  1. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW.

  2. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

  3. Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, V B; Wolters, C L; Vodovotz, Y; Ji, T

    2005-03-01

    Two milk protein concentrates (MPC, 56 and 85%) were studied as substitutes for 20 and 50% of the protein content in ice cream mix. The basic mix formula had 12% fat, 11% nonfat milk solids, 15% sweetener, and 0.3% stabilizer/emulsifier blend. Protein levels remained constant, and total solids were compensated for in MPC mixes by the addition of polydextrose. Physical properties investigated included apparent viscosity, fat globule size, melting rate, shape retention, and freezing behavior using differential scanning calorimetry. Milk protein concentrate formulations had higher mix viscosity, larger amount of fat destabilization, narrower ice melting curves, and greater shape retention compared with the control. Milk protein concentrates did not offer significant modifications of ice cream physical properties on a constant protein basis when substituted for up to 50% of the protein supplied by nonfat dry milk. Milk protein concentrates may offer ice cream manufacturers an alternative source of milk solids non-fat, especially in mixes reduced in lactose or fat, where higher milk solids nonfat are needed to compensate other losses of total solids.

  4. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  5. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  6. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  7. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  8. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  9. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  10. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  11. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  12. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  13. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  14. Filtrates and Residues: Ice Cream: Delicious Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, James

    1983-01-01

    An experiment involving preparation of ice cream is conducted after students complete units on solutions, atomic structure, molecular architecture, and bonding. The laboratory gives practical illustration of relation of physical properties to bond type and solution theory developed. Materials needed, procedures used, and questions asked are…

  15. Factors Affecting the Changes of Ice Crystal Form in Ice Cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    In this study, the shape of ice crystals in ice cream was quantitatively evaluated by introducing fractal analysis. A small droplet of commercial ice cream mix was quickly cooled to about -30°C on the cold stage of microscope. Subsequently, it was heated to -5°C or -10°C and then held for various holding time. Based on the captured images at each holding time, the cross-sectional area and the length of circumference for each ice crystal were measured to calculate fractal dimension using image analysis software. The results showed that the ice crystals were categorized into two groups, e.g. simple-shape and complicated-shape, according to their fractal dimensions. The fractal dimension of ice crystals became lower with increasing holding time and holding temperature. It was also indicated that the growing rate of complicated-shape ice crystals was relatively higher because of aggregation.

  16. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    During winter, we use to spread salt to thaw ice on the streets. In a physics show, one can be almost sure that after showing this effect, the answer to what happens to temperature will be "it increases". But no! It goes down, in such amount that one can complement the show by producing hand-made ice creams [1].

  17. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    PubMed

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  18. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    PubMed

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  19. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. PMID:24329951

  20. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel.

  1. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P < 0.05) of total solids (42%), proteins (16.5%), and titratable acidity (2.2%) was observed in the test sample compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P < 0.05) of melting in the probiotic one may have resulted from less over run, than the nonprobiotic sample. Rapid reduction in the viable cells during frozen storage occurred at -18°C and gradual adaptation occurred over the first 4 weeks. At the 10th week, 1.0 × 10(7) numbers of viable organisms were present in 1 g of the probiotic ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers.

  2. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  3. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  4. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  5. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  6. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  7. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  8. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  9. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  10. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between particle size values for experimental ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules.

  11. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH. PMID:26761823

  12. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  13. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH. PMID:26761823

  14. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  15. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  16. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  17. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  18. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  19. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian

    2013-06-01

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of {K3} surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  20. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream.

  1. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  2. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  3. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  4. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products. PMID:27586030

  5. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  6. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  7. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  8. Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Bakshi, A.S.; Gay, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean gum tended to have a lower energy demand than mix with large amounts of guar gum. This was especially pronounced in mixes with 50% 42 high fructose corn syrup and/or 50% 36 DE corn syrup solids.

  9. Ice Cream/I Scream for YA Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Don

    2010-01-01

    From a 40-year perspective, Don Gallo examines the field of young adult literature, comparing it to ice cream--its various flavors and levels of richness. The article proclaims the profundity of the field and the quality of its writers, summarizes historical highlights, defends it against its detractors, and explains the importance of helping…

  10. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  11. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  12. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  13. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram as determined by the standard plate count, and shall contain not more than 10 coliform organisms per gram for plain and not more than 20 coliform per gram in chocolate, fruit, nut or other flavors in three out...

  14. Application of simplex-centroid mixture design to optimize stabilizer combinations for ice cream manufacture.

    PubMed

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Tehrani, Mostafa Mazaheri; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, Arash

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to obtain the optimum formulation for stabilizers in ice cream that could contest with blends presented nowadays. Thus, different mixtures of three stabilizers, i.e. basil seed gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, and guar gum, at two concentrations (0.15 % & 0.35 %) were studied using mixture design methodology. The influence of these mixtures on some properties of ice cream and the regression models for them were also determined. Generally, high ratios of basil seed gum in mixture developed the apparent viscosity of ice cream mixes and decreased the melting rate. Increasing proportion of this stabilizer as well as guar gum in the mixtures at concentration of 0.15 % enhanced the overrun of samples. Based on the optimization criteria, the most excellent combination was 84.43 % basil seed gum and 15.57 % guar gum at concentration of 0.15 %. This research proved the capability of basil seed gum as a novel stabilizer in ice cream stabilization.

  15. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  16. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. PMID:25912870

  17. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but spaceweather prediction. Several models(such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observated by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of 33 FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. It was demonstrated that the correlation coefficient for the speeds by using these both methods is 0.97.

  18. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    PubMed

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues. PMID:19923626

  19. Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream.

    PubMed

    Buyck, J R; Baer, R J; Choi, J

    2011-05-01

    Ice cream quality is dependent on many factors including storage temperature. Currently, the industry standard for ice cream storage is -28.9 °C. Ice cream production costs may be decreased by increasing the temperature of the storage freezer, thus lowering energy costs. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of 4 storage temperatures on the quality of commercial vanilla-flavored light and full-fat ice cream. Storage temperatures used were -45.6, -26.1, and -23.3 °C for the 3 treatments and -28.9 °C as the control or industry standard. Ice crystal sizes were analyzed by a cold-stage microscope and image analysis at 1, 19.5, and 39 wk of storage. Ice crystal size did not differ among the storage temperatures of light and full-fat ice creams at 19.5 or 39 wk. An increase in ice crystal size was observed between 19.5 and 39 wk for all storage temperatures except -45.6 °C. Coldness intensity, iciness, creaminess, and storage/stale off-flavor of the light and full-fat ice creams were evaluated at 39 wk of storage. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference among the different storage temperatures for light and full-fat ice creams. In a second study, light and full-fat ice creams were heat shocked by storing at -28.9 °C for 35 wk and then alternating between -23.3 and -12.2 °C every 24h for 4 wk. Heat-shocked ice creams were analyzed at 2 and 4 wk of storage for ice crystal size and were evaluated by the sensory panel. A difference in ice crystal size was observed for light and full-fat ice creams during heat-shock storage; however, sensory results indicated no differences. In summary, storage of light or full-fat vanilla-flavored ice creams at the temperatures used within this research did not affect quality of the ice creams. Therefore, ice cream manufacturers could conserve energy by increasing the temperature of freezers from -28.9 to -26.1 °C. Because freezers will typically fluctuate from the set temperature, usage of -26.1

  20. Synbiotic yogurt-ice cream produced via incorporation of microencapsulated lactobacillus acidophilus (la-5) and fructooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Milani, Elnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Salarbashi, Davoud

    2014-08-01

    Yogurt-ice cream is a nutritious product with a refreshing taste and durability profoundly longer than that of yogurt. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5) cells either in free or encapsulated form were incorporated into yog-ice cream and their survivability were studied. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic compound at three levels (0, 4 & 8 % w/w) was added to yogurt-ice cream mix and its effects on some chemical properties, overrun and firmness of product were evaluated. The higher the incorporated FOS concentration, the lower were the pH value and higher the total solid content of treatments. FOS incorporation (8 %) significantly increased the overrun of treatments and reduced their firmness. The viable counts of free probiotics decreased from ~9.55 to ~7.3 log cfu/g after 60 days of frozen storage while that of encapsulated cells merely decreased less than 1 log cycle. Encapsulation with alginate microbeads protected the probiotic cells against injuries in the freezing stage as well as, during frozen storage.

  1. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; MacPhee, Cait E

    2015-12-18

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  2. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; MacPhee, Cait E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  3. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    PubMed

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  4. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  5. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    PubMed

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea. PMID:23241909

  6. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  7. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  8. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  9. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream. PMID:26761671

  10. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream. PMID:26761671

  11. Cold pleasure. Why we like ice drinks, ice-lollies and ice cream.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Du-Plessis, L; Dommels, Y; Wilkinson, J E

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses how the ingestion of cold foods and drinks may be perceived as pleasant because of the effects of cooling of the mouth. The case is made that man has originated from a tropical environment and that cold stimuli applied to the external skin may initiate thermal discomfort and reflexes such as shivering and vasoconstriction that defend body temperature, whereas cold stimuli applied to the mouth are perceived as pleasant because of pleasure associated with satiation of thirst and a refreshing effect. Cold water is preferred to warm water as a thirst quencher and cold products such as ice cream may also be perceived as pleasant because oral cooling satiates thirst. The case is made that cold stimuli may be perceived differently in the skin and oral mucosa, leading to different effects on temperature regulation, and perception of pleasure or displeasure, depending on the body temperature and the temperature of the external environment.

  12. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  13. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value. PMID:21339169

  14. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products.

  15. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    PubMed

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream.

  16. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    PubMed

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. PMID:25218746

  17. Enrichment of functional properties of ice cream with pomegranate by-products.

    PubMed

    Çam, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Fatma; Aslan, Duygu; Dinç, Merve

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel rich in phenolics, and pomegranate seed which contain a conjugated fatty acid namely punicic acid in lipid fraction remain as by-products after processing the fruit into juice. Ice cream is poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolics, therefore, this study was conducted to improve the functional properties of ice cream by incorporating pomegranate peel phenolics and pomegranate seed oil. Incorporation of the peel phenolics into ice cream at the levels of 0.1% and 0.4% (w/w) resulted in significant changes in the pH, total acidity, and color of the samples. The most prominent outcomes of phenolic incorporation were sharp improvements in antioxidant and antidiabetic activities as well as the phenolic content of ice creams. Replacement of pomegranate seed oil by milk fat at the levels of 2.0% and 4.0% (w/w) increased the conjugated fatty acid content. However, perception of oxidized flavor increased with the additional seed oil. When one considers the functional and nutritional improvements in the enrichment of the ice cream together with overall acceptability results of the sensory analysis, then it follows from this study that ice creams enriched with pomegranate peel phenolics up to 0.4% (w/w) and pomegranate seed oil up to 2.0% (w/w) could be introduced to markets as functional ice cream. Enrichment of ice creams with pomegranate by-products might provide consumers health benefits with striking functional properties of punicalagins in pomegranate peel, and punicic acid in pomegranate seed oil.

  18. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. PMID:24268400

  19. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    PubMed

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source. PMID:25033424

  1. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    PubMed

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source.

  2. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  3. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  4. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  5. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues.

  6. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-07-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 °C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  7. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  8. Reduced fat and sugar vanilla ice creams: sensory profiling and external preference mapping.

    PubMed

    Cadena, R S; Cruz, A G; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to map sensory attributes of vanilla ice cream with reduced fat and sugar, and (2) to determine drivers of liking by applying external preference mapping and reveal the relationship between descriptive attributes and hedonic judgments using the partial least squares method. Descriptive sensory profiles (n=11) and consumer test (n=117) of 6 samples of vanilla ice cream (3 traditional and 3 with reduced fat and sugar) were determined. The attributes brightness and sweet aftertaste for sample and creaminess (appearance and texture) and sweet aroma contributed positively to the acceptance of ice cream samples. The attributes aeration, powdered milk aroma and flavor, and white chocolate aroma and flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of the ice creams. The attributes hydrogenated fat aroma and flavor were responsible for the lower acceptance of samples. The reduction in fat and sugar did not necessarily cause a decrease in acceptance. The most important factors were selection of the appropriate sweetener system and the use of good quality raw material.

  9. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  10. Determination of enterotoxigenic and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Gücükoğlu, Ali; Çadirci, Özgür; Terzi, Göknur; Kevenk, T Onur; Alişarli, Mustafa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ice creams. After culture-based identification of isolates, the presence of 16S rRNA and nuc was confirmed by mPCR. S. aureus was identified in 18 of 56 fruity (32.1%), 4 of 32 vanilla (12.5%), and 1 of 12 chocolate (8.3%) ice creams. S. aureus was identified as 38 isolates in 23 ice cream samples by culture-based techniques, but only 35 isolates were confirmed by PCR as S. aureus. To determine the enterotoxigenic properties of PCR-confirmed S. aureus isolates, a toxin detection kit was used (SET RPLA®). Of the 12 enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates, 9 SEB (75%), 1 SED (8.3%), 1 SEB+SED (8.3%), and 1 SEA+SEB+SED (8.3%) expressing isolates were found. The presence of enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sed) was identified in 13 (37.1%) out of 35 isolates by the mPCR technique. In the ice cream isolates, the sea, seb, and sed genes were detected: 1 sea (7.6%), 9 seb (69.2%), 1 sed (7.6%), 1 seb+sed (7.6%), and 1 sea+seb+sed (7.6%), respectively. The sec gene was not detected in any of these isolates. One of the 35 (2.8%) S. aureus strain was mecA positive.

  11. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  12. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  13. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  14. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26501983

  15. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  16. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  17. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  18. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  19. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  20. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties.

  1. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties. PMID:26572373

  2. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  3. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  4. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    PubMed

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel.

  5. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers.

  6. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers. PMID:26682112

  7. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  8. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:27235735

  9. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality.

  10. [Rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Dai, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a method for the rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by HPLC. A radial compression C18 cohumn, 100 mm x 8 mm i.d., and ultraviolet detector at 220 nm were applied to the determination without extraction. The solution of samples would be determined after they were treated with the solution of copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide in water. The detectable amount was 0.38 mg/kg, the coefficient of variation CV was 1.72%, and the recovery was 96.25%-101.75%.

  11. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products. PMID:24551829

  12. A birthday party, home-made ice cream, and an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 6 infection.

    PubMed

    Dodhia, H; Kearney, J; Warburton, F

    1998-03-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 6 followed a children's birthday party. Thirty of 37 (attack rate 81%) attendees were ill, with diarrhoea and fever being the most common symptoms. One child required hospital admission for rehydration. No deaths occurred. Stool specimens from 24 out of 25 people who submitted them were positive for S. enteritidis PT 6 and one was positive for S. enteritidis PT4. Epidemiological investigation indicated that home-made ice cream was the vehicle of infection. Fresh shell eggs used raw in the ice cream were the likeliest source of infection. No ice cream or eggs were available for microbiological analysis. S. enteritidis PT6 accounts for a small but increasing proportion of all salmonellas in humans and its epidemiology is thought to be similar to S. enteritidis PT4. Thus current recommendations on the use of raw eggs in cooking continue to apply.

  13. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  14. The Comparison of Vaginal Cream of Mixing Yogurt, Honey and Clotrimazole on Symptoms of Vaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Maryam; Jahdi, Fereshteh; Hamzegardeshi, Zeinab; Goodarzi, Saied; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is known as one of the most common fungal infection among women of reproductive age and considered as an important public health problem. In recent years, due to resistance to common antifungal medication, the use of traditional medicine of anti-fungal and herbal treatmentis increased. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine the effects of vaginal cream, mixture of yogurt and honey and comparing it with clotrimazole vaginal cream on symptoms of Vulvovaginal candidiasis in patients. Methods: In this randomized, triple blind clinical trial of 70 non-pregnant women infected with Candidalvulvovaginitis were placed in two groups of Vaginal cream mixed of yogurt and honey recipients (N = 35) and clotrimazole vaginal cream (N = 35). Both groups were treated for 7 days.At the beginning of study, Clinical and laboratory signs and symptoms were registered 7 and 14 days after treatment by questionnaire, observation formand secretions medium culture results. Data were analyzed by chi-square test, t test, McNemar tests through SPSS version 21. Significance level of 0.05 was considered. Results: The result of present study reveals the significant differences in symptom improvement of yogurt and honey, toward clotrimazole group (P < 0.05) and also Positive results of the first cultures (one week after treatment) in “yogurt and honey” and clotrimazole (20% versus 8.6%) and second time cultivation (14 days after treatment) (17.1% versus 8.6%) were similar and there was no significant differences between the two groups. (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that the therapeutic effects of vaginal cream, yogurt and honey is not only similar with clotrimazole vaginal cream but is more effective in relieving some symptoms of vaginal candidiasis. Therefore, the use of this product can be suggested as an herbal remedy for candida infection treatment. PMID:26153168

  15. Recovery of biogas as a source of renewable energy from ice-cream production residues and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Burak; Orok, Murat; Hot, Elif; Erkişi, Selin; Albükrek, Metin; Onay, Turgut T

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of waste streams and residues from agro-industry is very important to prevent environmental pollution. In particular, the anaerobic co-digestion process can be used as an important tool for safe disposal and energy recovery from agro-industry waste streams and residues. The primary objective of this laboratory-scale study was to determine whether it was possible to recover energy (biogas) from ice-cream production residues and wastewater, through a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process. A high methane yield of 0.338 L CH4/gCOD(removed) could be achieved from anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater alone, with almost 70% of methane in biogas, while anaerobic digestion of ice-cream production residue alone did not seem feasible. When wastewater and ice-cream production residue were anaerobically co-digested at a ratio of 9:1 by weight, the highest methane yield of 0.131 L CH4/gCOD(removed) was observed. Buffering capacity seemed to be imperative in energy recovery from these substrates in the anaerobic digestion process.

  16. Virulence profiling and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28 and O26:H11 isolated during an ice cream-related hemolytic uremic syndrome outbreak.

    PubMed

    Buvens, Glenn; Possé, Björn; De Schrijver, Koen; De Zutter, Lieven; Lauwers, Sabine; Piérard, Denis

    2011-03-01

    In September-October 2007, a mixed-serotype outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O145:H28 and O26:H11 occurred in the province of Antwerp, Belgium. Five girls aged between 2 and 11 years developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, and seven other coexposed persons with bloody diarrhea were identified. Laboratory confirmation of O145:H28 infection was obtained for three hemolytic uremic syndrome patients, one of whom was coinfected with O26:H11. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations revealed ice cream as the most likely source of the outbreak. The ice cream was produced at a local dairy farm using pasteurized milk. VTEC of both serotypes with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were isolated from patients, ice cream, and environmental samples. Quantitative analysis of the ice cream indicated concentrations of 2.4 and 0.03 CFU/g for VTEC O145 and O26, respectively. Virulence typing revealed that the repertoire of virulence genes carried by the O145:H28 outbreak strain was comparable to that of O157 VTEC and more exhaustive as compared to the O26:H11 outbreak strain and nonrelated clinical strains belonging to these serotypes. Taken together, these data suggest that O145:H28 played the most important role in this outbreak.

  17. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  18. A 4-D dataset for validation of crystal growth in a complex three-phase material, ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockett, P.; Karagadde, S.; Guo, E.; Bent, J.; Hazekamp, J.; Kingsley, M.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Lee, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Four dimensional (4D, or 3D plus time) X-ray tomographic imaging of phase changes in materials is quickly becoming an accepted tool for quantifying the development of microstructures to both inform and validate models. However, most of the systems studied have been relatively simple binary compositions with only two phases. In this study we present a quantitative dataset of the phase evolution in a complex three-phase material, ice cream. The microstructure of ice cream is an important parameter in terms of sensorial perception, and therefore quantification and modelling of the evolution of the microstructure with time and temperature is key to understanding its fabrication and storage. The microstructure consists of three phases, air cells, ice crystals, and unfrozen matrix. We perform in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of ice cream samples using in-line phase contrast tomography, housed within a purpose built cold-stage (-40 to +20oC) with finely controlled variation in specimen temperature. The size and distribution of ice crystals and air cells during programmed temperature cycling are determined using 3D quantification. The microstructural evolution of three-phase materials has many other important applications ranging from biological to structural and functional material, hence this dataset can act as a validation case for numerical investigations on faceted and non-faceted crystal growth in a range of materials.

  19. Effect of biopolymers on structure and ice recrystallization in dynamically frozen ice cream model systems.

    PubMed

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2002-11-01

    Ice crystal growth and microstructure of sugarsolutions prepared with stabilizers (carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC], xanthan gum, locust bean gum [LBG], and gelatin) with or without milk solids-nonfat (MSNF) after freezing in a scraped surface heat exchanger and temperature cycling (5 cycles from -6 degrees C to -20 degrees C) were studied. Ice crystal growth was calculated from brightfield microscopic images acquired from samples before and after cycling. Freeze-substitution and low-temperature embedding (LR-Gold resin) were sample preparation techniques utilized for structure analyses by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Differential staining for carbohydrates and proteins allowed the identification of stabilizer gel-like structures in LBG, gelatin, and gelatin/MSNF solutions. In the absence of milk proteins, xanthan and LBG were the most effective at retarding recrystallization, while in their presence, only xanthan had an effect. Cryo-gelation of the LBG was observed but is not the only mechanism of stabilizer action. Thermodynamic incompatibility between biopolymers was observed to promote localized high concentrations of milk proteins located at the ice crystal interface, probably exerting a water-holding action that significantly enhanced the stabilizer effect. Qualitatively, solution heterogeneity (phase separation) was directly proportional to ice crystal growth inhibition. It is suggested that water-holding by stabilizer and proteins, and in some cases steric hindrance induced by a stabilizer gel-like network, caused a reduction in the kinetics of the ice recrystallization phenomena and promoted mechanisms of melt-regrow instead of melt-diffuse-grow recrystallization, thus resulting in the preservation of the ice crystal size and in a small span of the ice crystal size distribution.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borja, R.; Banks, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin.

  2. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R (2) 0.75-0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R (2) 0.83-0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  3. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  4. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of the phase separation in mixed preparations of moisturizing cream and steroid ointment after centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Funatani, Chiaki; Yokawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Obata, Yasuko; Takayama, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    A mixed preparation consisting of a water-in-oil emulsion-type moisturizing cream and a steroid ointment is frequently prescribed for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. We have investigated the compatibility of moisturizing creams and ointments because there are concerns regarding the physical stability of these mixed preparations. The key technology used in this study was magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A commercial moisturizing cream and white petrolatum or clobetasone butyrate (CLB) ointment samples were mixed in a weight ratio of 1 : 1. A centrifugation test protocol (20000×g for 3 min) was implemented to accelerate the destabilization processes in the samples. After centrifugation, the mixed preparations separated into three distinct layers (upper, middle, and lower), while no phase separation was observed using moisturizing cream alone. The phase separation was monitored using chemical shift selective images of water and oil and quantitative T2 maps. In addition, MR and near-infrared spectroscopy were employed for component analysis of each phase-separated layer. Collectively, it was confirmed that the lower layer contained water, oils, and organic solvent, while the upper and middle layers were composed solely of oils. Furthermore, this study investigated the distribution of CLB in the phase-separated samples and showed that a heterogeneous distribution existed. From our results, it was confirmed that the mixed preparation became unstable because of the incompatibility of the moisturizing cream and ointment. PMID:25948331

  6. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  7. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH. PMID:27039390

  8. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  9. Analysis of buccolingual dimensional changes of the extraction socket using the "ice cream cone" flapless grafting technique.

    PubMed

    Tan-Chu, Jocelyn H P; Tuminelli, Frank J; Kurtz, Kenneth S; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    The socket or ridge preservation approach known as the "ice cream cone" technique was used in type 2 sockets in this retrospective analysis of 11 extraction sites. A type 2 extraction socket is defined as having the presence of facial soft tissue with a partial or complete dehiscence of the buccal bone plate. All teeth were extracted atraumatically without flap elevation. A resorbable collagen membrane was contoured into an ice cream cone- shape, placed into the socket defect, and grafted with human freeze-dried bone allograft. Buccolingual dimensional changes were measured manually with a digital caliper sensitive to 0.01 mm on pre- and posttreatment casts using an acrylic template and a three-dimensional (3D) digital scanner, as well as radiographically with pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. All implants were placed 6 months after socket preservation and achieved primary stability with a minimum torque value of 35 Ncm with a mean buccal-lingual dimensional loss of 1.32 mm. The dimensional change of the ridge from pre- to postextraction reflective of the healed grafted site ranged from a loss of 0.46 to 2.25 mm with a mean of 1.28 mm (CBCT), 0.31 to 2.71 mm with a mean of 1.36 mm (digital calipers), and 0.21 to 2.80 mm with a mean of 1.32 mm (3D digital scanner). All 11 implants were immobile and clinically osseointegrated. The so-called ice cream cone technique allows for the reconstruction of a buccal plate dehiscence to enable the placement of an implant; however, the ridge dimension was diminished by 1.32 mm compared with the width of the extraction socket prior to tooth removal.

  10. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  11. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  12. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  13. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  14. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  15. Mixed-Phase Icing Simulation and Testing at the Cox Icing Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel; Irani, Eddie; Miller, Dean

    2003-01-01

    A new capability was developed for indoor simulation of snow and mixed-phase icing conditions. This capability is useful for year-round testing in the Cox closed-loop Icing Wind Tunnel. Certification of aircraft for flight into these types of icing conditions is only required by the JAA in Europe. In an effort to harmonize certification requirements, the FAA in the US sponsored a preliminary program to study the effects of mixed-phase and fully glaciated icing conditions on the performance requirements of thermal ice protection systems. This paper describes the test program and the associated results.

  16. Mixed Phase Modeling in GlennICE with Application to Engine Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    A capability for modeling ice crystals and mixed phase icing has been added to GlennICE. Modifications have been made to the particle trajectory algorithm and energy balance to model this behavior. This capability has been added as part of a larger effort to model ice crystal ingestion in aircraft engines. Comparisons have been made to four mixed phase ice accretions performed in the Cox icing tunnel in order to calibrate an ice erosion model. A sample ice ingestion case was performed using the Energy Efficient Engine (E3) model in order to illustrate current capabilities. Engine performance characteristics were supplied using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) model for this test case.

  17. Structural and spectroscopic characterization of mixed planetary ices.

    PubMed

    Plattner, Nuria; Lee, Myung Won; Meuwly, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Mixed ices play a central role in characterizing the origin, evolution, stability and chemistry of planetary ice surfaces. Examples include the polar areas of Mars, the crust of the Jupiter moon Europa, or atmospheres of planets and their satellites, particularly in the outer solar system. Atomistic simulations using accurate representations of the interaction potentials have recently shown to be suitable to quantitatively describe both, the mid- and the far-infrared spectrum of mixed H2O/CO amorphous ices. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate structural and spectroscopic properties of mixed and crystalline ices containing H2O, CO and CO2. Particular findings include: (a) the sensitivity of the water bending mode to the local environment of the water molecules which, together with structural insights from MD simulations, provides a detailed picture for the relationship between spectroscopy and structure; and (b) the sensitivity of the low-frequency spectrum to the structure of the mixed CO2/H2O ice. Specifically, for mixed H2O/CO2 ices with low water contents isolated water molecules are found which give rise to a band shifted by only 12 cm(-1) from the gas-phase value whereas for increasing water concentration (for a 1 : 1 mixture) the band progressively shifts to higher frequency because water clusters can form. More generally it is found that changes in the ice structure due to the presence of CO2 are larger compared to changes induced by the presence of CO and that this difference is reflected in the shape of the water bending vibration. Thus, the water bending vibration appears to be a suitable diagnostic for structural and chemical aspects of mixed ices. PMID:21302549

  18. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    KE, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. Materials and Methods: A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. Results: On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (p<0.001) and also after 30 d of washout period (p<0.001). There was no significant reduction (p=0.076) by normal ice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Conclusion: Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored. PMID:25859515

  19. Detection and enumeration of Salmonella enteritidis in homemade ice cream associated with an outbreak: comparison of conventional and real-time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Seo, K H; Valentin-Bon, I E; Brackett, R E

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a significant cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Consumption of undercooked eggs and egg-containing products has been the primary risk factor for the disease. The importance of the bacterial enumeration technique has been enormously stressed because of the quantitative risk analysis of SE in shell eggs. Traditional enumeration methods mainly depend on slow and tedious most-probable-number (MPN) methods. Therefore, specific, sensitive, and rapid methods for SE quantitation are needed to collect sufficient data for risk assessment and food safety policy development. We previously developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection and enumeration of SE and, in this study, applied it to naturally contaminated ice cream samples with and without enrichment. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay was determined with artificially inoculated ice cream. When applied to the direct detection and quantification of SE in ice cream, the real-time PCR assay was as sensitive as the conventional plate count method in frequency of detection. However, populations of SE derived from real-time quantitative PCR were approximately 1 log higher than provided by MPN and CFU values obtained by conventional culture methods. The detection and enumeration of SE in naturally contaminated ice cream can be completed in 3 h by this real-time PCR method, whereas the cultural enrichment method requires 5 to 7 days. A commercial immunoassay for the specific detection of SE was also included in the study. The real-time PCR assay proved to be a valuable tool that may be useful to the food industry in monitoring its processes to improve product quality and safety.

  20. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    PubMed

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  1. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  2. Effectiveness of prerequisites and the HACCP plan in the control of microbial contamination in ice cream and cheese companies.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Eva; Amorós, José Antonio; Escriche, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    In food safety, implementation of prerequisites and application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) guarantee the control of processes, and microbiological criteria permit validation of their effectiveness. With these aims in mind, this article presents the results obtained by the official control carried out by the Valencian administration in ice cream and cheese companies, located in the Xativa/Ontinyente area (Valencian region, Spain) in the period between 2005 and 2010. The audits of Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) and HACCP show that "Structure & Design" followed by "Hygiene & Cleaning" and "Traceability" were the evaluated items with most nonconformities. Pathogenic microorganisms were not found in any of the final products analyzed. Microorganism indicators of unhygienic conditions were present in 100% of the analyses; however, 87.98% of them had low levels, which did not exceed the microbiological criteria. These results highlight the general good effectiveness of the safety management systems implemented and emphasize that companies and official control must continue working in order to guarantee the consumers' welfare.

  3. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE PAGES

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-04-21

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed phase stratocumulus in large-eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore » recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  4. The role of ice nuclei recycling in the maintenance of cloud ice in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus

    DOE PAGES

    Solomon, A.; Feingold, G.; Shupe, M. D.

    2015-09-25

    This study investigates the maintenance of cloud ice production in Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus in large eddy simulations that include a prognostic ice nuclei (IN) formulation and a diurnal cycle. Balances derived from a mixed-layer model and phase analyses are used to provide insight into buffering mechanisms that maintain ice in these cloud systems. We find that, for the case under investigation, IN recycling through subcloud sublimation considerably prolongs ice production over a multi-day integration. This effective source of IN to the cloud dominates over mixing sources from above or below the cloud-driven mixed layer. Competing feedbacks between dynamical mixing andmore » recycling are found to slow the rate of ice lost from the mixed layer when a diurnal cycle is simulated. The results of this study have important implications for maintaining phase partitioning of cloud ice and liquid that determine the radiative forcing of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.« less

  5. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products.

  6. A study on the kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ice cream stored under static and dynamic chilling and freezing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gougouli, M; Angelidis, A S; Koutsoumanis, K

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in 2 commercial ice cream products (A and B) that were inoculated and stored under static chilling (4 to 16 degrees C), static freezing (-5 to -33 degrees C), dynamic chilling, and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions was studied, simulating conditions of the aging process and of normal or abuse conditions during distribution and storage. The ice cream products A and B had different compositions but similar pH (6.50 and 6.67, respectively) and water activity (0.957 and 0.965, respectively) values. For both chilling and freezing conditions, the kinetic behavior of the pathogen was similar in the 2 products, indicating that the pH and water activity, together with temperature, were the main factors controlling growth. Under chilling conditions, L. monocytogenes grew well at all temperatures tested. Under freezing conditions, no significant changes in the population of the pathogen were observed throughout a 90-d storage period for either of the inoculum levels tested (10(3) and 10(6) cfu/g). Growth data from chilled storage conditions were fitted to a mathematical model, and the calculated maximum specific growth rate was modeled as a function of temperature by using a square root model. The model was further validated under dynamic chilling and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions by using 4 different storage temperature scenarios. Under dynamic chilling conditions, the model accurately predicted the growth of the pathogen in both products, with 99.5% of the predictions lying within the +/- 20% relative error zone. The results from the chilling-freezing storage experiments showed that the pathogen was able to initiate growth within a very short time after a temperature upshift from freezing to chilling temperatures. This indicates that the freezing conditions did not cause a severe stress in L. monocytogenes cells capable of leading to a significant "additional" lag phase during the subsequent growth of the pathogen at

  7. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  8. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used.

  9. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  10. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. PMID:26923040

  11. In vitro gastrointestinal resistance of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in soy and/or milk-based synbiotic apple ice creams.

    PubMed

    Matias, Natalia Silva; Padilha, Marina; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-10-01

    The viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in synbiotic ice creams, in which milk was replaced by soy extract and/or whey protein isolate (WPI) with inulin, were investigated. The ice creams were showed to be satisfactory vehicles for La-5 and Bb-12 (populations around 7.5logCFU/g), even after the whole storage period (84days/-18°C). In all formulations, the propidium monoazide qPCR (PMA-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that probiotics could resist the in vitro GI assay, with significant survival levels, achieving survival rates exceeding 50%. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy images evidenced cells with morphological differences, suggesting physiological changes in response to the induced stress during the in vitro assay. Although all formulations provided resistance to the probiotic strains under GI stress, the variation found in probiotic survival suggests that GI tolerance is indeed affected by the choice of the food matrix. PMID:27387254

  12. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S.; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  13. Rime-, mixed- and glaze-ice evaluations of three scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests at NASA Lewis to evaluate three icing scaling relationships or 'laws' for an unheated model. The laws were LWC x time = constant, one proposed by a Swedish-Russian group and one used at ONERA in France. Icing tests were performed in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with cylinders ranging from 2.5- to 15.2-cm diameter. Reference conditions were chosen to provide rime, mixed and glaze ice. Scaled conditions were tested for several scenarios of size and velocity scaling, and the resulting ice shapes compared. For rime-ice conditions, all three of the scaling laws provided scaled ice shapes which closely matched reference ice shapes. For mixed ice and for glaze ice none of the scaling laws produced consistently good simulation of the reference ice shapes. Explanations for the observed results are proposed, and scaling issues requiring further study are identified.

  14. Turbulent mixing under drifting pack ice in the weddell sea.

    PubMed

    McPhee, M G; Martinson, D G

    1994-01-14

    By providing cold, dense water that sinks and mixes to fill the abyssal world ocean, high-latitude air-sea-ice interaction is the main conduit through which the deep ocean communicates with the rest of the climate system. A key element in modeling and predicting oceanic impact on climate is understanding the processes that control the near surface exchange of heat, salt, and momentum. In 1992, the United States-Russian Ice Station Weddell-1 traversed the western Weddell Sea during the onset of winter, providing a platform for direct measurement of turbulent heat flux and Reynolds stress in the upper ocean. Data from a storm early in the drift indicated (i) well-formed Ekman spirals (in both velocity and turbulent stress); (ii) high correlation between mixed layer heat flux and temperature gradients; (iii) that eddy viscosity and eddy thermal diffusivity were similar, about 0.02 square meters per second; and (iv) that the significant turbulent length scale (2 to 3 meters through most of the boundary layer) was proportional to the wavelength at the peak in the weighted vertical velocity spectrum. The measurements were consistent with a simple model in which the bulk eddy viscosity in the neutrally buoyant mixed layer is proportional to kinematic boundary stress divided by the Coriolis parameter.

  15. Turbulent mixing under drifting pack ice in the weddell sea.

    PubMed

    McPhee, M G; Martinson, D G

    1994-01-14

    By providing cold, dense water that sinks and mixes to fill the abyssal world ocean, high-latitude air-sea-ice interaction is the main conduit through which the deep ocean communicates with the rest of the climate system. A key element in modeling and predicting oceanic impact on climate is understanding the processes that control the near surface exchange of heat, salt, and momentum. In 1992, the United States-Russian Ice Station Weddell-1 traversed the western Weddell Sea during the onset of winter, providing a platform for direct measurement of turbulent heat flux and Reynolds stress in the upper ocean. Data from a storm early in the drift indicated (i) well-formed Ekman spirals (in both velocity and turbulent stress); (ii) high correlation between mixed layer heat flux and temperature gradients; (iii) that eddy viscosity and eddy thermal diffusivity were similar, about 0.02 square meters per second; and (iv) that the significant turbulent length scale (2 to 3 meters through most of the boundary layer) was proportional to the wavelength at the peak in the weighted vertical velocity spectrum. The measurements were consistent with a simple model in which the bulk eddy viscosity in the neutrally buoyant mixed layer is proportional to kinematic boundary stress divided by the Coriolis parameter. PMID:17839182

  16. Investigating the Relative Contributions of Secondary Ice Formation Processes to Ice Crystal Number Concentrations Within Mixed-Phase Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, S.; Nenes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of the in-cloud ice nuclei concentration can be three or four orders of magnitude less than those of the in-cloud ice crystal number concentration. Different secondary formation processes, active after initial ice nucleation, have been proposed to explain this discrepancy, but their relative importance, and even the exact physics of each mechanism, are still unclear. We construct a simple bin microphysics model (2IM) including depositional growth, the Hallett-Mossop process, ice-ice collisions, and ice-ice aggregation, with temperature- and supersaturation-dependent efficiencies for each process. 2IM extends the time-lag collision model of Yano and Phillips to additional bins and incorporates the aspect ratio evolution of Jensen and Harrington. Model output and measured ice crystal size distributions are compared to answer three questions: (1) how important is ice-ice aggregation relative to ice-ice collision around -15°C, where the Hallett-Mossop process is no longer active; (2) what process efficiencies lead to the best reproduction of observed ice crystal size distributions; and (3) does ice crystal aspect ratio affect the dominant secondary formation process. The resulting parameterization is intended for eventual use in larger-scale mixed-phase cloud schemes.

  17. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  18. Differences in the rheological properties and mixing compatibility with heparinoid cream of brand name and generic steroidal ointments: The effects of their surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Yutani, Reiko; Kodani, Rhu-ichi; Teraoka, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Most steroidal ointments contain propylene glycol (PG) and surfactants, which improve the solubility of corticosteroids in white petrolatum. Surfactants aid the uniform dispersal of PG within white petrolatum. Since the surfactants used in generic ointments are usually different from those used in brand name ointments, we investigated the effects of surfactants on the rheological properties of three brand name ointments and six equivalent generic ointments. We detected marked differences in hardness, adhesiveness, and spreadability among the ointments. Further examinations of model ointments consisting of white petrolatum, PG, and surfactants revealed that the abovementioned properties, especially hardness and adhesiveness, were markedly affected by the surfactants. Since steroidal ointments are often admixed with moisturizing creams prior to use, we investigated the mixing compatibility of the ointments with heparinoid cream and how this was affected by their surfactants. We found that the ointments containing glyceryl monostearate demonstrated good mixing compatibility, whereas those containing non-ionic surfactants with polyoxyethylene chains exhibited phase separation. These results were also consistent with the findings for the model ointments, which indicates that the mixing compatibility of steroidal ointments with heparinoid cream is determined by the emulsifying capacity of the surfactants in their oily bases. PMID:26958460

  19. Heavy snow: IR spectroscopy of isotope mixed crystalline water ice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andy; Shi, Liang; Auchettl, Rebecca; McNaughton, Don; Appadoo, Dominique R T; Robertson, Evan G

    2016-02-14

    Mid-infrared spectra have been measured for crystalline water ice aerosols of widely varied H/D isotopic composition. Particles with diameters ranging from 10-200 nm were generated via rapid collisional cooling with a cold buffer gas over a range of temperatures from 7-200 K. In near isotopically pure ices, the νL band position is slightly red-shifted with increasing temperature whilst in the ν2 region apparently anomalous shifts in peak maxima are explained by the contribution of a broad 2νL band of H2O and a 3νL band of D2O together with ν2 intensity that is particularly weak in low temperature crystalline ice. The hydrogen bonded OH (or OD) oscillator bands of near pure H2O (or D2O) ices are blue-shifted with temperature, with a gradient very similar to that of the corresponding band in isotope diluted samples, HOD in D2O (or H2O). It implies that this observed temperature trend is predominantly due to the intrinsic change in local hydride stretch potential energy, rather than to changes in intermolecular coupling. However, it is also observed that the narrow hydride stretch bands of an isotope diluted sample rapidly develop sub-band structure as the oscillator concentration increases, evidence of strong intermolecular coupling and a high degree of delocalisation. Anomalous blue-shifts in the OD stretch profile as D2O concentration grows is attributable to Fermi resonance with 2ν2 of D2O, in much closer proximity than the corresponding H2O levels. Theoretical results from a mixed quantum/classical approach are used to validate these findings in the hydride stretching region. Theory qualitatively reproduces the experimental trends as a function of temperature and isotopic variance.

  20. Heavy snow: IR spectroscopy of isotope mixed crystalline water ice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andy; Shi, Liang; Auchettl, Rebecca; McNaughton, Don; Appadoo, Dominique R T; Robertson, Evan G

    2016-02-14

    Mid-infrared spectra have been measured for crystalline water ice aerosols of widely varied H/D isotopic composition. Particles with diameters ranging from 10-200 nm were generated via rapid collisional cooling with a cold buffer gas over a range of temperatures from 7-200 K. In near isotopically pure ices, the νL band position is slightly red-shifted with increasing temperature whilst in the ν2 region apparently anomalous shifts in peak maxima are explained by the contribution of a broad 2νL band of H2O and a 3νL band of D2O together with ν2 intensity that is particularly weak in low temperature crystalline ice. The hydrogen bonded OH (or OD) oscillator bands of near pure H2O (or D2O) ices are blue-shifted with temperature, with a gradient very similar to that of the corresponding band in isotope diluted samples, HOD in D2O (or H2O). It implies that this observed temperature trend is predominantly due to the intrinsic change in local hydride stretch potential energy, rather than to changes in intermolecular coupling. However, it is also observed that the narrow hydride stretch bands of an isotope diluted sample rapidly develop sub-band structure as the oscillator concentration increases, evidence of strong intermolecular coupling and a high degree of delocalisation. Anomalous blue-shifts in the OD stretch profile as D2O concentration grows is attributable to Fermi resonance with 2ν2 of D2O, in much closer proximity than the corresponding H2O levels. Theoretical results from a mixed quantum/classical approach are used to validate these findings in the hydride stretching region. Theory qualitatively reproduces the experimental trends as a function of temperature and isotopic variance. PMID:26812598

  1. Structure and rheology of semisolid o/w creams containing cetyl alcohol/non-ionic surfactant mixed emulsifier and different polymers.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H M; Morais, J A; Eccleston, G M

    2004-04-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions for cosmetic use, such as lotions and creams, are complex multiple-phase systems, which may contain a number of interacting surfactants, fatty amphiphiles, polymers and other excipients. This study investigates the influence of two synthetic cationic polymers, Polyquaternium-7 and Polyquaternium-11, and the natural anionic polymer, gum of acacia, on the rheology and microstructure of creams prepared with a non-ionic mixed emulsifier (cetyl stearyl alcohol-12EO/cetyl alcohol) using rheology (continuous shear, and viscoelastic creep and oscillation), microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A control cream containing no polymer was also investigated. The semisolid control cream was structured by a swollen lamellar gel network phase formed from the interaction of cetyl alcohol and the POE surfactant, in excess of that required to stabilize oil droplets, with continuous phase water. Endothermic transitions between 25 and 100 degrees C were identified as components of this phase. Incorporation of cationic polymer into the formulation caused significant loss of structure to produce a mobile semisolid containing larger oil droplets. The microscopical and thermal data implied that the cationic polymer caused the swollen lamellar gel network phase to transform into non-swollen crystals of cetyl alcohol. In contrast, incorporation of gum of acacia produced a thicker cream than the control, with smaller droplet sizes and little evidence of the gel network. Microscopical and thermal data implied that although there were also interactions between gum of acacia and both the surfactant and the swollen gel network phase, the semisolid properties were probably because of the ability of the gum of acacia to stabilize and thicken the emulsion in the absence of the swollen lamellar network.

  2. Structure and rheology of semisolid o/w creams containing cetyl alcohol/non-ionic surfactant mixed emulsifier and different polymers.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, H M; Morais, J A; Eccleston, G M

    2004-04-01

    Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions for cosmetic use, such as lotions and creams, are complex multiple-phase systems, which may contain a number of interacting surfactants, fatty amphiphiles, polymers and other excipients. This study investigates the influence of two synthetic cationic polymers, Polyquaternium-7 and Polyquaternium-11, and the natural anionic polymer, gum of acacia, on the rheology and microstructure of creams prepared with a non-ionic mixed emulsifier (cetyl stearyl alcohol-12EO/cetyl alcohol) using rheology (continuous shear, and viscoelastic creep and oscillation), microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A control cream containing no polymer was also investigated. The semisolid control cream was structured by a swollen lamellar gel network phase formed from the interaction of cetyl alcohol and the POE surfactant, in excess of that required to stabilize oil droplets, with continuous phase water. Endothermic transitions between 25 and 100 degrees C were identified as components of this phase. Incorporation of cationic polymer into the formulation caused significant loss of structure to produce a mobile semisolid containing larger oil droplets. The microscopical and thermal data implied that the cationic polymer caused the swollen lamellar gel network phase to transform into non-swollen crystals of cetyl alcohol. In contrast, incorporation of gum of acacia produced a thicker cream than the control, with smaller droplet sizes and little evidence of the gel network. Microscopical and thermal data implied that although there were also interactions between gum of acacia and both the surfactant and the swollen gel network phase, the semisolid properties were probably because of the ability of the gum of acacia to stabilize and thicken the emulsion in the absence of the swollen lamellar network. PMID:18494913

  3. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent’s family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Results Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p < 0.001). The frequency of milk (p < 0.01) and ice-cream (p < 0.01) consumptions was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Females in the case group had a higher daily energy intake compared to their counterparts in the control group, 1812 ± 331 and 1590 ± 148 kcal respectively (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in other nutrient intakes, Body Mass Index, and body fat percentage between case and control groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris. PMID:22898209

  4. Microphysical Consequences of the Spatial Distribution of Ice Nucleation in Mixed-Phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2014-07-28

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds can persist even with steady ice precipitation fluxes, and the origin and microphysical properties of the ice crystals are of interest. Vapor deposition growth and sedimentation of ice particles along with a uniform volume source of ice nucleation, leads to a power law relation between ice water content wi and ice number concentration ni with exponent 2.5. The result is independent of assumptions about the vertical velocity structure of the cloud and is therefore more general than the related expression of Yang et al. [2013]. The sensitivity of the wi-ni relationship to the spatial distribution of ice nucleation is confirmed by Lagrangian tracking and ice growth with cloud-volume, cloud-top, and cloud-base sources of ice particles through a time-dependent cloud field. Based on observed wi and ni from ISDAC, a lower bound of 0.006 m^3/s is obtained for the ice crystal formation rate.

  5. Ice Accretion Measurements on an Airfoil and Wedge in Mixed-Phase Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter; Bartkus, Tadas; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Currie, Tom; Fuleki, Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes ice accretion measurements from experiments conducted at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada's Research Altitude Test Facility during 2012. Due to numerous engine power loss events associated with high altitude convective weather, potential ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated collaboratively by NASA and NRC. These investigations examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice crystal and mixed phase conditions, similar to those believed to exist in core compressor regions of jet engines. A further objective of these tests is to examine scaling effects since altitude appears to play a key role in this icing process.

  6. Water Droplet Impingement on Simulated Glaze, Mixed, and Rime Ice Accretions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadakis, Michael; Rachman, Arief; Wong, See-Cheuk; Yeong, Hsiung-Wei; Hung, Kuohsing E.; Vu, Giao T.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    2007-01-01

    Water droplet impingement data were obtained at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) for a 36-in. chord NACA 23012 airfoil with and without simulated ice using a dye-tracer method. The simulated ice shapes were defined with the NASA Glenn LEWICE 2.2 ice accretion program and including one rime, four mixed and five glaze ice shapes. The impingement experiments were performed with spray clouds having median volumetric diameters of 20, 52, 111, 154, and 236 micron. Comparisons to the experimental data were generated which showed good agreement for the rime and mixed shapes at lower drop sizes. For larger drops sizes LEWICE 2.2 over predicted the collection efficiencies due to droplet splashing effects which were not modeled in the program. Also for the more complex glaze ice shapes interpolation errors resulted in the over prediction of collection efficiencies in cove or shadow regions of ice shapes.

  7. Wind-driven mixing at intermediate depths in an ice-free Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Ben J.; Rippeth, Tom P.; Lenn, Yueng-Djern; Timmermans, Mary Louise; Williams, William J.; Bacon, Sheldon

    2016-09-01

    Recent seasonal Arctic Ocean sea ice retreat is a major indicator of polar climate change. The Arctic Ocean is generally quiescent with the interior basins characterized by low levels of turbulent mixing at intermediate depths. In contrast, under conditions of reduced sea ice cover, there is evidence of energetic internal waves that have been attributed to increased momentum transfer from the atmosphere to the ocean. New measurements made in the Canada Basin during the unusually ice-free and stormy summer of 2012 show previously observed enhancement of internal wave energy associated with ice-free conditions. However, there is no enhancement of mixing at intermediate depths away from significant topography. This implies that contrary to expectations of increased wind-induced mixing under declining Arctic sea ice cover, the stratification in the central Canada Basin continues to suppress turbulent mixing at intermediate depths and to effectively isolate the large Atlantic and Pacific heat reservoirs from the sea surface.

  8. Modeling the relative contributions of secondary ice formation processes to ice crystal number concentrations within mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Sylvia; Hoose, Corinna; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of in-cloud ice crystal number concentrations can be three or four orders of magnitude greater than the in-cloud ice nuclei number concentrations. This discrepancy can be explained by various secondary ice formation processes, which occur after initial ice nucleation, but the relative importance of these processes, and even the exact physics of each, is still unclear. A simple bin microphysics model (2IM) is constructed to investigate these knowledge gaps. 2IM extends the time-lag collision parameterization of Yano and Phillips, 2011 to include rime splintering, ice-ice aggregation, and droplet shattering and to incorporate the aspect ratio evolution as in Jensen and Harrington, 2015. The relative contribution of the secondary processes under various conditions are shown. In particular, temperature-dependent efficiencies are adjusted for ice-ice aggregation versus collision around -15°C, when rime splintering is no longer active, and the effect of aspect ratio on the process weighting is explored. The resulting simulations are intended to guide secondary ice formation parameterizations in larger-scale mixed-phase cloud schemes.

  9. Sea ice and the ocean mixed layer over the Antarctic shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petty, A.; Holland, P.; Feltham, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    An ocean mixed layer model has been incorporated into the Los Alamos sea ice model CICE, to investigate regional variations in the surface-driven formation of Antarctic shelf sea waters. The model captures well the expected sea ice thickness distribution and produces deep (>500 m) mixed layers in the Weddell and Ross shelf seas each winter. By deconstructing the surface power input to the mixed layer, we have shown that the salt/fresh water flux from sea ice growth/melt dominates the evolution of the mixed layer in all shelf sea regions, with a smaller contribution from the mixed layer-surface heat flux. The Weddell and Ross shelf seas have the highest annual ice growth, with a large fraction exported northwards each year, whereas the Bellingshausen shelf sea experiences the highest annual ice melt, driven by the advection of ice from the northeast. Forcing the model with ERA-Interim (1980-2011) and hadGEM2-ES (1980-2099) atmospheric data allows us to look at the impact of atmospheric trends on the sea ice and ocean mixed layer. Both simulations show a shallowing of the wintertime mixed layer in the Amundsen & Bellingshausen seas, potentially increasing the access of warm CDW to ice shelves in both regions. The ERA-I hindcast simulation shows a significant freshening in the Ross and salinification in the Weddell due to surface driven trends (primarily through changes in the sea ice). The Ross freshening is smaller than observed however, highlighting the important role of ice shelf melt in the Amundsen Sea.

  10. Sports cream overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  11. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  12. THz time-domain spectroscopy of mixed CO2-CH3OH interstellar ice analogs.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Brett A; Ioppolo, Sergio; Allodi, Marco A; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2016-07-27

    The icy mantles of interstellar dust grains are the birthplaces of the primordial prebiotic molecular inventory that may eventually seed nascent solar systems and the planets and planetesimals that form therein. Here, we present a study of two of the most abundant species in these ices after water: carbon dioxide (CO2) and methanol (CH3OH), using TeraHertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy and mid-infrared spectroscopy. We study pure and mixed-ices of these species, and demonstrate the power of the THz region of the spectrum to elucidate the long-range structure (i.e. crystalline versus amorphous) of the ice, the degree of segregation of these species within the ice, and the thermal history of the species within the ice. Finally, we comment on the utility of the THz transitions arising from these ices for use in astronomical observations of interstellar ices.

  13. Internally mixed sulfate and organic particles as potential ice nuclei in the tropical tropopause region.

    PubMed

    Wise, Matthew E; Baustian, Kelly J; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2010-04-13

    Cirrus clouds are ubiquitous in the tropical tropopause region and play a major role in the Earth's climate. Any changes to cirrus abundance due to natural or anthropogenic influences must be considered to evaluate future climate change. The detailed impact of cirrus clouds on climate depends on ice particle number, size, morphology, and composition. These properties depend in turn on the nucleation mechanism of the ice particles. Although it is often assumed that ice nucleates via a homogeneous mechanism, recent work points to the possibility that heterogeneous ice nucleation is important in the tropical tropopause region. However, there are very few studies of depositional ice nucleation on the complex types of particles likely to be found in this region of the atmosphere. Here, we use a unique method to probe depositional ice nucleation on internally mixed ammonium sulfate/palmitic acid particles, namely optical microscopy coupled with Raman microscopy. The deliquescence and efflorescence phase transitions of the mixed particles were first studied to gain insight into whether the particles are likely to be liquid or solid in the tropical tropopause region. The ice nucleating ability of the particles was then measured under typical upper tropospheric conditions. It was found that coating the particles with insoluble palmitic acid had little effect on the deliquescence, efflorescence, or ice nucleating ability of ammonium sulfate. Additional experiments involving Raman mapping provide new insights into how the composition and morphology of mixed particles impact their ability to nucleate ice.

  14. Ice nucleation by combustion ash particles at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umo, N. S.; Murray, B. J.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Jones, J. M.; Lea-Langton, A. R.; Malkin, T. L.; O'Sullivan, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Williams, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ice nucleating particles can modify cloud properties with implications for climate and the hydrological cycle; hence, it is important to understand which aerosol particle types nucleate ice and how efficiently they do so. It has been shown that aerosol particles such as natural dusts, volcanic ash, bacteria and pollen can act as ice nucleating particles, but the ice nucleating ability of combustion ashes has not been studied. Combustion ashes are major by-products released during the combustion of solid fuels and a significant amount of these ashes are emitted into the atmosphere either during combustion or via aerosolization of bottom ashes. Here, we show that combustion ashes (coal fly ash, wood bottom ash, domestic bottom ash, and coal bottom ash) nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. In order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds, we propose that the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes should be quantified since up to now they have mostly been classified together with mineral dust particles. Also, in reporting ice residue compositions, a distinction should be made between natural mineral dusts and combustion ashes in order to quantify the contribution of combustion ashes to atmospheric ice nucleation.

  15. Ice nucleation by combustion ash particles at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umo, N. S.; Murray, B. J.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Jones, J. M.; Lea-Langton, A. R.; Malkin, T. L.; O'Sullivan, D.; Neve, L.; Plane, J. M. C.; Williams, A.

    2015-05-01

    Ice-nucleating particles can modify cloud properties with implications for climate and the hydrological cycle; hence, it is important to understand which aerosol particle types nucleate ice and how efficiently they do so. It has been shown that aerosol particles such as natural dusts, volcanic ash, bacteria and pollen can act as ice-nucleating particles, but the ice-nucleating ability of combustion ashes has not been studied. Combustion ashes are major by-products released during the combustion of solid fuels and a significant amount of these ashes are emitted into the atmosphere either during combustion or via aerosolization of bottom ashes. Here, we show that combustion ashes (coal fly ash, wood bottom ash, domestic bottom ash, and coal bottom ash) nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. In order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds, we propose that the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes should be quantified since up to now they have mostly been classified together with mineral dust particles. Also, in reporting ice residue compositions, a distinction should be made between natural mineral dusts and combustion ashes in order to quantify the contribution of combustion ashes to atmospheric ice nucleation.

  16. The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, James D; Murray, Benjamin J; Woodhouse, Matthew T; Whale, Thomas F; Baustian, Kelly J; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Dobbie, Steven; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Malkin, Tamsin L

    2013-06-20

    The amount of ice present in mixed-phase clouds, which contain both supercooled liquid water droplets and ice particles, affects cloud extent, lifetime, particle size and radiative properties. The freezing of cloud droplets can be catalysed by the presence of aerosol particles known as ice nuclei. One of the most important ice nuclei is thought to be mineral dust aerosol from arid regions. It is generally assumed that clay minerals, which contribute approximately two-thirds of the dust mass, dominate ice nucleation by mineral dust, and many experimental studies have therefore focused on these materials. Here we use an established droplet-freezing technique to show that feldspar minerals dominate ice nucleation by mineral dusts under mixed-phase cloud conditions, despite feldspar being a minor component of dust emitted from arid regions. We also find that clay minerals are relatively unimportant ice nuclei. Our results from a global aerosol model study suggest that feldspar ice nuclei are globally distributed and that feldspar particles may account for a large proportion of the ice nuclei in Earth's atmosphere that contribute to freezing at temperatures below about -15 °C.

  17. Thickness Measurement Device for Ice, or Ice Mixed with Water or Other Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A Device and Method are provide for determining the thickness of a layer of solid ice, a mixture of ice and water, or a mixture of ice arid other liquid, accumulated on the outer surface of an object. First and second total impedance sensors are operated at first and second frequencies. Corresponding first and second AC total impedance measuring circuits are coupled to The first and second sensors to produce output voltages based on the total impedance changes sensed by the sensors. A processor is coupled to the first and second measuring circuits to generate an output value using the measured output voltages. The output value s indicative of the thickness of the ice or ice and water mixture, or ice and other liquid.

  18. The Ice Selective Inlet: a novel technique for exclusive extraction of pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Schnaiter, M.; Bigi, A.; Gysel, M.; Rosati, B.; Toprak, E.; Mertes, S.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-08-01

    Climate predictions are affected by high uncertainties partially due to an insufficient knowledge of aerosol-cloud interactions. One of the poorly understood processes is formation of mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) via heterogeneous ice nucleation. Field measurements of the atmospheric ice phase in MPCs are challenging due to the presence of much more numerous liquid droplets. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI), presented in this paper, is a novel inlet designed to selectively sample pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds and extract the ice residual particles contained within the crystals for physical and chemical characterization. Using a modular setup composed of a cyclone impactor, droplet evaporation unit and pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), the ISI segregates particles based on their inertia and phase, exclusively extracting small ice particles between 5 and 20 μm in diameter. The setup also includes optical particle spectrometers for analysis of the number size distribution and shape of the sampled hydrometeors. The novelty of the ISI is a droplet evaporation unit, which separates liquid droplets and ice crystals in the airborne state, thus avoiding physical impaction of the hydrometeors and limiting potential artefacts. The design and validation of the droplet evaporation unit is based on modelling studies of droplet evaporation rates and computational fluid dynamics simulations of gas and particle flows through the unit. Prior to deployment in the field, an inter-comparison of the optical particle size spectrometers and a characterization of the transmission efficiency of the PCVI was conducted in the laboratory. The ISI was subsequently deployed during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE) 2013 and 2014 - two extensive international field campaigns encompassing comprehensive measurements of cloud microphysics, as well as bulk aerosol, ice residual and ice nuclei properties. The campaigns provided an important opportunity for a

  19. Mixed-phased particles in polar stratospheric ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.; Loerting, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), ozone depletion, differential scanning calorimeter. The rate of chlorine activation reactions, which lead to ozone depletion in the winter/spring polar stratosphere (Molina, 1994), depends on the phase state of the surface of polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) ice crystals (McNeil et al., 2006). PSCs are thought to consist of solid ice and NAT (nitric acid trihydrate, HNO3× 3H2O) particles and supercooled HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. The corresponding PSCs are called Type II, Ia, and Ib PSCs, respectively (Zondlo et al., 1998). Type II PSCs are formed in the Antarctic region below the ice frost point of 189 K by homogeneous freezing of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets (Chang et al., 1999) with the excess of HNO3. The PSC ice crystals are thought to be solid. However, the fate of H+, NO3-, SO42- ions during freezing was not investigated. Our differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of freezing emulsified HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets of sizes and compositions representative of the polar stratosphere demonstrate that during the freezing of the droplets, H+, NO3-, SO42- are expelled from the ice lattice. The expelled ions form a residual solution around the formed ice crystals. The residual solution does not freeze but transforms to glassy state at ~150 K (Bogdan et al., 2010). By contrast to glass-formation in these nitric-acid rich ternary mixtures the residual solution freezes in the case of sulphuric-acid rich ternary mixtures (Bogdan and Molina, 2009). For example, we can consider the phase separation into ice and a residual solution during the freezing of 23/3 wt% HNO3/H2SO4/H2O droplets. On cooling, ice is formed at ~189 K. This is inferred from the fact that the corresponding melting peak at ~248 K exactly matches the melting point of ice in the phase diagram of HNO3/H2SO4/H2O containing 3 wt % H2SO4. After the ice has formed, the glass transition occurs at Tg ≈ 150 K. The appearance of the glass transition indicates that the

  20. Ice Growth Measurements from Image Data to Support Ice Crystal and Mixed-Phase Accretion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Lynch, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the imaging techniques as well as the analysis methods used to measure the ice thickness and growth rate in support of ice-crystal icing tests performed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). A detailed description of the camera setup, which involves both still and video cameras, as well as the analysis methods using the NASA Spotlight software, are presented. Two cases, one from two different test entries, showing significant ice growth are analyzed in detail describing the ice thickness and growth rate which is generally linear. Estimates of the bias uncertainty are presented for all measurements. Finally some of the challenges related to the imaging and analysis methods are discussed as well as methods used to overcome them.

  1. Effects of ice number concentration on dynamics of a shallow mixed-phase stratiform cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Korolev, Alexei; Fan, Jiwen

    2011-09-17

    Previous modeling studies have shown a high sensitivity of simulated properties of mixed-phase clouds to ice number concentration, Ni, with many models losing their ability to maintain the liquid phase as Ni increases. Although models differ widely at what Ni the mixed-phase cloud becomes unstable, the transition from a mixed-phase to an ice only cloud in many cases occurs over a narrow range of ice concentration. To gain better understanding of this non-linear model behavior, in this study, we analyze simulations of a mixed-phase stratiform Artic cloud observed on 26 April 2008 during recent Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). The BASE simulation, in which Ni is constrained to match the measured value, produces a long-lived cloud in a quasi steady state similar to that observed. The simulation without the ice (NO_ICE) produces a comparable but slightly thicker cloud because more moisture is kept in the mixed layer due to lack of precipitation. When Ni is quadrupled relative to BASE (HI_ICE), the cloud starts loosing liquid water almost immediately and the liquid water path is reduced by half in less than two hours. The changes in liquid water are accompanied by corresponding reduction in the radiative cooling of the layer and a slow down in the vertical mixing, confirming the important role of interactions among microphysics, radiation and dynamics in this type of clouds. Deviations of BASE and HI_ICE from NO_ICE are used to explore the linearity of the model response to variation in Ni. It is shown that at early stages, changes in liquid and ice water as well as in radiative cooling/heating rates are proportional to the Ni change, while changes in the vertical buoyancy flux are qualitatively different in HI_ICE compared to BASE. Thus, while the positive feedback between the liquid water path and radiative cooling of the cloud layer is essential for glaciation of the cloud at higher Ni, the non-linear (with respect to Ni) reduction in positive

  2. Modeling immersion freezing with aerosol-dependent prognostic ice nuclei in Arctic mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paukert, M.; Hoose, C.

    2014-07-01

    While recent laboratory experiments have thoroughly quantified the ice nucleation efficiency of different aerosol species, the resulting ice nucleation parameterizations have not yet been extensively evaluated in models on different scales. Here the implementation of an immersion freezing parameterization based on laboratory measurements of the ice nucleation active surface site density of mineral dust and ice nucleation active bacteria, accounting for nucleation scavenging of ice nuclei, into a cloud-resolving model with two-moment cloud microphysics is presented. We simulated an Arctic mixed-phase stratocumulus cloud observed during Flight 31 of the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign near Barrow, Alaska. Through different feedback cycles, the persistence of the cloud strongly depends on the ice number concentration. It is attempted to bring the observed cloud properties, assumptions on aerosol concentration, and composition and ice formation parameterized as a function of these aerosol properties into agreement. Depending on the aerosol concentration and on the ice crystal properties, the simulated clouds are classified as growing, dissipating, and quasi-stable. In comparison to the default ice nucleation scheme, the new scheme requires higher aerosol concentrations to maintain a quasi-stable cloud. The simulations suggest that in the temperature range of this specific case, mineral dust can only contribute to a minor part of the ice formation. The importance of ice nucleation active bacteria and possibly other ice formation modes than immersion freezing remains poorly constrained in the considered case, since knowledge on local variations in the emissions of ice nucleation active organic aerosols in the Arctic is scarce.

  3. Effects of sudden mixing in the solar core on solar neutrinos and ice ages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, D.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some numerical experiments with a solar model have been conducted in connection with the hypothesis regarding the effects of mixing in the solar core. Questions concerning a plausible mechanism by which such a mixing could be produced are explored. The variation of solar luminosity throughout the numerical experiments is shown. In connection with a great change in luminosity after a second mixing, it is suggested that the earth is presently undergoing an ice age.

  4. The Ice Selective Inlet: a novel technique for exclusive extraction of pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Bigi, A.; Rosati, B.; Gysel, M.; Schnaiter, M.; Baltensperger, U.

    2014-12-01

    Climate predictions are affected by high uncertainties partially due to an insufficient knowledge of aerosol-cloud interactions. One of the poorly understood processes is formation of mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) via heterogeneous ice nucleation. Field measurements of the atmospheric ice phase in MPCs are challenging due to the presence of supercooled liquid droplets. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI), presented in this paper, is a novel inlet designed to selectively sample pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds and extract the ice residual particles contained within the crystals for physical and chemical characterisation. Using a modular setup composed of a cyclone impactor, droplet evaporation unit and pumped counterflow virtual impactor (PCVI), the ISI segregates particles based on their inertia and phase, exclusively extracting small ice particles between 5 and 20 μm in diameter. The setup also includes optical particle spectrometers for analysis of the number size distribution and shape of the sampled hydrometeors. The novelty of the ISI is a droplet evaporation unit, which separates liquid droplets and ice crystals in the airborne state, thus avoiding physical impaction of the hydrometeors and limiting potential artifacts. The design and validation of the droplet evaporation unit is based on modelling studies of droplet evaporation rates and computational fluid dynamics simulations of gas and particle flows through the unit. Prior to deployment in the field, an inter-comparison of the WELAS optical particle size spectrometers and a characterisation of the transmission efficiency of the PCVI was conducted in the laboratory. The ISI was subsequently deployed during the Cloud and Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (CLACE) 2013 - an extensive international field campaign encompassing comprehensive measurements of cloud microphysics, as well as bulk aerosol, ice residual and ice nuclei properties. The campaign provided an important opportunity for a proof of

  5. Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2011-01-31

    Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

  6. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: Sensitivity to ice initiationmechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2009-04-10

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during October 9th-10th, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-hour simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase

  7. Simulating mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds: sensitivity to ice initiation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Sednev, Igor; Sednev, I.; Menon, S.; McFarquhar, G.

    2008-02-18

    The importance of Arctic mixed-phase clouds on radiation and the Arctic climate is well known. However, the development of mixed-phase cloud parameterization for use in large scale models is limited by lack of both related observations and numerical studies using multidimensional models with advanced microphysics that provide the basis for understanding the relative importance of different microphysical processes that take place in mixed-phase clouds. To improve the representation of mixed-phase cloud processes in the GISS GCM we use the GISS single-column model coupled to a bin resolved microphysics (BRM) scheme that was specially designed to simulate mixed-phase clouds and aerosol-cloud interactions. Using this model with the microphysical measurements obtained from the DOE ARM Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) campaign in October 2004 at the North Slope of Alaska, we investigate the effect of ice initiation processes and Bergeron-Findeisen process (BFP) on glaciation time and longevity of single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds. We focus on observations taken during 9th-10th October, which indicated the presence of a single-layer mixed-phase clouds. We performed several sets of 12-h simulations to examine model sensitivity to different ice initiation mechanisms and evaluate model output (hydrometeors concentrations, contents, effective radii, precipitation fluxes, and radar reflectivity) against measurements from the MPACE Intensive Observing Period. Overall, the model qualitatively simulates ice crystal concentration and hydrometeors content, but it fails to predict quantitatively the effective radii of ice particles and their vertical profiles. In particular, the ice effective radii are overestimated by at least 50%. However, using the same definition as used for observations, the effective radii simulated and that observed were more comparable. We find that for the single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds simulated, process of ice phase

  8. The competition between mineral dust and soot ice nuclei in mixed-phase clouds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, B. J.; Atkinson, J.; Umo, N.; Browse, J.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Whale, T.; Baustian, K. J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Dobbie, S.; O'Sullivan, D.; Malkin, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    The amount of ice present in mixed-phase clouds, which contain both supercooled liquid water droplets and ice particles, affects cloud extent, lifetime, particle size and radiative properties. The freezing of cloud droplets can be catalysed by the presence of aerosol particles known as ice nuclei. In this talk our recent laboratory and global aerosol modelling work on mineral dust and soot ice nuclei will be presented. We have performed immersion mode experiments to quantify ice nucleation by the individual minerals which make up desert mineral dusts and have shown that the feldspar component, rather than the clay component, is most important for ice nucleation (Atkinson et al. 2013). Experiments with well-characterised soot generated with eugenol, an intermediate in biomass burning, and n-decane show soot has a significant ice nucleation activity in mixed-phase cloud conditions. Our results for soot are in good agreement with previous results for acetylene soot (DeMott, 1990), but extend the efficiency to much higher temperatures. We then use a global aerosol model (GLOMAP) to map the distribution of soot and feldspar particles on a global basis. We show that below about -15oC that dust and soot together can explain most observed ice nuclei in the Earth's atmosphere, while at warmer temperatures other ice nuclei types are needed. We show that in some regions soot is the most important ice nuclei (below -15oC), while in others feldspar dust dominates. Our results suggest that there is a strong anthropogenic contribution to the ice nuclei population, since a large proportion of soot aerosol in the atmosphere results from human activities. Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Carslaw, K. S., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds, Nature, 10.1038/nature12278, (2013). Demott, P. J. 1990. An Exploratory-Study of Ice Nucleation by Soot

  9. Ice Formation and Growth in Orographically-Enhanced Mixed-Phase Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Robert; Lowenthal, Douglas; Gannet Hallar, A.; McCubbin, Ian; Avallone, Linnea; Mace, Gerald; Wang, Zhien

    2015-04-01

    The formation and evolution of ice in mixed-phase clouds continues to be an active area of research due to the complex interactions between vapor, liquid and ice. Orographically-enhanced clouds are commonly mixed-phase during winter. An airborne study, the Colorado Airborne Mixed-Phase Cloud Study (CAMPS), and a ground-based field campaign, the Storm Peak Lab (SPL) Cloud Property Validation Experiment (StormVEx) were conducted in the Park Range of the Colorado Rockies. The CAMPS study utilized the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) to provide airborne cloud microphysical and meteorological data on 29 flights totaling 98 flight hours over the Park Range from December 15, 2010 to February 28, 2011. The UWKA was equipped with instruments that measured both cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions, liquid water content, total water content (vapor, liquid, and ice), and 3-dimensional wind speed and direction. The Wyoming Cloud Radar and Lidar were also deployed during the campaign. These measurements are used to characterize cloud structure upwind and above the Park Range. StormVEx measured temperature, and cloud droplet and ice crystal size distributions at SPL. The observations from SPL are used to determine mountain top cloud microphysical properties at elevations lower than the UWKA was able to sample in-situ. Comparisons showed that cloud microphysics aloft and at the surface were consistent with respect to snow growth processes. Small ice crystal concentrations were routinely higher at the surface and a relationship between small ice crystal concentrations, large cloud droplet concentrations and temperature was observed, suggesting liquid-dependent ice nucleation near cloud base. Terrain flow effects on cloud microphysics and structure are considered.

  10. The light emission produced by using different ion species bombarding various mixed ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Ip, W.; Hsu, S.; Liu, S.

    2006-05-01

    In the solar system, water (the most abundant of materials) and many other gases are contained in the interstellar medium and planets. They experienced constant irradiation by solar wind and radiation. In order to simulate the above condition in the earth laboratory, several ion species are applied to bombard several gases (CH4 and NH3) mixed with iced water and the optical spectroscopy of sputtered particles from the surface of mixed ices has been measured. According to the P. Sigmund¡¦s model [1], if the projectiles with the same beam energy, then heavier ion will generate more sputtered particles. It turned out that in this measurement the heavier incident ion produced stronger light intensity, which should be proportional to sputtered particles. The optical emissions produce by ion species can be classified two categories: (a) Light emissions of hydrogen molecular spectroscopy are generated by hydrogen molecular ion species bombarding mixed ices with water. (b) Light emissions of atomic transitions are produced by projectiles of He+¡BN+¡BH2O+¡BN2+, and Ar+. We also measured the variation of light emissions dependent on different incident angles. It indicates that the iced water has some characteristics of crystal. The experiment of ion interaction with mixed ices can be used to simulate conditions occurred in the astrophysics [2, 3]. References: 1. P. Sigmund, Phys. Rev. 184 (1969) 383. 2. M.H. Moore , R.L. Hudson , P.A. Gerakines , ¡§Mid- and far-infrared spectroscopic studies of the influence of temperature, ultraviolet photolysis and ion irradiation on cosmic-type ices¡¨ , Spectrochimica Acta Part A , 57 , 843-858 (2001). 3. R.A. Baragiola , R.A. Vidal , W. Svendsen , J. Schou , M. Shi , D.A. Bahr , C.L. Atteberrry , ¡§Sputtering of water ice¡¨ , NIMB , 209 , 294-303 (2003)

  11. Influences of Ice Crystal Number Concentrations and Habits on Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komurcu, Muge

    2016-09-01

    Mixed-phase clouds are frequently present in the Arctic atmosphere, and strongly affect the surface energy budget. In this study, the influences of ice crystal number concentrations and crystal growth habits on the Arctic mixed-phase cloud microphysics and dynamics are investigated for internally and externally driven cloud systems using an eddy-resolving model. Separate simulations are performed with increasing ice concentrations and different ice crystal habits. It is found that the habit influence on cloud microphysics and dynamics is as pronounced as increasing the ice crystal concentrations for internally driven clouds and more dominant for externally driven clouds. Habit influence can lead to a 10 % reduction in surface incident longwave radiation flux. Sensitivity tests are performed to identify the interactions between processes affecting cloud dynamics that allow for persistent clouds (i.e., the radiative cooling at cloud top, ice precipitation stabilization at cloud-base). When cloud-base stabilization influences of ice precipitation are weak, cloud dynamics is more sensitive to radiative cooling. Additional sensitivity simulations are done with increasing surface latent and sensible heat fluxes to identify the influences of external forcing on cloud dynamics. It is found that the magnitude of cloud circulations for an externally driven cloud system with strong precipitation and weak surface fluxes is similar to a weakly precipitating, optically thick, internally driven cloud. For cloud systems with intense ice precipitation obtained through either increasing ice crystal concentrations or assuming ice crystal shapes that grow rapidly and fall fast, the cloud layer may collapse despite the moistening effect of surface fluxes.

  12. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  13. Ice Concentration Retrieval in Stratiform Mixed-phase Clouds Using Cloud Radar Reflectivity Measurements and 1D Ice Growth Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Damao; Wang, Zhien; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Fan, Jiwen; Luo, Tao

    2014-10-01

    Measurement of ice number concentration in clouds is important but still challenging. Stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) provide a simple scenario for retrieving ice number concentration from remote sensing measurements. The simple ice generation and growth pattern in SMCs offers opportunities to use cloud radar reflectivity (Ze) measurements and other cloud properties to infer ice number concentration quantitatively. To understand the strong temperature dependency of ice habit and growth rate quantitatively, we develop a 1-D ice growth model to calculate the ice diffusional growth along its falling trajectory in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fall velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1-D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high vertical resolution radar measurements. Combining Ze measurements and 1-D ice growth model simulations, we develop a method to retrieve the ice number concentrations in SMCs at given cloud top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP). The retrieved ice concentrations in SMCs are evaluated with in situ measurements and with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulation with a bin microphysical scheme. These comparisons show that the retrieved ice number concentrations are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2, statistically.

  14. Shear, Stability and Mixing within the Ice-Shelf-Ocean Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    Ocean-forced basal melting has been implicated in the widespread thinning of Antarctic ice shelves that has been causally linked with acceleration in the outflow of grounded ice. What determines the distribution and rates of basal melting and freezing beneath an ice shelf and how these respond to changes in the ocean temperature or circulation are therefore key questions. Recent years have seen major progress in our ability to observe basal melting and the ocean conditions that drive it, but data on the latter remain sparse, limiting our understanding of the key processes of ice-ocean heat transfer. In particular, we have no observations of current profiles through the buoyancy- and frictionally-controlled flows along the ice shelf base that drive mixing through the ice-ocean boundary layer. This presentation represents an attempt to address this gap in our knowledge through application of a very simple model of such boundary flows that considers only the spatial dimension perpendicular to the boundary. Initial results obtained with an unrealistic assumuption of constant eddy viscosity/diffusivity are nevertheless informative. For the buoyancy-driven flow two possible regimes exist: a weakly-stratified, geostrophic cross-slope current with an embedded Ekman layer, somewhat analogous to a conventional density current on a slope; or a strongly-stratified upslope jet with weak cross-slope flow, more analogous to an inverted katabatic wind. The latter is most appropriate when the ice-ocean interface is very steep, while for the gentle slopes typical of ice shelves the buoyant Ekman regime prevails. Introduction of a variable eddy viscosity/diffusivity derived from a local turbulence closure scheme modifies the current structure and stratification. There is a sharp step in properties across the surface layer, where the viscosity/diffusivity is low, weak gradients across the outer part of the boundary layer, where shear-driven mixing is strong, and a relatively strong

  15. Ice and liquid partitioning in mid-latitude and artic mixed-phase clouds: how common is the real mixed-phase state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jessica; Krämer, Martina; Afchine, Armin; Gallagher, Martin; Dorsey, James; Brown, Phil; Woolley, Alan; Bierwirth, Eike; Ehrlich, Andre; Wendisch, Manfred; Gehrmann, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The influence of mixed-phase clouds on the radiation budget of the earth is largely unknown. One of the key parameters to determine mixed-phase cloud radiative properties however is the fraction of ice particles and liquid droplets in these clouds. The separate detection of liquid droplets and ice crystals especially in the small cloud particle size range below 50 µm remains challenging though. Here, we present airborne NIXE-CAPS mixed-phase cloud particle measurements observed in mid-latitude and Arctic low-level mixed-phase clouds during the COALESC field campaign in 2011 and the Arctic field campaign VERDI in 2012. NIXE-CAPS (Novel Ice EXpEriment - Cloud and Aerosol Particle Spectrometer, manufactured by DMT) is a cloud particle spectrometer which measures the cloud particle number, size as well as their phase for each cloud particle in the diameter range 0.6 to 945 µm. The common understanding in mixed-phase cloud research is that liquid droplets and ice crystals in the same cloud volume are rather sparse, but instead either liquid droplets or ice crystals are present. However, recently published model studies (e.g. Korolev, A. & Field, P., The effect of dynamics on mixed-phase clouds: Theoretical considerations. J. Atmos. Sci. 65, 66-86, 2008) indicate that a cloud state containing both liquid droplets and ice crystals can be kept up by turbulence. Indeed, our particle by particle analyses of the observed mixed-phase clouds during COALESC and VERDI indicate that the real mixed-phase state is rather common in the atmosphere. The spatial distribution of the mixed-phase ice fraction and the size of the droplets and ice crystals however vary substantially from case to case. The latter parameters seem to be influenced not only by concentration of ice nuclei but also - to a large degree - by cloud dynamics.

  16. Measuring ice- and liquid-water properties in mixed-phase cloud layers at the Leipzig Cloudnet station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühl, Johannes; Seifert, Patric; Myagkov, Alexander; Ansmann, Albert

    2016-08-01

    An analysis of the Cloudnet data set collected at Leipzig, Germany, with special focus on mixed-phase layered clouds is presented. We derive liquid- and ice-water content together with vertical motions of ice particles falling through cloud base. The ice mass flux is calculated by combining measurements of ice-water content and particle Doppler velocity. The efficiency of heterogeneous ice formation and its impact on cloud lifetime is estimated for different cloud-top temperatures by relating the ice mass flux and the liquid-water content at cloud top. Cloud radar measurements of polarization and Doppler velocity indicate that ice crystals formed in mixed-phase cloud layers with a geometrical thickness of less than 350 m are mostly pristine when they fall out of the cloud.

  17. Simulation of air-droplet mixed phase flow in icing wind-tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengyao, Leng; Shinan, Chang; Menglong, Wu; Yunhang, Li

    2013-07-01

    Icing wind-tunnel is the main ground facility for the research of aircraft icing, which is different from normal wind-tunnel for its refrigeration system and spraying system. In stable section of icing wind-tunnel, the original parameters of droplets and air are different, for example, to keep the nozzles from freezing, the droplets are heated while the temperature of air is low. It means that complex mass and heat transfer as well as dynamic interactive force would happen between droplets and air, and the parameters of droplet will acutely change along the passageway. Therefore, the prediction of droplet-air mixed phase flow is necessary in the evaluation of icing researching wind-tunnel. In this paper, a simplified droplet-air mixed phase flow model based on Lagrangian method was built. The variation of temperature, diameter and velocity of droplet, as well as the air flow field, during the flow process were obtained under different condition. With calculating three-dimensional air flow field by FLUENT, the droplet could be traced and the droplet distribution could also be achieved. Furthermore, the patterns about how initial parameters affect the parameters in test section were achieved. The numerical simulation solving the flow and heat and mass transfer characteristics in the mixing process is valuable for the optimization of experimental parameters design and equipment adjustment.

  18. A multi-column vertical mixing scheme to parameterize the heterogeneity of oceanic conditions under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélemy, Antoine; Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues; Madec, Gurvan

    2016-08-01

    The heterogeneity of ocean surface conditions associated with a spatially variable sea ice cover needs to be represented in models in order to represent adequately mixed layer processes and the upper ocean density structure. This study assesses the sensitivity of the ocean-sea ice model NEMO-LIM to a subgrid-scale representation of ice-ocean interactions. The sea ice component includes an ice thickness distribution, which provides heterogeneous surface buoyancy fluxes and stresses. A multi-column ocean scheme is developed to take them explicitly into account, by computing convection and turbulent vertical mixing separately in the open water/lead fraction of grid cells and below each ice thickness category. For the first time in a three-dimensional simulation, the distinct temperature and salinity profiles of the ocean columns are allowed to be maintained over several time steps. It is shown that the model response is highly sensitive to the homogenization time scale between the columns. If the latter are laterally mixed with time scales shorter than 10 h, subgrid-scale effects exist but the mean state is practically unaffected. For longer mixing time scales, in both hemispheres, the main impacts are reductions in under-ice mean mixed layer depths and in the summer melt of sea ice, following decreased oceanic heat flux at the ice base. Large changes in the open water temperature in summer suggest that the scheme could trigger important feedback processes in coupled simulations.

  19. A multi-column vertical mixing scheme to parameterize the heterogeneity of oceanic conditions under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélemy, Antoine; Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues; Madec, Gurvan

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of ocean surface conditions associated to a spatially variable sea ice cover needs to be represented in models in order to represent adequately mixed layer processes and the upper ocean density structure. This study assesses the sensitivity of the ocean-sea ice model NEMO-LIM to a subgrid-scale representation of ice-ocean interactions. The sea ice component includes an ice thickness distribution, which provides heterogeneous surface buoyancy fluxes and stresses. A multi-column ocean scheme is developed to take them explicitly into account, by computing convection and turbulent vertical mixing separately in the open water/lead fraction of grid cells and below each ice thickness category. For the first time in a three-dimensional simulation, the distinct temperature and salinity profiles of the ocean columns are allowed to be maintained over several time steps. It is shown that, if columns are laterally mixed with homogenization time scales shorter than 10 h, subgrid-scale effects exists but the model mean state is practically unaffected. For longer mixing time scales, in both hemispheres, the main impacts are reductions in under-ice mean mixed layer depths and in the summer melt of sea ice, following decreased oceanic heat flux at the ice base. Large changes in the open water temperature in summer suggest that the scheme could trigger important feedback processes in coupled simulations.

  20. Summertime mixed layer development in the marginal sea ice zone off the Mawson coast, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. D.; Nicol, S.; Raymond, B.; Meiners, K.

    2008-02-01

    Two small-scale Antarctic marine ecosystem surveys were conducted offshore from the Mawson coast (61-66∘E), in the austral summers of January 2001 and 2003. Striking differences were observed in the state of the marine ecosystem between the surveys; in particular krill abundance and penguin breeding success were significantly lower in 2003. In this paper we examine the variability in the physical oceanography between the two surveys, and identify the development of the summer mixed layer (SML) as the key physical process influencing the differences in ecological conditions. The mixed layer in 2003 was warmer, fresher and reduced in both dissolved oxygen content and fluorescence relative to 2001. In 2001 the mean mixed-layer depth was 68.5±12.4m. In 2003, the mean mixed-layer depth was 33.8±11.2m, and increased through the remaining 14 days of the survey. The SML in 2003 was underdeveloped by over a month relative to the 2001 hydrography and we relate this to the seasonal variability in the pattern and timing of sea-ice melt. AVHRR satellite images show a region of fast ice against the Mawson coast that had greater spatial and temporal extent in 2003. We conclude that delayed mixed layer development due to persistent sea ice is likely to have a negative impact on the marine ecosystem of the Antarctic shelf. This may have important implications for predicting the impact of future variability in the sea-ice growth/melt transition due to climate change.

  1. Gas diffusion through columnar laboratory sea ice: implications for mixed-layer ventilation of CO2 in the seasonal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loose, B.; Schlosser, P.; Perovich, D.; Ringelberg, D.; Ho, D. T.; Takahashi, T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Reynolds, C. M.; McGillis, W. R.; Tison, J.-L.

    2011-02-01

    Gas diffusion through the porous microstructure of sea ice represents a pathway for ocean-atmosphere exchange and for transport of biogenic gases produced within sea ice. We report on the experimental determination of the bulk gas diffusion coefficients, D, for oxygen (O2) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) through columnar sea ice under constant ice thickness conditions for ice surface temperatures between -4 and -12 °C. Profiles of SF6 through the ice indicate decreasing gas concentration from the ice/water interface to the ice/air interface, with evidence for solubility partitioning between gas-filled and liquid-filled pore spaces. On average, ? was 1.3 × 10-4 cm2 s-1 (±40%) and ? was 3.9 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 (±41%). The preferential partitioning of SF6 to the gas phase, which is the dominant diffusion pathway produced the greater rate of SF6 diffusion. Comparing these estimates of D with an existing estimate of the air-sea gas transfer through leads indicates that ventilation of the mixed layer by diffusion through sea ice may be negligible, compared to air-sea gas exchange through fractures in the ice pack, even when the fraction of open water is less than 1%.

  2. Large-eddy simulation of three mixed-phase cloud events during ISDAC: Conditions for persistent heterogeneous ice formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savre, J.; Ekman, A. M. L.

    2015-08-01

    A Classical-Nucleation-Theory-based parameterization for heterogenous ice nucleation, including explicit dependencies of the nucleation rates on the number concentration, size, and composition of the ambient aerosol population, is implemented in a cloud-scale, large-eddy simulation model and evaluated against Arctic mixed-phase cloud events observed during Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). An important feature of the parameterization is that the ice nucleation efficiency of each considered aerosol type is described using a contact angle distribution which evolves with time so that the model accounts for the inhibition of ice nucleation as the most efficient ice-forming particles are nucleated and scavenged. The model gives a reasonable representation of first-order (ice water paths) and second-order (ice crystal size distributions) ice microphysical properties. The production of new ice crystals in the upper part of the cloud, essential to guarantee sustained mixed-phase conditions, is found to be controlled mostly by the competition between radiative cooling (resulting in more aerosol particles becoming efficient ice nuclei as the temperature decreases), cloud-top entrainment (entraining fresh particles into the cloud), and nucleation scavenging of the ice+forming aerosol particles. The relative contribution of each process is mostly determined by the cloud-top temperature and the entrainment rates. Accounting for the evolution of the contact angle probability density function with time seems to be essential to capture the persistence of in-cloud ice production without having to, for example, increase the free tropospheric aerosol concentration. Although limited to only three cases and despite important limitations of the parameterization (e.g., the present version only considers dust and black carbon as potential ice nuclei), the results suggest that modeling the time evolution of the ice nuclei population ability to form ice is required to

  3. Inward Radial Mixing of Interstellar Water Ices in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves; Verdier-Paoletti, Maximilien J.; Villeneuve, Johan; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    The very wide diversity of asteroid compositions in the main belt suggests significant material transport in the solar protoplanetary disk and hints at the presence of interstellar ices in hydrated bodies. However, only a few quantitative estimations of the contribution of interstellar ice in the inner solar system have been reported, leading to considerable uncertainty about the extent of radial inward mixing in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Ga ago. We show that the pristine CM chondrite Paris contains primary Ca-carbonates whose O-isotopic compositions require an 8%-35% contribution from interstellar water. The presence of interstellar water in Paris is confirmed by its bulk D/H isotopic composition that shows significant D enrichment (D/H = (167 ± 0.2) × 10-6) relative to the mean D/H of CM chondrites ((145 ± 3) × 10-6) and the putative D/H of local CM water ((82 ± 1.5) × 10-6). These results imply that (i) efficient radial mixing of interstellar ices occurred from the outer zone of the solar protoplanetary disk inward and that (ii) chondrites accreted water ice grains from increasing heliocentric distances in the solar protoplanetary disk.

  4. Inward Radial Mixing of Interstellar Water Ices in the Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves; Verdier-Paoletti, Maximilien J.; Villeneuve, Johan; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2016-08-01

    The very wide diversity of asteroid compositions in the main belt suggests significant material transport in the solar protoplanetary disk and hints at the presence of interstellar ices in hydrated bodies. However, only a few quantitative estimations of the contribution of interstellar ice in the inner solar system have been reported, leading to considerable uncertainty about the extent of radial inward mixing in the solar protoplanetary disk 4.56 Ga ago. We show that the pristine CM chondrite Paris contains primary Ca-carbonates whose O-isotopic compositions require an 8%–35% contribution from interstellar water. The presence of interstellar water in Paris is confirmed by its bulk D/H isotopic composition that shows significant D enrichment (D/H = (167 ± 0.2) × 10‑6) relative to the mean D/H of CM chondrites ((145 ± 3) × 10‑6) and the putative D/H of local CM water ((82 ± 1.5) × 10‑6). These results imply that (i) efficient radial mixing of interstellar ices occurred from the outer zone of the solar protoplanetary disk inward and that (ii) chondrites accreted water ice grains from increasing heliocentric distances in the solar protoplanetary disk.

  5. Long-lifetime ice particles in mixed-phase stratiform clouds: quasi-steady and recycled growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2015-11-18

    Lagrangian ice particle tracking is applied in both a 3-D time dependent velocity field produced by a Large Eddy Simulation cloud model and in a 2-D idealized field. It is found that more than 10% of ice particles have lifetimes longer than 1.5 hours, much longer than the large eddy turnover time or the time for a crystal to fall through the depth of a non-turbulent cloud. An analysis of trajectories in a 2-D idealized field shows that there are two types of long lifetime ice particles: quasi-steady and recycled growth. For quasi-steady growth, ice particles are suspended in the updraft velocity region for a long time. For recycled growth, ice particles are trapped in the large-eddy structures, and whether ice particles grow or evaporate depends on the ice relative humidity profile within the boundary layer. Some ice particles can grow after each cycle in the trapping region, until they are too large to be trapped, and thus have long lifetimes. The relative contribution of the recycled ice particles to the cloud mean ice water content depends on both the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the mixing layer. In particular, the total ice water content of a mixed phase cloud in a decoupled boundary layer can be much larger than that in a fully coupled boundary layer.

  6. Discrimination of micrometre-sized ice and super-cooled droplets in mixed-phase cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Greenaway, R. S.; Field, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    Preliminary experimental results are presented from an aircraft-mounted probe designed to provide in situ data on cloud particle shape, size, and number concentration. In particular, the probe has been designed to facilitate discrimination between super-cooled water droplets and ice crystals of 1-25 μm size within mixed-phase clouds and to provide information on cloud interstitial aerosols. The probe acquires spatial light scattering data from individual particles at throughput rates of several thousand particles per second. These data are logged at 100 ms intervals to allow the distribution and number concentration of each particle type to be determined with 10 m spatial resolution at a typical airspeed of 100 m s -1. Preliminary results from flight data recorded in altocumulus castellanus, showing liquid water phase, mixed phase, and ice phase are presented to illustrate the probe's particle discrimination capabilities.

  7. Local effects of ice floes and leads on skin sea surface temperature, mixing and gas transfer in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappa, Christopher; Brumer, Sophia; Brown, Scott; LeBel, Deborah; McGillis, Wade; Schlosser, Peter; Loose, Brice

    2014-05-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Here, we present measurements of visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes in the marginal ice zone north of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013. The visible and IR imagery were taken from the unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) ScanEagle. The visible imagery clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near-surface vertical temperature/salinity structure. Individual ice floes develop turbulent wakes as they drift and cause transient mixing of an influx of colder surface (fresh) melt water. We capture a melting and mixing event that explains the changing pattern observed in skin SST and is substantiated using laboratory experiments. The Gas Transfer through Polar Sea Ice experiment was performed at the US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (Hanover, NH) under varying ice coverage, winds speed, fetch and currents. Supporting measurements were made of air and water temperature, humidity, salinity and wave height. Air-side profiling provided momentum, heat, and CO2 fluxes. Transfer velocities are also

  8. Case Study of Mixed-Phase to Ice Precipitation in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, C.; Bennartz, R.; Kulie, M.; Shupe, M.; Turner, D. D.; Walden, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Data from the ICECAPS instrument suite at Summit Station, Greenland are utilized to observe cloud and atmospheric properties over the Greenland Ice Sheet. This study focuses on identifying and analyzing case studies of rapid transitions from mixed-phase clouds and precipitation to ice hydrometeors. Reflectivity values and Doppler velocities from the ICECAPS MilliMeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) in conjunction with ancillary meteorological data are used as input to combined microphysical and microwave radiative transfer simulation system. This modeling system depends on the frozen hydrometeor habits, snow water content, amount and distribution of supercooled water droplets, surface emissivity, and other environmental parameters. Simulated multi-frequency brightness temperatures derived from the model are compared to MicroWave Radiometer (MWR) observations under transition conditions, and sensitivities to model inputs are explored. These closure studies, between active and passive microwave instruments, will lead to a better understanding of the characteristic cloud microphysical and environmental conditions that determine mixed-phase to ice transitions in Arctic clouds.

  9. Thermohaline circulation below the Ross Ice Shelf - A consequence of tidally induced vertical mixing and basal melting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macayeal, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    The warmest water below parts of the Ross Ice Shelf resides in the lowest portion of the water column because of its high salinity. Vertical mixing caused by tidal stirring can thus induce ablation by lifting the warm but dense water into contact with the ice shelf. A numerical tidal simulation indicates that vertically well-mixed conditions predominate in the southeastern part of the sub-ice shelf cavity, where the water column thickness is small. Basal melting in this region is expected to be between 0.05 and 0.5 m/yr and will drive a thermohaline circulation having the following characteristics: high salinity shelf water (at - 1.8 C), formed by winter sea ice production in the open Ross Sea, flows along the seabed toward the tidal mixing fronts below the ice shelf; and meltwater (at -2.2 C), produced in the well-mixed region, flows out of the sub-ice shelf cavity along the ice shelf bottom. Sensitivity of this ablation process to climatic change is expected to be small because high salinity shelf water is constrained to have the sea surface freezing temperature.

  10. Aerosol Inflluence on Ice Nucleation via the Immersion Mode in Mixed-Phase Arctic Stratiform Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, G.; Hashino, T.; Tripoli, G. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2009-12-01

    Mixed-phase stratiform clouds are commonly observed at high latitudes (e.g. Shupe et al., 2006; de Boer et al., 2009a). Herman and Goody (1976), as well as Curry et al. (1996) present summaries of Arctic cloud climatologies that show low altitude stratus frequencies of up to 70% during transitional seasons. In addition to their frequent occurrence, these clouds have significant impacts on the near-surface atmospheric radiative budget, with estimates of wintertime reductions in net surface cooling of 40-50 Wm-2 (Curry et al., 1996) due predominantly to liquid in the mixed-phase layer. Both observational and modeling studies (e.g. Harrington et al., 1999; Jiang et al., 2000; Shupe et al., 2008; Klein et al., 2008) show a strong connection between the amount of ice present and the lifetime of the liquid portion of the cloud layer. This is thought to occur via the Bergeron-Findeissen mechanism (Pruppacher and Klett, 1997) in which ice grows at the expense of liquid due to its lower saturation vapor pressure. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which ice is nucleated within these mixed-phase layers are not yet fully understood, and therefore an accurate depiction of this process for mixed-phase stratiform clouds has not yet been characterized. The nucleation mechanisms that are active in a given environment are sensitive to aerosol properties. Insoluble particles are typically good nuclei for ice particle formation, while soluble particles are typically better at nucleating water droplets. Aerosol observations from the Arctic often show mixed aerosol particles that feature both soluble and insoluble mass (Leaitch et al., 1984). Soluble mass fractions for these particles have been shown to be high, with estimates of 60-80% and are often made up of sulfates (Zhou et al., 2001; Bigg and Leck, 2001). It is believed that a significant portion of this sulfate mass comes from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in the Arctic Ocean and subsequent atmospheric oxidation. Since these

  11. Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach

    SciTech Connect

    Baustian, Kelly J.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Wise, M. A.; Pratt, Kerri; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Hallar, Anna G.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-03-30

    In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling took place at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation of 3210 m). A cascade impactor was used to collect coarse-mode aerosol particles for laboratory analysis by Raman spectroscopy; the composition, mixing state, and heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of individual particles were examined. For in situ analysis of fine-mode aerosol, ice nucleation on ambient particles was observed using a compact ice nucleation chamber. Ice crystals were separated from unactivated aerosol using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor, and ice nuclei were analyzed using particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry. For both fine and coarse modes, the ice nucleating particle fractions were enriched in minerals and depleted in sulfates and nitrates, compared to the background aerosol sampled. The vast majority of particles in both the ambient and ice active aerosol fractions contained a detectable amount of organic material. Raman spectroscopy showed that organic material is sometimes present in the form of a coating on the surface of inorganic particles. We find that some organic-containing particles serve as efficient ice nuclei while others do not. For coarse-mode aerosol, organic particles were only observed to initiate ice formation when oxygen signatures were also present in their spectra.

  12. Importance of aerosol composition, mixing state, and morphology for heterogeneous ice nucleation: A combined field and laboratory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baustian, Kelly J.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Wise, Matthew E.; Pratt, Kerri A.; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Hallar, A. Gannet; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2012-03-01

    In this study chemical compositions of background aerosol and ice nuclei were examined through laboratory investigations using Raman spectroscopy and field measurements by single-particle mass spectrometry. Aerosol sampling took place at Storm Peak Laboratory in Steamboat Springs, Colorado (elevation of 3210 m). A cascade impactor was used to collect coarse-mode aerosol particles for laboratory analysis by Raman spectroscopy; the composition, mixing state, and heterogeneous ice nucleation activity of individual particles were examined. For in situ analysis of fine-mode aerosol, ice nucleation on ambient particles was observed using a compact ice nucleation chamber. Ice crystals were separated from unactivated aerosol using a pumped counterflow virtual impactor, and ice nuclei were analyzed using particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry. For both fine and coarse modes, the ice nucleating particle fractions were enriched in minerals and depleted in sulfates and nitrates, compared to the background aerosol sampled. The vast majority of particles in both the ambient and ice active aerosol fractions contained a detectable amount of organic material. Raman spectroscopy showed that organic material is sometimes present in the form of a coating on the surface of inorganic particles. We find that some organic-containing particles serve as efficient ice nuclei while others do not. For coarse-mode aerosol, organic particles were only observed to initiate ice formation when oxygen signatures were also present in their spectra.

  13. The effects of hygroscopicity of fossil fuel BC on mixed-phase and cirrus ice clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y.; Penner, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Fossil fuel burning BC aerosols are often emitted together with sulfate, which coats the surface of these BC particles and changes their hygroscopicity. The ice forming capability of the fossil fuel burning BC can differ widely as a result of the amount of soluble coating on their surface. Due to the abundance of fossil fuel burning BC particles, a small change in their activated fraction can produce a large difference in their climate forcing. To better quantify the role of fossil fuel burning BC in climate change, a 3-BC (hydrophobic, hydrophilic and hygroscopic BC) scheme is developed to replace the 1-BC scheme in a coupled climate and aerosol transport model (CAM-IMPACT). The new scheme explicitly calculates the condensation and coagulation of sulfate on BC particles and keeps track of their coating in the 3-BC states. The hygroscopicity of BC is determined by the layers of sulfate coating on their surface according to criteria developed in laboratory observations. The ice formation scheme in mixed-phase and cirrus clouds is also updated to treat the 3 hygroscopicity BC groups separately according to their different ice freezing capabilities. This paper will report the climate forcing associated with the new BC scheme as well as comparison with observations.

  14. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  15. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  16. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  17. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  18. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  19. Unique manifestations of mixed-phase cloud microphysics over Ross Island and the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Ryan C.; Lubin, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Spaceborne radar and lidar observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellites are used to compare seasonal variations in the microphysical and radiative properties of clouds over Ross Island, Antarctica, with two contrasting Arctic atmospheric observatories located in Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland. At Ross Island, downstream from recurrent intrusions of marine air over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and eastern Ross Ice Shelf, clouds exhibit a tendency toward the greatest geometrical thickness and coldest temperatures in summer, the largest average ice water content, IWC, at low altitude during summer and autumn, the most abundant IWC at cold mixed-phase temperatures (-40°C ice water on the surface energy budget year round, all with likely origins in orographic lifting of marine air over complex ice sheet and mountainous terrain. Clouds over Barrow form and evolve in a contrastingly warm and moist atmosphere and on average contain the largest liquid water content and ice and liquid water effective particle radii, re, year round. In contrast, clouds observed atop the central Greenland Ice Sheet are relatively tenuous, containing the smallest IWC and ice re of all sites.

  20. Ice Growth Measurements from Image Data to Support Ice-Crystal and Mixed-Phase Accretion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter, M; Lynch, Christopher, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the imaging techniques as well as the analysis methods used to measure the ice thickness and growth rate in support of ice-crystal icing tests performed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) Research Altitude Test Facility (RATFac). A detailed description of the camera setup, which involves both still and video cameras, as well as the analysis methods using the NASA Spotlight software, are presented. Two cases, one from two different test entries, showing significant ice growth are analyzed in detail describing the ice thickness and growth rate which is generally linear. Estimates of the bias uncertainty are presented for all measurements. Finally some of the challenges related to the imaging and analysis methods are discussed as well as methods used to overcome them.

  1. Job submission and management through web services: the experience with the CREAM service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Fina, S. D.; Ronco, S. D.; Dorigo, A.; Gianelle, A.; Marzolla, M.; Mazzucato, M.; Sgaravatto, M.; Verlato, M.; Zangrando, L.; Corvo, M.; Miccio, V.; Sciaba, A.; Cesini, D.; Dongiovanni, D.; Grandi, C.

    2008-07-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of CREAM and ICE in gLite. We also discuss recent work towards enhancing CREAM with a BES and JSDL compliant interface.

  2. Minimalist Model of Ice Microphysics in Mixed-phase Stratiform Clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.

    2013-07-28

    The question of whether persistent ice crystal precipitation from super cooled layer clouds can be explained by time-dependent, stochastic ice nucleation is explored using an approximate, analytical model, and a large-eddy simulation (LES) cloud model. The updraft velocity in the cloud defines an accumulation zone, where small ice particles cannot fall out until they are large enough, which will increase the residence time of ice particles in the cloud. Ice particles reach a quasi-steady state between growth by vapor deposition and fall speed at cloud base. The analytical model predicts that ice water content (wi) has a 2.5 power law relationship with ice number concentration ni. wi and ni from a LES cloud model with stochastic ice nucleation also confirm the 2.5 power law relationship. The prefactor of the power law is proportional to the ice nucleation rate, and therefore provides a quantitative link to observations of ice microphysical properties.

  3. Intercomparison of Large-Eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ghan, Steven; Harrington, Jerry; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Morrison, Hugh; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP), in agreement with earlier studies. In contrast to previous intercomparison studies, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSDs) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case. Sensitivity tests indicate LWP and IWP are much closer to the bin model simulations when a modified shape factor which is similar to that predicted by bin model simulation is used in bulk scheme. These results demonstrate the importance of representation of ice PSD in determining the partitioning of liquid and ice and the longevity of mixed-phase clouds.

  4. Intercomparison of large-eddy simulations of Arctic mixed-phase clouds: Importance of ice size distribution assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann M.; Ghan, Steven; Harrington, Jerry; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Morrison, Hugh; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-01

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP), in agreement with earlier studies. In contrast to previous intercomparison studies, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSDs) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case. Sensitivity tests indicate LWP and IWP are much closer to the bin model simulations when a modified shape factor which is similar to that predicted by bin model simulation is used in bulk scheme. These results demonstrate the importance of representation of ice PSD in determining the partitioning of liquid and ice and the longevity of mixed-phase clouds.

  5. Fixed-point observation of mixed layer evolution in seasonally ice-free Chukchi Sea: Turbulent mixing due to gale winds and internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Inoue, J.; Nishino, S.

    2015-12-01

    A fixed-point observation using the R/V Mirai was conducted in the ice-free northern Chukchi Sea of the Arctic Ocean during September of 2013. During the program the authors performed repeated microstructure measurements to reveal the temporal evolution of the surface mixed layer and mixing processes in the upper water column. The shelf region was initially characterized by a distinct two-layer system comprising a warmer/ fresher top layer and a colder/saltier bottom layer. During the two-week observation period, the top-layer water showed two types of mixing processes: near-surface turbulence due to strong wind forcing and subsurface mixing due to internal gravity waves. In the first week, when the top layer was stratified with fresh sea ice meltwater, turbulent energy related to internal waves propagated through the subsurface stratification, resulting in a mechanical overturning near the pycnocline, followed by enhanced mixing there. In the second week, gale winds directly stirred up the upper water and then established a deeper homogenous layer. The combination of internal wave mixing and wind-driven turbulence may contribute to releasing the oceanic heat into the atmosphere, consequently promoting the preconditioning of surface water freezing.

  6. Butoconazole Vaginal Cream

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... comes as a cream to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime. Follow ...

  7. Dual-Polarised Doppler X-band Radar Observations of Mixed Phased Clouds from the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (ICE-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, R. R., III; Blyth, A. M.; Bennett, L.; Dufton, D.; Cui, Z.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present dual-polarised Doppler X-band radar observations of convective, altocumulus and altostratus clouds relatively close to the Sahara desert in order to examine the impact of dust on the formation of ice and precipitation. These initial results come the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (UK ICE-D). UK ICE-D was an aircraft and ground-based project based in Cape Verde off the coast of Senegal, Africa during August 2015. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine how desert dust affects primary nucleation of ice particles in convective and layer clouds as well as the subsequent development of precipitation and glaciation of the clouds. This was accomplished by making focused observations when dust was present in high concentrations and when almost no dust was present. Here we focus on examining the differences in hydrometeor types derived from the dual-polarised X-band radar observations observed in the high and low dust loadings with specific emphasis on the role of supercooled rain drops in these two situations.

  8. Dual-Polarised Doppler X-band Radar Observations of Mixed Phased Clouds from the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment-Dust (ICE-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Ryan; Blyth, Alan; Bennett, Lindsay; Dufton, David; Cui, Zhiqiang; McQuaid, Jim; Price, Hannah; Murray, Benjamin; Huang, Yahui

    2016-04-01

    Here we present dual-polarised X-band radar and in situ observations of convective, altocumulus and altostratus clouds relatively close to the Sahara desert in order to examine the impact of dust on the formation of ice and precipitation. These initial results come the UK's Ice in Clouds Experiment - Dust (UK ICE-D). UK ICE-D was an aircraft and ground-based project based in Cape Verde off the coast of Senegal, Africa during August 2015. The overall goal of this experiment was to determine how desert dust affects primary nucleation of ice particles in convective and layer clouds as well as the subsequent development of precipitation and glaciation of the clouds. This was accomplished by making focused observations when dust was present in high concentrations and when almost no dust was present. Here we focus on examining the differences in hydrometeor types derived from the dual-polarised X-band radar observations observed in the high and low dust loadings with specific emphasis on the role of supercooled rain drops in these two situations.

  9. Bacterial Communities of Surface Mixed Layer in the Pacific Sector of the Western Arctic Ocean during Sea-Ice Melting

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting. PMID:24497990

  10. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    PubMed

    Han, Dukki; Kang, Ilnam; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

  11. The effects of marine primary biogenic organic aerosols as heterogeneous ice nuclei in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Y.; Penner, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    There have been reports in the literature about marine primary biogenic organic aerosols (marine POA) acting as ice nuclei. These marine POA can be transported to the atmosphere through the bursting of air bubbles by breaking waves. In this study, we add marine POA as heterogeneous ice nuclei in mixed-phase clouds in a coupled general circulation model and aerosol transport model (CAM-IMPACT). The emission of the marine POA is determined by the sea salt emissions and a sea spray organic fraction function. The wet and dry deposition scheme in the CAM-IMPACT model will be extended to treat marine POA. The ice nucleation ability of the marine POA will be determined according to the in situ observation of the surface ice nuclei ratio, as well as the simulated surface concentration of marine POA and other aerosols. Several sensitivity tests will be performed on the sea salt emission flux, the sea spray organic fraction function, as well as the freezing efficiency of marine POA. The simulated ice water amount will be compared to satellite observations. This study attempts to evaluate the effect of marine biological organics as ice nuclei on a global scale.

  12. Bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Pacific sector of the western Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting.

    PubMed

    Han, Dukki; Kang, Ilnam; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Ok-Sun; Lee, Bang Yong; Cho, Jang-Cheon; Hur, Hor-Gil; Lee, Yoo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    From July to August 2010, the IBRV ARAON journeyed to the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean to monitor bacterial variation in Arctic summer surface-waters, and temperature, salinity, fluorescence, and nutrient concentrations were determined during the ice-melting season. Among the measured physicochemical parameters, we observed a strong negative correlation between temperature and salinity, and consequently hypothesized that the melting ice decreased water salinity. The bacterial community compositions of 15 samples, includicng seawater, sea-ice, and melting pond water, were determined using a pyrosequencing approach and were categorized into three habitats: (1) surface seawater, (2) ice core, and (3) melting pond. Analysis of these samples indicated the presence of local bacterial communities; a deduction that was further corroborated by the discovery of seawater- and ice-specific bacterial phylotypes. In all samples, the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria taxa composed the majority of the bacterial communities. Among these, Alphaproteobacteria was the most abundant and present in all samples, and its variation differed among the habitats studied. Linear regression analysis suggested that changes in salinity could affect the relative proportion of Alphaproteobacteria in the surface water. In addition, the species-sorting model was applied to evaluate the population dynamics and environmental heterogeneity in the bacterial communities of surface mixed layer in the Arctic Ocean during sea-ice melting. PMID:24497990

  13. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  14. An investigation into the use of low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy as a means of characterizing the structure of creams based on Aqueous Cream BP.

    PubMed

    Goggin, P L; He, R; Craig, D Q; Gregory, D P

    1998-05-01

    A range of creams based on Aqueous Cream BP have been analyzed using low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy, with accompanying circuit modeling in combination with rheological and microscopic supportive techniques, to explore the use of the dielectric approach as a novel means of characterizing cream systems. Creams based on the formula for Aqueous Cream BP were produced by hand-mixing and mechanical mixing, with and without the inclusion of the preservative phenoxyethanol. Dielectric analysis was performed over a frequency range of 10(-2)-10(5) Hz. Cream samples were also examined using stress scan rheology and differential interference contrast microscopy. Dielectric analysis indicated that the presence of preservative decreased the capacitance and loss of the creams. The responses were modeled in terms of a dispersive capacitance in series with two RC circuits (series and parallel). Rheological studies indicated higher viscosities for the hand-mixed and unpreserved systems. Differential interference contrast microscopy showed marked differences in the distribution of the oil droplets, depending on the method of mixing. The study has demonstrated that dielectric spectroscopy, with accompanying circuit analysis, may be used as a means of modeling the structure of cream systems. The investigation has also shown that the formulation and preparation method of Aqueous Cream BP may have a profound effect on sample structure.

  15. Black carbon enrichment in atmospheric ice particle residuals observed in lower tropospheric mixed phase clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Cozic, J.; Mertes, S.; Verheggen, B.; Cziczo, Daniel J.; Gallavardin, S. J.; Walter, S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, E.

    2008-08-15

    The enrichment of black carbon (BC) in residuals of small ice crystals was investigated during intensive experiments in winter 2004 and 2005 at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl, Switzerland). Two inlets were used to sample the bulk aerosol (residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals as well as non-activated aerosol particles) and the residual particles of small ice crystals (diameter 5 - 20 μm). An enrichment of the BC mass fraction in the ice particle residuals was observed by investigating the measured BC mass concentration as a fraction of the bulk (submicrometer) aerosol mass concentration sampled by the two inlets. On average, the BC mass fraction was 5% for the bulk aerosol and 27% for the ice particle residuals. The observed enrichment of BC in ice particle residuals suggests that BC containing particles preferentially act as ice nuclei, with important implications for the indirect aerosol effect via glaciation of clouds.

  16. Black carbon enrichment in atmospheric ice particle residuals observed in lower trophospheric mixed phase clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Cozic, J.; Mertes, S.; Verheggen, B.; Cziczo, Dan; Gallavardin, S. J.; Walter, S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Weingartner, E.

    2008-08-15

    The enrichment of black carbon (BC) in residuals of small ice particles was investigated during intensive experiments in winter 2004 and 2005 at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch (3580 m asl, Switzerland). Two inlets were used to sample the bulk aerosol (residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals as well as non-activated aerosol particles) and the residual particles of small ice crystals (diameter 5 - 20 m). An enrichment of the BC mass fraction in the ice particle residuals was observed by investigating the measured BC mass concentration as a fraction of the bulk (submicrometer) aerosol mass concentration sampled by the two inlets. On average, the BC mass fraction was 5% for the bulk aerosol and 14% for the ice particle residuals. The observed enrichment of BC in ice particle residuals suggests that BC may act as ice nuclei, with important implications for the indirect aerosol effect via glaciation of clouds.

  17. Ice formation in Arctic mixed-phase clouds: Insights from a 3-D cloud-resolving model with size-resolved aerosol and cloud microphysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiwen; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Comstock, Jennifer M.; McFarlane, Sally A.; Khain, Alexander

    2009-02-01

    The single-layer mixed-phase clouds observed during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (MPACE) are simulated with a three-dimensional cloud-resolving model, the System for Atmospheric Modeling (SAM), coupled with an explicit bin microphysics scheme and a radar simulator. By implementing an aerosol-dependent and a temperature- and supersaturation-dependent ice nucleation scheme and treating IN size distribution prognostically, the link between ice crystal and aerosol properties is established to study aerosol indirect effects. Two possible ice enhancement mechanisms, activation of droplet evaporation residues by condensation followed by freezing and droplet evaporation freezing by contact freezing inside out, are scrutinized by extensive comparisons with the in situ and remote sensing measurements. Simulations with either mechanism agree well with the in situ and remote sensing measurements of ice microphysical properties but liquid water content is slightly underpredicted. These two mechanisms give similar cloud properties, although ice nucleation occurs at very different rates and locations. Ice nucleation from activation of evaporation nuclei occurs mostly near cloud top areas, while ice nucleation from the drop freezing during evaporation has no significant location preference. Both ice enhancement mechanisms contribute dramatically to ice formation with ice particle concentration of 10-15 times higher relative to the simulation without either of them. Ice nuclei (IN) recycling from ice sublimation contributes significantly to maintaining concentrations of IN and ice particles in this case, implying an important role to maintain the observed long-term existence of mixed-phase clouds. Cloud can be very sensitive to IN initially but become much less sensitive as cloud evolves to a steady mixed-phase condition.

  18. Evidence of ice crystal growth within mixed phase clouds along fall streaks - a radar observation case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfitzenmaier, Lukas; Dufournet, Yann; Unal, Christine; Russchenberg, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Mixed phase clouds contain both ice particles and super-cooled cloud water droplets in the same volume of air. Currently, one of the main challenges is to observe and understand how ice particles grow by interacting with liquid water within the mixed-phase clouds. In the mid latitudes this process is one of the most efficient processes for precipitation formation. The case study presented here is based on observations obtained with the Transportable Atmospheric RAdar (TARA), S-band precipitation radar profiler, from Delft University of Technology during the Analysis of the Composition of mixed-phase Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques campaign (ACCEPT) at Cabauw The Netherlands, autumn 2014. The high temporal (3 seconds) and spatial resolutions (21 m) as well as the Doppler and polarimetric capabilities of TARA are used to estimate size and shape information of the measured hydrometeors. In addition, the unique 3 beam configuration of TARA provides 3-D dynamical information within the cloud system. Based on the dynamical information it is possible to retrieve the fall steak signatures of falling ice particles within radar measurements. Those signatures allow to follow particle population from their generation (at cloud top) to their disintegration. So this technique offers a new perspective for cloud microphysical evolution studies. Using retrieved profiles of radar moments and spectral information along the fall streaks, microphysical information are estimated leading to a better understanding of the influence of super-cooled liquid layer on ice crystals growth under ambient conditions. A synergetic setup of instruments during the ACCEPT campaign was used to liquid layers within the cloud system. So several type of ice crystal growth processes could be detected and will be presented and discussed.

  19. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  20. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  1. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  2. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  3. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  4. In-situ single particle composition analysis of free tropospheric ice nuclei and ice residues in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Thomas, Klimach; Stephan, Mertes; Ludwig, Schenk; Udo, Kästner; Frank, Stratmann; Joachim, Curtius; Piotr, Kupiszewski; Ernest, Weingartner; Emanuel, Hammer; Paul, Vochezer; Martin, Schnaiter; Stephan, Borrmann

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the DFG (deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)-funded research unit INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT) a field campaign at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Swiss Alps, Sphinx Laboratory, 3580 m asl; 7°59'2''E, 46°32'53''N) took place in January/February 2013 (INUIT-JFJ 2013). The goal of the measurements was to investigate the chemical composition of ice particle residues (IPR) in ambient air as well as the background aerosol particles. Previous investigations conducted at the JFJ showed that particles consisting of mineral components dominate the ice particle residue number (Kamphus et al., 2008) but also particles consisting of black carbon were found to be enriched in IPR (Mertes et al., 2007; Cozic et al., 2008). Cziczo et al. find out that lead as well is a good ice nucleus and was measured in IPR at previous measurements at the JFJ. During INUIT-JFJ 2013, the IPR were sampled out of mixed-phase clouds by an Ice-CVI (Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor, Mertes et al., 2007) and an ISI (Ice Selective Inlet, Kupiszewski et al., 2013) and analyzed by the single particle mass spectrometer ALABAMA (Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer; Brands et al., 2011). Additionally, the ALABAMA was connected to a total aerosol-inlet to investigate the chemical composition of background aerosol particles. During 217 hours of background aerosol measurements we analyzed more than 27000 aerosol particles, which consisted mainly of pure organic components or organics mixed with ammonium, metals or mineral components. During six cloud events with approximately 63 h measurement time we detected 162 IPR sampled by the Ice-CVI. The main part of these IPR were also composed of organic material mixed with other chemical compounds. Additionally, we found particles which consisted of mineral components (approximately 23 %). Sampling mixed-phase cloud through the ISI we measured during four cloud events 34 ice residues in approximately 30 h

  5. In-situ single particle composition analysis of free tropospheric ice nuclei and ice residues in mixed-phase clouds during INUIT-JFJ 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Thomas, Klimach; Stephan, Mertes; Ludwig, Schenk; Udo, Kästner; Frank, Stratmann; Joachim, Curtius; Piotr, Kupiszewski; Ernest, Weingartner; Emanuel, Hammer; Paul, Vochezer; Martin, Schnaiter; Stephan, Borrmann

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the DFG (deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft)-funded research unit INUIT (Ice Nuclei research UnIT) a field campaign at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Swiss Alps, Sphinx Laboratory, 3580 m asl; 7°59'2''E, 46°32'53''N) took place in January/February 2013 (INUIT-JFJ 2013). The goal of the measurements was to investigate the chemical composition of ice particle residues (IPR) in ambient air as well as the background aerosol particles. Previous investigations conducted at the JFJ showed that particles consisting of mineral components dominate the ice particle residue number (Kamphus et al., 2008) but also particles consisting of black carbon were found to be enriched in IPR (Mertes et al., 2007; Cozic et al., 2008). Cziczo et al. find out that lead as well is a good ice nucleus and was measured in IPR at previous measurements at the JFJ. During INUIT-JFJ 2013, the IPR were sampled out of mixed-phase clouds by an Ice-CVI (Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor, Mertes et al., 2007) and an ISI (Ice Selective Inlet, Kupiszewski et al., 2013) and analyzed by the single particle mass spectrometer ALABAMA (Aircraft-based Laser Ablation Aerosol Mass Spectrometer; Brands et al., 2011). Additionally, the ALABAMA was connected to a total aerosol-inlet to investigate the chemical composition of background aerosol particles. During 217 hours of background aerosol measurements we analyzed more than 27000 aerosol particles, which consisted mainly of pure organic components or organics mixed with ammonium, metals or mineral components. During six cloud events with approximately 63 h measurement time we detected 162 IPR sampled by the Ice-CVI. The main part of these IPR were also composed of organic material mixed with other chemical compounds. Additionally, we found particles which consisted of mineral components (approximately 23 %). Sampling mixed-phase cloud through the ISI we measured during four cloud events 34 ice residues in approximately 30 h

  6. Formation of mixed-phase particles during the freezing of polar stratospheric ice clouds.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J; Tenhu, Heikki; Mayer, Erwin; Loerting, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are extremely efficient at catalysing the transformation of photostable chlorine reservoirs into photolabile species, which are actively involved in springtime ozone-depletion events. Why PSCs are such efficient catalysts, however, is not well understood. Here, we investigate the freezing behaviour of ternary HNO₃-H₂SO₄-H₂O droplets of micrometric size, which form type II PSC ice particles. We show that on freezing, a phase separation into pure ice and a residual solution coating occurs; this coating does not freeze but transforms into glass below ∼150 K. We find that the coating, which is thicker around young ice crystals, can still be approximately 30 nm around older ice crystals of diameter about 10 µm. These results affect our understanding of PSC microphysics and chemistry and suggest that chlorine-activation reactions are better studied on supercooled HNO₃-H₂SO₄-H₂O solutions rather than on a pure ice surface.

  7. Understanding rapid changes in phase partitioning between cloud liquid and ice in an Arctic stratiform mixed-phase cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalesse, Heike; de Boer, Gijs; Solomon, Amy; Oue, Mariko; Ahlgrimm, Maike; Zhang, Damao; Shupe, Matthew; Luke, Edward; Protat, Alain

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, a region particularly sensitive to climate change, mixed-phase clouds occur as persistent single or multiple stratiform layers. For many climate models, the correct partitioning of hydrometeor phase (liquid vs. ice) remains a challenge. However, this phase partitioning plays an important role for precipitation processes and the radiation budget. To better understand the partitioning of phase in Arctic clouds, observations using a combination of surface-based remote sensors are useful. In this study, the focus is on a persistent low-level single-layer stratiform Arctic mixed-phase cloud observed during March 11-12, 2013 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) permanent site in Barrow, Alaska. This case is of particular interest due to two significant shifts in observed precipitation intensity over a 36 hour period. For the first 12 hours of this case, the observed liquid portion of the cloud cover featured a stable cloud top height with a gradually descending liquid cloud base and continuous ice precipitation. Then the ice precipitation intensity significantly decreased. A second decrease in ice precipitation intensity was observed a few hours later coinciding with the advection of a cirrus over the site. Through analysis of the data collected by extensive ground-based remote-sensing and in-situ observing systems as well as Nested Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) simulations and ECMWF radiation scheme simulations, we try to shed light on the processes responsible for these rapid changes in precipitation rates. A variety of parameters such as the evolution of the internal dynamics and microphysics of the low-level mixed-phase cloud and the influence of the cirrus cloud are evaluated.

  8. Sensitivity of Cirrus and Mixed-phase Clouds to the Ice Nuclei Spectra in McRAS-AC: Single Column Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betancourt, R. Morales; Lee, D.; Oreopoulos, L.; Sud, Y. C.; Barahona, D.; Nenes, A.

    2012-01-01

    The salient features of mixed-phase and ice clouds in a GCM cloud scheme are examined using the ice formation parameterizations of Liu and Penner (LP) and Barahona and Nenes (BN). The performance of LP and BN ice nucleation parameterizations were assessed in the GEOS-5 AGCM using the McRAS-AC cloud microphysics framework in single column mode. Four dimensional assimilated data from the intensive observation period of ARM TWP-ICE campaign was used to drive the fluxes and lateral forcing. Simulation experiments where established to test the impact of each parameterization in the resulting cloud fields. Three commonly used IN spectra were utilized in the BN parameterization to described the availability of IN for heterogeneous ice nucleation. The results show large similarities in the cirrus cloud regime between all the schemes tested, in which ice crystal concentrations were within a factor of 10 regardless of the parameterization used. In mixed-phase clouds there are some persistent differences in cloud particle number concentration and size, as well as in cloud fraction, ice water mixing ratio, and ice water path. Contact freezing in the simulated mixed-phase clouds contributed to transfer liquid to ice efficiently, so that on average, the clouds were fully glaciated at T approximately 260K, irrespective of the ice nucleation parameterization used. Comparison of simulated ice water path to available satellite derived observations were also performed, finding that all the schemes tested with the BN parameterization predicted 20 average values of IWP within plus or minus 15% of the observations.

  9. Ivermectin cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies.

  10. Ivermectin cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies. PMID:26563877

  11. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  12. Dynamics of a colloid-stabilized cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig, E. M.; Robert, A.; van 'T Zand, D. D.; Cipelletti, L.; Pusey, P. N.; Clegg, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of a high-volume-fraction emulsion creaming under gravity. The dodecane-in-water emulsion has interfaces stabilized solely by colloidal particles (silica). The samples were observed soon after mixing: as the emulsion becomes compact we discern two regimes of aging with a crossover between them. The young emulsion has faster dynamics associated with creaming in a crowded environment accompanied by local rearrangements. The dynamics slow down for the older emulsion, although our studies show that motion is associated with large intermittent events. The relaxation rate, as seen from the intensity autocorrelation function, depends linearly on the wave vector at all times; however, the exponent associated with the line shape changes from 1.5 for young samples to less than 1 as the emulsion ages. The combination of ballisticlike dynamics, an exponent that drops below 1, and large intermittent fluctuations has not been reported before to our knowledge.

  13. Sea-ice melt CO2-carbonate chemistry in the western Arctic Ocean: meltwater contributions to air-sea CO2 gas exchange, mixed-layer properties and rates of net community production under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, N. R.; Garley, R.; Frey, K. E.; Shake, K. L.; Mathis, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2)-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt and co-located, contemporaneous seawater has rarely been studied in sea-ice-covered oceans. Here, we describe the CO2-carbonate chemistry of sea-ice melt (both above sea-ice as "melt ponds" and below sea-ice as "interface waters") and mixed-layer properties in the western Arctic Ocean in the early summer of 2010 and 2011. At 19 stations, the salinity (∼0.5 to <6.5), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; ∼20 to <550 μmol kg-1) and total alkalinity (TA; ∼30 to <500 μmol kg-1) of above-ice melt pond water was low compared to the co-located underlying mixed layer. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in these melt ponds was highly variable (∼<10 to >1500 μatm) with the majority of melt ponds acting as potentially strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. The pH of melt pond waters was also highly variable ranging from mildly acidic (6.1 to 7) to slightly more alkaline than underlying seawater (>8.2 to 10.8). All of the observed melt ponds had very low (<0.1) saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals such as aragonite (Ωaragonite). Our data suggest that sea-ice generated alkaline or acidic type melt pond water. This melt water chemistry dictates whether the ponds are sources of CO2 to the atmosphere or CO2 sinks. Below-ice interface water CO2-carbonate chemistry data also indicated substantial generation of alkalinity, presumably owing to dissolution of CaCO3 in sea-ice. The interface waters generally had lower pCO2 and higher pH/Ωaragonite than the co-located mixed layer beneath. Sea-ice melt thus contributed to the suppression of mixed-layer pCO2, thereby enhancing the surface ocean's capacity to uptake CO2 from the atmosphere. Our observations contribute to growing evidence that sea-ice CO2-carbonate chemistry is highly variable and its contribution to the complex factors that influence the balance of CO2 sinks and sources (and thereby ocean acidification) is difficult to

  14. Using CREAM and CEMonitor for job submission and management in the gLite middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Dalla Fina, S.; Dorigo, A.; Frizziero, E.; Gianelle, A.; Marzolla, M.; Mazzucato, M.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Miccio, V.; Sgaravatto, M.; Traldi, S.; Zangrando, L.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe the use of CREAM and CEMonitor services for job submission and management within the gLite Grid middleware. Both CREAM and CEMonitor address one of the most fundamental operations of a Grid middleware, that is job submission and management. Specifically, CREAM is a job management service used for submitting, managing and monitoring computational jobs. CEMonitor is an event notification framework, which can be coupled with CREAM to provide the users with asynchronous job status change notifications. Both components have been integrated in the gLite Workload Management System by means of ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment). These software components have been released for production in the EGEE Grid infrastructure and, for what concerns the CEMonitor service, also in the OSG Grid. In this paper we report the current status of these services, the achieved results, and the issues that still have to be addressed.

  15. Electron Irradiation and Thermal Processing of Mixed-ices of Potential Relevance to Jupiter Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoub, Ahmed; Poston, Michael J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Brown, Michael E.; Hodyss, Robert; Blacksberg, Jordana; Eiler, John M.; Carlson, Robert W.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-04-01

    In this work we explore the chemistry that occurs during the irradiation of ice mixtures on planetary surfaces, with the goal of linking the presence of specific chemical compounds to their formation locations in the solar system and subsequent processing by later migration inward. We focus on the outer solar system and the chemical differences for ice mixtures inside and outside the stability line for H2S. We perform a set of experiments to explore the hypothesis advanced by Wong & Brown that links the color bimodality in Jupiter's Trojans to the presence of H2S in the surface of their precursors. Non-thermal (10 keV electron irradiation) and thermally driven chemistry of CH3OH-NH3-H2O (“without H2S”) and H2S-CH3OH-NH3-H2O (“with H2S”) ices were examined. Mid-IR analyses of ice and mass spectrometry monitoring of the volatiles released during heating show a rich chemistry in both of the ice mixtures. The “with H2S” mixture experiment shows a rapid consumption of H2S molecules and production of OCS molecules after a few hours of irradiation. The heating of the irradiated “with H2S” mixture to temperatures above 120 K leads to the appearance of new infrared bands that we provisionally assign to SO2and CS. We show that radiolysis products are stable under the temperature and irradiation conditions of Jupiter Trojan asteroids. This makes them suitable target molecules for potential future missions as well as telescope observations with a high signal-to-noise ratio. We also suggest the consideration of sulfur chemistry in the theoretical modeling aimed at understanding the chemical composition of Trojans and KOBs.

  16. Hydra modeling of the effect of nearly complete inflight ice and ablator mix in a NIF implosion on several key diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kritcher, Andrea; Sepke, Scott; Scott, Howard; Regan, Sean; Masse, Laurent; Raman, Kumar; Grim, Gary; Cerjan, Charlie; Marinak, Marty; Spears, Brian; Meezan, Nathan; Suter, Larry

    2012-10-01

    A programmed mix model is used with the radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA to explore the effects of nearly complete inflight mixing of the ice and ablator on NIC implosion performance and diagnostic signatures. In NIC DT implosions, nearly complete mix of the DT ice and ablator can be envisioned via cold jets of material penetrating the ice possibly combined with turbulence at the fuel-ablator interface. The quantitative impact of this scenario on several key NIF diagnostics, including yield, ion temperature, downscattered neutron spectrum, neutron imaging, Ge and Cu atomic emission analysis, gated x-ray imaging, and streaked x-ray radiography will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-564191.

  17. Lateral mixing across ice meltwater fronts of the Chukchi Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K.; Weingartner, T.; Danielson, S.; Winsor, P.; Dobbins, E.; Martini, K.; Statscewich, H.

    2015-08-01

    Summer and fall hydrographic sections in the northeastern Chukchi Sea frequently capture 5-20 m thick intrapycnocline lenses or horizontal plumes of warm, moderately salty summer Bering Sea Water flowing northward from Bering Strait. These features occur within the shallow (~20 m depth) pycnocline separating cold, dilute, surface meltwater from near-freezing, salty, winter-formed waters beneath the pycnocline. An idealized numerical model suggests that the features arise from eddies and meanders generated by instability of the surface front separating meltwater from Bering Sea Water. Warm Bering Sea Water is transported across the front and into the pycnocline by the cross-frontal velocities associated with the instabilities. The accompanying lateral eddy heat fluxes may be important both in summer for promoting ice melt and in fall by delaying the onset of ice formation over portions of this shelf. Lateral heat flux magnitudes depend upon the stratification of the Bering Sea Water.

  18. The Coffee and Cream Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how Newton's Law of Cooling and the Method of Mixtures are used to solve the basic dilemma of whether to add the cool cream to the hot coffee or to let the black coffee cool down first and then add the cream. (ZWH)

  19. Does Ice Matter? Heavy Rainfall from Warm and Mixed-phase Convection in COPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, David.; Lasher-Trapp, Sonia; French, Jeffrey; Blyth, Alan; Bennett, Lindsay; Brown, Phil

    2014-05-01

    The COnvective Precipitation E experiment (COPE), which took place over the southwestern peninsula of the UK in Summer 2013, was motivated by a number of convective storms that produced flash flooding, chief among them the Boscastle flood event of 2004. Cloud tops during the Boscastle flood reached temperatures of -15 to -20 °C. Coupled with possible seeding from aloft, it was reasonable to presume that ice processes played an important role in precipitation formation. Some heavy precipitation events were sampled by the suite of ground-based and airborne instruments assembled for COPE, despite the unusually warm and dry weather in the UK at that time. Convective cells during several of these events had tops below the freezing level, or not far above where no ice was observed by the aircraft. Impressively, heavy rainfall was observed at the ground-based X-band radar with reflectivities frequently exceedeeding +60 dBZ. Here we use new in situ observations from the University of Wyoming King Air and the Wyoming Cloud Radar to corroborate reflectivity from the ground-based X-band radar. These observations, along with atmospheric soundings and calculations from a 1D warm rain model, are also utilized to understand the dynamic, thermodynamic and microphysical structure of these heavily precipitating convective cells. These observations lead us to question the prevalent assumption that ice processes are critical to the production of heavy convective precipitation.

  20. The Spectral Signature of Mixed-Phase Clouds Composed of Non-Spherical Ice Crystals and Spherical Liquid Droplets in the Terrestrial Window Region

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.; Wei, H.- L.; Bryan, B. A.; Huang, H.- L.; Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Hu, Yong X.; Gao, B.- C.; Turner, David D.

    2003-06-01

    An outstanding problem facing the cloud modeling and remote sensing community is to improve satellite-derived cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties when a single cloud layer exists within a temperature range for which a combination of water and ice particles may be present. This is typically known as a ''mixed-phase'' cloud condition, and is prevalent when the cloud-top temperature lies between -40C and 0C. In this paper, we report on a sensitivity study of the spectral signature of mixed-phase clouds in the infrared terrestrial window (8-13 um). Mixed clouds are assumed to be a vertically uniform cloud layer composed of a mixture of pristine hexagonal crystals and spherical water droplets. Unlike the conventional approach that derives the bulk scattering properties of the mixed-phase clouds by a linear weighting of the contributions of ice and water components, the bulk single-scattering properties of mixed-phase clouds are formulated on the basis of fundamental physics. With the aid of a line-by-line radiative transfer model and a discrete ordinates radiative transfer (DISORT) computational program, we investigate the high-resolution spectral signature, expressed in terms of brightness temperature, of mixed-phase clouds with various effective sizes, ice fraction ratios, and optical thicknesses. Small particles are found to have a significant impact on the infrared spectral signature of mixed-phase clouds when the size discrepancy between the ice and water particles is large. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the infrared radiative spectrum associated with cirrus clouds can be quite different from their mixed-phase counterparts even if only a small amount of water droplets exist in the mixed-phase cloud layer.

  1. Importance of aerosol composition and mixing state for cloud droplet activation over the Arctic pack ice in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, C.; Svensson, E.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were measured throughout an expedition by icebreaker around the central Arctic Ocean, including a 3 week ice drift operation at 87° N, from 3 August to 9 September 2008. In agreement with previous observations in the area and season, median daily CCN concentrations at 0.2% water vapour supersaturation (SS) were typically in the range of 15 to 30 cm-3, but concentrations varied by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the expedition and were occasionally below 1 cm-3. The CCN concentrations were highest near the ice edge and fell by a factor of 3 in the first 48 h of transport from the open sea into the pack ice region. For longer transport times they increased again, indicating a local source over the pack ice, suggested to be polymer gels, via drops injected into the air by bubbles bursting on open leads. We inferred the properties of the unexplained non-water soluble aerosol fraction that was necessary for reproducing the observed concentrations of CCN. This was made possible by assuming Köhler theory and simulating the cloud nucleation process using a Lagrangian adiabatic air parcel model that solves the kinetic formulation for condensation of water on size resolved aerosol particles. We propose that the portion of the internally/externally mixed water insoluble particles was larger in the corresponding smaller aerosol size ranges. These particles were physically and chemically behaving as polymer gels: the interaction of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities on the structures of polymer gels during cloud droplet activation would at first only show a partial wetting character and only weak hygroscopic growth. Given time, a high CCN activation efficiency is achieved, which is promoted by the hydrophilicity or surface-active properties of the gels. Thus the result in this study argues that the behaviour of the high Arctic aerosol in CCN-counters operating at water vapour SSs > 0.4% (high relative humidities) may not

  2. Inverse scattering problem for mixed-phase and ice clouds. I. Numerical simulation of particle sizing from phase-function measurements.

    PubMed

    Oshchepkov, S; Isaka, H

    1997-11-20

    We propose a new method of particle size retrieval for mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. The method enables us to identify each component of a bicomponent cloud composed of water droplets and ice crystals and to retrieve a size distribution separately for each cloud component. We explore the method's capability by using sythetic multiangular data of scattered-light intensity. We model cloud microphysical characteristics by assuming two noninteracting cloud components, such as liquid or supercooled droplets and cubic or hexagonal ice crystals, with regular simple geometrical shapes as first approximation. The sensitivity of the method is tested for different relative concentrations of the cloud components that are varied over a wide range. First, we investigate the applicability limit of the single-component cloud approximation in retrieving particle size distributions of a bicomponent cloud. Second, we test the method to retrieve size distributions simultaneously for both components in mixed-phase clouds, and we discuss the conditions of its applicability.

  3. Altered dynamics of broad-leaved tree species in a Chinese subtropical montane mixed forest: the role of an anomalous extreme 2008 ice storm episode

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jielin; Xiong, Gaoming; Wang, Zhixian; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Changming; Shen, Guozhen; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Zongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Extreme climatic events can trigger gradual or abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation species. However, the impacts of these events on foundation species' demography and forest dynamics remain poorly understood. Here we quantified dynamics for both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved species groups, utilizing a monitoring permanent plot in a subtropical montane mixed forest in central China from 2001 to 2010 with particular relevance to the anomalous 2008 ice storm episode. We found that both species groups showed limited floristic alterations over the study period. For each species group, size distribution of dead individuals approximated a roughly irregular and flat shape prior to the ice storm and resembled an inverse J-shaped distribution after the ice storm. Furthermore, patterns of mortality and recruitment displayed disequilibrium behaviors with mortality exceeding recruitment for both species groups following the ice storm. Deciduous broad-leaved species group accelerated overall diameter growth, but the ice storm reduced evergreen small-sized diameter growth. We concluded that evergreen broad-leaved species were more susceptible to ice storms than deciduous broad-leaved species, and ice storm events, which may become more frequent with climate change, might potentially threaten the perpetuity of evergreen-dominated broad-leaved forests in this subtropical region in the long term. These results underscore the importance of long-term monitoring that is indispensible to elucidate causal links between forest dynamics and climatic perturbations. PMID:25897387

  4. Altered dynamics of broad-leaved tree species in a Chinese subtropical montane mixed forest: the role of an anomalous extreme 2008 ice storm episode.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jielin; Xiong, Gaoming; Wang, Zhixian; Zhang, Mi; Zhao, Changming; Shen, Guozhen; Xu, Wenting; Xie, Zongqiang

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climatic events can trigger gradual or abrupt shifts in forest ecosystems via the reduction or elimination of foundation species. However, the impacts of these events on foundation species' demography and forest dynamics remain poorly understood. Here we quantified dynamics for both evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved species groups, utilizing a monitoring permanent plot in a subtropical montane mixed forest in central China from 2001 to 2010 with particular relevance to the anomalous 2008 ice storm episode. We found that both species groups showed limited floristic alterations over the study period. For each species group, size distribution of dead individuals approximated a roughly irregular and flat shape prior to the ice storm and resembled an inverse J-shaped distribution after the ice storm. Furthermore, patterns of mortality and recruitment displayed disequilibrium behaviors with mortality exceeding recruitment for both species groups following the ice storm. Deciduous broad-leaved species group accelerated overall diameter growth, but the ice storm reduced evergreen small-sized diameter growth. We concluded that evergreen broad-leaved species were more susceptible to ice storms than deciduous broad-leaved species, and ice storm events, which may become more frequent with climate change, might potentially threaten the perpetuity of evergreen-dominated broad-leaved forests in this subtropical region in the long term. These results underscore the importance of long-term monitoring that is indispensible to elucidate causal links between forest dynamics and climatic perturbations.

  5. Simultaneous Remote Sensing of Ice Nuclei, Ice Crystals, Liquid Water and Atmospheric Dynamics in and Around Mixed-Phase Layered Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehl, J.; Radenz, M.; Leinweber, R.; Lehmann, V.; Seifert, P.; Görsdorf, U.; Ansmann, A.

    2015-12-01

    The process of ice nucleation plays a crucial role for the hydrological cycle on Earth. It influences the lifetime of clouds and can be a key element in the early stages of rain initiation. Therefore, direct observations of ice nucleation events in the atmosphere are crucial for quantitative insight into this complex process. Recently, DeMott (2010) provided a general description of the ice nucleating ability of aerosol particles, thus the estimation of available ice nuclei, e.g., from lidar measurements becomes possible for the first time. On the other hand, sophisticated combined remote sensing methods like Cloudnet allow detailed insight into the properties of ice crystals originating from cloud layers. In this context, combined observations with Raman/Depolarization lidar and radar show show a high synergistic potential, because combined they provide high sensitivity to the properties of both aerosol particles and ice crystals. In this work, results of a measurement campaign at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg, Germany are presented (Bühl, 2015). For the time period of four month a PollyXT Raman/Depolarization lidar, Doppler lidar, cloud radar and wind profiler were operated together to capture the full picture of aerosol properties, vertical motions, ice and liquid water properties in and around layered clouds. The number of ice nuclei in an aerosol layer surrounding a cloud is estimated via the parameterization of DeMott (2010). The number of ice nuclei falling from an ice cloud is estimated at the same time via radar measurements. It is shown that both quantities can be used to gain detailed, quantitative knowledge about the process of ice nucleation in layered clouds. References: DeMott, P. et. al., 2010: Predicting global atmospheric ice nuclei distributions and their impacts on climate, PNAS, 107 (25) Buehl, J. et. al., 2015: Combined vertical-velocity observations with Doppler lidar, cloud radar and wind profiler, AMTD

  6. Sensitivity study of subgrid scale ocean mixing under sea ice using a two-column ocean grid in climate model CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Meibing; Hutchings, Jennifer; Kawaguchi, Yusuke

    2015-12-01

    Brine drainage from sea ice formation plays a critical role in ocean mixing and seasonal variations of halocline in polar oceans. The horizontal scale of brine drainage and its induced convection is much smaller than a climate model grid and a model tends to produce false ocean mixing when brine drainage is averaged over a grid cell. A two-column ocean grid (TCOG) scheme was implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) using coupled sea ice-ocean model setting to explicitly solve the different vertical mixing in the two sub-columns of one model grid with and without brine rejection. The fraction of grid with brine rejection was tested to be equal to the lead fraction or a small constant number in a series of sensitivity model runs forced by the same atmospheric data from 1978 to 2009. The model results were compared to observations from 29 ice tethered profilers (ITP) in the Arctic Ocean Basin from 2004 to 2009. Compared with the control run using a regular ocean grid, the TCOG simulations showed consistent reduction of model errors in salinity and mixed layer depth (MLD). The model using a small constant fraction grid for brine rejection was found to produce the best model comparison with observations, indicating that the horizontal scale of the brine drainage is very small compared to the sea ice cover and even smaller than the lead fraction. Comparable to models using brine rejection parameterization schemes, TCOG achieved more improvements in salinity but similar in MLD.

  7. A FIRE-ACE/SHEBA Case Study of Mixed-Phase Arctic Boundary Layer Clouds: Entrainment Rate Limitations on Rapid Primary Ice Nucleation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridlin, Ann; vanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Mrowiec, Agnieszka; Morrison, Hugh; Zuidema, Paquita; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of long-lived mixed-phase Arctic boundary layer clouds on 7 May 1998 during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE)Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign provide a unique opportunity to test understanding of cloud ice formation. Under the microphysically simple conditions observed (apparently negligible ice aggregation, sublimation, and multiplication), the only expected source of new ice crystals is activation of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and the only sink is sedimentation. Large-eddy simulations with size-resolved microphysics are initialized with IN number concentration N(sub IN) measured above cloud top, but details of IN activation behavior are unknown. If activated rapidly (in deposition, condensation, or immersion modes), as commonly assumed, IN are depleted from the well-mixed boundary layer within minutes. Quasi-equilibrium ice number concentration N(sub i) is then limited to a small fraction of overlying N(sub IN) that is determined by the cloud-top entrainment rate w(sub e) divided by the number-weighted ice fall speed at the surface v(sub f). Because w(sub c)< 1 cm/s and v(sub f)> 10 cm/s, N(sub i)/N(sub IN)<< 1. Such conditions may be common for this cloud type, which has implications for modeling IN diagnostically, interpreting measurements, and quantifying sensitivity to increasing N(sub IN) (when w(sub e)/v(sub f)< 1, entrainment rate limitations serve to buffer cloud system response). To reproduce observed ice crystal size distributions and cloud radar reflectivities with rapidly consumed IN in this case, the measured above-cloud N(sub IN) must be multiplied by approximately 30. However, results are sensitive to assumed ice crystal properties not constrained by measurements. In addition, simulations do not reproduce the pronounced mesoscale heterogeneity in radar reflectivity that is observed.

  8. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat fungal and yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for ...

  9. CREAM Balloon Flights and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica on December 21, 2010 for its sixth flight. A cumulative exposure of ~ 161 days was achieved when this almost 6-day flight was terminated on December 26, 2010. The calorimeter module was recovered in one piece on the pallet without dis-assembly, despite the challenging recovery location at high altitude on the opposite side of the Antarctic continent from McMurdo Station. The recovered CREAM-VI instrument was calibrated at CERN in October 2011, and it is being integrated for a CREAM-VII flight in Antarctica. The CREAM-V instrument recovered previously was refurbished, and it is being re-configured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  10. Response of mixed-phase boundary layer clouds with rapid and slow ice nucleation processes to cloud-top temperature trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Avramov, A.; Ackerman, A. S.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.; DeMott, P. J.; Brooks, S. D.; Glen, A.

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued on the basis of some laboratory data sets, observed mixed-phase cloud systems, and numerical modeling studies that weakly active or slowly consumed ice forming nuclei (IFN) may be important to natural cloud systems. It has also been argued on the basis of field measurements that ice nucleation under mixed-phase conditions appears to occur predominantly via a liquid-phase mechanism, requiring the presence of liquid droplets prior to substantial ice nucleation. Here we analyze the response of quasi-Lagrangian large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase cloud layers to IFN operating via a liquid-phase mode using assumptions that result in either slow or rapid depletion of IFN from the cloudy boundary layer. Using several generalized case studies that do not exhibit riming or drizzle, based loosely on field campaign data, we vary environmental conditions such that the cloud-top temperature trend varies. One objective of this work is to identify differing patterns in ice formation intensity that may be distinguishable from ground-based or satellite platforms.

  11. Effects of glacial meltwater inflows and moat freezing on mixing in an ice-covered antarctic lake as interpreted from stable isotope and tritium distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Aiken, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys have risen several meters over the past two decades due to climatic warming and increased glacial meltwater inflow. To elucidate the hydrologic responses to changing climate and the effects on lake mixing processes we measured the stable isotope (??18O and ??D) and tritium concentrations of water and ice samples collected in the Lake Fryxell watershed from 1987 through 1990. Stable isotope enrichment resulted from evaporation in stream and moat samples and from sublimation in surface lake-ice samples. Tritium enrichment resulted from exchange with the postnuclear atmosphere in stream and moat samples. Rapid injection of tritiated water into the upper water column of the make and incorporation of this water into the ice cover resulted in uniformly elevated tritium contents (> 3.0 TU) in these reservoirs. Tritium was also present in deep water, suggesting that a component of bottom water was recently at the surface. During summer, melted lake ice and stream water forms the moat. Water excluded from ice formation during fall moat freezing (enriched in solutes and tritium, and depleted in 18O and 2H relative to water below 15-m depth) may sink as density currents to the bottom of the lake. Seasonal lake circulation, in response to climate-driven surface inflow, is therefore responsible for the distribution of both water isotopes and dissolved solutes in Lake Fryxell.

  12. The 37-day flight of CREAM during the 2009-2010 austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was launched from McMurdo Station Antarctica on December 1, 2009, an early-launch record for Antarctic Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flights. A cumulative exposure of ˜ 156 days was achieved when this 37-day fifth flight of CREAM was terminated over the Ross Ice Shelf on January 8, 2010. Combining a sampling calorimeter for energy measurement with multiple charge detectors for particle identification, CREAM-V provided a large data sample to measure elemental spectra for 1 ≤ Z ≤ 26 in energies above 1014 eV. This was the first time that CREAM was supported with the standard Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) for LDB payloads. The first four flights were supported by the Command and Data Module (CDM) developed by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility for Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  13. The origins of ice crystals measured in mixed-phase clouds at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, G.; Choularton, T. W.; Bower, K. N.; Gallagher, M. W.; Connolly, P. J.; Flynn, M.; Farrington, R.; Crosier, J.; Schlenczek, O.; Fugal, J.; Henneberger, J.

    2015-11-01

    During the winter of 2013 and 2014 measurements of cloud microphysical properties over a 5-week period at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, were carried out as part of the Cloud Aerosol Characterisation Experiments (CLACE) and the Ice Nucleation Process Investigation and Quantification project (INUPIAQ). Measurements of aerosol properties at a second, lower site, Schilthorn, Switzerland, were used as input for a primary ice nucleation scheme to predict ice nuclei concentrations at Jungfraujoch. Frequent, rapid transitions in the ice and liquid properties of the clouds at Jungfraujoch were identified that led to large fluctuations in ice mass fractions over temporal scales of seconds to hours. During the measurement period we observed high concentrations of ice particles that exceeded 1000 L-1 at temperatures around -15 °C, verified by multiple instruments. These concentrations could not be explained using the usual primary ice nucleation schemes, which predicted ice nucleus concentrations several orders of magnitude smaller than the peak ice crystal number concentrations. Secondary ice production through the Hallett-Mossop process as a possible explanation was ruled out, as the cloud was rarely within the active temperature range for this process. It is shown that other mechanisms of secondary ice particle production cannot explain the highest ice particle concentrations. We describe four possible mechanisms that could lead to high cloud ice concentrations generated from the snow-covered surfaces surrounding the measurement site. Of these we show that hoar frost crystals generated at the cloud enveloped snow surface could be the most important source of cloud ice concentrations. Blowing snow was also observed to make significant contributions at higher wind speeds when ice crystal concentrations were < 100 L-1.

  14. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  15. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  16. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  17. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  18. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  19. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  20. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  1. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  2. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  3. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  4. Ivermectin 1% cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G; Daigle, D; Gupta, A K; Gold, L S

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is not well understood yet appears to involve both the innate and adaptive immune response in addition to possible infestation with Demodex mites. Current treatments for PPR consist mainly of antibiotics. Ivermectin cream 1%, a new topical treatment for PPR, possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic properties. After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects treated with ivermectin cream 1% had significantly greater reductions in PPR symptoms and enhanced diseaserelated quality of life improvements compared to subjects who received vehicle. Furthermore, PPR symptoms continued to improve with prolonged treatment (40 weeks). Ivermectin cream 1% offers a multi-pronged approach to combat the complex pathophysiology of rosacea. PMID:26382711

  5. Final Technical Report for "Ice nuclei relation to aerosol properties: Data analysis and model parameterization for IN in mixed-phase clouds" (DOE/SC00002354)

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Prenni; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2012-09-28

    Clouds play an important role in weather and climate. In addition to their key role in the hydrologic cycle, clouds scatter incoming solar radiation and trap infrared radiation from the surface and lower atmosphere. Despite their importance, feedbacks involving clouds remain as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate models. To better simulate cloud processes requires better characterization of cloud microphysical processes, which can affect the spatial extent, optical depth and lifetime of clouds. To this end, we developed a new parameterization to be used in numerical models that describes the variation of ice nuclei (IN) number concentrations active to form ice crystals in mixed-phase (water droplets and ice crystals co-existing) cloud conditions as these depend on existing aerosol properties and temperature. The parameterization is based on data collected using the Colorado State University continuous flow diffusion chamber in aircraft and ground-based campaigns over a 14-year period, including data from the DOE-supported Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment. The resulting relationship is shown to more accurately represent the variability of ice nuclei distributions in the atmosphere compared to currently used parameterizations based on temperature alone. When implemented in one global climate model, the new parameterization predicted more realistic annually averaged cloud water and ice distributions, and cloud radiative properties, especially for sensitive higher latitude mixed-phase cloud regions. As a test of the new global IN scheme, it was compared to independent data collected during the 2008 DOE-sponsored Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC). Good agreement with this new data set suggests the broad applicability of the new scheme for describing general (non-chemically specific) aerosol influences on IN number concentrations feeding mixed-phase Arctic stratus clouds. Finally, the parameterization was implemented into a regional

  6. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared...

  7. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c... Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the cream is applied to the affected areas once or... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  8. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c... Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the cream is applied to the affected areas once or... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  9. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c... Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the cream is applied to the affected areas once or... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  10. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  11. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  12. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  13. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  14. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  15. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  16. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  17. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  18. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  19. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  20. In-situ single submicron particle composition analysis of ice residuals from mountain-top mixed-phase clouds in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, S.; Schneider, J.; Klimach, T.; Mertes, S.; Schenk, L. P.; Curtius, J.; Kupiszewski, P.; Hammer, E.; Vochezer, P.; Lloyd, G.; Ebert, M.; Kandler, K.; Weinbruch, S.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents results from the "INUIT-JFJ/CLACE 2013" field campaign at the high alpine research station Jungfraujoch in January/February 2013. The chemical composition of ice particle residuals (IPR) in a size diameter range of 200-900 nm was measured in orographic, convective and non-convective clouds with a single particle mass spectrometer (ALABAMA) under ambient conditions characterized by temperatures between -28 and -4 °C and wind speed from 0.1 to 21 km h-1. Additionally, background aerosol particles in cloud free air were investigated. The IPR were sampled from mixed-phase clouds with two inlets which selectively extract small ice crystals in-cloud, namely the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) and the Ice Selective Inlet (ISI). The IPR as well as the aerosol particles were classified into seven different particle types: (1) black carbon, (2) organic carbon, (3) black carbon internally mixed with organic carbon, (4) minerals, (5) one particle group (termed "BioMinSal") that may contain biological particles, minerals, or salts, (6) industrial metals, and (7) lead containing particles. For any sampled particle population it was determined by means of single particle mass spectrometer how many of the analyzed particles belonged to each of these categories. Accordingly, between 20 and 30% of the IPR and roughly 42% of the background particles contained organic carbon. The measured fractions of minerals in the IPR composition varied from 6 to 33%, while the values for the "BioMinSal" group were between 15 and 29%. Four percent to 31% of the IPR contained organic carbon mixed with black carbon. Both inlets delivered similar results of the chemical composition and of the particle size distribution, although lead was found only in the IPR sampled by the Ice-CVI. The results show that the ice particle residual composition varies substantially between different cloud events, which indicates the influence of different meteorological conditions, such as

  1. Quasi real-time analysis of mixed-phase clouds using interferometric out-of-focus imaging: development of an algorithm to assess liquid and ice water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Brunel, M.; Rondeau, A.; Porcheron, E.; Gréhan, G.

    2015-12-01

    According to changes in aircraft certifications rules, instrumentation has to be developed to alert the flight crews of potential icing conditions. The technique developed needs to measure in real time the amount of ice and liquid water encountered by the plane. Interferometric imaging offers an interesting solution: It is currently used to measure the size of regular droplets, and it can further measure the size of irregular particles from the analysis of their speckle-like out-of-focus images. However, conventional image processing needs to be speeded up to be compatible with the real-time detection of icing conditions. This article presents the development of an optimised algorithm to accelerate image processing. The algorithm proposed is based on the detection of each interferogram with the use of the gradient pair vector method. This method is shown to be 13 times faster than the conventional Hough transform. The algorithm is validated on synthetic images of mixed phase clouds, and finally tested and validated in laboratory conditions. This algorithm should have important applications in the size measurement of droplets and ice particles for aircraft safety, cloud microphysics investigation, and more generally in the real-time analysis of triphasic flows using interferometric particle imaging.

  2. Inverse scattering problem for mixed-phase and ice clouds. I. Numerical simulation of particle sizing from phase-function measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshchepkov, Sergey; Isaka, Harumi

    1997-11-01

    We propose a new method of particle size retrieval for mixed-phase and ice crystal clouds. The method enables us to identify each component of a bicomponent cloud composed of water droplets and ice crystals and to retrieve a size distribution separately for each cloud component. We explore the method s capability by using sythetic multiangular data of scattered-light intensity. We model cloud microphysical characteristics by assuming two noninteracting cloud components, such as liquid or supercooled droplets and cubic or hexagonal ice crystals, with regular simple geometrical shapes as first approximation. The sensitivity of the method is tested for different relative concentrations of the cloud components that are varied over a wide range. First, we investigate the applicability limit of the single-component cloud approximation in retrieving particle size distributions of a bicomponent cloud. Second, we test the method to retrieve size distributions simultaneously for both components in mixed-phase clouds, and we discuss the conditions of its applicability.

  3. Ice clouds and Asian dust studied with lidar measurements of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, particle depolarization, and water-vapor mixing ratio over Tsukuba.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Masahisa; Mano, Yuzo; Matsumura, Takatsugu

    2003-12-20

    The tropospheric particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, the depolarization ratio, and the water-vapor mixing ratio were measured by use of a Raman lidar and a polarization lidar during the Asian dust seasons in 2001 and 2002 in Tsukuba, Japan. The apparent (not corrected for multiple-scattering effects) extinction-to-backscatter ratios (Sp) showed a dependence on the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) obtained from the lidar-derived water-vapor mixing ratio and radiosonde-derived temperature; they were mostly higher than 30 sr in dry air (RHice < 50%), whereas they were mostly lower than 30 sr in ice-supersaturated air (RHice > or = 100%), where the apparent extinction coefficients were larger than 0.036 km(-1). Both regions showed mean particle depolarization ratios of 20%-22%. Comparisons with theoretical calculations and the previous experiments suggest that the observed dependence of Sp on RHice is attributed to the difference in the predominant particles: nonspherical aerosols (mainly the Asian dust) in dry air and cloud particles in ice-supersaturated air. PMID:14717284

  4. Ice clouds and Asian dust studied with lidar measurements of particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, particle depolarization, and water-vapor mixing ratio over Tsukuba.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Masahisa; Mano, Yuzo; Matsumura, Takatsugu

    2003-12-20

    The tropospheric particle extinction-to-backscatter ratio, the depolarization ratio, and the water-vapor mixing ratio were measured by use of a Raman lidar and a polarization lidar during the Asian dust seasons in 2001 and 2002 in Tsukuba, Japan. The apparent (not corrected for multiple-scattering effects) extinction-to-backscatter ratios (Sp) showed a dependence on the relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) obtained from the lidar-derived water-vapor mixing ratio and radiosonde-derived temperature; they were mostly higher than 30 sr in dry air (RHice < 50%), whereas they were mostly lower than 30 sr in ice-supersaturated air (RHice > or = 100%), where the apparent extinction coefficients were larger than 0.036 km(-1). Both regions showed mean particle depolarization ratios of 20%-22%. Comparisons with theoretical calculations and the previous experiments suggest that the observed dependence of Sp on RHice is attributed to the difference in the predominant particles: nonspherical aerosols (mainly the Asian dust) in dry air and cloud particles in ice-supersaturated air.

  5. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  6. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  7. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  9. Investigating the Microphysics of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds using Large Eddy Simulations: The Importance of Liquid-Dependent Ice Nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gillian; Connolly, Paul J.; Jones, Hazel M.; Choularton, Thomas W.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Crosier, Jonathan; Lloyd, Gary; Bower, Keith N.

    2015-04-01

    Our ability to comprehend and accurately model the Arctic climate is currently hindered by a lack of observations of the atmospheric processes unique to this region. A significant source of uncertainty in such models may be found in our representation of aerosol-cloud interactions [1]: for example, there are unanswered questions concerning the relationship between the ice-nucleating Arctic aerosol and the unique cloud microphysics observed in this region [2]. In an effort to address this issue, the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign of 2013 was conducted in the vicinity of the Svalbard archipelago, carrying out in-situ airborne observations of the mixed-phase clouds in this region. This campaign was split into two segments - one in spring, the other in summer - with airborne- and surface-based measurement platforms utilised in each. During the spring campaign, a range of microphysics and remote-sensing instruments were active on board the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements' (FAAM) BAe146 aircraft to produce a detailed record of the observed Arctic atmosphere. These data were used to conduct a modelling investigation with a focus on ice nucleation: the Large Eddy Model (LEM) - a cloud-resolving model developed by the UK Met Office - was initialised from these observations and simulations were performed to allow the resultant cloud evolution, structure and microphysics to be examined. Models on various scales notoriously have issues with reproducing persistent, mixed-phase Arctic clouds [2,3] and, upon first inspection, the LEM was no different: the modelled cloud dissipated quickly, thus inaccurately replicating the long-lived, mixed-phase clouds observed. However, by considering the discrepancies between the model output and aircraft observations, the treatment of cloud microphysics within the LEM has been developed to improve the simulation of the observed clouds. A long-lived, mixed-phase cloud of similar

  10. Parameterization of the Extinction Coefficient in Ice and Mixed-Phase Arctic Clouds during the ISDAC Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Korolev, A; Shashkov, A; Barker, H

    2012-03-06

    This report documents the history of attempts to directly measure cloud extinction, the current measurement device known as the Cloud Extinction Probe (CEP), specific problems with direct measurement of extinction coefficient, and the attempts made here to address these problems. Extinction coefficient is one of the fundamental microphysical parameters characterizing bulk properties of clouds. Knowledge of extinction coefficient is of crucial importance for radiative transfer calculations in weather prediction and climate models given that Earth's radiation budget (ERB) is modulated much by clouds. In order for a large-scale model to properly account for ERB and perturbations to it, it must ultimately be able to simulate cloud extinction coefficient well. In turn this requires adequate and simultaneous simulation of profiles of cloud water content and particle habit and size. Similarly, remote inference of cloud properties requires assumptions to be made about cloud phase and associated single-scattering properties, of which extinction coefficient is crucial. Hence, extinction coefficient plays an important role in both application and validation of methods for remote inference of cloud properties from data obtained from both satellite and surface sensors (e.g., Barker et al. 2008). While estimation of extinction coefficient within large-scale models is relatively straightforward for pure water droplets, thanks to Mie theory, mixed-phase and ice clouds still present problems. This is because of the myriad forms and sizes that crystals can achieve, each having their own unique extinction properties. For the foreseeable future, large-scale models will have to be content with diagnostic parametrization of crystal size and type. However, before they are able to provide satisfactory values needed for calculation of radiative transfer, they require the intermediate step of assigning single-scattering properties to particles. The most basic of these is extinction

  11. Observed microphysical changes in Arctic mixed-phase clouds when transitioning from sea-ice to open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Gillian; Jones, Hazel M.; Crosier, Jonathan; Bower, Keith N.; Darbyshire, Eoghan; Taylor, Jonathan W.; Liu, Dantong; Allan, James D.; Williams, Paul I.; Gallagher, Martin W.; Choularton, Thomas W.

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is intricately coupled to the atmosphere[1]. The decreasing sea-ice extent with the changing climate raises questions about how Arctic cloud structure will respond. Any effort to answer these questions is hindered by the scarcity of atmospheric observations in this region. Comprehensive cloud and aerosol measurements could allow for an improved understanding of the relationship between surface conditions and cloud structure; knowledge which could be key in validating weather model forecasts. Previous studies[2] have shown via remote sensing that cloudiness increases over the marginal ice zone (MIZ) and ocean with comparison to the sea-ice; however, to our knowledge, detailed in-situ data of this transition have not been previously presented. In 2013, the Aerosol-Cloud Coupling and Climate Interactions in the Arctic (ACCACIA) campaign was carried out in the vicinity of Svalbard, Norway to collect in-situ observations of the Arctic atmosphere and investigate this issue. Fitted with a suite of remote sensing, cloud and aerosol instrumentation, the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft was used during the spring segment of the campaign (Mar-Apr 2013). One case study (23rd Mar 2013) produced excellent coverage of the atmospheric changes when transitioning from sea-ice, through the MIZ, to the open ocean. Clear microphysical changes were observed, with the cloud liquid-water content increasing by almost four times over the transition. Cloud base, depth and droplet number also increased, whilst ice number concentrations decreased slightly. The surface warmed by ~13 K from sea-ice to ocean, with minor differences in aerosol particle number (of sizes corresponding to Cloud Condensation Nuclei or Ice Nucleating Particles) observed, suggesting that the primary driver of these microphysical changes was the increased heat fluxes and induced turbulence from the warm ocean surface as expected. References: [1] Kapsch, M.L., Graversen, R.G. and Tjernström, M. Springtime

  12. Fusidic acid betamethasone lipid cream.

    PubMed

    Girolomoni, G; Mattina, R; Manfredini, S; Vertuani, S; Fabrizi, G

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues are frequent disorders. They can be primitive infections (e.g. impetigo, folliculitis) or secondary infections complicating other diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis. The most common aetiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Topical antibiotic therapy may be sufficient in many instances to control these infections. Fusidic acid is an antibiotic used topically on the skin which is very active against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, and other Gram-positive bacteria. Resistance rates to fusidic acid are stably low. A fusidic acid and betamethasone formulation in a lipid-enriched cream (lipid cream) has been recently developed in order to provide effective antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in conjunction with a powerful emollient and moisturising effect. This preparation may be especially useful in patients with atopic-infected eczema. PMID:27121235

  13. Stability of dithranol in creams.

    PubMed

    Wuis, E W; Burger, D M; Beelen, M; Hekster, Y A

    1999-12-01

    The stability of the anthrachinone derivative dithranol in creams was studied during storage at temperatures of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Aluminum-coated tubes with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% dithranol were stored and samples were analysed immediately and after 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The 0.3% dithranol cream was also stored in polypropylene tubes. Drug concentration was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. All concentrations tested were stable for 12 months of storage at 4 degrees C in aluminum-coated tubes. This means that these low concentrations are sufficiently stable to be prepared in advance for at least 12 months if prepared as described and kept refrigerated. Polypropylene tubes should not be used.

  14. The dependence of ice microphysics on aerosol concentration in arctic mixed-phase stratus clouds during ISDAC and M-PACE

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Robert C.; McFarquhar, Greg; Korolev, Alexei; Earle, Michael; Liu, Peter S.; Lawson, R. P.; Brooks, Sarah D.; Wolde, Mengistu; Laskin, Alexander; Freer, Matthew

    2012-08-14

    Cloud and aerosol data acquired by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) Convair-580 aircraft in, above, and below single-layer arctic stratocumulus cloud during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) in April 2008 were used to test three aerosol indirect effects hypothesized to act in mixed-phase clouds: the riming indirect effect, the glaciation indirect effect, and the cold second indirect effect. The data showed a correlation of R= 0.75 between liquid drop number concentration, Nliq, inside cloud and ambient aerosol number concentration NPCASP below cloud. This, combined with increasing liquid water content LWC with height above cloud base and the nearly constant profile of Nliq, suggested that liquid drops were nucleated from aerosol at cloud base. No strong evidence of a riming indirect effect was observed, but a strong correlation of R = 0.69 between ice crystal number concentration Ni and NPCASP above cloud was noted. Increases in ice nuclei (IN) concentration with NPCASP above cloud combined with the subadiabatic LWC profiles suggest possible mixing of IN from cloud top consistent with the glaciation indirect effect. The higher Nice and lower effective radius rel for the more polluted ISDAC cases compared to data collected in cleaner single-layer stratocumulus conditions during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment is consistent with the operation of the cold second indirect effect. However, more data in a wider variety of meteorological and surface conditions, with greater variations in aerosol forcing, are required to identify the dominant aerosol forcing mechanisms in mixed-phase arctic clouds.

  15. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  16. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  17. Is permethrin 5% cream effective for rosacea?

    PubMed

    Swenor, M Elizabeth

    2003-03-01

    Permethrin 5% cream is a safe alternative for the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Permethrin 5% cream is superior to metronidazole 0.75% gel and placebo in decreasing Demodex folliculorum, and is as effective as metronidazole 0.75% gel in treating erythema and papules. PMID:12620164

  18. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  19. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  20. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  1. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  2. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  3. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  4. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  5. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  6. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  7. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  8. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  9. [Preparation of water in oil type cream with high content of water containing Kochia scoparia fruit and Cnidium monnieri fruit].

    PubMed

    Kohri, Naonori; Yamashita, Miki; Kanazawa, Tsutomu; Kodera, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Kikisui is a herbal lotion containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit that is clinically used as an antipruritic for itchy dry skin. However, this formulation is unsuitable for inducing a prolonged effect. Here, we attempted to change the formulation from a lotion to a cream. The cream we chose was a water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsion for enhancing skin compatibility. In addition, the high water content imparts a sensation of coolness. However, it is difficult to prepare a stable W/O type cream with high water content using a mechanical mixing method. Instead, we prepared the W/O type emulsion using liquid crystals. Water containing cocamidopropyl betaine was added to a dispersed phase comprising an oil phase of oleic acid and liquid paraffin that was constantly stirred. Addition of an aqueous solution containing Kochia scoparia Fruit and Cnidium monnieri Fruit decreased the stability of the cream. However, addition of glycerin as a humectant, and ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate/n-butyl p-hydroxybenzoate as preservatives enhanced the stability of the cream. The stability of the emulsion was correlated with the apparent viscosity of the cream. The final W/O type cream had a water content of 83% and was stable for more than 6 months at 4°C. Furthermore, ostol, which is one of the main biologically active herbal compounds, was also stable for more than 6 months.

  10. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker.

    PubMed

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke

    2009-06-01

    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  11. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... See 000859 in § 510.600(c). (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Apply 1/4-inch ribbon of cream per... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  12. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... See 000859 in § 510.600(c). (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Apply 1/4-inch ribbon of cream per... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  13. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  14. 21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) Cuprimyxin is a broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal cream for... application to cutaneous areas, a change in color from dark green to pink is due to the liberation of...

  15. Does alprostadil cream hit the spot?

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Alprostadil, a prostaglandin, has been marketed for many years as a urethral stick and an intracavernous injection for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.(1) It is now available in the form of a cream (Vitaros-Takeda). Adverts for the product declare: "Sex with no pills, pellets or needles. Spot on." In this article, we consider the evidence for alprostadil cream, and its place in the management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:25678352

  16. Bundled-Up Babies & Dangerous Ice Cream: Correlation Puzzlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenholley, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    The Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York City is fourth among all community colleges in awarding degrees to minority students and in awarding degrees to African Americans. The BMCC student body is approximately 37 percent Hispanic, 33 percent black, 15 percent white, and 15 percent Asian. In addition, a significant proportion…

  17. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... responsible for the outbreaks is raw or undercooked eggs. A person infected with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), the strain of Salmonella found most frequently in raw eggs, usually has fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps beginning ...

  18. Ice Cream Seminars for Graduate Students: Imparting Chemical Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information on a chemical information literacy program designed primarily for new graduate students. The full implementation of this program is discussed, including defining its purpose, topics covered, content presented, methods of marketing, and evaluation. The result is a series of voluntary seminars given biweekly…

  19. "Tastes Like ICE CREAM!": Writing Portraits in New Journalese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    The purpose of a semester course for journalism and creative writing students at Washington University was to help students, through reading and writing portraits in "new journalese," become capable critics of new journalistic writing. Students first were introduced to the techniques of new journalism in Tom Wolfe's book on new journalism and in…

  20. I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…

  1. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.649...

  2. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.647...

  3. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., except such as are natural components of flavoring ingredients used or are added in incidental amounts to... cream”. (ii) If the food contains both a natural characterizing flavor and an artificial flavor simulating it, and if the natural flavor predominates, the name on the principal display panel or panels...

  4. Low-fat cake icings made from jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Buttercream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  5. Local anesthetic cream prepared from lidocaine-tetracaine eutectic mixture.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, Keiichi; Kitahara, Masaki; Suzuki, Noriko; Taguchi, Kyoji; Yamazaki, Yuki; Akiyama, Shinji; Takahashi, Kentaro; Kanzaki, Yasushi

    2008-04-01

    Local anesthetic creams for the clinical treatment of conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia were prepared as an in-house formulation from the eutectic mixture of lidocaine-tetracaine (LT cream) using two eutectic mixtures of local anesthetic (EMLA) type bases. The LT formulation was compared with a lidocaine-prilocaine (LP cream) eutectic mixture formulated using the same base as EMLA. The chemical stability of lidocaine was examined in advance and was found to be stable for more than 3 months either in LT cream or in LP cream. The release rate of lidocaine from the formulated creams was examined using a cellulose ester membrane. The release rate of lidocaine from LT cream was similar to that from LP cream. The release rate of tetracaine was slightly slower than that of lidocaine in LT cream reflecting the larger molecular size of tetracaine. The penetration rate was examined in vitro using a Yucatan micropig skin. The penetration rate of lidocaine was similar between LT and LP creams. Infiltration anesthesia action examined in guinea pigs indicated that the difference between the two creams was statistically insignificant. The present study suggests the equivalence of the LT and LP creams as a local anesthetic and the potential of LT cream for clinical use either in the easy formulation or in the low-cost formulation.

  6. Nucleation of Mixed Nitric Acid-Water Ice Nanoparticles in Molecular Beams that Starts with a HNO3 Molecule.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Poterya, Viktoriya; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Zeuch, Thomas; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal

    2012-11-01

    Mixed (HNO3)m(H2O)n clusters generated in supersonic expansion of nitric acid vapor are investigated in two different experiments, (1) time-of-flight mass spectrometry after electron ionization and (2) Na doping and photoionization. This combination of complementary methods reveals that only clusters containing at least one acid molecule are generated, that is, the acid molecule serves as the nucleation center in the expansion. The experiments also suggest that at least four water molecules are needed for HNO3 acidic dissociation. The clusters are undoubtedly generated, as proved by electron ionization; however, they are not detected by the Na doping due to a fast charge-transfer reaction between the Na atom and HNO3. This points to limitations of the Na doping recently advocated as a general method for atmospheric aerosol detection. On the other hand, the combination of the two methods introduces a tool for detecting molecules with sizable electron affinity in clusters.

  7. New insights into eutectic cream skin penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Sarah; Roman, Marie; Inacio, Ricardo; Mashal, Sumaia; Brown, Marc B; Jones, Stuart A

    2016-02-29

    The manner in which the eutectic cream EMLA enhances the percutaneous penetration of lidocaine and prilocaine into human skin is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the modification of drug aggregation played a role in the way EMLA facilitates delivery. Light scattering analysis of lidocaine alone in water gave a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of 572 μM and a mean aggregate size of 58.8 nm. The analysis of prilocaine in identical conditions gave a CAC of 1177 μM and a mean aggregate size of 105.7 ± 24.8 nm. When the two drugs were mixed at their eutectic 1:1 ratio in water the CAC reduced to 165.8 μM and the aggregate size was 43.82 nm. This lidocaine-prilocaine interaction in water was further modified upon addition of polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, the surfactant in the EMLA aqueous phase, to produce aggregates of <20 nm. The physical characterisation data suggested that it was the EMLA cream's surfactant that modified the drug molecular interactions in the aqueous continuous phase and caused a 6 fold higher drug penetration through human epidermal tissue compared to the oil formulations tested in this study. PMID:26732522

  8. Nucleation of Mixed Nitric Acid-Water Ice Nanoparticles in Molecular Beams that Starts with a HNO3 Molecule.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Kočišek, Jaroslav; Poterya, Viktoriya; Pradzynski, Christoph C; Zeuch, Thomas; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal

    2012-11-01

    Mixed (HNO3)m(H2O)n clusters generated in supersonic expansion of nitric acid vapor are investigated in two different experiments, (1) time-of-flight mass spectrometry after electron ionization and (2) Na doping and photoionization. This combination of complementary methods reveals that only clusters containing at least one acid molecule are generated, that is, the acid molecule serves as the nucleation center in the expansion. The experiments also suggest that at least four water molecules are needed for HNO3 acidic dissociation. The clusters are undoubtedly generated, as proved by electron ionization; however, they are not detected by the Na doping due to a fast charge-transfer reaction between the Na atom and HNO3. This points to limitations of the Na doping recently advocated as a general method for atmospheric aerosol detection. On the other hand, the combination of the two methods introduces a tool for detecting molecules with sizable electron affinity in clusters. PMID:26296012

  9. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese...

  10. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O2 and N2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  11. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-11-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040 m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053 m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O 2 and N 2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N 2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O 2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/ 38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250 ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH 4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  12. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cream”. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  13. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cream”. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  14. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cream”. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to coagulate the dairy ingredients. The..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

  16. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to coagulate the dairy ingredients. The..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

  17. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to coagulate the dairy ingredients. The..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

  18. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2350...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  19. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  20. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... product. (2) Sodium citrate in an amount not more than 0.1 percent may be added prior to culturing as a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  1. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clotrimazole cream. 524.450 Section 524.450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  2. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clotrimazole cream. 524.450 Section 524.450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  3. 21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cuprimyxin cream. 524.520 Section 524.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... the topical treatment of superficial infections in horses, dogs, and cats caused by...

  4. Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in whey, whey cream, and whey cream butter.

    PubMed

    Halpin-Dohnalek, M I; Marth, E H

    1989-12-01

    Fresh Cheddar cheese whey was inoculated with ca. 10(6) Staphylococcus aureus/ml and held at 4, 25, and 37 degrees C for 48 h. Numbers of staphylococci decreased in whey at 25 and 37 degrees C and decreased or remained constant in whey at 4 degrees C. When Cheddar cheese whey was neutralized with sodium hydroxide before inoculation with ca. 10(2) or 10(6) S. aureus/ml, numbers of the bacterium increased at all incubation temperatures. Viability of S. aureus strains in whey butter made from inoculated whey cream (from Cheddar cheese whey) was determined. Whey cream was either neutralized to a titratable acidity of .15% or untreated before inoculation with ca. 10(4) S. aureus/ml. Butter churned from the whey cream was held at 4, 25, and 30 degrees C for up to 4 wk. Viability of S. aureus was enhanced in lightly salted (1%) whey cream butter and in butter made from neutralized whey cream. Strains of S. aureus did not survive in unsalted or in salted (1.5%) butter made from untreated whey cream.

  5. New developments in the CREAM Computing Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Dorigo, Alvise; Frizziero, Eric; Gianelle, Alessio; Mezzadri, Massimo; Monforte, Salvatore; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Zangrando, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    The EU-funded project EMI aims at providing a unified, standardized, easy to install software for distributed computing infrastructures. CREAM is one of the middleware products part of the EMI middleware distribution: it implements a Grid job management service which allows the submission, management and monitoring of computational jobs to local resource management systems. In this paper we discuss about some new features being implemented in the CREAM Computing Element. The implementation of the EMI Execution Service (EMI-ES) specification (an agreement in the EMI consortium on interfaces and protocols to be used in order to enable computational job submission and management required across technologies) is one of the new functions being implemented. New developments are also focusing in the High Availability (HA) area, to improve performance, scalability, availability and fault tolerance.

  6. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  7. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  8. Investigation on the photostability of tretinoin in creams.

    PubMed

    Brisaert, M; Plaizier-Vercammen, J A

    2007-04-01

    In this investigation, the photodegradation of some tretinoin cream formulations was evaluated. Several oils were selected to prepare the cream formulations: olive oil, maize oil, castor oil, isopropyl myristate and Miglyol 812. A solubility study showed that tretinoin is best soluble in castor oil (0.60g/100ml), followed by isopropyl myristate, maize oil, Miglyol 812 and olive oil, respectively, 0.35, 0.30, 0.29 and 0.22g/100ml. The photostability of tretinoin in oils is comparable with the photostability of a tretinoin lotion (ethanol/propylene glycol 50/50), castor oil and olive oil giving slightly better results than the other oils. Investigation of the photodegradation of tretinoin in o/w creams, prepared with the same oils as mentioned above, revealed that tretinoin is far more stable in the cream formulations than in the respective oils, however it is not clear whether this is due to the formulation or due to a different irradiation technique. Tretinoin seemed to be most stable in the olive oil cream, followed by the castor oil cream. However microscopic investigation revealed the presence of tretinoin crystals in the olive oil cream, while the other creams were free of it. As a conclusion, one can say that the cream prepared with castor oil seems to be the most suitable one, in terms of solubility of tretinoin and in terms of photostability.

  9. From CREAM to ISS-CREAM: A Next Step in the Direct Measurement of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelaszek, David; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) Experiment has carried out six successful ?ights around the continent of Antarctica for a total exposure of over 160 days. The CREAM Data Acquisition (CDAQ) software system, utilized on all six balloon missions, is a crucial component of the CREAM instrument that facilitates data-taking, monitoring, commanding and calibration of the entire apparatus. Currently, a CREAM payload is being developed for integration on the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2015. The shift from a balloon-borne experiment to a space mission required numerous hardware modifications and introduces a new command and data handling environment. New operational considerations are also needed to accommodate a multi-year mission. These hardware, environmental and operational modifications must be accommodated in CDAQ. The nature of these modifications and how they are reflected in the CDAQ software are discussed here. This work was supported by NASA Headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program-Grant NNX12AL57H, NASA Grant NNX11AC52G and their predecessors.

  10. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  14. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  15. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  16. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  19. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  20. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  1. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  2. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  3. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  4. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  5. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  6. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  7. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  8. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  9. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  10. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  15. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  16. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  19. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  20. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  1. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  2. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  3. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  4. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  5. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  6. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  7. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  8. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  9. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  10. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  14. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  15. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  16. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  19. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  20. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  1. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    PubMed

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing.

  2. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves burn-wound healing and attenuates burn-gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mikus, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Petricevic, A; Aralica, G; Druzijancic, N; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Pigac, B; Perovic, D; Kolombo, M; Kokic, N; Mikus, S; Duplancic, B; Fattorini, I; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Prkacin, I; Konjevoda, P; Stambuk, N; Anic, T

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were investigated when administered topically or systemically in burned mice. This agent is known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal lesions, as well as on wound or fracture healing. Deep partial skin thickness burns (1.5x1.5 cm) covering 20% of total body area, were induced under anesthesia on the back of mice by controlled burning and gastric lesions were assessed 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days following injury. The first application of BPC 157 was immediately following burning, and thereafter, once daily, until 24 h before sacrifice. In the initial experiments, exposure to direct flame for 5 s, the BPC 157 was applied at 10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. intraperitoneally (i.p.) by injection or alternatively, topically, at the burn, as a thin layer of cream (50 microg of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream (also used as local vehicle-control)), while silver sulfadiazine 1% cream was a standard agent acting locally. Others received no local medication: they were treated i.p. by injection of distilled water (distilled water-control) or left without any medication (control). In subsequent experiments involving deeper burns (direct flame for 7 s), BPC 157 creams (50 microg, 5 microg, 500 ng, 50 ng or 5 ng of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream), or vehicle as a thin layer of cream, were applied topically, at the burn. Compared with untreated controls, in both experiments, in the BPC 157 cream-treated mice all parameters of burn healing were improved throughout the experiment: less edema was observed and inflammatory cell numbers decreased. Less necrosis was seen with an increased number of capillaries along with an advanced formation of dermal reticulin and collagen fibers. An increased number of preserved follicles were observed. Two weeks after injury, BPC 157 cream

  3. Over Ice

    NASA Video Gallery

    All about NASA's IceBridge P-3B plane and its IceBridge retrofit. Upgraded with 21st century "special modifications", the aircraft is less a cold war relic and more like the Space Agency's Millenni...

  4. CREAM Computing Element: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Dorigo, Alvise; Frizziero, Eric; Gianelle, Alessio; Mezzadri, Massimo; Monforte, Salvatore; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Zangrando, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) project aims to deliver a consolidated set of middleware products based on the four major middleware providers in Europe -ARC, dCache, gLite and UNICORE. The CREAM (Computing Resource Execution And Management) Service, a service for job management operation at the Computing Element (CE) level, is a software product which is part of the EMI middleware distribution. In this paper we discuss about some new functionality in the CREAM CE introduced with the first EMI major release (EMI-1, codename Kebnekaise). The integration with the Argus authorization service is one of these implementations: the use of a unique authorization system, besides simplifying the overall management, allows also to avoid inconsistent authorization decisions. An improved support for complex deployment scenarios (e.g. for sites having multiple CE head nodes and/or having heterogeneous resources) is another new achievement. The improved support for resource allocation in a multi-core environment, and the initial support of version 2.0 of the Glue specification for resource publication are other new functionalities introduced with the first EMI release.

  5. The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin characterized by symmetrical and confluent grey-brown patches usually on the areas of the face exposed to the sun. Silymarin strongly prevents photocarcinogenesis, and significantly prevented melanin production. The objectives of this study were the assessment of safety and efficacy of topical Silymain (SM) cream in a double-blind placebo controlled study for treatment of melasma patients. Methods Experimentally on 24 Albino rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. [A] No treatment, [B] received placebo, [C] treated with SM cream (0.1), & [D] treated by SM (0.2), were applied topically before UV sun light exposure for 30 days, assessed clinically & tissue pathology. Clinically on 96 adults diagnosed with melasma randomized to three equal groups to receive one of the tested drugs applied twice daily for 4 weeks, evaluated by the response; lesion size, melasma area and severity index score, Physician global assessment, and subjective assessment. Results The Clinical and histopathology observations were reduced significantly in SM groups. Clinically; all patients showed significant excellent pigment improvement & lesion size reduction with SM treatments from the 1st week. All patients were fully satisfied 100%. No side effects were observed. Conclusions Silymarin showed tremendous improvement of melasma in a dose-dependent manner, and was effective in prevention of skin damage caused by U.V. sunlight. It is a safe new candidate effective treatment for melasma. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000602820 PMID:23031632

  6. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    PubMed Central

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum. PMID:18655702

  7. Ice Nucleation in Deep Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Ackerman, Andrew; Stevens, David; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The processes controlling production of ice crystals in deep, rapidly ascending convective columns are poorly understood due to the difficulties involved with either modeling or in situ sampling of these violent clouds. A large number of ice crystals are no doubt generated when droplets freeze at about -40 C. However, at higher levels, these crystals are likely depleted due to precipitation and detrainment. As the ice surface area decreases, the relative humidity can increase well above ice saturation, resulting in bursts of ice nucleation. We will present simulations of these processes using a large-eddy simulation model with detailed microphysics. Size bins are included for aerosols, liquid droplets, ice crystals, and mixed-phase (ice/liquid) hydrometers. Microphysical processes simulated include droplet activation, freezing, melting, homogeneous freezing of sulfate aerosols, and heterogeneous ice nucleation. We are focusing on the importance of ice nucleation events in the upper part of the cloud at temperatures below -40 C. We will show that the ultimate evolution of the cloud in this region (and the anvil produced by the convection) is sensitive to these ice nucleation events, and hence to the composition of upper tropospheric aerosols that get entrained into the convective column.

  8. What Determines the Ice Polymorph in Clouds?

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2016-07-20

    Ice crystals in the atmosphere nucleate from supercooled liquid water and grow by vapor uptake. The structure of the ice polymorph grown has strong impact on the morphology and light scattering of the ice crystals, modulates the amount of water vapor in ice clouds, and can impact the molecular uptake and reactivity of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments and molecular simulations indicate that ice nucleated and grown from deeply supercooled liquid water is metastable stacking disordered ice. The ice polymorph grown from vapor has not yet been determined. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to determine the structure of ice that grows as a result of uptake of water vapor in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation of ice at the vapor interface, and compute the free energy difference between cubic and hexagonal ice interfaces with vapor. We find that vapor deposition results in growth of stacking disordered ice only under conditions of extreme supersaturation, for which a nonequilibrium liquid layer completely wets the surface of ice. Such extreme conditions have been used to produce stacking disordered frost ice in experiments and may be plausible in the summer polar mesosphere. Growth of ice from vapor at moderate supersaturations in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, from 200 to 260 K, produces exclusively the stable hexagonal ice polymorph. Cubic ice is disfavored with respect to hexagonal ice not only by a small penalty in the bulk free energy (3.6 ± 1.5 J mol(-1) at 260 K) but also by a large free energy penalty at the ice-vapor interface (89.7 ± 12.8 J mol(-1) at 260 K). The latter originates in higher vibrational entropy of the hexagonal-terminated ice-vapor interface. We predict that the free energy penalty against the cubic ice interface should decrease strongly with temperature, resulting in some degree of stacking disorder in ice grown from

  9. What Determines the Ice Polymorph in Clouds?

    PubMed

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2016-07-20

    Ice crystals in the atmosphere nucleate from supercooled liquid water and grow by vapor uptake. The structure of the ice polymorph grown has strong impact on the morphology and light scattering of the ice crystals, modulates the amount of water vapor in ice clouds, and can impact the molecular uptake and reactivity of atmospheric aerosols. Experiments and molecular simulations indicate that ice nucleated and grown from deeply supercooled liquid water is metastable stacking disordered ice. The ice polymorph grown from vapor has not yet been determined. Here we use large-scale molecular simulations to determine the structure of ice that grows as a result of uptake of water vapor in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, elucidate the molecular mechanism of the formation of ice at the vapor interface, and compute the free energy difference between cubic and hexagonal ice interfaces with vapor. We find that vapor deposition results in growth of stacking disordered ice only under conditions of extreme supersaturation, for which a nonequilibrium liquid layer completely wets the surface of ice. Such extreme conditions have been used to produce stacking disordered frost ice in experiments and may be plausible in the summer polar mesosphere. Growth of ice from vapor at moderate supersaturations in the temperature range relevant to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds, from 200 to 260 K, produces exclusively the stable hexagonal ice polymorph. Cubic ice is disfavored with respect to hexagonal ice not only by a small penalty in the bulk free energy (3.6 ± 1.5 J mol(-1) at 260 K) but also by a large free energy penalty at the ice-vapor interface (89.7 ± 12.8 J mol(-1) at 260 K). The latter originates in higher vibrational entropy of the hexagonal-terminated ice-vapor interface. We predict that the free energy penalty against the cubic ice interface should decrease strongly with temperature, resulting in some degree of stacking disorder in ice grown from

  10. The influence of ice accretion physics on the forecasting of aircraft icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The physics which control aircraft ice accretion are reviewed in the context of identifying and forecasting hazardous icing conditions. The severity of aircraft icing is found to be extremely sensitive to temperature, liquid water content and droplet size distribution particularly near the transition between rime and mixed icing. The difficulty in measurement and the variability of these factors with altitude, position and time coupled with variable aircraft sensitivity make forecasting and identifying icing conditions difficult. Automated Pilot Reports (PIREPS) are suggested as one mechanism for improving the data base necessary to forecast icing conditions.

  11. ``Peeps,'' cream, heads, and food coloring in a vacuum jar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePino, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    This note describes some methods of adding interest to the standard vacuum jar demonstrations. Marshmallow animals, shaving cream, doll heads, and food coloring add some spark to these demos. These new twists have been well received by the students.

  12. Environment at the Grounding Zone of the Whillans Ice Stream-Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, T. O.; Powell, R. D.; Mikucki, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Coenen, J. J.; Puttkammer, R.; Branecky, C.

    2015-12-01

    Grounding zones where grounded ice sheets transition to floating ice shelves, are the primary gateways through which the Antarctic Ice Sheet loses mass to the ocean. In these environments, ice, ocean, meltwater and sediment meet and interact, influencing both the ice sheet and ocean circulation beneath the ice shelf. Here, we report on conditions near the grounding zone of the Whillans Ice Stream, which feeds into the Ross Ice Shelf. Cameras and instruments lowered through an access borehole to the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf found a 10m-thick water column comprising an upper layer of colder ice shelf water formed from mixing between meltwater with the lower layer of warmer higher salinity shelf water. This style of stratification is typical of large ice shelves, but it was uncertain whether it existed so near the grounding zone, where stronger tidal currents and/or strong subglacial stream discharges could mix the water column. Salinity and temperature of the water suggest it formed from sea ice production in the Western Ross Sea, with minimal modification beneath the ice shelf. This source region is distinct from waters previously observed at the nearby J-9 borehole, illustrating the importance of the sub-ice shelf bathymetry in steering circulation between the ocean and the grounding zone. Preliminary data suggest an active exchange of heat and nutrients between the grounding zone and the open ocean, despite being separated by 600km. Thus life found near the grounding line is probably not an isolated oasis, but may instead be part of a much broader ecosystem that spans the ice shelf. Although sea ice formation presently maintains water in the sub-ice shelf cavity near the surface freezing point, buffering many larger ice shelves from gradual ocean warming, these findings suggest that even grounding zones of extensive ice shelves may respond quickly to abrupt changes in ocean circulation, such as that observed in the Amundsen Sea.

  13. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  14. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  15. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS.

  16. Mixed quantum/classical approach to OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering spectroscopy for ambient and supercooled liquid water and ice Ih

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Skinner, J. L.

    2015-07-07

    OH-stretch inelastic incoherent neutron scattering (IINS) has been measured to determine the vibrational density of states (VDOS) in the OH-stretch region for liquid water, supercooled water, and ice Ih, providing complementary information to IR and Raman spectroscopies about hydrogen bonding in these phases. In this work, we extend the combined electronic-structure/molecular-dynamics (ES/MD) method, originally developed by Skinner and co-workers to simulate OH-stretch IR and Raman spectra, to the calculation of IINS spectra with small k values. The agreement between theory and experiment in the limit k → 0 is reasonable, further validating the reliability of the ES/MD method in simulating OH-stretch spectroscopy in condensed phases. The connections and differences between IINS and IR spectra are analyzed to illustrate the advantages of IINS over IR in estimating the OH-stretch VDOS.

  17. H-atom addition and abstraction reactions in mixed CO, H2CO and CH3OH ices - an extended view on complex organic molecule formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K.-J.; Fedoseev, G.; Ioppolo, S.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Linnartz, H.

    2016-01-01

    Complex organic molecules (COMs) have been observed not only in the hot cores surrounding low- and high-mass protostars, but also in cold dark clouds. Therefore, it is interesting to understand how such species can be formed without the presence of embedded energy sources. We present new laboratory experiments on the low-temperature solid state formation of three complex molecules - methyl formate (HC(O)OCH3), glycolaldehyde (HC(O)CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (H2C(OH)CH2OH) - through recombination of free radicals formed via H-atom addition and abstraction reactions at different stages in the CO→H2CO→CH3OH hydrogenation network at 15 K. The experiments extend previous CO hydrogenation studies and aim at resembling the physical-chemical conditions typical of the CO freeze-out stage in dark molecular clouds, when H2CO and CH3OH form by recombination of accreting CO molecules and H-atoms on ice grains. We confirm that H2CO, once formed through CO hydrogenation, not only yields CH3OH through ongoing H-atom addition reactions, but is also subject to H-atom-induced abstraction reactions, yielding CO again. In a similar way, H2CO is also formed in abstraction reactions involving CH3OH. The dominant methanol H-atom abstraction product is expected to be CH2OH, while H-atom additions to H2CO should at least partially proceed through CH3O intermediate radicals. The occurrence of H-atom abstraction reactions in ice mantles leads to more reactive intermediates (HCO, CH3O and CH2OH) than previously thought, when assuming sequential H-atom addition reactions only. This enhances the probability to form COMs through radical-radical recombination without the need of UV photolysis or cosmic rays as external triggers.

  18. Sapal: a traditional fermented taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm and coconut cream mixture from Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gubag, R; Omoloso, D A; Owens, J D

    1996-01-01

    Sapal is a traditional fermented food made by mixing cooked, grated taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] corm with coconut cream and allowing it to ferment at ambient temperature. The fermentation was primarily due to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, which reached 10(10) cfu/ml. Seven out of 10 isolated bacterial strains were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides or Leuc. paramesenteroides. The initial microbial flora was derived from the coconut cream. Yeasts grew on the surface of the sapal in the later stages of the fermentation. Overnight storage of the grated taro corm resulted in the glucose concentration increasing from 1.1 to about 5 g/l. During the fermentation the glucose concentration decreased to undetectable levels. The pH value fell from an initial value of 6.1 to 4.1 after 24 h.

  19. Local and Total Density Measurements in Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Mario; Broughton, Howard; Sims, James J.; Bleeze, Brian; Gaines, Vatanna

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary measurements of local and total densities inside ice shapes were obtained from ice shapes grown in the NASA Glenn Research Tunnel for a range of glaze ice, rime ice, and mixed phase ice conditions on a NACA 0012 airfoil at 0 angle of attack. The ice shapes were removed from the airfoil and a slice of ice 3 mm thick was obtained using a microtome. The resulting samples were then x-rayed to obtain a micro-radiography, the film was digitized, and image processing techniques were used to extract the local and total density values.

  20. Use of thermography in testing skin creams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Kauppinen, Timo T.; Lehmuskallio, Eero; Rintamaki, Hannu

    1994-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of skin creams and their components in windy (3 m/s) and cold (-15 degree(s)C) conditions on face temperature and heat flux. The tests were carried out in a climatic chamber with 18 persons sitting in front of the opening of the wind tunnel, the wind directed against the face. Skin temperatures were measured from 4 points on both sides of the face with thermistors and the heat fluxes were measured using heat flux sensors on both cheeks. Also the ambient temperature and wind were registered. In addition to these measurements an IR thermal scanner was also used to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature variation on the face during the exposure. The results were continuously recorded on VHS-video tape. Using still pictures from recorded material the area temperature of the cheek was measured, which described the mean temperature of the cheek. Test periods were 30 minutes and the same test subjects were not used until 48 h after the previous cold exposure. The test persons were young (20 - 30 years) healthy male persons. The total number of tests was 38.

  1. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutu, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    The CREAM instrument was flown on a Long Duration Balloon in Antarctica in December 2004 and January 2005, achieving a flight duration record of nearly 42 days. It detected and recorded cosmic ray primary particles ranging in type from hydrogen to iron nuclei and in energy from 1 TeV to several hundred TeV. With the data collected we will have the world's best measurement of the energy spectra and mass composition of nuclei in the primary cosmic ray flux at these energies, close to the astrophysical knee . The instrument utilized a thin calorimeter, a transition radiation detector and a timing charge detector, which also provided time-of-flight information. The responsibilities of our group have been with the timing charge detector (TCD), and with the data acquisition electronics and ground station support equipment. The TCD utilized fast scintillators to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray before any interactions could take place within the calorimeter. The data acquisition electronics handled the output of the various detectors, in a fashion fully integrated with the payload bus. A space-qualified flight computer controlled the acquisition, and was used for preliminary trigger information processing and decision making. Ground support equipment was used to monitor the health of the payload, acquire and archive the data transmitted to the ground, and to provide real-time control of the instrument in flight.

  2. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  3. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies. PMID:25043487

  4. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  5. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface.

  6. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface. PMID:24671023

  7. Chlorocresol sensitivity induced by treatment of allergic contact dermatitis with steroid creams.

    PubMed

    Archer, C B; MacDonald, D M

    1984-09-01

    A patient with contact dermatitis from nickel and cobalt developed sensitivity to chlorocresol contained in topical steroid creams. The use of chlorocresol in aqueous creams and topical steroids is reviewed.

  8. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    PubMed

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  9. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  10. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  11. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  12. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  13. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  14. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  15. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  16. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  17. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  18. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  19. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. CO DIFFUSION INTO AMORPHOUS H{sub 2}O ICES

    SciTech Connect

    Lauck, Trish; Karssemeijer, Leendertjan; Cuppen, Herma M.; Shulenberger, Katherine; Rajappan, Mahesh; Öberg, Karin I. E-mail: koberg@cfa.harvard.edu

    2015-03-10

    The mobility of atoms, molecules, and radicals in icy grain mantles regulates ice restructuring, desorption, and chemistry in astrophysical environments. Interstellar ices are dominated by H{sub 2}O, and diffusion on external and internal (pore) surfaces of H{sub 2}O-rich ices is therefore a key process to constrain. This study aims to quantify the diffusion kinetics and barrier of the abundant ice constituent CO into H{sub 2}O-dominated ices at low temperatures (15–23 K), by measuring the mixing rate of initially layered H{sub 2}O(:CO{sub 2})/CO ices. The mixed fraction of CO as a function of time is determined by monitoring the shape of the infrared CO stretching band. Mixing is observed at all investigated temperatures on minute timescales and can be ascribed to CO diffusion in H{sub 2}O ice pores. The diffusion coefficient and final mixed fraction depend on ice temperature, porosity, thickness, and composition. The experiments are analyzed by applying Fick’s diffusion equation under the assumption that mixing is due to CO diffusion into an immobile H{sub 2}O ice. The extracted energy barrier for CO diffusion into amorphous H{sub 2}O ice is ∼160 K. This is effectively a surface diffusion barrier. The derived barrier is low compared to current surface diffusion barriers in use in astrochemical models. Its adoption may significantly change the expected timescales for different ice processes in interstellar environments.

  5. The impact of under-ice melt ponds on Arctic sea ice volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naomi; Flocco, Daniela; Feltham, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    A one-dimensional, thermodynamic model of Arctic sea ice [Flocco et al, 2015] has been adapted to study the evolution of under-ice melt ponds, pools of fresh water that are found below the Arctic sea ice, and false bottoms, sheets of ice that form at the boundary between the under-ice melt pond and the oceanic mixed layer. Over time, either the under-ice melt pond freezes or the false bottom is completely ablated. We have been investigating the impact that these features have on the growth or ablation of sea ice during the time that they are present. The sensitivity of our model to a range of parameters has been tested, revealing some interesting effects of the thermodynamic processes taking place during the life-cycle of these phenomena. For example, the under-ice melt pond and its associated false bottom can insulate the sea ice layer from ocean, increasing the thickness of sea ice present at the end of the time frame considered. A comparison of the results of the model of under-ice melt pond evolution with that of sea ice with a bare base has been used to estimate the impact of under-ice melt ponds on sea ice volume towards the end of the melt season. We find that the under-ice melt ponds could have a significant impact on the mass balance of the sea ice, suggesting that it could be desirable to include a parameterisation of the effects of under-ice melt pond in the sea ice components of climate models.

  6. Operation IceBridge: Sea Ice Interlude

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targ...

  7. Frazil ice dynamics in polynyas and leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Andrew; Rees Jones, David

    2016-04-01

    The initial stage of sea ice formation in a turbulent ocean typically involves the growth of a suspension of frazil ice crystals in supercooled waters. In competition with turbulent mixing, these crystals rise buoyantly and eventually settle at the ocean surface. The resulting rapid growth of granular ice has been observed to make up a significant fraction of ice cover in certain locations. Our recent theoretical work suggests that the growth of individual frazil ice crystals may be significantly faster than had commonly been supposed. We here explore the consequences for the dynamics of a suspension of many frazil ice crystals in a well mixed layer. Frazil suspensions are affected by many processes, including the fluid dynamics of suspensions, nucleation, the collision and sintering of crystals, as well as crystal growth. These processes combine to control the evolving distribution of crystal sizes. We apply a model of the crystal size distribution in a well mixed layer to investigate the comparative importance of these mechanisms, quantify the controls on ice growth, and compare to available laboratory data. We complement our theoretical model with two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of turbulent convection with a suspension of resolved crystals, in order to elucidate the fluid dynamical coupling between ocean convection with crystal rise, and its impact on ice precipitation rates.

  8. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E

  9. Optimisation of Non-Stick Insect Repellent Cream Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajin, Mariani; Bono, Awang; Abang, Sariah; Krishnaiah, Duduku

    Nowadays, insect repellent is widely used by consumer, especially insect repellent that is produced from natural-based. Since the component of insect repellent could not be applied directly to human skin, base cream with insect repellents need to be formulated. The quality of the base cream is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. In this work, various compositions of carbopol, triethylamide, glycerine, water and ethanol were used to prepare the base cream formulations. D-optimal mixture design was performed to obtain the optimum formulation. Twenty-five combination components were selected according to the D-optimal criterion. The consumer acceptance and physical properties of the base cream such as viscosity, drying time stickiness were studied. Three-dimensional surface plots were formed to assess the change in the response surface and to understand the effect of the mixture composition on lipstick characteristics. The result indicates that there are relationships between the processing variables of the lipstick formulation and the consumer acceptance.

  10. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...,” section 16.023. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “Acidified sour cream”. The full name of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  11. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...,” section 16.023. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “Acidified sour cream”. The full name of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” section 16.023. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “Acidified sour cream”. The full name of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  13. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  14. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  15. Permethrin 5% dermal cream: a new treatment for scabies.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L; Porcelain, S L; Castillero, P M; Chen, J A

    1986-11-01

    Permethrin 5% dermal cream (Burroughs Wellcome Co.) was compared in an investigator-blinded, randomized study against lindane 1% lotion (Kwell) for the treatment of microscopically confirmed scabies. Eleven of twenty-three patients treated with permethrin cream were cured in 2 weeks (48%). Only two patients had scabies 1 month following a single treatment with this product, giving a cure rate of 91%. One of these two patients was considered to have a reinfestation. Only three of twenty-three (13%) patients treated with 1% lindane lotion (Kwell) were free of scabies 2 weeks after a single treatment and fifteen of twenty-three (65%) were cured at 1 month. The unusually high percentage of treatment failures (35%) following lindane therapy may have been related to extensive use of this agent for head lice and scabies in this village during the preceding 5 years. The higher cure rate at 1 month seen with permethrin cream was significant (p less than 0.025). Permethrin 5% dermal cream offers a new, cosmetically elegant alternative to lindane therapy and was effective in a community in which lindane demonstrated an unacceptable level of treatment failures.

  16. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  17. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  18. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  19. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...