Science.gov

Sample records for ice cream

  1. Ice Cream Stick Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Cynthia

    1992-01-01

    Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)

  2. The physics of ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Chris

    2003-05-01

    Almost everybody likes ice cream, so it can provide an excellent vehicle for discussing and demonstrating a variety of physical phenomena, such as Newton's law of cooling, Boyle's law and the relationship between microstructure and macroscopic properties (e.g. Young's modulus). Furthermore, a demonstration of freezing point depression can be used to make ice cream in the classroom!

  3. Let's Make Metric Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Marianna

    1975-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity which involved sixth grade students in a learning situation including making ice cream, safety procedures in a science laboratory, calibrating a thermometer, using metric units of volume and mass. (EB)

  4. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  5. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream by propylene glycol monostearate.

    PubMed

    Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D

    2008-11-01

    The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.

  6. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    PubMed

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  7. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  8. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  9. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  10. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Physical requirements for ice cream. 58.649 Section 58.649 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. (a) Flavor. The flavor of the finished ice cream shall be pleasing and...

  11. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  12. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  13. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner... and hydrolyzed milk proteins may not be used; and paragraphs (f)(1) and (g) of § 135.110 shall...

  14. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....110 Ice cream and frozen custard. (a) Description. (1) Ice cream is a food produced by freezing, while... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ice cream and frozen custard. 135.110 Section 135.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  15. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  16. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same...

  17. Filtrates and Residues: Ice Cream: Delicious Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, James

    1983-01-01

    An experiment involving preparation of ice cream is conducted after students complete units on solutions, atomic structure, molecular architecture, and bonding. The laboratory gives practical illustration of relation of physical properties to bond type and solution theory developed. Materials needed, procedures used, and questions asked are…

  18. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    During winter, we use to spread salt to thaw ice on the streets. In a physics show, one can be almost sure that after showing this effect, the answer to what happens to temperature will be "it increases". But no! It goes down, in such amount that one can complement the show by producing hand-made ice creams [1].

  19. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream.

  20. Development of technology for manufacture of ragi ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, I J; Dharaiya, C N; Pinto, S V

    2015-07-01

    Ragi (Finger millet) improves the nutritional value of ice cream by enhancing the iron and fibre content. Caramel flavoured medium fat ice cream (6 % fat) was prepared by addition of gelatinized malted ragi flour roasted in butter (MRB) @ 8 %, 9 % and 10 % by weight of mix and compared with control (C) i.e. vanilla ice cream containing 10 % fat. The overall acceptability score of product prepared using 9 % MRB was statistically (P > 0.05) at par with the C, hence, it was selected. In the next part of the study, ragi ice cream was prepared using 4 different flavours viz. vanilla, mango, chocolate and caramel. Chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was adjudged as best, followed by mango, caramel and vanilla ice cream. The iron and fibre content of chocolate flavoured ragi ice cream was found to be 12.8 ppm and 1.36 % respectively. vs. 1.5 ppm and 0.18 % respectively in control (C). Heat shock treatment as well as storage up to 30 days had no adverse effect on the sensory quality of the chocolate flavored ragi ice cream. Incorporation of finger millet in ice cream resulted in reduction in the amount of stabilizer used and effectively functioned as fat replacer in ice cream. PMID:26139868

  1. Ice recrystallization inhibition in ice cream as affected by ice structuring proteins from winter wheat grass.

    PubMed

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2006-01-01

    Ice recrystallization in quiescently frozen sucrose solutions that contained some of the ingredients commonly found in ice cream and in ice cream manufactured under commercial conditions, with or without ice structuring proteins (ISP) from cold-acclimated winter wheat grass extract (AWWE), was assessed by bright field microscopy. In sucrose solutions, critical differences in moisture content, viscosity, ionic strength, and other properties derived from the presence of other ingredients (skim milk powder, corn syrup solids, locust bean gum) caused a reduction in ice crystal growth. Significant ISP activity in retarding ice crystal growth was observed in all solutions (44% for the most complex mix) containing 0.13% total protein from AWWE. In heat-shocked ice cream, ice recrystallization rates were significantly reduced 40 and 46% with the addition of 0.0025 and 0.0037% total protein from AWWE. The ISP activity in ice cream was not hindered by its inclusion in mix prior to pasteurization. A synergistic effect between ISP and stabilizer was observed, as ISP activity was reduced in the absence of stabilizer in ice cream formulations. A remarkably smoother texture for ice creams containing ISP after heat-shock storage was evident by sensory evaluation. The efficiency of ISP from AWWE in controlling ice crystal growth in ice cream has been demonstrated.

  2. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  3. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  4. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  5. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  6. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  7. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition requirements for ice cream. 58.647 Section 58.647 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. See § 58.605(a)....

  8. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  9. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Microbiological requirements for ice cream. 58.648 Section 58.648 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram...

  10. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  11. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  12. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  13. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  14. 7 CFR 58.2825 - United States Standard for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Standard for ice cream. 58.2825 Section... DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 United States Department of Agriculture Standard for Ice Cream § 58.2825 United States Standard for ice cream. (a) Ice cream shall contain at least 1.6 pounds of total solids to the...

  15. Ice cream and orbifold Riemann-Roch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Anita; Reid, Miles; Zhou, Shengtian

    2013-06-01

    We give an orbifold Riemann-Roch formula in closed form for the Hilbert series of a quasismooth polarized n-fold (X,D), under the assumption that X is projectively Gorenstein with only isolated orbifold points. Our formula is a sum of parts each of which is integral and Gorenstein symmetric of the same canonical weight; the orbifold parts are called ice cream functions. This form of the Hilbert series is particularly useful for computer algebra, and we illustrate it on examples of {K3} surfaces and Calabi-Yau 3-folds. These results apply also with higher dimensional orbifold strata (see [1] and [2]), although the precise statements are considerably trickier. We expect to return to this in future publications.

  16. Evaluating sago as a functional ingredient in dietetic mango ice cream.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashish S; Jana, Atanu H; Aparnathi, Kishore D; Pinto, Suneeta V

    2010-10-01

    A low fat mango ice cream (2.4% milk fat) was prepared in a mechanized 'ice and salt' type freezer using powdered sago at 2.5% as a natural bulking agent along with sodium alginate at 0.025% as adjunct. The low fat mango ice cream was compared with control mango ice cream having 10% milk fat and 0.15% sodium alginate as stabilizer. Both control as well as experimental ice creams contained 20% mango pulp solids. To impart richness to low fat mango ice cream, flavour enhancers like Cream Plus and Butter Buds were used at levels of 0.2% and 0.05%, respectively. The dietetic low fat ice creams compared well in sensory colour and appearance, flavour, body and texture, and melting quality to that of control ice cream. Incorporation of 2.5% powdered sago and 0.2% Cream Plus as flavour adjunct is recommended in the manufacture of 'low-fat' mango ice cream. The energy values for control and dietetic mango ice cream was 202.8 and 142.9 kcal/100 g, respectively, which represents about 30% reduction in calorie. The cost of ice cream per liter was Rs 39.9, Rs 37.6 and Rs 49.7 for experimental ice creams containing Cream Plus and Butter Bud, and control, respectively.

  17. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zonghao; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, Chuanbing; Liu, Kai; Xue, Xianghui; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui

    2015-04-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but space-weather prediction. Several models (such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observed by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of all the FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle till July 2012, by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. Then we could discuss the reliability of the ice-cream cone model.

  18. An ice-cream cone model for coronal mass ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X. H.; Wang, C. B.; Dou, X. K.

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we use an ice-cream cone model to analyze the geometrical and kinematical properties of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Assuming that in the early phase CMEs propagate with near-constant speed and angular width, some useful properties of CMEs, namely the radial speed (v), the angular width (α), and the location at the heliosphere, can be obtained considering the geometrical shapes of a CME as an ice-cream cone. This model is improved by (1) using an ice-cream cone to show the near real configuration of a CME, (2) determining the radial speed via fitting the projected speeds calculated from the height-time relation in different azimuthal angles, (3) not only applying to halo CMEs but also applying to nonhalo CMEs.

  19. Ice Cream/I Scream for YA Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallo, Don

    2010-01-01

    From a 40-year perspective, Don Gallo examines the field of young adult literature, comparing it to ice cream--its various flavors and levels of richness. The article proclaims the profundity of the field and the quality of its writers, summarizes historical highlights, defends it against its detractors, and explains the importance of helping…

  20. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  1. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  2. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Except in the case of frozen custard, ice cream contains less than 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight... contain 1.4 percent egg yolk solids by weight of the finished food: Provided, however, That when bulky flavors are added the egg yolk solids content of frozen custard may be reduced in proportion to the...

  3. 7 CFR 58.648 - Microbiological requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements for ice cream. The finished product shall contain not more than 50,000 bacteria per gram as determined by the standard plate count, and shall contain not more than 10 coliform organisms per gram for plain and not more than 20 coliform per gram in chocolate, fruit, nut or other flavors in three out...

  4. Teaching Process Engineering Principles Using an Ice Cream Maker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaletunc, Gonul; Duemmel, Kevin; Gecik, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The ice cream laboratory experiment is designed to illustrate and promote discussion of several engineering and science topics including material and energy balances, heat transfer, freezing, mass transfer, mixing, viscosity, and freezing point depression in a sophomore level engineering class. A pre-lab assignment requires the students to develop…

  5. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  6. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G

    2015-07-01

    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception. PMID:25912870

  7. Physical properties of ice cream containing milk protein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, V B; Wolters, C L; Vodovotz, Y; Ji, T

    2005-03-01

    Two milk protein concentrates (MPC, 56 and 85%) were studied as substitutes for 20 and 50% of the protein content in ice cream mix. The basic mix formula had 12% fat, 11% nonfat milk solids, 15% sweetener, and 0.3% stabilizer/emulsifier blend. Protein levels remained constant, and total solids were compensated for in MPC mixes by the addition of polydextrose. Physical properties investigated included apparent viscosity, fat globule size, melting rate, shape retention, and freezing behavior using differential scanning calorimetry. Milk protein concentrate formulations had higher mix viscosity, larger amount of fat destabilization, narrower ice melting curves, and greater shape retention compared with the control. Milk protein concentrates did not offer significant modifications of ice cream physical properties on a constant protein basis when substituted for up to 50% of the protein supplied by nonfat dry milk. Milk protein concentrates may offer ice cream manufacturers an alternative source of milk solids non-fat, especially in mixes reduced in lactose or fat, where higher milk solids nonfat are needed to compensate other losses of total solids.

  8. Testing the reliability of ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Z.; Shen, C.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CME)'s properties are important to not only the physical scene itself but spaceweather prediction. Several models(such as cone model, GCS model, and so on) have been raised to get rid of the projection effects within the properties observated by spacecraft. According to SOHO/ LASCO observations, we obtain the 'real' 3D parameters of 33 FFHCMEs (front-side full halo Coronal Mass Ejections) within the 24th solar cycle by the ice-cream cone model. Considering that the method to obtain 3D parameters from the CME observations by multi-satellite and multi-angle has higher accuracy, we use the GCS model to obtain the real propagation parameters of these CMEs in 3D space and compare the results with which by ice-cream cone model. It was demonstrated that the correlation coefficient for the speeds by using these both methods is 0.97.

  9. Factors Affecting the Changes of Ice Crystal Form in Ice Cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    In this study, the shape of ice crystals in ice cream was quantitatively evaluated by introducing fractal analysis. A small droplet of commercial ice cream mix was quickly cooled to about -30°C on the cold stage of microscope. Subsequently, it was heated to -5°C or -10°C and then held for various holding time. Based on the captured images at each holding time, the cross-sectional area and the length of circumference for each ice crystal were measured to calculate fractal dimension using image analysis software. The results showed that the ice crystals were categorized into two groups, e.g. simple-shape and complicated-shape, according to their fractal dimensions. The fractal dimension of ice crystals became lower with increasing holding time and holding temperature. It was also indicated that the growing rate of complicated-shape ice crystals was relatively higher because of aggregation.

  10. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-01

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream.

  11. The effect of gum tragacanth on the rheological properties of salep based ice cream mix.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Cengiz, Alime; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2016-06-01

    The influence of concentration (0-0.5%, w/w) of gum tragacanth (GT) on thixotropy, dynamic, and creep-recovery rheological properties of ice cream mixes prepared with milk or water based were investigated. These properties were used to evaluate the viscoelastic behavior and internal structure of ice cream network. The textural properties of ice cream were also evaluated. Thixotropy values of samples were reduced by increasing GT concentration. The dynamic and creep-recovery analyses exhibited that GT addition increased both ice cream elastic and viscous behaviors. The increasing of Burger's model parameters with GT concentration indicated higher resistance network to the stress and more elastic behavior of samples. The applying of Cox-Merz rule is possible by using shift factor (α). GT also led to an increase in Young's modulus and the stickiness of ice creams. The obtained results highlighted the possible application of GT as a valuable member to promote structural properties of ice cream. PMID:27083350

  12. An analysis of at-home demand for ice cream in the United States.

    PubMed

    Davis, C G; Blayney, D P; Yen, S T; Cooper, J

    2009-12-01

    Ice cream has been manufactured commercially in the United States since the middle of the 19th century. Ice cream and frozen dessert products comprise an important and relatively stable component of the United States dairy industry. As with many other dairy products, ice cream is differentiated in several dimensions. A censored translog demand system model was employed to analyze purchases of 3 ice cream product categories. The objective of this study was to determine the effect that changes in retail prices and consumer income have on at-home ice cream consumption. The analysis was based on Nielsen 2005 home scan retail data and used marital status, age, race, education, female employment status, and location in the estimations of aggregate demand elasticities. Results revealed that price and consumer income were the main determinants of demand for ice cream products. Calculated own-price elasticities indicated relatively elastic responses by consumers for all categories except for compensated bulk ice cream. All expenditure elasticities were inelastic except for bulk ice cream, and most of the ice cream categories were substitutes. Ongoing efforts to examine consumer demand for these products will assist milk producers, dairy processors and manufacturers, and dairy marketers as they face changing consumer responses to food and diet issues. PMID:19923626

  13. Effect of storage temperature on quality of light and full-fat ice cream.

    PubMed

    Buyck, J R; Baer, R J; Choi, J

    2011-05-01

    Ice cream quality is dependent on many factors including storage temperature. Currently, the industry standard for ice cream storage is -28.9 °C. Ice cream production costs may be decreased by increasing the temperature of the storage freezer, thus lowering energy costs. The first objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of 4 storage temperatures on the quality of commercial vanilla-flavored light and full-fat ice cream. Storage temperatures used were -45.6, -26.1, and -23.3 °C for the 3 treatments and -28.9 °C as the control or industry standard. Ice crystal sizes were analyzed by a cold-stage microscope and image analysis at 1, 19.5, and 39 wk of storage. Ice crystal size did not differ among the storage temperatures of light and full-fat ice creams at 19.5 or 39 wk. An increase in ice crystal size was observed between 19.5 and 39 wk for all storage temperatures except -45.6 °C. Coldness intensity, iciness, creaminess, and storage/stale off-flavor of the light and full-fat ice creams were evaluated at 39 wk of storage. Sensory evaluation indicated no difference among the different storage temperatures for light and full-fat ice creams. In a second study, light and full-fat ice creams were heat shocked by storing at -28.9 °C for 35 wk and then alternating between -23.3 and -12.2 °C every 24h for 4 wk. Heat-shocked ice creams were analyzed at 2 and 4 wk of storage for ice crystal size and were evaluated by the sensory panel. A difference in ice crystal size was observed for light and full-fat ice creams during heat-shock storage; however, sensory results indicated no differences. In summary, storage of light or full-fat vanilla-flavored ice creams at the temperatures used within this research did not affect quality of the ice creams. Therefore, ice cream manufacturers could conserve energy by increasing the temperature of freezers from -28.9 to -26.1 °C. Because freezers will typically fluctuate from the set temperature, usage of -26.1

  14. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW.

  15. Effect of okra cell wall and polysaccharide on physical properties and stability of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Yuennan, Pilapa; Sajjaanantakul, Tanaboon; Goff, H Douglas

    2014-08-01

    Stabilizers are used in ice cream to increase mix viscosity, promote smooth texture, and improve frozen stability. In this study, the effects of varying concentrations (0.00%, 0.15%, 0.30%, and 0.45%) of okra cell wall (OKW) and its corresponding water-soluble polysaccharide (OKP) on the physical characteristics of ice cream were determined. Ice cream mix viscosity was measured as well as overrun, meltdown, and consumer acceptability. Ice recrystallization was determined after ice cream was subjected to temperature cycling in the range of -10 to -20 °C for 10 cycles. Mix viscosity increased significantly as the concentrations of OKW and OKP increased. The addition of either OKW or OKP at 0.15% to 0.45% significantly improved the melting resistance of ice cream. OKW and OKP at 0.15% did not affect sensory perception score for flavor, texture, and overall liking of the ice cream. OKW and OKP (0.15%) reduced ice crystal growth to 107% and 87%, respectively, as compared to 132% for the control (0.00%). Thus, our results suggested the potential use of OKW and OKP at 0.15% as a stabilizer to control ice cream quality and retard ice recrystallization. OKP, however, at 0.15% exhibited greater effect on viscosity increase and on ice recrystallization inhibition than OKW. PMID:25040189

  16. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream.

    PubMed

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R; MacPhee, Cait E

    2015-12-18

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  17. Connecting the dots between bacterial biofilms and ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley-Wall, Nicola R.; MacPhee, Cait E.

    2015-12-01

    Emerging research is revealing a diverse array of interfacially-active proteins that are involved in varied biological process from foaming horse sweat to bacterial raincoat formation. We describe an interdisciplinary approach to study the molecular and biophysical mechanisms controlling the activity of an unusual bacterial protein called BslA. This protein is needed for biofilm formation and forms a protective layer or raincoat over the bacterial community, but also has a multitude of potential applications in multiphase formulations. Here we document our journey from fundamental research to an examination of the applications for this surface-active protein in ice cream.

  18. Enhancing the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with processed amla (Indian gooseberry).

    PubMed

    Goraya, Rajpreet Kaur; Bajwa, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Amla (Indian gooseberry) and its processed products are rich source of vitamin C, phenols, dietary fibre and antioxidants. In contrast, ice cream is a poor source of these phytochemicals and antioxidants; therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to enhance the functional properties and nutritional quality of ice cream with the incorporation of processed amla. Ice cream was prepared using amla shreds, pulp, preserve and candy at 5 to 20 % and powder at 0.5 to 2.0 % levels in ice cream mix prior to freezing. Inclusion of amla products at augmented levels resulted in significant changes in physico-chemical properties and phytochemical content of ice cream. The total solids decreased on addition of shreds and pulp and increased with preserve, candy and powder in ice cream at increasing levels. The functional constituents i.e. fibre, total phenols, tannins, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity increased with greater level of inclusion. Incorporation of processed amla raised the melting resistance of ice cream and decreased the overrun. The samples with 5 % shreds and pulp, 10 % preserve and candy and 0.5 % powder were found to have highest overall acceptability scores. Inclusion of amla in all the forms i.e. shreds, pulp, preserve, candy and powder enhanced the functional properties and nutritional value of ice cream.

  19. Viability of human-derived probiotic lactobacilli in ice cream produced with sucrose and aspartame.

    PubMed

    Başyiğit, Gülden; Kuleaşan, Hakan; Karahan, Aynur G

    2006-09-01

    A mixture of human-derived probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. agilis and L. rhamnosus was used as a probiotic culture in ice cream manufacture. Viability and survival of these probiotic cultures were investigated in two different ice cream formulations. Ice cream with sucrose and ice cream with aspartame were prepared and each of these was divided into two subgroups: one with direct addition of the probiotic culture and one with milk fermented by the same probiotic culture. Ice cream samples were stored at -20 degrees C for 6 months and the survival rate of cultures were determined monthly. Probiotic cultures underwent tests for resistance to bile salts, antibiotics, acidic conditions; they were found to be highly resistant to such challenges. Chemical analysis of ice cream samples, such as determination of acidity, pH and solid matter, was also performed. The probiotic cultures remained unchanged in ice cream stored for up to 6 months regardless of the sweeteners used. Using probiotic cultures in ice cream mixes did not alter the characteristics of the product.

  20. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    PubMed

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea.

  1. Sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream produced with different overrun levels.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Juliana L; Cruz, Adriano G; Cadena, Rafael S; Freitas, Monica Q; Pinto, Uelinton M; Carvalho, Celio C; Faria, Jose A F; Bolini, Helena M A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different overrun levels on the sensory acceptance and survival of probiotic bacteria in ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice creams supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus were processed with overruns of 45%, 60%, and 90%. Viable probiotic bacterial counts and sensory acceptance were assessed. All the ice creams presented a minimum count of 6 log CFU/g at the end of 60 d of frozen storage. However, higher overrun levels negatively influenced cell viability, being reported a decrease of 2 log CFU/g for the 90% overrun treatment. In addition, it was not reported an influence about acceptability with respect to appearance, aroma, and taste of the ice creams (P > 0.05). Overall, the results suggest that lower overrun levels should be adopted during the manufacture of ice cream in order to maintain its probiotic status through the shelf life.

  2. When ice cream was poisonous: adulteration, ptomaines, and bacteriology in the United States, 1850-1910.

    PubMed

    Geist, Edward

    2012-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of ice cream in the nineteenth century, the incidence of foodborne illness attributed to this dessert exploded. Struggling to understand the causes of the mysterious and sometimes lethal ailment called "ice cream poisoning," Victorian doctors and scientists advanced theories including toxic vanilla, galvanism in ice cream freezers, and extreme indigestion. In the late 1880s Victor C. Vaughan's argument that ice cream poisoning could be attributed to the ptomaine "tyrotoxicon" received widespread acceptance. To date historians have neglected the role played by the ptomaine theory of food poisoning in shaping the evolution of both scientific thinking and public health in the late nineteenth century. The case of ice cream poisoning illustrates the emergence, impact, and decline of the ptomaine idea. PMID:23241909

  3. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  4. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 405.70 - Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. 405.70 Section 405.70 Protection of... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Fluid Mix for Ice Cream and Other Frozen Desserts Subcategory § 405.70 Applicability; description of the fluid mix for ice cream and other frozen desserts subcategory. The...

  8. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  9. Evaluation of rice flour for use in vanilla ice cream.

    PubMed

    Cody, T L; Olabi, A; Pettingell, A G; Tong, P S; Walker, J H

    2007-10-01

    The effects of varying concentrations (2, 4, and 6%) of 2 types of rice flours (RF 1 and RF 2) on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of vanilla ice cream samples were assessed at different fat levels (0, 4, and 10%) and storage conditions (control vs. heat-shocked). Fat and total solids were measured as well as hardness, viscosity, and melting rate. Eight trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0 and 7 wk. The 2% rice flour level and to a certain extent the 4% usage level generally improved texture while affecting to a lesser extent the flavor characteristics of the samples compared with the control. The RF 2 generally had a more significant effect than RF 1, especially on the texture attributes. Although the rice flour reduced the negative impact of temperature abuse on textural properties, the samples still deteriorated in textural properties (more icy) under temperature abuse conditions. In addition, rice starch does lower perceived sweetness and can have a "flour flavor" at high usage levels. The use of rice flour appears to be most advantageous for low fat ice cream samples.

  10. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream.

  11. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jung; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream. PMID:26761671

  12. Studies on Physical and Sensory Properties of Premium Vanilla Ice Cream Distributed in Korean Market

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the difference in physical and sensory properties of various premium ice creams. The physical properties of the various ice creams were compared by manufacturing brand. The water contents of the samples differed, with BR having the highest value at 60.5%, followed by NT and CS at 57.8% and 56.9%, respectively. The higher the water content, the lower Brix and milk fat contents in all samples. The density of the samples showed almost similar values in all samples (p>0.05). The viscosity of each ice cream had no effect on the water content in any of the brands. Before melting of the ice cream, the total color difference was dependent on the lightness, especially in the vanilla ice cream, owing to the reflection of light on the surface of the ice crystals. The CS product melted the fastest. In the sensory test, CS obtained a significantly higher sweetness intensity score but a lower score for color intensity, probably due to the smaller difference in total color, by which consumers might consider the color of CS as less intense. From this study, the cold chain system for ice cream distribution might be important to decide the physical properties although the concentration of milk fat is key factor in premium ice cream. PMID:26761671

  13. Cold pleasure. Why we like ice drinks, ice-lollies and ice cream.

    PubMed

    Eccles, R; Du-Plessis, L; Dommels, Y; Wilkinson, J E

    2013-12-01

    This review discusses how the ingestion of cold foods and drinks may be perceived as pleasant because of the effects of cooling of the mouth. The case is made that man has originated from a tropical environment and that cold stimuli applied to the external skin may initiate thermal discomfort and reflexes such as shivering and vasoconstriction that defend body temperature, whereas cold stimuli applied to the mouth are perceived as pleasant because of pleasure associated with satiation of thirst and a refreshing effect. Cold water is preferred to warm water as a thirst quencher and cold products such as ice cream may also be perceived as pleasant because oral cooling satiates thirst. The case is made that cold stimuli may be perceived differently in the skin and oral mucosa, leading to different effects on temperature regulation, and perception of pleasure or displeasure, depending on the body temperature and the temperature of the external environment.

  14. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.

  15. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. PMID:24329951

  16. Physicochemical and sensory properties of ice-cream formulated with virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Choo, S Y; Leong, S K; Henna Lu, F S

    2010-12-01

    The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value. PMID:21339169

  17. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel.

  18. Application of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) strain in fruit-based ice cream.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, Suraji A; Fernando, Sirimali; Bamunuarachchi, Arthur; Arsekularatne, Mariam

    2013-11-01

    A study was performed to apply a probiotic strain into fermented ice cream mix with suitable fruit bases to develop a value-added product with a substantial level of viable organisms for a sufficient shelf life. Pure direct vat strain culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA 5) in freeze-dried form was inoculated into a mixture of ice cream, frozen, and the number of viable organisms during frozen storage for a period of time was enumerated, using turbidity measurements with a spectrophotometer. An ice cream sample prepared without the probiotic culture was compared with the test sample for quality, by testing the basic quality parameters for ice cream. Results show a reduction in the over run of the probiotic ice cream compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly high level (P < 0.05) of total solids (42%), proteins (16.5%), and titratable acidity (2.2%) was observed in the test sample compared to the nonprobiotic ice cream. Significantly low pH level in the probiotic sample may be due to the lactic acid produced by the probiotic culture. No significant difference (P > 0.05) in the fat content in the two types of ice cream was observed. A significantly low level (P < 0.05) of melting in the probiotic one may have resulted from less over run, than the nonprobiotic sample. Rapid reduction in the viable cells during frozen storage occurred at -18°C and gradual adaptation occurred over the first 4 weeks. At the 10th week, 1.0 × 10(7) numbers of viable organisms were present in 1 g of the probiotic ice cream. Results show the presence of a sufficient number of viable organisms in the product for the 10-week period, which would be beneficial to consumers.

  19. A review of modern instrumental techniques for measurements of ice cream characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bahram-Parvar, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing demand of the food industries and research institutes to have means of measurement allowing the characterization of foods. Ice cream, as a complex food system, consists of a frozen matrix containing air bubbles, fat globules, ice crystals, and an unfrozen serum phase. Some deficiencies in conventional methods for testing this product encourage the use of alternative techniques such as rheometry, spectroscopy, X-ray, electro-analytical techniques, ultrasound, and laser. Despite the development of novel instrumental applications in food science, use of some of them in ice cream testing is few, but has shown promising results. Developing the novel methods should increase our understanding of characteristics of ice cream and may allow online testing of the product. This review article discusses the potential of destructive and non-destructive methodologies in determining the quality and characteristics of ice cream and similar products.

  20. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    PubMed

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream.

  1. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    PubMed

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. PMID:25218746

  2. Enrichment of functional properties of ice cream with pomegranate by-products.

    PubMed

    Çam, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Fatma; Aslan, Duygu; Dinç, Merve

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranate peel rich in phenolics, and pomegranate seed which contain a conjugated fatty acid namely punicic acid in lipid fraction remain as by-products after processing the fruit into juice. Ice cream is poor in polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolics, therefore, this study was conducted to improve the functional properties of ice cream by incorporating pomegranate peel phenolics and pomegranate seed oil. Incorporation of the peel phenolics into ice cream at the levels of 0.1% and 0.4% (w/w) resulted in significant changes in the pH, total acidity, and color of the samples. The most prominent outcomes of phenolic incorporation were sharp improvements in antioxidant and antidiabetic activities as well as the phenolic content of ice creams. Replacement of pomegranate seed oil by milk fat at the levels of 2.0% and 4.0% (w/w) increased the conjugated fatty acid content. However, perception of oxidized flavor increased with the additional seed oil. When one considers the functional and nutritional improvements in the enrichment of the ice cream together with overall acceptability results of the sensory analysis, then it follows from this study that ice creams enriched with pomegranate peel phenolics up to 0.4% (w/w) and pomegranate seed oil up to 2.0% (w/w) could be introduced to markets as functional ice cream. Enrichment of ice creams with pomegranate by-products might provide consumers health benefits with striking functional properties of punicalagins in pomegranate peel, and punicic acid in pomegranate seed oil.

  3. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH. PMID:26761823

  4. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    PubMed

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source. PMID:25033424

  5. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus food-poisoning outbreak associated with the consumption of ice-cream.

    PubMed

    Fetsch, A; Contzen, M; Hartelt, K; Kleiser, A; Maassen, S; Rau, J; Kraushaar, B; Layer, F; Strommenger, B

    2014-09-18

    In April 2013, a food poisoning outbreak caused by staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in ice-cream occurred in Freiburg, Germany, among the 31 participants of a christening party. Of the 13 cases, seven were hospitalized or obtained ambulatory treatment. Different types of ice-cream, which was freshly produced at the hotel where the party took place, were found to contain SE and high amounts of coagulase positive staphylococci. Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from ice-cream and human cases were of the same spa-type (t127), harboured the sea gene and displayed identical phenotypic resistance-, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy- (FT-IR) and microarray-profiles. Despite the strong microbiological and epidemiological evidence of ice-cream being the incriminated food vehicle of the outbreak, a common source of S. aureus from the ice-cream could not be deduced. As none of the employees carried the outbreak strain, either the equipment used for the production of the ice-cream or a contaminated ingredient is the most likely introduction source.

  7. Effect of Porcine Collagen Peptides on the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Min, Sang-Gi; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The effects of low molecular-weight collagen peptides derived from porcine skin were investigated on the physicochemical and sensorial properties of chocolate ice cream. Collagen peptides less than 1 kDa in weight were obtained by sub-critical water hydrolysis at a temperature of 300℃ and a pressure of 80 bar. Ice cream was then prepared with gelatin powder and porcine skin hydrolysate (PSH) stabilizers mixed at seven different ratios (for a total of 0.5 wt%). There was no significant difference in color between the resulting ice cream mixtures. The increase in apparent viscosity and shear thinning of the ice cream was more moderate with PSH added than with gelatin. Moreover, the samples containing more than 0.2 wt% PSH had enhanced melting resistance, while the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH had the lowest storage modulus at -20℃ and the second highest loss modulus at 10℃, indicating that this combination of hydrocolloids leads to relatively softer and creamier chocolate ice cream. Among the seven types of ice creams tested, the mixture with 0.2 wt% PSH and 0.3 wt% gelatin had the best physicochemical properties. However, in sensory evaluations, the samples containing PSH had lower chocolate flavor scores and higher off-flavor scores than the sample prepared with just 0.5 wt% gelatin due to the strong off-flavor of PSH. PMID:26761823

  8. Regenerator-based thermoacoustic refrigerator for ice cream storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2003-10-01

    A regenerator-based chiller has been built in the ``bellows bounce'' style [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 15 (2002)] to replace the vapor compression system in an ice cream sales cabinet. It utilizes a 6-in.-diam metal bellows to form a compliant cavity that contains the dynamic pressure oscillation (>50 kPa). The stiffness of the gas trapped in the bellows is resonated against the mass of the bellows-cap and the mass of a moving-magnet linear motor which is capable of high (>85%) electro-acoustic efficiency. A second resonator, operated well below its natural frequency, uses the gas stiffness of a 1-l volume nested within the bellows and the inertia of an ordinary loudspeaker cone to create the pressure difference across the regenerator that drives gas flow that is in-phase with pressure. The mass of the cone can be adjusted to vary the multiplication factor that is typically 5%-10% greater than the dynamic pressure within the bellows. The loudspeaker cone suffers none of the hydrodynamic losses associated with an acoustic inertance and eliminates problems with dc gas flow in the energy feedback path. The cold heat exchanger forms one surface of the pressure vessel permitting direct contact with any thermal load. [Work supported by Ben and Jerry's Homemade.

  9. Effect of Frozen Storage Temperature on the Quality of Premium Ice Cream.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Geun-Pyo; Davaatseren, Munkhtugs; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The market sales of premium ice cream have paralleled the growth in consumer desire for rich flavor and taste. Storage temperature is a major consideration in preserving the quality attributes of premium ice cream products for both the manufacturer and retailers during prolonged storage. We investigated the effect of storage temperature (-18℃, -30℃, -50℃, and -70℃) and storage times, up to 52 wk, on the quality attributes of premium ice cream. Quality attributes tested included ice crystal size, air cell size, melting resistance, and color. Ice crystal size increased from 40.3 μm to 100.1 μm after 52 wk of storage at -18℃. When ice cream samples were stored at -50℃ or -70℃, ice crystal size slightly increased from 40.3 μm to 57-58 μm. Initial air cell size increased from 37.1 μm to 87.7 μm after storage at -18℃ for 52 wk. However, for storage temperatures of -50℃ and -70℃, air cell size increased only slightly from 37.1 μm to 46-47 μm. Low storage temperature (-50℃ and -70℃) resulted in better melt resistance and minimized color changes in comparison to high temperature storage (-18℃ and -30℃). In our study, quality changes in premium ice cream were gradually minimized according to decrease in storage temperature up to-50℃. No significant beneficial effect of -70℃ storage was found in quality attributes. In the scope of our experiment, we recommend a storage temperature of -50℃ to preserve the quality attributes of premium ice cream.

  10. Development of a full ice-cream cone model for halo CME structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae

    2015-04-01

    The determination of three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) is very important for space weather forecast. To estimate these parameters, several cone models based on a flat cone or a shallow ice-cream cone with spherical front have been suggested. In this study, we investigate which cone model is proper for halo CME morphology using 33 CMEs which are identified as halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From geometrical parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone CMEs (28 events) are dominant over shallow ice-cream cone CMEs (5 events). So we develop a new full ice-cream cone model by assuming that a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection points with the observed ones. We apply this model to several halo CMEs and compare the results with those from other methods such as a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model and a geometrical triangulation method.

  11. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues.

  12. Manufacture of ice cream with improved microbiological safety by using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jae-Hun; Ham, Jun-Sang; Byun, Myung-Woo; Baek, Min; Jo, Cheorun; Shin, Myung-Gon

    2009-07-01

    Children suffered from leukemia want to eat delicious dishes, such as cake and ice cream. However, it is very difficult to serve these foods to immune-compromised patients without application of any adequate sanitary measures. This study was conducted to evaluate application of irradiation to frozen ready-to-eat food, ice cream. Three ice creams with flavors of vanilla, chocolate and strawberry were manufactured and gamma irradiated at the absorbed doses of 1, 3, and 5 kGy at -70 °C. Total microflora and coliform bacteria were determined, and Listeria spp., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. were also tested by the use of API 20E Kit. Aerobic bacteria, yeast/mold and coliforms were contaminated in the levels of 2.3 to 3.3, 2.3 to 2.7 and 1.7 to 2.4 log CFU/g, respectively. In samples irradiated at 5 kGy, the growth of any microorganisms could not be observed. Listeria spp. and E. coli were detected at non-irradiated samples, but S. spp. was not existed. D10 values of L. ivanovii and E. coli were 0.75 and 0.31 kGy, respectively, in ice cream. From these results, irradiation technology can reduce the risk by the food-borne pathogens of ice cream.

  13. Flow properties of ice cream mix prepared from palm oil: anhydrous milk fat blends.

    PubMed

    Rosnani, A I Wan; Aini, I Nor; Yazid, A M M; Dzulkifly, M H

    2007-05-15

    Ice cream mixes containing 33.4% total solids including 10% fat, 11.1% milk solid-non fat (MSNF), 12% sugar, 0.35% commercial blend of emulsifier/ stabiliser and water were produced. The blending of PO with AMF were conducted at three different ratios 30: 70, 50: 50 and 70: 30, respectively. The experimental ice cream mixes were compared with a control ice cream mix prepared from AMF. The flow properties were measured after ageing at 0, 1, 1.5, 2 and 24 h and determined using a controlled stress rheometer (Haake RS 100). The Power Law and Casson equation was employed to estimate the yield stress of an ice cream mixes. The regression coefficients (r) was represented well by the Casson model (r > 0.99) for all the samples, indicating goodness of fit. The profiles of the consistency coefficients (K(c)) were quite similar for all experimental samples, which could be attributed to the fact that all the samples exhibited similar viscoelastic behaviour. The flow behaviour index (n) of an ice cream mix prepared from PO and their blends with AMF were less then 1.0 (range 0.04-0.08) indicating that they were psuedoplastic fluid. The eta(o) at shear rate 20(-1) indicated higher degree of viscosity in AMF.

  14. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  15. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.

  16. Effects of locust bean gum and mono- and diglyceride concentrations on particle size and melting rates of ice cream.

    PubMed

    Cropper, S L; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Tharp, B W; Harper, W J

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how varying concentrations of the stabilizer, locust bean gum (LBG), and different levels of the emulsifier, mono- and diglycerides (MDGs), influenced fat aggregation and melting characteristics of ice cream. Ice creams were made containing MDGs and LBG singly and in combination at concentrations ranging between 0.0% to 0.14% and 0.0% to 0.23%, respectively. Particle size analysis, conducted on both the mixes and ice cream, and melting rate testing on the ice cream were used to determine fat aggregation. No significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between particle size values for experimental ice cream mixes. However, higher concentrations of both LBG and MDG in the ice creams resulted in values that were larger than the control. This study also found an increase in the particle size values when MDG levels were held constant and LBG amounts were increased in the ice cream. Ice creams with higher concentrations of MDG and LBG together had the greatest difference in the rate of melting than the control. The melting rate decreased with increasing LBG concentrations at constant MDG levels. These results illustrated that fat aggregation may not only be affected by emulsifiers, but that stabilizers may play a role in contributing to the destabilization of fat globules.

  17. The potential application of rice bran wax oleogel to replace solid fat and enhance unsaturated fat content in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-09-01

    The development of structure in ice cream, characterized by its smooth texture and resistance to collapse during melting, depends, in part, on the presence of solid fat during the whipping and freezing steps. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of 10% rice bran wax (RBW) oleogel, comprised 90% high-oleic sunflower oil and 10% RBW, to replace solid fat in ice cream. A commercial blend of 80% saturated mono- and diglycerides and 20% polysorbate 80 was used as the emulsifier. Standard ice cream measurements, cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the formation of structure in ice cream. RBW oleogel produced higher levels of overrun when compared to a liquid oil ice cream sample, creating a lighter sample with good texture and appearance. However, those results were not associated with higher meltdown resistance. Microscopy revealed larger aggregation of RBW oleogel fat droplets at the air cell interface and distortion of the shape of air cells and fat droplets. Although the RBW oleogel did not develop sufficient structure in ice cream to maintain shape during meltdown when a mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80 blend was used as the emulsifier, micro- and ultrastructure investigations suggested that RBW oleogel did induce formation of a fat globule network in ice cream, suggesting that further optimization could lead to an alternative to saturated fat sources for ice cream applications.

  18. Optimization of fat-reduced ice cream formulation employing inulin as fat replacer via response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Pintor, Aurora; Severiano-Pérez, Patricia; Totosaus, Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The use of new ingredients like inulin for fat replacement is of wide application in the food industry. The aim of the present work was to reduce the fat content on ice cream formulations. It was possible to reduce up to 25% of butyric and vegetable fats with 3% of inulin, with good textural and sensory characteristics of the final product. The substitution of fat with inulin increased the ice cream mix viscosity, improved air incorporation, and produced ice cream with soft and homogeneous textures. Color characteristics were not affected by the replacement. Hedonic sensory analysis showed that optimized fat-reduced inulin ice cream was not perceived different to commercial vanilla ice cream.

  19. Reduced fat and sugar vanilla ice creams: sensory profiling and external preference mapping.

    PubMed

    Cadena, R S; Cruz, A G; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to map sensory attributes of vanilla ice cream with reduced fat and sugar, and (2) to determine drivers of liking by applying external preference mapping and reveal the relationship between descriptive attributes and hedonic judgments using the partial least squares method. Descriptive sensory profiles (n=11) and consumer test (n=117) of 6 samples of vanilla ice cream (3 traditional and 3 with reduced fat and sugar) were determined. The attributes brightness and sweet aftertaste for sample and creaminess (appearance and texture) and sweet aroma contributed positively to the acceptance of ice cream samples. The attributes aeration, powdered milk aroma and flavor, and white chocolate aroma and flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of the ice creams. The attributes hydrogenated fat aroma and flavor were responsible for the lower acceptance of samples. The reduction in fat and sugar did not necessarily cause a decrease in acceptance. The most important factors were selection of the appropriate sweetener system and the use of good quality raw material.

  20. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  1. Determination of enterotoxigenic and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Gücükoğlu, Ali; Çadirci, Özgür; Terzi, Göknur; Kevenk, T Onur; Alişarli, Mustafa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in ice creams. After culture-based identification of isolates, the presence of 16S rRNA and nuc was confirmed by mPCR. S. aureus was identified in 18 of 56 fruity (32.1%), 4 of 32 vanilla (12.5%), and 1 of 12 chocolate (8.3%) ice creams. S. aureus was identified as 38 isolates in 23 ice cream samples by culture-based techniques, but only 35 isolates were confirmed by PCR as S. aureus. To determine the enterotoxigenic properties of PCR-confirmed S. aureus isolates, a toxin detection kit was used (SET RPLA®). Of the 12 enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates, 9 SEB (75%), 1 SED (8.3%), 1 SEB+SED (8.3%), and 1 SEA+SEB+SED (8.3%) expressing isolates were found. The presence of enterotoxin genes (sea, seb, sed) was identified in 13 (37.1%) out of 35 isolates by the mPCR technique. In the ice cream isolates, the sea, seb, and sed genes were detected: 1 sea (7.6%), 9 seb (69.2%), 1 sed (7.6%), 1 seb+sed (7.6%), and 1 sea+seb+sed (7.6%), respectively. The sec gene was not detected in any of these isolates. One of the 35 (2.8%) S. aureus strain was mecA positive.

  2. Application of simplex-centroid mixture design to optimize stabilizer combinations for ice cream manufacture.

    PubMed

    BahramParvar, Maryam; Tehrani, Mostafa Mazaheri; Razavi, Seyed M A; Koocheki, Arash

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to obtain the optimum formulation for stabilizers in ice cream that could contest with blends presented nowadays. Thus, different mixtures of three stabilizers, i.e. basil seed gum, carboxymethyl cellulose, and guar gum, at two concentrations (0.15 % & 0.35 %) were studied using mixture design methodology. The influence of these mixtures on some properties of ice cream and the regression models for them were also determined. Generally, high ratios of basil seed gum in mixture developed the apparent viscosity of ice cream mixes and decreased the melting rate. Increasing proportion of this stabilizer as well as guar gum in the mixtures at concentration of 0.15 % enhanced the overrun of samples. Based on the optimization criteria, the most excellent combination was 84.43 % basil seed gum and 15.57 % guar gum at concentration of 0.15 %. This research proved the capability of basil seed gum as a novel stabilizer in ice cream stabilization.

  3. Summertime, and the Choosin' Ain't Easy: An Ice Cream Counting Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreith, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes the problem of determining the number of different ice cream cones and cups that can be made from a choice of 31 flavors to investigate the concepts of combinations and permutations. Provides a set of six related problems with their answers. (MDH)

  4. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products.

  5. Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections linked to a pasteurized ice cream product served to hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, K; Lloyd, J; Melius, B; Wyman, P; Treadwell, R; Olson, G; Kang, M-G; Duchin, J S

    2016-10-01

    Two cases of hospital-acquired listeriosis were linked to a commercially produced, pasteurized ice cream mix. Manufacturers should implement safety measures from the Food Safety Modernization Act to minimize the risk of Listeria contamination. Dietary guidelines for persons at high risk of listeriosis may need revision to recognize the potential risk from pasteurized products. PMID:27586030

  6. Determination of HCME 3-D parameters using a full ice-cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyeonock; Moon, Yong-Jae; Lee, Harim

    2016-05-01

    It is very essential to determine three dimensional parameters (e.g., radial speed, angular width, source location) of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) for space weather forecast. Several cone models (e.g., an elliptical cone model, an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model) have been examined to estimate these parameters. In this study, we investigate which cone type is close to a halo CME morphology using 26 CMEs: halo CMEs by one spacecraft (SOHO or STEREO-A or B) and as limb CMEs by the other ones. From cone shape parameters of these CMEs such as their front curvature, we find that near full ice-cream cone type CMEs are much closer to observations than shallow ice-cream cone type CMEs. Thus we develop a new cone model in which a full ice-cream cone consists of many flat cones with different heights and angular widths. This model is carried out by the following steps: (1) construct a cone for given height and angular width, (2) project the cone onto the sky plane, (3) select points comprising the outer boundary, and (4) minimize the difference between the estimated projection speeds with the observed ones. By applying this model to 12 SOHO/LASCO halo CMEs, we find that 3-D parameters from our method are similar to those from other stereoscopic methods (a geometrical triangulation method and a Graduated Cylindrical Shell model) based on multi-spacecraft data. We are developing a general ice-cream cone model whose front shape is a free parameter determined by observations.

  7. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes.

  8. Formulation and characterization of nanoencapsulated curcumin using sodium caseinate and its incorporation in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deep Diyuti; Mann, Bimlesh; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Rajan; Bajaj, Rajesh; Minaxi

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, the preparation and characterization of a curcumin nanoemulsion with milk protein (sodium caseinate) and its incorporation into ice cream were undertaken. Among the different combinations, the most stable formulation was observed using milk fat (8%), medium chain triglycerides (2%), curcumin (0.24%) and sodium caseinate (6%) with a mean particle size of 333.8 ± 7.18 nm, a zeta potential of -44.1 ± 0.72 mV and an encapsulation efficiency of 96.9 ± 0.28%. The effect of different processing conditions (heating, pH and ionic strength) on the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the nanoemulsion was evaluated. During heat treatment, the particle size of the nanoemulsion was increased from 333.8 ± 7.18 to 351.1 ± 4.04 nm. The nanoemulsion was destabilized at pH 4.6 and the particle size increased above and below pH 5.0. However, there was a slight increase in the particle size with a change in the ionic concentration. The release kinetics data suggested that in simulated gastro-intestinal digestion, the nanoemulsion was stable against pepsin digestion (a 5.25% release of curcumin), while pancreatic action led to a 16.12% release of curcumin from the nanoemulsion. Finally, our formulation was successfully incorporated into ice cream and the sensory attributes were evaluated. No significant difference was observed in the scores of the sensory attributes between the control and ice cream prepared with a curcumin nanoemulsion. Moreover, the encapsulation efficiency of the curcumin incorporated into the ice cream was 93.7%, which indicates that it can withstand the processing conditions. The findings suggest that ice cream is a suitable dairy product for the delivery of lipophilic bioactive components (curcumin) which can be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26501983

  9. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  10. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  11. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  12. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  13. 40 CFR 405.80 - Applicability; description of the ice cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cream, frozen desserts, novelties and other dairy desserts subcategory. 405.80 Section 405.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS DAIRY PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Ice Cream, Frozen Desserts, Novelties and Other Dairy...

  14. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties.

  15. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability.

  16. Development of a fermented ice-cream as influenced by in situ exopolysaccharide production: Rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory characterization.

    PubMed

    Dertli, Enes; Toker, Omer S; Durak, M Zeki; Yilmaz, Mustafa T; Tatlısu, Nevruz Berna; Sagdic, Osman; Cankurt, Hasan

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to investigate the role of in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by EPS(+)Streptococcus thermophilus strains on physicochemical, rheological, molecular, microstructural and sensory properties of ice cream in order to develop a fermented and consequently functional ice-cream in which no stabilizers would be required in ice-cream production. For this purpose, the effect of EPS producing strains (control, strain 1, strain 2 and mixture) and fermentation conditions (fermentation temperature; 32, 37 and 42 °C and time; 2, 3 and 4h) on pH, S. thermophilus count, EPS amount, consistency coefficient (K), and apparent viscosity (η50) were investigated and optimized using single and multiple response optimization tools of response surface methodology. Optimization analyses indicated that functional ice-cream should be fermented with strain 1 or strain mixture at 40-42 °C for 4h in order to produce the most viscous ice-cream with maximum EPS content. Optimization analysis results also revealed that strain specific conditions appeared to be more effective factor on in situ EPS production amount, K and η50 parameters than did fermentation temperature and time. The rheological analysis of the ice-cream produced by EPS(+) strains revealed its high viscous and pseudoplastic non-Newtonian fluid behavior, which demonstrates potential of S. thermophilus EPS as thickening and gelling agent in dairy industry. FTIR analysis proved that the EPS in ice-cream corresponded to a typical EPS, as revealed by the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amide groups with additional α-glycosidic linkages. SEM studies demonstrated that it had a web-like compact microstructure with pores in ice-cream, revealing its application possibility in dairy products to improve their rheological properties. PMID:26572373

  17. Some quality attributes of low fat ice cream substituted with hulless barley flour and barley ß-glucan.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Haleem, Amal M H; Awad, R A

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate some quality attributes of low fat ice cream (LFIC) substituted with hulless barley flour (HBF) and barley ß-glucan (BBG). The methodology included in this paper is based on adding HBF (1, 2, 3 and 4 %) as a partial substitution of skim milk powder (SMP) and BBG (0.40 %) as a complete substitution of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC). All mixes and resultant ice cream samples were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as the sensory quality attributes.The results indicated that substitution of SMP with HBF significantly increased total solids (TS), fat and crude fiber, while crude protein and ash significantly decreased in ice cream mixes. BBG exhibited the same manner of control. Specific gravity was gradually increased with adding HBFand BBG in the mixes and therefore the overrun percent was significantly changed in the resultant ice cream. Adding HBF in ice cream formula led to significant decrease in acidity with higher freezing point and the product showed higher ability to meltdown. BBG treatment showed the same trend of control. Values of flow time and viscosity significantly increased with increasing HBF in the ice cream mixes, but these values significantly decreased in BBG mix. The time required to freeze ice cream mixes was decreased with increasing the ratio of HBF but, increased in BBG treatment. The substitution of SMP with 1 and 2 % HBF significantly (P ≤ 0.05) enhanced sensory attributes of ice cream samples. While, BBG treatment achieved mild score and acceptability. PMID:26396387

  18. Comparison of CME radial velocities from a flux rope model and an ice cream cone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.; Moon, Y.; Na, H.

    2011-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) on the Sun are the largest energy release process in the solar system and act as the primary driver of geomagnetic storms and other space weather phenomena on the Earth. So it is very important to infer their directions, velocities and three-dimensional structures. In this study, we choose two different models to infer radial velocities of halo CMEs since 2008 : (1) an ice cream cone model by Xue et al (2005) using SOHO/LASCO data, (2) a flux rope model by Thernisien et al. (2009) using the STEREO/SECCHI data. In addition, we use another flux rope model in which the separation angle of flux rope is zero, which is morphologically similar to the ice cream cone model. The comparison shows that the CME radial velocities from among each model have very good correlations (R>0.9). We will extending this comparison to other partial CMEs observed by STEREO and SOHO.

  19. Synbiotic yogurt-ice cream produced via incorporation of microencapsulated lactobacillus acidophilus (la-5) and fructooligosaccharide.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Abbas; Milani, Elnaz; Madadlou, Ashkan; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Mokarram, Reza Rezaei; Salarbashi, Davoud

    2014-08-01

    Yogurt-ice cream is a nutritious product with a refreshing taste and durability profoundly longer than that of yogurt. The probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-5) cells either in free or encapsulated form were incorporated into yog-ice cream and their survivability were studied. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic compound at three levels (0, 4 & 8 % w/w) was added to yogurt-ice cream mix and its effects on some chemical properties, overrun and firmness of product were evaluated. The higher the incorporated FOS concentration, the lower were the pH value and higher the total solid content of treatments. FOS incorporation (8 %) significantly increased the overrun of treatments and reduced their firmness. The viable counts of free probiotics decreased from ~9.55 to ~7.3 log cfu/g after 60 days of frozen storage while that of encapsulated cells merely decreased less than 1 log cycle. Encapsulation with alginate microbeads protected the probiotic cells against injuries in the freezing stage as well as, during frozen storage.

  20. Comparison of Asymmetric and Ice-cream Cone Models for Halo Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, H.; Moon, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (HCMEs) are major cause of the geomagnetic storms. To minimize the projection effect by coronagraph observation, several cone models have been suggested: an ice-cream cone model, an asymmetric cone model etc. These models allow us to determine the three dimensional parameters of HCMEs such as radial speed, angular width, and the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone. In this study, we compare these parameters obtained from different models using 48 well-observed HCMEs from 2001 to 2002. And we obtain the root mean square error (RMS error) between measured projection speeds and calculated projection speeds for both cone models. As a result, we find that the radial speeds obtained from the models are well correlated with each other (R = 0.86), and the correlation coefficient of angular width is 0.6. The correlation coefficient of the angle between sky plane and central axis of the cone is 0.31, which is much smaller than expected. The reason may be due to the fact that the source locations of the asymmetric cone model are distributed near the center, while those of the ice-cream cone model are located in a wide range. The average RMS error of the asymmetric cone model (85.6km/s) is slightly smaller than that of the ice-cream cone model (87.8km/s).

  1. Whey protein phospholipid concentrate and delactosed permeate: Applications in caramel, ice cream, and cake.

    PubMed

    Levin, M A; Burrington, K J; Hartel, R W

    2016-09-01

    Whey protein phospholipid concentrate (WPPC) and delactosed permeate (DLP) are 2 coproducts of cheese whey processing that are currently underutilized. Past research has shown that WPPC and DLP can be used together as a functional dairy ingredient in foods such as ice cream, soup, and caramel. However, the scope of the research has been limited to a single WPPC supplier. The variability of the composition and functionality of WPPC was previously studied. The objective of this research was to expand on the previous study and examine the potential applications of WPPC and DLP blends in foods. In ice cream, WPPC was added as a natural emulsifier to replace synthetic emulsifiers. The WPPC decreased the amount of partially coalesced fat and increased the drip-through rate. In caramel, DLP and WPPC replaced sweetened condensed skim milk and lecithin. Cold flow increased significantly, and hardness and stickiness decreased. In cake, DLP and WPPC were added as a total replacement of eggs, with no change in yield, color, or texture. Overall, WPPC and DLP can be utilized as functional dairy ingredients at a lower cost in ice cream and cake but not in chewy caramel.

  2. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers.

  3. A customer value analysis of Taiwan ice cream market: a means-end chain approach across consumption situations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Kwang; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Chiu, Fei-Rung

    2015-01-01

    In the highly competitive market, it is increasingly hard for ice cream stores to develop creative marketing strategies to retain existing customers and attract new ones. This study applies the means-end chain approach to identify the customer value, consequences, and attributes of ice cream and to suggest useful information for ice cream sellers to develop differential marketing strategies across various consumption situations (i.e. on a date, gathering with friends, craving for ice cream). This study conducted one-on-one in-depth interviews with participants. The interview content was subsequently analyzed and coded to produce an implication matrix and a hierarchical value map, which was further used to determine customers' value perceptions. The results indicate the terminal values of the highest strength comprised economy, pleasure, and efficiency. Pleasure was emphasized among consumers who were on a date or gathering with friends, whereas satisfaction was emphasized among consumers who craved ice cream. Based on the results, the study also provides suggestions to the industry and future researchers. PMID:26682112

  4. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  5. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:27235735

  6. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality.

  7. [Rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Dai, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a method for the rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by HPLC. A radial compression C18 cohumn, 100 mm x 8 mm i.d., and ultraviolet detector at 220 nm were applied to the determination without extraction. The solution of samples would be determined after they were treated with the solution of copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide in water. The detectable amount was 0.38 mg/kg, the coefficient of variation CV was 1.72%, and the recovery was 96.25%-101.75%.

  8. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products. PMID:24551829

  9. A birthday party, home-made ice cream, and an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type 6 infection.

    PubMed

    Dodhia, H; Kearney, J; Warburton, F

    1998-03-01

    An outbreak of food poisoning caused by Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 6 followed a children's birthday party. Thirty of 37 (attack rate 81%) attendees were ill, with diarrhoea and fever being the most common symptoms. One child required hospital admission for rehydration. No deaths occurred. Stool specimens from 24 out of 25 people who submitted them were positive for S. enteritidis PT 6 and one was positive for S. enteritidis PT4. Epidemiological investigation indicated that home-made ice cream was the vehicle of infection. Fresh shell eggs used raw in the ice cream were the likeliest source of infection. No ice cream or eggs were available for microbiological analysis. S. enteritidis PT6 accounts for a small but increasing proportion of all salmonellas in humans and its epidemiology is thought to be similar to S. enteritidis PT4. Thus current recommendations on the use of raw eggs in cooking continue to apply.

  10. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee

    2013-12-01

    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  11. Changes in electrical energy requirements to operate an ice cream freezer as a function of sweeteners and gums

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Bakshi, A.S.; Gay, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Changes in electrical energy required to operate a continuous freezer were monitored for various ice cream formulae. Ice cream formulae consisted of nine different combinations of sucrose, 36 DE corn syrup, and 42 high fructose corn syrup as well as two ratios of guar gum to locust bean gum. Within the same sweetening system, a mix high in locust bean gum tended to have a lower energy demand than mix with large amounts of guar gum. This was especially pronounced in mixes with 50% 42 high fructose corn syrup and/or 50% 36 DE corn syrup solids.

  12. Recovery of biogas as a source of renewable energy from ice-cream production residues and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Demirel, Burak; Orok, Murat; Hot, Elif; Erkişi, Selin; Albükrek, Metin; Onay, Turgut T

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of waste streams and residues from agro-industry is very important to prevent environmental pollution. In particular, the anaerobic co-digestion process can be used as an important tool for safe disposal and energy recovery from agro-industry waste streams and residues. The primary objective of this laboratory-scale study was to determine whether it was possible to recover energy (biogas) from ice-cream production residues and wastewater, through a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process. A high methane yield of 0.338 L CH4/gCOD(removed) could be achieved from anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater alone, with almost 70% of methane in biogas, while anaerobic digestion of ice-cream production residue alone did not seem feasible. When wastewater and ice-cream production residue were anaerobically co-digested at a ratio of 9:1 by weight, the highest methane yield of 0.131 L CH4/gCOD(removed) was observed. Buffering capacity seemed to be imperative in energy recovery from these substrates in the anaerobic digestion process.

  13. Growth and Survival of Some Probiotic Strains in Simulated Ice Cream Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.

    A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.

  14. A 4-D dataset for validation of crystal growth in a complex three-phase material, ice cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockett, P.; Karagadde, S.; Guo, E.; Bent, J.; Hazekamp, J.; Kingsley, M.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Lee, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Four dimensional (4D, or 3D plus time) X-ray tomographic imaging of phase changes in materials is quickly becoming an accepted tool for quantifying the development of microstructures to both inform and validate models. However, most of the systems studied have been relatively simple binary compositions with only two phases. In this study we present a quantitative dataset of the phase evolution in a complex three-phase material, ice cream. The microstructure of ice cream is an important parameter in terms of sensorial perception, and therefore quantification and modelling of the evolution of the microstructure with time and temperature is key to understanding its fabrication and storage. The microstructure consists of three phases, air cells, ice crystals, and unfrozen matrix. We perform in situ synchrotron X-ray imaging of ice cream samples using in-line phase contrast tomography, housed within a purpose built cold-stage (-40 to +20oC) with finely controlled variation in specimen temperature. The size and distribution of ice crystals and air cells during programmed temperature cycling are determined using 3D quantification. The microstructural evolution of three-phase materials has many other important applications ranging from biological to structural and functional material, hence this dataset can act as a validation case for numerical investigations on faceted and non-faceted crystal growth in a range of materials.

  15. Effect of biopolymers on structure and ice recrystallization in dynamically frozen ice cream model systems.

    PubMed

    Regand, A; Goff, H D

    2002-11-01

    Ice crystal growth and microstructure of sugarsolutions prepared with stabilizers (carboxymethyl cellulose [CMC], xanthan gum, locust bean gum [LBG], and gelatin) with or without milk solids-nonfat (MSNF) after freezing in a scraped surface heat exchanger and temperature cycling (5 cycles from -6 degrees C to -20 degrees C) were studied. Ice crystal growth was calculated from brightfield microscopic images acquired from samples before and after cycling. Freeze-substitution and low-temperature embedding (LR-Gold resin) were sample preparation techniques utilized for structure analyses by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Differential staining for carbohydrates and proteins allowed the identification of stabilizer gel-like structures in LBG, gelatin, and gelatin/MSNF solutions. In the absence of milk proteins, xanthan and LBG were the most effective at retarding recrystallization, while in their presence, only xanthan had an effect. Cryo-gelation of the LBG was observed but is not the only mechanism of stabilizer action. Thermodynamic incompatibility between biopolymers was observed to promote localized high concentrations of milk proteins located at the ice crystal interface, probably exerting a water-holding action that significantly enhanced the stabilizer effect. Qualitatively, solution heterogeneity (phase separation) was directly proportional to ice crystal growth inhibition. It is suggested that water-holding by stabilizer and proteins, and in some cases steric hindrance induced by a stabilizer gel-like network, caused a reduction in the kinetics of the ice recrystallization phenomena and promoted mechanisms of melt-regrow instead of melt-diffuse-grow recrystallization, thus resulting in the preservation of the ice crystal size and in a small span of the ice crystal size distribution.

  16. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    PubMed

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin.

  17. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R (2) 0.75-0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R (2) 0.83-0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes.

  18. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Monakhova, Yulia B.; Godelmann, Rolf; Andlauer, Claudia; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese (R2 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream (R2 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. PMID:26904597

  19. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  20. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  1. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH. PMID:27039390

  2. Effect of milk fat, cocoa butter, and whey protein fat replacers on the sensory properties of lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice cream.

    PubMed

    Prindiville, E A; Marshall, R T; Heymann, H

    2000-10-01

    Lowfat and nonfat chocolate ice creams were made with 2.5% of milk fat, cocoa butter, or one of two whey protein-based fat replacers, Dairy Lo or Simplesse. Polydextrose was added as required so that all formulations contained the same amount of total solids. Ice cream was stored at a control temperature of-30 degrees C. Hardness, viscosity, and melting rate were measured by physical methods. Trained panelists conducted descriptive sensory analyses of the samples at 0, 6, and 12 wk. Attribute ratings were analyzed by analysis o variance with least significant difference mean separation and orthogonal contrasting. Data were also analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance with canonical variate analysis. Consumer acceptance (n = 50) did not differ among the fresh ice creams (wk 0). Ice cream containing milk fat had less intense cocoa flavor and was more resistant to textural changes over time compared with the other ice creams. Simplesse was more similar to milk fat than was Dairy Lo in its effect on brown color, cocoa flavor, cocoa character, and textural stability but was less similar in terms of thickness and mouthcoating.

  3. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree. PMID:24268400

  4. Physicochemical, bioactive, and sensory properties of persimmon-based ice cream: technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution to determine optimum concentration.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Safa; Toker, Ömer Said; Yüksel, Ferhat; Çam, Mustafa; Kayacier, Ahmed; Dogan, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, persimmon puree was incorporated into the ice cream mix at different concentrations (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40%) and some physicochemical (dry matter, ash, protein, pH, sugar, fat, mineral, color, and viscosity), textural (hardness, stickiness, and work of penetration), bioactive (antiradical activity and total phenolic content), and sensory properties of samples were investigated. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach was used for the determination of optimum persimmon puree concentration based on the sensory and bioactive characteristics of final products. Increase in persimmon puree resulted in a decrease in the dry matter, ash, fat, protein contents, and viscosity of ice cream mix. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and lactose were determined to be major sugars in the ice cream samples including persimmon and increase in persimmon puree concentration increased the fructose and glucose content. Better melting properties and textural characteristics were observed for the samples with the addition of persimmon. Magnesium, K, and Ca were determined to be major minerals in the samples and only K concentration increased with the increase in persimmon content. Bioactive properties of ice cream samples improved and, in general, acetone-water extracts showed higher bioactivity compared with ones obtained using methanol-water extracts. The technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution approach showed that the most preferred sample was the ice cream containing 24% persimmon puree.

  5. Analysis of buccolingual dimensional changes of the extraction socket using the "ice cream cone" flapless grafting technique.

    PubMed

    Tan-Chu, Jocelyn H P; Tuminelli, Frank J; Kurtz, Kenneth S; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    The socket or ridge preservation approach known as the "ice cream cone" technique was used in type 2 sockets in this retrospective analysis of 11 extraction sites. A type 2 extraction socket is defined as having the presence of facial soft tissue with a partial or complete dehiscence of the buccal bone plate. All teeth were extracted atraumatically without flap elevation. A resorbable collagen membrane was contoured into an ice cream cone- shape, placed into the socket defect, and grafted with human freeze-dried bone allograft. Buccolingual dimensional changes were measured manually with a digital caliper sensitive to 0.01 mm on pre- and posttreatment casts using an acrylic template and a three-dimensional (3D) digital scanner, as well as radiographically with pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. All implants were placed 6 months after socket preservation and achieved primary stability with a minimum torque value of 35 Ncm with a mean buccal-lingual dimensional loss of 1.32 mm. The dimensional change of the ridge from pre- to postextraction reflective of the healed grafted site ranged from a loss of 0.46 to 2.25 mm with a mean of 1.28 mm (CBCT), 0.31 to 2.71 mm with a mean of 1.36 mm (digital calipers), and 0.21 to 2.80 mm with a mean of 1.32 mm (3D digital scanner). All 11 implants were immobile and clinically osseointegrated. The so-called ice cream cone technique allows for the reconstruction of a buccal plate dehiscence to enable the placement of an implant; however, the ridge dimension was diminished by 1.32 mm compared with the width of the extraction socket prior to tooth removal.

  6. Modification of fatty acid profile of cow milk by calcium salts of fatty acids and its use in ice cream.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Inayat, Saima

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) on fatty acid profile of milk of "Sahiwal" cows and suitability of milk with modified fatty acids in the formulation of ice cream. Fatty acid profile of cow milk was modified by feeding CSFA to eighteen randomly stratified "Sahiwal" cows of first and early lactation divided into three groups. CSFA were offered at two different levels i.e. T1 (150 g per cow per day) T2 (300 g per cow per day) both treatments were compared with a control (T0) without any addition of calcium salts of fatty acids. Iso caloric and iso nitrogenous feeds were given to both experimental groups and control. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids in T0, T1 and T2 were 9.85 ± 0.48a, 8.8 ± 0.24b and 7.1 ± 0.37c %, respectively and the concentrations of C18:1 and C18:2 increased (P < 0.05) from 27.6 ± 1.32b % to 31.7 ± 1.68a % and 2.15 ± 0.09b % to 2.79 ± 0.05a %, respectively, at T2 level. Incorporation of milk fat of T1 and T2 (modified fatty acids profile) in ice cream did not have any adverse effect on pH, acidity and compositional attributes of ice cream. Viscosity of T1 was 67.94 ± 3.77a as compared to (T0) control 68.75 ± 2.46a (CP). Firmness of experimental samples and control were almost similar (P > 0.05) overall acceptability score of T2 was 7.1 ± 0.28b out of 9 (total score) which was more than 78 ± 2.92 %. It was concluded that CSFA may be successfully incorporated up to T2 level (300 g per cow per day) into the feed of "Sahiwal" cows to produce milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and it may be used in the formulation of ice cream with acceptable sensory characteristics and increased health benefits.

  7. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  8. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists. PMID:26604374

  9. Comparative Study of Probiotic Ice Cream and Probiotic Drink on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Levels in 6-12 Years Age Group Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahantesha, Taranatha; Reddy, K M Parveen; Kumar, N H Praveen; Nara, Asha; Ashwin, Devasya; Buddiga, Vinutna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental caries is one of the most common health problems in the world. Probiotics are one the various preventive methods to reduce dental caries. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of probiotic ice cream and drink on salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in children of 6-12 years age group. Materials and Methods: A three phase study was carried out in children (n = 50) of 6-12 years age with zero decayed missing filled teeth (dmft)/DMFT. They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva samples were collected before the consumptions of probiotic ice cream and probiotic drink. Colony count obtained was recorded as baseline data. For both groups probiotic ice cream and drink was given randomly for 7 days and a washout period of 90 days were given and then the saliva samples were collected and colony counting was done. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s paired t-test and multiple comparisons by Tukey’s honest significant difference test which showed, there is a significant reduction in salivary S. mutans level in both groups after 7 days period. However, after washout period only probiotic ice cream showed reduction whereas drink did not. Also, there was no significant difference between probiotic ice cream and drink. Conclusion: Probiotic organisms definitely have a role in reducing the salivary S. mutans level and ice cream would be a better choice than drink. However, the prolonged use of the agents and their effects on caries is still to be determined. PMID:26435616

  10. [A case of anaphylaxis due to rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream with pollen food allergy syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Taeru; Sato, Sayuri; Adachi, Mitsuru

    2013-05-01

    We experienced a 10-year-old boy who had anaphylaxis after eating rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream. The patient felt a sense of discomfort in his throat when eating apple, peach, loquat, Japanese pear, and kiwi fruit. Therefore, we measured specific IgE antibodies to allergen components by ImmunoCAP ISAC. Consequently, the patient gave positive results for all PR-10 proteins from birch, alder, hazel, apple, peach, peanut, hazelnut, and soybean, so we diagnosed him with Pollen Food Allergy Syndrome (PFAS) induced by cross reactivity with pollens of birch family and fruits of rose family. When we conducted the skin prick test as is for red rose syrup because of the belief that anaphylaxis was caused by the rose ingredient contained in rose-flavored soft-serve ice cream, the patient gave a strong positive result. However, the results were negative for rose essence and Food Red No. 2 contained. Subsequently, it was found that red rose syrup contained apple juice. Therefore, we conducted the prick-prick test for apple, and the patient was confirmed to be strongly positive to apple. We thus identified apple as the cause of anaphylaxis. Since there is no legal obligation of labeling specific raw materials when directly selling manufactured and processed food products to general consumers, it is possible for general consumers to mistakenly take them in without knowing the containment of allergic substances. It is believed that the labeling method should be improved in the future.

  11. Effect of Probiotic Containing Ice-cream on Salivary Mutans Streptococci (SMS) Levels in Children of 6-12 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Study with Six-months Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    KE, Vijayaprasad; Taranath, Mahanthesh; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Nara, Asha; Sarpangala, Mythri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the caries risk based on the salivary levels of streptococcus mutans in children of 6-12 years of age group before and after consuming probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5. Materials and Methods: A double blind, placebo controlled trial was carried out in 60 children aged between 6 to 12 years with zero decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). They were randomly divided into two equal groups. Saliva sample were collected before the consumption of ice-cream and Streptococcus mutans count was calculated and recorded as baseline data. For the next seven days both the groups were given ice creams marked as A and B. Saliva samples were collected after ice-cream consumption at the end of study period and also after a washout period of 30 days and again after six months. Samples were inoculated and colonies were counted. Results: On statistical evaluation by students paired t-test, probiotic ice-cream brought significant reduction in the Streptococcus mutans count after seven days of ice-cream ingestion (p<0.001) and also after 30 d of washout period (p<0.001). There was no significant reduction (p=0.076) by normal ice-cream consumption. After six months of the study period in both the groups the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans was similar to the baseline. Conclusion: Probiotic ice-cream containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 can cause reduction in caries causative organism. The dosage of the probiotic organisms for the long term or synergetic effect on the oral health are still needed to be explored. PMID:25859515

  12. Detection and enumeration of Salmonella enteritidis in homemade ice cream associated with an outbreak: comparison of conventional and real-time PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Seo, K H; Valentin-Bon, I E; Brackett, R E

    2006-03-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a significant cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Consumption of undercooked eggs and egg-containing products has been the primary risk factor for the disease. The importance of the bacterial enumeration technique has been enormously stressed because of the quantitative risk analysis of SE in shell eggs. Traditional enumeration methods mainly depend on slow and tedious most-probable-number (MPN) methods. Therefore, specific, sensitive, and rapid methods for SE quantitation are needed to collect sufficient data for risk assessment and food safety policy development. We previously developed a real-time quantitative PCR assay for the direct detection and enumeration of SE and, in this study, applied it to naturally contaminated ice cream samples with and without enrichment. The detection limit of the real-time PCR assay was determined with artificially inoculated ice cream. When applied to the direct detection and quantification of SE in ice cream, the real-time PCR assay was as sensitive as the conventional plate count method in frequency of detection. However, populations of SE derived from real-time quantitative PCR were approximately 1 log higher than provided by MPN and CFU values obtained by conventional culture methods. The detection and enumeration of SE in naturally contaminated ice cream can be completed in 3 h by this real-time PCR method, whereas the cultural enrichment method requires 5 to 7 days. A commercial immunoassay for the specific detection of SE was also included in the study. The real-time PCR assay proved to be a valuable tool that may be useful to the food industry in monitoring its processes to improve product quality and safety.

  13. Soft, fortified ice-cream for head and neck cancer patients: a useful first step in nutritional and swallowing difficulties associated with multi-modal management.

    PubMed

    Trinidade, Aaron; Martinelli, Katrina; Andreou, Zenon; Kothari, Prasad

    2012-04-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer have complex swallowing and nutritional concerns. Most patients are malnourished, and treatment modalities within the aerodigestive tract have profound effects on future swallowing and nutrition. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the introduction of fortified soft ice-cream to post-operative head and neck cancer patients would increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. Using a questionnaire study, an ice-cream machine that produces fortified soft ice-cream was introduced onto our ward, and 30 patients were asked to fill out questionnaires based on their experience in addition to their oral-feeding regime. Results indicate that overall patient satisfaction and compliance with oral-feeding regimes increased: 77% felt that the taste was excellent and also felt that it was easy to eat; 60% felt that it eased the symptoms associated with their symptoms, in particular its cold temperature. We conclude from the results that the inability of patients undergoing multi-modal treatment for upper aerodigestive tract cancer to enjoy normal foods and its effects on their quality of life is underestimated. Providing a food to that is palatable, familiar and acceptable as it is safe and nutritionally sound can increase compliance with oral-feeding regimes. The ice-cream was safe to use in the early post-operative period, especially soothing in patients undergoing upper aerodigestive radiotherapy and high in protein and calorific content. Our practice may have wider benefits, including patients with oral and oropharyngeal infections, the elderly and patients with neurological dysphagia resulting from stroke.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borja, R.; Banks, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  15. Growth of GaAs “nano ice cream cones” by dual wavelength pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schamp, C. T.; Jesser, W. A.; Shivaram, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Harmonic generation crystals inherently offer the possibility of using multiple wavelengths of light in a single laser pulse. In the present experiment, the fundamental (1064 nm) and second harmonic (532 nm) wavelengths from an Nd:YAG laser are focused together on GaAs and GaSb targets for ablation. Incident energy densities up to about 45 J/cm 2 at 10 Hz with substrate temperatures between 25 and 600 °C for durations of about 60 s have been used in an ambient gas pressure of about 10 -6 Torr. The ablated material was collected on electron-transparent amorphous carbon films for TEM analysis. Apart from a high density of isolated nanocrystals, the most common morphology observed consists of a crystalline GaAs cone-like structure in contact with a sphere of liquid Ga, resembling an "ice cream cone", typically 50-100 nm in length. For all of the heterostuctures of this type, the liquid/solid/vacuum triple junction is found to correspond to the widest point on the cone. These heterostructures likely form by preferential evaporation of As from molten GaAs drops ablated from the target. The resulting morphology minimizes the interfacial and surface energies of the liquid Ga and solid GaAs.

  16. Effectiveness of prerequisites and the HACCP plan in the control of microbial contamination in ice cream and cheese companies.

    PubMed

    Domenech, Eva; Amorós, José Antonio; Escriche, Isabel

    2013-03-01

    In food safety, implementation of prerequisites and application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) guarantee the control of processes, and microbiological criteria permit validation of their effectiveness. With these aims in mind, this article presents the results obtained by the official control carried out by the Valencian administration in ice cream and cheese companies, located in the Xativa/Ontinyente area (Valencian region, Spain) in the period between 2005 and 2010. The audits of Good Hygienic Practices (GHP) and HACCP show that "Structure & Design" followed by "Hygiene & Cleaning" and "Traceability" were the evaluated items with most nonconformities. Pathogenic microorganisms were not found in any of the final products analyzed. Microorganism indicators of unhygienic conditions were present in 100% of the analyses; however, 87.98% of them had low levels, which did not exceed the microbiological criteria. These results highlight the general good effectiveness of the safety management systems implemented and emphasize that companies and official control must continue working in order to guarantee the consumers' welfare.

  17. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products.

  18. A study on the kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in ice cream stored under static and dynamic chilling and freezing conditions.

    PubMed

    Gougouli, M; Angelidis, A S; Koutsoumanis, K

    2008-02-01

    The kinetic behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in 2 commercial ice cream products (A and B) that were inoculated and stored under static chilling (4 to 16 degrees C), static freezing (-5 to -33 degrees C), dynamic chilling, and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions was studied, simulating conditions of the aging process and of normal or abuse conditions during distribution and storage. The ice cream products A and B had different compositions but similar pH (6.50 and 6.67, respectively) and water activity (0.957 and 0.965, respectively) values. For both chilling and freezing conditions, the kinetic behavior of the pathogen was similar in the 2 products, indicating that the pH and water activity, together with temperature, were the main factors controlling growth. Under chilling conditions, L. monocytogenes grew well at all temperatures tested. Under freezing conditions, no significant changes in the population of the pathogen were observed throughout a 90-d storage period for either of the inoculum levels tested (10(3) and 10(6) cfu/g). Growth data from chilled storage conditions were fitted to a mathematical model, and the calculated maximum specific growth rate was modeled as a function of temperature by using a square root model. The model was further validated under dynamic chilling and dynamic chilling-freezing conditions by using 4 different storage temperature scenarios. Under dynamic chilling conditions, the model accurately predicted the growth of the pathogen in both products, with 99.5% of the predictions lying within the +/- 20% relative error zone. The results from the chilling-freezing storage experiments showed that the pathogen was able to initiate growth within a very short time after a temperature upshift from freezing to chilling temperatures. This indicates that the freezing conditions did not cause a severe stress in L. monocytogenes cells capable of leading to a significant "additional" lag phase during the subsequent growth of the pathogen at

  19. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  20. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used.

  1. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  2. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. PMID:26923040

  3. In vitro gastrointestinal resistance of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in soy and/or milk-based synbiotic apple ice creams.

    PubMed

    Matias, Natalia Silva; Padilha, Marina; Bedani, Raquel; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2016-10-01

    The viability and resistance to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 in synbiotic ice creams, in which milk was replaced by soy extract and/or whey protein isolate (WPI) with inulin, were investigated. The ice creams were showed to be satisfactory vehicles for La-5 and Bb-12 (populations around 7.5logCFU/g), even after the whole storage period (84days/-18°C). In all formulations, the propidium monoazide qPCR (PMA-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that probiotics could resist the in vitro GI assay, with significant survival levels, achieving survival rates exceeding 50%. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy images evidenced cells with morphological differences, suggesting physiological changes in response to the induced stress during the in vitro assay. Although all formulations provided resistance to the probiotic strains under GI stress, the variation found in probiotic survival suggests that GI tolerance is indeed affected by the choice of the food matrix. PMID:27387254

  4. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S.; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P < 0.01) than that with initial contamination levels > 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study. PMID:27242775

  5. PeoplePersonality: Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream Teaching Anecdotes: Annie Jump Cannon Obituary: György Marx 1927-2002 Starting Out: What Katie did next: part 3 Opinions: What is really important?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education PERSONALITY (156) Chris Clarke - a physicist who studies ice cream TEACHING ANECDOTES (157) Annie Jump Cannon OBITUARY (158) György Marx 1927-2002 Steven Chapman STARTING OUT (159) What Katie did next: part 3 Katie Pennicott OPINIONS (160) What is really important? Kerry Parker

  6. Virulence profiling and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O145:H28 and O26:H11 isolated during an ice cream-related hemolytic uremic syndrome outbreak.

    PubMed

    Buvens, Glenn; Possé, Björn; De Schrijver, Koen; De Zutter, Lieven; Lauwers, Sabine; Piérard, Denis

    2011-03-01

    In September-October 2007, a mixed-serotype outbreak of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O145:H28 and O26:H11 occurred in the province of Antwerp, Belgium. Five girls aged between 2 and 11 years developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, and seven other coexposed persons with bloody diarrhea were identified. Laboratory confirmation of O145:H28 infection was obtained for three hemolytic uremic syndrome patients, one of whom was coinfected with O26:H11. The epidemiological and laboratory investigations revealed ice cream as the most likely source of the outbreak. The ice cream was produced at a local dairy farm using pasteurized milk. VTEC of both serotypes with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were isolated from patients, ice cream, and environmental samples. Quantitative analysis of the ice cream indicated concentrations of 2.4 and 0.03 CFU/g for VTEC O145 and O26, respectively. Virulence typing revealed that the repertoire of virulence genes carried by the O145:H28 outbreak strain was comparable to that of O157 VTEC and more exhaustive as compared to the O26:H11 outbreak strain and nonrelated clinical strains belonging to these serotypes. Taken together, these data suggest that O145:H28 played the most important role in this outbreak.

  7. High glycemic load diet, milk and ice cream consumption are related to acne vulgaris in Malaysian young adults: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The role of dietary factors in the pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is highly controversial. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the association between dietary factors and acne vulgaris among Malaysian young adults. Methods A case–control study was conducted among 44 acne vulgaris patients and 44 controls aged 18 to 30 years from October 2010 to January 2011. Comprehensive acne severity scale (CASS) was used to determine acne severity. A questionnaire comprising items enquiring into the respondent’s family history and dietary patterns was distributed. Subjects were asked to record their food intake on two weekdays and one day on a weekend in a three day food diary. Anthropometric measurements including body weight, height and body fat percentage were taken. Acne severity was assessed by a dermatologist. Results Cases had a significantly higher dietary glycemic load (175 ± 35) compared to controls (122 ± 28) (p < 0.001). The frequency of milk (p < 0.01) and ice-cream (p < 0.01) consumptions was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Females in the case group had a higher daily energy intake compared to their counterparts in the control group, 1812 ± 331 and 1590 ± 148 kcal respectively (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in other nutrient intakes, Body Mass Index, and body fat percentage between case and control groups (p > 0.05). Conclusions Glycemic load diet and frequencies of milk and ice cream intake were positively associated with acne vulgaris. PMID:22898209

  8. Sports cream overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate

  9. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  10. Job submission and management through web services: the experience with the CREAM service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Fina, S. D.; Ronco, S. D.; Dorigo, A.; Gianelle, A.; Marzolla, M.; Mazzucato, M.; Sgaravatto, M.; Verlato, M.; Zangrando, L.; Corvo, M.; Miccio, V.; Sciaba, A.; Cesini, D.; Dongiovanni, D.; Grandi, C.

    2008-07-01

    Modern Grid middleware is built around components providing basic functionality, such as data storage, authentication, security, job management, resource monitoring and reservation. In this paper we describe the Computing Resource Execution and Management (CREAM) service. CREAM provides a Web service-based job execution and management capability for Grid systems; in particular, it is being used within the gLite middleware. CREAM exposes a Web service interface allowing conforming clients to submit and manage computational jobs to a Local Resource Management System. We developed a special component, called ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment) to integrate CREAM in gLite. ICE transfers job submissions and cancellations from the Workload Management System, allowing users to manage CREAM jobs from the gLite User Interface. This paper describes some recent studies aimed at assessing the performance and reliability of CREAM and ICE; those tests have been performed as part of the acceptance tests for integration of CREAM and ICE in gLite. We also discuss recent work towards enhancing CREAM with a BES and JSDL compliant interface.

  11. Butoconazole Vaginal Cream

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... comes as a cream to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime. Follow ...

  12. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  13. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  14. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  15. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  16. 21 CFR 131.155 - Light cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Light cream. 131.155 Section 131.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.155 Light cream. (a) Description. Light cream is cream which contains not less than 18 percent but less than 30 percent milkfat....

  17. Ivermectin cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies.

  18. Ivermectin cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    Rosacea is a chronic facial skin disease that mainly occurs in people aged over 30 years. It is common, with an estimated incidence of 1·7 per 1,000 person-years in general practice in the UK.(1,2) Rosacea can cause embarrassment, anxiety, low self-esteem and lack of confidence.(3) A new topical treatment has become available for the treatment of one of the clinical subtypes of rosacea. Ivermectin 10mg/g (1%) cream (Soolantra-Galderma) has received marketing authorisation for the treatment of inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in adults.(4) Here we review the safety and effectiveness of ivermectin cream in the treatment of rosacea and assess how it compares with standard therapies. PMID:26563877

  19. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  20. Using CREAM and CEMonitor for job submission and management in the gLite middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiftimiei, C.; Andreetto, P.; Bertocco, S.; Dalla Fina, S.; Dorigo, A.; Frizziero, E.; Gianelle, A.; Marzolla, M.; Mazzucato, M.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.; Miccio, V.; Sgaravatto, M.; Traldi, S.; Zangrando, L.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we describe the use of CREAM and CEMonitor services for job submission and management within the gLite Grid middleware. Both CREAM and CEMonitor address one of the most fundamental operations of a Grid middleware, that is job submission and management. Specifically, CREAM is a job management service used for submitting, managing and monitoring computational jobs. CEMonitor is an event notification framework, which can be coupled with CREAM to provide the users with asynchronous job status change notifications. Both components have been integrated in the gLite Workload Management System by means of ICE (Interface to CREAM Environment). These software components have been released for production in the EGEE Grid infrastructure and, for what concerns the CEMonitor service, also in the OSG Grid. In this paper we report the current status of these services, the achieved results, and the issues that still have to be addressed.

  1. The Coffee and Cream Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes how Newton's Law of Cooling and the Method of Mixtures are used to solve the basic dilemma of whether to add the cool cream to the hot coffee or to let the black coffee cool down first and then add the cream. (ZWH)

  2. Terconazole Vaginal Cream, Vaginal Suppositories

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat fungal and yeast infections of the vagina.This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ... a cream and suppository to insert into the vagina. It is usually used daily at bedtime for ...

  3. CREAM Balloon Flights and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload was launched from McMurdo Station in Antarctica on December 21, 2010 for its sixth flight. A cumulative exposure of ~ 161 days was achieved when this almost 6-day flight was terminated on December 26, 2010. The calorimeter module was recovered in one piece on the pallet without dis-assembly, despite the challenging recovery location at high altitude on the opposite side of the Antarctic continent from McMurdo Station. The recovered CREAM-VI instrument was calibrated at CERN in October 2011, and it is being integrated for a CREAM-VII flight in Antarctica. The CREAM-V instrument recovered previously was refurbished, and it is being re-configured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  4. The 37-day flight of CREAM during the 2009-2010 austral summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was launched from McMurdo Station Antarctica on December 1, 2009, an early-launch record for Antarctic Long Duration Balloon (LDB) flights. A cumulative exposure of ˜ 156 days was achieved when this 37-day fifth flight of CREAM was terminated over the Ross Ice Shelf on January 8, 2010. Combining a sampling calorimeter for energy measurement with multiple charge detectors for particle identification, CREAM-V provided a large data sample to measure elemental spectra for 1 ≤ Z ≤ 26 in energies above 1014 eV. This was the first time that CREAM was supported with the standard Support Instrumentation Package (SIP) for LDB payloads. The first four flights were supported by the Command and Data Module (CDM) developed by the NASA Wallops Flight Facility for Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) flights. The instrument performance, results from the ongoing data analysis, and future plans will be presented.

  5. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  6. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  7. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  8. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.157 Light whipping cream. (a) Description. Light whipping cream is cream which contains not less than 30 percent...

  9. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  10. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  11. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  12. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  13. 7 CFR 58.715 - Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous milkfat. 58.715 Section 58.715 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.715 Cream, plastic cream and anhydrous...

  14. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  15. Ivermectin 1% cream for rosacea.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G; Daigle, D; Gupta, A K; Gold, L S

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of papulopustular rosacea (PPR) is not well understood yet appears to involve both the innate and adaptive immune response in addition to possible infestation with Demodex mites. Current treatments for PPR consist mainly of antibiotics. Ivermectin cream 1%, a new topical treatment for PPR, possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-parasitic properties. After 12 weeks of treatment, subjects treated with ivermectin cream 1% had significantly greater reductions in PPR symptoms and enhanced diseaserelated quality of life improvements compared to subjects who received vehicle. Furthermore, PPR symptoms continued to improve with prolonged treatment (40 weeks). Ivermectin cream 1% offers a multi-pronged approach to combat the complex pathophysiology of rosacea. PMID:26382711

  16. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese. 133.133 Section 133.133 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.133 Cream cheese. (a) Description. (1) Cream cheese is the soft, uncured cheese prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c... Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the cream is applied to the affected areas once or... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  18. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c... Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the cream is applied to the affected areas once or... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  19. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) thionocarbamate) in an anhydrous cream base. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c... Microsporum gypseum in dogs and cats. (2) A small amount of the cream is applied to the affected areas once or... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  20. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  1. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  2. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  3. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  4. 7 CFR 58.326 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.326 Section 58.326 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.326 Plastic cream. To produce plastic cream eligible for official certification, the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  6. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  7. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  8. 7 CFR 58.327 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.327 Section 58.327 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.327 Frozen cream. To produce frozen cream eligible for official certification, the quality...

  9. The Coffee and Cream Dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minor, Brandon; Feldman, Gerald

    2011-10-01

    Many coffee drinkers take cream with their coffee and often wonder whether to add the cream earlier or later. With the objective of keeping their coffee as hot as possible over a moderate time period (10-15 minutes), this is a question that most of them can never answer definitively. We investigated this problem empirically using hot and cold water, with special emphasis on the calorimetry of the mixture. Assuming a coffee:cream (hot:cold) ratio of 3:1, we began with two identical styrofoam coffee cups containing hot water and then added cold water at t = 200 s in one cup and t = 700 s in the other cup. Using two Vernier temperature probes to simultaneously track the temperature change during the cool-down period of the water in both cups over δt = 1000 s, we obtained a real-time graphical account of which process achieved the higher temperature over this time period. In addition, the effect of evaporation was explored by comparing trials with and without a lid on the coffee cup. The application of Newton's Law of Cooling, as compared to the graphical temperature data acquired, will leave no doubt as to the best strategy for adding cool cream to hot coffee.

  10. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  11. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  12. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1000.16 Section 1000.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  14. Fusidic acid betamethasone lipid cream.

    PubMed

    Girolomoni, G; Mattina, R; Manfredini, S; Vertuani, S; Fabrizi, G

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infections of the skin and soft tissues are frequent disorders. They can be primitive infections (e.g. impetigo, folliculitis) or secondary infections complicating other diseases, particularly atopic dermatitis. The most common aetiologic agent is Staphylococcus aureus. Topical antibiotic therapy may be sufficient in many instances to control these infections. Fusidic acid is an antibiotic used topically on the skin which is very active against S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains, and other Gram-positive bacteria. Resistance rates to fusidic acid are stably low. A fusidic acid and betamethasone formulation in a lipid-enriched cream (lipid cream) has been recently developed in order to provide effective antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in conjunction with a powerful emollient and moisturising effect. This preparation may be especially useful in patients with atopic-infected eczema. PMID:27121235

  15. Stability of dithranol in creams.

    PubMed

    Wuis, E W; Burger, D M; Beelen, M; Hekster, Y A

    1999-12-01

    The stability of the anthrachinone derivative dithranol in creams was studied during storage at temperatures of 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Aluminum-coated tubes with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% dithranol were stored and samples were analysed immediately and after 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The 0.3% dithranol cream was also stored in polypropylene tubes. Drug concentration was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. All concentrations tested were stable for 12 months of storage at 4 degrees C in aluminum-coated tubes. This means that these low concentrations are sufficiently stable to be prepared in advance for at least 12 months if prepared as described and kept refrigerated. Polypropylene tubes should not be used.

  16. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  17. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  18. Is permethrin 5% cream effective for rosacea?

    PubMed

    Swenor, M Elizabeth

    2003-03-01

    Permethrin 5% cream is a safe alternative for the topical treatment of papulopustular rosacea. Permethrin 5% cream is superior to metronidazole 0.75% gel and placebo in decreasing Demodex folliculorum, and is as effective as metronidazole 0.75% gel in treating erythema and papules. PMID:12620164

  19. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  20. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  1. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  2. 7 CFR 58.348 - Plastic cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plastic cream. 58.348 Section 58.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.348 Plastic cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  3. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  4. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  5. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Frozen cream. 58.349 Section 58.349 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  6. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  7. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  8. 7 CFR 58.321 - Cream storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream storage tanks. 58.321 Section 58.321 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....321 Cream storage tanks. Cream storage tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.128(d). Cream...

  9. 7 CFR 1000.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING ORDERS Definitions § 1000.16 Fluid cream product. Fluid cream product means cream (other than plastic cream or...

  10. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... See 000859 in § 510.600(c). (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Apply 1/4-inch ribbon of cream per... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  11. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... See 000859 in § 510.600(c). (c) Conditions of use—(1) Amount. Apply 1/4-inch ribbon of cream per... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  12. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  13. 21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... chapter. (c) Conditions of use. (1) Cuprimyxin is a broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal cream for... application to cutaneous areas, a change in color from dark green to pink is due to the liberation of...

  14. Does alprostadil cream hit the spot?

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Alprostadil, a prostaglandin, has been marketed for many years as a urethral stick and an intracavernous injection for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.(1) It is now available in the form of a cream (Vitaros-Takeda). Adverts for the product declare: "Sex with no pills, pellets or needles. Spot on." In this article, we consider the evidence for alprostadil cream, and its place in the management of erectile dysfunction. PMID:25678352

  15. Bundled-Up Babies & Dangerous Ice Cream: Correlation Puzzlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offenholley, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    The Borough of Manhattan Community College (BMCC) in New York City is fourth among all community colleges in awarding degrees to minority students and in awarding degrees to African Americans. The BMCC student body is approximately 37 percent Hispanic, 33 percent black, 15 percent white, and 15 percent Asian. In addition, a significant proportion…

  16. Enjoying Homemade Ice Cream without the Risk of Salmonella Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... responsible for the outbreaks is raw or undercooked eggs. A person infected with Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), the strain of Salmonella found most frequently in raw eggs, usually has fever, diarrhea and abdominal cramps beginning ...

  17. Ice Cream Seminars for Graduate Students: Imparting Chemical Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garritano, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides information on a chemical information literacy program designed primarily for new graduate students. The full implementation of this program is discussed, including defining its purpose, topics covered, content presented, methods of marketing, and evaluation. The result is a series of voluntary seminars given biweekly…

  18. "Tastes Like ICE CREAM!": Writing Portraits in New Journalese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    The purpose of a semester course for journalism and creative writing students at Washington University was to help students, through reading and writing portraits in "new journalese," become capable critics of new journalistic writing. Students first were introduced to the techniques of new journalism in Tom Wolfe's book on new journalism and in…

  19. I Like Chocolate Ice Cream: A Lesson in Thinking Civics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterson, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    In curricula that encourages philosophy as having an integral role in educational programs, students get the opportunity to wonder and speculate, in a natural state surrounded by questions. A. K. Salmon notes that when thinking becomes a part of a young child's routine, the child becomes more open and responsive to situations that require thinking…

  20. 7 CFR 58.649 - Physical requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.649...

  1. 7 CFR 58.647 - Composition requirements for ice cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GRADING AND INSPECTION, GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.647...

  2. 21 CFR 135.110 - Ice cream and frozen custard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., except such as are natural components of flavoring ingredients used or are added in incidental amounts to... cream”. (ii) If the food contains both a natural characterizing flavor and an artificial flavor simulating it, and if the natural flavor predominates, the name on the principal display panel or panels...

  3. Low-fat cake icings made from jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Buttercream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  4. Local anesthetic cream prepared from lidocaine-tetracaine eutectic mixture.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, Keiichi; Kitahara, Masaki; Suzuki, Noriko; Taguchi, Kyoji; Yamazaki, Yuki; Akiyama, Shinji; Takahashi, Kentaro; Kanzaki, Yasushi

    2008-04-01

    Local anesthetic creams for the clinical treatment of conditions such as postherpetic neuralgia were prepared as an in-house formulation from the eutectic mixture of lidocaine-tetracaine (LT cream) using two eutectic mixtures of local anesthetic (EMLA) type bases. The LT formulation was compared with a lidocaine-prilocaine (LP cream) eutectic mixture formulated using the same base as EMLA. The chemical stability of lidocaine was examined in advance and was found to be stable for more than 3 months either in LT cream or in LP cream. The release rate of lidocaine from the formulated creams was examined using a cellulose ester membrane. The release rate of lidocaine from LT cream was similar to that from LP cream. The release rate of tetracaine was slightly slower than that of lidocaine in LT cream reflecting the larger molecular size of tetracaine. The penetration rate was examined in vitro using a Yucatan micropig skin. The penetration rate of lidocaine was similar between LT and LP creams. Infiltration anesthesia action examined in guinea pigs indicated that the difference between the two creams was statistically insignificant. The present study suggests the equivalence of the LT and LP creams as a local anesthetic and the potential of LT cream for clinical use either in the easy formulation or in the low-cost formulation.

  5. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.134 Cream cheese with other foods. (a) Description. Cream cheese...

  6. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cream”. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  7. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cream”. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  8. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cream”. The full name of the food shall appear on the principal display panel of the label in type of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  9. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to coagulate the dairy ingredients. The..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

  10. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to coagulate the dairy ingredients. The..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

  11. 21 CFR 133.133 - Cream cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added to coagulate the dairy ingredients. The..., nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in § 133.3, used alone or in combination. (2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional...

  12. 21 CFR 524.2350 - Tolnaftate cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.2350...) Conditions of use. (1) The drug is indicated for treatment of ringworm lesions due to Microsporum canis and... surrounding area until the cream is no longer visible. (3) If no response is seen after 2 weeks of...

  13. 7 CFR 58.349 - Frozen cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Requirements for Finished Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.349 Frozen cream. The flavor shall be sweet,...

  14. 21 CFR 131.160 - Sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... product. (2) Sodium citrate in an amount not more than 0.1 percent may be added prior to culturing as a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sour cream. 131.160 Section 131.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  15. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clotrimazole cream. 524.450 Section 524.450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  16. 21 CFR 524.450 - Clotrimazole cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clotrimazole cream. 524.450 Section 524.450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... infections of dogs and cats caused by Microsporum canis and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. (3)...

  17. 21 CFR 524.520 - Cuprimyxin cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cuprimyxin cream. 524.520 Section 524.520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... the topical treatment of superficial infections in horses, dogs, and cats caused by...

  18. Fate of Staphylococcus aureus in whey, whey cream, and whey cream butter.

    PubMed

    Halpin-Dohnalek, M I; Marth, E H

    1989-12-01

    Fresh Cheddar cheese whey was inoculated with ca. 10(6) Staphylococcus aureus/ml and held at 4, 25, and 37 degrees C for 48 h. Numbers of staphylococci decreased in whey at 25 and 37 degrees C and decreased or remained constant in whey at 4 degrees C. When Cheddar cheese whey was neutralized with sodium hydroxide before inoculation with ca. 10(2) or 10(6) S. aureus/ml, numbers of the bacterium increased at all incubation temperatures. Viability of S. aureus strains in whey butter made from inoculated whey cream (from Cheddar cheese whey) was determined. Whey cream was either neutralized to a titratable acidity of .15% or untreated before inoculation with ca. 10(4) S. aureus/ml. Butter churned from the whey cream was held at 4, 25, and 30 degrees C for up to 4 wk. Viability of S. aureus was enhanced in lightly salted (1%) whey cream butter and in butter made from neutralized whey cream. Strains of S. aureus did not survive in unsalted or in salted (1.5%) butter made from untreated whey cream.

  19. New developments in the CREAM Computing Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Dorigo, Alvise; Frizziero, Eric; Gianelle, Alessio; Mezzadri, Massimo; Monforte, Salvatore; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Zangrando, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    The EU-funded project EMI aims at providing a unified, standardized, easy to install software for distributed computing infrastructures. CREAM is one of the middleware products part of the EMI middleware distribution: it implements a Grid job management service which allows the submission, management and monitoring of computational jobs to local resource management systems. In this paper we discuss about some new features being implemented in the CREAM Computing Element. The implementation of the EMI Execution Service (EMI-ES) specification (an agreement in the EMI consortium on interfaces and protocols to be used in order to enable computational job submission and management required across technologies) is one of the new functions being implemented. New developments are also focusing in the High Availability (HA) area, to improve performance, scalability, availability and fault tolerance.

  20. Dynamics of a colloid-stabilized cream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig, E. M.; Robert, A.; van 'T Zand, D. D.; Cipelletti, L.; Pusey, P. N.; Clegg, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of a high-volume-fraction emulsion creaming under gravity. The dodecane-in-water emulsion has interfaces stabilized solely by colloidal particles (silica). The samples were observed soon after mixing: as the emulsion becomes compact we discern two regimes of aging with a crossover between them. The young emulsion has faster dynamics associated with creaming in a crowded environment accompanied by local rearrangements. The dynamics slow down for the older emulsion, although our studies show that motion is associated with large intermittent events. The relaxation rate, as seen from the intensity autocorrelation function, depends linearly on the wave vector at all times; however, the exponent associated with the line shape changes from 1.5 for young samples to less than 1 as the emulsion ages. The combination of ballisticlike dynamics, an exponent that drops below 1, and large intermittent fluctuations has not been reported before to our knowledge.

  1. Investigation on the photostability of tretinoin in creams.

    PubMed

    Brisaert, M; Plaizier-Vercammen, J A

    2007-04-01

    In this investigation, the photodegradation of some tretinoin cream formulations was evaluated. Several oils were selected to prepare the cream formulations: olive oil, maize oil, castor oil, isopropyl myristate and Miglyol 812. A solubility study showed that tretinoin is best soluble in castor oil (0.60g/100ml), followed by isopropyl myristate, maize oil, Miglyol 812 and olive oil, respectively, 0.35, 0.30, 0.29 and 0.22g/100ml. The photostability of tretinoin in oils is comparable with the photostability of a tretinoin lotion (ethanol/propylene glycol 50/50), castor oil and olive oil giving slightly better results than the other oils. Investigation of the photodegradation of tretinoin in o/w creams, prepared with the same oils as mentioned above, revealed that tretinoin is far more stable in the cream formulations than in the respective oils, however it is not clear whether this is due to the formulation or due to a different irradiation technique. Tretinoin seemed to be most stable in the olive oil cream, followed by the castor oil cream. However microscopic investigation revealed the presence of tretinoin crystals in the olive oil cream, while the other creams were free of it. As a conclusion, one can say that the cream prepared with castor oil seems to be the most suitable one, in terms of solubility of tretinoin and in terms of photostability.

  2. From CREAM to ISS-CREAM: A Next Step in the Direct Measurement of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelaszek, David; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) Experiment has carried out six successful ?ights around the continent of Antarctica for a total exposure of over 160 days. The CREAM Data Acquisition (CDAQ) software system, utilized on all six balloon missions, is a crucial component of the CREAM instrument that facilitates data-taking, monitoring, commanding and calibration of the entire apparatus. Currently, a CREAM payload is being developed for integration on the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2015. The shift from a balloon-borne experiment to a space mission required numerous hardware modifications and introduces a new command and data handling environment. New operational considerations are also needed to accommodate a multi-year mission. These hardware, environmental and operational modifications must be accommodated in CDAQ. The nature of these modifications and how they are reflected in the CDAQ software are discussed here. This work was supported by NASA Headquarters under the NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program-Grant NNX12AL57H, NASA Grant NNX11AC52G and their predecessors.

  3. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  4. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  5. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  6. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  7. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  9. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  10. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  14. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  15. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  16. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  19. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  20. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  1. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  2. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  3. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  4. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  5. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  6. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  7. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  8. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  9. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  10. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  14. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  15. 7 CFR 1126.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1126.16 Section 1126.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1126.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  16. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  19. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  20. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  1. 7 CFR 1131.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1131.16 Section 1131.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1131.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  2. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  3. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  4. 7 CFR 1032.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1032.16 Section 1032.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1032.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  5. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  6. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  7. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  8. 7 CFR 1030.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1030.16 Section 1030.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1030.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  9. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  10. 7 CFR 1005.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1005.16 Section 1005.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1005.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  11. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  12. 7 CFR 1001.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1001.16 Section 1001.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1001.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  13. 7 CFR 1006.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1006.16 Section 1006.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1006.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  14. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  15. 7 CFR 1124.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1124.16 Section 1124.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  16. 7 CFR 1007.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Fluid cream product. 1007.16 Section 1007.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Definitions § 1007.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  17. 7 CFR 1033.16 - Fluid cream product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fluid cream product. 1033.16 Section 1033.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Definitions § 1033.16 Fluid cream product. See § 1000.16....

  18. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  19. Crystallization mechanisms in cream during ripening and initial butter churning.

    PubMed

    Buldo, Patrizia; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The temperature treatment of cream is the time-consuming step in butter production. A better understanding of the mechanisms leading to partial coalescence, such as fat crystallization during ripening and churning of the cream, will contribute to optimization of the production process. In this study, ripening and churning of cream were performed in a rheometer cell and the mechanisms of cream crystallization during churning of the cream, including the effect of ripening time, were investigated to understand how churning time and partial coalescence are affected. Crystallization mechanisms were studied as function of time by differential scanning calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance and by X-ray scattering. Microstructure formation was investigated by small deformation rheology and static light scattering. The study demonstrated that viscosity measurements can be used to detect phase inversion of the emulsion during churning of the cream in a rheometer cell. Longer ripening time (e.g., 5h vs. 0 h) resulted in larger butter grains (91 vs. 52 µm), higher viscosity (5.3 vs. 1.3 Pa · s), and solid fat content (41 vs. 13%). Both ripening and churning time had an effect on the thermal behavior of the cream. Despite the increase in solid fat content, no further changes in crystal polymorphism and in melting behavior were observed after 1h of ripening and after churning. The churning time significantly decreased after 0.5h of ripening, from 22.9 min for the cream where no ripening was applied to 16.23 min. Therefore, the crystallization state that promotes partial coalescence (i.e., aggregation of butter grains) is obtained within the first hour of cream ripening at 10 °C. The present study adds knowledge on the fundamental processes of crystallization and polymorphism of milk fat occurring during ripening and churning of cream. In addition, the dairy industry will benefit from these insights on the optimization of butter manufacturing.

  20. Over Ice

    NASA Video Gallery

    All about NASA's IceBridge P-3B plane and its IceBridge retrofit. Upgraded with 21st century "special modifications", the aircraft is less a cold war relic and more like the Space Agency's Millenni...

  1. CREAM Computing Element: a status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Dorigo, Alvise; Frizziero, Eric; Gianelle, Alessio; Mezzadri, Massimo; Monforte, Salvatore; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Zangrando, Luigi

    2012-12-01

    The European Middleware Initiative (EMI) project aims to deliver a consolidated set of middleware products based on the four major middleware providers in Europe -ARC, dCache, gLite and UNICORE. The CREAM (Computing Resource Execution And Management) Service, a service for job management operation at the Computing Element (CE) level, is a software product which is part of the EMI middleware distribution. In this paper we discuss about some new functionality in the CREAM CE introduced with the first EMI major release (EMI-1, codename Kebnekaise). The integration with the Argus authorization service is one of these implementations: the use of a unique authorization system, besides simplifying the overall management, allows also to avoid inconsistent authorization decisions. An improved support for complex deployment scenarios (e.g. for sites having multiple CE head nodes and/or having heterogeneous resources) is another new achievement. The improved support for resource allocation in a multi-core environment, and the initial support of version 2.0 of the Glue specification for resource publication are other new functionalities introduced with the first EMI release.

  2. The treatment of melasma by silymarin cream

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melasma is an acquired increased pigmentation of the skin characterized by symmetrical and confluent grey-brown patches usually on the areas of the face exposed to the sun. Silymarin strongly prevents photocarcinogenesis, and significantly prevented melanin production. The objectives of this study were the assessment of safety and efficacy of topical Silymain (SM) cream in a double-blind placebo controlled study for treatment of melasma patients. Methods Experimentally on 24 Albino rabbits were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. [A] No treatment, [B] received placebo, [C] treated with SM cream (0.1), & [D] treated by SM (0.2), were applied topically before UV sun light exposure for 30 days, assessed clinically & tissue pathology. Clinically on 96 adults diagnosed with melasma randomized to three equal groups to receive one of the tested drugs applied twice daily for 4 weeks, evaluated by the response; lesion size, melasma area and severity index score, Physician global assessment, and subjective assessment. Results The Clinical and histopathology observations were reduced significantly in SM groups. Clinically; all patients showed significant excellent pigment improvement & lesion size reduction with SM treatments from the 1st week. All patients were fully satisfied 100%. No side effects were observed. Conclusions Silymarin showed tremendous improvement of melasma in a dose-dependent manner, and was effective in prevention of skin damage caused by U.V. sunlight. It is a safe new candidate effective treatment for melasma. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12612000602820 PMID:23031632

  3. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    PubMed Central

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, Emmanuelle; Macarenko, Elena; Denooz, Raphaël; Charlier, Corinne; Piérard, Gérald E

    2008-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum. PMID:18655702

  4. ``Peeps,'' cream, heads, and food coloring in a vacuum jar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DePino, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    This note describes some methods of adding interest to the standard vacuum jar demonstrations. Marshmallow animals, shaving cream, doll heads, and food coloring add some spark to these demos. These new twists have been well received by the students.

  5. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  6. Comparative characterisation of green tea and black tea cream: physicochemical and phytochemical nature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Tang, Hao; Deng, Baibiao; Deng, Jian; Li, Bin

    2015-04-15

    Tea cream is prevalent in various types of tea, yet a comparison of the mechanism of creaming in different teas remains uncertain. Here, we compared physicochemical characteristics, phytochemical composition, and simulated digestive profiles of green tea and black tea cream, looking to exploit their concentration and structure based mechanisms and in vitro bioaccessibility. Green tea cream particles were roughly one order of magnitude larger than those of black tea in size. Moreover, creaming concentrations of catechins, proteins and methylxanthines of green tea were dramatically higher than black tea. As major creaming components, gallated catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, theabrownines, proteins and methylxanthines also exhibited high creaming affinities. Green tea cream particles, which were completely destroyed by simulated digestion, had few impacts on digestive recoveries of catechins and methylxanthines. In comparison, black tea cream particles were more stable under mimicking digestion, and clarification remarkably decreased the in vitro bioaccessibility of catechins and methylxanthines.

  7. Use of thermography in testing skin creams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttonen, Hannu; Kauppinen, Timo T.; Lehmuskallio, Eero; Rintamaki, Hannu

    1994-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of skin creams and their components in windy (3 m/s) and cold (-15 degree(s)C) conditions on face temperature and heat flux. The tests were carried out in a climatic chamber with 18 persons sitting in front of the opening of the wind tunnel, the wind directed against the face. Skin temperatures were measured from 4 points on both sides of the face with thermistors and the heat fluxes were measured using heat flux sensors on both cheeks. Also the ambient temperature and wind were registered. In addition to these measurements an IR thermal scanner was also used to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of temperature variation on the face during the exposure. The results were continuously recorded on VHS-video tape. Using still pictures from recorded material the area temperature of the cheek was measured, which described the mean temperature of the cheek. Test periods were 30 minutes and the same test subjects were not used until 48 h after the previous cold exposure. The test persons were young (20 - 30 years) healthy male persons. The total number of tests was 38.

  8. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutu, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    The CREAM instrument was flown on a Long Duration Balloon in Antarctica in December 2004 and January 2005, achieving a flight duration record of nearly 42 days. It detected and recorded cosmic ray primary particles ranging in type from hydrogen to iron nuclei and in energy from 1 TeV to several hundred TeV. With the data collected we will have the world's best measurement of the energy spectra and mass composition of nuclei in the primary cosmic ray flux at these energies, close to the astrophysical knee . The instrument utilized a thin calorimeter, a transition radiation detector and a timing charge detector, which also provided time-of-flight information. The responsibilities of our group have been with the timing charge detector (TCD), and with the data acquisition electronics and ground station support equipment. The TCD utilized fast scintillators to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray before any interactions could take place within the calorimeter. The data acquisition electronics handled the output of the various detectors, in a fashion fully integrated with the payload bus. A space-qualified flight computer controlled the acquisition, and was used for preliminary trigger information processing and decision making. Ground support equipment was used to monitor the health of the payload, acquire and archive the data transmitted to the ground, and to provide real-time control of the instrument in flight.

  9. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  10. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies. PMID:25043487

  11. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  12. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface.

  13. Stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps: role of glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, glycerol and water are essential ingredients in the production of stable cream soaps. In this study, the behavior of these components in solution was investigated to elucidate the stability conditions and mechanism of cream soaps. It was determined that the cream soaps were a dispersion of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 molar ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the lamellar gel phase, which has confirmed from the phase behavior diagrams and small angle X-ray scattering data. Glycerol was crucial ingredient in the formation of the lamellar gel phase. The cleansing process of the cream soaps was also evaluated using the same diagrams. The structure of the continuous phase in cream soaps changed from lamellar gel to a micellar aqueous solution upon the addition of water. This structural change during the washing process is important in producing the foaming activity of acid soaps to wash away dirt or excess fats from the skin surface. PMID:24671023

  14. Chlorocresol sensitivity induced by treatment of allergic contact dermatitis with steroid creams.

    PubMed

    Archer, C B; MacDonald, D M

    1984-09-01

    A patient with contact dermatitis from nickel and cobalt developed sensitivity to chlorocresol contained in topical steroid creams. The use of chlorocresol in aqueous creams and topical steroids is reviewed.

  15. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    PubMed

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  16. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  17. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  18. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  19. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  20. 7 CFR 58.318 - Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.318 Butter, frozen or plastic cream melting machines. Shavers, shredders or melting machines used for rapid melting of butter, frozen or plastic cream shall be...

  1. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  2. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  3. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  4. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  5. 21 CFR 1210.26 - Permits for raw milk or cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Permits for raw milk or cream. 1210.26 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.26 Permits for raw milk or cream. Except as provided in § 1210.27, permits to ship or transport raw milk or cream into the United States will be granted...

  6. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. Operation IceBridge: Sea Ice Interlude

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea ice comes in an array of shapes and sizes and has its own ephemeral beauty. Operation IceBridge studies sea ice at both poles, and also runs across interesting formations en route to other targ...

  12. Breakup of Pack Ice, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E

  13. An investigation into the use of low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy as a means of characterizing the structure of creams based on Aqueous Cream BP.

    PubMed

    Goggin, P L; He, R; Craig, D Q; Gregory, D P

    1998-05-01

    A range of creams based on Aqueous Cream BP have been analyzed using low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy, with accompanying circuit modeling in combination with rheological and microscopic supportive techniques, to explore the use of the dielectric approach as a novel means of characterizing cream systems. Creams based on the formula for Aqueous Cream BP were produced by hand-mixing and mechanical mixing, with and without the inclusion of the preservative phenoxyethanol. Dielectric analysis was performed over a frequency range of 10(-2)-10(5) Hz. Cream samples were also examined using stress scan rheology and differential interference contrast microscopy. Dielectric analysis indicated that the presence of preservative decreased the capacitance and loss of the creams. The responses were modeled in terms of a dispersive capacitance in series with two RC circuits (series and parallel). Rheological studies indicated higher viscosities for the hand-mixed and unpreserved systems. Differential interference contrast microscopy showed marked differences in the distribution of the oil droplets, depending on the method of mixing. The study has demonstrated that dielectric spectroscopy, with accompanying circuit analysis, may be used as a means of modeling the structure of cream systems. The investigation has also shown that the formulation and preparation method of Aqueous Cream BP may have a profound effect on sample structure.

  14. Optimisation of Non-Stick Insect Repellent Cream Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajin, Mariani; Bono, Awang; Abang, Sariah; Krishnaiah, Duduku

    Nowadays, insect repellent is widely used by consumer, especially insect repellent that is produced from natural-based. Since the component of insect repellent could not be applied directly to human skin, base cream with insect repellents need to be formulated. The quality of the base cream is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. In this work, various compositions of carbopol, triethylamide, glycerine, water and ethanol were used to prepare the base cream formulations. D-optimal mixture design was performed to obtain the optimum formulation. Twenty-five combination components were selected according to the D-optimal criterion. The consumer acceptance and physical properties of the base cream such as viscosity, drying time stickiness were studied. Three-dimensional surface plots were formed to assess the change in the response surface and to understand the effect of the mixture composition on lipstick characteristics. The result indicates that there are relationships between the processing variables of the lipstick formulation and the consumer acceptance.

  15. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...,” section 16.023. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “Acidified sour cream”. The full name of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...,” section 16.023. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “Acidified sour cream”. The full name of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  17. 21 CFR 131.162 - Acidified sour cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...,” section 16.023. (d) Nomenclature. The name of the food is “Acidified sour cream”. The full name of the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acidified sour cream. 131.162 Section 131.162 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  18. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  20. Permethrin 5% dermal cream: a new treatment for scabies.

    PubMed

    Taplin, D; Meinking, T L; Porcelain, S L; Castillero, P M; Chen, J A

    1986-11-01

    Permethrin 5% dermal cream (Burroughs Wellcome Co.) was compared in an investigator-blinded, randomized study against lindane 1% lotion (Kwell) for the treatment of microscopically confirmed scabies. Eleven of twenty-three patients treated with permethrin cream were cured in 2 weeks (48%). Only two patients had scabies 1 month following a single treatment with this product, giving a cure rate of 91%. One of these two patients was considered to have a reinfestation. Only three of twenty-three (13%) patients treated with 1% lindane lotion (Kwell) were free of scabies 2 weeks after a single treatment and fifteen of twenty-three (65%) were cured at 1 month. The unusually high percentage of treatment failures (35%) following lindane therapy may have been related to extensive use of this agent for head lice and scabies in this village during the preceding 5 years. The higher cure rate at 1 month seen with permethrin cream was significant (p less than 0.025). Permethrin 5% dermal cream offers a new, cosmetically elegant alternative to lindane therapy and was effective in a community in which lindane demonstrated an unacceptable level of treatment failures.

  1. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  2. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  5. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  8. [Contact dermatitis caused by creams containing clobetasol propionate].

    PubMed

    Camarasa, J G; Serra-Baldrich, E

    1988-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis to pharmaceutical topical products containing corticosteroids are not uncommon. The study of these cases must combine patch test with standard series, vehicles, special components of each commercial cream and tixocortol pivalate. The importance of these substance is specially emphasized in that paper.

  9. Moisturizing effect of stable cream containing Crocus sativus extracts.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Haji Muhammad-Shoaib; Ashraf, Shoaib; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Saqib, Najam-us; Bashir, Kamran

    2014-11-01

    The present study is about to prepare stable cream of water-in-oil emulsion containing extracts of Crocus sativus against its base (without extracts) taken as control, to determine its stability on different storage conditions and effects on skin moisture contents and transepidermal water loss. The formulation contains 3% Crocus sativus (Saffron) concentrated extracts, and the base containing no extract, were formulated. Different stability tests were done on samples, which placed at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C with 75% relative humidity, for 4 week period. These formulations (Creams) were applied on the cheeks of human volunteers for 8week period. To evaluate any effect produced by these formulations different skin parameters were monitored every week. The significant results of this study explored the fact that water-in-oil emulsion topical cream of saffron formulated from Crocus sativus extract has absolute physical stability at different storage conditions. The increase in skin moisture contents and changes in transepidermal water loss were significant (p<0.05) with respect to base and formulation respectively. Topical cream of Crocus sativus showed significant moisturizing effects on human skin.

  10. Status and Plan of the ISS-CREAM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picot-Clemente, Nicolas; Iss-Cream Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) project began as a balloon-borne experiment, which was flown successfully for 161 days in six flights over Antarctica. It was subsequently reconfigured for implementation on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide an order of magnitude increase in the exposure time with no atmospheric overburden. The ISS-CREAM instrument is configured of four subsystems: four layers of silicon charge detector (SCD) for charge measurements, top and bottom counting detectors (TCD/BCD) for electron/proton separation, a calorimeter (CAL) for energy measurements, and a boronated scintillator detector (BSD) for additional electron/proton distinction. CREAM is designed to investigate cosmic-ray origin, acceleration, and propagation by directly measuring individual particles with energy between 1012-1015eV and determining cosmic ray composition from protons to iron. The hardware was successfully tested, and remote monitoring and control capabilities were verified. It is scheduled for launch in 2016. The status and plan of the ISS-CREAM experiment will be presented.

  11. 21 CFR 131.157 - Light whipping cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... artificial food flavoring. (c) Methods of analysis. The milkfat content is determined by the method... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Light whipping cream. 131.157 Section 131.157 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  12. 78 FR 50420 - Determination That LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream and LIDEX-E (fluocinonide) Cream and Nine Other...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That LIDEX (fluocinonide) Cream and LIDEX-E... Effectiveness AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, Rm. 6206,...

  13. Terbinafin 1% Cream and Ketoconazole 2% Cream in the Treatment of Pityriasis Versicolor: A randomized comparative clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Farrokh; Nik-Khoo, Bahram; Yaghmaee, Roxana; Gharibi, Fardin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To make a comparison between terbinafine 1% cream and ketoconazole 2% cream in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor. Methods: This randomized single blind study included 110 patients with clinical diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor and positive mycological test for Malassezia furfur. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups. Group 1 used terbinafine cream and group 2 applied ketoconazole cream on the skin lesions for two weeks. Each group consisted of 55 patients. Clinical and mycological examinations were performed at baseline, at the end of the 2nd, 4th and 8th week of starting the treatment regimens. Results: At the end of the 2nd week we achieved cure rates of 72% and 64.3% for group 1 and group 2 respectively. At the end of the 4th week the respective cure rates for group 1 and group 2 were 81.2% and 69%, and at the end of the 8th week 70.8% of the patients in group 1 and 61.9% of the patients in group 2 were cured. Conclusion: The results of this study showed no significant statistical differences between the two groups in regard to cure and recurrence rates. But the numbers of cured patients were higher and recurrent cases were lower in group 1. PMID:25674122

  14. A comparative multicentre trial of halometasone/triclosan cream and diflucortolone valerate/chlorquinaldol cream in the treatment of acute dermatomycoses.

    PubMed

    Maeder, E; Schindléry, C; Macarol, V; Schoenenberger, P M

    1983-01-01

    In this multicentre, between-patient trial the efficacy and tolerability of a cream, containing 0.05% halometasone and 1% triclosan, was compared with those of Nerisona C cream, containing 0.1% diflucortolone valerate and 1% chlorquinaldol, in 183 patients with acute dermatomycoses. Halometasone/triclosan cream and the comparative cream showed closely similar results with respect to good to very good therapeutic effects (60% versus 57%). However, halometasone/triclosan cream proved superior to the comparative preparation with regard to very good (cured) results (53% versus 46%), an early cure in less than 30 days (41% versus 34%) and onset of action within 3 days of starting the treatment (32% versus 18%). Mycological findings were positive on direct microscopy in 36% and 43% and in culture in 19% and 17% of the patients following treatment with halometasone/triclosan cream and the comparative cream preparation, respectively. Adverse effects were reported in seven out of 108 patients treated with halometasone/triclosan cream and in five out of 107 patients treated with the comparative preparation. PMID:6339293

  15. Antifreeze and cryoprotective activities of ice-binding collagen peptides from pig skin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Yu Bing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Song; Yuan, Min

    2016-03-01

    A novel "hyperactive" ice-binding peptide from porcine collagen was prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis and a series of column chromatography separations, and then its antifreeze and cryoprotective properties were reported. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermal hysteresis (TH) of ice-binding collagen peptides was closely related to their concentration and crystal fraction. Collagen hydrolysates with maximal TH were obtained by hydrolysis at pH 8.0, DH 15.0%, and 5% alkaline protease at 55°C. After purification by column chromatography, the AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide (GLLGPLGPRGLL) with 1162.8Da molecular weights exhibited the highest TH (5.28°C), which can be classified as "hyperactive". Recrystallisation and melt-resistance of ice cream were improved by AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide at 0.2% (w/v) in a similar manner to natural antifreeze proteins. Moreover, the addition of AP-3 collagen peptides in ice cream greatly elevated the glass transition temperature (Tg) to -17.64°C.

  16. Antifreeze and cryoprotective activities of ice-binding collagen peptides from pig skin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Zhu, Yu Bing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Song; Yuan, Min

    2016-03-01

    A novel "hyperactive" ice-binding peptide from porcine collagen was prepared by alkaline protease hydrolysis and a series of column chromatography separations, and then its antifreeze and cryoprotective properties were reported. Using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the thermal hysteresis (TH) of ice-binding collagen peptides was closely related to their concentration and crystal fraction. Collagen hydrolysates with maximal TH were obtained by hydrolysis at pH 8.0, DH 15.0%, and 5% alkaline protease at 55°C. After purification by column chromatography, the AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide (GLLGPLGPRGLL) with 1162.8Da molecular weights exhibited the highest TH (5.28°C), which can be classified as "hyperactive". Recrystallisation and melt-resistance of ice cream were improved by AP-3 ice-binding collagen peptide at 0.2% (w/v) in a similar manner to natural antifreeze proteins. Moreover, the addition of AP-3 collagen peptides in ice cream greatly elevated the glass transition temperature (Tg) to -17.64°C. PMID:26471678

  17. Lidocaine 2.5%/prilocaine 2.5% EMLA cream.

    PubMed

    Farrington, E

    1993-01-01

    EMLA cream is a topical emulsion composed of prilocaine and lidocaine, produced complete anesthesia of intact skin following application. For the optimum effect, EMLA cream must be applied and covered with an occlusive dressing for 60 minutes prior to the procedure. This limits its use in emergency situations. However, in most situations where procedures are anticipated, EMLA can be applied in advance, including outpatient surgery. Furthermore, if the procedure is a venipuncture, multiple sites should be prepared in case one's initial attempt is unsuccessful. EMLA has been used in children of all ages and provides significant pain relief for venipunctures and lumbar punctures; it is being investigated in children for intramuscular injections and circumcision.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of EMLA cream 5% application to oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Vickers, E R; Marzbani, N; Gerzina, T M; McLean, C; Punnia-Moorthy, A; Mather, L

    1997-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lidocaine and prilocaine were measured following the application of a 5% eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream to the oral mucosa of twelve subjects. For each subject, a total of 8 g of EMLA was occluded to 18 cm2 of buccal mucosa for 30 min. Analysis was carried out by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and results showed peak concentrations at 40 min for lidocaine and prilocaine. The maximum concentration measured in any subject was 418 ng/ml for lidocaine and 223 ng/ml for prilocaine, well below known toxic levels. No adverse local effects were observed from a 30-min application of EMLA. A follow-up pilot study assessing the clinical efficacy of EMLA for achieving sufficient analgesia for restorative procedures showed that the cream was successful in 75% of subjects tested.

  19. ISS-CREAM Thermal and Fluid System Design and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, Rosemary S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal and Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS), Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. The ISS-CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station) payload is being developed by an international team and will provide significant cosmic ray characterization over a long time frame. Cold fluid provided by the ISS Exposed Facility (EF) is the primary means of cooling for 5 science instruments and over 7 electronics boxes. Thermal fluid integrated design and analysis was performed for CREAM using a Thermal Desktop model. This presentation will provide some specific design and modeling examples from the fluid cooling system, complex SCD (Silicon Charge Detector) and calorimeter hardware, and integrated payload and ISS level modeling. Features of Thermal Desktop such as CAD simplification, meshing of complex hardware, External References (Xrefs), and FloCAD modeling will be discussed.

  20. Irradiated beetroot extract as a colorant for cream cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira-Goncalves, Maria Paula; Cardoso, Lediana Pereira; Pinto, Michele Silva; Pereira, Rodrigo Magela; Soares, Nilda Ferreira; Miltz, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A Brazilian ham-flavored cream cheese was developed using gamma-irradiated beetroot extract as the colorant. An irradiation dose of 5.0 kGy was used based on previous studies that indicated no growth of moulds, yeasts and aerobic psychotropic microorganisms during 12 days at 5 °C, and with no changes in the structure of the pigment. One part of the cheese was colored with the irradiated beetroot extract and the other part with carmine cochineal, which is a natural stable colorant but expensive and difficult to extract. Both portions were submitted to sensory evaluation with 67 panelists. No significant differences were found in flavor and overall appearance. The cream cheese containing carmine cochineal was slightly preferred in regards to color. However, being a new product, these results were encouraging and point towards the potential use of irradiated beetroot extract as a natural food colorant.

  1. Methemoglobinemia from perineal application of an anesthetic cream.

    PubMed

    Ferraro-Borgida, M J; Mulhern, S A; DeMeo, M O; Bayer, M J

    1996-06-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with cyanosis and a methemoglobin level of 23.2% after perineal application of a topical anesthetic cream containing 20% benzocaine. Many commonly used products contain high levels of benzocaine, and their use can lead to life-threatening methemoglobin levels. This case reinforces the need for stricter guidelines for product use and warning labels to alert consumers to this potential side effect of topical benzocaine-containing products sold over the counter.

  2. Successful treatment of genital Bowen's disease with imiquimod 5% cream.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Chikako; Shimizu, Akira; Kato, Madoka; Amano, Hiroo; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2015-09-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed as having Bowen's disease on the vulva. The histopathological findings revealed papillomatosis, koilocytosis and clumping cells with atypical nuclei. Human papillomavirus DNA was not detected on polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers. The lesion was successfully treated with topical imiquimod 5% cream after two months. Histopathologically, no atypical cells were observed after treatment. Imiquimod can be a potential treatment modality for lesions that are difficult to treat with surgical excision. PMID:25258393

  3. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santini, Benedetta; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics.

  4. Cream Formulation Impact on Topical Administration of Engineered Colloidal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics. PMID:25962161

  5. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santini, Benedetta; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics. PMID:25962161

  6. Efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention and treatment of sunburn and suntan.

    PubMed

    Puvabanditsin, Porntip; Vongtongsri, Rujirat

    2005-09-01

    The efficacy of aloe vera cream in prevention of burn and tan from ultraviolet were studied in 20 volunteers. The minimal erythema dose of 20 volunteers were tested. The mean MED was 40-60 mj. The well preserved containing 70% of aloe vera cream. The aloe vera cream was applied randomized double blind technique on the test sites 30 minutes before, immediately after, or both before and after then the serial ultraviolet UVB 40,50,60,70,80 mj were radiated. MED reading at 24 hour for sunburn evaluation. Erythema and pigmentation were evaluated by visual grading 1-4 score. The aloe vera cream was continuing applied at the test sites twice daily for the the next three weeks. The results showed that the aloe vera cream has no sunburn or suntan protection and no efficacy in sunburn treatment when compared to placebo. The aloe vera cream has no bleaching effect too.

  7. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed.

  8. Tactile perception of skin and skin cream by friction induced vibrations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shuyang; Bhushan, Bharat

    2016-11-01

    Skin cream smooths, softens, and moistens skin by altering surface roughness and tribological properties of skin. Sliding generates vibrations that activate mechanoreceptors located in skin. The brain interprets tactile information to identify skin feel. Understanding the tactile sensing mechanisms of skin with and without cream treatment is important to numerous applications including cosmetics, textiles, and robotics sensors. In this study, frequency spectra of friction force and friction induced vibration signals were carried out to investigate tactile perception by an artificial finger sliding on skin. The influence of normal load, velocity, and cream treatment time were studied. Coherence between friction force and vibration signals were found. The amplitude of vibration decreased after cream treatment, leading to smoother perception. Increasing normal load or velocity between contacting surfaces generated a smoother perception with cream treatment, but rougher perception without treatment. As cream treatment time increases, skin becomes smoother. The related mechanisms are discussed. PMID:27474814

  9. The use of EMLA cream to decrease venipuncture pain in children.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Tanya L; Ostrow, C Lynne

    2004-02-01

    Venipuncture is one of the most painful medical procedures for a child, and it is one of the most frequently performed. This literature synthesis reviews evidence for the use of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream to reduce the pain children experience during venipuncture. EMLA cream was compared with placebo, iontophoresis, and amethocaine cream and was found to be an effective local anesthetic for pediatric venipuncture pain during both intravenous cannulation and phlebotomy.

  10. Topical cream-based oxyresveratrol in the treatment of cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Lipipun, Vimolmas; Sasivimolphan, Pattaraporn; Yoshida, Yoshihiro; Daikoku, Tohru; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Ritthidej, Garnpimol; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak; Pramyothin, Pornpen; Hattori, Masao; Shiraki, Kimiyasu

    2011-08-01

    Anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities of oxyresveratrol in vitro and topical administration in cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice were examined. The inhibitory concentrations for 50% plaque formation (IC(50)) of oxyresveratrol against HSV-1 clinical isolates and HSV-2 clinical isolates were 20.9-29.5 and 22.2-27.5 μg/ml, respectively. In topical administration in cutaneous HSV-1 infection in mice, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20% oxyresveratrol in cream vehicle applied three times daily for 7 days after infection were evaluated and 10% and 20% oxyresveratrol cream were significantly effective in delaying the development of skin lesions and protection from death (P < 0.01). The concentration of 10% oxyresveratrol in cream was significantly more effective than that of 30% oxyresveratrol in vaseline applied three times daily (P < 0.01). Oxyresveratrol cream at 20% was as effective as 5% ACV cream applied three times daily (P < 0.01). Both 10% and 20% oxyresveratrol cream were as effective as that of 5% ACV cream applied two times daily (P > 0.05). Therapeutic efficacy of oxyresveratrol in cream vehicle was dose-dependent and the maximum efficacy observed on day 6 after infection was shown at 10% oxyresveratrol in cream applied three times daily. The frequency of application of 10% oxyresveratrol cream at three, four and five times daily was as effective as that of 5% ACV cream applied five times daily (P > 0.05). These results demonstrated that topical administration of oxyresveratrol in novel cream vehicle reduced the concentration of oxyresveratrol to 10% and was suitable for cutaneous HSV infection.

  11. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications.

  12. Detection of toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus and related species on coconut cream agar.

    PubMed

    Dyer, S K; McCammon, S

    1994-01-01

    A new readily-prepared medium, coconut cream agar, was developed for the detection of aflatoxin production by isolates of Aspergillus flavus and related species. Coconut cream agar, which comprised coconut cream (50%) and agar (1.5%), detected isolates of A. flavus more effectively than the synthetic media tested and was as effective as media containing desiccated coconut. Fluorescence colouring of colonies grown on coconut cream agar could be used to differentiate A. flavus from A. parasiticus and A. nomius. In addition, conidial colour of A. flavus and A. nomius was quite distinct from that of A. parasiticus.

  13. Chlorhexidine-calcium phosphate nanoparticles - Polymer mixer based wound healing cream and their applications.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Kaliyaperumal; Monisha, P; Srinivasan, M; Swathi, D; Raman, M; Dhinakar Raj, G

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we developed a wound healing cream composed of two different polymers, namely chitosan and gelatin with chlorhexidine along with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the prepared cream were investigated based on SEM, EDX, Raman, FTIR and the results indicated that the cream contained gelatin, chitosan, calcium phosphate nanoparticles and chlorhexidine. The maximum swelling ratio studies indicated that the ratio was around of 52±2.2 at pH7.4 and the value was increased in acidic and alkaline pH. The antimicrobial activity was tested against bacteria and the results indicated that, both chlorhexidine and the hybrid cream devoid of chlorhexidine exhibited antimicrobial activity but the chlorhexidine impregnated cream showed three fold higher antimicrobial activity than without chlorhexidine. In vivo wound healing promoting activities of hybrid cream containing 0.4mg/L chlorhexidine were evaluated on surgically induced dermal wounds in mice. The results indicated that the cream with incorporated chlorhexidine significantly enhanced healing compared with the control samples. For the field validations, the veterinary clinical animals were treated with the cream and showed enhanced healing capacity. In conclusion, a simple and efficient method for design of a novel wound healing cream has been developed for veterinary applications. PMID:27287150

  14. Icing Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidwell, Colin

    2009-01-01

    A grid block transformation scheme which allows the input of grids in arbitrary reference frames, the use of mirror planes, and grids with relative velocities has been developed. A simple ice crystal and sand particle bouncing scheme has been included.. Added an SLD splashing model based on that developed by William Wright for the LEWICE 3.2.2 software. A new area based collection efficiency algorithm will be incorporated which calculates trajectories from inflow block boundaries to outflow block boundaries. This method will be used for calculating and passing collection efficiency data between blade rows for turbo-machinery calculations.

  15. Ice Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    blugerman, n.

    2015-10-01

    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  16. An Entrepreneurial Strand in the Business Law Course: The Ice Cream Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Regina M.

    2009-01-01

    America is a nation of entrepreneurs. Whether engaged in a start-up operation, managing a family business, or as part of an entrepreneurial venture within a larger entity, American entrepreneurs have provided the vision and energy that have powered the U.S. economy for the last century. Educating entrepreneurs presents special challenges,…

  17. "As Good as Chocolate" and "Better than Ice Cream": How Toddler, and Older, Breastfeeders Experience Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribble, Karleen D.

    2009-01-01

    The breastfeeding experiences of 114 Australian children who were currently breastfeeding were explored via maternal observation and direct questioning of the children. Mothers commonly stated that their child breastfed for comfort and this opinion was validated by observations of when the children breastfed, which was often in the transition to…

  18. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Orloff, Natalia C; Hormes, Julia M

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG.

  19. How many universes are necessary for an ice cream to melt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    We investigate a quantitative consequence of the Acausal-Anthropic approach to solving the long-standing puzzle of the thermodynamical arrow of time. Notably, the size of the required multiverse is estimated on the basis of the classical Boltzmann connection between entropy and probability, as well as the thermodynamic properties of black holes.

  20. Pickles and ice cream! Food cravings in pregnancy: hypotheses, preliminary evidence, and directions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Women in the United States experience an increase in food cravings at two specific times during their life, (1) perimenstrually and (2) prenatally. The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain (GWG) is a growing concern due to its association with adverse health outcomes in both mothers and children. To the extent that prenatal food cravings may be a determinant of energy intake in pregnancy, a better understanding of craving etiology could be crucial in addressing the issue of excessive GWG. This paper reviews the available literature to corroborate and/or dispute some of the most commonly accepted hypotheses regarding the causes of food cravings during pregnancy, including a role of (1) hormonal changes, (2) nutritional deficits, (3) pharmacologically active ingredients in the desired foods, and (4) cultural and psychosocial factors. An existing model of perimenstrual chocolate craving etiology serves to structure the discussion of these hypotheses. The main hypotheses discussed receive little support, with the notable exception of a postulated role of cultural and psychosocial factors. The presence of cravings during pregnancy is a common phenomenon across different cultures, but the types of foods desired and the adverse impact of cravings on health may be culture-specific. Various psychosocial factors appear to correlate with excess GWG, including the presence of restrained eating. Findings strongly suggest that more research be conducted in this area. We propose that future investigations fall into one of the four following categories: (1) validation of food craving and eating-related measures specifically in pregnant populations, (2) use of ecological momentary assessment to obtain real time data on cravings during pregnancy, (3) implementation of longitudinal studies to address causality between eating disorder symptoms, food cravings, and GWG, and (4) development of interventions to ensure proper prenatal nutrition and prevent excess GWG. PMID:25295023

  1. Ice cream scooper's hand. Report of an occupationally related stress fracture of the hand.

    PubMed

    Howard, R S; Conrad, G R

    1992-09-01

    Stress fracture of the hand is uncommon but can be a significant source of morbidity if not promptly diagnosed. The authors present a case of metacarpal stress fracture in which the occupational history was key to the diagnosis and management of long-standing hand pain. PMID:1395344

  2. "I can't taste ice cream": an unusual case of tinnitus and dysgeusia.

    PubMed

    Ness, Brian; Steger, Jamie; Della-Giustina, David

    2004-12-01

    Auricular foreign bodies are usually presented to the emergency department in an easily recognizable fashion. We report the case of a 16-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with complaints of unilateral tinnitus and dysgeusia. He denied any history of injury except for falling from his bike in the woods earlier that day. On examination, a wooden foreign body was found in the external auditory canal. A computed tomography scan revealed a 3-cm-long twig that pierced the middle ear disrupting the ossicles. He was taken to the operating room for removal and microscopic evaluation. On evaluation, the chorda tympani nerve was found to be severed along with disruption of the ossicles. This is an unusual presentation for an aural foreign body, and the resulting injury of the chorda tympani is not well published. One should consider the possibility of injury to the middle and inner ear and perform the necessary clinical evaluation before and after removal of aural foreign bodies. PMID:15572973

  3. The Ice Cream Stories: A Study in Normal and Psychotic Narrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaika, Elaine; Alexander, Paul

    1986-01-01

    Indicates that the psychotic and normal populations showed definable differences in encoding strategies when presented with an adaption of the Pear Stories study. Supports theories claiming that faulty filtering mechanisms, vulnerability to distraction, and attentional deficits account for psychotic subjects' reactions. (JD)

  4. Detailed plans for the reduction in waste load from a dairy and ice cream plant

    SciTech Connect

    Carawan, R.E.; Rushing, J.E.

    1987-02-28

    The waste load from a dairy processing plant is largely a result of milk products which are intentionally or inadvertaintly lost to the sewer system. Researchers have estimated that over 90 percent of the waste load is of product origin (milk and milk products). The reduction of water and waste requires the application of the best technology to achieve reduced product loss, reduced water usage and reduced ingredient loss. There are two proven ways to reduce water use, wastewater discharge, waste loads and product loss. One method is to operate the plant more efficiently. The other is to institute process changes which have been shown to reduce water use, product waste and wasteloads. This project places emphasis on detailing those losses, recovering these losses, and preventing the milk solids from becoming part of the waste load.

  5. Potency ranking of two new topical corticosteroid creams containing 0.1% desonide or 0.05% halometasone utilising the human skin blanching assay.

    PubMed

    Meyer, E; Smith, E W; Haigh, J M; Kanfer, I

    1988-12-01

    The human blanching assay was used to assess the potency of two new proprietary corticosteroid creams. The blanching abilities of 0.1% desonide cream and 0.05% halometasone cream were evaluated relative to the blanching elicited by 0.05% clobetasol 17-propionate cream, 0.1% betamethasone 17-valerate cream and 0.05% clobetasone 17-butyrate cream. The results of the trial indicated that the 0.1% desonide cream falls into the potent group of topical corticosteroid preparations and the 0.05% halometasone cream falls into the moderately potent group.

  6. Friction of ice on ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulson, Erland M.; Fortt, Andrew L.

    2012-12-01

    New measurements have been made of the friction coefficient of freshwater polycrystalline ice sliding slowly (5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-3 m s-1) upon itself at temperatures from 98 to 263 K under low normal stresses (≤98 kPa). Sliding obeys Coulomb's law: the shear stress is directly proportional to the normal stress across the interface, while cohesion offers little contribution to frictional resistance. The coefficient of kinetic friction of smooth surfaces varies from μk = 0.15 to 0.76 and, at elevated temperatures (≥223 K), exhibits both velocity strengthening at lower velocities (<10-5 to 10-4 m s-1) and velocity weakening at higher velocities. Strengthening and weakening are attributed to creep deformation of asperities and localized melting, respectively. At intermediate temperatures of 173 and 133 K, the kinetic coefficient appears to not exhibit significant dependence upon velocity. However, at the low temperature of 98 K the coefficient of kinetic friction exhibits moderate velocity strengthening at both the lowest and the highest velocities but velocity independence over the range of intermediate velocities. No effect was detected of either grain size or texture. Over the range of roughness 0.4 × 10-6 m ≤ Ra ≤ 12 × 10-6 m, a moderate effect was detected, where μk ∝ Ra0.08. Slide-hold-slide experiments revealed that the coefficient of static friction increases by an amount that scales logarithmically with holding time. Implications of the results are discussed in relation to shearing across "tiger stripe" faults within the icy crust of Saturn's Enceladus, sliding of the arctic sea ice cover and brittle compressive failure of cold ice.

  7. Accumulation of mercury in ovaries of mice after the application of skin-lightening creams.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Shinwari, Neptune; Al-Amodi, Mona

    2009-10-01

    Skin-lightening creams are being increasingly used by women in particular, worldwide in an attempt to whiten their skin. Men and older people use these creams to remove age spots or other pigmentation disorders. Several studies have reported the presence of high mercury levels in skin-lightening cream. Women, especially pregnant and nursing mothers, who use these creams are at risk of mercury toxicity because long-term exposure can cause permanent neurological damage, nephrological disorders, fertility problems, and birth defects. Early exposure usually has no clinical symptoms. Mercury levels were measured in a total of 49 ovary tissue samples. The mean mercury contents in the ovaries of non-treated mice (11.70 +/- 13.38 ng/g) were compared to mice treated with Rose skin-lightening cream samples (2,471.92 +/- 1,336.31 ng/g) and those treated with Fair & Lovely skin-lightening creams (58.47 +/- 39.51 ng/g). The mercury content in the ovary tissues increased with number of cream applications and were highest in the ovaries of mice treated twice a day with Fair & Lovely (87.79 +/- 26.20 ng/g) and once a day with Rose (3,515.61 +/- 1,099.78 ng/g). Our data indicate that dermal exposure to mercury can result in a significant accumulation in the ovaries of mice following the application of skin-lightening cream. This may cause alterations in reproductive behavior and contribute to infertility or ovarian failure. Of course, these results need to be confirmed by further research. Imported or locally made skin-lightening creams are widely available in Saudi market. It would be ideal to ban the sale of these creams but unfortunately, advertisements in the mass media presenting celebrities and beauty specialists make these products more popular. Alternatively, public health authorities should encourage more reliance on prescribed creams for the treatment of skin pigmentation problems. PMID:19224137

  8. Scrambled Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.

    The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech

  9. Aminoguanidine cream ameliorates skin tissue microenvironment in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ming; Qing, Chun; Niu, Yiwen; Dong, Jiaoyun; Cao, Xiaozan; Song, Fei; Ji, Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to explore the effect of aminoguanidine cream on the skin tissue microenvironment in diabetic rats. Material and methods A total of 51 healthy male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: the diabetes group (n = 18), the aminoguanidine group (n = 18) and the control group (n = 15). Rats in the diabetes group and aminoguanidine group were injected with 65 mg/kg streptozotocin to induce the diabetes model, and in the control group with citrate buffer. After successful induction of diabetes, the back hair of all rats was stripped by barium sulfide, and the aminoguanidine group was treated with aminoguanidine cream using disinfected cotton swabs twice every day for 40 days, while the diabetes and control groups were treated with the cream matrix. The pathological changes of skin were observed by HE staining, while the content of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-8, ICAM and IL-1α) and the antioxidant indexes (T-AOC, GSH-PX, MPO MDA H2O2) were examined using commercial kits. Results After 40 days of treatment, the diabetes group manifested tissue lesions, whereas the aminoguanidine group seemed normal. Compared with the diabetes group, the content of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-8, ICAM and IL-1α was dramatically lower in the aminoguanidine group. T-AOC in all groups underwent dramatic changes and returned to normal finally. The activities of GSH-PX and MPO and content of H2O2 in the diabetes group were all higher than those in the aminoguanidine group. Conclusions Aminoguanidine may have a good systemic effect on alleviating the pathological changes of skin tissue in diabetic rats, which may be attributed to the regulation of GSH-PX, TNF-α, IL-8, ICAM and IL-1α. PMID:26925135

  10. Stability Conditions and Mechanism of Cream Soaps: Effect of Polyols.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi; Komoriya, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, polyols and water are essential ingredients for producing stable cream soaps. The solution behavior of the above four components system has been studied to elucidate the effect of four sorts of polyols (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol) on the stability of cream soaps. It has been revealed that the lamellar liquid crystalline one-phase converted to a two-phase of a lamellar phase and an isotropic aqueous solution by the addition of a few percent of 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol, whereas the lamellar one-phase was remained by about 50 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous solution. The X-ray data at room temperature showed that the existence of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 mole ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol systems, whereas that the coexistence of 1:1 acid soap crystal and a lamellar gel phase (swelled lamellar gel structure) in the glycerol system. The phase transition peaks from coagel to gel (Tgel) and from gel to liquid state (Tc) were appeared in the above four polyol systems by DSC measurements. It was confirmed from the combined data of SAXS and DSC that the existence of anhydrous 1:1 acid soap gels (or with small amount of bound water) in the all polyol systems, whereas the coexistence of the anhydrate gel and the swelled gel with a lot of intermediate water in the only glycerol system. This swelled gel structure would be contributed to stabilize the dispersed anhydrate acid soap crystals in cream soaps.

  11. Topical EMLA Cream as a Pretreatment for Facial Lacerations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Woo; Oh, Tae Suk; Choi, Jong Woo; Eom, Jin Sup; Hong, Joon Pio; Koh, Kyung S; Lee, Taik Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background Topical anesthetics, such as eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream, can be applied to reduce pain before minor procedure. This trial evaluated EMLA as pretreatment for facial lacerations and compared pain, discomfort and overall satisfaction. Methods This trial included consecutive emergency department patients ≥16 years of age who presented with simple facial lacerations. At triage, lacerations were allotted to either the routine processing group or EMLA pretreatment group according to date of admission. Initially, the emergency department doctors inspected each laceration, which were dressed with saline-soaked gauze. In the pretreatment group, EMLA cream was applied during wound inspection. The plastic surgeon then completed primary closure following the local injection of an anesthetic. After the procedure, all patients were given a questionnaire assessing pain using the 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) ("no pain" to "worst pain"). All questionnaires were collected by the emergency department nurse before discharge. Results Fifty patients were included in the routine processing group, and fifty patients were included in the EMLA pretreatment group. Median age was 39.9 years, 66% were male, and the average laceration was 2.67 cm in length. The EMLA pretreatment group reported lower pain scores in comparison with the routine processing group (2.4 vs. 4.5 on VAS, P<0.05), and lower discomfort scores during the procedure (2.0 vs. 3.3, P=0.60). Overall satisfaction was significantly higher in the EMLA pretreatment group (7.8 vs. 6.1, P<0.05). Conclusions Pretreating facial lacerations with EMLA topical cream aids patients by reducing pain and further enhancing overall satisfaction during laceration treatment. PMID:25606486

  12. Stability Conditions and Mechanism of Cream Soaps: Effect of Polyols.

    PubMed

    Sagitani, Hiromichi; Komoriya, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acids, fatty acid potassium soaps, polyols and water are essential ingredients for producing stable cream soaps. The solution behavior of the above four components system has been studied to elucidate the effect of four sorts of polyols (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol) on the stability of cream soaps. It has been revealed that the lamellar liquid crystalline one-phase converted to a two-phase of a lamellar phase and an isotropic aqueous solution by the addition of a few percent of 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol, whereas the lamellar one-phase was remained by about 50 wt% of glycerol in the aqueous solution. The X-ray data at room temperature showed that the existence of 1:1 acid soap (1:1 mole ratio of potassium soap/fatty acid) crystals in the 1,3-butylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400 and dipropylene glycol systems, whereas that the coexistence of 1:1 acid soap crystal and a lamellar gel phase (swelled lamellar gel structure) in the glycerol system. The phase transition peaks from coagel to gel (Tgel) and from gel to liquid state (Tc) were appeared in the above four polyol systems by DSC measurements. It was confirmed from the combined data of SAXS and DSC that the existence of anhydrous 1:1 acid soap gels (or with small amount of bound water) in the all polyol systems, whereas the coexistence of the anhydrate gel and the swelled gel with a lot of intermediate water in the only glycerol system. This swelled gel structure would be contributed to stabilize the dispersed anhydrate acid soap crystals in cream soaps. PMID:26179000

  13. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions § 131.25 Whipped...

  14. 21 CFR 131.25 - Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whipped cream products containing flavoring or sweetening. 131.25 Section 131.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM General Provisions § 131.25 Whipped...

  15. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  16. Enhancement of human skin facial revitalization by moringa leaf extract cream

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Chowdhary, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Solar ultraviolet exposure is the main cause of skin damage by initiation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to skin collagen imperfection and eventually skin roughness. This can be reduced by proper revitalization of skin enhancing younger and healthier appearance. Aim To evaluate the skin facial revitalization effect of a cream formulation containing the Moringa oleifera leaf extract on humans. Material and methods Active cream containing 3% of the concentrated extract of moringa leaves was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of cream. Base contained no extract. Skin revitalizing parameters, i.e. surface, volume, texture parameters and surface evaluation of the living skin (SELS) were assessed comparatively after application of the base and active cream on human face using Visioscan® VC 98 for a period of 3 months. Results Surface values were increased by the base and decreased by the active cream. Effects produced for the base and active cream were significant and insignificant, respectively, as observed in the case of surface. Unlike the base, the active cream showed significant effects on skin volume, texture parameters (energy, variance and contrast) and SELS, SEr (skin roughness), SEsc (skin scaliness), SEsm (skin smoothness), and SEw (skin wrinkles) parameters. Conclusions The results suggested that moringa cream enhances skin revitalization effect and supports anti-aging skin effects. PMID:25097471

  17. Tea creaming in nonfermented teas from Camellia sinensis and Ilex vomitoria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Talcott, Stephen T

    2012-11-28

    Tea creaming is the development of a cloudy or hazy appearance in tea and ready-to-drink tea products on cooling and is highly undesirable in the tea beverage industry. Commonly associated with fermented black or oolong teas, the objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical mechanism of the formation of tea cream in nonfermented green tea (Camellia sinensis) and a caffeine-containing botanical tea from yaupon holly (Ilex vomitoria) that is free of catechin-based polyphenolics. Four tea-creaming activators (phenolics, soluble protein, caffeine, and metal ions) were added to tea infusions as well as decaffeinated teas created by chloroform extraction. Tea-creaming activators increased the weight and turbidity of both teas with the exception of soluble protein addition (as bovine serum albumin) to green tea, whereas the greatest increase in turbidity occurred with the addition of metal ions in green tea. Tea creaming was equally developed at three incubation temperatures (4, 25, and 40 °C) in both teas, but tea-creaming compositions in each tea were different at the incubating temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of each tea was lowered after creaming due to the loss of antioxidants that participated in tea cream formation. PMID:23148671

  18. Prediction of soil loss with the CREAMS model

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, N.M.

    1984-07-24

    Variations in soil loss as a function of certain land use and land management practices were investigated on a small watershed in the Texas Panhandle using CREAMS, a recently developed computer model capable of simulating dynamic rainfall, runoff, and erosion processes over the time-frame of decades. Simulations of different curve numbers, three types of cropping, and varying crop yield and plowing practices were made to determine the sensitivity of soil loss to these parameters. Comparisons were made to actual in-field measurements of soil loss on experimental plots. 8 references, 3 figures.

  19. [The usefulness of protective creams on fragile and aged skin].

    PubMed

    Rueda López, Justo; Guerrero Palmero, Alberto; Muñoz Bueno, Ana Maria; Esquius i Carbonell, Jacint; Rosell Moreno, Carmen

    2005-06-01

    The ADDERMIS protective cream has these properties: it prevents skin maceration, exercises a regenerative effect, has bacteriostatic and bactericide activity, possesses a noted anti-inflammatory effect and reduces the risk of mycotic infections. Its application is indicated for use in cases of: skin lesions, such as bed sores or leg ulcers, which require the use of a barrier product; dermatitis lesions in zones of skin folds or due to diaper use; to prevent friction zones; fragile skin; peeling, zones where cracks in the skin appear...and to use for cases of incontinence when diapers are required.

  20. Analytical control of preservative labelling on skin creams.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C

    2000-12-01

    Contents of 23 preservatives (22 permitted and 1 non-permitted) were analysed in 67 skin creams to verify whether these products complied with the Cosmetic Directive with respect to ingredient labelling, as well as with respect to maximum allowed concentrations of the respective preservatives. The preservatives selected for the analysis were: parabens, 2-phenoxyethanol, benzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, sorbic acid, salicylic acid, formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers, 3:1 mixture of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-2-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-2-one (Kathon CG), 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol (Bronopol), 5-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-dioxane (Bronidox) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile. 1 or more parabens were present in 87% (n=58) of the investigated products, 2-phenoxy ethanol in 49% (n=33) of the products, and formaldehyde/formaldehyde releasers were present in 51% (n=34) of the products. Kathon CG was found in 3 products, acid preservatives (except salicylic acid) in 8 products, Bronopol in 5 products, and methyldibromo glutaronitrile was present in 4 products. The contents of all of the target preservatives in the skin creams were within the maximum allowed concentrations of the respective substances. Incorrect ingredient labelling with respect to paraben content was found in 10% (n=7) of the investigated products, 33% (n= 22) of the products were not declared for the content of formaldehyde/formaldehyde releaser, and 7% (n=5) products were incorrectly labelled for the content of 2-phenoxyethanol. In 1 of the products containing Kathon CG, the ratio of 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-2-one to 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-2-one (1.4:1) was not correct. 4 of the 8 products containing acid preservatives were not labelled for the content of these substances. All in all, in 45% (n=30) of the investigated skin creams ingredient labelling was incorrect with respect to preservative contents. The proportion of incorrect labelling is reduced to 23% (n = 15), when the

  1. An Aluminum Magnesium Hydroxide Stearate-based Skin Barrier Protection Cream Used for the Management of Eczematous Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bhambri, Sanjay; Michaels, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Eczematous dermatoses can often be very difficult to treat. An aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream has recently become available for clinical use. Aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream provides an alternative option in treating these dermatoses while providing barrier protection against external allergens and irritants. This article reviews various studies evaluating aluminum magnesium hydroxide stearate-based cream. PMID:21212843

  2. Icing: Accretion, Detection, Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1994-01-01

    The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.

  3. Analysis of creams. III. Application of gas--liquid chromatography. Part I.

    PubMed

    Lake, O A; Hulshoff, A; Indemans, A W

    1982-04-23

    The possibilities of the gas--liquid chromatographic analysis with flame ionization detection of creams of the o/w emulsion type were investigated. Interferences by cream base components in the determination of the active compounds were studied. It appeared to be possible to determine active compounds with a retention index lower than 1900 on ov-17 (e.g. methyl salicylate, menthol, thymol camphor) without clean-up of the cream samples; for the determination of compounds with retention indices between 1900 and 3700, a simple clean-up step suffices. The possible analysis of some of the cream base components together with the active compounds of the creams was investigated as well. Cetomacrogol emulsifying wax, lanette was sx and cetiol v could be determined easily, whether or not a sample clean-up step was incorporated. PMID:7099914

  4. Relationship between in vivo skin blanching and in vitro release rate for betamethasone valerate creams.

    PubMed

    Shah, V P; Elkins, J; Skelly, J P

    1992-01-01

    Betamethasone valerate creams from two firms were evaluated using the skin blanching procedure. In both studies, the same cream formulation exhibited significantly higher blanching compared to the other product. An in vitro release rate was determined for these betamethasone valerate cream products using a diffusion cell system, with a cellulose acetate membrane and a 60% ethanol:water receptor medium. The release rate (flux) of betamethasone valerate was higher for the higher blanching formulation and was statistically different from the other product. The integrity of the cellulose acetate membrane in 60% ethanol:water mixture was ascertained using hydrocortisone cream product. The in vitro drug release method, using a diffusion cell system and a synthetic membrane, can serve as a good quality control test method for topical creams.

  5. New insights into eutectic cream skin penetration enhancement.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Sarah; Roman, Marie; Inacio, Ricardo; Mashal, Sumaia; Brown, Marc B; Jones, Stuart A

    2016-02-29

    The manner in which the eutectic cream EMLA enhances the percutaneous penetration of lidocaine and prilocaine into human skin is still not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate if the modification of drug aggregation played a role in the way EMLA facilitates delivery. Light scattering analysis of lidocaine alone in water gave a critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of 572 μM and a mean aggregate size of 58.8 nm. The analysis of prilocaine in identical conditions gave a CAC of 1177 μM and a mean aggregate size of 105.7 ± 24.8 nm. When the two drugs were mixed at their eutectic 1:1 ratio in water the CAC reduced to 165.8 μM and the aggregate size was 43.82 nm. This lidocaine-prilocaine interaction in water was further modified upon addition of polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil, the surfactant in the EMLA aqueous phase, to produce aggregates of <20 nm. The physical characterisation data suggested that it was the EMLA cream's surfactant that modified the drug molecular interactions in the aqueous continuous phase and caused a 6 fold higher drug penetration through human epidermal tissue compared to the oil formulations tested in this study. PMID:26732522

  6. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. The addition of GTN to capsaicin cream reduces the discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone. A volunteer study.

    PubMed

    McCleane, G J; McLaughlin, M

    1998-11-01

    In a double blind, placebo controlled trial of 40 volunteers, the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin cream (0.025%) was compared to placebo, GTN cream (1.33%) and to the combination of capsaicin cream (0.025%) plus GTN cream 1.33%. Median VAS for burning pain were 0 for the placebo, GTN and GTN + capsaicin groups and 3 for the capsaicin group after single application of each cream at daily intervals. This study demonstrates that after single application the addition of GTN to capsaicin significantly reduces the burning discomfort associated with application of capsaicin alone.

  8. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  9. Stochastic ice stream dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  10. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  11. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-01

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960

  12. Top Sounder Ice Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Sweeney, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Ice draft measurements are made as part of normal operations for all US Navy submarines operating in the Arctic Ocean. The submarine ice draft data are unique in providing high resolution measurements over long transects of the ice covered ocean. The data has been used to document a multidecadal drop in ice thickness, and for validating and improving numerical sea-ice models. A submarine upward-looking sonar draft measurement is made by a sonar transducer mounted in the sail or deck of the submarine. An acoustic beam is transmitted upward through the water column, reflecting off the bottom of the sea ice and returning to the transducer. Ice thickness is estimated as the difference between the ship's depth (measured by pressure) and the acoustic range to the bottom of the ice estimated from the travel time of the sonar pulse. Digital recording systems can provide the return off the water-ice interface as well as returns that have penetrated the ice. Typically, only the first return from the ice hull is analyzed. Information regarding ice flow interstitial layers provides ice age information and may possibly be derived with the entire return signal. The approach being investigated is similar to that used in measuring bottom sediment layers and will involve measuring the echo level from the first interface, solving the reflection loss from that transmission, and employing reflection loss versus impedance mismatch to ascertain ice structure information.

  13. Effect of Butoconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream and Miconazole Nitrate 2% Vaginal Cream Treatments in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Doris C.; Francisco, Carol A.; Dorfman, Joan

    1996-01-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, invesgtigator-blind, parallel study, 398 patients were dispensed topical butoconazole nitrate 2% cream for 3 days (n = 199) or miconazole nitrate 2% cream for 7 days (n = 199) for vaginal use. Efficacy analyses included 254 patients with culture-confirmed Candida (119 butoconazole and 135 miconazole users). Of the 398 patients issued study medication, 9 were lost to follow-up. Therefore, safety analyses included 389 patients (197 butoconazole and 192 miconazole users). Evaluations upon admission and approximately 8 and 30 days post-treatment included Candida cultures, potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mounts, and vulvovaginal examinations, with rating of vulvovaginal signs and symptoms using a 4-point scale. Rates of clinical cure (based on sign/symptom scores), microbiologic cure (based on cultures and wet mounts), and therapeutic cure (both clinical and microbiologic cures) were assessed and were to be similar between the regimens. Therapeutic cure rates were 57.8% and 61.4% for butoconazole and miconazole, respectively. Three-day butoconazole treatment was as safe and effective as 7-day miconazole therapy in treating vulvovaginal candidiasis. PMID:18476119

  14. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  15. Analysis of photodynamic cream effect in dental caries using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, P. S.; Freitas, A. Z.; de Sant´Anna, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect in the enamel demineralization of low-intensity infrared laser (λ=810 nm, 100 mW/cm2, 90 sec, 4.47 J/cm2, 9 J) with or without photodynamic cream fluorinated or not fluorinated, using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Background data: Lasers can be used as tools for the prevention of tooth enamel demineralization. All enamel specimens (n= 105) were analyzed using OCT at baseline, and randomly assigned into seven groups (n=15): C (+), laser application; C(-), no treatment; (F), acid fluoride gel; cream (IV); cream and neutral fluoride (IVF); cream and laser (IVL); and cream with neutral fluoride+ laser (IVFL). The specimens were submitted to all kind of treatments before demineralizing pH cycling challenge and were reanalyzed. ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparative analysis (p <0.01) demonstrated a greater delta attenuation between baseline and post challenge for C + (0.034 +/- 0.011) compared to IVF (0.016 +/- 0.007) F (0.018 +/- 0.010) IVFL (0.019 +/- 0.008), and IVL (0.014 +/- 0.010). The cream laser group (IVL) also showed lower delta (0.014 +/- 0.010) compared to C - (0.025 +/- 0.008). The OCT technique demonstrated that cream associated with laser showed the lowest quantitative enamel mineral looses after cariogenic challenge.

  16. A bilateral comparison study of pimecrolimus cream 1% and a topical medical device cream in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Emer, Jason J; Frankel, Amylynne; Sohn, Andrew; Lebwohl, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for atopic dermatitis, but long-term use is associated with adverse effects. We sought to evaluate the clinical efficacy of two steroid-sparing creams for atopic dermatitis. Twenty patients were enrolled in an investigator-blinded, bilateral comparison study. Patients applied pimecrolimus cream twice daily to a target lesion on one side of the body and also applied a topical medical device cream three times daily on a symmetrical target lesion on the opposite side of the body for four weeks. Clinical assessments including Physician Global Assessment (PGA), Target Lesion Symptom Score (TLSS), subject self-assessment and digital photography were performed at the baseline, 2 week, and 4 week visits. Seventy-five percent of patients (pimecrolimus, 15 of 20; topical medical device, 15 of 20) were rated "clear" (0) or "almost clear" (1) by PGA for both medications after four weeks. Percent improvement of the PGA from randomization for pimecrolimus cream and the topical medical device cream were 72.50 and 71.67 respectively (P=0.9283). PGA scores decreased significantly from baseline for both treatments (P=0.004). Overall, there was no statistically significant difference between treatment groups for PGA scores throughout the study (P=0.8236). No cutaneous side effects were noted. Our study was limited by a small sample size and lack of double-blinding; however, both treatments were found to be safe and effective in treating atopic dermatitis over four weeks. Significant improvements were noted for all efficacy variables. In conclusion, a lipid-rich, non-steroidal, topical medical device cream was as effective in improving atopic dermatitis as pimecrolimus cream.

  17. Microbial contamination of cosmetics and personal care items in Egypt--shaving creams and shampoos.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, A A; Ashour, M S; Hefni, H; el-Tayeb, O M

    1989-02-01

    We examined a total of 192 samples, including eight different brands of shaving cream and eight brands of shampoo, for their total aerobic bacterial, coliforms and fungal counts. Shaving creams were more heavily contaminated with bacteria than shampoos. Viable bacterial were not recovered from 57% and 10% of shampoos and shaving creams, respectively. Only 3% of shaving creams were heavily contaminated with more than 10(4) c.f.u./g, while none of the shampoos contained such a high number of bacteria. With regard to the medium range contamination levels, 52% of shaving creams showed bacterial counts ranging from 10(2) to 10(3) c.f.u./g or ml, compared to 15% of shampoos which were contaminated to the same level. Fourteen per cent of shaving creams were contaminated with greater than 10(3)-10(4) c.f.u./g or ml, compared to 1% of the shampoos. No coliforms were recovered from either the shaving creams or the shampoos; however, Staphylococcus spp. were detected in six samples of both shampoos and shaving creams. Some of these Staphylococci, were aureus type. One isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also detected in a sample of shampoo. The incidence of fungal contamination was much less than the bacterial contamination. No viable fungi were recovered from 88% and 76% of the shaving creams and shampoos, respectively. The majority of the remaining samples, for both products, were contaminated with less than 100 fungal cell/g or ml. The pH of all the tested samples was alkaline (pH 7.2-9), which is well known to inhibit fungal contamination.

  18. Proprietary hydrocortisone creams. Vasoconstrictor activities and bio-availabilities of six preparations.

    PubMed

    Barry, B W; Woodford, R

    1976-10-01

    Six proprietary hydrocortisone creams were evaluated for vasoconstrictor activities and bio-availabilities using an occluded blanching test. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the formulations. Dioderm, containing 0-1% hydrocortisone, was significantly more active than the 1% hydrocortisone creams--Alphaderm, Calmurid HC, Efcortelan and Vioform-Hydrocortisone. There was no significant difference between Dioderm and Dioderm C. Unlike creams containing more potent corticosteroids the hydrocortisone formulations apparently failed to produce steroid reservoirs in the stratum corneum as assessed by the blanching response.

  19. The role of imiquimod 3.75% cream in the treatment of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brian; Wolf, Joel

    2012-04-01

    Imiquimod 3.75% cream has recently been approved by both the U.S. Federal Drug Administration and Health Canada for the treatment of external genital warts. Herein, we provide an overview of external genital warts, review the phase 3 clinical trials leading to the approval of imiquimod 3.75% cream, and compare its efficacy and clinical use with imiquimod 5% cream. Moreover, therapeutic options have further expanded with the relatively recent introduction of sinecatechins 15% ointment, an extract of green tea leaves.

  20. Martian Ice Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, R. D.; Billings, T. L.; McGown, R. D.; Walden, B. E.

    2000-07-01

    Ice in Martian lava tube caves would have scientific and developmental value. These natural channels in rock may hold keys to Mars' past as well as potential resources for humanity's futures. Terrestrial lava tube caves are natural receptacles for accumulations of water. Often, due to lower temperatures coupled with the superior insulation properties of the surrounding rock, these accumulations are in the form of ice. Historically, ice was mined from some lava tube caves. Many of the lava tubes in the Central Oregon area sport such names as "Arnolds Ice Cave," "Surveyors Ice Cave," "South Ice Cave," etc. These caves are not caves in ice, but rather common lava tubes with seasonal, and sometimes perennial ice deposits. Locating and cataloging similar features on Mars, could be of value for the colonization of Mars and the search for life. Such features may also prove useful in helping to determine past climatic conditions on the Red Planet.

  1. Greenland Ice Flow

    NASA Video Gallery

    Greenland looks like a big pile of snow seen from space using a regular camera. But satellite radar interferometry helps us detect the motion of ice beneath the snow. Ice starts flowing from the fl...

  2. Exogenous Cushing syndrome: a lesson of diaper rash cream.

    PubMed

    Ho, Cindy Wei-Li; Loke, Kah Yin; Lim, Yvonne Yi-Juan; Lee, Yung Seng

    2014-01-01

    A prolonged use of topical corticosteroids can result in Cushing syndrome, though this is less common than with oral or parenteral steroids. Most pediatric cases were due to application of topical steroids for diaper dermatitis. Adverse cardiovascular effects can occur in Cushing syndrome with significant long-term morbidity and mortality, though so far there have been no reports of cardiovascular complications due to excessive usage of topical steroids. We report a 2.5-month-old boy who rapidly developed severe Cushing syndrome induced by the misuse of topical clobetasol, a very potent steroid, without a doctor's prescription as a diaper rash cream, and developed moderate left ventricular hypertrophy and pericardial effusion.

  3. Topical Pimecrolimus 1% Cream in the Treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a multifactorial skin disease characterized by a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission. Although topical corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment, alternative therapies are often needed to avoid protracted use of topical corticosteroid therapy in order to avert side effects and to sustain control of the disorder. Topical pimecrolimus, a calcinuerin inhibitor, is a safe alternative for seborrheic dermatitis and is more ideal for long-term use. More specifically, topical pimecrolimus not only has an attractive safety profile with no risk of many of the potential side effects seen with topical corticosteroids, but also has favorable efficacy data, including more data on long-term use. This is a review of literature evaluating the efficacy and safety profile of topical pimecrolimus 1% cream for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. PMID:23441238

  4. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  5. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  6. Ice electrode electrolytic cell

    DOEpatents

    Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.

    1993-04-06

    This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.

  7. Waves on Ice

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Waves on White: Ice or Clouds?     ... detecting clouds over snow and ice, but also works well over ocean and land. The rippled area on the surface which could have been mistaken ... date:  Dec 16, 2004 Images:  Waves on Ice location:  Antarctica thumbnail:  ...

  8. Ice Formation on Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, L

    1939-01-01

    This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.

  9. Technology for Ice Rinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.

  10. Experiments in Ice Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)

  11. The Antarctic Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radok, Uwe

    1985-01-01

    The International Antarctic Glaciological Project has collected information on the East Antarctic ice sheet since 1969. Analysis of ice cores revealed climatic history, and radar soundings helped map bedrock of the continent. Computer models of the ice sheet and its changes over time will aid in predicting the future. (DH)

  12. Ice Versus Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet

    2005-01-01

    During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation…

  13. Nephrotic syndrome of minimal change disease following exposure to mercury-containing skin-lightening cream.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Liu, Fuyou; Peng, Youming; Sun, Lin; Chen, Chunguo

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old female suffered from nephrotic syndrome after a long-term use of mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. The blood and urinary mercury content of this patient increased with use. Renal biopsy showed minimal change disease. Her symptoms were relieved 6 months after discontinuing use of the cream and receiving sodium dimercaptosulfonate and glucocorticosteroid treatments. Proteinuria disappeared, and blood and urinary mercury levels returned to normal. Previous reports of nephrotic syndrome caused by mercury-containing, skin-lightening creams have mostly been identified as be.ing due to membranous nephropathy. Minimal change disease has been reported in a few case reports published in the English language. Here we report a case of nephrotic syndrome with minimal change disease following exposure to a mercury-containing, skin-lightening cream. We also reviewed relevant published reports to summarize clinical features and treatments and to explore the possible mechanisms involved.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of cream incorporated with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from Withania somnifera

    PubMed Central

    Marslin, Gregory; Selvakesavan, Rajendran K; Franklin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto CP

    2015-01-01

    We report on the antimicrobial activity of a cream formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), biosynthesized using Withania somnifera extract. Aqueous extracts of leaves promoted efficient green synthesis of AgNPs compared to fruits and root extracts of W. somnifera. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized for their size and shape by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After confirming the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs, they were incorporated into a cream. Cream formulations of AgNPs and AgNO3 were prepared and compared for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) and a plant pathogen (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Our results show that AgNP creams possess significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms. PMID:26445537

  15. Antimicrobial activity of cream incorporated with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from Withania somnifera.

    PubMed

    Marslin, Gregory; Selvakesavan, Rajendran K; Franklin, Gregory; Sarmento, Bruno; Dias, Alberto C P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the antimicrobial activity of a cream formulation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), biosynthesized using Withania somnifera extract. Aqueous extracts of leaves promoted efficient green synthesis of AgNPs compared to fruits and root extracts of W. somnifera. Biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized for their size and shape by physical-chemical techniques such as UV-visible spectroscopy, laser Doppler anemometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. After confirming the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs, they were incorporated into a cream. Cream formulations of AgNPs and AgNO3 were prepared and compared for their antimicrobial activity against human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) and a plant pathogen (Agrobacterium tumefaciens). Our results show that AgNP creams possess significantly higher antimicrobial activity against the tested organisms.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Terbinafine Hydrochloride 1% Cream vs. Sertaconazole Nitrate 2% Cream in Tinea Corporis and Tinea Cruris: A Comparative Therapeutic Trial

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, SV; Bisati, S; Singh, AL; Koley, S

    2013-01-01

    Context: To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Aims: This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. Settings and Design: In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream) and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream). A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Materials and Methods: Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Results: Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological) showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1st and 2nd week, statistically non-significant results were

  17. Treatment of rosacea with topical ivermectin cream: a series of 34 cases.

    PubMed

    Mendieta Eckert, Marta; Landa Gundin, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea is a highly prevalent, chronic inflammatory disease. The use of topical ivermectin cream has recently been described in the treatment of rosacea in three clinical trials. We report our experience in a series of 34 patients treated with topical ivermectin cream. The results are a reflection of the reality of clinical practice and the perception of patients of the treatment. We also evaluate the efficacy in cases of mild rosacea and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea which have not been studied in trials. PMID:27617938

  18. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  19. Use of Theraflex-TMJ topical cream for the treatment of temporomandibular joint and muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Silvia Lobo; Mehta, Noshir; Forgione, Albert G; Melis, Marcello; Al-Badawi, Emad; Ceneviz, Caroline; Zawawi, Khalid H

    2004-04-01

    This randomized, double-blind study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the topical cream Theraflex-TMJ (NaBob/Rx, San Mateo, CA) in patients with masseter muscle pain and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Fifty-two subjects (5 males and 47 females) were instructed to apply a cream over the afflicted masseter muscle(s) or over the jaw joint(s) twice daily for two weeks. Theraflex-TMJ cream was used by the experimental group, while a placebo cream was used by the control group. The means of pain ratings were calculated prior to the application of the cream (baseline), after ten days of tx (period 1), and 15 days of tx (period 2) days of treatment and five days after stopping the treatment (follow-up). There was a significant decrease in reported pain levels from baseline in the experimental group for period 1 (p < 0.01), period 2 (p < 0.001), and follow-up (p < 0.01). For the control group, no significant differences were found between the different time periods (p > 0.05). There was evidence of minor side effects such as skin irritation and/or burning on the site of the application in two subjects in the experimental as well as two subjects in the control groups. The data strongly suggest that Theraflex-TMJ topical cream is safe and effective for reducing pain in the masseter muscle and the temporomandibular joint. PMID:15134414

  20. Topical Cream-Based Dosage Forms of the Macrocyclic Drug Delivery Vehicle Cucurbit[6]uril

    PubMed Central

    Seif, Marian; Impelido, Michael L.; Apps, Michael G.; Wheate, Nial J.

    2014-01-01

    The macrocycle family of molecules called cucurbit[n]urils are potential drug delivery vehicles as they are able to form host-guest complexes with many different classes of drugs. This study aimed to examine the utility of Cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) in topical cream-based formulations for either localised treatment or for transdermal delivery. Cucurbit[6]uril was formulated into both buffered cream aqueous- and oily cream-based dosage forms. The solid state interaction of CB[6] with other excipients was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the macrocycle's transdermal permeability was determined using rat skin. Significant solid state interactions were observed between CB[6] and the other dosage form excipients. At concentrations up to 32% w/w the buffered aqueous cream maintained its normal consistency and could be effectively applied to skin, but the oily cream was too stiff and is not suitable as a dosage form. Cucurbit[6]uril does not permeate through skin; as such, the results imply that cucurbituril-based topical creams may potentially only have applications for localised skin treatment and not for transdermal drug delivery. PMID:24454850

  1. Evaluation of a rapid protein analyzer for determination of protein in milk and cream.

    PubMed

    Amamcharla, J K; Metzger, L E

    2010-08-01

    Accurate and rapid measurement of the protein content of milk is important from both a product quality and an economic standpoint. The Sprint rapid protein analyzer (CEM Corporation, Matthews, NC) is a commercial system based on a dye-binding technique and can be used for rapid measurement of protein in foods. The objective of the present study was to compare the Sprint method with the reference method (Kjeldahl method). Milk and cream samples were analyzed in duplicate for true protein and crude protein (CP) using the reference method as well as the rapid method. Method comparison statistics (regression analysis, graphical representation, standard deviation of residuals, repeatability, and so on) were used to evaluate the agreement between the 2 methods. Regression coefficients and the intercepts were not significantly different from 1 and zero for CP measurement in milk and cream, respectively. The average coefficient of variance between the duplicate CP measurements for the Sprint method was found to be 0.40, 0.49, and 0.76 for milk, light cream, and heavy cream, respectively. True protein measurement in milk and cream also followed a similar trend. Overall, there exists a sufficient level of agreement between the Sprint rapid protein analyzer and Kjeldahl method for true protein and CP measurement of milk and cream samples.

  2. Effect of cream fermentation on microbiological, physicochemical and rheological properties of L. helveticus-butter.

    PubMed

    Ewe, Joo-Ann; Loo, Su-Yi

    2016-06-15

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and rheological properties of butter produced by Lactobacillus helveticus fermented cream. The incorporation of putative probiotic - the L. helveticus, to ferment cream prior to butter production was anticipated to alter the nutritional composition of butter. Changes in crude macronutrients and the resultant modification relating to textural properties of butter induced upon metabolic activities of L. helveticus in cream were focused in this research. Fermented butter (LH-butter) was produced by churning the cream that was fermented by lactobacilli at 37 °C for 24 h. Physicochemical analysis, proximate analysis and rheology properties of LH-butter were compared with butter produced using unfermented cream (control). LH-butter showed a significantly (P<0.05) higher fat content and acid value; lower moisture and ash; and was softer than the control. Cream fermentation modified nutritional and textural properties of butter in which LH-butter contained higher health beneficial unsaturated fatty acids than the control and thus rendered the product softer. Its enrichment with probiotics could thus further enhance its functional property.

  3. Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Ultraviolet-B-Induced Psoriasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Manmohan; Kansara, Niraj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the antipsoriatic activity of newly formulated O/W creams of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves by using ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. The plant Cassia tora L. is traditionally claimed to be useful in the treatment of a number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for its antipsoriatic activity. Methanolic Cassia tora L. leaves extract was used to prepare various concentrations of O/W creams and tested for acute dermal toxicity study. The different O/W creams showed good physical characteristics and passed the sensitivity, irritation, grittiness and bleeding test. The results of acute dermal toxicity showed that the creams were safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In case of psoriasis model, histopathological analysis revealed that there were absence of Munro's microabscess, elongation of rete ridges, and capillary loop dilation in the section in Test 2 (0.1%) and standard group. O/W creams and methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves exhibited significant reduction in percentage of relative epidermal thickness and spleen index as compared to positive control. We concluded that topical O/W creams and crude extract containing methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves have potent antipsoriatic activity in ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. PMID:22536527

  4. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  5. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  6. Of Ice and Microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Jody

    2006-12-01

    Inuit hunters of the North have long recognized ice as the natural state of water from which life flows on Earth. Although unaware of the microscopic world, they chart changes in properties of ice and water that derive from a succession of microbial inhabitants. Scientific hunters of the West have largely overlooked all but the warmest of ices as dynamic scenes of microbial life, considering the frozen realm to archive life forms instead. Deeply frozen glacial ice on Earth does appear to preserve microbes effectively, but isn't the ocean beneath the geologically dynamic ice of Europa believed too salty? Aren't the subsurface ices of Mars expected to be rich in all manner of mineralogical impurities? Wherever salt and other mineral impurities are sufficiently abundant in Earth ice, the ice contains interior liquid water that can range from nano-layer films on grain surfaces (glacial ice) to a porous network of brine (Arctic winter sea ice down to 20°C). Other recent studies of saline ices have indicated a world of interacting life forms, with viruses infecting bacteria in brines at -12°C (the lowest temperature tested), the domains of Bacteria and Archaea undergoing succession in winter ices (down to -28°C), and evidence that cellular maintenance may go forward incrementally even below the eutectic of seawater (-55°C). Microbes are also known to alter the physical properties of their icy homes by producing exopolymers that further depress the freezing point, either directly or by entraining more salt into the ice. Even the most inhospitable of ices to human hunters may contain interior oases for microbes, in control to some degree of their own space. In considering the habitability of icy worlds beyond Earth, we'd do well to learn more about the evolutionary prowess of microbes in adapting to conditions beyond our warm-blooded imaginations.

  7. Efficacy of an experimental azithromycin cream for prophylaxis of tick-transmitted lyme disease spirochete infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Ullmann, Amy J; Dolan, Marc C

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to oral prophylaxis for the prevention of tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, we tested antibiotic cream prophylactic formulations in a murine model of spirochete infection. A 4% preparation of doxycycline cream afforded no protection, but a single application of 4% azithromycin cream was 100% protective when applied directly to the tick bite site at the time of tick removal. Indeed, the azithromycin cream was 100% effective when applied at up to 3 days after tick removal and protected 74% of mice exposed to tick bite when applied at up to 2 weeks after tick removal. Azithromycin cream was also protective when applied at a site distal to the tick bite site, suggesting that it was having a systemic effect in addition to a local transdermal effect. Mice that were protected from tick-transmitted infection did not seroconvert and did not infect larval ticks on xenodiagnosis. Azithromycin cream formulations appear to hold promise for Lyme disease prophylaxis. PMID:24165183

  8. Topical Allium ampeloprasum subsp Iranicum (Leek) extract cream in patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids: a pilot randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ghahramani, Leila; Sobhani, Zahra; Haghighi, Ehsan Rahmanian; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2015-04-01

    Allium ampeloprasum subsp iranicum (Leek) has been traditionally used in antihemorrhoidal topical herbal formulations. This study aimed to evaluate its safety and efficacy in a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Twenty patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids were randomly allocated to receive the topical leek extract cream or standard antihemorrhoid cream for 3 weeks. The patients were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of pain, defecation discomfort, bleeding severity, anal itching severity, and reported adverse events. A significant decrease was observed in the grade of bleeding severity and defecation discomfort in both the leek and antihemorrhoid cream groups after the intervention, while no significant change was observed in pain scores. There was no significant difference between the leek and antihemorrhoid cream groups with regard to mean changes in outcome measures. This pilot study showed that the topical use of leek cream can be as effective as a standard antihemorrhoid cream.

  9. Efficacy of an experimental azithromycin cream for prophylaxis of tick-transmitted lyme disease spirochete infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Ullmann, Amy J; Dolan, Marc C

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to oral prophylaxis for the prevention of tick transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, we tested antibiotic cream prophylactic formulations in a murine model of spirochete infection. A 4% preparation of doxycycline cream afforded no protection, but a single application of 4% azithromycin cream was 100% protective when applied directly to the tick bite site at the time of tick removal. Indeed, the azithromycin cream was 100% effective when applied at up to 3 days after tick removal and protected 74% of mice exposed to tick bite when applied at up to 2 weeks after tick removal. Azithromycin cream was also protective when applied at a site distal to the tick bite site, suggesting that it was having a systemic effect in addition to a local transdermal effect. Mice that were protected from tick-transmitted infection did not seroconvert and did not infect larval ticks on xenodiagnosis. Azithromycin cream formulations appear to hold promise for Lyme disease prophylaxis.

  10. Multiwalled ice helixes and ice nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jaeil; Wang, Jun; Zeng, X. C.

    2006-01-01

    We report six phases of high-density nano-ice predicted to form within carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high pressure. High-density nano-ice self-assembled within smaller-diameter CNT (17,0) exhibits a double-walled helical structure where the outer wall consists of four double-stranded helixes, which resemble a DNA double helix, and the inner wall is a quadruple-stranded helix. Four other double-walled nano-ices, self-assembled respectively in two larger-diameter CNTs (20,0 and 22,0), display tubular structure. Within CNT (24,0), the confined water can freeze spontaneously into a triple-walled helical nano-ice where the outer wall is an 18-stranded helix and the middle and inner walls are hextuple-stranded helixes. PMID:17170136

  11. Retrospective Evaluation on the Analgesic Activities of 2 Compounded Topical Creams and Voltaren Gel in Chronic Noncancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Somberg, John C; Molnar, Janos

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of chronic pain is challenging. Oral therapy may require multiple medications; each has side effects, dose limitations, and limited efficacy. Compounded topical formulations have evolved as potential treatment options. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 2 compounded topical creams, "Cream I" and "Cream II," in patients with chronic extremity, joint, musculoskeletal, neuropathic, or other chronic topical pain conditions and compare their efficacy with Voltaren gel. The primary efficacy outcome was the change in visual numeric pain intensity score from pretreatment to posttreatment. The Cream I contained Flurbiprofen (20%), Tramadol (5%), Clonidine (0.2%), Cyclobenzaprine (4%), and Bupivacaine (3%). The Cream II contained Flurbiprofen (20%), Baclofen (2%), Clonidine (0.2%), Gabapentin (10%), and Lidocaine (5%). The Voltaren gel contained 1% diclofenac sodium. A total of 2177 patients were evaluated, 826 males and 1351 females. During their medical treatment, 1141 patients received Cream I, 527 patients received Cream II, and 509 patients received Voltaren gel. After treatment, the pain intensity score decreased by 3.11 ± 1.65 (37%) with Cream I (from 8.44 ± 1.19 to 5.33 ± 2.0, P < 0.001), by 2.93 ± 1.58 (35%) with Cream II (from 8.42 ± 1.27 to 5.50 ± 1.96, P < 0.001), and by 1.49 ± 0.73 (19%) with Voltaren gel (from 7.93 ± 0.81 to 6.44 ± 1.14, P < 0.001). Cream I and Cream II did not differ significantly in efficacy, and both were significantly more effective than Voltaren gel (P < 0.001). It is concluded that Voltaren gel had less efficacy than the compounded creams, which were effective and provided pain relief in the majority of the patients studied.

  12. Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.; Choo, Yung K.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Pennline, James A.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Slater, John W.; Burke, Kevin M.; Nolan, Gerald J.; Brown, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.

  13. Novel formulation and evaluation of a Q10-loaded solid lipid nanoparticle cream: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Farboud, Effat Sadat; Nasrollahi, Saman Ahmad; Tabbakhi, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) were formulated by a high-pressure homogenization method. The best formulation of SLN dispersion consisted of 13% lipid (cetyl palmitate or stearic acid), 8% surfactant (Tween 80 or Tego Care 450), and water. Stability tests, particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, and release study were conducted to find the best formulation. A simple cream of CoQ10 and a cream containing CoQ10-loaded SLNs were prepared and compared on volunteers aged 20-30 years. SLNs with particle size between 50 nm and100 nm exhibited the most suitable stability. In vitro release profiles of CoQ10 from simple cream, SLN alone, and CoQ10-loaded SLN cream showed prolonged release for SLNs compared with the simple cream, whereas there was no significant difference between SLN alone and SLN in cream. In vitro release studies also demonstrated that CoQ10-loaded SLN and SLN cream possessed a biphasic release pattern in comparison with simple cream. In vivo skin hydration and elasticity studies on 25 volunteers suggested good dermal penetration and useful activity of Q10 on skin as a hydratant and antiwrinkle cream.

  14. Consider an Ice Stream.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.

    2002-12-01

    Forty years ago, John Nye was one of the leaders who introduced the rigors of classical physics to glaciology. His elegant treatments frequently took advantage of the then recent discovery that ice could be approximated as a plastic material. With this viewpoint, Nye was able to explain the shape of ice sheets and glaciers, to predict the expected pattern of stress and velocity within a glacier, and to derive the advance and retreat of a glacier from the record of accumulation and ablation. These advances have given generations of glaciologists tools to interpret the excellent observational record of glacier behavior and variation. In the 1980s, glaciologist, weaned on these works of Nye and of other similarly adept colleagues, carried their lessons to West Antarctica to study ice streams, the vast conveyor belts of ice that discharged nearly as much Antarctic ice as the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet. Ice streams were a glaciological conundrum. Despite the gently sloping surface, these broad features roared along, moving fastest when the gravitational impetus was least. After two decades of research, ice streams still have not given up all their secrets, yet much is now known. Internal deformation is negligible. Basal friction is frequently nil leaving the shattered margins as the primary means to avoid rapid wastage of the ice sheet. Within the margins, the resistive force results from a delicate balance of heat and evolving ice fabrics. Nevertheless, the bed beneath an ice stream cannot be ignored. It is ultimately the state of the underlying marine sediment that determines whether the ice stream can slide at all. There too, the heat balance is critical with an influx of water required to keep the bed wet enough to let the streams glide along. Ice stream research has been the portal through which glaciologists have seen and identified the complexities of West Antarctic ice sheet dynamics. Remarkably, nearly all time scales seem important. Ice stream

  15. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  16. Naled ice growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schohl, G. A.; Ettema, R.

    1986-02-01

    Based on theoretical formulation and dimensional analysis, supported by the results of laboratory experiments, a theory and a detailed description of naled ice growth are presented. The theory, concepts, and data should be of interest to engineers concerned with the effects of naleds (also referred to as aufeis or icings) on engineering works. The growth of a two dimensional, or laterally confined (flume), naled is shown to depend primarily on seven, independent, dimensionless parameters. The early, two dimensional, phase of growth, a naled consists of a mixture of ice and water, or ice-water slush, forming on a frigid base. The influence of two of the three remaining parameters is not felt until after a transition time has passed. The continuing, cyclic process by which slush layers form and eventually freeze results in the ice laminations that are a feature of naled ice.

  17. Producing desired ice faces.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-11-10

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih--a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface--due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid.

  18. Prospecting for Martian Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, S. A.; Allen, C. C.; Bell, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    During high Martian obliquity, ice is stable to lower latitudes than predicted by models of present conditions and observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (approx. 60 deg N). An ice-rich layer deposited at mid-latitudes could persist to the present day; ablation of the top 1 m of ice leaving a thin insulating cover could account for lack of its detection by GRS. The presence of an ice-layer in the mid-latitudes is suggested by a network of polygons, interpreted as ice-wedge cracks. This study focuses on an exceptional concentration of polygons in Western Utopia (section of Casius quadrangle, roughly 40 deg - 50 deg N, 255 deg - 300 deg W). We attempt to determine the thickness and age of this ice layer through crater-polygons relations.

  19. The Impact of Turmeric Cream on Healing of Caesarean Scar

    PubMed Central

    Mahmudi, G; Nikpour, M; Azadbackt, M; Zanjani, R; Jahani, MA; Aghamohammadi, A; Jannati, Y

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of turmeric cream on the healing of Caesarean wound. Methods: This study was done as a randomized double blind trial in three groups of women who had a Caesarean operation. The redness, oedema, ecchymosis, drainage, approximation (REEDA) scale was used to evaluate the wound healing process. The χ2, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Seven days after the surgery, the averages of REEDA score in the intervention, placebo and control groups were respectively, 0.46, 0.88 and 1.17 (p < 0.001), while on day 14, it was 0.03, 0.22 and 0.36 (p < 0.001), showing a significant statistical difference. Similarly, there was a difference between the intervention and placebo groups in the amount of oedema on the 7th and 14th days after the surgery (respectively, p = 0.066 and p < 0.001). The observed difference between the intervention and control groups in the amount of oedema was statistically significant on the 7 th and 14 th days after the surgery (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Turmeric was effective in faster healing of wounds of Caesarean operation. The use of turmeric is suggested to reduce the complications of the wounds from Caesarean section. PMID:26624595

  20. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing.

  1. Funicular Myelosis in a Butcher: It Was the Cream Cans

    PubMed Central

    Wolpert, Fabian; Baráth, Krisztina; Brakowski, Janis; Renzel, Roland; Linnebank, Michael; Gantenbein, Andreas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Funicular myelosis is a known consequence of exposure to nitrous oxide. Nevertheless, there are only a few clinical trials assessing its long-term effects and there is no literature about the role of nutritional vitamin B12 supplementation in the context of nitrous oxide abuse. Case Descriptions. We diagnosed funicular myelosis in a young butcher, who consumed high amounts of meat regularly. Since the diagnostic process did not reveal any metabolic causes, reinterrogation of the patient uncovered recreational abuse of nitrous oxide out of whipped cream can gas cartridges. After stopping abuse and supplementation of vitamin B12, the patient recovered almost completely. Conclusions. In our case, even high nutritional vitamin B12 uptake could not compensate the noxious effects of nitrous oxide. Since there are emerging reports of increasing misuse, this should be considered in the diagnostic and therapeutic care of patients with nitrous oxide abuse. Furthermore, our case emphasizes that patients with vitamin B12 deficiency should be assessed for nitrous oxide abuse. PMID:25694837

  2. Rheological investigation of body cream and body lotion in actual application conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Min-Sun; Ahn, Hye-Jin; Song, Ki-Won

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to systematically evaluate and compare the rheological behaviors of body cream and body lotion in actual usage situations. Using a strain-controlled rheometer, the steady shear flow properties of commercially available body cream and body lotion were measured over a wide range of shear rates, and the linear viscoelastic properties of these two materials in small amplitude oscillatory shear flow fields were measured over a broad range of angular frequencies. The temperature dependency of the linear viscoelastic behaviors was additionally investigated over a temperature range most relevant to usual human life. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows: (1) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a finite magnitude of yield stress. This feature is directly related to the primary (initial) skin feel that consumers usually experience during actual usage. (2) Body cream and body lotion exhibit a pronounced shear-thinning behavior. This feature is closely connected with the spreadability when cosmetics are applied onto the human skin. (3) The linear viscoelastic behaviors of body cream and body lotion are dominated by an elastic nature. These solid-like properties become a criterion to assess the selfstorage stability of cosmetic products. (4) A modified form of the Cox-Merz rule provides a good ability to predict the relationship between steady shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic properties for body cream and body lotion. (5) The storage modulus and loss modulus of body cream show a qualitatively similar tendency to gradually decrease with an increase in temperature. In the case of body lotion, with an increase in temperature, the storage modulus is progressively decreased while the loss modulus is slightly increased and then decreased. This information gives us a criterion to judge how the characteristics of cosmetic products are changed by the usual human environments.

  3. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  4. Kagome spin ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado, Paula

    Spin ice in magnetic pyrochlore oxides is a peculiar magnetic state. Like ordinary water ice, these materials are in apparent violation with the third law of thermodynamics, which dictates that the entropy of a system in thermal equilibrium vanishes as its temperature approaches absolute zero. In ice, a "zero-point" entropy is retained down to low temperatures thanks to a high number of low-energy positions of hydrogen ions associated with the Bernal-Fowler ice-rules. Spins in pyrochlore oxides Ho2Ti 2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 exhibit a similar degeneracy of ground states and thus also have a sizable zero-point entropy. A recent discovery of excitations carrying magnetic charges in pyrochlore spin ice adds another interesting dimension to these magnets. This thesis is devoted to a theoretical study of a two-dimensional version of spin ice whose spins reside on kagome, a lattice of corner-sharing triangles. It covers two aspects of this frustrated classical spin system: the dynamics of artificial spin ice in a network of magnetic nanowires and the thermodynamics of crystalline spin ice. Magnetization dynamics in artificial spin ice is mediated by the emission, propagation and absorption of domain walls in magnetic nanowires. The dynamics shows signs of self-organized behavior such as avalanches. The theoretical model compares favorably to recent experiments. The thermodynamics of the microscopic version of spin ice on kagome is examined through analytical calculations and numerical simulations. The results show that, in addition to the high-temperature paramagnetic phase and the low-temperature phase with magnetic order, spin ice on kagome may have an intermediate phase with fluctuating spins and ordered magnetic charges. This work is concluded with a calculation of the entropy of kagome spin ice at zero temperature when one of the sublattices is pinned by an applied magnetic field and the system breaks up into independent spin chains, a case of dimensional reduction.

  5. Ice age paleotopography.

    PubMed

    Peltier, W R

    1994-07-01

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  6. Triangular ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Benjamin; Salzmann, Christoph; Heymsfield, Andrew; Neely, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    We are all familiar with the hexagonal form of snow crystals and it is well established that this shape is derived from the arrangement of water molecules in the crystal lattice. However, crystals with a triangular form are often found in the Earth's atmosphere and the reason for this non-hexagonal shape has remained elusive. Recent laboratory work has shed light on why ice crystals should take on this triangular or three-fold scalene habit. Studies of the crystal structure of ice have shown that ice which initially crystallises can be made of up of hexagonal layers which are interlaced with cubic layers to produce a 'stacking disordered ice'. The degree of stacking disorder can vary from crystals which are dominantly hexagonal with a few cubic stacking faults, through to ice where the cubic and hexagonal sequences are fully randomised. The introduction of stacking disorder to ice crystals reduces the symmetry of the crystal from 6-fold (hexagonal) to 3-fold (triangular); this offers an explanation for the long standing problem of why some atmospheric ice crystals have a triangular habit. We discuss the implications of triangular crystals for halos, radiative properties, and also discuss the implications for our understanding of the nucleation and early stages of ice crystal growth for ice crystals in the atmosphere.

  7. Ice barrier construction

    SciTech Connect

    Finucane, R. G.; Jahns, H. O.

    1985-06-18

    A method is provided for constructing spray ice barriers to protect offshore structures in a frigid body of water from mobile ice, waves and currents. Water is withdrawn from the body of water and is sprayed through ambient air which is below the freezing temperature of the water so that a substantial amount of the water freezes as it passes through the air. The sprayed water is directed to build up a mass of ice having a size and shape adapted to protect the offshore structure. Spray ice barriers can also be constructed for the containment of pollutant spills.

  8. Ice age paleotopography

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, W.R. )

    1994-07-08

    A gravitationally self-consistent theory of postglacial relative sea level change is used to infer the variation of surface ice and water cover since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The results show that LGM ice volume was approximately 35 percent lower than suggested by the CLIMAP reconstruction and the maximum heights of the main Laurentian and Fennoscandian ice complexes are inferred to have been commensurately lower with respect to sea level. Use of these Ice Age boundary conditions in atmospheric general circulation models will yield climates that differ significantly from those previously inferred on the basis of the CLIMAP data set.

  9. An ice lithography instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  10. Efficacy of Advanced Odomos repellent cream (N, N-diethyl-benzamide) against mosquito vectors

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, P.K.; Sreehari, U.; Razdan, R.K.; Dash, A.P.; Ansari, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Repellents are commonly used personal protection measures to avoid mosquito bites. In the present study, Advanced Odomos cream (12% N, N-diethyl-benzamide) was tested for its efficacy against mosquitoes in comparison to DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide). Methods: Bioassays were conducted to assess the repellency of Advanced Odomos and DEET creams against Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Their efficacy was tested on human volunteers applied with different concentrations of test creams ranging from 1 to 12 mg/cm2 and by exposing them to mosquitoes at hourly intervals. Field evaluation was also carried out to test the duration of protection of the test creams against Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes during whole night and day time collections, respectively on human volunteers. Mosquito collections were done using torch light and aspirator. Results: Complete (100%) protection was achieved at 10 mg/cm2 cream formulation of Advanced Odomos (1.2 mg a.i/cm2) dose against An. stephensi and 12 mg/cm2 (1.44 mg a.i./cm2) against Ae. aegypti on human baits. There was no statistically significant differences in per cent protection against mosquito bites between Advanced o0 domos and DEET cream (P>0.05) in respective doses. Complete protection up to 11 h was observed against Anopheles mosquitoes during whole night collections and up to 6 h against Ae. aegypti in day time collections. No adverse reactions such as itching, irritation, vomiting, nausea, etc. were reported by the volunteers. Interpretation & conclusions: Advanced odomos cream applied at 10 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection from Anopheles mosquitoes up to 11 h whereas about 6 h protection was recorded against Ae. aegypti. The laboratory and field trials indicate that for longer protection against Anopheles mosquitoes 10 mg/cm2 will be appropriate and in case of Ae. aegypti more than 10 mg/cm2 application is required for complete protection. In conclusion, the Advanced

  11. Effect of buttermilk made from creams with different heat treatment histories on properties of rennet gels and model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2008-03-01

    Although many studies have reported negative effects on cheese properties resulting from the use of buttermilk in cheese milk, the cause of these effects has not been determined. In this study, buttermilk was manufactured from raw cream and pasteurized cream, as well as from a cream derived from pasteurized whole milk. Skim milks with the same heat treatments were also manufactured to be used as controls. Compositional analysis of the buttermilks revealed a pH 4.6-insoluble protein content approximately 10% lower than that of the skim milk counterparts. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins remained soluble at pH 4.6 in raw cream buttermilk; however, when heat was applied to cream or whole milk before butter making, MFGM proteins precipitated with the caseins. Rennet gel characterization showed that MFGM material in the buttermilks decreased the firmness and increased the set-to-cut time of rennet gels, but this effect was amplified when pasteurized cream buttermilk was added to cheese milk. The microstructure of gels was studied, and it was observed that gel appearance was very different when pasteurized cream buttermilk was used, as opposed to raw cream buttermilk. Model cheeses manufactured with buttermilks tended to have a higher moisture content than cheeses made with skim milks, explaining the higher yields obtained with buttermilk. Superior retention of MFGM particles was observed in model cheeses made from pasteurized cream buttermilk compared with raw cream buttermilk. The results from this study show that pasteurization of cream and of whole milk modifies the surface of MFGM particles, and this may explain why buttermilk has poor coagulation properties and therefore yields rennet gels with texture defects.

  12. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  13. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    PubMed

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  14. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  15. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

  16. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

  17. Estimation of dermatological application of creams with St. John's Wort oil extracts.

    PubMed

    Arsić, Ivana; Zugić, Ana; Tadić, Vanja; Tasić-Kostov, Marija; Mišić, Dušan; Primorac, Marija; Runjaić-Antić, Dušanka

    2011-12-28

    Oleum Hyperici, the oil extract of St. John's Wort (SJW), is one of the oldest folk remedies, traditionally used in the topical treatment of wounds, bruises, ulcers, cuts, burns, hemorrhoids and also as an antiseptic. Considering the advantageous characteristics of emulsion applications, in the present study we have formulated three O/W creams containing 15% (w/v) of SJW oil extract as an active ingredient. The aim was to estimate dermatological application of the prepared creams for the abovementioned indications. The extracts were prepared according to the prescriptions from traditional medicine, however with different vegetable oils used as an extractant, namely: Olive, palm and sunflower oil. The investigated O/W creams demonstrated significant antiinflammatory effects in an in vivo double-blind randomized study, using a sodium lauryl sulphate test. Both skin parameters assessed in the study (electrical capacitance and erythema index), were restored to the baseline value after a seven-day treatment with the tested creams. Almost all investigated SJW oil extracts and corresponding creams displayed the same antimicrobial activity against the most of the investigated microorganisms with obtained minimal inhibitory concentrations values of 1,280 µg/mL, 2,560 µg/mL or >2,560 µg/mL.

  18. Evaluation of Topical Tocopherol Cream on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Teoh Seong; Abd Latiff, Azian; Abd Hamid, Noor Aini; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah bt; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a common cause of delayed wound healing. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of topical administration of tocopherol cream on the wound healing process in diabetic rats. The study was conducted using 18 male Sprague Dawley rats which were divided into three groups: (I) diabetic rats receiving control cream (n = 6), (II) diabetic rats receiving 0.06% tocopherol cream (n = 6), and (III) diabetic rats receiving 0.29% tocopherol cream (n = 6). Four cutaneous wounds were created at the dorsal region of the rats. Wound healing was assessed by total protein content, rate of wound closure estimation, and histological studies on the tenth day after wounding. Tocopherol treatment enhanced the wound healing process by increasing rate of wound closure and total protein content significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. Histological observation also showed better organized epithelium and more collagen fibers in the tocopherol treated groups. Application of tocopherol cream enhances wound healing process in diabetic condition which is known to cause delay in wound healing. PMID:23097676

  19. Phase 1 study of topical perillyl alcohol cream for chemoprevention of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Steven P; Saboda, Kathy Lynn; Myrdal, Paul B; Gupta, Abhishek; McKenzie, Naja E; Brooks, Chris; Salasche, Stuart J; Warneke, James A; Ranger-Moore, James; Bozzo, Paul D; Blanchard, James; Einspahr, Janine G; Dorr, Robert T; Levine, Norman; Alberts, David S

    2008-01-01

    Perillyl alcohol (POH) is a natural product derived from plants such as cherry and lavendin. Previous studies have indicated that topical POH inhibits ultraviolet (UV) B-induced skin carcinogenesis in vivo, and it may be an effective chemopreventive agent for skin cancer. We performed a 1-mo, first-in-man, Phase 1 trial of topically administered POH cream in human subjects. Endpoints included safety and evaluation of any histopathological changes in skin after 1 mo use of POH cream. We randomized 25 subjects with normal, healthy skin with little or no sun damage and no history of skin cancer in a double-blind fashion to receive topical POH (0.76% wt/wt) on 1 forearm with placebo cream applied to the other forearm twice daily for 30 days. Subjects were monitored for toxicity, and a 4 mm punch biopsy in the treated area was performed at the end of study for histopathological evaluation. The topical cream was well tolerated. No serious cutaneous toxicities, systemic toxicities, or histopathological abnormalities were observed. A total of 8 subjects (32%) reported mild adverse events possibly or probably related to use of cream including reversible appearance of 1 to 2 small papules. However, there was no significant difference between lesions appearing on the POH treated forearm vs. the placebo-treated forearm. PMID:18444166

  20. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818