Science.gov

Sample records for icebreakers

  1. Icebreaker: The Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peerbhoy, Denise; Bourke, Cathriona

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To document young people's and teachers' responses to "Icebreaker", a Theatre in Education (TIE) performance exploring themes of sexual health and relationships, in relation to "Healthy Arts"' objectives. Design: Data reported here were part of a wider evaluation of a government funded scheme. Setting: Data was collected from nine…

  2. U.S. polar icebreakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, Lawson W.

    1984-04-01

    An interagency study of the nation's polar ice-breaking requirements through the end of the century was recently completed. The Polar Icebreaker Requirements Study (PIRS) Group presented fleet size alternatives and recommended that the Icebreaker User Council define the capabilities required for new icebreakers. The User Council consists of representatives from the U.S. Navy, National Science Foundation, the Maritime Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard.Polar icebreakers are needed for three basic purposes: (1) resupply of Antarctic and Greenland stations, (2) logistical support of polar operations, and (3) scientific research. One of the PIRS recommendations was that any new icebreaker designs should enhance science support while meeting the requirements for escort and logistics. The U.S. Coast Guard will soon begin the preliminary design for a new class of polar icebreakers.

  3. Energizers and Icebreakers for All Ages and Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Elizabeth Sabrinsky

    This book is intended to assist group leaders, teachers, counselors, and peer helpers in the development of relationships and active learning. The first chapter, "Icebreakers," begins with an overview that explains the nature, purpose, and importance of these activities. Icebreakers are used to help group members learn about each other in a…

  4. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  5. Using Appreciative Intelligence for Ice-Breaking: A New Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verma, Neena; Pathak, Anil Anand

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of applying appreciative intelligence and appreciative inquiry concepts to design a possibly new model of ice-breaking, which is strengths-based and very often used in any training in general and team building training in particular. Design/methodology/approach: The design has…

  6. 7. Photocopy of drawing showing internal construction of an icebreaker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of drawing showing internal construction of an icebreaker designed for a bridge at the first crossing of the Canisteo River, 1841. Original illustration in DeGolyer Collection, Dallas, Texas. - Erie Railway, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Deposit, Broome County, NY

  7. Kick-Start Your Class: Academic Icebreakers to Engage Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LouAnne

    2012-01-01

    LouAnne Johnson's newest book is a collection of fun and simple educational icebreaker activities that get students excited and engaged from the very first minute of class. These activities are great to use with students at all levels, and many of the activities include variations and modifications for different groups. Research has shown that the…

  8. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  9. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6. PMID:24303959

  10. The Icebreaker Mission to Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C.; Mckay, C.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Davila, A.; Parro, V.; Quinn, R.

    2015-01-01

    The search for evidence of life on Mars is the ultimate motivation for its scientific exploration. The results from the Phoenix mission indicate that the high N. latitude ice-rich regolith at low elevations is likely to be a recently habitable place on Mars [Stoker et al., 2010]. The near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity during periods of high obliquity, 3 to 10 Myr ago. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are present in the atmosphere, and nitrates may be present in the soil. Together with iron in basaltic rocks and perchlorate in the soil they provide carbon and energy sources, and oxidative power to drive metabolism. Furthermore, the presence of organics is possible, as thermally reactive perchlorate would have prevented their detection by Viking and Phoenix. The Mars Icebreaker Life mission [McKay et al., 2013] focuses on the following science goals: (1) Search for biomolecular evidence of life; (2) Search for organic matter from either exogeneous or endogeneous sources using methods that are not effected by the presence of perchlorate; (3) Characterize oxidative species that produced reactivity of soils seen by Viking; and 4) Assess the habitability of the ice bearing soils. The Icebreaker Life payload (Figure 1) includes a 1-m rotary percussive drill that brings cuttings samples to the surface where they are delivered to three instruments (Fig. 1), the Signs of Life Detector (SOLID) [Parro et al., 2011] for biomolecular analysis, Laser Desorption Mass Spectrometer (LDMS) [??? 2015]) for broad spectrum organic analysis, and Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [Hecht et al., 2009] for detecting soluble species of nutrients and reactive oxidants. The Icebreaker payload fits on the Phoenix spacecraft and can land at the well-characterized Phoe-nix landing site in 2020 in a Discovery-class mission.

  11. Collecting winter data on U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyserman, Ben O.; Woityra, William C.; Bullerjahn, George S.; Beall, Benjamin F. N.; McKay, Robert Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Winter research and monitoring of icebound rivers, lakes, and coastal seas to date has usually involved seagoing civilian scientists leading survey efforts. However, because of poor weather conditions and a lack of safe research platforms, scientists collecting data during winter face some difficult and often insurmountable problems. To solve these problems and to further research and environmental monitoring goals, new partnerships can be formed through integrating efforts of the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with citizen science initiatives. USCG and a research group at Ohio's Bowling Green State University are entering the third year of such a partnership, in which icebreaking operations in Lake Erie using USCG Cutter Neah Bay support volunteer data collection. With two additional USCG vessels joining the program this winter season, the partnership serves as a timely and useful model for worldwide environmental research and monitoring through citizen science and government collaboration.

  12. AURORA BOREALIS - European Research Icebreaker With Drilling Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.

    2008-12-01

    The polar oceans are the least known areas of the globe, in although they hold the key to many of our climate´s secrets. How does the sea ice coverage and the sea water properties change? How do plants and animals survive under the most extreme conditions of the earth? Which information of past climate change can be read from the sediments at the sea-floor and how can the future changing climate be predicted? In order to answer such and further questions, for the moment a hypermodern research vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, is planned, which can handle the cool summers and freezing winters of the polar oceans and which can drill deep into the sea floor. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Research Icebreaker in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate/environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35-40 years. It will have a high icebreaking capacity to penetrate autonomously (single ship operation) into the central Arctic Ocean with more than 2.5 meters of ice cover, during all seasons of the year. The new technological features will include dynamic positioning in closed sea- ice cover, satellite navigation and ice-management support and the deployment and operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from the twin moon-pools. A unique feature of the vessel is the deep-sea drilling rig, which will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea up to 5000 m water and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The drilling capability will be deployed in both Polar Regions on the long run and AURORA BOREALIS will be the only vessel worldwide that could undertake this type of scientific investigation.

  13. [The health status of the crew members of nuclear-powered icebreakers].

    PubMed

    Baranova, V M; Oparina, L V; Bulygina, N V; Koreshkova, M K; Peskova, T V; Khachkuruzov, S G; Lutsenko, L A

    1991-01-01

    Established was the influence of neuroemotional stress on the health state of atomic-powered ice-breaker sailors working in Arctic autonomous navigation. No specific factors (ionizing radiation) were found. PMID:1879759

  14. More Than Science at Risk as U.S. Icebreakers Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    With only two operational icebreakers, and one of those near the end of its lifespan, the U.S. National Science Foundation has developed contingency plans to ensure access to the polar regions for science. However, the U.S. government may need to acquire new icebreakers if the nation requires access for other purposes in addition to science, such as commerce and national security, according to a recent report from a committee of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC).

  15. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect.

  16. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2015-10-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an 'ice-breaker effect' of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect. PMID:26587241

  17. MPC and A enhancements for the Murmansk shipping company icebreaker fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoch, O; Bondarev, N; Caskey, D; Forehand, M; Lambert, D; Maltsev, V; O'Brien, M: Gardner, B; Tittemore, G

    1999-07-06

    The United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative agreement in 1994 that resulted in a nuclear weapons non-proliferation program within the United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE) currently known as the Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Material Security Task Force. In 1996, a project was initiated with the Murmansk Shipping Company to enhance material protection, control, and accounting of highly enriched nuclear fuel assemblies used for the Icebreaker Fleet. The commissioning ceremony for this project is scheduled for August 1999. This paper describes the physical protection, material control, and accounting measures implemented for the Icebreaker Fleet.

  18. Breaking the Ice: Using Icebreakers and Re-Energizers with Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chlup, Dominique T.; Collins, Tracy E.

    2010-01-01

    This article centers on theories of adult learning methods and how they relate to the practice of using icebreakers in the adult classroom. While one's language is geared toward the adult learning world, one's experience has been that these practices also work well in a variety of classroom and group settings, both traditional and non-traditional,…

  19. The Sample Handling System for the Mars Icebreaker Life Mission: from Dirt to Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dave, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J.; McKay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J.; Wilson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Mars icebreaker life mission will search for subsurface life on mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approx. 1 meter below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system.

  20. Central power generation system for U. S. Coast Guard polar icebreakers

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, L.A.; Davis, C.W.

    1989-05-01

    One of the more important decisions in overall ship design is the selection of the propulsion plant type, a consideration of particular significance for a polar class icebreaker. Propeller interactions with huge fragments of broken ice place added emphasis on the drive train's ability to operate and survive in an environment where rescue is difficult, dangerous and therefore costly, if not impossible. This paper describes the application of a new type opf diesel electric machinery plant which is similar to these installed by other icebreaking nations of the world and which includes several features to correct certain troublesome problems experienced by their designs. The machinery plant presented improves on, but does not strain or surpass the current state of the art. The basic cutter configuration and certain auxiliary systems of interest are also described.

  1. Underwater radiated noise levels of a research icebreaker in the central Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ethan H; Schmidt, Val; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M

    2013-04-01

    U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy's underwater radiated noise signature was characterized in the central Arctic Ocean during different types of ice-breaking operations. Propulsion modes included transit in variable ice cover, breaking heavy ice with backing-and-ramming maneuvers, and dynamic positioning with the bow thruster in operation. Compared to open-water transit, Healy's noise signature increased approximately 10 dB between 20 Hz and 2 kHz when breaking ice. The highest noise levels resulted while the ship was engaged in backing-and-ramming maneuvers, owing to cavitation when operating the propellers astern or in opposing directions. In frequency bands centered near 10, 50, and 100 Hz, source levels reached 190-200 dB re: 1 μPa at 1 m (full octave band) during ice-breaking operations.

  2. Underwater radiated noise levels of a research icebreaker in the central Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Roth, Ethan H; Schmidt, Val; Hildebrand, John A; Wiggins, Sean M

    2013-04-01

    U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy's underwater radiated noise signature was characterized in the central Arctic Ocean during different types of ice-breaking operations. Propulsion modes included transit in variable ice cover, breaking heavy ice with backing-and-ramming maneuvers, and dynamic positioning with the bow thruster in operation. Compared to open-water transit, Healy's noise signature increased approximately 10 dB between 20 Hz and 2 kHz when breaking ice. The highest noise levels resulted while the ship was engaged in backing-and-ramming maneuvers, owing to cavitation when operating the propellers astern or in opposing directions. In frequency bands centered near 10, 50, and 100 Hz, source levels reached 190-200 dB re: 1 μPa at 1 m (full octave band) during ice-breaking operations. PMID:23556567

  3. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with

  4. The sample handling system for the Mars Icebreaker Life mission: from dirt to data.

    PubMed

    Davé, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J; McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J; Willson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Icebreaker Life mission will search for subsurface life on Mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approximately 1 m below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system. Collecting samples from ice-rich soils on Mars in search of life presents two challenges: protection of that icy soil--considered a "special region" with respect to planetary protection--from contamination from Earth, and delivery of the icy, sticky soil to spacecraft instruments. We present a sampling device that meets these challenges. We built a prototype system and tested it at martian pressure, drilling into ice-cemented soil, collecting cuttings, and transferring them to the inlet port of the SOLID2 life-detection instrument. The tests successfully demonstrated that the Icebreaker drill, sample handling system, and life-detection instrument can collectively operate in these conditions and produce science data that can be delivered via telemetry--from dirt to data. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of using an air gap to prevent forward contamination. We define a set of six analog soils for testing over a range of soil cohesion, from loose sand to basalt soil, with angles of repose of 27° and 39°, respectively. Particle size is a key determinant of jamming of mechanical parts by soil particles. Jamming occurs when the clearance between moving parts is equal in size to the most common particle size or equal to three of these particles together. Three particles acting together tend to form bridges and lead to clogging. Our experiments show that rotary-hammer action of the Icebreaker drill influences the particle size, typically reducing particle size by ≈ 100 μm.

  5. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

  6. The sample handling system for the Mars Icebreaker Life mission: from dirt to data.

    PubMed

    Davé, Arwen; Thompson, Sarah J; McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Mellerowicz, Bolek; Glass, Brian J; Willson, David; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Rask, Jon

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Icebreaker Life mission will search for subsurface life on Mars. It consists of three payload elements: a drill to retrieve soil samples from approximately 1 m below the surface, a robotic sample handling system to deliver the sample from the drill to the instruments, and the instruments themselves. This paper will discuss the robotic sample handling system. Collecting samples from ice-rich soils on Mars in search of life presents two challenges: protection of that icy soil--considered a "special region" with respect to planetary protection--from contamination from Earth, and delivery of the icy, sticky soil to spacecraft instruments. We present a sampling device that meets these challenges. We built a prototype system and tested it at martian pressure, drilling into ice-cemented soil, collecting cuttings, and transferring them to the inlet port of the SOLID2 life-detection instrument. The tests successfully demonstrated that the Icebreaker drill, sample handling system, and life-detection instrument can collectively operate in these conditions and produce science data that can be delivered via telemetry--from dirt to data. Our results also demonstrate the feasibility of using an air gap to prevent forward contamination. We define a set of six analog soils for testing over a range of soil cohesion, from loose sand to basalt soil, with angles of repose of 27° and 39°, respectively. Particle size is a key determinant of jamming of mechanical parts by soil particles. Jamming occurs when the clearance between moving parts is equal in size to the most common particle size or equal to three of these particles together. Three particles acting together tend to form bridges and lead to clogging. Our experiments show that rotary-hammer action of the Icebreaker drill influences the particle size, typically reducing particle size by ≈ 100 μm. PMID:23577818

  7. The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: a search for biomolecular evidence for life.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Glass, Brian J; Davé, Arwen I; Davila, Alfonso F; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Marinova, Margarita M; Fairen, Alberto G; Quinn, Richard C; Zacny, Kris A; Paulsen, Gale; Smith, Peter H; Parro, Victor; Andersen, Dale T; Hecht, Michael H; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne H

    2013-04-01

    The search for evidence of life on Mars is the primary motivation for the exploration of that planet. The results from previous missions, and the Phoenix mission in particular, indicate that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be the most recently habitable place that is currently known on Mars. The near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity during periods of high obliquity, ≈ 5 Myr ago. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are present in the atmosphere, and nitrates may be present in the soil. Perchlorate in the soil together with iron in basaltic rock provides a possible energy source for life. Furthermore, the presence of organics must once again be considered, as the results of the Viking GCMS are now suspect given the discovery of the thermally reactive perchlorate. Ground ice may provide a way to preserve organic molecules for extended periods of time, especially organic biomarkers. The Mars Icebreaker Life mission focuses on the following science goals: (1) Search for specific biomolecules that would be conclusive evidence of life. (2) Perform a general search for organic molecules in the ground ice. (3) Determine the processes of ground ice formation and the role of liquid water. (4) Understand the mechanical properties of the martian polar ice-cemented soil. (5) Assess the recent habitability of the environment with respect to required elements to support life, energy sources, and possible toxic elements. (6) Compare the elemental composition of the northern plains with midlatitude sites. The Icebreaker Life payload has been designed around the Phoenix spacecraft and is targeted to a site near the Phoenix landing site. However, the Icebreaker payload could be supported on other Mars landing systems. Preliminary studies of the SpaceX Dragon lander show that it could support the Icebreaker payload for a landing either at the Phoenix site or at midlatitudes. Duplicate samples could be cached as a target for possible return by

  8. The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: A Search for Biomolecular Evidence for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.; Glass, Brian J.; Dave, Arwen I.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Marinova, Margarita M.; Fairen, Alberto G; Quinn, Richard C; Zacny, Kris A.; Paulsen, Gale; Smith, Peter H.; Parro, Victor; Andersen, Dale T.; Hecht, Michael H.; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne H.

    2012-01-01

    The search for evidence of life on Mars is the primary motivation for the exploration of that planet. The results from previous missions, and the Phoenix mission in particular, indicate that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be the most recently habitable place that is currently known on Mars. The near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity during periods of high obliquity, 5 Myr ago. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen is present in the atmosphere, and nitrates may be present in the soil. Perchlorate in the soil together with iron in basaltic rock provides a possible energy source for life. Furthermore, the presence of organics must once again be considered, as the results of the Viking GCMS are now suspect given the discovery of the thermally reactive perchlorate. Ground-ice may provide a way to preserve organic molecules for extended periods of time, especially organic biomarkers. The Mars Icebreaker Life mission focuses on the following science goals: 1. Search for specific biomolecules that would be conclusive evidence of life. 2. A general search for organic molecules in the ground ice. 3. Determine the processes of ground ice formation and the role of liquid water. 4. Understand the mechanical properties of the Mars polar ice-cemented soil. 5. Assess the recent habitability of the environment with respect to required elements to support life, energy sources, and possible toxic elements. And 6. Compare the elemental composition of the northern plains with mid-latitude sites. The Icebreaker Life payload has been designed around the Phoenix spacecraft and is targeted to a site near the Phoenix landing site. However, the Icebreaker payload could be supported on other Mars landing systems. Preliminary studies of the SpaceX Dragon lander show that it could support the Icebreaker payload for a landing either at the Phoenix site or at mid-latitudes. Duplicate samples could be cached as a target for possible return by a Mars Sample

  9. The Icebreaker Life Mission to Mars: a search for biomolecular evidence for life.

    PubMed

    McKay, Christopher P; Stoker, Carol R; Glass, Brian J; Davé, Arwen I; Davila, Alfonso F; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Marinova, Margarita M; Fairen, Alberto G; Quinn, Richard C; Zacny, Kris A; Paulsen, Gale; Smith, Peter H; Parro, Victor; Andersen, Dale T; Hecht, Michael H; Lacelle, Denis; Pollard, Wayne H

    2013-04-01

    The search for evidence of life on Mars is the primary motivation for the exploration of that planet. The results from previous missions, and the Phoenix mission in particular, indicate that the ice-cemented ground in the north polar plains is likely to be the most recently habitable place that is currently known on Mars. The near-surface ice likely provided adequate water activity during periods of high obliquity, ≈ 5 Myr ago. Carbon dioxide and nitrogen are present in the atmosphere, and nitrates may be present in the soil. Perchlorate in the soil together with iron in basaltic rock provides a possible energy source for life. Furthermore, the presence of organics must once again be considered, as the results of the Viking GCMS are now suspect given the discovery of the thermally reactive perchlorate. Ground ice may provide a way to preserve organic molecules for extended periods of time, especially organic biomarkers. The Mars Icebreaker Life mission focuses on the following science goals: (1) Search for specific biomolecules that would be conclusive evidence of life. (2) Perform a general search for organic molecules in the ground ice. (3) Determine the processes of ground ice formation and the role of liquid water. (4) Understand the mechanical properties of the martian polar ice-cemented soil. (5) Assess the recent habitability of the environment with respect to required elements to support life, energy sources, and possible toxic elements. (6) Compare the elemental composition of the northern plains with midlatitude sites. The Icebreaker Life payload has been designed around the Phoenix spacecraft and is targeted to a site near the Phoenix landing site. However, the Icebreaker payload could be supported on other Mars landing systems. Preliminary studies of the SpaceX Dragon lander show that it could support the Icebreaker payload for a landing either at the Phoenix site or at midlatitudes. Duplicate samples could be cached as a target for possible return by

  10. Zones of impact around icebreakers affecting beluga whales in the Beaufort Sea.

    PubMed

    Erbe, C; Farmer, D M

    2000-09-01

    A software model estimating zones of impact on marine mammals around man-made noise [C. Erbe and D. M. Farmer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 1327-1331 (2000)] is applied to the case of icebreakers affecting beluga whales in the Beaufort Sea. Two types of noise emitted by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Henry Larsen are analyzed: bubbler system noise and propeller cavitation noise. Effects on beluga whales are modeled both in a deep-water environment and a near-shore environment. The model estimates that the Henry Larsen is audible to beluga whales over ranges of 35-78 km, depending on location. The zone of behavioral disturbance is only slightly smaller. Masking of beluga communication signals is predicted within 14-71-km range. Temporary hearing damage can occur if a beluga stays within 1-4 km of the Henry Larsen for at least 20 min. Bubbler noise impacts over the short ranges quoted; propeller cavitation noise accounts for all the long-range effects. Serious problems can arise in heavily industrialized areas where animals are exposed to ongoing noise and where anthropogenic noise from a variety of sources adds up.

  11. Games & Icebreakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Education Development Project, Reston, VA.

    This booklet contains activities related to energy conservation and sources of energy that are suitable for groups containing people of different ages. The activities promote brainstorming, group sharing, and cooperative learning. Activities include: Energy Name Game; Energy Pantomime; Energy Source Relay Race; Energy Chants; This Week in Energy…

  12. AURORA BOREALIS - Development of a New Research Icebreaker with Drilling Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, J.; Biebow, N.; Egerton, P.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Lembke-Jene, L.

    2007-12-01

    Polar research both on land and in the sea cannot achieve the needed progress without novel and state of the art technologies and infrastructure. In addition, we have the obligation to equip the upcoming young and courageous generation of polar researchers with the most modern and safest research platforms the 21st century can provide. This effort will require major investments, both in terms of generating new tools, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. There are many different novel tools under development for polar research, we will concentrate on the presently largest one, the planning for a new type of research icebreaker, the AURORA BOREALIS with an all-season capability of operations in permanently ice-covered waters and with the possibility to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced Polar Research Vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments for the next 35 to 40 years. The vessel is planned as a large research icebreaker with 44,000 tons displacement and a length of up to 196 m, with about 50 Megawatt propulsion power. Advanced technological features will include azimuth propulsion systems, extensive instrumental and airborne ice- management support, and the routine operation of Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) from two moon-pools. An unique feature of this icebreaker will be the drilling rig that will enable sampling of the ocean floor and sub-sea down to 5000 m water depth and 1000 m penetration at the most inhospitable places on earth. The possibility to flexibly equip the ship with laboratory and supply containers, and the variable arrangement of other modular infrastructure (in particular, winches, cranes, etc.), free deck- space, and separate protected deck areas, will allow the planned

  13. Masked hearing thresholds of a beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas) in icebreaker noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, C.; Farmer, D. M.

    An experiment is presented that measured masked hearing thresholds of a beluga whale at the Vancouver Aquarium. The masked signal was a typical beluga vocalization; the masking noise included two types of icebreaker noise and naturally occurring icecracking noise. Thresholds were measured behaviorally in a go/no-go paradigm. Results were that bubbler system noise exhibited the strongest masking effect with a critical noise-to-signal ratio of 15.4 dB. Propeller cavitation noise completely masked the vocalization for noise-to-signal ratios greater than 18.0 dB. Natural icecracking noise showed the least interference with a threshold at 29.0 dB. A psychophysical analysis indicated that the whale did not have a consistent decision bias.

  14. Icebreaker-3 Drill Integration and Testing at Two Mars-Analog Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Bergman, D.; Yaggi, B.; Dave, A.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A decade of evolutionary development of integrated automated drilling and sample handling at analog sites and in test chambers has made it possible to go 1 meter through hard rocks and ice layers on Mars. The latest Icebreaker-3 drill has been field tested in 2014 at the Haughton Crater Marsanalog site in the Arctic and in 2015 with a Mars lander mockup in Rio Tinto, Spain, (with sample transfer arm and with a prototype life-detection instrument). Tests in Rio Tinto in 2015 successfully demonstrated that the drill sample (cuttings) was handed-off from the drill to the sample transfer arm and thence to the on-deck instrument inlet where it was taken in and analyzed ("dirt-to-data").

  15. Drilling Polar Oceans with the European Research Icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS: the IODP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, Lester; Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Azzolini, Roberto; Thiede, Joern; Biebow, Nicole; Eldholm, Olav; Egerton, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Polar oceans are characterized by extreme environmental conditions for humans and materials, and have remained the least accessible regions to scientists of the IODP. DSDP and ODP have for long faced specific technical and logistical problems when attempting to drill in ice-covered polar deep-sea basins. The Arctic Ocean and large areas of the high-latitude Southern Ocean remained largely un-sampled by ODP and remain one of the major scientific and technological challenges for IODP. Drilling in these regions has been discussed and anticipated for decades and the scientific rationales are reflected in the science plans of the international Nansen Arctic Drilling Program (NAD) or the Arctic Program Planning Group (APPG) of ODP/IODP, amongst others. More recently, the rationale to investigate the polar oceans in a holistic approach has been outlined by workshops, leading to strategic assessments of the scientific potential and new drilling proposals. The European Polar Board took the initiative to develop a plan for a novel and dedicated research icebreaker with technical capabilities hitherto unrealised. This research icebreaker will enable autonomous operations in the central Arctic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, even during the severest ice conditions in the deep winter, serving all marine disciplines of polar research including scientific drilling: The European Research Icebreaker and Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel AURORA BOREALIS. AURORA BOREALIS is presently planned as a multi-purpose vessel. The ship can be deployed as a research icebreaker in all polar waters during any season of the year, as it shall meet the specifications of the highest ice-class attainable (IACS Polar Code 1) for icebreakers. During the times when it is not employed for drilling, it will operate as the most technically advanced multi-disciplinary research vessel in the Arctic or polar Southern Ocean. AURORA BOREALIS will be a "European scientific flagship facility" (fully open to non

  16. Field monitoring of the ice load of an icebreaker propeller blade using fiber optic strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Andre; Caron, Serge; Van Neste, Richard; Edgecombe, Merv H.

    1996-05-01

    Navigation in polar waters presents a formidable challenge to ships' propulsion systems as large ice pieces impinging on their propeller blades sometimes result in stresses exceeding the yield strength of the blade material. Damage to propellers is costly and can also spell disaster if a ship becomes disabled in a remote area. To prevent such situations, design practice must be improved and theoretical models of propeller/ice interaction must be validated against experimental data. The blade shape requires that the load be monitored at many locations in order to obtain an accurate picture of the stress and load distribution. Fiber optic sensors are ideally suited for such an application, owing to their small size, stability over time, immunity to electro-magnetic interference, resistance to corrosion and chemical attack by sea water and hydraulic oil. We report the full-scale instrumentation of an icebreaker propeller blade with 54 Fabry-Perot based fiber optic strain gauges and shaft-mounted electronics. The instrumentation design and installation procedures are described. Additional data gathered from the propulsion control system and the ship's navigation equipment is presented and the data fusion performed with underwater video imagery of the instrumented blade is also discussed. An overview of the noise-free data obtained during the Antarctic trials is given. We finally discuss the sensors behavior and long term response, presenting their applicability to smart structures.

  17. The masking of beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) vocalizations by icebreaker noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbe, Christine

    1998-11-01

    This thesis examines the masking effect of underwater noise on beluga whale communication. As ocean water is greatly opaque for light but well conducting for sound, marine mammals rely primarily on their hearing for orientation and communication. Man-made underwater noise has the potential of interfering with sounds used by marine mammals. Masking to the point of incomprehensibility can have fatal results-for the individual, but ultimately for the entire species. As part of our understanding of whether marine mammals can cope with human impact on nature, this thesis is the first to study the interference of real ocean noises with complex animal vocalizations. At the Vancouver Aquarium, a beluga whale was trained for acoustic experiments, during which masked hearing thresholds were measured. Focus lay on noise created by icebreaking ships in the Arctic. As experiments with trained animals are time and cost expensive, various techniques were examined for their ability to model the whale's response. These were human hearing tests, visual spectrogram discrimination, matched filtering, spectrogram cross-correlation, critical band cross-correlation, adaptive filtering and various types of artificial neural networks. The most efficient method with respect to similarity to the whale's data and speed, was a backpropagation neural net. Masked hearing thresholds would be of little use if they could not be related to accessible quantities in the wild. An ocean sound propagation model was applied to determine critical distances between a noise source, a calling whale and a listening whale. Colour diagrams, called maskograms, were invented to illustrate zones of masking in the wild. Results are that bubbler system noise with a source level of 194 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m has a maximum radius of masking of 15 km in a 3- dimensional ocean. Propeller noise with a source level of 203 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m has a maximum radius of masking of 22 km. A naturally occurring icecracking event

  18. Late-winter conditions and freshwater transport in the East Greenland Current: highlights from an icebreaker based survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, J.; Björk, G.; Lake, I.; Nohr, C.; Rudels, B.; Winsor, P.

    2003-04-01

    General dynamical features of East Greenland Current (EGC) are synthesized from a survey conducted by the icebreaker Oden during the Swedish Arctic Ocean Expedition 2002. The data includes hydrography and ADCP observations in eight transects of the EGC, from the Fram Strait in the north to the Denmark Strait in the south. The survey reveals a strong confinement of the low-saline polar water in the EGC to the continental slope/shelf --- a feature of relevance for the overall stability of the thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Ocean. The southward transport of liquid freshwater in the EGC was found to vary dramatically between transects: from peak values on the order of 0.06 Sverdrup to virtually zero. The dynamical origin of the observed alongstream pulsations in freshwater transport is briefly discussed from a theoretical standpoint, emphasizing the potential for freshwater leakage into the deep-water producing areas in the Greenland Sea.

  19. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen

  20. Bayes Ice-Breaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessop, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Showing simply how statistical thinking can help in weighing evidence and reaching decisions can be useful both as an introduction to an extended presentation of statistical theory and as an introduction to a looser discussion of the nature and value of data.

  1. Ship emissions measurement in the Arctic by plume intercepts of the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen from the Polar 6 aircraft platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Herber, Andreas B.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Schulz, Hannes; Law, Kathy S.; Marelle, Louis; Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan D.; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter M.; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing sea ice and increasing marine navigability in northern latitudes have changed Arctic ship traffic patterns in recent years and are predicted to increase annual ship traffic in the Arctic in the future. Development of effective regulations to manage environmental impacts of shipping requires an understanding of ship emissions and atmospheric processing in the Arctic environment. As part of the summer 2014 NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols) campaign, the plume dispersion and gas and particle emission factors of effluents originating from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen operating near Resolute Bay, NU, Canada, were investigated. The Amundsen burned distillate fuel with 1.5 wt % sulfur. Emissions were studied via plume intercepts using the Polar 6 aircraft measurements, an analytical plume dispersion model, and using the FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The first plume intercept by the research aircraft was carried out on 19 July 2014 during the operation of the Amundsen in the open water. The second and third plume intercepts were carried out on 20 and 21 July 2014 when the Amundsen had reached the ice edge and operated under ice-breaking conditions. Typical of Arctic marine navigation, the engine load was low compared to cruising conditions for all of the plume intercepts. The measured species included mixing ratios of CO2, NOx, CO, SO2, particle number concentration (CN), refractory black carbon (rBC), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The results were compared to similar experimental studies in mid-latitudes. Plume expansion rates (γ) were calculated using the analytical model and found to be γ = 0.75 ± 0.81, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 1.19 ± 0.39 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These rates were smaller than prior studies conducted at mid-latitudes, likely due to polar boundary layer dynamics, including reduced turbulent mixing compared to mid-latitudes. All emission factors were in agreement with prior

  2. Sea Ice Changes in the Adelie Depression during the Ice-Trapping Period of the Chinese Ice-Breaker RV Xuelong in January 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, F.; Zhai, M.; Li, X.; Cheng, X.; Heil, P.; Zhao, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the 30th Chinese Antarctic Expedition in 2013/14, the Chinese ice-breaker vessel RV Xuelong answered a rescue call for the Russian vessel Akademik Shokalskiy. While assisting the repatriation of personnel from the Russian vessel to the Australian RV Australis, the RV Xuelong itself became entrapped within the compacted ice in the Adelie Depression region. Here we present our analysis of MODIS and SAR imagery, to provide an in detail description of the regional sea ice conditions, which led to beset the RV Xuelong for ~6 days. The remotely sensed imagery clearly revealed the sea-ice characteristics during the four stages of the entrapment: gathering stage, compaction stage, dispersion stage and calving stage. Here we present our evaluation of the four factors characterizing the local sea-ice conditions during the late Dec 2013 and early January 2014: coastal current, wind, tide and temperature. This study demonstrates that high spatio-temporal resolution remote sensing data are required to monitor the local and regional sea-ice changes with view to avoid future entrapping of vessels due to drastic changes and to work towards improved understanding of sea-atmosphere-ice interactions.

  3. Operations Course Icebreaker: Campus Club Cupcakes Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Brent; Southin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Campus Club Cupcakes is an in-class "introduction to operations management" experiential learning exercise which can be used within minutes of starting the course. After reading the one-page mini case, students are encouraged to meet each other and collaborate to determine if making and selling cupcakes to fellow business students would…

  4. The ice-breaker effect: singing mediates fast social bonding

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that singing evolved to facilitate social cohesion. However, it remains unclear whether bonding arises out of properties intrinsic to singing or whether any social engagement can have a similar effect. Furthermore, previous research has used one-off singing sessions without exploring the emergence of social bonding over time. In this semi-naturalistic study, we followed newly formed singing and non-singing (crafts or creative writing) adult education classes over seven months. Participants rated their closeness to their group and their affect, and were given a proxy measure of endorphin release, before and after their class, at three timepoints (months 1, 3 and 7). We show that although singers and non-singers felt equally connected by timepoint 3, singers experienced much faster bonding: singers demonstrated a significantly greater increase in closeness at timepoint 1, but the more gradual increase shown by non-singers caught up over time. This represents the first evidence for an ‘ice-breaker effect’ of singing in promoting fast cohesion between unfamiliar individuals, which bypasses the need for personal knowledge of group members gained through prolonged interaction. We argue that singing may have evolved to quickly bond large human groups of relative strangers, potentially through encouraging willingness to coordinate by enhancing positive affect. PMID:26587241

  5. Emperors in hiding: when ice-breakers and satellites complement each other in Antarctic exploration.

    PubMed

    Ancel, André; Cristofari, Robin; Fretwell, Peter T; Trathan, Phil N; Wienecke, Barbara; Boureau, Matthieu; Morinay, Jennifer; Blanc, Stéphane; Le Maho, Yvon; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the demographic trends of marine top predators is critical to understanding the processes involved in the ongoing rapid changes in Antarctic ecosystems. However, the remoteness and logistical complexity of operating in Antarctica, especially during winter, make such an assessment difficult. Satellite imaging is increasingly recognised as a valuable method for remote animal population monitoring, yet its accuracy and reliability are still to be fully evaluated. We report here the first ground visit of an emperor penguin colony first discovered by satellite, but also the discovery of a second one not indicated by satellite survey at that time. Several successive remote surveys in this coastal region of East Antarctica, both before and after sudden local changes, had indeed only identified one colony. These two colonies (with a total of ca. 7,400 breeding pairs) are located near the Mertz Glacier in an area that underwent tremendous habitat change after the glacier tongue broke off in February 2010. Our findings therefore suggest that a satellite survey, although offering a major advance since it allows a global imaging of emperor penguin colonies, may miss certain colony locations when challenged by certain features of polar ecosystems, such as snow cover, evolving ice topology, and rapidly changing habitat. Moreover our survey shows that this large seabird has considerable potential for rapid adaptation to sudden habitat loss, as the colony detected in 2009 may have moved and settled on new breeding grounds. Overall, the ability of emperor penguin colonies to relocate following habitat modification underlines the continued need for a mix of remote sensing and field surveys (aerial photography and ground counts), especially in the less-frequented parts of Antarctica, to gain reliable knowledge about the population demography and dynamics of this flagship species of the Antarctic ecosystem. PMID:24963661

  6. How's the Weather?: Ice-Breaking and Fog-Lifting in Your Written Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vassallo, Philip

    1994-01-01

    Describes two ways to combat "bad tone" and "unclear thinking" in writing. Describes "breaking the ice" as being aware of a written message's appearance--the message's readability. Explains that "fog-lifting" is accomplished by writing clearly, and by paying particular attention to the verb "to be," punctuation, and the denotative meaning of…

  7. The Human Scavenger Hunt: A Unique Classroom Ice-Breaker Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Peter V.; Weinswig, S. Edward

    This paper describes a classroom exercise used on the first day of class to help students meet each other and to help make them feel comfortable in the class. It also helps improve students' memory and interpersonal skills such as active listening, communication and trust. Originally designed for use by college students, the exercise can easily be…

  8. Continuous Arctic Ocean Water Vapor Isotope Ratio (δ18O and δ2H) Measurements During a Summer Icebreaker Expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. S.; Welker, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Warming in the Arctic is reducing sea ice, which may result in changes to the water cycle through increased atmospheric humidity. Here we present the first continuous record of water vapor isotope ratio (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) measurements from the sub-Arctic and Arctic Ocean during ship transit through both open water and sea ice. As water vapor isotopes were collected across a spectrum of sea ice conditions, the influence of sea ice and availability of open water moisture sources on Arctic Ocean water vapor isotope values (particularly d-excess) is examined. Isotope values reveal characteristics about water availability at vapor sources, as influenced by presence of sea ice (e.g., ice covered arid or open water humid sources), and air parcel trajectory. Higher d-excess values were generally associated with more northern Arctic, ice covered, and arid vapor sources. Conversely, lower d-excess values were related to more southern, open water, and humid vapor sources. Additionally, water vapor isotopes while sea ice was present were generally characterized by more depleted δ18O and δ2H and higher d-excess values, relative to open water values. These water vapor isotope values also present information about potential shifts in moisture sources in an increasingly ice free Arctic Ocean. Understanding these shifts is important to learning about both modern and past patterns of Arctic atmospheric water movement and distribution.

  9. Recent geological-geomorphological processes on the east Arctic shelf: Results of the expedition of the icebreaker Oden in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobkovsky, L. I.; Nikiforov, S. L.; Ananiev, R. A.; Khortov, A. V.; Semiletov, I. P.; Jakobsson, M.; Dmitrievskiy, N. N.

    2015-11-01

    Results obtained by the International Arctic marine expedition (SWERUS-C3) in June to October of 2014, using advanced seismoacoustic equipment, confirmed the wide distribution of potentially hazardous exogenic geological-geomorphological natural processes on the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia. In Arctic seas, serious hazards are represented by ice exaration and its consequences must be taken into consideration when developing oil and gas fields on the shelf. Many areas with anomalous gas saturation of sediments and gas seeps established in the region under consideration may represent global hazard: further increases in methane emissions may represent global risks. The minimization of these and other geological risks in constructing different technogenic objects on the shelf should be a first-priority task in the economic development of the Arctic region.

  10. The reproductive success of lake herring in habitats near shipping channels and ice-breaking operations in the St. Marys River, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blouin, Marc A.; Kostich, M.M.; Todd, T.N.; Savino, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the reproductive success of lake herring (Coregonus artedi) in the St. Marys River was conducted in the winters and springs of 1994, 1995, and 1996. The St. Marys River connects Lake Superior to the lower Great Lakes making it an important route for ship traffic. Recent pressure by commercial carriers to extend the shipping season by breaking ice earlier in spring, has raised concerns over the possible adverse effects on lake herring reproduction in the river caused by increased turbidity associated with vessel passage. Lake herring spawn in fall and their eggs overwinter under ice cover on the bottom of the St. Marys River. Hatching occurs in the spring after ice-out when water temperatures rise. Specialized incubators were used to hold fertilized lake herring eggs at four experimental sites, chosen to represent the range of various bottom substrate types of the St. Marys River from boulder rock reefs to soft sediments. In winter, incubators were placed under the ice on the bottom of the river at three sites each year. After ice-out, sites were relocated, and the incubators were retrieved and opened to determine the number of live and dead lake herring eggs and larvae. Survival was consistent from year to year at each site with the lowest survival percentage found at the site with the softest sediments, directly adjacent to the St. Marys River channel and downstream of the mouth of the Charlotte River. River bottom type and geographic location were the most important factors in determining egg survival. Sampling for indigenous larval lake herring was done throughout the spring hatching season in the areas adjacent to the incubator sites using nets and a diver-operated suction sampler. Result indicate that a small population (3) of larval lake herring was present throughout the sampling areas during the springs of 1994, 1995, and 1996 in the St. Marys River.

  11. Making Those First Days Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, Rhoda Kahn

    1979-01-01

    The author describes three "icebreaker" activities she uses to help a class of students get acquainted with one another--learning names and personal information--during the first days of the school year. (SJL)

  12. Section at Frame 195, Section at Frame 154, Section at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section at Frame 195, Section at Frame 154, Section at Midship, Section at Frame 45, Longitudinal Section at Reinforced Bow Structure - US Coast Guard Icebreaker Glacier, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  13. MACKINAW UNDERWAY ON MARCH 21, 1994, FROM SAULTE SAINTE MARIE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MACKINAW UNDERWAY ON MARCH 21, 1994, FROM SAULTE SAINTE MARIE TO WHITEFISH BAY AND BACK; LOOKING AFT FROM BRIDGE WING, FIRST DAY OF BREAK UP OF SHIPPING CHANNEL - U.S. Coast Guard Icebreaker Mackinaw, Cheboygan, Cheboygan County, MI

  14. Crater Morphology in the Phoenix Landing Ellipse: Insights Into Net Erosion and Ice Table Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Stoker, C. R.; McKay, C. P.; Davila, A. F.; Krco, M.

    2015-01-01

    Icebreaker [1] is a Discovery class mission being developed for future flight opportunities. Under this mission concept, the Icebreaker payload is carried on a stationary lander, and lands in the same landing ellipse as Phoenix. Samples are acquired from the subsurface using a drilling system that penetrates into materials which may include loose or cemented soil, icy soil, pure ice, rocks, or mixtures of these. To avoid the complexity of mating additional strings, the drill is single-string, limiting it to a total length of 1 m.

  15. Becoming a "Teacher-Student"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Ginger

    2005-01-01

    Several years ago the author attended a week-long orientation for a new job she was taking as an English teacher in an affluent suburb of Chicago. On the first day, the school's director of student activities led all of the new teachers in an "icebreaker," wherein they were taught how to juggle. However, the author could not juggle. When it was…

  16. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... (NR06-04 Flaxman Island lease block 6658, OCS-Y 1805 [Flaxman Island 6658]). See Figure 1-1 in Shell's... operations. The ice-management vessels will consist of an icebreaker and an anchor handler. Table 1-1 in... Discoverer traveling north of Dutch Harbor through the Bering Strait, after July 1, 2010, then through...

  17. Dynamics of Effective Study. Bulletin 1825.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This study skills curriculum addresses the problem of a lack of study skills demonstrated by students in grades 7-10. It focuses on 11 essential knowledge acquisition skills: (1) motivation and ice-breakers; (2) outlining and mapping; (3) time management; (4) PQ5R (Preview, Question, Read, Record, Recite, Review, and Reflect); (5) notetaking; (6)…

  18. Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Web-based Instruction, and Technology Integration. A Report on AECT 2000 Summer Leadership Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Marcy

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the Association for Educational Technology (AECT) Summer Leadership Institute (Montreal, Canada, July 2000). The Institute opened with icebreaker activities. Then the results of last year's summer institute were reviewed. Participants re-acted to the fuzzy cognitive map that was generated last year. AECT and its future, Web-based…

  19. News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    Meetings: Physics Teachers@CERN 2003 Education Group Annual Conference: Observations by a first-time participant... Summer Workshop: Making Music Competition: Physics in the fast lane Bristol Festival of Physics: Ice cream ice-breakers Online Resources: Old favourites go online UK Curriculum: What does society want? UK Curriculum: Assessment of Science Learning 14-19 Forthcoming Events

  20. Talking to Your Kids about Sex: Tips for Tongue-Tied Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PTA Today, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Tips to help parents discuss sex with their children include starting early, providing enough information, planning what to say, listening to the children, finding opportunities to discuss sexual roles and attitudes, discussing family values, nurturing self-esteem, avoiding lectures, using written materials as ice-breakers, and starting a family…

  1. Occupation-Specific VESL Teaching Techniques. A VESL Staff Development Training Resource Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linda; Wilkinson, Betty

    Materials for a workshop on teaching vocational English as a Second Language (VESL) are gathered. An annotated outline presents the content and sequence of the workshop, including an icebreaker activity, general techniques for teaching occupation-specific vocabulary, sample lesson plans and accompanying instructional materials for teaching…

  2. Boundary Breakers: A Team Building Guide for Student Activity Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, John

    Boundary breakers, the modern term for "icebreakers," tear down barriers that sometimes form within student groups and organizations, and offer a low-risk way for group members to become better acquainted. This document is a "hands on" booklet that covers such boundary-breaking activities as "Send a Letter,""The Lap Game,""One-Minute Interview,"…

  3. Tips from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TESOL Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Seven articles on classroom icebreakers are compiled: "Picture Stories and Other Opportunities" (Joy Egbert, Deborah Hanley, Rosemary Delaney); "Hey, What's Your Name" (Janet Leamy); "Surprise!" (Lynne Burgess); "Memory Game" (Sally Winn); "Picturesque" (Margaret Beiter); "The Name Game" (Jeanne-Marie Garcia); "Exercise the Body--And the Mind…

  4. A Future Star: Challenging Stereotypes of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Paul; Loebickin, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Ice-breaking discussions around race and personal perspectives can be challenging in any classroom, they also are crucial to cultivating racial consciousness among those espousing that they know better. This provides the groundwork needed to implement--in a non-threatening manner--the creative, alternative methods that will combine students'…

  5. 75 FR 39335 - Incidental Takes of Marine Mammals During Specified Activities; Marine Seismic Survey in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Tracklines for USGS and Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) 2010 Extended Continental Shelf Survey in the.... Laurent and Healy Extended Continental Shelf expeditions in the Arctic Ocean, August 3 to September 16... Icebreaking Effort for USGS/GSC 2010 Extended Continental Shelf Survey in the Northern Beaufort Sea and...

  6. Games: Big Pig Air and Pig in a Blanket; Pig in a Blanket/Barnyard Juggle/Warp Pork Variations; Palm Springs Circuit; Put Down the Espresso!; Help Me Please; Frogger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohut, Amy; Klajnscek, Rich; Henton, Mary; Faulkingham, Lisa; Bower, Nancy; Shreve, Kat

    2001-01-01

    Presents six games (most for all ages) used in adventure and experiential settings. Includes target group, group size, time and space needs, activity level, overview, props, instructions, variations, and tips for processing the experience, where appropriate. The games are icebreakers, promote teamwork and social skills, or help groups to focus.…

  7. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Linda; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Contains one-paragraph descriptions from six college English instructors describing successful lessons and techniques used in the classroom. Covers collaborative teaching with letter writing; notetaking and paraphrasing; a first day ice-breaking activity; a writing development check; linking assignments in basic writing; and a descriptive writing…

  8. Managing Tips for Teachers of the Gifted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Betsy Bauer; Conley, Jane Bauer

    1993-01-01

    Ten tips are provided to help teachers of gifted students cope with the unique stressors that they face. Tips include making parents allies, putting grades in perspective, and setting realistic goals. Activities are presented for use as introductory "ice-breakers" or concluding activities for workshops for teachers and parents of gifted students.…

  9. Coping with Homesickness: Preventative Medicine and Tried-and-True Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Christina

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the best ways to deal with campers' homesickness and ways to prevent its onset. A definition of homesickness is given, and physical and behavioral characteristics of homesick campers are listed. Preventive measures include ice-breakers, establishing ground rules, and keeping campers busy. Setting goals with the camper and giving some…

  10. What Works for Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Ron; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents six teaching suggestions from classroom teachers regarding creative scenarios with literary figures, lemons in the classroom (to aid descriptive writing), conferences using a computer, organizational patterns in writing, an epistolary icebreaker in composition, and using five-minute writings as review. (SR)

  11. Setting the Climate for Effective Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Burton R.

    1991-01-01

    The learning climate set by adult educators reflects assumptions about adults as learners and the teaching-learning transaction. Creating positive environments requires attending to initial contact with learners; answering the questions Who are we? Who am I the instructor? and Why are we here?; and using icebreakers. (SK)

  12. 49 CFR 176.5 - Application to vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., icebreaker, pile driver, pilot boat, welding vessel, salvage vessel, or wrecking vessel; or (8) A foreign... requirements of the IMDG Code (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). (c) (d) Except for transportation in bulk... governed by 46 CFR chapter I, subchapters D, I, N and O....

  13. Transforming Physical Educators through Adventure-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ressler, James Donald

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-based Learning (ABL) is the purposeful use of activities in sequence to improve personal and social development of participants (Cosgriff, 2000). ABL goes beyond instant activities (i.e. ice-breakers, cooperative games) to create an environment in which students enjoy the challenge while developing emotional and social competencies…

  14. Enabling Technology for the Exploration of the Arctic Ocean - Multi Channel Seismic Reflection data acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Anderson, R.; Chayes, D. N.; Goemmer, S.; Oursler, M.

    2009-12-01

    Great advances in mapping the Arctic Ocean have recently been made through the relatively routine acquisition of multibeam data from icebreakers operating on various cruise. The USCGC Healy, the German icebreaker Polarstern, the Canadian icebreaker Amundsen and the Swedish icebreaker Oden all routinely collect multibeam data, even while in heavy ice pack. This increase in data has substantially improved our knowledge of the form of the Arctic Ocean seafloor. Unfortunately, it is not possible to routinely collect Multi Channel Seismic Reflection (MCS) data while underway in the ice pack. Our inability to simply collect these data restricts how we understand many of the features that segment the basin by depriving us of the historical information that can be obtained by imaging the stratigraphy. Without these data, scientific ocean drilling, the ultimate ground truth for Marine Geology, cannot be done. The technology and expertise to collect MCS must be adapted for the particular circumstances of the Arctic Ocean. While MCS data have been collected in the Arctic Ocean, the procedures have relied on icebreakers towing equipment. Since icebreakers follow the path of least resistance through the pack, data are acquired in locations that are not scientifically optimal and rarely in the relatively straight lines necessary for optimal processing. Towing in the ice pack is also difficult, inefficient and puts this equipment at substantial risk of crushing or loss. While icebreakers are one means to collect these data, it is time to conduct a systematic evaluation of the costs and benefits of different platforms for MCS data acquisition. This evaluation should enable collection of high-quality data set at selected locations to solve scientific problems. Substantial uncertainties exist about the relative capabilities, costs and limitations for acquisition of MCS data from various platforms in the Arctic Ocean. For example; - Is it possible to collect multi-channel seismic

  15. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  16. FRAM-2012: Norwegians return to the High Arctic with a Hovercraft for Marine Geophysical Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.; Brekke, H.; Hope, G.

    2012-12-01

    After four years of testing methods, craft reliability, and innovative equipment, the R/H SABVABAA has embarked on its first FRAM-201x expedition to the highest Arctic. Named after the Inupiaq word for 'flows swiftly over it', the 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Longyearbyen, Svalbard since June 2008. In this, its fifth summer of work on the ice pack north of 81N, the craft is supported by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD) via the Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center (NERSC) in Bergen, and the Norwegian Scientific Academy for Polar Research. FRAM-2012 represents renewed Norwegian interest in returning to the highest Arctic some 116 years after the 1893-96 drift of Fridtjof Nansen's ship FRAM, the first serious scientific investigation of the Arctic. When replenished by air or icebreaker, the hovercraft Sabvabaa offers a hospitable scientific platform with crew of two, capable of marine geophysical, geological and oceanographic observations over long periods with relative mobility on the ice pack. FRAM-2012 is the first step towards this goal, accompanying the Swedish icebreaker ODEN to the Lomonosov Ridge, north of Greenland, as part of the LOMROG III expedition. The science plan called for an initial drive from the ice edge to Gakkel Ridge at 85N where micro-earthquakes would be monitored, and then to continue north to a geological sampling area on the Lomonosov Ridge at about 88N, 65W. The micro-earthquake monitoring is part of Gaute Hope's MSc thesis and entails five hydrophones in a WiFi-connected hydrophone array deployed over the Gakkel Rift Valley, drifting with the ice at up to 0.4 knots. On August 3 the hovercraft was refueled from icebreaker ODEN at 84-21'N and both vessels proceeded north. The progress of the hovercraft was hampered by insufficient visibility for safe driving and time consuming maneuvering in and around larger fields of rubble ice impassable by the hovercraft, but of little concern to the icebreaker. It

  17. Experimental study on the resistance of a transport ship navigating in level ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan; Sun, Jianqiao; Ji, Shaopeng; Tian, Yukui

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the resistance of a transport ship navigating in Arctic waters by conducting a series of model tests in an ice tank at Tianjin University. The laboratory-scale model ship was mounted on a rigid carriage using a one-directional load cell and then towed through an ice sheet at different speeds. We observed the ice-breaking process at different parts of the ship and motion of the ice floes and measured the resistances under different speeds to determine the relationship between the ice-breaking process and the ice resistance. The bending failure at the shoulder area was found to cause maximum resistance. Furthermore, we introduced the analytical method of Lindqvist (1989) for estimating ice resistance and then compared these calculated results with those from our model tests. The results indicate that the calculated total resistances are higher than those we determined in the model tests.

  18. Gulf Canada moves ahead with unique drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1982-12-01

    Describes a system developed for Gulf's Beaufort Sea exploration program, which consists of a mobile arctic caisson (MAC), conical drilling unit (CDU), 2 icebreakers, and 2 supply boats, all designed for heavy ice conditions. The MAC will operate in water depths between 60 and 110 ft, while the CDU is destined for deeper waters. The CDU, a circular barge with a special ice-deflecting hull, has a main hull angle sloping at 31 degrees to deflect ice downward. The MAC will replace conventional artificial islands. The 2 icebreakers' primary function is to manage the ice surrounding the drilling units, protecting the drilling system and providing an escort to new well sites. In addition to moving bulk materials and equipment from the northern supply base to the drilling units, the vessels will help in anchoring or setting the drilling units.

  19. Baltic Sea Ice Regional Indices and their relationship with atmospheric circulation patterns and maritime navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztobryn, M.; Kowalska, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Baltic navigation and urban activities of the coastal communities around the Baltic Sea depended always very much on the ice conditions in the sea. The sea ice occurs different in form and amount, depending on the sea area and the winter season. The aim of the work was the investigation of influence of atmospheric circulation patterns on sea ice condition of Baltic Sea (by the sea ice regional indices). The atmospheric circulation patterns were represented by the German Weather Service's - Grosswetterlagen. The relationship between the ice severity indices and icebreakers activities (number of cases, in which the Swedish and Finnish icebreakers assisted the ships) were investigated. The work was done under the Seaman project (Norwegian Financial Mechanism)

  20. A possible maritime future for surface effect craft in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, C. B.; Clayton, B. R.

    A development history and development status account is given for maritime applications of vehicles employing such surface effect principles as skirt-contained air cushions, high-speed aerodynamic lift-generating ram effect, and wing-in-ground effect. Economic viabilities are projected for such commercial applications as ferry services, survey and research operations, and ice-breaking; attention is given to the prospects for such naval applications as amphibious landing craft, minesweepers, patrol craft, and ASW platforms.

  1. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-06-06

    This volume contains appendices of the following: US Geological Survey Arctic operating orders, 1979; Det Noske Vertas', rules for the design, construction and inspection of offshore technology, 1977; Alaska Oil and Gas Association, industry research projects, March 1980; Arctic Petroleum Operator's Association, industry research projects, January 1980; selected additional Arctic offshore bibliography on sea ice, icebreakers, Arctic seafloor conditions, ice-structures, frost heave and structure icing.

  2. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  3. Breaking the Ice: Strategies for Future European Research in the Polar Oceans - The AURORA BOREALIS Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Thiede, J.; European Research Icebreaker Consortium

    2011-12-01

    Research vessels dedicated to work in polar ice-covered waters have only rarely been built. Their history began with Fritjof Nansen's FRAM, which he used for his famous first crossing of the Arctic Ocean 1893-1896. She served as example for the first generation of polar research vessels, at their time being modern instruments planned with foresight. Ice breaker technology has developed substantially since then. However, it took almost 80 years until this technical advance also reached polar research, when the Russian AKADEMIK FEDEROV, the German POLARSTERN, the Swedish ODEN and the USCG Cutter HEALY were built. All of these house modern laboratories, are ice-breakers capable to move into the deep-Arctic during the summer time and represent the second generation of dedicated polar research vessels. Still, the increasing demand in polar marine research capacities by societies that call for action to better understand climate change, especially in the high latitudes is not matched by adequate facilities and resources. Today, no icebreaker platform exists that is permanently available to the international science community for year-round expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean or heavily ice-infested waters of the polar Southern Ocean around Antarctica. The AURORA BOREALIS concept plans for a heavy research icebreaker, which will enable polar scientists around the world to launch international research expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic continental shelf seas autonomously during all seasons of the year. The European Research Icebreaker Consortium - AURORA BOREALIS (ERICON-AB) was established in 2008 to plan the scientific, governance, financial, and legal frameworks needed for the construction and operation of this first multi-nationally owned and operated research icebreaker and polar scientific drilling platform. By collaborating together and sharing common infrastructures it is envisioned that European nations make a major contribution to

  4. Under-Ice Operations with AUVS in High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J.; Kaminski, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010 and 2011, ISE Explorer Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV), built for Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), were deployed to Canada's high Arctic. The mission was to undertake under-ice bathymetric surveys supporting Canada's submission under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). During these deployments several under-ice records were broken and several new technologies were demonstrated. The NRCan AUV is a 5000 meter depth rated vehicle, with several innovative additions to make it suitable for arctic survey work. Most notable are a depth rated variable ballast system, a 1300 Hz long-range homing system, and under-ice charging and data transfer capabilities. The Explorer's range was extended to approximately 450 km by adding a hull section to accommodate extra batteries. The scientific payload onboard included a Seabird SBE49 Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) sensor, Knudsen singlebeam echosounder, and a Kongsberg Simrad EM2000 multibeam echosounder. In 2010, operations were conducted from an ice camp near Borden Island (78°14'N, 112°39'W) operating through an ice hole. Following several test missions, the AUV spent 10 days surveying under ice before being successfully recovered. In total, close to 1100 km of under-ice survey was undertaken at depths to 3160 meters. A further set of operations was carried out in August and September 2011 from the Canadian Icebreaker CCGS Louis St. Laurent operating with the American Icebreaker USCGS Healy. Here the operations were much further north to latitudes of 88°30' N and to depths of 3500 meters. In this paper, the 2010 ice camp and the 2011 icebreaker missions are described, with an outline of technology developments that were undertaken, the preparations that were necessary for the success of the missions and finally, the outcome of the missions themselves.

  5. Review of technology for Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W. M.

    1980-08-01

    The technical background briefing report is the first step in the preparation of a plan for engineering research oriented toward Arctic offshore oil and gas recovery. A five-year leasing schedule for the ice-prone waters of the Arctic offshore is presented, which also shows the projected dates of the lease sale for each area. The estimated peak production rates for these areas are given. There is considerable uncertainty for all these production estimates, since no exploratory drilling has yet taken place. A flow chart is presented which relates the special Arctic factors, such as ice and permafrost, to the normal petroleum production sequence. Some highlights from the chart and from the technical review are: (1) in many Arctic offshore locations the movement of sea ice causes major lateral forces on offshore structures, which are much greater than wave forces; (2) spray ice buildup on structures, ships and aircraft will be considerable, and must be prevented or accommodated with special designs; (3) the time available for summer exploratory drilling, and for deployment of permanent production structures, is limited by the return of the pack ice. This time may be extended by ice-breaking vessels in some cases; (4) during production, icebreaking workboats will service the offshore platforms in most areas throughout the year; (5) transportation of petroleum by icebreaking tankers from offshore tanker loading points is a highly probable situation, except in the Alaskan Beaufort; and (6) Arctic pipelines must contend with permafrost, making instrumentation necessary to detect subtle changes of the pipe before rupture occurs.

  6. Seascape as an organizing principle for evaluating walrus and seal sea-ice habitat in Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, G. Carleton; Overland, James E.; Hufford, Gary L.

    2010-10-01

    The term “seascape”, as used here, relates the natural history of ice-dependent pinnipeds to their sea-ice environments at different spatial scales, following concepts of landscape ecology. Habitats are characterized by heterogeneous but repeatable structures of sea ice. As an example, multiple mesoscale (3-50 km) seascapes present conditions for different ecological preferences of five Beringian ice-dependent pinnipeds, as observed during 2006-2009 winter-spring icebreaker cruises. Seascape partitioning concepts are important for understanding and projecting species' responses to change under climate-change scenarios.

  7. Determining the Water Ice Content of Martian Regolith by Nonlinear Spectral Mixture Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyalay, S.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.

    2015-01-01

    In the search for evidence of life, Icebreaker will drill in to the Martian ice-rich regolith to collect samples, which will then be analyzed by an array of instruments designed to identify biomarkers. In addition, drilling into the subsurface will provide the opportunity to assess the vertical distribution of ice to a depth of 1 meter. The purpose of this particular project was to understand the uncertainties involved in the use of the imaging system to constrain the water ice content in regolith samples.

  8. Active—Passive radiolocation of dangerous natural phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachurin, L. G.

    1990-05-01

    In nature one observes strong deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium. The most dangerous natural phenomena proceeding in a thermodynamically irreversible way, are accompanied by the initiation of nonthermal impulse radio and optical radiation, the intensity and amplitude-frequency characteristics of which may serve as a measure of irreversibility while making the passive radiolocation and simultaneously as an information characteristic of the degree of the phenomenon's approach to the stage of maximum development. The active radiolocation of natural phenomena at the stage of thermodynamic irreversibility has a number of distinct features caused by the high speed of their progress and anomalies of the dielectric properties and accordingly, effective scattering area of natural radio targets. The above is the physical basis of the method proposed by the author, that of the active-passive radiolocation of dangerous natural phenomena such as thunderstorms-both naturally developing and provoked by flying vehicles or other modifying means, avalanches, landslides, catastrophic atmospheric eddies and showers, sudden destruction of sea, river and lake ice and so on. Active-passive radar sounding of cloudiness presumes radical changes in the air traffic control in thunderous situations in the take-off and landing areas of flying vehicles as well as along the airways. Thermodynamic irreversibility turns out to be an important factor in the process of the interaction of ice with heavy-duty icebreakers (nuclear-powered vessels) causing their anomalous corrosion. The non-thermal radio radiation arising at the deformation of ice cover under the pressure of an icebreaker or under the action of wind load, may be used while choosing the route and tactics of the ice-breaker's progress, for the hydrometeorological service of other sea and coastal operations. The completed investigations of the thermodynamically irreversible natural phenomena have found practical application, but

  9. Gridded Data in the Arctic; Benefits and Perils of Publicly Available Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Forsberg, R.; Gabbert, R.; Beale, J.; Kenyon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of the Arctic Ocean has been hugely advanced by release of gridded bathymetry and potential field anomaly grids. The Arctic Gravity Project grid achieves excellent, near-isotropic coverage of the earth north of 64˚N by combining land, satellite, airborne, submarine, surface ship and ice set-out measurements of gravity anomalies. Since the release of the V 2.0 grid in 2008, there has been extensive icebreaker activity across the Amerasia Basin due to mapping of the Arctic coastal nation's Extended Continental Shelves (ECS). While grid resolution has been steadily improving over time, addition of higher resolution and better navigated data highlights some distortions in the grid that may influence interpretation. In addition to the new ECS data sets, gravity anomaly data has been collected from other vessels; notably the Korean Icebreaker Araon, the Japanese icebreaker Mirai and the German icebreaker Polarstern. Also the GRAV-D project of the US National Geodetic Survey has flown airborne surveys over much of Alaska. These data will be Included in the new AGP grid, which will result in a much improved product when version 3.0 is released in 2015. To make use of these measurements, it is necessary to compile them into a continuous spatial representation. Compilation is complicated by differences in survey parameters, gravimeter sensitivity and reduction methods. Cross-over errors are the classic means to assess repeatability of track measurements. Prior to the introduction of near-universal GPS positioning, positional uncertainty was evaluated by cross-over analysis. GPS positions can be treated as more or less true, enabling evaluation of differences due to contrasting sensitivity, reference and reduction techniques. For the most part, cross-over errors for racks of gravity anomaly data collected since 2008 are less than 0.5 mGals, supporting the compilation of these data with only slight adjustments. Given the different platforms used for various

  10. Monitoring the melting of the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaugher, Liz

    2008-09-01

    Standing on the deck of the icebreaker Amundsen in the Arctic Ocean, I am bathed in blazing June sunshine. The weather has been like this all week since I joined the ship - a research vessel that set sail from Quebec in Canada last summer - as a visiting science journalist. It would be tempting to think that such conditions are typical, but most areas of the Arctic are in fact cloudy for 80% of the time in the spring and summer due to moisture in the air from melting ice and from exposed areas of the ocean.

  11. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  12. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacEwen, W. R.

    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  13. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-09-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This holds particularly within the planetary boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1, comparable to the measurement error of standard radiosondes. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  14. Measurement of wind profiles by motion-stabilised ship-borne Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achtert, P.; Brooks, I. M.; Brooks, B. J.; Moat, B. I.; Prytherch, J.; Persson, P. O. G.; Tjernström, M.

    2015-11-01

    Three months of Doppler lidar wind measurements were obtained during the Arctic Cloud Summer Experiment on the icebreaker Oden during the summer of 2014. Such ship-borne Doppler measurements require active stabilisation to remove the effects of ship motion. We demonstrate that the combination of a commercial Doppler lidar with a custom-made motion-stabilisation platform enables the retrieval of wind profiles in the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer during both cruising and ice-breaking with statistical uncertainties comparable to land-based measurements. This held true particularly within the atmospheric boundary layer even though the overall aerosol load was very low. Motion stabilisation was successful for high wind speeds in open water and the resulting wave conditions. It allows for the retrieval of vertical winds with a random error below 0.2 m s-1. The comparison of lidar-measured wind and radio soundings gives a mean bias of 0.3 m s-1 (2°) and a mean standard deviation of 1.1 m s-1 (12°) for wind speed (wind direction). The agreement for wind direction degrades with height. The combination of a motion-stabilised platform with a low-maintenance autonomous Doppler lidar has the potential to enable continuous long-term high-resolution ship-based wind profile measurements over the oceans.

  15. Technology and economics assessment of developing an Arctic offshore petroleum area in Alaska (Chukchi Sea)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This assessment begins with three lines of investigation: petroleum geology, environmental conditions affecting engineering and siting, and available technologies for Arctic offshore oil and gas development. These results were integrated for economic analysis into scenarios that reflect reasonable variations in operators' strategies. Construction costs and schedules are estimated, and then examined using an economic model (a basic discounted cash flow scheme yielding internal real rates of return (ROR) and disaggregated equivalent amortized costs). The scenarios are realistic, but optimistic for oil and gas development. The harsh arctic environment specific to this OCS planning area was evaluated for engineering and cost estimating: multi-year sea ice, storms, short open-water season, 15-40 meter (50-120 foot) water depths, seafloor materials, harborless coastline, low seismicity, biological and social considerations. Sea ice is the dominating design parameter, impacting the surface facilities and gouging the seafloor. Offshore production concepts evaluated were gravel islands, cassion-retained islands, monocones and APLA (Artic production and loading atoll). Oil transportation systems were nearly equivalent in costs. Shipping requires dedicated ice-breaking tankers serving a transshipment terminal. Pipeline connects across the North Slope to the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The decision between these might hinge more on political and environmental issues than on economics. Natural gas is decidedly uneconomic based on this analysis. Transportation of natural gas from the Chukchi Sea area would be via ice-breaking LNG tankers; it is primarily the LNG transport system that pushes gas economics beyond viability.

  16. Time and space variability of freshwater content, heat content and seasonal ice melt in the Arctic Ocean from 1991 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, M.; Rudels, B.; Marnela, M.; Wisotzki, A.; Zhao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the hydrography of the Arctic Ocean have recently been reported. The upper ocean has been freshening and pulses of warm Atlantic Water have been observed to spread into the Arctic Ocean. Although these changes have been intensively studied, salinity and temperature variations have less frequently been considered together. Here hydrographic observations, obtained by icebreaker expeditions conducted between 1991 and 2011, are analyzed and discussed. Five different water masses in the upper 1000 m of the water column are examined in five sub-basins of the Arctic Ocean. This allows for studying the variations of the distributions of the freshwater and heat contents in the Arctic Ocean not only in time but also laterally and vertically. In addition, the seasonal ice melt contribution is separated from the permanent, winter, freshwater content of the Polar Mixed Layer. Because the positions of the icebreaker stations vary between the years, the icebreaker observations are at each specific point in space and time compared with the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology to separate the effects of space and time variability on the observations. The hydrographic melt water estimate is discussed and compared with the potential ice melt induced by atmospheric heat input estimated from the ERA-Interim and NCEP/NCAR reanalyses. After a period of increased salinity in the upper ocean during the 1990s, both the Polar Mixed Layer and the upper halocline have been freshening. The increase in freshwater content in the Polar Mixed Layer is primarily driven by a decrease in salinity, not by changes in Polar Mixed Layer depth, whereas the freshwater is accumulating in the upper halocline mainly through the increasing thickness of the halocline. This is especially evident in the Northern Canada Basin, where the most substantial freshening is observed. The warming, and to some extent also the increase in salinity, of the Atlantic Water during the early 1990s extended

  17. Waves in the Beaufort Sea Miz: First Results from a 30 Wavebuoy Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doble, M. J.; Wadhams, P.; Wilkinson, J.

    2014-12-01

    We present preliminary results from this year's deployment of 30 wavebuoys into the Beaufort Sea drifting ice cover. The buoys were deployed in two phases, both as part of the Office of Naval Research Marginal Ice Zone Departmental Research Initiative. 20 buoys were deployed into the continuous pack ice using aircraft-staged camps from Banks Island in March/April 2014, and the remaining 10 buoys were deployed from the South Korean icebreaker Araon in August 2014. All buoys transmitted continous timeseries of heave, roll and tilt - sampled at 1Hz - over the Iridium satellite network, along with their GPS positions. The goal is to examine the attenuation of storm-driven ocean waves as they enter and fracture the Beaufort Sea ice cover. These data are presented and the evolution of the directional wave field as it travels through the ice cover is examined.

  18. Increased power and size in Arctic boat future

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, P.G.; Duerr, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    As offshore activity increases in hostile areas around the world such as the Beaufort Sea, Bering Sea, Canadian east coast, Barents Sea, etc., highly capable offshore supply boats are becoming an integral part of the drilling systems. These boats have a continuously expanding role to play as general utility craft for such offshore oil operations. From their initial mission strictly as supply tenders for shallow-water operations in the Gulf of Mexico, they have grown to undertake towing and standby service, fire protection service, anchor handling, subsea survey work, diving tender duties, rescue craft and recently as icebreakers for Arctic exploration. When operations move into these remote, hostile environments, the basic required capabilities for workboats increase in several directions. The requirements for these supply boats are discussed.

  19. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R.; Kelly, N.; Boebel, O.; Friedlaender, A. S.; Herr, H.; Kock, K.-H.; Lehnert, L. S.; Maksym, T.; Roberts, J.; Scheidat, M.; Siebert, U.; Brierley, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  20. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  1. ERS-1 SAR ice routing of l'Astrolabe through the Northeast passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johannessen, O. M.; Sandven, S.; Skagseth, O.; Kloster, K.; Kovacs, Z.; Sauvadet, P.; Geli, L.; Weeks, W.; Louet, J.

    1992-01-01

    The use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the satellite ERS-1 to assist the French polar vessel 'L'Astrolabe' during its navigation through Artic sea ice in the Northeast Passage is reported. The ship spent one month on the voyage from Europe to Japan, and high resolution SAR images and ice maps based on SAR images from ERS-1 and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager were telefaxed to the ship using the Inmarsat system. The time delay from observation to the reception of SAR images aboard the ship varied from 6 hours to two days. The quality of these ice maps was compared with Russian ice maps and observations from the ship. The SAR imagery provided detailed information on ice floe distribution, ice concentration, ice types, open leads, and tracks in ice from icebreakers. The response from the Russian ice specialists on the quality of the SAR ice maps was very positive.

  2. All-weather ice information system for Alaskan arctic coastal shipping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.; Jirberg, R. J.; Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Chase, T. L.; Kramarchuk, I.; Nagy, L. A.; Hanlon, R. A.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    A near real-time ice information system designed to aid arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope is described. The system utilizes a X-band Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard HC-130B aircraft. Radar mapping procedures showing the type, areal distribution and concentration of ice cover were developed. In order to guide vessel operational movements, near real-time SLAR image data were transmitted directly from the SLAR aircraft to Barrow, Alaska and the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Glacier. In addition, SLAR image data were transmitted in real time to Cleveland, Ohio via the NOAA-GOES Satellite. Radar images developed in Cleveland were subsequently facsimile transmitted to the U.S. Navy's Fleet Weather Facility in Suitland, Maryland for use in ice forecasting and also as a demonstration back to Barrow via the Communications Technology Satellite.

  3. Migration along orthodromic sun compass routes by arctic birds.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, G A; Green, M; Hedenstrom, A

    2001-01-12

    Flight directions of birds migrating at high geographic and magnetic latitudes can be used to test bird orientation by celestial or geomagnetic compass systems under polar conditions. Migration patterns of arctic shorebirds, revealed by tracking radar studies during an icebreaker expedition along the Northwest Passage in 1999, support predicted sun compass trajectories but cannot be reconciled with orientation along either geographic or magnetic loxodromes (rhumb lines). Sun compass routes are similar to orthodromes (great circle routes) at high latitudes, showing changing geographic courses as the birds traverse longitudes and their internal clock gets out of phase with local time. These routes bring the shorebirds from high arctic Canada to the east coast of North America, from which they make transoceanic flights to South America. The observations are also consistent with a migration link between Siberia and the Beaufort Sea region by way of sun compass routes across the Arctic Ocean. PMID:11209079

  4. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-03-13

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change.

  5. JARE Syowa Station 11-m Antenna, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyama, Yuichi; Doi, Koichiro; Shibuya, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the 52nd and the 53rd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (hereinafter, referred to as JARE-52 and JARE-53, respectively) participated in five OHIG sessions - OHIG76, 78, 79, 80, and 81. These data were recorded on hard disks through the K5 terminal. Only the hard disks for the OHIG76 session have been brought back from Syowa Station to Japan, in April 2012, by the icebreaker, Shirase, while those of the other four sessions are scheduled to arrive in April 2013. The data obtained from the OHIG73, 74, 75, and 76 sessions by JARE-52 and JARE-53 have been transferred to the Bonn Correlator via the servers of National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). At Syowa Station, JARE-53 and JARE-54 will participate in six OHIG sessions in 2013.

  6. Use of {sup 59}Ni, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 236}U to monitor the release of radionuclides from objects containing spent nuclear fuel dumped in the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Layton, D.W.; Lynn, N.M.; Hamilton, T.F.

    1998-04-01

    Between 1965 and 1981, five objects - six naval reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) from four former Soviet Union submarines and a special containers from the icebreaker Lenin, each of which contained damaged spent nuclear fuel (SNF) - were dumped in a variety of containments, using a number of sealing methods, at four sites in the Kara Sea. All objects were dumped at sites that varied in depth from 12 to 300 m. This paper examines the use of the long-lived radionuclides {sup 59}Ni, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 236}U encased within these objects to monitor the breakdown of the containments due to corrosion. Included are discussions of the radionuclide inventory and their release rate model, the estimated radionuclide mass in a typical seawater sample, and the potential for radionuclide measurement via Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS).

  7. Migration along orthodromic sun compass routes by arctic birds.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, G A; Green, M; Hedenstrom, A

    2001-01-12

    Flight directions of birds migrating at high geographic and magnetic latitudes can be used to test bird orientation by celestial or geomagnetic compass systems under polar conditions. Migration patterns of arctic shorebirds, revealed by tracking radar studies during an icebreaker expedition along the Northwest Passage in 1999, support predicted sun compass trajectories but cannot be reconciled with orientation along either geographic or magnetic loxodromes (rhumb lines). Sun compass routes are similar to orthodromes (great circle routes) at high latitudes, showing changing geographic courses as the birds traverse longitudes and their internal clock gets out of phase with local time. These routes bring the shorebirds from high arctic Canada to the east coast of North America, from which they make transoceanic flights to South America. The observations are also consistent with a migration link between Siberia and the Beaufort Sea region by way of sun compass routes across the Arctic Ocean.

  8. Counting whales in a challenging, changing environment.

    PubMed

    Williams, R; Kelly, N; Boebel, O; Friedlaender, A S; Herr, H; Kock, K-H; Lehnert, L S; Maksym, T; Roberts, J; Scheidat, M; Siebert, U; Brierley, A S

    2014-01-01

    Estimating abundance of Antarctic minke whales is central to the International Whaling Commission's conservation and management work and understanding impacts of climate change on polar marine ecosystems. Detecting abundance trends is problematic, in part because minke whales are frequently sighted within Antarctic sea ice where navigational safety concerns prevent ships from surveying. Using icebreaker-supported helicopters, we conducted aerial surveys across a gradient of ice conditions to estimate minke whale density in the Weddell Sea. The surveys revealed substantial numbers of whales inside the sea ice. The Antarctic summer sea ice is undergoing rapid regional change in annual extent, distribution, and length of ice-covered season. These trends, along with substantial interannual variability in ice conditions, affect the proportion of whales available to be counted by traditional shipboard surveys. The strong association between whales and the dynamic, changing sea ice requires reexamination of the power to detect trends in whale abundance or predict ecosystem responses to climate change. PMID:24622821

  9. Meteorological observations from ship cruises during summer to the central Arctic: A comparison with reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpkes, C.; Vihma, T.; Jakobson, E.; König-Langlo, G.; Tetzlaff, A.

    2010-05-01

    Near-surface meteorological observations and rawinsonde soundings from Arctic cruises with the German icebreaker RV Polarstern during August 1996, 2001, and 2007 are compared with each other and with ERA-Interim reanalyses. Although the observations are usually applied in the reanalysis, they differ considerably from ERA data. ERA overestimates the relative humidity and temperature in the atmospheric boundary layer and the base height of the capping inversion. Warm biases of ERA near-surface temperatures amount up to 2 K. The melting point of snow is the most frequent near-surface temperature in ERA, while the observed value is the sea water freezing temperature. Both observations and ERA show that above 400 m, in the North Atlantic sector 0-90 E, the warmest August occurred in 2001, and August 2007 had the highest humidity. In the Eastern Siberian and Beaufort Sea region ERA temperatures along 80 and 85 N were highest in 2007.

  10. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  11. Arctic technology and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, I.; Chryssostomidis, C.

    1984-01-01

    Topics covered include: legal regime of the arctic, including national and international legal frameworks that govern arctic resource development; environmental policy and socio-economic issues, focusing on the political and economic considerations of LNG transport in icebound waterways; risk and safety assessment for arctic offshore projects, drilling systems for the arctic; arctic offshore technology, including island, steel, and concrete structures; icebreaking technology, focusing on the current state of the art and indicating future research areas; arctic oceanography, summarizing characteristics of ice from field experiments pertaining to the design of structures, ships, and pipelines; arctic seismic exploration, detailing signal processes for underwater communication in the context of arctic geology and geophysics; ice morphology, providing information about ice shapes, particularly critical to the determination of overall strength of ice masses; remote sensing; modeling of arctic ice fields, including information about the design and construction of offshore facilities in polar areas; and engineering properties of ice, providing theoretical and experimental studies.

  12. National petroleum reserve - Alaska: marine transportation system analysis. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Macpherson, M.D.

    1980-10-01

    This report presents a comprehensive parametric analysis of a number of concepts for the marine transportation of crude oil and gas from the national petroleum reserve in the Alaskan Arctic (NPR-A) to the contiguous United States. The analysis provides the transportation costs for icebreaking and ice-strengthened surface tankers and LNG carriers over a range of ship sizes and propulsion power levels and for submarine tankers for each of a number of routes from four loading ports in the Arctic to discharge ports on the East and Gulf Coasts of the United States. The report includes discussions of the technical factors related to Arctic ship construction and operation, ice technology, and the environmental and institutional factors which must be included in an evaluation of an Arctic marine transportation system.

  13. Characteristics of phytoplankton physiology inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence in the western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jisoo; Gorbunov, Maxim Y.; Ko, Eunho; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Yang, Eun Jin; Jung, Jinyoung; Kang, Sung Ho

    2016-04-01

    A recent Arctic survey in the Chukchi and East Siberian Sea using icebreaker R/V Araon revealed some interesting feature of vertical distribution of phytoplankton physiology in 2015 summer. A custom-built Fluorescence Induction and Relaxation (FIRe) system was used for measuring photochemical parameters such as maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and functional absorption cross section in near-surface ocean. These parameters provide an express diagnostic of the effects of environmental factors, including nutrient limitation and light acclimation on phytoplankton assemblages. Time-series of satellite ocean colour data were also used for observing large scaled spatial distribution of phytoplankton and its seasonality related with sea ice distributions. Possible implications of these results will be discussed.

  14. Intersociety Advanced Marine Vehicles Conference and Exhibit, Arlington, VA, June 5-7, 1989, Technical Papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The present conference on advanced marine vehicles discusses advancements in surface-effect ship (SES) technologies, small waterplane-area twin-hull (SWATH) ship operations, advanced marine vehicle concepts, ocean systems and subsurface vehicles, air-cushion vehicle (ACV) concepts, seaplane technologies, advanced hull hydrodynamics, wing-in-ground effect (WIGE) aircraft, competition-craft aerodynamics, and marine propulsion. Attention is given to military applications of the 'NES 200' SES platform, experiences over 16 years of SWATH ship operations, hydrofoil catamarans for military and civilian applications, SES passenger ferries for the N.Y.C. metropolitan area, advanced submarine concepts, parametric studies in SWATH ship design, ACV experience in Antarctica, the CL-215 seaplane, large-scale WIGE vehicles, an ocean spacecraft-launch facility, an ACV Arctic icebreaker, and 'marinizing' methods for gas turbine engines.

  15. Investigating Arctic Tropospheric Ozone Depletion Through a Flowing Chemical Reaction Method of Halogen Free Radical Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, P. J.; Shepson, P. B.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Steffen, A.

    2008-12-01

    Arctic tropospheric halogen chemistry has been investigated through the measurement of halogen free radicals, ozone, and gaseous elemental mercury in the lower Arctic troposphere during spring 2008 in a unique sea ice surface environment onboard the research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. Low-level ozone depletion events were observed beginning in early March, with more extensive events occurring later in the month. Bromine monoxide measurements were conducted using a new, flowing chemical reaction method in addition to established DOAS techniques, and was observed with good agreement at concentrations approaching 40 ppt during periods of significant ozone and mercury depletion. Air mass history was observed for the periods leading to depletion, suggesting a dependence on sea ice contact and ambient temperatures below -22 °C as necessary elements for the onset of halogen-induced tropospheric ozone depletion. Here we discuss our data further with the aim of better understanding how ozone depletion events are triggered.

  16. Distribution of fish and macrozooplankton in ice-covered and open-water areas of the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, Alex; Cokelet, Edward D.

    2012-06-01

    The eastern Bering Sea shelf is a productive ecosystem with extensive commercial fisheries. Although the area is well-studied during summer months, little is known about the abundance and distribution of fish and macrozooplankton during periods of seasonal ice cover. The use of an icebreaker during the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST) provided a platform for spring acoustic surveys of fish and zooplankton in ice-covered areas for the first time. Icebreaker measurements were complemented with observations from conventional vessels during spring and summer. In spring, very little backscatter from fish (dominated by walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma) was observed in the ice-covered northern areas where near-bottom waters were cold (<˜0.5 °C), including areas where walleye pollock are abundant in summer. The majority of fish were observed within 40 km (and often slightly inside) the ice edge over similar seafloor depths as in summer. Together, these observations suggest that pollock, a dominant component of the ecosystem, shift their distribution to a more restricted geographic area in spring, following the ice edge southeast along the bathymetry, away from areas of cold water and extensive ice cover, then reoccupying these areas in summer. In contrast, acoustic backscatter attributed to zooplankton (likely dominated by euphausiids) was more evenly distributed, and less restricted by water temperature and ice cover. The implications of this seasonal shift in fish distribution are uncertain, but this may affect predator-prey interactions by reducing overlap of pollock with euphausiids, an important prey source, while increasing overlap of adult and juvenile pollock and potentially increasing cannibalism.

  17. Distribution, density, and abundance of pack-ice seals in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtson, John L.; Laake, Jeff L.; Boveng, Peter L.; Cameron, Michael F.; Bradley Hanson, M.; Stewart, Brent S.

    2011-05-01

    We made three sets of population surveys of the four species of ice-inhabiting phocid pinnipeds in the Ross and Amundsen Seas between 26 December 1999 and 24 March 2000 using icebreakers and helicopters deployed from those icebreakers. We used line transect methods to survey 23,671 km by helicopter and 3,694 km by ship accounting for a total coverage of 53,217 km 2. We detected and identified 11,308 seals in 7,104 groups and estimated their abundance from estimates of densities using distance sampling methods and corrections for probability of haul out of seals derived from satellite telemetry of tagged seals. Crabeater seals were most abundant (ca 1.7 million) followed by Weddell seals (330,000), Ross seals (22,600), and leopard seals (15,000). Our estimates of abundance are difficult to directly compare with earlier estimates because of geographic areas covered and by our improvements in survey and analytical methods. Notwithstanding these limitations and with some adjustments for differences in methods, we found that our estimates of abundance for crabeater seals are similar to those from the most recent surveys in the Ross and Amundsen Seas and along the George-Oates Coast. Our estimates for Weddell seals are the first for the broad areas of pack ice that we surveyed in the Ross and Amundsen Seas but indicate that these habitats are ecologically important to this species. Our estimates of abundance of Ross seals were relatively similar to estimates for surveys in these areas in the 1970s and 1980s whereas our estimates of abundance of leopard seals were substantially lower.

  18. The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Iacozza, J.

    2009-04-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study supported a large multidisciplinary overwintering in the Banks Island (NT) flaw lead over the period September 2007 to August 2008. The CFL system is formed when the central pack ice (which is mobile) moves away from coastal fast ice, opening a flaw lead. The CFL forms in the fall and continues as thin ice or open water throughout the winter. The flaw lead is circumpolar, with recurrent and interconnected polynyas occurring throughout the Arctic. The overarching objectives of the CFL project were to contrast the physical and biological systems of the flaw lead open water and thin ice to the adjacent landfast ice cover. The Canadian Research Icebreaker (NGCC Amundsen) completed the first-ever overwintering of a research icebreaker in the flaw lead. She supported a total of 11,000 person days distributed across 295 investigators from 28 different countries, making the CFL project the largest single IPY effort in the northern hemisphere. The project obtained many first-ever measurements of a complete suite of physical, biogeochemical, contaminant and marine ecosystem variables across the open water - fast ice contrast. Throughout the project we recognized that Inuvialuit and western science have two different ways of understanding the dramatic changes that are occurring in this sector of the Arctic. This ‘two-ways-of-knowing' saw the integration of traditional knowledge studies with the science teams onboard the Amundsen. We present information on the design of the project, an overview of the sampling program completed, highlight the scientific programs conducted, and provide some preliminary results. We conclude with an overview of the various outreach programs including a World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) competition and ‘Schools on Board' programs.

  19. The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study: a focus on fast ice edge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Mundy, C. J.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; MacDonald, R. W.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Gosselin, M.; Hanesiak, J.; Tremblay, J.; Ferguson, S.; Stern, G.; Meakin, S.; Deming, J. W.; Leitch, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study supported a large multidisciplinary overwintering in the Banks Island (NT) flaw lead over the period September 2007 to August 2008 as part of the International Polar Year (IPY). The CFL system is formed when the central pack ice (which is mobile) moves away from coastal fast ice, opening a flaw lead. The CFL forms in the fall and continues as thin ice or open water throughout the winter. The flaw lead is circumpolar, with recurrent and interconnected polynyas occurring throughout the Arctic. The overarching objectives of the CFL project were to contrast the physical and biological systems of the flaw lead open water and thin ice to the adjacent landfast ice cover. The Canadian Research Icebreaker (NGCC Amundsen) completed the first-ever overwintering of a research icebreaker in the flaw lead. She supported a total of 11,000 person days distributed across 295 investigators from 28 different countries. The project obtained many first-ever measurements of a complete suite of physical, biogeochemical, contaminant and marine ecosystem variables across the open water - fast ice contrast. In this paper we present an overview of the early results from this study with a particular focus on the role of fast ice edges in modifying the physical, biological and geochemical processes that occur at the fast ice edge interface. Traditional knowledge of these ice edges illustrates a rich physical and ecological environment. Western science results show the temporal nature of fast ice edges and the associated stimulation of biological productivity make these a particularly important part of the flaw lead system.

  20. The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) System Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Papakyriakou, T.; MacDonald, R.; Gratton, Y.; Fortier, L.; Gosselin, M.; Hanesiak, J.; Tremblay, J.; Ferguson, S.; Stern, G.; Meakin, S.; Deming, J.; Leitch, D.

    2008-12-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system study supported a large multidisciplinary overwintering in the Banks Island (NT) flaw lead over the period September 2007 to August 2008. The CFL system is formed when the central pack ice (which is mobile) moves away from coastal fast ice, opening a flaw lead. The CFL forms in the fall and continues as thin ice or open water throughout the winter. The flaw lead is circumpolar, with recurrent and interconnected polynyas occurring throughout the Arctic. The overarching objectives of the CFL project were to contrast the physical and biological systems of the flaw lead open water and thin ice to the adjacent landfast ice cover. The Canadian Research Icebreaker (NGCC Amundsen) completed the first-ever overwintering of a research icebreaker in the flaw lead. She supported a total of 11,000 person days distributed across 295 investigators from 28 different countries, making the CFL project the largest single IPY effort in the northern hemisphere. The project obtained many first-ever measurements of a complete suite of physical, biogeochemical, contaminant and marine ecosystem variables across the open water - fast ice contrast. Throughout the project we recognized that Inuvialuit and western science have two different ways of understanding the dramatic changes that are occurring in this sector of the Arctic. This 'two-ways-of-knowing' saw the integration of traditional knowledge studies with the science teams onboard the Amundsen. We present information on the design of the project, an overview of the sampling program completed, highlight the scientific programs conducted, and provide some preliminary results. We conclude with an overview of the various outreach programs including a World Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) competition and 'Schools on Board' programs.

  1. Non-nuclear submarine tankers could cost-effectively move Arctic oil and gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kumm, W.H.

    1984-03-05

    Before the advent of nuclear propulsion for U.S. Navy submarines, fuel cells were considered to be the next logical step forward from battery powered submarines which required recharging. But with the launching of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) in 1954, the development of fuel-cell propulsion was sidelined by the naval community. Nearly 30 years later fuel-cell propulsion on board submarines is actually more cost-effective than the use of nuclear propulsion. In the Artic Ocean, the use of the submarine tanker has long been considered commercially appropriate because of the presence of the polar ice cap, which inhibits surface ship transport. The technical difficulty and high operating cost of Arctic icebreaking tankers are strong arguments in favor of the cheaper, more efficient submarine tanker. Transiting under the polar ice cap, the submarine tanker is not an ''Arctic'' system, but merely a submerged system. It is a system usable in any ocean around the globe where sufficient depth exists (about 65% of the global surface). Ice breakers are another story; their design only makes them useful for transit through heavy sea ice in coastal environments. Used anywhere else, such as in the open ocean or at the Arctic ice cap, they are not a cost-effective means of transport. Arctic sea ice conditions require the Arctic peculiar icebreaking tanker system to do the job the hard way-on the surface. But on the other hand, Arctic sea ice conditions are neatly set aside by the submarine tanker, which does it the energy-efficient, elegant way submerged. The submarine tanker is less expensive to build, far less expensive to operate, and does not need to be nuclear propelled.

  2. Feasibility of a Dragon-Derived Mars Lander for Scientific and Human-Precursor Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, John S.; Davis, Sanford S.; Allen, Gary A.; Glass, Brian J.; Gonzales, Andrew; Heldmann, Jennifer Lynne; Lemke, Lawrence G.; McKay, Chris; Stoker, Carol R.; Wooster, Paul Douglass; Zarchi, Kerry A.

    2013-01-01

    A minimally-modified SpaceX Dragon capsule launched on a Falcon Heavy rocket presents the possibility of a new low-cost, high-capacity Mars lander for robotic missions. We have been evaluating such a "Red Dragon" platform as an option for the Icebreaker Discovery Program mission concept. Dragon is currently in service ferrying cargo to and from the International Space Station, and a crew transport version is in development. The upcoming version, unlike other Earth-return vehicles, exhibits most of the capabilities necessary to land on Mars. In particular, it has a set of high-thrust, throttleable, storable bi-propellant "SuperDraco" engines integrated directly into the capsule that are intended for launch abort and powered landings on Earth. These thrusters provide the possibility of a parachute-free, fully-propulsive deceleration at Mars from supersonic speeds to the surface, a descent approach which would also scale well to larger future human landers. We will discuss the motivations for exploring a Red Dragon lander, the current results of our analysis of its feasibility and capabilities, and the implications of the platform for the Icebreaker mission concept. In particular, we will examine entry, descent, and landing (EDL) in detail. We will also describe the modifications to Dragon necessary for interplanetary cruise, EDL, and operations on the Martian surface. Our analysis to date indicates that a Red Dragon lander is feasible and that it would be capable of delivering more than 1000 kg of payload to sites at elevations three kilometers below the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) reference, which includes sites throughout most of the northern plains and Hellas.

  3. Reconstruction of paleoceanographic changes in the western Arctic Ocean duing the late Quaternary: Results from RV Araon and RV Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, S.; Kim, S.; Schreck, M.; Lee, B.; Niessen, F.; Stein, R. H.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Mackensen, A.

    2013-12-01

    The recent warming Arctic has fundamental effects on various scales as global (albedo, sea level, thermohaline circulation), hemispheric (mid-latitude weather/climate), and local (sedimentary, hydrographic, and cryospheric conditions). The extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice have dramatically reduced due to the amplified response of the Arctic Ocean to rapid global warming. The rapid melting of Arctic sea ice allowed us to enhance the research activities in the western Arctic using ice-breaking research vessels to unravel the present and past climate and oceanographic changes in seasonally ice-free open water conditions. Paleoclimate/paleoceanographic records estimated from the western Arctic sediments are crucial factors to understand the past and present oceanographic and environmental changes and thus it could be used as the base data sets for a reliable prediction of future climate changes on global scales. Within this context, KOPRI recently initiated a new research program (K-Polar) for understanding recent environmental changes and reconstructing glacial history and paleoceanographic changes in the western Arctic using ice-breaker ';R.V. ARAON'. The Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean is particularly pronounced area with rapid and large extent reduction of the Arctic sea ice and relatively low SSS (comparing to Atlantic sector) due to sea-ice melting along with continental runoff. K-Polar program aims to: acquire shallow seismic data and retrieve long undisturbed sediment cores from the Chukchi Borderland-the Mendeleev Ridge-East Siberian continental margin using the ';R.V. ARAON', and establish a reliable stratigraphy of key sediment cores; then to reconstruct glacial history and high-resolution paleoceanographic changes in the western Arctic during the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles based on precise stratigraphic data and climate-driven multiple proxies. In summary, we will introduce current preliminary results estimated from sediment cores taken

  4. Amphibian Seismological Studies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Kuk Hong, Jong; Lee, Won Sang; Geissler, Wolfram; Yun, Sukyoung; Gohl, Karsten; Park, Yongcheol; Yoo, Hyun Jae

    2016-04-01

    The Antarctic Ross Sea is one of the key regions for polar research activities. Research stations from several countries located at the coast are the base for inland expeditions. Even in the austral summer, the Ross Sea is party covered with drifting ice fields; this requires an icebreaker for all marine explorations. Therefore, large geophysical surveys in the Ross Sea are difficult. But the area is of special interest for seismologists: The Terror Rift in the western Ross Sea is a prominent neotectonic structure of the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS). It is located near the coast in the Victoria Land Basin and extends parallel to the Transantarctic Mountains. The rifting processes and the accompanying active onshore volcanism lead to increased seismicity in the region. The annual waxing and waning of the sea-ice and the dynamics of the large Ross Ice Shelf and nearby glaciers generate additional seismic signals. Investigation on seismological activities associated with the WARS and the cryogenic signals simultaneously would give us an unprecedented opportunity to have a better understanding of the Evolution of the WARS (EWARS) and the rapid change in the cryospheric environment nearby. The Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI) and the Alfred-Wegener-Institut (AWI) have conducted a pilot study off the Korean Jang Bogo research station in the Terra Nova Bay by developing a collaborative research program (EWARS) since 2011 to explore seismicity and seismic noise in this region. Four broadband ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) from the German DEPAS pool were deployed in January 2012 with the Korean research icebreaker RV Araon. Three instruments could successfully be recovered after 13 months, the fourth OBS was not accessible due to local sea-ice coverage. We have successfully completed a second recovery operation in January 2014. All stations recorded data of good quality, one station stopped after 8 months due to a recorder error. The OBS recovered in 2014

  5. Radionuclides in the Arctic seas from the former Soviet Union: Potential health and ecological risks

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D W; Edson, R; Varela, M; Napier, B

    1999-11-15

    The primary goal of the assessment reported here is to evaluate the health and environmental threat to coastal Alaska posed by radioactive-waste dumping in the Arctic and Northwest Pacific Oceans by the FSU. In particular, the FSU discarded 16 nuclear reactors from submarines and an icebreaker in the Kara Sea near the island of Novaya Zemlya, of which 6 contained spent nuclear fuel (SNF); disposed of liquid and solid wastes in the Sea of Japan; lost a {sup 90}Sr-powered radioisotope thermoelectric generator at sea in the Sea of Okhotsk; and disposed of liquid wastes at several sites in the Pacific Ocean, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula. In addition to these known sources in the oceans, the RAIG evaluated FSU waste-disposal practices at inland weapons-development sites that have contaminated major rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean. The RAIG evaluated these sources for the potential for release to the environment, transport, and impact to Alaskan ecosystems and peoples through a variety of scenarios, including a worst-case total instantaneous and simultaneous release of the sources under investigation. The risk-assessment process described in this report is applicable to and can be used by other circumpolar countries, with the addition of information about specific ecosystems and human life-styles. They can use the ANWAP risk-assessment framework and approach used by ONR to establish potential doses for Alaska, but add their own specific data sets about human and ecological factors. The ANWAP risk assessment addresses the following Russian wastes, media, and receptors: dumped nuclear submarines and icebreaker in Kara Sea--marine pathways; solid reactor parts in Sea of Japan and Pacific Ocean--marine pathways; thermoelectric generator in Sea of Okhotsk--marine pathways; current known aqueous wastes in Mayak reservoirs and Asanov Marshes--riverine to marine pathways; and Alaska as receptor. For these waste and source terms addressed, other pathways, such as

  6. 2008 Joint United States-Canadian program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Healy--Cruise HLY0806

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Arctic Beaufort Sea aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter USCGC Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) in the Arctic Ocean in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the Law of the Sea Convention. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St- Laurent. The science parties on the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the USGS (Healy), and the GSC and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew included marine mammal and Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. The joint survey proved an unqualified success. The Healy collected 5,528 km of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (38,806 km2) and CHIRP subbottom profile data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements. The Louis acquired 2,817 km of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection-profile data along 12 continuous lines, as well as 35 sonobuoy refraction stations and accompanying single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection profile data of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. Equipment failure rate of the seismic equipment gear aboard the Louis was greatly improved with the advantage of having a leading icebreaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led the Healy, resulting in much improved quality of the swath bathymetry and CHIRP sub-bottom data in comparison with data collected by the Healy in the lead or working alone. Ancillary science objectives, including ice observations, deployment

  7. Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcussen, C.; Jakobsson, M.

    2007-12-01

    The Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland was the primary focus for the LOMROG expedition. This part of the Arctic is virtually unexplored as difficult sea ice conditions have made it inaccessible for surface vessels. With Swedish icebreaker /Oden/ supported by new Russian nuclear icebreaker /50 Let Pobedy/, LOMROG managed to reach the southern most tip of the Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland to carry out multibeam mapping, subbottom and seismic reflection profiling, gravity measurements, geological coring and oceanographic station work. The LOMROG expedition is a Swedish/Danish collaboration project with participating scientists also from Canada, Finland, and USA. The data collection was made for the purpose of studying paleoceanography/oceanography, glacial history and the tectonic evolution of the of the Arctic Ocean as well as for Denmark's Continental Shelf Project under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Article 76. One of the reasons for targeting the ice-infested area north of Greenland was that it likely holds answers to key questions regarding the glacial history of the Arctic Ocean, such as whether immense ice shelves existed in the Arctic Ocean during past glacial periods./ /Previous expeditions with /Oden/ in 1996 and the US nuclear submarine /Hawkbill/ in 1999, have demonstrated the occurrence of ice grounding down to 1000 m present water depth at about 87°N 145°E on the Lomonosov Ridge crest. If this ice grounding event resulted from a much debated, but supposedly coherent and large floating ice shelf, the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland must also be scoured. To test the hypothesis of a huge Arctic Ocean ice shelf LOMROG mapped the areas of the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland using the new EM120 multibeam bathymetry and SBP120 subbottom profiling system installed on the /Oden/ during the spring of 2007. Glacial erosion was indeed found at water depth shallower than approximately 800 m and two sediment cores retrieved from the glacially

  8. C-Band Backscatter Measurements of Winter Sea-Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Hosseinmostafa, R.; Gogineni, P.

    1995-01-01

    During the 1992 Winter Weddell Gyre Study, a C-band scatterometer was used from the German ice-breaker R/V Polarstern to obtain detailed shipborne measurement scans of Antarctic sea-ice. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) radar operated at 4-3 GHz and acquired like- (VV) and cross polarization (HV) data at a variety of incidence angles (10-75 deg). Calibrated backscatter data were recorded for several ice types as the icebreaker crossed the Weddell Sea and detailed measurements were made of corresponding snow and sea-ice characteristics at each measurement site, together with meteorological information, radiation budget and oceanographic data. The primary scattering contributions under cold winter conditions arise from the air/snow and snow/ice interfaces. Observations indicate so e similarities with Arctic sea-ice scattering signatures, although the main difference is generally lower mean backscattering coefficients in the Weddell Sea. This is due to the younger mean ice age and thickness, and correspondingly higher mean salinities. In particular, smooth white ice found in 1992 in divergent areas within the Weddell Gyre ice pack was generally extremely smooth and undeformed. Comparisons of field scatterometer data with calibrated 20-26 deg incidence ERS-1 radar image data show close correspondence, and indicate that rough Antarctic first-year and older second-year ice forms do not produce as distinctively different scattering signatures as observed in the Arctic. Thick deformed first-year and second-year ice on the other hand are clearly discriminated from younger undeformed ice. thereby allowing successful separation of thick and thin ice. Time-series data also indicate that C-band is sensitive to changes in snow and ice conditions resulting from atmospheric and oceanographic forcing and the local heat flux environment. Variations of several dB in 45 deg incidence backscatter occur in response to a combination of thermally-regulated parameters

  9. Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the 'ice-sky' and the 'water-sky,' respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%. PMID:17164851

  10. Liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water characteristics in the East Greenland Current during the AO-02 Oden expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Johan; Björk, Göran; Rudels, Bert; Winsor, Peter; Torres, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Dynamical features of the East Greenland Current (EGC) are synthesized from a survey conducted by the Swedish icebreaker Oden during the International Arctic Ocean - 02 expedition (AO-02) in May 2002 with emphasis on the liquid freshwater transport and Polar Surface Water. The data include hydrography and lowered acoustic doppler current profiler (LADCP) velocities in eight transects along the EGC, from the Fram Strait in the north to the Denmark Strait in the south. The survey reveals a strong confinement of the low-salinity polar water in the EGC to the continental slope/shelf-a feature of relevance for the stability of the thermohaline circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean. The southward transport of liquid freshwater in the EGC was found to vary considerably between the sections, ranging between 0.01 and 0.1 Sverdrup. Computations based on geostrophic as well as LADCP velocities give a section-averaged southward freshwater transport of 0.06 Sverdrup in the EGC during May 2002. Furthermore, Oden data suggest that the liquid freshwater transport was as large north of the Fram Strait as it was south of the Denmark Strait.

  11. New atmospheric methane observations in the Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas during SWERUS-C3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, B. F.; Crill, P. M.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2014-12-01

    We present a first look at a new, extensive dataset of atmospheric methane observations during the SWERUS-C3 cruise in July and August 2014. The path of the icebreaker Oden during the expedition traversed the Arctic Ocean across the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian Seas from Tromsø, Norway to Barrow, Alaska. Atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide concentrations were measured at 1 Hz resolution throughout the journey. Air was sampled at four different heights, ranging from 9 to 35 m above the sea surface. At limited stations when the ship was anchored in shallow waters of the Laptev Sea, additional in situ measurements were made at 4 m above the sea surface. Further, in-situ isotopic observations of (delta)13C-methane and (delta)D-methane were made throughout the journey. This unprecedented dataset of atmospheric methane across the outer Russian Arctic continental shelf seas may help us to make top-down estimations of methane release from the ice-covered Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas to the atmosphere.

  12. Operation of a Hovercraft Scientific Platform Over Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean Transpolar Drift (81 - 85N): The FRAM-2012 Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.

    2013-12-01

    We have tested the feasibility of hovercraft travel through predominantly first year ice of the Transpolar Drift between 81°N - 85°N north of Svalbard. With 2-9 ridges per kilometer, our hovercraft (Griffon TD2000 Mark II), with an effective hover height of about 0.5 m, had to travel a distance 1.3 times the great circle distance between the point of origin and the final destination. Instantaneous speeds were mostly 5-7 knots. Two weeks later icebreaker Oden completed the same transit under conditions with no significant pressure in the ice at a speed mostly 1 knot higher than the hovercraft and travelled 1.2 times the great circle distance. The hovercraft spent 25 days monitoring micro-earthquake activity of the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge at a section of the spreading center where no seismicity has been recorded by the global seismograph network. More than ten small earthquake events per day were recorded. Visibility appears to be the most critical factor to hovercraft travel in polar pack ice. Improved control of hovercraft motion would substantially increase the potential usefulness of hovercraft in the sea ice environment. University of Bergen graduate student Gaute Hope emplacing one of the hydrophones in the triangular array used to locate small earthquakes over the Gakkel Ridge rift valley around 85N during FRAM-2012. The research hovercraft R/H SABVABAA is in the background.

  13. Air-sea exchange of carbon dioxide in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, Brian J.; Miller, Scott D.

    2016-07-01

    Direct carbon dioxide flux measurements using eddy covariance from an icebreaker in the high-latitude Southern Ocean and Antarctic marginal ice zone are reported. Fluxes were combined with the measured water-air carbon dioxide partial pressure difference (ΔpCO2) to compute the air-sea gas transfer velocity (k, normalized to Schmidt number 660). The open water data showed a quadratic relationship between k (cm h-1) and the neutral 10 m wind speed (U10n, m s-1), kopen = 0.245 U10n2 + 1.3, in close agreement with decades old tracer-based results and much lower than cubic relationships inferred from previous open ocean eddy covariance studies. In the marginal ice zone, the effective gas transfer velocity decreased in proportion to sea ice cover, in contrast with predictions of enhanced gas exchange in the presence of sea ice. The combined open water and marginal ice zone results affect the calculated magnitude and spatial distribution of Southern Ocean carbon flux.

  14. In Situ Measurement of the Drag Coefficient Over Arctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, D. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Prytherch, J.; Moat, B. I.; Persson, O. P. G.; Sedlar, J.; Sotiropoulou, G.; Tjernstrom, M. K. H.; Achtert, P.; Brooks, B. J.; Shupe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bulk flux algorithms are routinely used in climate and numerical weather prediction models to estimate the surface exchange of momentum, heat, and moisture. However, these algorithms often perform poorly over sea ice where the effect of variable ice conditions on the exchange coefficient is poorly understood. This is largely due to the paucity of direct surface flux measurements in polar regions with which are needed to develop better algorithms. Some recent state of the art parameterizations attempt to address this issue by accounting for both the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of sea ice due to, for example, the appearance of leads and melt ponds in summer, and the dependence of ice surface roughness on morphology and age. These parameterizations are derived largely from theoretical considerations and have yet to be thoroughly tested against observations. Here, we present direct measurements of surface stress, heat and moisture fluxes obtained during a 3 month cruise in the Arctic Ocean during summer 2014. Measurements were made via the eddy covariance technique from a mast over the bow of the icebreaker Oden. Flux estimates were obtained over a wide range of surface conditions, ranging from open water to multi-year pack ice. Digital imagery is used to classify the surface through estimation of local ice properties, including the fractional area of multiple ice categories, melt ponds, and leads. Variability in transfer coefficient estimates with surface conditions is investigated, and several parameterizations of differing complexity are tested using the direct estimates.

  15. Magmatic and amagmatic seafloor generation at the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Michael, P J; Langmuir, C H; Dick, H J B; Snow, J E; Goldstein, S L; Graham, D W; Lehnert, K; Kurras, G; Jokat, W; Mühe, R; Edmonds, H N

    2003-06-26

    A high-resolution mapping and sampling study of the Gakkel ridge was accomplished during an international ice-breaker expedition to the high Arctic and North Pole in summer 2001. For this slowest-spreading endmember of the global mid-ocean-ridge system, predictions were that magmatism should progressively diminish as the spreading rate decreases along the ridge, and that hydrothermal activity should be rare. Instead, it was found that magmatic variations are irregular, and that hydrothermal activity is abundant. A 300-kilometre-long central amagmatic zone, where mantle peridotites are emplaced directly in the ridge axis, lies between abundant, continuous volcanism in the west, and large, widely spaced volcanic centres in the east. These observations demonstrate that the extent of mantle melting is not a simple function of spreading rate: mantle temperatures at depth or mantle chemistry (or both) must vary significantly along-axis. Highly punctuated volcanism in the absence of ridge offsets suggests that first-order ridge segmentation is controlled by mantle processes of melting and melt segregation. The strong focusing of magmatic activity coupled with faulting may account for the unexpectedly high levels of hydrothermal activity observed.

  16. Future Projections of Trans-Arctic Shipping Potential and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    As the Arctic Ocean transitions towards a seasonally ice-free state, efforts to predict new connections between the Arctic and the global economy are underway. In particular, record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007-2013 have recast Arctic shipping routes as emerging international seaways for export of resources and as potential alternative pathways for global trade. While ensemble-averaged output from sea ice models suggest significant increases in vessel accessibility in September by midcentury (Smith & Stephenson, 2013), the seasonal length and variability of trans-Arctic shipping is not well understood. In addition, differences in ice extent due to inter-model variability reveal significant uncertainties in the magnitude and location of future vessel access. Here we present several scenarios of 21st-century trans-Arctic shipping as driven by sea ice output from CMIP5 models. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing present-day (2006-2015) and midcentury (2040-2059) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate a range of potential futures for shipping in the Arctic owing to differences in model choice, vessel capability, and climate forcing. Inter-model differences reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  17. Acoustic monitoring in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, using hydrophone of the Ocean Bottom Seismometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sukyoung; Lee, Won Sang; Kuk Hong, Jong; Yoo, Hyun Jae; Park, Yongcheol; Schmidt-Aursch, Mechita; Geissler, Wolfram H.

    2016-04-01

    Although a number of active source seismic experiments have been conducted over the last few decades to investigate the crustal structure in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, long-term observation to monitor underwater tectonic activities and changes in the cryospheric environment still remains challenging due to existence of sea ice in the study region. Korea Polar Research Institute has accomplished successful deployment of ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) in the Ross Sea collaborating with Alfred Wegener Institute during the period of 2011-2012 and 2014 by Korean icebreaker RV Araon. The OBS system manufactured by K.U.M. contains a hydrophone sensor that allow us to monitor underwater acoustics generated by tectonic and ice-related events. We present spectrograms of the continuous hydroacoustic data and various types of signals, e.g. seismic T-waves, iceequakes, and tremors. There are periodic and harmonic tremors that might be related with tidal modulation, and the seasonal variation of the background noise seems to be related with sea ice concentration.

  18. Hydrocarbon production concepts for dynamic annual sea ice regions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, A.T.; Poplin, J.P.; Heure, C.E.

    1995-02-01

    Petroleum production from Russian seas such as the northern Timan-Pechora Basin (Pechora Sea) and the northeastern Sakhalin island Shelf (Sea of Okhotsk) is likely to occur in the near future. Several different types of offshore structures may be needed in the Russian arctic offshore to support development activities. These structures may include: a number of production structures for offshore fields, subsea pipelines, a regional tanker terminal, and ice-breaking tankers. Dynamic first-year sea ice will be a major design consideration for offshore structures considered for use in these areas. Exxon previously performed engineering studies for petroleum development in Norton Sound off the west coast of Alaska. Norton Sound is also an area of dynamic first-year sea ice, so many of the lessons learned and much of the technology developed for that region are considered to be applicable to the Pechora Sea and the Sakhalin Shelf. Several of the concepts for production structures, pipelines, terminals, and tankers are presented along with a discussion of the related ice technology. Field and laboratory studies undertaken to collect environmental data are described along with a probabilistic load calculation procedure for structure design. More recent work by Exxon to enhance technology since the Norton Sound studies is also presented along with a discussion of recommended future work activities.

  19. Computational problems in Arctic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, I.

    2016-02-01

    This article is to inform about main problems in the area of Arctic shelf seismic prospecting and exploitation of the Northern Sea Route: simulation of the interaction of different ice formations (icebergs, hummocks, and drifting ice floes) with fixed ice-resistant platforms; simulation of the interaction of icebreakers and ice- class vessels with ice formations; modeling of the impact of the ice formations on the underground pipelines; neutralization of damage for fixed and mobile offshore industrial structures from ice formations; calculation of the strength of the ground pipelines; transportation of hydrocarbons by pipeline; the problem of migration of large ice formations; modeling of the formation of ice hummocks on ice-resistant stationary platform; calculation the stability of fixed platforms; calculation dynamic processes in the water and air of the Arctic with the processing of data and its use to predict the dynamics of ice conditions; simulation of the formation of large icebergs, hummocks, large ice platforms; calculation of ridging in the dynamics of sea ice; direct and inverse problems of seismic prospecting in the Arctic; direct and inverse problems of electromagnetic prospecting of the Arctic. All these problems could be solved by up-to-date numerical methods, for example, using grid-characteristic method.

  20. Magmatic and amagmatic seafloor generation at the ultraslow-spreading Gakkel ridge, Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Michael, P J; Langmuir, C H; Dick, H J B; Snow, J E; Goldstein, S L; Graham, D W; Lehnert, K; Kurras, G; Jokat, W; Mühe, R; Edmonds, H N

    2003-06-26

    A high-resolution mapping and sampling study of the Gakkel ridge was accomplished during an international ice-breaker expedition to the high Arctic and North Pole in summer 2001. For this slowest-spreading endmember of the global mid-ocean-ridge system, predictions were that magmatism should progressively diminish as the spreading rate decreases along the ridge, and that hydrothermal activity should be rare. Instead, it was found that magmatic variations are irregular, and that hydrothermal activity is abundant. A 300-kilometre-long central amagmatic zone, where mantle peridotites are emplaced directly in the ridge axis, lies between abundant, continuous volcanism in the west, and large, widely spaced volcanic centres in the east. These observations demonstrate that the extent of mantle melting is not a simple function of spreading rate: mantle temperatures at depth or mantle chemistry (or both) must vary significantly along-axis. Highly punctuated volcanism in the absence of ridge offsets suggests that first-order ridge segmentation is controlled by mantle processes of melting and melt segregation. The strong focusing of magmatic activity coupled with faulting may account for the unexpectedly high levels of hydrothermal activity observed. PMID:12827193

  1. Impact of radiosonde observations on forecasting summertime Arctic cyclone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Akira; Inoue, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; König-Langlo, Gert

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Arctic radiosonde observations on the forecasting of the 2012 early August Arctic cyclone AC12—the "strongest" since records began—has been investigated using an observing system experiment (OSE). An atmospheric ensemble reanalysis (ALERA2) was used as the control experiment (CTL) to reproduce the development of the Arctic cyclone and surrounding large-scale atmospheric fields. The OSE applies the same reanalysis as the CTL except for the exclusion of radiosonde observations from the German icebreaker Polarstern, which cruised near Svalbard during mid-July to early August 2012. Comparison of the two reanalyses revealed a difference in the upper tropospheric circulation over northern mid-Eurasia, just before the Arctic cyclone developed, in the form of a stronger tropopause polar vortex in the CTL. This indicated that the upper tropospheric field in the CTL had greater potential for baroclinic instability over mid-Eurasia. Ensemble predictions were then conducted using the two reanalyses as initial values at which the tropopause polar vortex approached northern mid-Eurasia. The CTL prediction reproduced the formation of the Arctic cyclone, but the OSE shows a significantly weaker one. These results indicate that the improved reproduction of upper tropospheric circulation in the Arctic region due to additional radiosonde observations from a mobile platform was indispensable for the prediction of AC12. In particular, observations being acquired far from the Arctic cyclone affect the prediction of the cyclone via the upper tropospheric circulation in the atmospheric west wind drift.

  2. A Surface-to-Environment Synoptic Typing Approach to Classify Cyclone Forcing of Ocean-Sea Ice-Atmosphere Coupling within the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplin, M. G.; Barber, D. G.; Candlish, L. M.; Raddatz, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system represents a key dynamic physical and biophysical interface between the atmosphere, ocean, and sea ice in the Arctic Basin. The CFL system is an area of open water and thin ice, and is formed where the mobile central pack ice moves away from coastal fast ice. This process can release large heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere throughout the winter and spring, thus modifying the regional boundary layer climate. This process was monitored throughout the eleven-month long International Polar Year Circumpolar Flaw Lead System Study, which involved over-wintering the Canadian Research Icebreaker CCGS Amundsen from September 2007 to August 2008 in the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead. In this paper, we propose a technique to generate a surface-to-environment synoptic climatology for the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead region using gridded ice concentration data, and link it to an existing environment-to-surface synoptic climatology based upon sea level pressure to examine dynamic and thermodynamic cyclone forcing of the atmosphere-sea ice interface in the Banks Island flaw lead. The existing environment-to-surface synoptic climatology characterizes atmospheric forcing of sea ice motion well, and it is expected that the surface-to-environment synoptic climatology will be effective at classifying how sea ice concentration forces seasonal boundary layer atmospheric profiles over the Cape Bathurst flaw lead. Cyclone-driven heat and moisture coupling between the ocean and atmosphere within the boundary layer can then be assessed.

  3. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  4. Radiological protection regulation during spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'SevRAO'.

    PubMed

    Simakov, A V; Sneve, M K; Abramov, Yu V; Kochetkov, O A; Smith, G M; Tsovianov, A G; Romanov, V V

    2008-12-01

    The site of temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, situated at Andreeva Bay in Northwest Russia, was developed in the 1960s, and it has carried out receipt and storage of fresh and spent nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive waste generated during the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered icebreakers. The site is now operated as the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, SevRAO. In the course of operation over several decades, the containment barriers in the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste storage facilities partially lost their containment effectiveness, so workshop facilities and parts of the site became contaminated with radioactive substances. This paper describes work being undertaken to provide an updated regulatory basis for the protection of workers during especially hazardous remediation activities, necessary because of the unusual radiation conditions at the site. It describes the results of recent survey work carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, within a programme of regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia. The survey work and subsequent analyses have contributed to the development of special regulations setting out radiological protection requirements for operations planned at the site. Within these requirements, and taking account of a variety of other factors, a continuing need arises for the implementation of optimisation of remediation at Andreeva Bay.

  5. Marine heat flow measurements across subsea permafrost limit in the eastern Mackenzie Trough, Canadian Beaufort Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Riedel, M.; Melling, H.; Kang, S. G.; Dallimore, S.

    2015-12-01

    Marine heat flow measurements using a 5 m-long Ewing-type heat probe were made during Korean icebreaker R/V Araon's Arctic expeditions (ARA04C in 2013 and ARA05B in 2014) to better know the shallow subsurface thermal structure in the eastern slope of Mackenzie Trough, the Canadian Beaufort Sea, in which associative geological processes of permafrost degradation and gas hydrate dissociation occur because of long-term warming since the Last Glacial Maximum. Heat flow in the continental slope was collected for the first time and is rather higher than those from deep boreholes (up to a few km below the seafloor) in the continental shelf. However, the smaller geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity were observed from sites along a transect line across permafrost limit on the eastern slope of the trough. It is noted that geothermal gradients are relatively constant in the vicinity of permafrost limit but are much smaller (even minus) only at deeper depths with positive bottom water temperature. Reason for such distribution is unclear yet. Based on observed geothermal gradient and bottom water temperature, permafrost table shown in subbottom profile seems to be controlled not by temperature. On the other hand, our finding of permafrost evidence on the other subbottom profile located landward may support that permafrost limit in the trough is along with ~100 m isobath.

  6. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  7. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (Including Dimethyl Sulfide), Aerosol Particles, and CCN in the Canadian Arctic: Preliminary Results from the Summer 2014 NETCARE Expedition Aboard the CCGS Amundsen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, E. L.; Abbatt, J.; Lee, A.; Ladino Moreno, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic in summer is a cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) limited environment, and the controls on aerosol number and composition, and thus cloud formation, are poorly understood. A better understanding of these controls and their consequences is required in order to understand the region's changing climate. In order to advance that understanding, during Summer 2014 we deployed instrumentation aboard the CCGS Amundsen, the Canadian research icebreaker. We participated in Legs 1a and 1b of the cruise, affording us observations in locations as varied as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Lancaster Sound, and the Nares Strait. We collected on-line measurements with high time resolution of particle number, size and CCN activity as well as mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including dimethyl sulfide, which has been implicated as an important contributor to the CCN population in the Arctic. We also attempted to directly measure air-sea fluxes of dimethyl sulfide using a high resolution time of flight mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS, Aerodyne) sampling at 10 Hz. Here, we report preliminary results from those measurements.

  8. Operational Use of Near Real Time Remote sensing Data at the U.S. National Ice Center (NIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Colon, P.

    2012-12-01

    The National Ice Center (NIC) is a U.S. Government agency that brings together the Department of Defense - Navy, Department of Commerce - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Department of Homeland Security - U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) to support coastal and marine sea ice operations and research in the Polar Regions. The NIC provides specialized strategic and tactical ice analyses to meet the operational needs of the U.S. government and is the only operational ice service in the world that monitors sea ice in both the Arctic, Antarctic regions as well as in other ice infested waters. NIC utilizes multiple sources of near real time satellite and in-situ observations as well as NWP and ocean-sea ice model output to produce sea ice analyses. Key users of NIC products in the Arctic include the Navy submarine force, National Weather Service, USCG and Canadian Coast Guard icebreakers, Military Sealift Command on re-supply missions to Antarctica and Greenland, and NOAA research vessels operating near sea ice cover in both hemispheres as well. Time series of NIC weekly or bi-weekly ice analysis charts, daily marginal ice zone and ice edge routine products, as well as tactical support annotated imagery are generated by expert analysts with wide access to near real time satellite imagery from VIS/IR to passive and active microwave sensors. The status of these satellite data streams and the expected availability of new capabilities in the near future will be discussed.

  9. Modern benthic foraminifer distribution in the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishman, S.E.; Foley, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    A total of 38 box cores were collected from the Amerasian Basin, Arctic Ocean during the U.S. Geological Survey 1992 (PI92-AR) and 1993 (PI93-AR) Arctic Cruises aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Icebreaker Polar Star. In addition, the cruises collected geophysical data, piston cores and hydrographic data to address the geologic and oceanographic history of the western Arctic Ocean. This paper reports the results of the quantitative analyses of benthic foraminifer distribution data of the total (live + dead) assemblages derived from 22 box core-top samples. The results show that a distinct depth distribution of three dominant benthic foraminifer assemblages, the Textularia spp. - Spiroplectammina biformis, Cassidulina teretis and Oridorsalis tener - Eponides tumidulus Biofacies are strongly controlled by the dominant water masses within the Canada Basin: the Arctic Surface Water, Arctic Intermediate Water and Canada Basin Deep Water. The faunal distributions and their oceanographic associations in the Canada Basin are consistent with observations of benthic foraminifer distributions from other regions within the Arctic Ocean.

  10. Low Density of Top Predators (Seabirds and Marine Mammals) in the High Arctic Pack Ice

    PubMed Central

    Boos, Karin; D'Hert, Diederik; Nachtsheim, Dominik A.

    2016-01-01

    The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross's gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. Five pinniped species were represented by a total of 55 individuals and the polar bear Ursus maritimus was represented by 12 individuals. Four main geographical zones were identified: from Tromsø to the outer marginal ice zone (OMIZ), the Arctic pack ice (close pack ice, CPI), the end of Lomonosov Ridge off Siberia, and the route off Siberia and northern Norway. Important differences were detected between zones, both in species composition and in individual abundance. Low numbers of species and high proportion of individuals for some of them can be considered to reflect very low biodiversity. Numbers encountered in zones 2 to 4 were very low in comparison with other European Arctic seas. The observed differences showed strong patterns. PMID:27777810

  11. Carbon dioxide in Arctic and subarctic regions

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T. A.; Kelley, J. J.

    1981-03-01

    A three year research project was presented that would define the role of the Arctic ocean, sea ice, tundra, taiga, high latitude ponds and lakes and polar anthropogenic activity on the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere. Due to the large physical and geographical differences between the two polar regions, a comparison of CO/sub 2/ source and sink strengths of the two areas was proposed. Research opportunities during the first year, particularly those aboard the Swedish icebreaker, YMER, provided additional confirmatory data about the natural source and sink strengths for carbon dioxide in the Arctic regions. As a result, the hypothesis that these natural sources and sinks are strong enough to significantly affect global atmospheric carbon dioxide levels is considerably strengthened. Based on the available data we calculate that the whole Arctic region is a net annual sink for about 1.1 x 10/sup 15/ g of CO/sub 2/, or the equivalent of about 5% of the annual anthropogenic input into the atmosphere. For the second year of this research effort, research on the seasonal sources and sinks of CO/sub 2/ in the Arctic will be continued. Particular attention will be paid to the seasonal sea ice zones during the freeze and thaw periods, and the tundra-taiga regions, also during the freeze and thaw periods.

  12. Development of 1 MW-class HTS motor for podded ship propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemoto, K.; Aizawa, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Numano, M.; Okumura, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Gocho, Y.; Kosuge, E.

    2010-06-01

    To reduce fuel consumption and lead to a major reduction of pollution from NOx, SOx and CO2, the electric ship propulsion system is one of the most prospective substitutes for conventional ship propulsion systems. In order to spread it, innovative technologies for the improvement of the power transmission are required. The high temperature superconducting technology has the possibility for a drastic reduction of power transmission loss. Recently, electric podded propulsions have become popular for large cruise vessels, icebreakers and chemical tankers because of the flexibility of the equipment arrangement and the stern hull design, and better maneuverability in harbour, etc. In this paper, a 1 MW-class High temperature superconducting (HTS) motor with high efficiency, smaller size and simple structure, which is designed and manufactured for podded propulsion, is reported. For the case of a coastal ship driven by the optimized podded propulsion in which the 1MW HTS motor is equipped, the reductions of fluid dynamic resistance and power transmission losses are demonstrated. The present research & development has been supported by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO).

  13. Microwave signature of sea-ice for GCOM-W1/AMSR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoki, K.; Nishio, F.; Yoshikawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    The lowest Arctic sea-ice cover has been recorded in September 2007. After that, though it has increased in 2008 and 2009, it has decreased again in 2010. The factor of the sea-ice change is researched in various fields. Monitoring of a thin sea-ice thickness is important as these researches because the sea-ice thickness has influences for the heat budget. However the retrieval of thin sea-ice thickness is difficult because thin sea-ice brightness temperature (TB) depends on the salinity and temperature, and there exist the snow over the thin sea-ice. In order to know the relationship between sea-ice TB and sea-ice parameters, we observed thin sea-ice TB using Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR) and measured ice thickness by ship. The effect of sea-ice parameters on the TB was examined by model. The brightness temperature of the thin sea-ice was observed using PSR on board an aircraft in the Okhotsk on February 7, 2003. The sea-ice thickness was measured from the icebreaker synchronizing with the aircraft. The TB calculated the variation at the sea-ice with/without of the snow, thickness, and the density of the snow. The calculated result was consistent with the observed one in the 18GHz-Hpol. We show the snow density influenced the increased brightness temperature.

  14. Submarine Landslides in Arctic Sedimentation: Canada Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Lebedova-Ivanova, N; Chapman, C.

    2016-01-01

    Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is the least studied ocean basin in the World. Marine seismic field programs were conducted over the past 6 years using Canadian and American icebreakers. These expeditions acquired more than 14,000 line-km of multibeam bathymetric and multi-channel seismic reflection data over abyssal plain, continental rise and slope regions of Canada Basin; areas where little or no seismic reflection data existed previously. Canada Basin is a turbidite-filled basin with flat-lying reflections correlateable over 100s of km. For the upper half of the sedimentary succession, evidence of sedimentary processes other than turbidity current deposition is rare. The Canadian Archipelago and Beaufort Sea margins host stacked mass transport deposits from which many of these turbidites appear to derive. The stratigraphic succession of the MacKenzie River fan is dominated by mass transport deposits; one such complex is in excess of 132,000 km2 in area and underlies much of the southern abyssal plain. The modern seafloor is also scarred with escarpments and mass failure deposits; evidence that submarine landsliding is an ongoing process. In its latest phase of development, Canada Basin is geomorphologically confined with stable oceanographic structure, resulting in restricted depositional/reworking processes. The sedimentary record, therefore, underscores the significance of mass-transport processes in providing sediments to oceanic abyssal plains as few other basins are able to do.

  15. Leaching of radionuclides from furfural-based polymers used to solidify reactor compartments and components disposed of in the Arctic Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.H.; SIVINTSEV,Y.; ALEXANDROV,V.P.; DYER,R.S.

    1999-09-01

    Within the course of operating its nuclear navy, the former Soviet Union (FSU) disposed of reactor vessels and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in three fjords on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya and in the open Kara Sea within the Novaya Zemlya Trough during the period 1965 to 1988. The dumping consisted of 16 reactors, six of which contained SNF and one special container that held ca. 60% of the damaged SNF and the screening assembly from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker Lenin. At the time, the FSU considered dumping of decommissioned nuclear submarines with damaged cores in the bays of and near by the Novaya Zemlya archipelago in the Arctic Kara Sea to be acceptable. To provide an additional level of safety, a group of Russian scientists embarked upon a course of research to develop a solidification agent that would provide an ecologically safe barrier. The barrier material would prevent direct contact of seawater with the SNF and the resultant leaching and release of radionuclides. The solidification agent was to be introduced by flooding the reactors vessels and inner cavities. Once introduced the agent would harden and form an impermeable barrier. This report describes the sample preparation of several ``Furfurol'' compositions and their leach testing using cesium 137 as tracer.

  16. Furfural-based polymers for the sealing of reactor vessels dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.H.; COWGILL,M.G.; SIVINTSEV,Y.V.; ALEXANDROV,V.P.; DYER,R.S.

    1996-10-07

    Between 1965 and 1988, 16 naval reactor vessels were dumped in the Arctic Kara Sea. Six of the vessels contained spent nuclear fuel that had been damaged during accidents. In addition, a container holding {approximately} 60% of the damaged fuel from the No. 2 reactor of the atomic icebreaker Lenin was dumped in 1967. Before dumping, the vessels were filled with a solidification agent, Conservant F, in order to prevent direct contact between the seawater and the fuel and other activated components, thereby reducing the potential for release of radionuclides into the environment. The key ingredient in Conservant F is furfural (furfuraldehyde). Other constituents vary, depending on specific property requirements, but include epoxy resin, mineral fillers, and hardening agents. In the liquid state (prior to polymerization) Conservant F is a low viscosity, homogeneous resin blend that provides long work times (6--9 hours). In the cured state, Conservant F provides resistance to water and radiation, has high adhesion properties, and results in minimal gas evolution. This paper discusses the properties of Conservant F in both its cured and uncured states and the potential performance of the waste packages containing spent nuclear fuel in the Arctic Kara Sea.

  17. Peaceful uses of electrical engineering in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremetyevskiy, N. N.

    1988-08-01

    In the 30 years since the world's first satellite was launched by the Soviet Union, space engineering has evolved into an independent field of science and engineering and one which is solving a broad range of scientific and technical problems concerning various branches of the national economy. Everyone knows of the Molniya and Raduga satellites, the Meteor weather satellites, the Salyut and Mir orbiting space stations and many others used to study near-earth and outer space, for radio and television broadcasting, weather forecasting and charting courses for ice-breakers. The collectives at the scientific research institutes and plants of the electrical equipment industry participate actively in solving the scientific-technical problems of space engineering. The branch has developed many tens of thousands of items for space engineering, including solar batteries, storage batteries, illumination engineering, cable products, and much more. Work done by electrical engineers to develop hardware components for orientation and power systems, automated systems, meteorology and resources-study is described and some important contributions to the peaceful use of space for the benefit of the Soviet people and all mankind are noted.

  18. On hovercraft overwater heave stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinchey, M. J.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1993-05-01

    The dynamic heave stability of an air cushion vehicle or hovercraft hovering over deep water without forward motion is investigated analytically. The principal feature of the analysis is the modeling of the motion of the water surface beneath the cushion caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the cushion or cavity air. This surface motion interacts with the vehicle dynamics by modulating both the volume and exit flow area of the cushion. For analytical simplicity, the geometry chosen for study is a 2D section of a rigid wall plenum chamber; this enables exploitation of classical linear wave formulas developed by Lamb for the surface motion generated by a spatially uniform surface pressure oscillating sinusoidally in time. To assess stability characteristics, the Nyquist criterion is applied to the linearized equations. Results are presented for two cases: one is representative of a small test vehicle, and the other of a large ice-breaking platform. They show that the water surface motion significantly affects stability through both of the proposed mechanisms, with cushion exit flow area modulation usually being more important. A feature of the results is that as the weight of a vehicle decreases many stability transitions occur. This suggests that simple guidelines for avoiding instability may not exist, so that stability augmentation devices may be required for vehicles designed to hover for extended periods over water.

  19. The 23 November 2003 Total Solar Eclipse in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    The total solar eclipse of 23 November 2003 will be visible only from Antarctica. The path of totality extends from Mirny at 93°E to the Maitri Novolazarevskaya 12°E. Totality lasts from 1 minute 54 seconds at Mirny with the Sun at an altitude of 14° to a maximum of 1 minute 57 seconds at greatest eclipse halfway in toward Vostok with the Sun at an altitude of 18° to 1 minute 20 s with the Sun 2° above the horizon where the path leaves the coast near Maitri. The rest of Antarctica will have only a partial eclipse with the Sun's diameter 77% covered at McMurdo and 65° covered at the tip near South America. An icebreaker passenger ship is planning a 28-day voyage and airplanes are being arranged for observation. Scientific observations will include electronic imaging of the corona to compare with simultaneous space observations of the Sun. Links to maps and other items of coordination can be found at www.eclipses.info and www.totalsolareclipse.net the sites of the IAU Program Group on Public Education at the Time of Eclipses and of the IAU Working Group on Eclipses respectively. The NASA site with maps and other information is at sunearth.gsfc.nasa.gov/eclipse/TSE2003/TSE2003.html

  20. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on ""CO2 sequestration geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie; Lumley, David; Sherlock, Don; Daley, Tom; Lawton, Don; Masters, Ron; Verliac, Michel; White, Don

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on 'CO{sub 2} Sequestration Geophysics' was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier. Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO{sub 2} sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  1. New data from cold war treasure trove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    For half a century, the Russian and United States navies competed for tactical advantage in the Arctic Ocean, mapping seafloor and floating ice sheets, measuring temperatures and reckoning chemistry. But with old enemies becoming new friends, data once collected for the sake of war now are being shared in the name of scientific cooperation.In mid-January, the U.S. and Russian governments announced the release of the first of four volumes of a new atlas of the Arctic Ocean. The previously classified data it contains will effectively double the amount of Arctic data that is available to the scientific community. The set includes more than 1.3 million temperature and salinity observations collected from 1948 to 1993 by drifting ice camps and stations, icebreaking ships, land—and airborne expeditions, and buoys. Approximately 70% of the observations for the Arctic Ocean and shelf seas were derived from Russian archives of formerly restricted data, with the other 30% coming from comparable sources in the U.S., Canada, and other Western nations.

  2. Promoting Scientist Communications Through Graduate Summer School in Heliophysics and Space Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, N. A.; Schrijver, K.; Bagenal, F.; Sojka, J. J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    edagogical tools that promote student interaction can be applied successfully during graduate workshops to enhance community and communication among the participants and instructors. The NASA/LWS funded Heliophysics Summer School and the NSF funded Space Weather Summer School provide graduate students starting research in the field, and others who are involved in space physics, an opportunity to learn from and interact with leaders in the field and each other. These interactions can happen casually, but there are a number of programatic aspects that foster the interaction so that they can be as fruitful as possible during the short period. These include: specific "ice-breaker" activities, practicing "elevator speeches", embedded lecture questions, question cards, discussion questions, interactive lab activities, structured lab groups, and use of social media. We are continuing to develop new ways to foster profession interaction during these short courses. Along with enhancing their own learning, the inclusion of these strategies provides both the participants and the instructors with models of good pedagogical tools and builds community among the students. Our specific implementation of these strategies and evidence of success will be presented.

  3. Mapping the Surficial Geology of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, D. C.; Jakobsson, M.; Gebhardt, C.; Mayer, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Surficial geologic mapping of the Arctic Ocean was undertaken to provide a basis for understanding different geologic environments in this polar setting. Mapping was based on data acquired from numerous icebreaker and submarine missions to the polar region. The intent was to create a geologic layer overlying the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean. Analysis of subbottom profiler and multibeam bathymetric data in conjunction with sediment cores and the regional morphology rendered from the IBCAO data were used to map different surficial geologic units. For a relatively small ocean basin, the Arctic Ocean reveals a plethora of margin and basin types reflecting both the complex tectonic origins of the basin and its diverse sedimentation history. Broad and narrow shelves were subjected to a complex ice-margin history in the Quaternary, and bear the sediment types and morphological features as a result. Some shelfal areas are heavily influenced by rivers. Extensive deep water ridges and plateaus are isolated from coastal input and have a long history of hemipelagic deposition. An active spreading ridge and regions of recent volcanism have volcani-clastic and heavily altered sediments. Some regions of the Arctic Ocean are proposed to have been influenced by bolide impact. The flanks of the basins demonstrate complex sedimentation patterns resulting from mass failures and ice-margin outflow. The deep basins of the Arctic Ocean are filled with turbidites resulting from these mass-flows and are interbedded with hemiplegic deposits.

  4. Interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in the pack-ice zone off Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Fuko; Tamura, Takeshi; Shimoda, Haruhito; Uto, Shotaro; Simizu, Daisuke; Tateyama, Kazutaka; Hoshino, Seita; Ozeki, Toshihiro; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Ushio, Shuki; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2016-03-01

    Under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) program, sea-ice thickness has been routinely monitored off Lützow-Holm Bay (East Antarctica) during the summer (mid-December to early January) since 2000/01, using an electromagnetic induction (EM) instrument onboard the icebreaker Shirase. Analysis of these data over a 10-year period, combined with visual observations using a simplified form of the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea ice Processes and Climate) protocol, suggests a strong interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in this region. For the repeat pack-ice observation area, where the sea-ice thickness averaged over the nine seasons is ∼1.9 m, mean thicknesses of observed sea-ice in 2010/11 and 2011/12 are exceptionally large, at ∼3.3 and ∼5.8 m, respectively. This result is strongly related to regional patterns of sea ice dynamics. Ice convergence caused by anomalous northerly winds was particularly high in 2011/12, suggesting that the extremely thick ice observed in that season resulted largely from sea-ice deformation processes (including pressure ridging). Longer-term analysis of data from the past 34 years confirms that sea-ice conditions and thickness off Lützow-Holm Bay in summer are determined mainly by the large-scale pattern of atmospheric pressure in December.

  5. Physical properties and constraints of hydrothermal plumes on the Gakkel Ridge during AGAVE 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsor, P.; Liljebladh, B.; Edmonds, H. N.; Stranne, C.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Tupper, G.; Upchurch, L.

    2007-12-01

    The unique hydrographic characteristics of the Arctic Ocean have important implications for the dynamical behavior of hydrothermal plumes. Some of the main issues include the weak density stratification of the deep bottom layer, topographical effects from a deep axial valley, and high-latitude tides. We address these issues using analytical and numerical models, and comparing the results to hydrographic water column plume data acquired during the Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) from July 1 to August 10, 2007. A total of 36 CTD casts were conducted from the icebreaker Oden at two main sites (85N 7E and 85N 85E), where different modes of hydrothermal circulation appear to generate different kinds of water column plumes. Several plume signals of varying thickness and rise height above the bottom were observed, which implies that several seafloor sources with distinct discharge characteristics were active during the surveys. We use our models to constrain the character of the seafloor sources, and discuss observational strategies for future field work aimed at locating and mapping hydrothermal sources in the deep Arctic.

  6. Mapping of Hydrothermal Plumes on the Gakkel Ridge During AGAVE 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonds, H. N.; Winsor, P.; Nakamura, K.; Liljebladh, B.; Upchurch, L. M.; Stranne, C.; Tupper, G.; Jakuba, M.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T. M.; Singh, H.; Reves-Sohn, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    During the Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition in July and August, 2007, hydrothermal plumes were located and mapped in two distinct regions of the Gakkel Ridge, using both a CTD-rosette and the AUV PUMA, deployed from the icebreaker Oden and equipped with optical (backscatter and transmission) and redox (Eh) sensors in addition to standard CTD instrumentation. CTD casts were conducted in two modes, standard vertical casts and "drift-yo's", which are analogous to tow-yos but whose speed and direction are determined by the ice drift rather than purposeful movement of the ship. At 7.5 degrees east, two MAPR profiles separated by about 10 km in 2001 showed sharp anomalies in temperature and optical backscatter at about 2800 m water depth. We conducted 16 CTD casts in this region, successfully relocating the plume at 2800 m and finding it to be confined to a narrow (approximately 800 m wide in the across-axis direction), along-axis flow. While the amplitude and smoothness of the temperature and backscatter profiles varied with location indicating relative proximity to the source of the plume, no Eh anomalies were observed nor was a seafloor source located. At the volcanically active 85 degrees E site, a total of 20 CTD casts and drifts, and 3 PUMA dives identified at least 6 different plumes, that can be differentiated based on their depths, spatial variability, and/or the strength and nature of the various signals obtained, but again no seafloor source was localized.

  7. Ice-Tethered Profiler observations of the double-diffusive staircase in the Canada Basin thermocline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, M.-L.; Toole, J.; Krishfield, R.; Winsor, P.

    2008-01-01

    Six Ice-Tethered Profilers (ITP), deployed in the central Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean between 2004 and 2007, have provided detailed potential temperature and salinity measurements of a double-diffusive staircase at about 200-300 m depth. Individual layers in the staircase are of order 1 m in vertical height but appear to extend horizontally for hundreds of kilometers, with along-layer gradients of temperature and salinity tightly related. On the basis of laboratory-derived double-diffusive flux laws, estimated vertical heat fluxes through the staircase are in the range 0.05-0.3 W m-2, only about one tenth of the estimated mean surface mixed layer heat flux to the sea ice. It is thus concluded that the vertical transport of heat from the Atlantic Water in the central basin is unlikely to have a significant impact to the Canada Basin ocean surface heat budget. Icebreaker conductivity-temperature-depth data from the Beaufort Gyre Freshwater Experiment show that the staircase is absent at the basin periphery. Turbulent mixing that presumably disrupts the staircase might drive greater flux from the Atlantic Water at the basin boundaries and possibly dominate the regionally averaged heat flux.

  8. Data/model integration for vertical mixing in the stable Arctic boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; ReVelle, D.O.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Bigg, E.K.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a short Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Data on atmospheric trace constituents and the vertical structure of stratus clouds from a 1996 expedition to the central Arctic reveal mechanisms of vertical mixing that have not been observed in mid-latitudes. Time series of the altitude and thickness of summer arctic stratus have been observed using an elastic backscatter lidar aboard an icebreaker. With the ship moored to the pack ice during 14 data collection stations and the lidar staring vertically, the time series represent advected cloud fields. The lidar data reveal a significant amount of vertical undulation in the clouds, strongly suggestive of traveling waves in the buoyantly damped atmosphere that predominates in the high Arctic. Concurrent observations of trace gases associated with the natural sulfur cycle (dimethyl sulfide, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and aerosols show evidence of vertical mixing events that coincide with a characteristic signature in the cloud field that may be called dropout or lift out. A segment of a cloud deck appears to be relocated from the otherwise quasicontinuous layer to another altitude a few hundred meters lower or higher. Atmospheric models have been applied to identify the mechanism that cause the dropout phenomenon and connect it dynamically to the surface layer mixing.

  9. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on"CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    SciTech Connect

    Lumley, D.; Sherlock, D.; Daley, T.; Huang, L.; Lawton, D.; Masters, R.; Verliac, M.; White, D.

    2010-01-15

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on CO2 Sequestration Geophysics was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee (see side bar) representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier (Figures 1-2). Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO2 sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  10. Polarization of 'water-skies' above arctic open waters: how polynyas in the ice-cover can be visually detected from a distance.

    PubMed

    Hegedüs, Ramón; Akesson, Susanne; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-01-01

    The foggy sky above a white ice-cover and a dark water surface (permanent polynya or temporary lead) is white and dark gray, phenomena called the 'ice-sky' and the 'water-sky,' respectively. Captains of icebreaker ships used to search for not-directly-visible open waters remotely on the basis of the water sky. Animals depending on open waters in the Arctic region may also detect not-directly-visible waters from a distance by means of the water sky. Since the polarization of ice-skies and water-skies has not, to our knowledge, been studied before, we measured the polarization patterns of water-skies above polynyas in the arctic ice-cover during the Beringia 2005 Swedish polar research expedition to the North Pole region. We show that there are statistically significant differences in the angle of polarization between the water-sky and the ice-sky. This polarization phenomenon could help biological and man-made sensors to detect open waters not directly visible from a distance. However, the threshold of polarization-based detection would be rather low, because the degree of linear polarization of light radiated by water-skies and ice-skies is not higher than 10%.

  11. Impacts of projected sea ice changes on trans-Arctic navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Smith, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Reduced Arctic sea ice continues to be a palpable signal of global change. Record lows in September sea ice extent from 2007 - 2011 have fueled speculation that trans-Arctic navigation routes may become physically viable in the 21st century. General Circulation Models project a nearly ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer by mid-century; however, how reduced sea ice will realistically impact navigation is not well understood. Using the ATAM (Arctic Transportation Accessibility Model) we present simulations of 21st-century trans-Arctic voyages as a function of climatic (ice) conditions and vessel class. Simulations are based on sea ice projections for three climatic forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5 W/m^2) representing present-day and mid-century conditions, assuming Polar Class 6 (PC6) and open-water vessels (OW) with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Optimal least-cost routes (minimizing travel time while avoiding ice impassible to a given vessel class) between the North Atlantic and the Bering Strait were calculated for summer months of each time window. While Arctic navigation depends on other factors besides sea ice including economics, infrastructure, bathymetry, current, and weather, these projections should be useful for strategic planning by governments, regulatory and environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry to assess potential changes in the spatial and temporal ranges of Arctic marine operations.

  12. Radiological protection regulation during spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'SevRAO'.

    PubMed

    Simakov, A V; Sneve, M K; Abramov, Yu V; Kochetkov, O A; Smith, G M; Tsovianov, A G; Romanov, V V

    2008-12-01

    The site of temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, situated at Andreeva Bay in Northwest Russia, was developed in the 1960s, and it has carried out receipt and storage of fresh and spent nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive waste generated during the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered icebreakers. The site is now operated as the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, SevRAO. In the course of operation over several decades, the containment barriers in the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste storage facilities partially lost their containment effectiveness, so workshop facilities and parts of the site became contaminated with radioactive substances. This paper describes work being undertaken to provide an updated regulatory basis for the protection of workers during especially hazardous remediation activities, necessary because of the unusual radiation conditions at the site. It describes the results of recent survey work carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, within a programme of regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia. The survey work and subsequent analyses have contributed to the development of special regulations setting out radiological protection requirements for operations planned at the site. Within these requirements, and taking account of a variety of other factors, a continuing need arises for the implementation of optimisation of remediation at Andreeva Bay. PMID:19029583

  13. Agglutinated Foraminifera indicate a deep bottom current over the Hovgaard Ridge, West of Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Michael; Frank, Niessen

    2015-04-01

    The Hovgård Ridge is situated in Fram Strait, west of Spitsbergen. The ridge either represents a submerged fragment of continental crust or an upwarped fragmant of ocean crust within the Fram Strait. Its crest rises to a water depth of approx. 1170 m. During Expedition 87 of the Icebreaker POLARSTERN in August 2014, a sediment-echosounding profile was recorded and a boxcore station was collected from the crest of Hovgård Ridge at 1169 m water depth. The surficial sediment at this station consists of dark yellowish brown pebbly-sandy mud with a minor admixture of biogenic components in the coarse fraction. Patches of large tubular foraminifera and isolated pebbles were clearly visible on the sediment surface. The sediment surface of the boxcore was covered with patches of large (>1 mm diameter) large tubular astrorhizids belonging mostly to the species Astrorhiza crassatina Brady, with smaller numbers of Saccorhiza, Hyperammina, and Psammosiphonella. Non-tubular species consist mainly of opportunistic forms such as Psammosphaera and Reophax. The presence of large suspension-feeding tubular genera as well as opportunistic forms, as well as sediment winnowing, point to the presence of a deep current at this locality that is strong enough to disturb the benthic fauna. This is confirmed by data obtained from sediment echosounding, which exhibit lateral variation of relative sedimentation rates within the Pleistocene sedimentary drape covering the ridge indicative of winnowing in a south-easterly direction.

  14. Introduction: SIPEX-2: A study of sea-ice physical, biogeochemical and ecosystem processes off East Antarctica during spring 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, Klaus M.; Golden, Ken M.; Heil, Petra; Lieser, Jan L.; Massom, Rob; Meyer, Bettina; Williams, Guy D.

    2016-09-01

    This editorial introduces a suite of articles resulting from the second Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment (SIPEX-2) voyage by presenting some background information on the study area and Antarctic sea-ice conditions, and summarising the key findings from the project. Using the Australian icebreaker RV Aurora Australis, SIPEX-2 was conducted in the area between 115-125°E and 62-66°S off East Antarctica during September to November 2012. This region had been sampled during two previous experiments, i.e. ARISE in 2003 (Massom et al., 2006a) and SIPEX in 2007 (Worby et al., 2011a). The 2012 voyage combined traditional and newly developed sampling methods with satellite and other data to measure sea-ice physical properties and processes on large scales, which provided context for biogeochemical and ecological case studies. The specific goals of the SIPEX-2 project were to: (i) measure the spatial variability in sea-ice and snow-cover properties over small- to regional-length scales; (ii) improve understanding of sea-ice kinematic processes; and (iii) advance knowledge of the links between sea-ice physical characteristics, sea-ice biogeochemical cycling and ice-associated food-web dynamics. Our field-based activities were designed to inform modelling approaches and to improve our capability to assess impacts of predicted changes in Antarctic sea ice on Southern Ocean biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem function.

  15. Energy and mass exchange between ocean and atmosphere in the area of winter polynya to the north of Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Boris; Wesman, Anna; Sviashchennikov, Pavel; Pavlov, Alexey

    2015-04-01

    The warm inflow of the West Spitsbergen Current keeps waters ice-free in winter to the north of Svalbard, an area also called the Whalers Bay. Here we present results of the winter expedition in the Arctic Ocean to the north of Svalbard on board a research vessel «Helmer Hanssen» in January 2012. The characteristics of the turbulent energy and mass exchange are calculated using an algorithm, which is based on semi-empirical theory of "Monin-Obukhov", adapted to the conditions of marine meteorological observations. The results are compared with the data obtained in this area in February 1986 on board Russian research icebreaker "Otto Schmidt". The features of energy-mass exchange are explained by synoptic and ice conditions in the study area. Intense heat and mass exchange in the area leads to enhanced convective mixing and, thus, upwelling of nutrients to surface waters that can contribute to higher biological activity in the area throughout the food web.

  16. Arctic Ocean circulation, processes and water masses: A description of observations and ideas with focus on the period prior to the International Polar Year 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudels, Bert

    2015-03-01

    The evolving knowledge of the Arctic Ocean, its hydrography and its water masses and their transformations and circulation is reviewed starting with the observations made on Fram 1893-1896 and extending to the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009. The expeditions and observations after Fram to the mid 20th century as well as the more extensive and systematic studies of water masses and circulation made from ice stations and airborne expeditions from the late 1940s to the late 1970s are briefly described. The early concepts of the connections and exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the world ocean are also discussed. In the 1980s scientific icebreakers were beginning to enter the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean and large international programmes were launched, culminating in the IPY. The changes in the Arctic Ocean, first noted in the Atlantic layer in 1990 and shortly after in the upper layers, are described. The exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding seas through the four main openings, Fram Strait, Barents Sea, Bering Strait and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago as well the volume and freshwater balances of the Arctic Ocean are examined.

  17. Detection of whale calls in noise: performance comparison between a beluga whale, human listeners, and a neural network.

    PubMed

    Erbe, C

    2000-07-01

    This article examines the masking by anthropogenic noise of beluga whale calls. Results from human masking experiments and a software backpropagation neural network are compared to the performance of a trained beluga whale. The goal was to find an accurate, reliable, and fast model to replace lengthy and expensive animal experiments. A beluga call was masked by three types of noise, an icebreaker's bubbler system and propeller noise, and ambient arctic ice-cracking noise. Both the human experiment and the neural network successfully modeled the beluga data in the sense that they classified the noises in the same order from strongest to weakest masking as the whale and with similar call-detection thresholds. The neural network slightly outperformed the humans. Both models were then used to predict the masking of a fourth type of noise, Gaussian white noise. Their prediction ability was judged by returning to the aquarium to measure masked-hearing thresholds of a beluga in white noise. Both models and the whale identified bubbler noise as the strongest masker, followed by ramming, then white noise. Natural ice-cracking noise masked the least. However, the humans and the neural network slightly overpredicted the amount of masking for white noise. This is neglecting individual variation in belugas, because only one animal could be trained. Comparing the human model to the neural network model, the latter has the advantage of objectivity, reproducibility of results, and efficiency, particularly if the interference of a large number of signals and noise is to be examined.

  18. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    -pulse radar measurements of ice thickness. The radar data was relayed by a NOAA satellite to a ground station where NOAA analyzed it and created picture maps, such as the one shown at lower left, showing where icebreakers can cut paths easily or where shipping can move through thin ice without the aid of icebreakers. The ice charts were then relayed directly to the wheelhouses of ships operating on the Lakes. Following up the success of the Great Lakes program, the icewarn team applied its system in another demonstration, this one a similarly successful application designed to aid Arctic coast shipping along the Alaskan North Slope. Further improvement of the ice-monitoring system is planned. Although aircraft-mounted radar is effective, satellites could provide more frequent data. After the launch this year of Seasat, an ocean-monitoring satellite, NASA will conduct tests to determine the ice-mapping capability and accuracy of satellite radar images.

  19. The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition -AMORE 2001- Seafloor Spreading at the Top of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, P. J.; Thiede, J.; Dick, H. J.; Goldstein, S. L.; Graham, D.; Jokat, W.; Langmuir, C. H.; Muhe, R.; Snow, J. E.

    2001-12-01

    From the end of July until early October, 2001 a remarkable expedition was undertaken to map and sample the submarine Gakkel Ridge and its surrounding basins. Preliminary results of this expedition are presented at this meeting. Gakkel Ridge extends 1800 km from north of Greenland to Laptev Sea, all of it beneath Arctic sea ice. It is the most remote and slowest spreading ridge (western end =1.6 cm/yr; eastern end=0.6 cm/yr) portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system. The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge Expedition (AMORE) was an international effort involving Germany's research icebreaker RV POLARSTERN and the new U.S. research icebreaker USCGC HEALY on its maiden scientific voyage. This historic and highly successful expedition fulfilled goals set forth by InterRidge in charting and sampling Gakkel Ridge. Over 130 sites along 1000 km of Gakkel Ridge were sampled for igneous rocks in permanently ice-covered waters. Distinctive geochemical trends and anomalies in basalts analyzed onboard show that the extent of mantle melting is low and varies along axis although not systematically with spreading rate. They also show systematic variations in source composition. Peridotites are less refractory and less altered than most other oceanic mantle peridotites. Surprisingly, the ships' bottom mapping sonar systems generated superb maps of the seafloor even while the ships were breaking ice. Although they cover a narrower region than SCICEX maps (Cochran et al., in prep.) they have better resolution and navigation and they cover the western part of the ridge. Geological features can be interpreted more confidently than with SCICEX data. There is an abrupt change in ridge depth, character and morphology at about 3 degr East. From 8 degr W to 3 degr E there are elongate constructional ridges which are nearly continuous and not offset from each other. From 3 degr E to 70 degr E the ridge has deep axial clefts that are separated by shallower, evenly-spaced volcanic saddles, sometimes

  20. Accessibility Dynamics in a Warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S.; Smith, L. C.; Agnew, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    A promising area of future research is the intersection of the physical manifestations of climate change with the human response. We present a first modeling framework integrating the changing accessibility regimes of the Arctic maritime and terrestrial environments. Climate change has spurred global interest in the Arctic as an arena of new potential for petroleum exploration and intercontinental shipping. While General Circulation Models predict thickness and extent of sea ice throughout the 21st century, the degree to which ice thinning and recession will increase transportation access at the circumpolar scale is not well understood. At the same time, warming of the Arctic terrestrial environment foreshadows a shorter winter road operating season and reduced access for communities and industries reliant on these temporary roads for winter ground transport. CCSM3 temperature data and CSIM5 sea ice data for two periods of analysis (2000-2014; 2045-2059) were integrated with GLC2000 land cover, ETOPO2 elevation and slope, VMAP0 infrastructure, and other terrain feature datasets to calculate circumpolar accessibility for a baseline and a future scenario. Accessibility data were combined in a GIS to produce maps of changing transportation access on land and at sea by mid-century. For the period 2045-2059, access at sea was found to increase substantially throughout the Arctic for ships with some icebreaking capability: previously inaccessible thick ice cover decreased in the central Arctic Ocean by an average of 64% annually. Conversely, terrestrial access by winter roads was found to decrease markedly in November and April while access along inland waterways increased in October. As climate change brings warmer temperatures to some of the world’s remotest communities, the remoteness of communities itself undergoes a profound change. This study attempts to provide a physical basis to the discussion of human activity in the Arctic over the next 50 years.

  1. The Murmansk Initiative-RF: Completion

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.; Wester, D. W.; Dyer, R. S.; Sorlie, A. A.; Moller, B.

    2003-02-24

    The Murmansk Initiative-RF (MI) was conceived to provide the Russian Federation (RF) with the capacity to manage low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW) and comply with the requirements of the London Convention that prohibit ocean dumping of these wastes. The Initiative, under a trilateral agreement begun in 1994/95, has upgraded an existing low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment facility, increased its capacity from 1,200 m3 /year to 5,000 m3 /year, and expanded the capability of the facility to treat liquids containing salt (up to 20 g/L). The three parties to the agreement, the Russian Federation, Norway, and the United States, have split the costs for the project. It was the first project of its kind to utilize exclusively Russian subcontractors in the upgrade and expansion of the LLRW treatment plant on the premises of FGUP Atomflot (now FGUP Atomflot) in Murmansk, Russia. The project advanced into the test-operation phase. These start-up activities have include d processing of actual radioactive liquid waste from the Arctic icebreaker fleet, and incorporation of these wastes into a cementation process of Russian design. Initial runs have revealed that procedures for unloading spent ion-exchange sorbents need to be improved and that sludges formed during removal of alkaline-earth metals should be compacted in order for the facility to operate at its full potential. These issues needed a substantial amount of work but have now been resolved, and progress on the final critical phases of the project, including Russian licensing activities will be reported. Discussions will also report on any modifications to the proposed operational schedule or protocols for the now operating facility. ''Lessons Learned'' over the six years of construction through operation are evaluated and discussed.

  2. A fluorescein tracer release experiment in the hydrothermally active crater of Vailulu'u volcano, Samoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. R.; Staudigel, H.; Workman, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Girard, A. P.

    2003-08-01

    On 3 April 2001, a 20 kg point source of fluorescein dye was released 30 m above the bottom of the active summit caldera of Vailulu'u submarine volcano, Samoa. Vailulu'u crater is 2000 m wide and at water depths of 600-1000 m, with the bottom 200 m completely enclosed; it thus provides an ideal site to study the hydrodynamics of an active hydrothermal system. The magmatically driven hydrothermal system in the crater is currently exporting massive amounts of particulates, manganese, and helium. The dispersal of the dye was tracked for 4 days with a fluorimeter in tow-yo mode from the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea. Lateral dispersion of the dye ranged from 80 to 500 m d-1; vertical dispersion had two components: a diapycnal diffusivity component averaging 21 cm2 s-1, and an advective component averaging 0.025 cm s-1. These measurements constrain the mass export of water from the crater during this period to be 8-1.3+4.6 × 107 m3 d-1, which leads to a "turnover" time for water in the crater of ˜3.2 days. Coupled with temperature data from CTD profiles and Mn analyses of water samples, the power output from the crater is 610-100+350 MW, and the manganese export flux is ˜240 kg d-1. The Mn/Heat ratio of 4.7 ng J-1 is significantly lower than ratios characteristic of hot smokers and diffuse hydrothermal flows on mid-ocean ridges and points to phase separation processes in this relatively shallow hydrothermal system.

  3. Radar backscatter measurements from Arctic sea ice during the fall freeze-up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaven, S.; Gogineni, S. P.; Shanableh, M.; Gow, A.; Tucker, W.; Jezek, K.

    1993-01-01

    Radar backscatter measurements from sea ice during the fall freeze-up were performed by the United States Coast Guard Icebreaker Polar Star as a part of the International Arctic Ocean Expedition (IAOE'91) from Aug. to Sep. 1991. The U.S. portion of the experiment took place on board the Polar Star and was referred to as TRAPOLEX '91 (Transpolar expedition) by some investigators. Before prematurely aborting its mission because of mechanical failure of her port shaft, the Polar Star reached 84 deg 57 min N latitude at 35 deg E longitude. The ship was in the ice (greater than 50 percent coverage) from 14 Aug. until 3 Sep. and was operational for all but 6 days due to two instances of mechanical problems with the port shaft. The second was fatal to the ship's participation in the expedition. During the expedition, radar backscatter was measured at C-band under a variety of conditions. These included measurements from young ice types as well as from multiyear and first-/second-year sea ice during the fall freeze-up. The sea ice types were determined by measurement of the ice properties at several of the stations and by visual inspection on others. Radar backscatter measurements were performed over a large portion of the ship's transit into the Arctic ice pack. These were accompanied by in situ sea ice property characterization by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) at several stations and, when snow was present, its properties were documented by The Microwave Group, Ottawa River (MWG).

  4. Evolution of first-year and second-year snow properties on sea ice in the Weddell Sea during spring-summer transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Haas, Christian; Willmes, Sascha

    2009-09-01

    Observations of snow properties, superimposed ice, and atmospheric heat fluxes have been performed on first-year and second-year sea ice in the western Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Snow in this region is particular as it does usually survive summer ablation. Measurements were performed during Ice Station Polarstern (ISPOL), a 5-week drift station of the German icebreaker RV Polarstern. Net heat flux to the snowpack was 8 W m-2, causing only 0.1 to 0.2 m of thinning of both snow cover types, thinner first-year and thicker second-year snow. Snow thinning was dominated by compaction and evaporation, whereas melt was of minor importance and occurred only internally at or close to the surface. Characteristic differences between snow on first-year and second-year ice were found in snow thickness, temperature, and stratigraphy. Snow on second-year ice was thicker, colder, denser, and more layered than on first-year ice. Metamorphism and ablation, and thus mass balance, were similar between both regimes, because they depend more on surface heat fluxes and less on underground properties. Ice freeboard was mostly negative, but flooding occurred mainly on first-year ice. Snow and ice interface temperature did not reach the melting point during the observation period. Nevertheless, formation of discontinuous superimposed ice was observed. Color tracer experiments suggest considerable meltwater percolation within the snow, despite below-melting temperatures of lower layers. Strong meridional gradients of snow and sea-ice properties were found in this region. They suggest similar gradients in atmospheric and oceanographic conditions and implicate their importance for melt processes and the location of the summer ice edge.

  5. Sea ice and snow thickness and physical properties of an ice floe in the western Weddell Sea and their changes during spring warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Willmes, Sascha; Worby, Anthony; Flinspach, David

    2008-04-01

    Helicopter-borne and ground-based electromagnetic (EM) ice thickness and ruler-stick snow thickness measurements as well as ice-core analyses of ice temperature, salinity and texture were performed over a 5-week observation period between November 27, 2004, and January 2, 2005, on an ice floe in the western Weddell Sea at approximately 67°S, 55°W. The study was part of the Ice Station Polarstern (ISPOL) expedition of German research icebreaker R.V. Polarstern, investigating changes of physical, biological, and biogeochemical properties during the spring warming as a function of atmospheric and oceanic boundary conditions. The ice floe was composed of fragments of thin and thick first-year ice and thick second-year ice, with modal total thicknesses of 1.2-1.3, 2.1, and 2.4-2.9 m, respectively. This included modal snow thicknesses of 0.2-0.5 m on first-year ice and 0.75 m on second-year ice. During the observation period, snow thickness decreased by less than 0.2 m. There was hardly any ice thinning. Warming of snow and ice between 0.1 and 1.9 °C resulted in decreased ice salinity and increased brine volume. Direct current (DC) geoelectric and electromagnetic (EM) induction depth sounding were performed to study changes of electrical ice conductivity as a result of the observed ice warming. Bulk ice conductivity increased from to 37 to 97 mS/m. Analysis of conductivity anisotropy showed that the horizontal ice conductivity changed from 9 to 70 mS/m. These conductivity changes have only negligible effects on the thickness retrieval from EM measurements.

  6. Archaeal and Bacterial Diversity and Enzymatic Activities Associated With Particulate Matter in the Laptev Sea, a River-Impacted Arctic Shelf Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. T.; Deming, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Arctic Ocean shelves are influenced by riverine input of terrestrial, relatively refractory particulate organic matter (POM) as well as fresh material from marine phytoplankton blooms. The fate of organic particles and aggregates depends in large part on their associated microbes and the effectiveness of hydrolytic enzymes. The Laptev Sea provides an ideal setting to test for connections between Archaeal and Bacterial communities, the quality of the POM they colonize, and the activities of extracellular enzymes. Aboard the Russian icebreaker Kapitan Dranitsyn during the NABOS 2005 cruise to the Laptev Sea, we sampled various size fractions of particulate matter, from 0.2 to 70 μm. Patterns of Archaeal and Bacterial diversity were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Extracellular enzymatic activities were evaluated using fluorescent substrate analogs. Thus far, we have observed a statistically significant difference between particle-associated and free-living Bacteria, many of which appear (by clone library) to be gamma-proteobacteria or CFB. Bacterial community richness associated with the largest particle fractions, where protease and glucosidase activities were the highest, was best explained by indicators of primary productivity (chlorophyll a and phaeopigments), while richness associated with smaller size fractions was best explained by general particle indicators (and depth and salinity). In contrast, particle-associated Archaea were not significantly different from their free-living counterparts. Archaeal clone library results indicate a predominance of Marine Group 1 Crenarchaea, the group containing a recently isolated nitrifying Archaeon. Given all these results, we hypothesize that in the Laptev Sea cold-active Bacteria are the primary agents in the enzymatic degradation of POM, whether terrestrial or marine, while Archaea play other roles in the elemental cycles of Arctic waters, perhaps especially in the nitrogen

  7. Boundary layer new particle formation over East Antarctic sea ice - possible Hg driven nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R. S.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Pierce, J. R.; Gionfriddo, C. M.; Tate, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.; Galbally, I. E.; Molloy, S. B.; Klekociuk, A.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; Thomas, A. J.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; Johnson, R.; Wilson, S. R.

    2015-07-01

    Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on-board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on the only day to exhibit extended periods of global irradiance in excess of 600 W m-2. Within the single air-mass influencing the measurements, number concentrations of particles larger than 3 nm (CN3) reached almost 7700 cm-3 within a few hours of clouds clearing, and grew at rates of 5.6 nm h-1. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were in the range of those measured at other Antarctic locations at 0.2-1.1 ± 0.1 cm-3 s-1. Our investigations into the nucleation chemistry found that there were insufficient precursor concentrations for known halogen or organic chemistry to explain the nucleation event. Modelling studies utilising known sulfuric acid nucleation schemes could not simultaneously reproduce both particle formation or growth rates. Surprising correlations with Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) were found that, together with other data, suggest a mercury driven photochemical nucleation mechanism may be responsible for aerosol nucleation. Given the very low vapour pressures of the mercury species involved, this nucleation chemistry is likely only possible where pre-existing aerosol concentrations are low and both TGM concentrations and solar radiation levels are relatively high (~ 1.5 ng m-3 and ≥ 600 W m-2, respectively), such as those observed in the Antarctic sea ice boundary layer in this study or in the global free-troposphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere.

  8. Boundary layer new particle formation over East Antarctic sea ice - possible Hg-driven nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R. S.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M. D.; Ward, J.; Pierce, J. R.; Gionfriddo, C. M.; Tate, M. T.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Galbally, I. E.; Molloy, S. B.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Johnston, P. V.; Kreher, K.; Thomas, A. J.; Robinson, A. D.; Harris, N. R. P.; Johnson, R.; Wilson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol observations above the Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice are scarce. Measurements of aerosols and atmospheric composition were made in East Antarctic pack ice on board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis during the spring of 2012. One particle formation event was observed during the 32 days of observations. This event occurred on the only day to exhibit extended periods of global irradiance in excess of 600 W m-2. Within the single air mass influencing the measurements, number concentrations of particles larger than 3 nm (CN3) reached almost 7700 cm-3 within a few hours of clouds clearing, and grew at rates of 5.6 nm h-1. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were in the range of those measured at other Antarctic locations at 0.2-1.1 ± 0.1 cm-3 s-1. Our investigations into the nucleation chemistry found that there were insufficient precursor concentrations for known halogen or organic chemistry to explain the nucleation event. Modelling studies utilising known sulfuric acid nucleation schemes could not simultaneously reproduce both particle formation or growth rates. Surprising correlations with total gaseous mercury (TGM) were found that, together with other data, suggest a mercury-driven photochemical nucleation mechanism may be responsible for aerosol nucleation. Given the very low vapour pressures of the mercury species involved, this nucleation chemistry is likely only possible where pre-existing aerosol concentrations are low and both TGM concentrations and solar radiation levels are relatively high (∼ 1.5 ng m-3 and ≥ 600 W m-2, respectively), such as those observed in the Antarctic sea ice boundary layer in this study or in the global free troposphere, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere.

  9. Potential source regions and processes of aerosol in the summer Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzenberg, J.; Leck, C.; Tunved, P.

    2015-06-01

    Sub-micrometer particle size distributions measured during four summer cruises of the Swedish icebreaker Oden 1991, 1996, 2001, and 2008 were combined with dimethyl sulfide gas data, back trajectories, and daily maps of pack ice cover in order to investigate source areas and aerosol formation processes of the boundary layer aerosol in the central Arctic. With a clustering algorithm, potential aerosol source areas were explored. Clustering of particle size distributions together with back trajectories delineated five potential source regions and three different aerosol types that covered most of the Arctic Basin: marine, newly formed and aged particles over the pack ice. Most of the pack ice area with < 15% of open water under the trajectories exhibited the aged aerosol type with only one major mode around 40 nm. For newly formed particles to occur, two conditions had to be fulfilled over the pack ice: the air had spent 10 days while traveling over ever more contiguous ice and had traveled over less than 30% open water during the last 5 days. Additionally, the air had experienced more open water (at least twice as much as in the cases of aged aerosol) during the last 4 days before arrival in heavy ice conditions at Oden. Thus we hypothesize that these two conditions were essential factors for the formation of ultrafine particles over the central Arctic pack ice. In a comparison the Oden data with summer size distribution data from Alert, Nunavut, and Mt. Zeppelin, Spitsbergen, we confirmed the Oden findings with respect to particle sources over the central Arctic. Future more frequent broken-ice or open water patches in summer will spur biological activity in surface water promoting the formation of biological particles. Thereby low clouds and fogs and subsequently the surface energy balance and ice melt may be affected.

  10. An Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the past two decades there have been several advances that make the production of an atlas of submarine glacial landforms timely. First is the development of high-resolution imaging technologies; multi-beam echo-sounding or swath bathymetry that allows the detailed mapping of the sea floor at water depths of tens to thousands of metres across continental margins, and 3-D seismic methods that enable the visualisation of palaeo-continental shelves in Quaternary sediments and ancient palaeo-glacial rocks (e.g. Late Ordovician of Northern Africa). A second technological development is that of ice-breaking or ice-strengthened ships that can penetrate deep into the ice-infested waters of the Arctic and Antarctic, to deploy the multibeam systems. A third component is that of relevance - through both the recognition that the polar regions, and especially the Arctic, are particularly sensitive parts of the global environmental system and that these high-latitude margins (both modern and ancient) are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon resources. An enhanced understanding of the sediments and landforms of these fjord-shelf-slope systems is, therefore, of increasing importance to both academics and industry. We are editing an Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms that presents a series of individual contributions that describe, discuss and illustrate features on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced sea floor. Contributions are organised in two ways: first, by position on a continental margin - from fjords, through continental shelves to the continental slope and rise; secondly, by scale - as individual landforms and assemblages of landforms. A final section provides discussion of integrated fjord-shelf-slope systems. Over 100 contributions by scientists from many countries contain descriptions and interpretation of swath-bathymetric data from both Arctic and Antarctic margins and use 3D seismic data to investigate ancient glacial landforms. The Atlas will be

  11. The NSA/SHEBA Cloud & Radiation Comparison Study

    SciTech Connect

    Janet M. Intrieri; Matthew D. Shupe

    2004-08-23

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from 1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and 2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two

  12. Sudden changes in aerosol and gas concentrations in the central Arctic marine boundary layer: Causes and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigg, E. Keith; Leck, Caroline; Nilsson, E. Douglas

    2001-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol number size distributions and concentrations of the precursor gases dimethyl sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia were made within the pack ice region of the central Arctic Ocean during July and August 1996 from the icebreaker Oden. Changes in concentration, sometimes exceeding the entire seasonal variation, often occurred within an hour and attempts to find the reasons for them are described. Vertical profiles of aerosol concentration in Aitken and accumulation mode particles obtained on helicopter flights revealed intense concentration gradients in the lowest 1000 m. Those below 100 m were common. Concentrations of accumulation mode particles were usually greater near the surface than at 100 m. Four representative case studies for which vertical aerosol profiles were obtained are presented. Observations of rapid large changes in near-surface concentration of aerosols in different size ranges are compared with the vertical profiles, meteorological information, and acoustic or optical remote sensing to infer processes causing the changes. Comparison of simultaneous variations in aerosols and precursor gas concentrations are used to define the vertical profiles of the gases. It was found that dimethyl sulfide and ammonia concentrations usually must have been strongly depleted near the surface relative to concentrations at about 100 m. Sulfur dioxide profiles appeared to be more complex. Turbulence or vertical air motions initiated by atmospheric wave motions trapped within the stable boundary layer appeared to be directly responsible for many of the sudden concentration changes, through interaction with concentration gradients close to the surface. The presence of low-level jets also had direct or indirect influences on mixing in the lowest few hundred meters. The extent to which aerosols measured near the surface can determine the microphysics of central Arctic marine boundary layer clouds is examined.

  13. European Marine Infrastructures: perspectives for Marine and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Egerton, P.; Le Traon, P. Y.; Los, W.

    2009-04-01

    The European Commission (EC) is supporting a variety of Research Infrastructures in many different scientific fields: Social Sciences and Humanities, Environmental Sciences, Energy, Biological and Medical Sciences, Physical Sciences and Engineering and e-Infrastructures. All these infrastructures are included in the new report of the "European Roadmap for Research Infrastructures" published in late 2008 by ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/). In particular, some research infrastructures for the Environmental Sciences specifically addressed to the marine environment are presented: • EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory). The development of this underwater network is being supported by several other EC initiatives, ESONET-NoE (European Seas Network), coordinated by IFREMER (http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/). • ERICON AURORA BOREALIS (European Research Icebreaker Consortium, http://www.eri-aurora-borealis.eu/). • EURO-ARGO (Global Ocean Observing Infrastructure, http://www.euro-argo.eu/). • LIFEWATCH (E-science and technology infrastructure for biodiversity data and observatories, http://www.lifewatch.eu/). In particular through its scientific marine networks: EUR-OCEANS (European Network of Excellence for Ocean Ecosystems Analysis, http://www.eur-oceans.eu/); MARBEF-NoE (MARine Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning, http://www.marbef.org/ and Marine Genomics (http://www.marine-genomics-europe.org/). Possible profitable links with new research infrastructures recently included in the roadmap, such as EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and SIAEOS (Svalbard Integrated Arctic Earth Observing System) are also pointed out. The marine EC infrastructures presented constitute the fundamental tools to support the Earth Sciences, both terrestrial and marine.

  14. [Distribution pattern of microphytoplankton in the Bering Sea during the summer of 2010].

    PubMed

    Lin, Geng-Ming; Yang, Qing-Liang; Wang, Yu

    2013-09-01

    Based on the analysis of 70 water samples collected by the Chinese icebreaker Xuelong in the areas of 52 degrees 42.29'-65 degrees 30.23' N and 169 degrees 20.85' E-179 degrees 30.37' W in the Bering Sea during the Chinese Arctic Research Expedition on July 10-19, 2010, a total of 143 phytoplankton species were identified, including 95 diatom species belonging to 37 genera, 44 dinoflagellate species belonging to 15 genera, 2 Chlorophyta species belonging to 2 genera, 1 Euglenophyta belonging to 1 genus, and 1 Chrysophyta species belonging to 1 genus. The cluster analysis revealed that the phytoplankton in the study areas could be divided as oceanic and shallow water groups. The oceanic group found in the western North Pacific Ocean and the Bering Basin was dominated by the boreal oceanic species such as Neodenticula seminae and Chaetoceros atlanticus and the cosmopolitan species such as Thalassionema nitzschioides and Chaetoceros compressus, with the characteristics of low abundance and high evenness of diversified species. The shallow water group found in the continental shelf and slope of Bering Sea was mostly composed of the pan-arctic neritic species such as Thalassiosira nordenskioldi and Chaetoceros furcellatus and the cosmopolitan species such as Leptocylindrus danicus and Chaetoceros curvisetus, with the characteristics of low species diversity and evenness index due to the high abundance in certain species. The phytoplankton abundance in the surface water layer distributed unevenly among the stations, ranging from 950 to 192400 cells x L(-1) and with an average of 58722 cells x L(-1). Horizontally, the abundance distribution trend was decreased in the order of the Bering Sea shelf, the Bering Sea slope, the Bering Sea basin, and the western North Pacific Ocean. Vertically, the abundance was lower in surface layer and maximized in the thermocline, suggesting that the phytoplankton abundance in vertical distribution varied with the regional thermocline.

  15. Freeboard, Snow Depth and Sea-Ice Roughness in East Antarctica from In Situ and Multiple Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Masson, Robert; Worby, Anthony; Lytle, Victoria; Kurtz, Nathan; Maksym, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In October 2003 a campaign on board the Australian icebreaker Aurora Australis had the objective to validate standard Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea-ice products. Additionally, the satellite laser altimeter on the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was in operation. To capture the large-scale information on the sea-ice conditions necessary for satellite validation, the measurement strategy was to obtain large-scale sea-ice statistics using extensive sea-ice measurements in a Lagrangian approach. A drifting buoy array, spanning initially 50 km 100 km, was surveyed during the campaign. In situ measurements consisted of 12 transects, 50 500 m, with detailed snow and ice measurements as well as random snow depth sampling of floes within the buoy array using helicopters. In order to increase the amount of coincident in situ and satellite data an approach has been developed to extrapolate measurements in time and in space. Assuming no change in snow depth and freeboard occurred during the period of the campaign on the floes surveyed, we use buoy ice-drift information as well as daily estimates of thin-ice fraction and rough-ice vs smooth-ice fractions from AMSR-E and QuikSCAT, respectively, to estimate kilometer-scale snow depth and freeboard for other days. The results show that ICESat freeboard estimates have a mean difference of 1.8 cm when compared with the in situ data and a correlation coefficient of 0.6. Furthermore, incorporating ICESat roughness information into the AMSR-E snow depth algorithm significantly improves snow depth retrievals. Snow depth retrievals using a combination of AMSR-E and ICESat data agree with in situ data with a mean difference of 2.3 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.84 with a negligible bias.

  16. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-11-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  17. The moisture updrafts on the cold pool captured by the continuously radiosonde observation passing through the marginal ice zone in Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Kensuke; Tachibana, Yoshihiro; Alexeev, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    In summer 2013, we conducted 6 hourly radiosonde observation between off-ice and on-ice by Russian icebreaker "Akademik Fedorov" passing through the marginal ice-zone in Laptev Sea during NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basins Obsevational System). During observation period, the warmer and humid air mass was advected by southeasterly wind from Siberia to Laptev sea because the low-pressure system was passing The temperature profiles bellow 600 m was maintaining the cold pool associated with a sea ice and the inversion layer formed above it. The humidity profiles were, however, not trapped until the height of inversion layer, they reached at higher levels (< 5000 m). These observational evidences implied that the humid air from Siberia was lifted on the cold pool maintained by sea ice and this process could transport the moisture to upper level in the arctic region. To verify these processes and examine the impact of the existence of sea ice, we conducted the numerical experiment by WRF. Three boundary conditions were adopted to simulation; present sea ice, removed all sea ice, and increased sea ice area. As primary results, the trajectories of air parcel from Siberia was rising to upper level with released the latent heat due to the condensation of humid air. The case of present sea ice transported much moisture vertically in the arctic region than other two cases. More detail results will be reported on the day. The process of the vertical moisture lifting due to the cold pool could contribute to the heat transport from the mid-latitude surface to the upper level in the arctic.

  18. Summer distribution of seabirds in the North-East Water polynya, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joiris, Claude R.; Kampp, Kaj; Tahon, Jacques; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg

    1997-10-01

    The distribution at sea of seabirds was studied in the North-East Water (NEW) polynya, Greenland, during transect counts in the summers of 1991, 1992 and 1993 on board the ice-breaking RVs Polarstern and Polar Sea. Data collected within the polynya 'box' (78-82°N; 5-18°W) concern observations of 8000 birds counted during 1350 half-hour counts. Distribution is presented as density (N/km 2) and calculated daily food intake. Five bird species were selected for discussion, representing more than 95% of the total numbers encountered: Fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), Ivory Gull ( Pagophila eburnea), Kittiwake ( Rissa tridactyla), Glaucous Gull ( Larus hyperboreus) and Ross's Gull ( Rhodostethia rosea). For these species, densities are comparable in the NE Greenland polynya and in other European Arctic seas. The main difference is the absence in NEW of the species playing the main role in Arctic seas: Brünnich's Guillemot ( Uria lomvia) and Little Auk ( Alle alle). In the absence of fish-eating birds and of birds consuming zooplankton in the water column, the NEW polynya ecosystem is thus dominated by surface feeders and, closer to the coast, by benthic feeders like eiders, Somateria mollissima and S. spectabilis, and walrus, Odobenus rosmarus. The density and daily food intake for all seabirds are one order of magnitude lower in the polynya than in the Arctic seas. The distribution and abundance of seabirds in the NEW polynya seems to reflect a very low density of pelagic fish and Zooplankton in the water column, while Zooplankton must be present at 'normal' concentrations in the upper layer.

  19. Chemical processes in the atmosphere-snow-sea ice over the Weddell Sea, Antarctica during winter and spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Jourdain, Bruno; Dommergue, Aurelien; Nerentorp Mastromonaco, Michelle; Gardfeldt, Katarina; Abrahamsson, Katarina; Granfors, Anna; Ahnhoff, Martin; Frey, Markus M.; Méjean, Guillaume; Friess, Udo; Nasse, Jan-Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Wintertime chemical processes in the atmosphere-snow-sea ice system of Antarctica are almost unknown because of a lack of in situ observations. During two cruises with the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern we had the opportunity to perform measurements over and in the sea ice of the Weddell Sea from June to October 2013 covering the transition from winter to spring in the Southern Hemisphere. We performed atmospheric measurements of ozone, mercury, and reactive mercury compounds linked due to so-called ozone and mercury depletion events (ODEs and AMDEs), during which the two normally ubiquitous compounds ozone and mercury are efficiently removed from the atmosphere. Moreover, reactive halogenated compounds as the major cause of these depletion events were also observed in the atmosphere using remote sensing as well as in situ techniques. The observations demonstrated that the formation of reactive halogen compounds as well as depletions of ozone and mercury occurred as early as July potentially caused by a dark halogen activation mechanism. The activation of halogens further left their imprint also in the chemical composition of the snow on top of the sea ice, which showed occasionally a reduction in bromide. Elevated concentrations of halogenated compounds in the sea ice well above levels normally observed during the summer season indicate that active halogen chemistry was not limited to the atmosphere, but impacted the entire atmosphere-snow-sea ice system. Finally, aerosol measurements confirmed that the snow on sea ice constitutes an important surface for the mobilization and generation of atmospheric sea salt aerosol. As a result, sea salt aerosol significantly increased during and after blowing snow events, providing a potentially significant reservoir of atmospheric reactive halogens.

  20. Remote Sensing of Snow on Sea Ice - What are we Missing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, C.; Willmes, S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow on sea ice and its seasonal changes are most important contributors to the year-round sea ice mass balance and are in many ways more characteristic of sea ice satellite signatures than sea ice properties themselves. Snow thickness, density, and stratigraphy are among the most important snow variables, affecting snow optical properties, thermal conductivity, and microwave signatures. All these are interconnected and vary on diurnal, seasonal, annual as well as spatial time scales. Our physical understanding and observational capabilities are still inadequate to sufficiently observe, understand, and predict snow and its impact on the ice, climate, and eco systems. Similarly, the collection of in-situ data to support development and validation of snow retrieval algorithms is hampered by challenges related to the inherent small- and large-scale variability of snow properties and to differing footprint sizes of all methods. Here we present results from efforts to collect in-situ data on Antarctic and Arctic sea ice to validate satellite microwave products and airborne snow thickness retrievals. Data were collected during cruises of the German icebreaker RV Polarstern and airborne ESA CryoSat Validation and NASA Icebridge campaigns. Results show that there is still a lack of understanding of satellite microwave products affected by variations in snow properties, and of the penetration and resolution of snow-penetrating snow thickness radars which can lead to wrong interpretations of data and results. However, there also remains uncertainty about "true" snow properties and processes within satellite or airborne footprints because even more extensive in-situ validation campaigns may not be able to sufficiently observe these, lacking advanced methodologies and a combination of spatial resolution and spatial coverage.

  1. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M.; Duffey, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted.

  2. The Synoptic Climatology of Ocean-Sea Ice-Atmosphere Coupling over the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asplin, M. G.; Candlish, L. M.; Barber, D. G.; Raddatz, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Circumpolar Flaw Lead (CFL) system is formed when the mobile central pack ice moves away from coastal fast ice, creating an area of open water and thin ice. This process can contribute significant fluxes of heat and moisture to the atmosphere throughout the winter and spring, thus modifying the boundary layer meteorology. The Canadian Research Icebreaker (NGCC Amundsen) overwintered and remained mobile from September 2007 to August 2008 in the Cape Bathurst Flaw Lead, and was the primary field research platform for the International Polar Year Circumpolar Flaw Lead System Study. A ship-based meteorological program monitored surface and upper-level meteorological conditions during the CFL project. These conditions are compared to synoptic-scale meteorology using techniques of synoptic climatology. There are generally two approaches to creating a synoptic climatology: Environment-to-surface, which involves using atmospheric circulation to define weather types, or surface-to-environment, which bases classifications upon a surface variable. In this paper, we propose a technique to generate a surface-to-environment synoptic climatology for the Southern Beaufort Sea region using gridded ice concentration data, and to use it in parallel with an existing environment-to-surface synoptic climatology based upon sea level pressure to examine dynamic and thermodynamic cyclone forcing of the atmosphere-sea ice interface in the Banks Island flaw lead. The existing environment-to-surface synoptic climatology characterizes atmospheric forcing of sea ice motion well, and it is expected that the surface-to-environment synoptic climatology will show how sea ice concentration forces seasonal boundary layer atmospheric profiles over the Cape Bathurst flaw lead.

  3. Using Radar, Lidar and Radiometer Data from NSA and SHEBA to Quantify Cloud Property Effects on the Surface Heat Budget in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Janet Intrieri; Mathhew Shupe

    2005-01-01

    Cloud and radiation data from two distinctly different Arctic areas are analyzed to study the differences between coastal Alaskan and open Arctic Ocean region clouds and their respective influence on the surface radiation budget. The cloud and radiation datasets were obtained from (1) the DOE North Slope of Alaska (NSA) facility in the coastal town of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) the SHEBA field program, which was conducted from an icebreaker frozen in, and drifting with, the sea-ice for one year in the Western Arctic Ocean. Radar, lidar, radiometer, and sounding measurements from both locations were used to produce annual cycles of cloud occurrence and height, atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface longwave and shortwave broadband fluxes, surface albedo, and cloud radiative forcing. In general, both regions revealed a similar annual trend of cloud occurrence fraction with minimum values in winter (60-75%) and maximum values during spring, summer and fall (80-90%). However, the annual average cloud occurrence fraction for SHEBA (76%) was lower than the 6-year average cloud occurrence at NSA (92%). Both Arctic areas also showed similar annual cycle trends of cloud forcing with clouds warming the surface through most of the year and a period of surface cooling during the summer, when cloud shading effects overwhelm cloud greenhouse effects. The greatest difference between the two regions was observed in the magnitude of the cloud cooling effect (i.e., shortwave cloud forcing), which was significantly stronger at NSA and lasted for a longer period of time than at SHEBA. This is predominantly due to the longer and stronger melt season at NSA (i.e., albedo values that are much lower coupled with Sun angles that are somewhat higher) than the melt season observed over the ice pack at SHEBA. Longwave cloud forcing values were comparable between the two sites indicating a general similarity in cloudiness and atmospheric temperature and humidity structure between the two

  4. Distribution and air-sea exchange of current-use pesticides (CUPs) from East Asia to the high Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Guangcai; Xie, Zhiyong; Cai, Minghong; Möller, Axel; Sturm, Renate; Tang, Jianhui; Zhang, Gan; He, Jianfeng; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Surface seawater and marine boundary layer air samples were collected on the ice-breaker R/V Xuelong (Snow Dragon) from the East China Sea to the high Arctic (33.23-84.5° N) in July to September 2010 and have been analyzed for six current-use pesticides (CUPs): trifluralin, endosulfan, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, and dicofol. In all oceanic air samples, the six CUPs were detected, showing highest level (>100 pg/m(3)) in the Sea of Japan. Gaseous CUPs basically decreased from East Asia (between 36.6 and 45.1° N) toward Bering and Chukchi Seas. The dissolved CUPs in ocean water ranged widely from

  5. Identification of proteolytic bacteria from the Arctic Chukchi Sea expedition cruise and characterization of cold-active proteases.

    PubMed

    Park, Ha Ju; Lee, Yung Mi; Kim, Sunghui; Wi, Ah Ram; Han, Se Jong; Kim, Han-Woo; Kim, Il-Chan; Yim, Joung Han; Kim, Dockyu

    2014-10-01

    Following collection of seawater samples during an Arctic Chukchi Sea expedition cruise of the Korean icebreaker Araon in 2012, a total of 15,696 bacteria were randomly isolated from Marine Broth 2216 agar plates. Of these, 2,526 (16%) showed proteolytic activity and were identified as mainly Alteromonas (31%), Staphylococcus (27%), and Pseudoalteromonas (14%). Among the proteolytic strains, seven were selected based on their significant ability to grow and produce a halo on skim milk plates at low temperatures (<5°C) owing to cold-active proteases. These strains were affiliated with the genus Pseudoalteromonas and were divided into three groups based on phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA genes. Profiling cell membrane fatty acids confirmed the 16S rRNA-based differentiation and revealed the accordance between the two analyses. Seven genes for serine protease precursors were amplified from the corresponding strains, and based on sequence similarities, these genes were divided into three groups that were identical to those identified by the 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. Three protease genes from the representative strains of each group were composed of 2,127-2,130 bp, encoding 708-709 amino acids, and these genes yielded products with calculated molecular weights of approximately 72.3-72.8 kDa. Amino acid sequence analysis suggested that the precursors are members of the subtilase serine endo- and exo-peptidase clan and contain four domains (signal peptide, N-terminal prosequence, catalytic domain, and two pre-peptidase C-terminal domains). Upon expression in E. coli, each recombinant protease exhibited proteolytic activity on zymogram gels.

  6. Meteorology and oceanography of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean—a review of German achievements from the last decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmer, Hartmut H.; Rhein, Monika; Heinemann, Günther; Abalichin, Janna; Abouchami, Wafa; Baars, Oliver; Cubasch, Ulrich; Dethloff, Klaus; Ebner, Lars; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Frank, Martin; Gollan, Gereon; Greatbatch, Richard J.; Grieger, Jens; Gryanik, Vladimir M.; Gryschka, Micha; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Huhn, Oliver; Kanzow, Torsten; Koch, Boris P.; König-Langlo, Gert; Langematz, Ulrike; Leckebusch, Gregor C.; Lüpkes, Christof; Paul, Stephan; Rinke, Annette; Rost, Bjoern; van der Loeff, Michiel Rutgers; Schröder, Michael; Seckmeyer, Gunther; Stichel, Torben; Strass, Volker; Timmermann, Ralph; Trimborn, Scarlett; Ulbrich, Uwe; Venchiarutti, Celia; Wacker, Ulrike; Willmes, Sascha; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1980s, Germany started a new era of modern Antarctic research. The Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) was founded and important research platforms such as the German permanent station in Antarctica, today called Neumayer III, and the research icebreaker Polarstern were installed. The research primarily focused on the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. In parallel, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG) started a priority program `Antarctic Research' (since 2003 called SPP-1158) to foster and intensify the cooperation between scientists from different German universities and the AWI as well as other institutes involved in polar research. Here, we review the main findings in meteorology and oceanography of the last decade, funded by the priority program. The paper presents field observations and modelling efforts, extending from the stratosphere to the deep ocean. The research spans a large range of temporal and spatial scales, including the interaction of both climate components. In particular, radiative processes, the interaction of the changing ozone layer with large-scale atmospheric circulations, and changes in the sea ice cover are discussed. Climate and weather forecast models provide an insight into the water cycle and the climate change signals associated with synoptic cyclones. Investigations of the atmospheric boundary layer focus on the interaction between atmosphere, sea ice and ocean in the vicinity of polynyas and leads. The chapters dedicated to polar oceanography review the interaction between the ocean and ice shelves with regard to the freshwater input and discuss the changes in water mass characteristics, ventilation and formation rates, crucial for the deepest limb of the global, climate-relevant meridional overturning circulation. They also highlight the associated storage of anthropogenic carbon as well as the cycling of carbon, nutrients and trace metals

  7. Observations of Clouds, Aerosols and Surface Energy Fluxes over the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean with the Oceanet-Atmosphere Platform Onboard RV Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macke, A.; Brückner, M.; Deneke, H.; Engelmann, R.; Hanschmann, T.; Kalisch, J.; Kanitz, T.; Merkel, M.; Pospichal, B.; van Pinxteren, M.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2007, the regular Atlantic Ocean transfer cruises of the research icebreaker Polarstern are used to continuously observe the state of the atmosphere and the corresponding surface energy fluxes over the Northern and Southern Atlantic Ocean in the framework of the German research initiative OCEANET. At present, the OCEANET-atmosphere equipment consists of the multiwavelength polarized Raman lidar Polly-XT for aerosol profiling and for aerosol-cloud-interaction studies, the passive microwave radiometer HATPRO for determining water-vapor and temperature profiles as well as cloud liquid-water path, pyranometer and pyrgeometer for surface radiation budget measurements, occasional measurements of sensible and latent heat fluxes, sky imager for cloud characterization as well as sun photometer for vertically integrated aerosol measurements. Further instruments from partner institutes have contributed at individual expeditions like the University of Leipzig multispectral solar transmissivity measurements or the cloud radar from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory. The presentation discusses latitudinal variations of atmospheric thermodynamic and aerosols profiles as well as water vapour and cloud liquid water path. Cloud and aerosol direct radiative effects have been calculated and have been associated to different cloud and aerosol types. Furthermore, characteristics of trade wind cumuli in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere have been investigated. On several cruises the atmospheric measurements are accompanied by physical and chemical characterizations of sea surface film and surface near aerosols, which enables to identify maritime aerosol formation processes. Satellite data from Meteosat Second Generation MSG are used to obtain cloud properties and top of atmosphere radiative fluxes along the ship tracks in order to close the energy budget over the atmospheric column.

  8. ASCOS - the "Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernström, M.; Leck, C.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the effects of clouds on climate still constitute one of the largest challenges and this is perhaps more true in the Arctic than elsewhere. Clouds have the single largest impact on the surface energy budget and thus control a significant fraction of the melting and freezing of sea ice. At the same time, we know less of about cloud formation in the Arctic than elsewhere; this fact is also reflected in modeling results for the Arctic. ASCOS is an interdisciplinary experimental program, with its field phase in the central Arctic onboard the Swedish icebreaker Oden during August and early September 2008; the timing was chosen to bee during the late summer melt and into the intial surface freeze. Within ASCOS seventeen research groups from eleven countries, with fourteen nationalities, came together to attempt understanding the formation of Arctic summer clouds, their impact on summer melt and initiation of the surface freeze up. ASCOS is among the broadest projects in IPY. ASCOS brings marine biology and chemistry, physical oceanography, meteorology, atmospheric gas phase and particulate chemistry and physics into the same experiment to observe aerosols, cloud condensation and ice nuclei formation, cloud formation, interaction between clouds and surface energy balance and with larger scale weather. Observations were performed on board the ice breaker and on the ice during a three week ice drift, by in situ or remote sensing instruments. ASCOS is an IPY program under the umbrella of AICI-IPY, and is affiliated with several other IPY project, and is also a part of DAMOCLESA. The presentation will provide a brief overview of ASCOS and show examples of the benefits of the interdisciplinary and international approach of ASCOS.

  9. Mapping the Arctic: Online Undergraduate Education Using Scientific Research in International Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Edwards, B. D.; Gibbons, H.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean science education has the opportunity to span traditional academic disciplines and undergraduate curricula because of its interdisciplinary approach to address contemporary issues on a global scale. Here we report one such opportunity, which involves the development of a virtual oceanographic expedition to map the seafloor in the Arctic Ocean for use in the online Global Studies program at San Jose State University. The U.S. Extended Continental Shelf Project provides an extensive online resource to follow the activities of the third joint U.S. and Canada expedition in the Arctic Ocean, the 2010 Extended Continental Shelf survey, involving the icebreakers USCGC Healy and CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent. In the virtual expedition, students join the work of scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Canadian Geological Survey by working through 21 linked web pages that combine text, audio, video, animations and graphics to first learn about the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Then, students gain insight into the complexity of science and policy interactions by relating the UNCLOS to issues in the Arctic Ocean, now increasingly accessible to exploration and development as a result of climate change. By participating on the virtual expedition, students learn the criteria contained in Article 76 of UNCLOS that are used to define the extended continental shelf and the scientific methods used to visualize the seafloor in three-dimensions. In addition to experiencing life at sea aboard a research vessel, at least virtually, students begin to interpret the meaning of seafloor features and the use of seafloor sediment samples to understand the application of ocean science to international issues, such as the implications of climate change, national sovereign rights as defined by the UNCLOS, and marine resources. The virtual expedition demonstrates that ocean science education can extend beyond traditional geoscience courses by taking advantage of

  10. Visualizing landscape hydrology as a means of education - The water cycle in a box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Christian; Rauneker, Philipp; Fahle, Marcus; Hohenbrink, Tobias; Böttcher, Steven; Natkhin, Marco; Thomas, Björn; Dannowski, Ralf; Schwien, Bernd; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2016-04-01

    We used an aquarium to construct a physical model of the water cycle. The model can be used to visualize the movement of the water through the landscape from precipitation and infiltration via surface and subsurface flow to discharge into the sea. The model consists of two aquifers that are divided by a loamy aquitard. The 'geological' setting enables us to establish confining groundwater conditions and to demonstrate the functioning of artesian wells. Furthermore, small experiments with colored water as tracer can be performed to identify flow paths below the ground, simulate water supply problems like pollution of drinking water wells from inflowing contaminated groundwater or changes in subsurface flow direction due to changes in the predominant pressure gradients. Hydrological basics such as the connectivity of streams, lakes and the surrounding groundwater or the dependency of groundwater flow velocity from different substrates can directly be visualized. We used the model as an instructive tool in education and for public relations. We presented the model to different audiences from primary school pupils to laymen, students of hydrology up to university professors. The model was presented to the scientific community as part of the "Face of the Earth" exhibition at the EGU general assembly 2014. Independent of the antecedent knowledge of the audience, the predominant reactions were very positive. The model often acted as icebreaker to get a conversation on hydrological topics started. Because of the great interest, we prepared video material and a photo documentation on 1) the construction of the model and 2) the visualization of steady and dynamic hydrological situations. The videos will be published soon under creative common license and the collected material will be made accessible online. Accompanying documents will address professionals in hydrology as well as non-experts. In the PICO session, we will present details about the construction of the model

  11. Linkages between sea-ice coverage, pelagic-benthic coupling, and the distribution of spectacled eiders: observations in March 2008, 2009 and 2010, northern Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, L.W.; Sexson, M.G.; Grebmeier, J.M.; Gradinger, R.; Mordy, C.W.; Lovvorn, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Icebreaker-based sampling in the northern Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island in March of 2008, 2009, and 2010 has provided new data on overall ecosystem function early in the annual productive cycle. While water-column chlorophyll concentrations (−2 integrated over the whole water column) are two orders of magnitude lower than observed during the spring bloom in May, sea-ice algal inventories of chlorophyll are high (up to 1 g m−3 in the bottom 2-cm of sea-ice). Vertical fluxes of chlorophyll as measured in sediment traps were between 0.3 to 3.7 mg m−2 d−1 and were consistent with the recent deposition (days to weeks time scale) of chlorophyll to the surface sediments (0–25 mg m−2 present at 0–1 cm). Sediment oxygen respiration rates were lower than previous measurements that followed the spring bloom, but were highest in areas of known high benthic biomass. Early spring release of sedimentary ammonium occurs, particularly southeast of St. Lawrence Island, leading to bottom-water ammonium concentrations of >5 µM. These data, together with other physical, biological, and nutrient data are presented here in conjunction with observed sea-ice dynamics and the distribution of an apex predator, the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri). Sea-ice dynamics in addition to benthic food availability, as determined by sedimentation processes, play a role in the distribution of spectacled eiders, which cannot always access the greatest biomass of their preferred bivalve prey. Overall, the data and observations indicate that the northern Bering Sea is biologically active in late winter, but with strong atmospheric and hydrographic controls. These controls pre-determine nutrient and chlorophyll distributions, water-column mixing, as well as pelagic-benthic coupling.

  12. Seismic reflection and refraction data acquired in Canada Basin, Northwind Ridge and Northwind Basin, Arctic Ocean in 1988, 1992 and 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, Arthur; Hart, Patrick E.; May, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data were collected in generally ice-covered waters of the Canada Basin and the eastern part of the Chukchi Continental Borderland of the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, during the late summers of 1988, 1992, and 1993. The data were acquired from a Polar class icebreaker, the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Star, using a seismic reflection system designed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The northernmost data extend to 78? 48' N latitude. In 1988, 155 km of reflection data were acquired with a prototype system consisting of a single 195 cubic inch air gun seismic source and a two-channel hydrophone streamer with a 150-m active section. In 1992 and 1993, 500 and 1,900 km, respectively, of seismic reflection profile data were acquired with an improved six air gun, 674 to 1303 cubic inch tuned seismic source array and the same two-channel streamer. In 1993, a 12-channel streamer with a 150-m active section was used to record five of the reflection lines and one line was acquired using a three air gun, 3,000 cubic inch source. All data were recorded with a DFS-V digital seismic recorder. Processed sections feature high quality vertical incidence images to more than 6 km of sub-bottom penetration in the Canada Basin. Refraction data were acquired with U.S. Navy sonobuoys recorded simultaneously with the seismic reflection profiles. In 1988 eight refraction profiles were recorded with the single air gun, and in 1992 and 1993 a total of 47 refraction profiles were recorded with the six air gun array. The sonobuoy refraction records, with offsets up to 35 km, provide acoustic velocity information to complement the short-offset reflection data. The report includes trackline maps showing the location of the data, as well as both digital data files (SEG-Y) and images of all of the profiles.

  13. Improved Projections of 21st Century Trans-Arctic Shipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melia, N.; Haines, K.; Hawkins, E.

    2015-12-01

    Climate models unanimously project a decline in the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice as the climate warms, but at differing rates. Projecting the timing of an ice-free Arctic is a topic that has received considerable scientific and public attention. An ice-free Arctic opens up the potential for shorter global trade routes through the Arctic Ocean and there has already been a sharp increase in the number of transits along Russia's Northern Sea Route with escorts from nuclear powered icebreakers.Here we present results on the future of trans-Arctic shipping using bias corrected sea ice thickness projections, utilising the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble and considering multiple emission scenarios. We find that for 'Open Water' vessels (normal ocean going vessels that possess no specific ice strengthening), unaided trans-Arctic shipping is likely to become feasible in the next couple of decades. We find that the North West Passage will open approximately a decade later than the Northern Sea Route. Initially however, both routes exhibit marked inter-annual variability in accessibility which we quantify. The hypothesised trans-polar sea route through international waters via the North Pole will start to become navigable by 2050. Towards the latter period of the 21st century, normal ocean going vessels will be able to transit their choice of any of these routes for at least six months of any given year under the RCP 8.5 high future emissions scenario and four months for the lower RCP 4.5 emissions scenario. These findings suggest that further increases in global temperature could transform the Arctic into a global transport hub.

  14. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection).

  15. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea-ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    The effect of aerosols on clouds and their radiative properties is one of the largest uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. A recent study has concluded that better characterisation of pristine, natural aerosol processes leads to the largest reduction in these uncertainties. Antarctica, being far from anthropogenic activities, is an ideal location for the study of natural aerosol processes. Aerosol measurements in Antarctica are often limited to boundary layer air-masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the sea ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the ice-breaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the Polar Front, with mean Polar Cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air-masses quickly from the free-troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea ice boundary layer air-masses travelled equator-ward into the low albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei where, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and

  16. Enhancing our Understanding of the Arctic Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle using Observations from an International Arctic Water Vapor Isotope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H. C.; Werner, M.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the role of water vapor and clouds in positive feedback mechanisms, water vapor is a key player in the future of Arctic climate. Ecosystems and human societies are vulnerable to climate change through even minor changes in precipitation patterns, including the occurrence of extreme events. It is therefore essential to monitor, understand and model correctly the mechanisms of transport of moisture, at the regional scale. Water isotopes - the relative abundance of heavy and light water in the atmosphere - hold the key to understanding the physical processes influencing future Arctic climate. Water isotope observations in the atmosphere are a modern analog to the Rosetta Stone for understanding the processes involved in evaporation, moisture transport, cloud formation and to track moisture origin. Indeed, technological progress now allows continuous, in situ or remote sensing monitoring of water isotopic composition. In parallel, a growing number of atmospheric circulation models are equipped with the explicit modeling of water stable isotopes, allowing evaluation at the process scale. We present here data obtained through national or bi-national initiatives from stations onboard an icebreaker and land based stations in Greenland, Iceland, Svalbard, and Siberia - together forming an emerging international Arctic water vapor isotope network. Using water tagging and back trajectories we show water vapor of Arctic origin to have a high d-excess fingerprint. This show the potential of using water vapor isotopes as tracer for changes in the Arctic hydrological cycle. Using the network of monitoring stations we quantify using the isotopes advection of air masses and the key processes affecting the water vapor en-route between stations. We have successfully used the obtained atmospheric water vapor isotope observations to benchmark isotope-enabled general circulation models. This comparison allows us to address key processes of the atmospheric hydrological cycle for

  17. Simulated Verification of Fuel Element Inventory in a Small Reactor Core Using the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Brandon R; Mihalczo, John T

    2009-01-01

    The International Panel on Climate Change projects that by 2050 the world energy demand may double. Although the primary focus for new nuclear power plants in industrialized nations is on large plants in the 1000-1600 MWe range, there is an increasing demand for small and medium reactors (SMRs). About half of the innovative SMR concepts are for small (<300 MWe) reactors with a 5-30 year life without on-site refueling. This type of reactor is also known as a battery-type reactor. These reactors are particularly attractive to countries with small power grids and for non-electrical purposes such as heating, hydrogen production, and seawater desalination. Traditionally, this type of reactor has been used in a nautical propulsion role. This type of reactor is designed as a permanently sealed unit to prevent the diversion of the uranium in the core by the user. However, after initial fabrication it will be necessary to verify that the newly fabricated reactor core contains the quantity of uranium that initially entered the fuel fabrication plant. In most instances, traditional inspection techniques can be used to perform this verification, but in certain situations the core design will be considered sensitive. Non-intrusive verification techniques must be utilized in these situations. The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) with imaging uses active interrogation and a fast time correlation processor to characterize fissile material. The MCNP-PoliMi computer code was used to simulate NMIS measurements of a small, sealed reactor core. Because most battery-type reactor designs are still in the early design phase, a more traditional design based on a Russian icebreaker core was used in the simulations. These simulations show how the radiography capabilities of the NMIS could be used to detect the diversion of fissile material by detecting void areas in the assembled core where fuel elements have been removed.

  18. MITAS-2009 Expedition, U.S. Beaufort Shelf and Slope—Lithostratigraphy Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.; Johnson, J.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Smith, J.; Reed, A.; Disenhof, C.; Presley, J.

    2012-09-17

    The volume of methane released through the Arctic Ocean to the atmosphere and its potential role in the global climate cycle have increasingly become the focus of studies seeking to understand the source and origin of this methane. In 2009, an international, multi-disciplinary science party aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Sea successfully completed a trans-U.S. Beaufort Shelf expedition aimed at understanding the sources and volumes of methane across this region. Following more than a year of preliminary cruise planning and a thorough site evaluation, the Methane in the Arctic Shelf/Slope (MITAS) expedition departed from the waters off the coast of Barrow, Alaska in September 2009. The expedition was organized with an international shipboard science team consisting of 33 scientists with the breadth of expertise necessary to meet the expedition goals. NETL researchers led the expedition’s initial core processing and lithostratigraphic evaluations, which are the focus of this report. This data report is focused on the lithostratigraphic datasets from the recovered vibra cores and piston cores. Operational information about the piston and vibra cores such as date acquired, core name, total length, water depth, and geographic location is provided. Once recovered, gas samples were immediately collected from cores. In addition, each core was run through the Geotek multi-sensor core logger for magnetic susceptibility, P-wave velocity, resistivity, and gamma-density measurements (Rose et al., 2010). After the samples and measurements were completed, the cores were split into working and archive halves. Visual core descriptions of the archive half was completed for each core. Samples for shipboard smear slides, coarse fractions, and XRD analyses were collected, as well as corresponding samples for post-cruise grain size analysis from the working half of each core. Line scan images of the split core surfaces were collected post-expedition. The methods used to

  19. Influence of climate model variability on projected Arctic shipping futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Scott R.; Smith, Laurence C.

    2015-11-01

    Though climate models exhibit broadly similar agreement on key long-term trends, they have significant temporal and spatial differences due to intermodel variability. Such variability should be considered when using climate models to project the future marine Arctic. Here we present multiple scenarios of 21st-century Arctic marine access as driven by sea ice output from 10 CMIP5 models known to represent well the historical trend and climatology of Arctic sea ice. Optimal vessel transits from North America and Europe to the Bering Strait are estimated for two periods representing early-century (2011-2035) and mid-century (2036-2060) conditions under two forcing scenarios (RCP 4.5/8.5), assuming Polar Class 6 and open-water vessels with medium and no ice-breaking capability, respectively. Results illustrate that projected shipping viability of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) and Northwest Passage (NWP) depends critically on model choice. The eastern Arctic will remain the most reliably accessible marine space for trans-Arctic shipping by mid-century, while outcomes for the NWP are particularly model-dependent. Omitting three models (GFDL-CM3, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, and MPI-ESM-MR), our results would indicate minimal NWP potential even for routes from North America. Furthermore, the relative importance of the NSR will diminish over time as the number of viable central Arctic routes increases gradually toward mid-century. Compared to vessel class, climate forcing plays a minor role. These findings reveal the importance of model choice in devising projections for strategic planning by governments, environmental agencies, and the global maritime industry.

  20. Broader Impact and the Arctic Coring Expedition of Summer 2004: A Science Teacher Brings the Pole to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couchon, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ARMADA Project, funded by NSF and administered through the University of Rhode Island Office of Marine Programs, pairs 12-14 teachers with ocean, polar, and environmental scientists each year, affording these teachers an authentic research experience. One middle-school science teacher, Kathleen Couchon of Narragansett, Rhode Island, participated in the IODP Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX) in the summer of 2004. Sailing for 6 weeks aboard the Swedish Icebreaker Oden, Kathleen participated in many aspects of the polar ocean-drilling expedition and was accepted by scientists and crew alike as part of the international science party. Upon return to the classroom, Kathleen found multiple opportunities to share her Arctic research experiences through effective public outreach both within and outside of the educational community. In the classroom, she has developed and implemented inquiry-based activities, allowing her students the opportunity to function as scientists themselves. Mentoring new science teachers within the district and presenting multi- media presentations to other teachers and students at the Narragansett Pier Middle School and Narragansett High School in Rhode Island, provided a wider audience for this important polar geoscience enterprise. An expanded circle of impact was gained through presentations at local district, state, and national teacher gatherings, including two National Science Teacher Association annual conventions and a high school audience at Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona. Within the community-at-large, Kathleen has impacted diverse audiences including the Girl Scouts, the Rotary Club, and senior citizen groups - all enthusiastically receptive and appreciative of hearing the scientific news of research from the North Pole. These experiences have served to establish a linkage between the scientific community and the public, with a teacher-researcher sharing and interpreting the scientific research goals and methodologies, as

  1. Velocity models and images using full waveform inversion and reverse time migration for the offshore permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea, Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. G.; Hong, J. K.; Jin, Y. K.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y. G.; Dallimore, S.; Riedel, M.; Shin, C.

    2015-12-01

    During Expedition ARA05C (from Aug 26 to Sep 19, 2014) on the Korean icebreaker RV ARAON, the multi-channel seismic (MCS) data were acquired on the outer shelf and slope of the Canadian Beaufort Sea to investigate distribution and internal geological structures of the offshore ice-bonded permafrost and gas hydrates, totaling 998 km L-km with 19,962 shots. The MCS data were recorded using a 1500 m long solid-type streamer with 120 channels. Shot and group spacing were 50 m and 12.5 m, respectively. Most MCS survey lines were designed perpendicular and parallel to the strike of the shelf break. Ice-bonded permafrost or ice-bearing sediments are widely distributed under the Beaufort Sea shelf, which have formed during periods of lower sea level when portions of the shelf less than ~100m water depth were an emergent coastal plain exposed to very cold surface. The seismic P-wave velocity is an important geophysical parameter for identifying the distribution of ice-bonded permafrost with high velocity in this area. Recently, full waveform inversion (FWI) and reverse time migration (RTM) are commonly used to delineate detailed seismic velocity information and seismic image of geological structures. FWI is a data fitting procedure based on wave field modeling and numerical analysis to extract quantitative geophysical parameters such as P-, S-wave velocities and density from seismic data. RTM based on 2-way wave equation is a useful technique to construct accurate seismic image with amplitude preserving of field data. In this study, we suggest two-dimensional P-wave velocity model (Figure.1) using the FWI algorithm to delineate the top and bottom boundaries of ice-bonded permafrost in the Canadian shelf of Beaufort Sea. In addition, we construct amplitude preserving migrated seismic image using RTM to interpret the geological history involved with the evolution of permafrost.

  2. Microbial Communities at Non-Volcanic and Volcanic Sites of the Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmke, E.; Juergens, J.; Tausendfreund, M.; Wollenburg, J.; Shank, T.; Edmonds, H.; Humphris, S.; Nakamura, K.; Liljebladh, B.; Winsor, P.; Singh, H.; Reves-Sohn, R. A.

    2007-12-01

    The Gakkel Ridge in the eastern Arctic Ocean is the slowest spreading, deepest, and most isolated portion of the global mid-ocean ridge system and therefore predestined for comparative investigations on deep-sea vent communities. However, the perennial cover of thick sea ice has made this area largely inaccessible to science. The Arctic Gakkel Vents Expedition (AGAVE) utilized the icebreaker ODEN and newly developed vehicles for exploration and sampling in connection with a CTD/rosette equipped with different sensors and a high-resolution multi-beam bathymetry system. We focused our studies on the peridotite-hosted region at 85°N, 7°E and on the basaltic volcanism area at 85°N, 85°E. Water, sediment, and rock samples were taken to describe the microbial communities in different zones of these two sites. Sampling was guided by anomalies of backscattering, temperature, Eh, as well as by high-resolution seafloor imagery. Samples were preserved or processed on board immediately after sampling. Molecular analyses, cultural methods, total bacterial counts, and activity measurements were employed to describe the structure of the microbial communities, their phylogeny, potential adaptations, and possible role in biogeochemical cycles. The first molecular biological results of the bacterial communities of the 85°E site indicated atypical of deep- sea venting communities. These preliminary results were supported by the images of the under-ice vehicle "Camper" which showed thick yellow "fluffy" mats (often > 5cm thick) and orange "pebbly" material without any smell of H2S markedly different than the white, consolidated Beggiatoa mats often observable at deep venting sites. Foraminifera occurred regularly on top of basalt rocks as well as within the bacterial mats.

  3. Unexpectedly high ultrafine aerosol concentrations above East Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphries, R. S.; Klekociuk, A. R.; Schofield, R.; Keywood, M.; Ward, J.; Wilson, S. R.

    2016-02-01

    Better characterisation of aerosol processes in pristine, natural environments, such as Antarctica, have recently been shown to lead to the largest reduction in uncertainties in our understanding of radiative forcing. Our understanding of aerosols in the Antarctic region is currently based on measurements that are often limited to boundary layer air masses at spatially sparse coastal and continental research stations, with only a handful of studies in the vast sea-ice region. In this paper, the first observational study of sub-micron aerosols in the East Antarctic sea ice region is presented. Measurements were conducted aboard the icebreaker Aurora Australis in spring 2012 and found that boundary layer condensation nuclei (CN3) concentrations exhibited a five-fold increase moving across the polar front, with mean polar cell concentrations of 1130 cm-3 - higher than any observed elsewhere in the Antarctic and Southern Ocean region. The absence of evidence for aerosol growth suggested that nucleation was unlikely to be local. Air parcel trajectories indicated significant influence from the free troposphere above the Antarctic continent, implicating this as the likely nucleation region for surface aerosol, a similar conclusion to previous Antarctic aerosol studies. The highest aerosol concentrations were found to correlate with low-pressure systems, suggesting that the passage of cyclones provided an accelerated pathway, delivering air masses quickly from the free troposphere to the surface. After descent from the Antarctic free troposphere, trajectories suggest that sea-ice boundary layer air masses travelled equatorward into the low-albedo Southern Ocean region, transporting with them emissions and these aerosol nuclei which, after growth, may potentially impact on the region's radiative balance. The high aerosol concentrations and their transport pathways described here, could help reduce the discrepancy currently present between simulations and observations of

  4. IPY Storytelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, C. A.; Lippsett, L.; Carlowicz, M.

    2007-12-01

    "Live from the Poles" tells the stories of science on ice. This NSF-sponsored education and outreach project (polardiscovery.whoi.edu) aims to go beyond results and sound bites to convey the full experience of polar research with all its trials, triumphs, and nuances. It uses a multimedia approach, including online photo essays posted daily during expeditions, along with videos, interviews, podcasts, animations, and audio clips-plus live satellite phone calls to audiences in major museums and science centers throughout the country. Our media team, typically a science writer and photographer, are embedded into the research program for the duration of the project. They live in the polar environment with the science party, bolstering their ability to convey the "human side" of the story that engages the public: What inspired the researchers to study the Arctic? What do they eat for dinner? How do they cope with the environment and being away from home? What other unexpected challenges will arise and how will they be overcome? The first expedition, in April 2007, shared the excitement of working in Nunavut, Canada, as researchers prepared to deploy instruments at the North Pole Environmental Observatory. The second followed an international scientific team's search for hydrothermal vents aboard the Swedish icebreaker Oden in July-August 2007. The Polar Discovery Web site has attracted more than 74,000 online visitors in its first eight months of operation. During the first two expeditions, the project facilitated 15 live audio talks to museum audiences, media outlets, and teacher workshops. This presentation will focus on lessons learned from the first two expeditions, with perspectives on science reporting and writing in the field from a science writer at AGU, and on the art of documentary photography, from photographer and project manager Chris Linder, who will speak via satellite phone from the third Polar Discovery expedition in Antarctica.

  5. Linkages between sea-ice coverage, pelagic-benthic coupling, and the distribution of spectacled eiders: Observations in March 2008, 2009 and 2010, northern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. W.; Sexson, M. G.; Grebmeier, J. M.; Gradinger, R.; Mordy, C. W.; Lovvorn, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Icebreaker-based sampling in the northern Bering Sea south of St. Lawrence Island in March of 2008, 2009, and 2010 has provided new data on overall ecosystem function early in the annual productive cycle. While water-column chlorophyll concentrations (<25 mg m-2 integrated over the whole water column) are two orders of magnitude lower than observed during the spring bloom in May, sea-ice algal inventories of chlorophyll are high (up to 1 g m-3 in the bottom 2-cm of sea-ice). Vertical fluxes of chlorophyll as measured in sediment traps were between 0.3 and 3.7 mg m-2 d-1 and were consistent with the recent deposition (days' to weeks' time scale) of chlorophyll to the surface sediments (0-25 mg m-2 present at 0-1 cm). Sediment oxygen respiration rates were lower than previous measurements that followed the spring bloom, but were highest in areas of known high benthic biomass. Early spring release of sedimentary ammonium occurs, particularly southeast of St. Lawrence Island, leading to bottom-water ammonium concentrations of >5 µM. These data, together with other physical, biological, and nutrient data, are presented here in conjunction with observed sea-ice dynamics and the distribution of an apex predator, the Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri). Sea-ice dynamics in addition to benthic food availability, as determined by sedimentation processes, play a role in the distribution of spectacled eiders, which cannot always access the greatest biomass of their preferred bivalve prey. Overall, the data and observations indicate that the northern Bering Sea is biologically active in late winter, but with strong atmospheric and hydrographic controls. These controls pre-determine nutrient and chlorophyll distributions, water-column mixing, as well as pelagic-benthic coupling.

  6. Fusion of satellite active and passive microwave data for sea ice type concentration estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, S.G.; Gogineni, S.; Carsey, F.D.

    1996-09-01

    Young first-year sea ice is nearly as important as open water in modulating heat flux between the ocean and atmosphere in the Arctic. Just after the onset of freeze-up, first-year ice is in the early stages of growth and will consist of young first-year and thin ice. The distribution of sea ice in this thickness range impacts heat transfer in the Arctic. Therefore, improving the estimates of ice concentrations in this thickness range is significant. NASA Team Algorithm (NTA) for passive microwave data inaccurately classifies sea ice during the melt and freeze-up seasons because it misclassifies multiyear ice as first-year ice. The authors developed a hybrid fusion technique for incorporating multiyear ice information derived form synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images into a passive microwave algorithm to improve ice type concentration estimates. First, they classified SAR images using a dynamic thresholding technique and estimated the multiyear ice concentration. Then they used the SAR-derived multiyear ice concentration constrain the NTA and obtained an improved first-year ice concentration estimate. They computed multiyear and first-year ice concentration estimates over a region in the eastern-central Arctic in which field observations of ice and in situ radar backscatter measurements were performed. With the NTA alone, the first-year ice concentration in the study area varied between 0.11 and 0.40, while the multiyear ice concentration varied form 0.63 to 0.39. With the hybrid fusion technique, the first-year ice concentration varied between 0.08 and 0.23 and the multiyear ice concentration was between 0.62 and 0.66. The fused estimates of first-year and multiyear ice concentration appear to be more accurate than NTA, based on ice observations that were logged aboard the US Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Star in the study area during 1991.

  7. 30 years of upper air soundings on board of R/V POLARSTERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driemel, Amelie; Loose, Bernd; Grobe, Hannes; Sieger, Rainer; König-Langlo, Gert

    2016-06-01

    The research vessel and supply icebreaker POLARSTERN is the flagship of the Alfred-Wegener-Institut in Bremerhaven (Germany) and one of the infrastructural pillars of German Antarctic research. Since its commissioning in 1982, POLARSTERN has conducted 30 campaigns to Antarctica (157 legs, mostly austral summer), and 29 to the Arctic (94 legs, northern summer). Usually, POLARSTERN is more than 300 days per year in operation and crosses the Atlantic Ocean in a meridional section twice a year. The first radiosonde on POLARSTERN was released on the 29 December 1982, 2 days after POLARSTERN started on its maiden voyage to the Antarctic. And these daily soundings have continued up to the present. Due to the fact that POLARSTERN has reliably and regularly been providing upper air observations from data sparse regions (oceans and polar regions), the radiosonde data are of special value for researchers and weather forecast services alike. In the course of 30 years (29 December 1982 to 25 November 2012) a total of 12 378 radiosonde balloons were started on POLARSTERN. All radiosonde data can now be found at König-Langlo (2015, doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.810000). Each data set contains the directly measured parameters air temperature, relative humidity and air pressure, and the derived altitude, wind direction and wind speed. 432 data sets additionally contain ozone measurements.Although more sophisticated techniques (meteorological satellites, aircraft observation, remote-sensing systems, etc.) have nowadays become increasingly important, the high vertical resolution and quality of radiosonde data remains paramount for weather forecasts and modelling approaches.

  8. Characterization of Sea-Air Methane Fluxes Around a Seafloor Gas Seep in the Central Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geibel, M. C.; Thornton, B. F.; Prytherch, J.; Brooks, I. M.; Salisbury, D. J.; Tjernstrom, M. K. H.; Semiletov, I. P.; Mörth, C. M.; Humborg, C.; Crill, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    The fate of CH4 released from thawing subsea permafrost on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is unclear. In recent years, interest has focused on the possibility of large emissions of CH4 directly to the atmosphere from this remote area. It is uncertain how high those emissions are and whether they are primarily of biogenic or thermogenic nature, or some combination of sources. The SWERUS-C3 expedition onboard the Swedish icebreaker Oden during July-August 2014 sought to document possible CH4 release from subsea permafrost, and to understand mechanisms and magnitudes of such CH4 being released to the atmosphere. During the first leg of the expedition continuous high-resolution measurements were made to determine the in situ concentrations of CH4 in both the atmosphere and surface water. During SWERUS-C3, several underwater gas flares were found within the ESAS region showing elevated CH4 concentrations collocated in the surface waters. Here we focus on one seep area, a so-called "mega-flare" site, in the central Laptev Sea. Over individual gas flares of this site the surface water concentration of CH4 reached as high as 200ppm. The atmospheric concentrations of CH4 briefly (< 1 s) reached a maximum of ~3.2 ppm. More typical atmospheric values around the seeps were between 1.9-2.0 ppm (background values were approximately 1.88 ppm). However, such peak concentrations in both air and water were highly localized, returning to background levels within a few hundred meters of the source seeps. Together with continuous high-precision eddy-covariance measurements that were made during the SWERUS-C3 expedition, the combined dataset allows an intensive analysis these highly inhomogeneous gas flares. This gives the opportunity to calculate accurate high-resolution CH4 fluxes and thus give a better insight into the current rates of subsea CH4 outgassing reaching the atmosphere.

  9. Continuous high-resolution measurements of dissolved CH4, CO2 and δ13C-CO2 in surface water during the SWERUS-C3 expedition in the East Siberian Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geibel, Marc Christoph; Magnus Mörth, Carl; Humborg, Christoph; Semiletov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The carbon budget in the Arctic is still unknown. Especially the fate of CH4 from subsea permafrost on the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) is unclear. In July-September 2014 the joined SWERUS-C3 expedition on board the Swedish icebreaker ODEN was undertaken. Among its goals was to get a better insight into the fate of carbon in the Arctic, to document possible CH4 release from subsea permafrost and deep sea and to understand mechanisms and magnitudes of CH4 release to the atmosphere. During the first leg of the expedition the in situ concentration of dissolved CH4, CO2 as well as the δ13C signature of CO2 were determined. Measurements were made continuously with a Water Equilibration Gas Analyzer System (WEGAS) that was specifically developed at Stockholm University for the determination of gases dissolved in water. The aim of this study was to quantify the concentration of dissolved CO2 and CH4 in the surface water of the East Siberian Arctic Ocean (ESAO) as well as the contribution of terrestrial organic matter respiration to the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Combined with continuous high-precision atmospheric measurements that were performed during the SWERUS-C3 expedition, the WEGAS dataset will allow to calculate accurate high-resolution CH4 fluxes and thus give a better insight into the current outgassing of CH4 to the atmosphere. Together with measurements of δ13C of inorganic carbon that was sampled during the expedition, the isotopic composition of the dissolved organic carbon pool will allow to quantify the of terrestrial carbon contribution to total respiration in the ESAO.

  10. Arctic Summer Sea-Ice Extent: How Free is Free?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, B.; Cullather, R. I.; DeRepentigny, P.; Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.

    2015-12-01

    As Northern Hemisphere perennial sea ice cover continues a long-term downward trend, attention has begun to focus on the implications of the changing conditions. A summertime ice-free Arctic Ocean is frequently indicated as a signature milestone for these changes, however "ice-free" has a substantially different meaning among scientists and interested stakeholders. To climate scientists it may mean when there is so little sea ice that it plays a minimal role in the climate system. To those interested in development, it may mean a threshold where icebreaker support is not required. To coastal communities it may mean so little ice that hunting is not possible. To species dependent on sea ice, it may mean the point where they cannot find sufficient habitat to survive from spring until fall. In this contribution we document the projected seasonality of the sea ice retreat and address the following questions. For how long will the Arctic Ocean be ice free on average each year? What is the impact of such changes in the seasonality of the sea ice cover on species that are dependent on sea ice? To this end, we analyze the seasonal cycle in the sea-ice extent simulated by the Community Earth System Model 1 - Large Ensemble (CESM1-LE) output for the 21st century. CESM1-LE simulates a realistic late 20th, early 21st century Arctic climate with a seasonal cycle in sea ice extent and rate of decline in good agreement with observations. Results from this model show that even by the end of the 21st century, the length of the ice-free season is relatively short, with ice-free conditions mainly present for 2-3 months between August and October. The result is a much larger amplitude seasonal cycle when compared with the late 20th century climate.

  11. Magnetic Anomalies in the Enderby Basin, the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Y.; Sato, T.; Hanyu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic anomalies in the Southern indian Ocean are vital to understanding initial breakup process of Gondwana. However, seafloor age estimated from magnetic anomalies still remain less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. To understand the seafloor spreading history related to the initial breakup process of Gondwana, vector magnetic anomaly data as well as total intensity magnetic anomaly data obtained by the R/V Hakuho-maru and the icebreaker Shirase in the Enderby Basin, Southern Indian Ocean, are used. The strikes of magnetic structures are deduced from the vector magnetic anomalies. Magnetic anomaly signals, most likely indicating Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence, are obtained almost parallel to the west of WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise inferred from satellite gravity anomalies. Most of the strikes of magnetic structures indicate NNE-SSW trends, and are almost perpendicular to the WNW-ESE trending lineaments. Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies with mostly WNW-ESE strikes are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and Gunnerus Ridge. Magnetic anomalies originated from Cretaceous normal polarity superchron are found in these profiles, although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. However Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies are only observed in the west side of the WNW-ESE trending lineaments just to the south of Conrad Rise and not detected to the east of Cretaceous normal superchron signals. These results show that counter part of Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies in the south of Conrad Rise would be found in the East Enderby Basin, off East Antarctica. NNE-SSW trending magnetic structures, which are similar to those obtained just to the south of Conrad Rise, are found off East Antarctica in the East Enderby Basin. However, some of the strikes show almost E-W orientations. These suggest complicated ridge

  12. Radioactive waste disposal in seas adjacent to the territory of the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Yablokov, A V

    2001-01-01

    The former USSR illegally dumped into the ocean liquid and solid radioactive wastes (RW) originating from nuclear-powered vessels and ships. The Russian President created a special Commission to analyse both the scale and consequences of this activity. According to documentary data and expert estimates at the Commission's disposal, the maximum activity of RW that entered the seas adjacent to Russian territory could have been as much as 2,500 kCi at the time of disposal. The greatest radio-ecological hazard comes from reactors from nuclear submarines and core plates of the nuclear icebreaker 'Lenin', which had spent nuclear fuel in place and which were dumped in shallow water in the Kara Sea near Novaya Zemlya. Editor's note: This article extracts material from a Commission which published a report produced in Russia in 1993. Numerous sources in many Ministries and other government agencies, noted in the text, formed the basis for the final draft. The authors of the draft report were A. Yablokov, V. Karasev, V. Rumyantsev, M. Kokeev, O. Petrov, V. Lystsov, A. Yemelyanenkov and P. Rubtsov. After approving the draft report, the Commission submitted the report to the President of the Russian Federation in February 1993. By Presidential decision, this report (after several technical corrections) was open to the public: it is known variously as 'the Yablokov Commission report, or more simply the 'Yablokov Report', the 'White Book' or 'Yablokov White Paper'. During April-May 1993, 500 copies were distributed among governmental agencies inside Russia, and abroad through a net of Russian Embassies. This article was later sent to Dr Mike Champ as part of the ongoing collections of papers on the Arctic published in this journal (edited by Champ et al.: 1997 'Contaminants in the Arctic', Marine Pollution Bulletin 35, pp. 203-385 and in Marine Pollution Bulletin 2000, vol. 40, pp. 801-868, and continued with the present collection). PMID:11601536

  13. Dredged Rock Samples from the Alpha Ridge, Arctic Ocean: Implications for the Tectonic History and Origin of the Amerasian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumley, K.; Mayer, L.; Miller, E. L.; Coakley, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Amerasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean conceals one of the few unresolved plate tectonic puzzles on Earth, with important implications for the geologic history of the vast adjoining shelfal regions. Until we are able to scientifically drill the most controversial parts of the Amerasian Basin seafloor, many questions about its age and origin will remain unanswered. To address the plate tectonic origin of the Amerasian Basin, we dredged steep escarpments along the Alpha Ridge, a bathymetric ridge that extends across the Amerasian Basin. The Alpha Ridge is dissected by structures that have been characterized by seismic reflection and which appear to be normal fault-bound linear ridges and basins. The Alpha Ridge has been described as a hot spot track, an oceanic plateau, and a possible spreading center. Dredged samples taken in 1985 from the central Alpha Ridge were determined to be highly altered fragmental basalt and yielded a Late Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar whole rock age which agreed with the conventional models for a purely volcanic/oceanic origin of the Alpha Ridge (Forsythe and others, 1986; Lawver et al., 2002). Dredged rock samples were taken by the icebreaker USCGC Healy (HLY0805, Mayer and Armstrong, 2008) and included samples from a steep slope of a subsidiary ridge in the south central Alpha/Mendeleev Ridge complex. The fresh broken surfaces of large blocks of rock and the lithologic similarity of the rocks recovered suggest an outcrop was sampled. The recovered rocks included interbedded red sandstones and ochre mudstones with well-defined bedding and sedimentary structures. Preliminary shipboard analysis suggests they may be tuffaceous and/or derived from volcanic sources, and may possibly be continental in origin. Further analysis and descriptions will be carried out in the coming months to determine their age and depositional environment. The results of this analysis and their possible implications for the origin of the Alpha Ridge and tectonic history of

  14. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-10-22

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 July to 19 August 2005 and we encountered extensive bird migration in the whole Beringia range from latitude 64 degrees N in Bering Strait up to latitude 75 degrees N far north of Wrangel Island, with eastward flights making up 79% of all track directions. The results from Beringia were used in combination with radar studies from the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and in the Beaufort Sea to make a reconstruction of a major Siberian-American bird migration system in a wide Arctic sector between longitudes 110 degrees E and 130 degrees W, spanning one-third of the entire circumpolar circle. This system was estimated to involve more than 2 million birds, mainly shorebirds, terns and skuas, flying across the Arctic Ocean at mean altitudes exceeding 1 km (maximum altitudes 3-5 km). Great circle orientation provided a significantly better fit with observed flight directions at 20 different sites and areas than constant geographical compass orientation. The long flights over the sea spanned 40-80 degrees of longitude, corresponding to distances and durations of 1400-2600 km and 26-48 hours, respectively. The birds continued from this eastward migration system over the Arctic Ocean into several different flyway systems at the American continents and the Pacific Ocean. Minimization of distances between tundra breeding sectors and northerly stopover sites, in combination with the Beringia glacial refugium and colonization history, seemed to be important for the evolution of this major

  15. A polar system of intercontinental bird migration.

    PubMed

    Alerstam, Thomas; Bäckman, Johan; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A; Hedenström, Anders; Henningsson, Sara S; Karlsson, Håkan; Rosén, Mikael; Strandberg, Roine

    2007-10-22

    Studies of bird migration in the Beringia region of Alaska and eastern Siberia are of special interest for revealing the importance of bird migration between Eurasia and North America, for evaluating orientation principles used by the birds at polar latitudes and for understanding the evolutionary implications of intercontinental migratory connectivity among birds as well as their parasites. We used tracking radar placed onboard the ice-breaker Oden to register bird migratory flights from 30 July to 19 August 2005 and we encountered extensive bird migration in the whole Beringia range from latitude 64 degrees N in Bering Strait up to latitude 75 degrees N far north of Wrangel Island, with eastward flights making up 79% of all track directions. The results from Beringia were used in combination with radar studies from the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia and in the Beaufort Sea to make a reconstruction of a major Siberian-American bird migration system in a wide Arctic sector between longitudes 110 degrees E and 130 degrees W, spanning one-third of the entire circumpolar circle. This system was estimated to involve more than 2 million birds, mainly shorebirds, terns and skuas, flying across the Arctic Ocean at mean altitudes exceeding 1 km (maximum altitudes 3-5 km). Great circle orientation provided a significantly better fit with observed flight directions at 20 different sites and areas than constant geographical compass orientation. The long flights over the sea spanned 40-80 degrees of longitude, corresponding to distances and durations of 1400-2600 km and 26-48 hours, respectively. The birds continued from this eastward migration system over the Arctic Ocean into several different flyway systems at the American continents and the Pacific Ocean. Minimization of distances between tundra breeding sectors and northerly stopover sites, in combination with the Beringia glacial refugium and colonization history, seemed to be important for the evolution of this major

  16. CO2, CH4, and N2O in the Open Ocean, Sea-ice Zone, and Polynya of the Southern Ocean Observed during Austral Summer Season from 2009 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, T. S.; Park, K.; Hahm, D.; Jeon, H.; Park, K.; Kwon, Y.; Shin, H.; Lee, S.; Lee, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Korean ice-breaking research vessel Araon has been at sea since 2010 carrying out a variety of research activities. During these periods we measured CO2, CH4, and N2O at sea below and above the sea surface to estimate sink or source strengths of the ocean in the characteristic provinces at high latitude. The ocean plays a wide range of role in the budget of these gases in the atmosphere: as a sink for CO2 and a source for CH4 and N2O. High latitude of the Southern Ocean is particularly important as the change in the cryosphere can impact the ecological and physical settings that govern the content and flux of these dissolved gases in seawater. We have visited the Amundsen Sea during the austral summer in 2010/2011 and 2012, and the Ross Sea in 2013 in order to investigate the impact of the change in the cryospheric environments. In addition we had opportunity to survey the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean in 2009 onboard R/V Polarstern. In the open ocean, CO2 in the seawater was mostly undersaturated, CH4 was in equilibrium or slightly undersaturated, and N2O was supersaturated with respect to that in the marine boundary layer. These features were not observed in the sea-ice zone; CO2 in the seawater was slightly supersaturated in 2011, but not in 2012 and 2013, while dissolved CH4 was undersaturated and N2O was supersaturated for three years. In the polynya of the Amundsen Sea and the Ross Sea, CO2 and CH4 were undersaturated in the seawater while N2O was supersaturated with respect to that in the atmosphere. Based on these 4-year observations during austral summer season, high latitude of the southern ocean contributes as a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 whilst as a strong source for N2O. In the case of CH4, the Southern Ocean acted as a sink of the atmospheric CH4, which differs from the role of the ocean in the global scale.

  17. Fram-2014/2015: A 400 Day Investigation of the Arctic's Oldest Sediments over the Alpha Ridge with a Research Hovercraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. K.; Kristoffersen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The thickest multi-year ice in the Arctic covers a secret. Four short cores raised from the Alpha Ridge in the 1970s and 1980s from drift stations T-3 and CESAR showed ages between 45 and 76 my. The reason for these old ages became clear when examination of legacy seismic data from T-3 showed that in some places up to 500 m of sediments had been removed within an area of some 200 by 600 km, presumably by an impact of asteroid fragments. To investigate the impact area, the authors conceived an innovative research platform in 2007. Named the R/H SABVABAA, this 12m by 6m hovercraft has been home-based in Svalbard since June 2008. During the following 6 years the craft and its evolving innovative light-weight equipment have made 18 trips to the summer ice pack, traveling some 4410 km over ice during some six months of scientific investigations. An opportunity to get a lift to this area, some 1500 km from Svalbard, came in a 2011 invitation to join AWI's icebreaker POLARSTERN in its ARK-XXVIII/4 expedition departing Tromsö August 5, 2014. The 400 day drift will be the first wintering over, ever, of a mobile research platform with geophysical, geological, and oceanographic capabilities. The Arctic ice pack continually moves due to winds and currents. While at the main camp, observations will consist of marine geophysics (seismic profiling with four element CHIRP, a 20 in³ airgun with single hydrophone, as well as 12 kHz bathymetry and 200 kHz sounding of the deep scattering layer), marine geology (coring with a hydrostatically-boosted 3 or 6 m corer; bottom photography; and two rock dredges), and oceanography. Deployed away from the camp, four sonobuoys will allow 3-D seismic acquisition. Access to the depths below the ice is via a hydraulic capstan winch, with 6500 m of Kevlar aramid fiber rope with 2.8 ton breaking strength. Ice thickness monitoring of the local 100 km² will be made with the craft's EM-31 probe when away from the camp, moving to choice locations for

  18. The Role of Longwave Radiation for the Variability of Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjernstrom, M. K.; Kapsch, M.; Mauritsen, T.; Graversen, R. G.; Sedlar, J.; Shupe, M.

    2012-12-01

    The last decades has seen a large reduction in summer sea ice at the end of the melt season, but on top of this there is also a large interannual variability. Examining the little direct observations of heat fluxes at the ice interface that is available from a series of field experiments (SHEBA, Tara, AOE-2001, ASCOS etc.) it is clear that the surface energy balance is dominated by radiation. Probably the most discussed radiation effect is the so-called "ice and snow albedo feedback", however, while the albedo definitely changes when the ice is gone and the ocean surface is exposed, it is still difficult to understand how this effect would be able to initialize more melt; in essence sea ice must have already begun to retreat for other reasons before this can be an important effect. We instead argue that it is changes in the longwave radiation that is driving sea ice change. We will begin by illustrating, from field observations, the dramatic effects of clouds on the surface energy balance. We will do this by exploring an episode from ASCOS where clouds did not form due to a lack of cloud condensation nuclei. The whole ASCOS dataset is then used to illustrate how this unusual second indirect of aerosols totally dominating the energy budget, far outweighing any effect on the shortwave radiation. Extending the analysis to four summer expeditions on the icebreaker Oden we will show that this type of event may be far more common than previously believed. Finally we use the longwave (and other energy fluxes) in ERA-Interim to explore if there is any correlation between changes in longwave radiation and years with higher or lower ice extent than the 30-year trend line. We find a clear correlation between negative (positive) sea-ice extent anomalies in September and positive (negative) anomalies in net longwave radiation the preceding March-through-May. This happens before there is any anomaly in the shortwave radiation; this anomaly appears later when the sea ice area has

  19. An Atlas of submarine glacial landforms:modern, Quaternary and ancient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdeswell, Julian; Canals, Miguel; Jakobsson, Martin; Todd, Brian; Dowdeswell, Evelyn; Hogan, Kelly

    2013-04-01

    In the past two decades there have been several advances that make the production of an atlas of submarine glacial landforms timely. First is the development of high-resolution imaging technologies; multi-beam echo-sounding or swath bathymetry that allows the detailed mapping of the sea floor at water depths of tens to thousands of metres across continental margins, and 3-D seismic methods that enable the visualisation of palaeo-shelves in Quaternary sediments and ancient palaeo-glacial rocks (e.g. Late Ordovician of Northern Africa). A second technological development is that of ice-breaking or ice-strengthened ships that can penetrate deep into the ice-infested waters of the Arctic and Antarctic, to deploy the multibeam systems. A third component is that of relevance - through both the recognition that the polar regions, and especially the Arctic, are particularly sensitive parts of the global environmental system and that these high-latitude margins (both modern and ancient) are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon resources. An enhanced understanding of the sediments and landforms of these fjord-shelf-slope systems is, therefore, of increasing importance to both academics and industry. We are editing an Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms that presents a series of individual contributions that describe, discuss and illustrate features on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced sea floor. Contributions will be organised in two ways: first, by position on a continental margin - from fjords, through continental shelves to the continental slope and rise; secondly, by scale - as individual landforms and assemblages of landforms. A final section will allow discussion of integrated fjord-shelf-slope systems. We have assembled a group of editors who have worked with and published extensively on the acquisition, description and interpretation of swath-bathymetric data from both Arctic and Antarctic margins and used 3D seismic data to investigate ancient glacial

  20. On the Cutting Edge: Face-to-Face and Virtual Professional Development for Current and Future Geoscience Faculty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, H.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Tewksbury, B. J.; Iverson, E. A.; Kirk, K. B.; Beane, R. J.; McConnell, D.; Wiese, K.; Wysession, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    On the Cutting Edge, a comprehensive, discipline-wide professional development program for current and future geoscience faculty, aims to develop a geoscience professoriate committed to high-quality instruction based on currency in scientific knowledge, good pedagogic practice, and research on learning. Our program provides an integrated workshop series and online teaching resources. Since 2002, we have offered more than 80 face-to-face workshops, virtual workshops and webinars, and hybrid events. Participants come from two-year colleges and four-year colleges and universities. The workshop series is designed to address the needs of faculty in all career stages at the full spectrum of institutions and covering the breadth of the geoscience curriculum. We select timely and compelling topics and create opportunities of interest to faculty. We offer workshops on course design, new geoscience research and pedagogical topics, core geoscience curriculum topics, and introductory courses as well as workshops for early career faculty and for future faculty. Our workshops are designed to model good teaching practice. We set workshop goals that guide workshop planning and evaluation. Workshops are interactive, emphasize participant learning, provide opportunities for participants to interact and share experience/knowledge, provide good resources, give participants time to reflect and to develop action plans, and help transform their ideas about teaching. We emphasize the importance of adaptation in the context of their specific situations. For virtual workshops and webinars we use icebreakers and other structured interactions to build a comfortable workshop community; promote interaction through features on webinar software, chat-aided question and answer, small-group synchronous interactions, and/or discussion boards; plan detailed schedules for workshop events; use asynchronous discussions and recordings of synchronous events given that participants are busy with their

  1. Large-scale temperature and salinity changes in the upper Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean at a time of a drastic Arctic Oscillation inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, P.; Gascard, J. C.; Shi, J.; Zhao, J.

    2013-04-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Arctic Oscillation index over Arctic regions shifted from positive values corresponding to more cyclonic conditions prevailing during the 4th International Polar Year (IPY) period (2007-2008) to extremely negative values corresponding to strong anticyclonic conditions in 2010. In this context, we investigated the recent large-scale evolution of the upper western Arctic Ocean, based on temperature and salinity summertime observations collected during icebreaker campaigns and from ice-tethered profilers (ITPs) drifting across the region in 2008 and 2010. Particularly, we focused on (1) the freshwater content which was extensively studied during previous years, (2) the near-surface temperature maximum due to incoming solar radiation, and (3) the water masses advected from the Pacific Ocean into the Arctic Ocean. The observations revealed a freshwater content change in the Canadian Basin during this time period. South of 80° N, the freshwater content increased, while north of 80° N, less freshening occurred in 2010 compared to 2008. This was more likely due to the strong anticyclonicity characteristic of a low AO index mode that enhanced both a wind-generated Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre and a possible diversion of the Siberian River runoff toward the Eurasian Basin at the same time. The near-surface temperature maximum due to incoming solar radiation was almost 1 °C colder in the southern Canada Basin (south of 75° N) in 2010 compared to 2008, which contrasted with the positive trend observed during previous years. This was more likely due to higher summer sea ice concentration in 2010 compared to 2008 in that region, and surface albedo feedback reflecting more sun radiation back in space. The Pacific water (PaW) was also subjected to strong spatial and temporal variability between 2008 and 2010. In the Canada Basin, both summer and winter PaW signatures were stronger between 75° N and 80° N. This was more likely due to a strong

  2. A year-long journey across the Arctic Ocean: the story of the chemical composition of the air as recorded by O-Buoy # 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netcheva, S.; Bottenheim, J. W.; Carlsen, M. S.; Chavez, F.; Matrai, P. A.; Perovich, D. K.; Shepson, P.; Simpson, W. R.; Valentic, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    A number of autonomous, ice-tethered buoys have been deployed in different parts of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Ocean as part of the USA-Canada collaborative project O-Buoy since 2009. The main feature of these buoys is their capability to simultaneously measure the concentrations of atmospheric constituents important for climate change and air quality, such as ozone, carbon dioxide, bromine monoxide, and meteorological parameters directly over the sea ice. O-Buoy # 4 was deployed from the CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent icebreaker along a survey trip undertaken by the Canadian Extended Continental Shelf Mapping Program at latitude 88.15°N and longitude 157.49°W on September 5, 2011. O-Buoy # 4 provided input into various fields of the Arctic contemporary measurement and observation technology that include equipment design, instrumentation control, power management and analytical instrumentation performance through approximately a year long journey, guided by the Arctic transpolar drift system and moving close to the North Pole. The relevant meteorological observations have been integrated into the marine weather observation network of WMO and the wind speed and direction data records were utilized for weather forecast model validation purposes. Indisputably, the highest achievement of O-buoy #4 is the continuous data set presenting the seasonal levels and the variations of the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the High Arctic. The comparison of the ozone concentrations record with the only existing year-long, ice-based record of ozone data collected by the French schooner TARA and other coastal observatories such as Alert (82.45°N, 62.508°W) supports the hypothesis made by Hopper et all. back in 1994 that the air over the Arctic Ocean surface contains ozone at very low concentrations through the spring season. Unfortunately, no other long term observations over the ice exists to compare O-buoy recorded data with to advance our understanding of the path, the

  3. New technologies and the Mission Specific Platform approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInroy, D.; Smith, D.; Freudenthal, T.

    2009-04-01

    Within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), ECORD-operated Mission Specific Platforms (MSPs) have allowed scientific ocean drilling to recover core from targets that are generally inaccessible to the two dedicated IODP platforms: the US-operated JOIDES Resolution and the Japanese-operated Chikyu. By contracting vessels, drilling and logging services on a case-by-case basis, IODP has used MSPs to successfully conduct expeditions in the high Arctic Ocean and around Tahiti, and has shown that the program can recover cores in ice-covered waters and in very shallow water. The key strength of the MSP approach is that vessels, drilling and logging systems can be contracted to meet the particular needs of a scientific proposal. Within IODP, MSPs carry the necessary staff and equipment to recover and curate the core, to carry out initial descriptions, undertake a tailored downhole logging program and conduct essential measurements of physical and ephemeral properties. Comprehensive description and analysis of the cores to IODP standards takes place after the offshore phase has ended at the IODP Bremen Core Repository (BCR) in Germany. Depending on availability and cost, potentially any vessel, drilling or logging system can be hired to conduct an MSP. Future possibilities may include the Aurora Borealis that is currently being planned as an ice-breaking drilling vessel with the capability to penetrate 1000 m in 5000 m of water. The concept of MSPs could also be widened beyond vessels with conventional drill rigs. New and alternative technologies can be contracted as part of an MSP Expedition, for example remotely-operated shallow rock drills like MeBo (developed by the MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences) and the BGS Rockdrills (developed by the British Geological Survey). Such technologies have many advantages: they can be quickly deployed from a range of research and industry vessels, they can operate in a wide range of water depths (up to 6000 m by

  4. Asteroids, ophiuroids and holothurians from the southeastern Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean).

    PubMed

    Gutt, Julian; Piepenburg, Dieter; Voß, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Until the early 1980s, the composition and distribution of the asteroid (starfish), ophiuroid (brittle star) and holothurian (sea cucumber) bottom fauna of the southeastern Weddell Sea was virtually unknown. This southernmost part of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is a typical high-latitude Antarctic region located in the circumpolar permanent pack-ice zone. It became accessible for large-scale scientific surveys only through the availability of modern ice-breaking research vessels, such as the German RV "Polarstern". Here, we describe a dataset of the faunal composition and abundance of starfish, brittle star and sea cucumber assemblages in this area, based on collections from trawl catches carried out during three "Polarstern" cruises in 1983, 1984 and 1985. The set comprises a total of 4,509 records of abundances of 35 asteroid species (with a total of 2,089 specimens) and 38 ophiuroid species (with a total of 18,484 specimens) from 34 stations, as well as of 66 holothurian species (with a total of 20,918 specimens) from 59 stations including zero-abundances (absences). A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. Overall, starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers were present at all sites investigated in the study area but composition and abundance of asterozoan (asteroids and ophiuroids together) and holothurian fauna varied considerably. A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. In the case of asterozoans, water depth and latitude seemed to be the most important drivers of assemblage distribution and composition. One of the holothurian assemblages was part of the rich macrozoobenthic community dominated by a diverse and abundant epifauna, mainly

  5. Shallow Water Offshore Wind Optimization for the Great Lakes (DE-FOA-0000415) Final Report: A Conceptual Design for Wind Energy in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wissemann, Chris; White, Stanley M

    2014-02-28

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a innovative Gravity Base Foundation (GBF) concepts, including fabrication yards, launching systems and installation equipment, for a 500MW utility scale project in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie). The goal was to lower the LCOE by 25%. The project was the first to investigate an offshore wind project in the Great Lakes and it has furthered the body of knowledge for foundations and installation methods within Lake Erie. The project collected historical geotechnical information for Lake Erie and also used recently obtained data from the LEEDCo Icebreaker Project (FOA DE-EE0005989) geotechnical program to develop the conceptual designs. Using these data-sets, the project developed design wind and wave conditions from actual buoy data in order to develop a concept that would de-risk a project using a GBF. These wind and wave conditions were then utilized to create reference designs for various foundations specific to installation in Lake Erie. A project partner on the project (Weeks Marine) provided input for construction and costing the GBF fabrication and installation. By having a marine contractor with experience with large marine projects as part of the team provides credibility to the LCOE developed by NREL. NREL then utilized the design and construction costing information as part of the LCOE model. The report summarizes the findings of the project. • Developed a cost model and “baseline” LCOE • Documented Site Conditions within Lake Erie • Developed Fabrication, Installation and Foundations Innovative Concept Designs • Evaluated LCOE Impact of Innovations • Developed Assembly line “Rail System” for GBF Construction and Staging • Developed Transit-Inspired Foundation Designs which incorporated: Semi-Floating Transit with Supplemental Pontoons Barge mounted Winch System • Developed GBF with “Penetration Skirt” • Developed Integrated GBF with Turbine Tower • Developed Turbine, Plant

  6. Asteroids, ophiuroids and holothurians from the southeastern Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean).

    PubMed

    Gutt, Julian; Piepenburg, Dieter; Voß, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Until the early 1980s, the composition and distribution of the asteroid (starfish), ophiuroid (brittle star) and holothurian (sea cucumber) bottom fauna of the southeastern Weddell Sea was virtually unknown. This southernmost part of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is a typical high-latitude Antarctic region located in the circumpolar permanent pack-ice zone. It became accessible for large-scale scientific surveys only through the availability of modern ice-breaking research vessels, such as the German RV "Polarstern". Here, we describe a dataset of the faunal composition and abundance of starfish, brittle star and sea cucumber assemblages in this area, based on collections from trawl catches carried out during three "Polarstern" cruises in 1983, 1984 and 1985. The set comprises a total of 4,509 records of abundances of 35 asteroid species (with a total of 2,089 specimens) and 38 ophiuroid species (with a total of 18,484 specimens) from 34 stations, as well as of 66 holothurian species (with a total of 20,918 specimens) from 59 stations including zero-abundances (absences). A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. Overall, starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers were present at all sites investigated in the study area but composition and abundance of asterozoan (asteroids and ophiuroids together) and holothurian fauna varied considerably. A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. In the case of asterozoans, water depth and latitude seemed to be the most important drivers of assemblage distribution and composition. One of the holothurian assemblages was part of the rich macrozoobenthic community dominated by a diverse and abundant epifauna, mainly

  7. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  8. Atmospheric HCH concentrations over the Marine Boundary Layer from Shanghai, China to the Arctic Ocean: role of human activity and climate change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoguo; Lam, James C W; Xia, Chonghuan; Kang, Hui; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2010-11-15

    From July to September 2008, air samples were collected aboard the research expedition icebreaker XueLong (Snow Dragon) as part of the 2008 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition Program. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) concentrations were analyzed in all of the samples. The average concentrations (± standard deviation) over the entire period were 33 ± 16, 5.4 ± 3.0, and 13 ± 7.5 pg m⁻³ for α-, β- and γ-HCH, respectively. Compared to previous studies in the same areas, total HCH (ΣHCH, the sum of α-, β-, and γ-HCH) levels declined by more than 10 × compared to those observed in the 1990s, but were approximately 4 × higher than those measured by the 2003 China Arctic Research Expedition, suggesting the increase of atmospheric ΣHCH recently. Because of the continuing use of lindane, ratios of α/γ-HCH showed an obvious decrease in North Pacific and Arctic region compared with those for 2003 Chinese Arctic Research Expedition. In Arctic, the level of α-HCH was found to be linked to sea ice distribution. Geographically, the average concentration of α-HCH in air samples from the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, neither of which contain sea ice, was 23 ± 4.4 pg m⁻³, while samples from the area covered by seasonal ice (∼75°N to ∼83°N), the so-called "floating sea ice region", contained the highest average levels of α-HCH at 48 ± 12 pg m⁻³, likely due to emission from sea ice and strong air-sea exchange. The lowest concentrations of α-HCH were observed in the pack ice region in the high Arctic covered by multiyear sea ice (∼83°N to ∼86°N). This phenomenon implies that the re-emission of HCH trapped in ice sheets and Arctic Ocean may accelerate during the summer as ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean decreases in response to global climate change.

  9. GeoMapApp as a platform for visualizing marine data from Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V.; Goodwillie, A. M.; O'hara, S. H.; Weissel, R.; McLain, K.; Chinhong, C.; Arko, R. A.; Chan, S.; Morton, J. J.; Pomeroy, D.

    2012-12-01

    To maximize the investment in expensive fieldwork the resulting data should be re-used as much as possible. In addition, unnecessary duplication of data collection effort should be avoided. This becomes even more important if access to field areas is as difficult and expensive as it is in Polar Regions. Making existing data discoverable in an easy to use platform is key to improve re-use and avoid duplication. A common obstacle is that use of existing data is often limited to specialists who know of the data existence and also have the right tools to view and analyze these data. GeoMapApp is a free, interactive, map based tool that allows users to discover, visualize, and analyze a large number of data sets. In addition to a global view, it provides polar map projections for displaying data in Arctic and Antarctic areas. Data that have currently been added to the system include Arctic swath bathymetry data collected from the USCG icebreaker Healy. These data are collected almost continuously including from cruises where bathymetry is not the main objective and for which existence of the acquired data may not be well known. In contrast, existence of seismic data from the Antarctic continental margin is well known in the seismic community. They are archived at and can be accessed through the Antarctic Seismic Data Library System (SDLS). Incorporating these data into GeoMapApp makes an even broader community aware of these data and the custom interface, which includes capabilities to visualize and explore these data, allows users without specific software or knowledge of the underlying data format to access the data. In addition to investigating these datasets, GeoMapApp provides links to the actual data sources to allow specialists the opportunity to re-use the original data. Important identification of data sources and data references are achieved on different levels. For access to the actual Antarctic seismic data GeoMapApp links to the SDLS site, where users have

  10. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  11. The ARMADA Project: Bringing Oceanography and the Arctic to the Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazol, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is

  12. Sources of Dimethyl Sulfide in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungall, E. L.; Croft, B.; Lizotte, M.; Thomas, J. L.; Murphy, J. G.; Levasseur, M.; Martin, R.; Wentzell, J. J. B.; Liggio, J.; Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfide plays a major role in the global sulfur cycle, meaning that it is important to the formation of sulfate aerosol and thus to cloud condensation nuclei populations and cloud formation. The summertime Arctic atmosphere sometimes resides in a cloud condensation nuclei limited regime, making it very susceptible to changes in their number. Despite the interest generated by this situation, dimethyl sulfide has only rarely been measured in the summertime Arctic. This work presents the first high time resolution (10 Hz) DMS mixing ratio measurements for the Eastern Canadian Archipelago and Baffin Bay in summer performed on an icebreaker cruise as one component of the Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments (NETCARE). Measured mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit of 4 pptv to 1155 pptv with a median value of 186 pptv. We used transfer velocity parameterizations from the literature to generate the first flux estimates for this region in summer, which ranged from 0.02-12 μmol m-2 d-1. DMS has a lifetime against OH oxidation of 1-2 days, allowing both local sources and transport to play roles in its atmospheric mixing ratio. Through air mass trajectory analysis using FLEXPART-WRF and chemical transport modeling using GEOS-Chem, we have identified the relative contributions of local sources (Lancaster Sound and Baffin Bay) as well as transport from further afield (the Hudson Bay System and the Beaufort Sea) and find that the local sources dominate. GEOS-Chem is able to reproduce the major features of the measured time series, but is biased low overall (median 72 pptv). We discuss non-marine sources that could account for this low bias and estimate the possible contributions to DMS mixing ratios from lakes, biomass burning, melt ponds and coastal tundra. Our results show that local marine sources of DMS dominate the summer Arctic atmosphere, but that non-local and possibly non

  13. Data Processing, Visualization and Distribution for Support of Science Programs in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, P. D.; Edwards, M. H.; Wright, D.

    2006-12-01

    For the past two years the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG) and Oregon State University researchers have been building an on-line archive of geophysical data for the Arctic Basin. This archive is known as AAGRUUK - the Arctic Archive for Geophysical Research: Unlocking Undersea Knowledge (http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/hmrg/Aagruuk). It contains a wide variety of data including bathymetry, sidescan and subbottom data collected by: 1) U.S. Navy nuclear-powered submarines during the Science Ice Exercises (SCICEX), 2) icebreakers such as the USCGC Healy, R/V Nathaniel B. Palmer, and CCGS Amundsen, and 3) historical depth soundings from the T3 ice camp and pre-1990 nuclear submarine missions. Instead of simply soliciting data, reformatting it, and serving it to the community, we have focused our efforts on producing and serving an integrated dataset. We pursued this path after experimenting with dataset integration and discovering a multitude of problems including navigational inconsistencies and systemic offsets produced by acquiring data in an ice-covered ocean. Our goal in addressing these problems, integrating the processed datasets and producing a data compilation was to prevent the myriad researchers interested in these datasets, many of whom have less experience processing geophysical data than HMRG personnel, from having to repeat the same data processing efforts. For investigators interested in pursuing their own data processing approaches, AAGRUUK also serves most of the raw data that was included in the data compilation, as well as processed versions of individual datasets. The archive also provides downloadable static chart sets for users who desire derived products for inclusion in reports, planning documents, etc. We are currently testing a prototype mapserver that allows maps of the cleaned datasets to be accessed interactively as well as providing access to the edited files that make up the datasets. Previously we have documented the types of the

  14. Asteroids, ophiuroids and holothurians from the southeastern Weddell Sea (Southern Ocean)

    PubMed Central

    Gutt, Julian; Piepenburg, Dieter; Voß, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Until the early 1980s, the composition and distribution of the asteroid (starfish), ophiuroid (brittle star) and holothurian (sea cucumber) bottom fauna of the southeastern Weddell Sea was virtually unknown. This southernmost part of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean is a typical high-latitude Antarctic region located in the circumpolar permanent pack-ice zone. It became accessible for large-scale scientific surveys only through the availability of modern ice-breaking research vessels, such as the German RV “Polarstern”. Here, we describe a dataset of the faunal composition and abundance of starfish, brittle star and sea cucumber assemblages in this area, based on collections from trawl catches carried out during three “Polarstern” cruises in 1983, 1984 and 1985. The set comprises a total of 4,509 records of abundances of 35 asteroid species (with a total of 2,089 specimens) and 38 ophiuroid species (with a total of 18,484 specimens) from 34 stations, as well as of 66 holothurian species (with a total of 20,918 specimens) from 59 stations including zero-abundances (absences). A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. Overall, starfishes, brittle stars and sea cucumbers were present at all sites investigated in the study area but composition and abundance of asterozoan (asteroids and ophiuroids together) and holothurian fauna varied considerably. A synthesizing zoogeographical community analysis confirms the presence of three distinct assemblages of asteroids, ophiuroids, and holothurians with highest species richness on the eastern shelf. In the case of asterozoans, water depth and latitude seemed to be the most important drivers of assemblage distribution and composition. One of the holothurian assemblages was part of the rich macrozoobenthic community dominated by a diverse and abundant

  15. A Multi-frequency Look at Gas Seeps on the Eastern Siberian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, L. A.; Jerram, K.; Weidner, E.; Weber, T.; Jakobsson, M.; Chernykh, D.; Ananiev, R.; Mohammad, R.; Semiletov, I. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Swedish-Russian-US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions (SWERUS-C3) is a multi-investigator, multi-disciplinary program aimed at increasing our understanding of the climate-cryosphere-carbon system of the Eastern Siberian Arctic Ocean. In 2014 SWERUS-C3 carried out a two-leg field program on the Swedish Icebreaker ODEN. A component of the SWERUS-C3 program focused on water column mapping of the spatial distribution and geologic context of gas seeps using the acoustic systems on board ODEN (12 kHz EM122 multibeam echo sounder, 2-8 kHz SBP120 subbottom profiler, and an 18 kHz EK60 split-beam sonar). On Leg 2 of the 2014 expedition, a new wideband transceiver (EK80) was added to the split-beam echo sounder and calibrated, providing the ability to measure the acoustic response of the gas seeps over a much broader range of frequencies (15-30 kHz). While the broader bandwidth unquestionably provides higher target resolution a further objective of the broadband mapping was to determine whether information on bubble size distribution could be determined so as to help model the flux of gas coming from the seeps. On Leg 2 approximately 34 seeps were mapped, mostly in the vicinity of Herald Canyon. The wide-swath, high-resolution multibeam bathymetry (from the EM122) and high-resolution chirp sub-bottom profiling (from the SBP120 multibeam sub-bottom profiler) combined with water column imaging of seeps collected at both 12 kHz (from the EM122) and 15-30 kHz (from the EK80) offer an important opportunity to understand the spatial distribution of seeps and their relationship to local and regional processes as determined from seafloor and subsurface structure, as well as to explore the potential of extracting quantitative information about the magnitude of gas transport from the seeps.

  16. Dynamics of landfast sea ice near Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station observed by SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Han, H.

    2015-12-01

    Landfast sea ice is a type of sea ice adjacent to the coast and immobile for a certain period of time. It is important to analyze the temporal and spatial variation of landfast ice because it has significant influences on marine ecosystem and the safe operation of icebreaker vessels. However, it has been a difficult task for both remote sensing and in situ observation to discriminate landfast ice from other types of sea ice, such as pack ice, and also to understand the dynamics and internal strss-strain of fast ice. In this study, we identify landfast ice and its annual variation in Terra Nova Bay (74° 37' 4"S, 164° 13' 7"E), East Antarctica, where Jangbogo Antarctic Research Station has recently been constructed in 2014, by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) technology. We generated 38 interferograms having temporal baselines of 1-9 days out of 62 COSMO-SkyMed SAR images over Terra Nova Bay obtained from December 2010 to January 2012. Landfast ice began to melt in November 2011 when air temperature raised above freezing point but lasted more than two month to the end of the study period in January 2012. No meaningful relationship was found between sea ice extent and wind and current. Glacial strain (~67cm/day) is similar to tidal strain (~40 cm) so that they appear similar in one-day InSAR. As glacial stress is cumulative while tidal stress is oscillatory, InSAR images with weekly temporal baseline (7~9 days) revealed that a consistent motion of Campbell Glacier Tongue (CGT) is pushing the sea ice continuously to make interferometric fringes parallel to the glacier-sea ice contacts. Glacial interferometric fringe is parallel to the glacier-sea ice contact lines while tidal strain should be parallel to the coastlines defined by sea shore and glacier tongue. DDInSAR operation removed the consistent glacial strain leaving tidal strain alone so that the response of fast ice to tide can be used to deduce physical properties of sea ice in various

  17. Changes in ice thickness and SAR backscatter in relation to ice deformation in the Bay of Bothnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, J. A.; Haas, C.

    2011-12-01

    Ice conditions in the Bay of Bothnia were heavier than normal in winter 2011 and icebreaker support was in high demand. This research documents the ice conditions (ice thickness and surface roughness) within the Bay of Bothnia as measured with a helicopter-borne electromagnetic induction system (HEM), and compares the HEM measurements to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Emphasis is given to observations acquired over an array of buoys that provided localized ice drift vectors from hourly global positioning system (GPS) locations. The HEM, SAR, and buoy drift data were acquired in the Bay of Bothnia during the Safety of Winter Navigation in Dynamic Ice (SafeWin) 2011 field campaign, carried out onboard the R/V Aranda between February 22 and March 8, 2011. HEM data were acquired each day from March 2 to 7 while stationed at an ice camp at 63.9N, 22.4E (near Kokkola, Finland). Six ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Mode images (HH polarization) were acquired during this period. The GPS buoys were deployed in a roughly rectangular array centered on the Aranda ice station. Repeated HEM flights were carried out over the buoy array to document temporal changes in the ice thickness distribution in the vicinity of the ice station. Additionally, four of the ASAR images provide complete coverage of the buoy array. The buoy drift data document periods of both convergent and divergent ice motion, as well as shear along the fast ice edge, which was located just east of the buoy array. Over the observation period the buoy array underwent a net convergent ice motion. Preliminary results from the HEM buoy array flights indicate a reduced frequency of the modal ice thickness and an associated increase in the frequency of thick (>1 m) deformed ice. These results are in agreement with the compression and shear observed in the buoy drift tracks. After applying a correction for incidence angle effects, the mean SAR backscatter over the buoy array fluctuates during the observation period. The

  18. Sample Acqusition Drilling System for the the Resource Prospector Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K.; Paulsen, G.; Quinn, J.; Smith, J.; Kleinhenz, J.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of the Lunar Resource Prospector Mission (RPM) is to capture and identify volatiles species within the top meter of the lunar regolith. The RPM drill has been designed to 1. Generate cuttings and place them on the surface for analysis by the the Near InfraRed Volatiles Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), and 2. Capture cuttings and transfer them to the Oxygen and Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) coupled with the Lunar Advanced Volatiles Analysis (LAVA) subsystem. The RPM drill is based on the Mars Icebreaker drill developed for capturing samples of ice and ice cemented ground on Mars. The drill weighs approximately 10 kg and is rated at ~300 Watt. It is a rotary-percussive, fully autonomous system designed to capture cuttings for analysis. The drill consists of: 1. Rotary-Percussive Drill Head, 2. Sampling Auger, 3. Brushing station, 4. Z-stage, 5. Deployment stage. To reduce sample handling complexity, the drill auger is designed to capture cuttings as opposed to cores. High sampling efficiency is possible through a dual design of the auger. The lower section has deep and low pitch flutes for retaining of cuttings. The upper section has been designed to efficiently move the cuttings out of the hole. The drill uses a "bite" sampling approach where samples are captured in ~10 cm intervals. The first generation drill was tested in Mars chamber as well as in Antarctica and the Arctic. It demonstrated drilling at 1-1-100-100 level (1 meter in 1 hour with 100 Watt and 100 N Weight on Bit) in ice, ice cemented ground, soil, and rocks. The second generation drill was deployed on a Carnegie Mellon University rover, called Zoe, and tested in Atacama in 2012. The tests demonstrated fully autonomous sample acquisition and delivery to a carousel. The third generation drill was tested in NASA GRC's vacuum chamber, VF13, at 10-5 torr and approximately 200 K. It demonstrated successful capture and transfer of icy samples to a crucible. The drill has been modified and

  19. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    Polar research and in particular the properties of northern and southern high latitude oceans are currently a subject of intense scientific debate and investigations, because they are subject to rapid and dramatic climatic variations. Polar regions react more rapidly and intensively to global change than other regions of the earth. A shrinking of the Arctic sea-ice cover, potentially leading to an opening of sea passages to the north of North America and Eurasia, on the long to a "blue" Arctic Ocean would additionally have a strong impact on transport, commerce and tourism bearing potential risk for humans and complex ecosystems in the future. In spite of their critical role processes and feedbacks, especially in winter but not exclusively, are virtually unknown: The Arctic Ocean for example, it is the only basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) in 2004. To help to address the most pressing questions regarding climate change and related processes, a Pan-European initiative in the field of Earth system science has been put in place: AURORA BOREALIS is the largest environmental research infrastructure on the ESFRI roadmap of the European Community. AURORA BOREALIS is a very powerful research icebreaker, which will enable year-round operations in the Arctic and the Antarctic as well as in the adjacent ocean basins. Equipped with its drilling rig, the vessel is also capable to explore the presently completely unknown Arctic deep-sea floor. Last but not least, the ship is a floating observatory and mobile monitoring platform that permits to measure on a long-term basis comprehensive time series in all research fields relevant to

  20. Rolling the dice on the ice; New modes for underway data acquisition in the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, B.; Dove, D.

    2012-12-01

    Exploration of the Arctic Ocean has always depended on the sea ice. It has been a platform supporting drifting ice stations and an obstacle to be over come by force (icebreakers) or finesse (US Navy fast attack submarines). Reduced seasonal sea ice cover has made it possible to work more freely in the peripheral Arctic Ocean, opening relatively unknown regions to scientific exploration and study. In September 2011, the RV Marcus G. Langseth set sail from Dutch Harbor, Alaska bound through Bering Strait for the Arctic Ocean. This was the first Arctic Ocean trip for MGG data acquisition by a US academic research vessel since 1994, when the RV Maurice Ewing collected a 2-D MCS profile across the Bering Shelf, through the Strait and along the Beaufort Shelf, stopping near Barrow, Alaska. RV Langseth arrived on the mid-Chukchi shelf and streamed gear just south of the "Crackerjack" well, drilled by Shell Exploration in the late eighties. The ship sailed north, crossing the "Popcorn" well and then set a course to the NW, setting the baseline for the survey parallel to the Beaufort Shelf edge. Sailing through almost entirely ice-free waters, approximately 5300 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data were acquired on a NW-SE oriented grid, which straddled the transition from Chukchi Shelf to the Chukchi Borderland. It would not have been possible for Langseth, which is not ice reinforced, to acquire these data prior to 2007. The dramatic expansion of late Summer open water in the western Arctic Ocean made it possible to use this ship effectively across a broad swath of the shelf and the periphery of the deep central basin. While the survey region was almost entirely ice free during this cruise, which straddled the ice minimum for 2011, it was not possible to predict this a priori, despite expectations set by the previous five years of ice edge retreat. For this reason, the Canadian Ice Service was engaged to provide interpreted ice imagery, multiple times per day

  1. Outreach to Inspire Girls in Geology: A Recipe for Success (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelis, L.

    2010-12-01

    to overcome them. Participants will receive a copy of our role model outreach guide and CD toolkit, Get Involved. Make a Difference, developed by the Techbridge team. This guide includes practical tips and suggestions as well as successful case studies in outreach to K-12. These materials include sample icebreakers and hands-on activities, biographies of students and role models, questions to facilitate conversations between role models and students, scavenger hunts for tours, suggested schedule and timeline, evaluations, tips for success, and more.

  2. Schools In Board - Bridging Arctic Research And Environmental Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. G.; Barber, L.

    2008-12-01

    Schools on Board (www.arcticnet.ulaval.ca) was created in 2002 to address the outreach objectives of a network of Canadian scientists conducting research in the High Arctic. The program was piloted with great success with the 2004 research program called the Canadian Arctic Shelf Study (CASES). Since then, the S/B program continues as an integral outreach program of the Canadian Network of Centres of Excellence (NCE) known as ArcticNet. The primary objective of the program is to bridge Arctic climate change research with science and environmental education in the public school system. It is a vehicle for scientists and graduate students to share their research program with high schools and the general public. The program encourages schools to include Arctic Sciences into their science programs by linking Arctic research to existing curriculum, providing resources and opportunities to send high school students and teachers into the Arctic to participate in a science expedition on board the Canadian research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. The field program is an adventure into Arctic research that exposes students and teachers to the objectives and methods of numerous science teams representing a number of research disciplines and institutions from across Canada and beyond. Face-to-face interactions with scientists of all levels (masters, PhD's, researchers, CRC chairs), hands-on experiences in the field and in the labs, and access to state-of-the-art scientific instrumentation, combine to create a powerful learning environment. In addition to hands-on research activities the program introduces participants to many aspects of Canada's North, including local knowledge related to climate change, culture, history, and politics - within the educational program on the ship and the planned visits to Northern communities. During International Polar Year (IPY) Schools on Board collaborated with international researchers and northern agencies from 11 countries to offer one

  3. Ocean observations from below Petermann Gletscher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenchow, A.; Nicholls, K. W.; Heuzé, C.; Wahlin, A.; Mix, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Petermann Gletscher drains 4% of the Greenland ice sheet via a floating ice shelf that has shrunk from 1,300 to 900 km^2 in area via two calving events in 2010 and 2012. The glacier is thinning by about 10 vertical meters per year when integrated over 45 km from the grounding zone to the terminus. Most of this mass loss is caused by ocean melting, but only a single vertical ocean profile taken in 2002 exists. The fjord was mostly free of sea ice in August when we visited in 2003, 2006, 2007, 2009, and 2012 and noticed a small warming trend of bottom waters. During a 2-day survey of Petermann Fjord and adjacent Nares Strait in 2012 we documented a large intrusion of warmer Atlantic waters spilling over the 400 m deep sill and sinking to more than 800 m depth. These waters fill the deep basin of the fjord and move towards the grounding zone of glacier at 550 m below the sea surface. In August 2015 the Swedish icebreaker I/B Oden is scheduled to enter Nares Strait and Petermann Fjord to support field work on land, on water, and on the floating glacier. We here report preliminary results from both ocean surveys and ice shelf moorings. The moored observations from under the ice shelf extend synoptic survey data from Oden. The ice shelf moorings are designed to resolve tidal to interannual variations of water properties under the floating glacier. More specifically, we plan to install a total 13 discrete sensors to measure ocean temperature, salinity, and pressure at five locations distributed both along and across the floating glacier. Hot water drilling provides the holes through the 200 to 500 m thick glacier ice to collect sediment cores, take a profile of temperature and salinity, and deploy two to five cabled sensors per mooring. If successful, data from these cabled instruments will be distributed via surface Iridium connections and posted on the web in near real time. We will discuss successes and failures of this ambitious and high risk program that was

  4. Importance of aerosol composition and mixing state for cloud droplet activation over the Arctic pack ice in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, C.; Svensson, E.

    2015-03-01

    Concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were measured throughout an expedition by icebreaker around the central Arctic Ocean, including a 3 week ice drift operation at 87° N, from 3 August to 9 September 2008. In agreement with previous observations in the area and season, median daily CCN concentrations at 0.2% water vapour supersaturation (SS) were typically in the range of 15 to 30 cm-3, but concentrations varied by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the expedition and were occasionally below 1 cm-3. The CCN concentrations were highest near the ice edge and fell by a factor of 3 in the first 48 h of transport from the open sea into the pack ice region. For longer transport times they increased again, indicating a local source over the pack ice, suggested to be polymer gels, via drops injected into the air by bubbles bursting on open leads. We inferred the properties of the unexplained non-water soluble aerosol fraction that was necessary for reproducing the observed concentrations of CCN. This was made possible by assuming Köhler theory and simulating the cloud nucleation process using a Lagrangian adiabatic air parcel model that solves the kinetic formulation for condensation of water on size resolved aerosol particles. We propose that the portion of the internally/externally mixed water insoluble particles was larger in the corresponding smaller aerosol size ranges. These particles were physically and chemically behaving as polymer gels: the interaction of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities on the structures of polymer gels during cloud droplet activation would at first only show a partial wetting character and only weak hygroscopic growth. Given time, a high CCN activation efficiency is achieved, which is promoted by the hydrophilicity or surface-active properties of the gels. Thus the result in this study argues that the behaviour of the high Arctic aerosol in CCN-counters operating at water vapour SSs > 0.4% (high relative humidities) may not

  5. Importance of aerosol composition and mixing state for cloud droplet activation in the high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leck, C.; Svensson, E.

    2014-08-01

    Concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were measured throughout an expedition by icebreaker around the central Arctic Ocean, including a 3 week ice drift operation at 87° N, from 3 August to 9 September 2008. In agreement with previous observations in the area and season median daily CCN concentrations at 0.2% water vapor supersaturation were typically in the range of 15 to 30 cm-3, but concentrations varied by two to three orders of magnitude over the expedition and were occasionally below 1 cm-3. The CCN concentrations were highest near the ice edge and fell by a factor of three in the first 48 h of transport from the open sea into the pack ice region. For longer transport times they increased again indicating a local source over the pack ice, suggested to be polymer gels, via drops injected into the air by bubbles bursting on open leads. By assuming Köhler theory and simulating the cloud nucleation process using a Lagrangian adiabatic air parcel model that solves the kinetic formulation for condensation of water on size resolved aerosol particles we inferred the properties of the unexplained non-water soluble aerosol fraction that is necessary for reproducing the observed concentrations of CCN. We propose that the portion of the internally/externally mixed water insoluble particles was larger in the corresponding smaller aerosol sizes ranges. These particles were physically and chemically behaving as polymer gels: the interaction of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic entities on the structures of polymer gels during cloud droplet activation would at first only show a partial wetting character and only weak hygroscopic growth. Given time, a high CCN activation efficiency is achieved, which is promoted by the hydrophilicity or surface-active properties of the gels. Thus the result in this study argues for that the behavior of the high Arctic aerosol in CCN-counters operating at water vapor supersaturations > 0.4% (high relative humidities) may not be

  6. Cloud condensation nuclei closure study on summer arctic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Sierau, B.; Sjogren, S.; Swietlicki, E.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Leck, C.; Lohmann, U.

    2011-11-01

    We present an aerosol - cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) closure study on summer high Arctic aerosol based on measurements that were carried out in 2008 during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) on board the Swedish ice breaker Oden. The data presented here were collected during a three-week time period in the pack ice (>85° N) when the icebreaker Oden was moored to an ice floe and drifted passively during the most biological active period into autumn freeze up conditions. CCN number concentrations were obtained using two CCN counters measuring at different supersaturations. The directly measured CCN number concentration was then compared with a CCN number concentration calculated using both bulk aerosol mass composition data from an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and aerosol number size distributions obtained from a differential mobility particle sizer, assuming κ-Köhler theory, surface tension of water and an internally mixed aerosol. The last assumption was supported by measurements made with a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) for particles >70 nm. For the two highest measured supersaturations, 0.73 and 0.41%, closure could not be achieved with the investigated settings concerning hygroscopicity and density. The calculated CCN number concentration was always higher than the measured one for those two supersaturations. This might be caused by a relative larger insoluble organic mass fraction of the smaller particles that activate at these supersaturations, which are thus less good CCN than the larger particles. On average, 36% of the mass measured with the AMS was organic mass. At 0.20, 0.15 and 0.10% supersaturation, closure could be achieved with different combinations of hygroscopic parameters and densities within the uncertainty range of the fit. The best agreement of the calculated CCN number concentration with the observed one was achieved when the organic fraction of the aerosol was treated as nearly water insoluble

  7. Stationary spiraling eddies in presence of polar amplification of global warming as a governing factor of ecology of Greenland seals White Sea population: results of verification study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K.; Chernook, V.; Melentyev, V.

    2003-04-01

    Ice-associated forms of marine mammals are representatives of a high level of fodder chains in the ocean and taxation of population number for different group, as assessment of ecology and animal welfare are the important tasks for marine biology, ecology, fishery and other application uses. Many problems create a global warming and antropogenical impact on marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to investigate ice covered Arctic Ocean and charting the number of seals were performed annual inspections onboard research aircraft PINRO "Arktika". Multi-spectral airborne and satellite observations were fulfilled regularly from Barents and White Sea to the Bering and Okhotsk Sea (1996-2002). A contemporary status of different group of sea mammals was evaluated, where number of adults and pups were checked separately. In situ observations were provided with using helicopter and icebreaker for gathering a water samples and ice cores (with following biochemical and toxicological analysis). A prevailing part of life cycle of Greenland seals (harp seal) is strongly depended from winter hydrology (water masses, stable currents, meandering fronts, stationary eddies) and closely connected with type of ice (pack, fast ice) and other parameters of ice (age, origin, salinity, ice edge.). First-year ice floes which has a specific properties and distinctive features are used by harp seals for pupping, lactation, molting, pairing and resting. Ringed seals, inversely, use for corresponding purposes only fast-ice. Different aspects of ecology, and migration features of harp seals were analyzed in frame of verification study. It was revealed a scale of influence of winter severity and wind regime, but stationary eddies in the White Sea is most effective governing factor (novelty). Following relationship " eddies - ecology of Greenland seal White Sea population " will be discussed: A) regularities of eddies formation and their spatial arrangement, temporal (seasonal and annual

  8. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  9. Insights into aerosols, chemistry, and clouds from NETCARE: Observations from the Canadian Arctic in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatt, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (or NETCARE) was established in 2013 to study the interactions between aerosols, chemistry, clouds and climate. The network brings together Canadian academic and government researchers, along with key international collaborators. Attention is being given to observations and modeling of Arctic aerosol, with the goal to understand underlying processes and so improve predictions of aerosol climate forcing. Motivation to understand the summer Arctic atmosphere comes from the retreat of summer sea ice and associated increase in marine influence. To address these goals, a suite of measurements was conducted from two platforms in summer 2014 in the Canadian Arctic, i.e. an aircraft-based campaign on the Alfred Wegener Institute POLAR 6 and an ocean-based campaign from the CGCS Amundsen icebreaker. NETCARE-POLAR was based out of Resolute Bay, Nunavut during an initial period of little transport and cloud-free conditions and a later period characterized by more transport with potentially biomass burning influence. Measurements included particle and cloud droplet numbers and size distributions, aerosol composition, cloud nuclei, and levels of gaseous tracers. Ultrafine particle events were more frequently observed in the marine boundary layer than above, with particle growth observed in some cases to cloud condensation nucleus sizes. The influence of biological processes on atmospheric constituents was also assessed from the ship during NETCARE-AMUNDSEN, as indicated by high measured levels of gaseous ammonia, DMS and oxygenated VOCs, as well as isolated particle formation and growth episodes. The cruise took place in Baffin Bay and through the Canadian archipelago. Interpretation of the observations from both campaigns is enhanced through the use of chemical transport and particle dispersion models. This talk will provide an overview of NETCARE Arctic observational and

  10. Environmental Assessment for a Marine Geophysical Survey of Parts of the Arctic Ocean, August-September 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Beth; Ireland, Darren; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), individual nations? sovereign rights extend to 200 nautical miles (n.mi.) (370 km) offshore or to a maritime boundary in an area called the continental shelf. These rights include jurisdiction over all resources in the water column and on and beneath the seabed. Article 76 of UNCLOS also establishes the criteria to determine areas beyond the 200 n.mi. (370 km) limit that could be defined as ?extended continental shelf,? where a nation could extend its sovereign rights over the seafloor and sub-seafloor (As used in UNCLOS, ?continental shelf? refers to a legally defined region of the sea floor rather than a morphological shallow-water area adjacent to continents commonly used by geologists and hydrographers.). This jurisdiction provided in Article 76 includes resources on and below the seafloor but not in the water column. The United States has been acquiring data to determine the outer limits of its extended continental shelf in the Arctic and has a vested interest in declaring and receiving international recognition of the reach of its extended continental shelf. The U.S. collaborated with Canada in 2008 and 2009 on extended continental shelf studies in the Arctic Ocean. The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Cutter Healy worked with the Canadian Coast Guard ship Louis S. St. Laurent to map the continental shelf beyond 200 n.mi. (370 km) in the Arctic. Each icebreaking vessel contributed different capabilities in order to collect data needed by both nations more efficiently in order to save money, avoid redundancy, and foster cooperation. Generally, the Healy collects bathymetric (sea-floor topography) data and the Louis S. St. Laurent collects seismic reflection profile data. The vessels work in concert when ice conditions are heavy, with one vessel breaking ice for the ship collecting data. The Canadian Environmental Assessments for these projects are available on line at http://www.ceaa.gc.ca/052

  11. The East Siberian Arctic Shelf: monitoring is necessary to assess actual scale of annual methane emissions from seabed deposits. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, N. E.

    2010-12-01

    of strong methane pulses occur, this component is not included in the total flux estimate, which thus is conservative, as the spatial and temporal pattern of such non-gradual “catastrophic event” ebullition is uncertain. Additional components to be incorporated into developed model of annual emissions are following: 1) releases associated with storm events; 2) seasonal releases associated with deep fall convection and ice-break period; 3) winter emissions through flaw polynyas and leads in winter; 4) abrupt releases triggered by seismic and tectonical events, sediments settlement and adjustment associated with permafrost and hydrate destabilization, permafrost breaks, geological power of highly pressured gas fronts. Recent data give evidence that incorporation of only one component (non-gradual releases from hot spot areas) could alter reported numbers many folds. This underscores importance of establishing monitoring net over the ESAS.

  12. The Northeast Greenland Shelf - Evidence of the existence of a pronounced salt-province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, T.; Jokat, W.

    2003-04-01

    The Northeast Greenland shelf (NEGS) is the part of the continental margin of east Greenland located between the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone at about 72°N in the south and the Spitzbergen Fracture Zone at 81°N in the north. The eastern boundary, at the shelf edge, is the approximate position of the boundary between continental and oceanic crust and the western boundary is the coastline of Greenland. The shelf has a N-S orientation, is about 1000 km long, and between 125 km (southern part) and 380 km (at 78°N) wide. Based on present data the NEGS can be subdivided into a southern part influenced by Tertiary tectonism and volcanism (approx. 72°N to 75°N) and a northern, nonvolcanic, part (approx. 75°N to 81°N). Today the sedimentary history, stratigraphy, structure and origin of the basement below the sedimentary shelf south of 74°N are reasonable known, but only sparse information exists about the northern part of the shelf. Until 1990 there weren't any seismic lines north of 74°N, and all interpretations of stratigraphy and basin structures of the northern part of the NEGS were based on aeromagnetic data. During the last decade, the first seismic lines were shot over the northern part of the shelf to give more detailed information about sediment thickness, stratigraphy, and the structure of the sedimentary shelf. The area under investigation lies on the nonvolcanic northern part of the shelf between 78°30'N and 81°N. The sea floor topography indicates some submarine banks with water depth as shallow as 30 m, which are separated by valleys up to 500 m deep. These valleys were formed through erosion processes caused by cyclic movements of big grounded glacier tongues during the last ice-ages with a maximum expansion during the Wisconsin-Weichselian glaciation. During two scientific expeditions with the German research icebreaker Polarstern in 1997 and 1999, more than 1100 km of multichannel seismic data were collected. The cruise tracks during seismic

  13. Pan-Arctic observations in GRENE Arctic Climate Change Research Project and its successor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanouchi, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We started a Japanese initiative - "Arctic Climate Change Research Project" - within the framework of the Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program, funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT), in 2011. This Project targeted understanding and forecasting "Rapid Change of the Arctic Climate System and its Global Influences." Four strategic research targets are set by the Ministry: 1. Understanding the mechanism of warming amplification in the Arctic; 2. Understanding the Arctic climate system for global climate and future change; 3. Evaluation of the impacts of Arctic change on the weather and climate in Japan, marine ecosystems and fisheries; 4. Projection of sea ice distribution and Arctic sea routes. Through a network of universities and institutions in Japan, this 5-year Project involves more than 300 scientists from 39 institutions and universities. The National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) works as the core institute and The Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) joins as the supporting institute. There are 7 bottom up research themes approved: the atmosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, cryosphere, greenhouse gases, marine ecology and fisheries, sea ice and Arctic sea routes and climate modeling, among 22 applications. The Project will realize multi-disciplinal study of the Arctic region and connect to the projection of future Arctic and global climatic change by modeling. The project has been running since the beginning of 2011 and in those 5 years pan-Arctic observations have been carried out in many locations, such as Svalbard, Russian Siberia, Alaska, Canada, Greenland and the Arctic Ocean. In particular, 95 GHz cloud profiling radar in high precision was established at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, and intensive atmospheric observations were carried out in 2014 and 2015. In addition, the Arctic Ocean cruises by R/V "Mirai" (belonging to JAMSTEC) and other icebreakers belonging to other

  14. Summer Sea ice in the Pacific Arctic sector from the CHINARE-2010 cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackley, S. F.; Xie, H.; Lei, R.; Huang, W.; Chinare 2010 Arctic Sea Ice Group

    2010-12-01

    The Fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) from July 1 to Sep. 23, 2010, the last Chinese campaign in Arctic Ocean contributing to the fourth International Polar Year (IPY), conducted comprehensive scientific studies on ocean-ice-atmosphere interaction and the marine ecosystem’s response to climatic change in Arctic. This paper presents an overview on sea ice (ice concentration, floe size, melt pond coverage, sea ice and snow thickness) of the Pacific Arctic sector, in particular between 150°W to 180°W to 86°N, based on: (1) underway visual observations of sea ice at half-hourly and automatic cameras recording (both side looking from the icebreaker R.V. Xuelong) every 10 to 15 seconds; (2) a downward-looking video mounted on the left side of the vessel at a height of 7 m above waterline recording overturning of ice floes; (3) on-site measurements of snow and ice thickness using drilling and electromagnetic instrument EM31 (9.8 kHz) at eight short-term (~3 hours each) and one 12-day ice stations; (4) six flights of aerial photogrammetry from helicopter, and (5) Satellite data (AMSE-E ice concentration and ENVISAT ASAR) and NIC ice charts) that extended the observations/measurements along beyond the ship track and airborne flights. In the northward leg, the largest ice concentration zone was in the area starting from ~75°N (July 29), with ice concentration of 60-90% (mean ~80%), ice thickness of 1.5-2m, melt ponds of 10-50% of ice, ridged ice of 10-30% of ice, and floe size of 100’s meters to kms. The 12-day ice station (from Aug 7-19), started at 86.92°N/178.88°W and moved a total of 175.7km, was on an ice floe over 100 km2 in size and ~2 m in mean thickness. There were two heavy and several slight snowfall events in the period (July 29 to Aug 19). Snow thickness varies from 5cm to 15 cm, and melted about 5cm during the 12-day ice camp. In the southward leg, the largest sea ice concentration zone was in the area between 87°N to 80

  15. A modeling experiment on the grounding of an ice shelf in the central Arctic Ocean during MIS 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Siegert, M.; Paton, M.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution chirp sonar subbottom profiles from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean, acquired from the Swedish icebreaker Oden in 1996, revealed large-scale erosion of the ridge crest down to depths of 1000 m below present sea level [Jakobsson, 1999]. Subsequent acoustic mapping during the SCICEX nuclear submarine expedition in 1999 showed glacial fluting at the deepest eroded areas and subparallel ice scours from 950 m water depth to the shallowest parts of the ridge crest [Polyak et al., 2001]. The directions of the mapped glaciogenic bed-forms and the redeposition of eroded material on the Amerasian side of the ridge indicate ice flow from the Barents-Kara Sea area. Core studies revealed that sediment drape the eroded areas from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5 and, thus, it was proposed that the major erosional event took place during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 [Jakobsson et al., 2001]. Glacial geological evidence suggests strongly that the Late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin reached the shelf break of the Barents-Kara Sea [Svendsen et al. in press] and this gives us two possible ways to explain the ice erosional features on the Lomonosov Ridge. One is the grounding of a floating ice shelf and the other is the scouring from large deep tabular iceberg. Here we apply numerical ice sheet modeling to test the hypothesis that an ice shelf emanating from the Barents/Kara seas grounded across part of the Lomonsov Ridge and caused the extensive erosion down to a depth of around 1000 m below present sea level. A series of model experiments was undertaken in which the ice shelf mass balance (surface accumulation and basal melting) and ice shelf strain rates were adjusted. Grounding of the Lomonosov Ridge was not achieved when the ice shelf strain rate was 0.005 yr-1 (i.e. a free flowing ice shelf). However this model produced two interesting findings. First, with basal melt rates of up to 50 cm yr-1 an ice shelf grew from the St. Anna Trough ice stream

  16. Teaching Science in Engineering Freshman Class in Private University in Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawarey, M. M.; Malkawi, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Engineer covers vast concepts relevant to Newton's Laws and Work-Energy Theorem, while originally aimed at 3-year old kids), and YouTube has become so rich in it scientific content that it has not been hard to find any experiment or simulation there so that the students connect the dry blackboard and chalk to real life. As freshmen are still immature and sensing their way through, wondering if they will be able to get the title of Engineer or not, the usage of such familiar mediums and tools such as movies, toys, videos and simulations to illustrate basics to them has proved efficient and is regarded as an ideal ice-breaker towards a challenging journey of engineering classes. As long as the scientific content is not compromised, we believe that more mediums should be tested. This paper will highlight these affairs.

  17. Connections in the Field and Beyond: A Case Study of Successful Teacher Research Experiences at the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberger, D.

    2007-12-01

    Successful and lasting partnerships between scientists and teachers can be established through Teacher Research Experiences (TRE). The documented benefits of the TRE include increased teacher retention in addition to renewed instructional practices in veteran teachers. The reality and excitement of field science is very difficult to convey to students if the teacher has never personally experienced it, and a TRE can transfer this interest into the classroom. With the field research experience as the centerpiece of the TRE relationship, much should be done before, during, and after the TRE to ensure a positive and lasting connection that meets the needs of both the teacher and researcher. This presentation focuses, from a teacher's first-hand perspective, on the critical issues that scientists must consider to ensure successful collaborations with teachers in the field. I have participated in two TRE's and have learned a great deal from both. In 2001, through the National Science Foundation sponsored program Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) I was able to participate in biochemical oceanographic science on-board the Icebreaker Oden in the Arctic Ocean. In 2005, I did biogeochemical research at Pony Lake/McMurdo Station in Antarctica as a participant in Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS). On both research experiences, I was a working member of the science team. I was responsible for numerous teaching and outreach activities including: uploading daily journals and photos to a website, answering email from students and the public, and managing live communications with schools. Both research experiences were very successful and have resulted in lasting relationships with scientists and other teachers interested in polar science. My participation in these experiences also influenced my teaching by increasing student enthusiasm in the classroom and

  18. Alpha / Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology and Geochemistry: Character of the First Submarine Intraplate Lavas Recovered from the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukasa, Samuel B.; Mayer, Larry A.; Aviado, Kimberly; Bryce, Julie; Andronikov, Alex; Brumley, Kelley; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Petrov, Oleg; Shokalsky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    At least three episodes of magmatic activity have been recognized on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar age determinations in the submarine basaltic samples dredged, drilled or grabbed with a manipulation arm from Alpha / Mendeleev Ridge and Chukchi Borderland of the Arctic Ocean by US Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy, in August-September 2008, and Russian research vessel Captain Dranitsin in August-October 2012: ca. 112 Ma, ca. 100 Ma and ca. 85-73 Ma. Major-oxide and trace-element concentrations, and Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic ratios of the recovered lavas provide important constraints on the composition and sources for the original melts. Lavas erupted at ca. 112 Ma (Group 1) have alkali basalt major-oxide compositions. Their low degree of rare-earth-element (REE) fractionation (CeN/YbN = 1.7-2.5), combined with high overall HREE (22-24 times chondrite) and Mg# ~54, suggest derivation from a garnet-free source followed by only minimal crystal fractionation for this group. Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic systematics of the lavas (206Pb/204Pb = 18.73-18.79; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.54-15.56; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.28-38.35; 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512594-0.512610; 87Sr/86Sr = 0.709458-0.709601; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.283224), together with ratios of highly incompatible trace elements (Th/Ce = 0.09-0.11; Ce/Nb = 2.58-3.09; Th/Nb = 0.24-0.33), point toward a lithospheric source for the magmas. Eruptions at ca. 100 Ma and 85-73 Ma produced two types of lavas: low-Ti tholeiitic basalts - LT, and high-Ti alkali basalts - HT, both assigned to Group 2. This distribution of low- and high-Ti lavas is common in continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces elsewhere, and has been attributed to plume activity in some studies. The trace-element abundance patterns for these Group 2 Arctic lavas are also very similar to those of CFBs elsewhere. Their low degrees of REE fractionation (CeN/YbN = 2.0-3.3) accompanied by progressively decreasing Mg#s (from 53 to 33) suggest a garnet-free source, with the derivative magmas experiencing

  19. 2010 Joint United States-Canadian Program to explore the limits of the Extended Continental Shelf aboard U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy--Cruise HLY1002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Brian D.; Childs, Jonathan R.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Danforth, William W.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In August and September 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, conducted bathymetric and geophysical surveys in the Beaufort Sea and eastern Arctic Ocean aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy. The principal objective of this mission to the high Arctic was to acquire data in support of a delineation of the outer limits of the U.S. and Canadian Extended Continental Shelf in the Arctic Ocean, in accordance with the provisions of Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Healy was accompanied by the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Louis S. St-Laurent. The scientific parties on board the two vessels consisted principally of staff from the U.S. Geological Survey (Healy), and the Geological Survey of Canada and the Canadian Hydrographic Service (Louis). The crew also included marine-mammal observers, Native-community observers, ice observers, and biologists conducting research of opportunity in the Arctic Ocean. Despite interruptions necessitated by three medical emergencies, the joint survey proved largely successful. The Healy collected 7,201 trackline-kilometers of swath (multibeam) bathymetry (47,663 square kilometers) and CHIRP subbottom data, with accompanying marine gravity measurements, and expendable bathythermograph data. The Louis acquired 3,673 trackline-kilometers of multichannel seismic (airgun) deep-penetration reflection data along 25 continuous profiles, as well as 34 sonobuoy refraction stations and 9,500 trackline-kilometers of single-beam bathymetry. The coordinated efforts of the two vessels resulted in seismic-reflection-profile data that were of much higher quality and continuity than if the data had been acquired with a single vessel alone. The equipment-failure rate of the seismic equipment aboard the Louis was greatly reduced when the Healy led as the ice breaker. When ice conditions proved too severe to deploy the seismic system, the Louis led

  20. Long offset seismic reflection data and the crustal structure of the NE Greenland Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granath, J. W.; Whittaker, R. C.; Dinkelman, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Deep long-offset seismic data (Northeast Greenland SPAN-TM) have been acquired on the NE Greenland Shelf in two phases of acquisition in 2009 and 2010 with a third phase of infill planned for 2011. The data currently extend from the Jan Mayen Fracture Zone in the south to the Spitzbergen Fracture Zone in the north, some 250 km farther north than any previous seismic acquisition. The main obstacle to previous seismic acquisition has been heavy sea ice, which was overcome in these surveys by (1) employing a proprietary streamer and deployment technology to acquire data below the pack ice, and (2) using a lead icebreaker to clear first-year ice from the path of the acquisition vessel. The data were pre-stack time (PSTM) and pre-stack depth migrated (PSDM) to show 16 sec and 40 km profiles of the continental margin. Interpretation was tested iteratively against gravity and magnetic modeling. The surveys cover the Danmarkshavn Basin (DB), the Thetis Basin (TB), the Northeast Greenland Volcanic Province, offshore extension of the De Geer Megashear, the offshore Wandel Sea mobile belt, and the adjacent continent-ocean transition. Two basins were discovered that have previously not been recognized: the Ob Basin to the northwest of the DB adjacent to the coast with a Carboniferous section and the Westwind Basin (new names) adjacent to the Miocene breakup margin. The Westwind appears to be a Paleogene Basin connected to the rift-drift history of that segment of the margin. The surveys highlight extensive inversion throughout the region, and have also extended the area of salt diapirism within the DB to 80°N. Intra- and sub-basalt reflectors are imaged in the volcanic province and on the marginal high where seaward dipping reflectors are interpreted. Several of the lines cross the continent- ocean transition (COT) where they clearly show deep reflectors at around 10 km which most likely locate the Moho. These reflectors dip west to 22-25 km depth under Greenland continental

  1. Evaluating central Arctic summer conditions in the Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) and ERA-Interim using Arctic-Summer Cloud-Ocean-Study (ASCOS) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesslén, Cecilia; Tjernström, Michael; Bromwich, David; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Bai, Le-Sheng; de Boer, Gijs; Ekman, Annica

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic has experienced large climate changes over recent decades, the largest for any region on Earth. The warming has been more than twice as large as the global average, and substantial changes in, for example, sea-ice cover, thickness and permafrost have been observed. To understand the underlying reasons for this apparent climate sensitivity, reanalysis is an invaluable tool. The Arctic System Reanalysis (ASR) is a regional reanalysis using the polar version of the Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) atmospheric model that, by the virtue of being regional, can be affordably run at higher resolution. The ASR is forced at the lateral boundaries by the ECMWF ERA-Interim global reanalysis; ERA-Interim is the latest global reanalysis from ECMWF. The ASR reanalysis products need to be evaluated preferably using independent data; this is a problem in the Arctic where data are sparse and as much as possible of the available data is assimilated in the reanalysis. In this study we evaluate the performance of an experimental version of ASR, with a nominal resolution of ~30 km, for the central Arctic, using data from the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS) from August and early September 2008.. The ASCOS field experiment was deployed on the Swedish icebreaker Oden north of 87°N in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic; data was collected both during the transits to and from Longyearbyen on Svalbard and during a three-week ice drift with the Oden moored to a drifting multi-year ice floe, when intensive measurements were taken on the ice and onboard. These observations have the advantages of being independent of ASR, i.e., they were not assimilated into the reanalysis, and being detailed enough to evaluate the process descriptions in the ASR. In addition to the ASR, the ERA-Interim reanalysis was also included in the evaluation. In the version of ASR evaluated here, lateral boundaries were forced by ERA-Interim and therefore this makes it possible to evaluate the added

  2. Field performance and identification capability of the Innsbruck PTR-TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2009-04-01

    Over the last one and a half decades Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) [1, 2] has gained recognition as fast on-line sensor for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the atmosphere. Sample collection is very straight forward and the fact that no pre-concentration is needed is of particular advantage for compounds that are notoriously difficult to pre-concentrate and/or analyze by gas chromatographic (GC) methods. Its ionization method is very versatile, i.e. all compounds that perform exothermic proton transfer with hydronium ions - and most VOCs do so - are readily ionized, producing quasi-molecular ions VOC.H+. In the quasi-molecular ion the elemental composition of the analyte compound is conserved and allows, in combination with some background knowledge of the sample, conclusions about the identity of that compound. De Gouw and Warneke (2007) [3] summarized the applicability of PTR-MS in atmospheric chemistry but they also pointed out shortcomings in the identification capabilities. Goldstein and Galbally (2007) [4] addressed the multitude of VOCs potentially present in the atmosphere and they emphasized the gasphase-to-aerosol partitioning of organic compounds (volatile and semi-volatile) in dependence of carbon-chain length and oxygen containing functional groups. In collaboration with Ionicon and assisted by TOFWERK we developed a PTR time-of-flight (PTR-TOF) instrument that allows for the identification of the atomic composition of oxygenated hydrocarbons by exact-mass determination. A detection limit in the low pptv range was achieved at a time resolution of one minute, one-second detection limit is in the sub-ppbv range. In 2008 the Innsbruck PTR-TOF was field deployed in the icebreaker- and helicopter based Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) to characterize the organic trace gas composition of the High Arctic atmosphere. During the six-week field campaign the PTR-TOF was run without problems even under harsh conditions in

  3. Stratigraphic and structural framework of the western edge of Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, D. R.; Mosher, D. C.; Shimeld, J.; Chian, D.; Lebedeva-Ivanova, N. N.; Evangelatos, J.; Jackson, R.

    2012-12-01

    Seismic reflection and refraction data collected in joint two-icebreaker expeditions by the U.S. and Canada between 2008 and 2011 reveal how the western edge of the Canada Basin has evolved through rifting and post rifting history. Our observations suggest that the western margin of Canada Basin (along Northwind Ridge [NR} and the northern Chukchi Borderland [CB]) is a mix of highly stretched continental and transitional crust with unique attributes that reflect local influences of NR, CB, and Alpha Ridge with the extension that formed Canada Basin. The reflection character of basement and refraction velocities indicate that the regions adjacent to NR and north-northwest of CB are probably underlain by a high-velocity (7.2-7.5 km/s) layer that may be serpentinized mantle or a transitional, intruded lower continental crust. Between these two regions, north of CB, is an area underlain by highly stretched continental crust (lower crust with velocities less than 6.7 km/s). Dredge samples collected from near NR recovered basaltic rocks. The area north and northeast of CB also contains discontinuous, segmented, bright reflections at the base of the postrift Canada Basin sediments consistent with the kind of reflections seen in magmatically intruded regions. These bright reflections may indicate a postrift magmatic pulse associated with Alpha Ridge. On top of Northwind Ridge, the stratigraphic units above basement are truncated and eroded and tilt towards Canada basin. The relationship between these units and the deepest units in Canada Basin is speculative, but they are interpreted to represent prerift or synrift deposits that were faulted during the formation of NR. Similar truncated, eroded, and tilted deposits occur along the northern part of the CB and southern Alpha Ridge and can be traced both continuously and discontinuously into Canada Basin where they unconformably underlie the younger deposits that lap onto them. The postrift depositional patterns inferred from

  4. Aerosol Remote Sensing Applications for Airborne Multiangle, Multispectral Shortwave Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Bismarck, Jonas; Ruhtz, Thomas; Starace, Marco; Hollstein, André; Preusker, René; Fischer, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    and ground based operations of the instruments so far, only two exemplary campaigns shall be introduced here. FUBEX in July 2008 was the first airborne campaign with FUBISS-ASA2, FUBISS-ZENITH and AMSSP-EM simultaneously mounted on the Cessna 207T of the Institute for Space Sciences, based in Berlin. Vertical radiation profiles recorded on July 28 in 2008 where used for a first application of the introduced inversion algorithm. In Oktober/November 2009, FUBISS-ASA2 and FUBISS-ZENITH where mounted on the German research icebreaker FS Polarstern, crossing the Atlantic on its cruise from Bremerhaven (Germany) to Punta Arenas (Chile). Measurements where performed throughout the whole cruise on days with a variety of different atmospheric conditions, as a Saharan dust outbreak over Cape Verde, typical marine conditions with salt particles in the marine boundary layer and also pristine conditions in the southern Atlantic. Access to the data of other instruments aboard the ship, as a Raman-Lidar, a cloud camera, weather station, and a microwave radiometer, provided valuable a priori information for processing and calibration of the measurements. The results may be of special interest for the validation of satellite aerosol products.

  5. Teachers at Sea with the ARMADA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Two science teachers accompanied an international scientific party of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program on a 6-week expedition to the high Arctic Ocean this summer. Kathy Couchon, a middle school science teacher from Narragansett, RI, was sponsored by the NSF-funded ARMADA Project (www.armadaproject.org), directed by the Office of Marine Programs at the University of Rhode Island. Erik Zetterberg, a high school teacher from Sweden, was sponsored by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat. The purpose of the expedition was to collect rock and sediment cores in order to reconstruct environmental and climatic conditions in the polar region over the past 60 million years. The $12.5M expedition involved over 200 people from more than 10 countries, three icebreakers, and two helicopters. Cores collected on one vessel were transferred to a laboratory on another, where 20 scientists analyzed microfossils as well as sedimentology, chemistry, and lithology. The teachers participated early in all aspects of the expedition, including coring operations, helicopter flights for ice reconnaissance, laboratory work, and science meetings. Formal education, such as learning how to prepare sediment samples for micropaleontological analysis, was complemented by informal education during one-on-one conversations with scientists over meals, or in social gatherings. The teachers posted reports regularly on websites (e.g., http://tea.rice.edu tea_cuchonfrontpage.html) and participated in a teleconference via Iridium satellite phone. When asked to compare preconceived notions with actual experience, the teachers noted the following: (1) there are many things that scientists don't know (and they are often the first to admit this); (2) the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery does not diminish with age and experience; (3) teamwork among the scientists was greater than expected, and competition among individuals was not observed; and (4) much in the natural world is unknown

  6. Version 2.0 of the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean: A new Database for Oceanographers and Mapmakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Macnab, R.; Edwards, M.; Schenke, H.; Hatzky, J.

    2007-12-01

    The International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO) was first released to the public after its introduction at the American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting in 1999 (Jakobsson et al., 2000). This first release consisted of a Digital Bathymetric Model (DBM) on a Polar stereographic projection with grid cell spacing of 2.5 x 2.5 km derived from an accumulated database of all available bathymetric data at the time of compilation. The IBCAO bathymetric database included soundings collected during past and modern expeditions as well as digitized isobaths and depth soundings from published maps. Compared to previous bathymetric maps of the Arctic Ocean, the first released IBCAO compilation was based upon a significantly enhanced database, particularly in the high Arctic. For example, de-classified echo soundings acquired during US and British submarine cruises between 1958 and 1988 were included as well as soundings from icebreaker cruises conducted by Sweden and Germany at the end of the last century. Despite the newly available data in 1999, there were still large areas of the Arctic Ocean where publicly available data were completely absent. Some of these areas had been mapped by Russian agencies, and since these observations were not available to IBCAO, depth contours from the bathymetric contour map published by the Head Department of Navigation and Hydrography (HDNO) (Naryshkin, 1999) were digitized and incorporated in the database. The new IBCAO Version 2.0 comprises the largest update since the first release; moreover, the grid spacing has been decreased to 2 x 2 km. Numerous multibeam data sets that were collected by ice breakers, e.g. USCGC Healy, R/V James Clarke Ross, R/V Polarstern, IB Oden, now form part of the database, as do the swath bathymetric observations acquired during the 1999 SCICEX expedition. The portrayal of the Eastern Arctic Basin is vastly improved due to e.g. the Arctic Mid Ocean Ridge Expedition 2001 (AMORE) and Arctic

  7. The Arctic Gakkel Vents (AGAVE) Expedition: Technology Development and the Search for Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Fields Under the Arctic Ice Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reves-Sohn, R. A.; Singh, H.; Humphris, S.; Shank, T.; Jakuba, M.; Kunz, C.; Murphy, C.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal fields on the Gakkel Ridge beneath the Arctic ice cap provide perhaps the best terrestrial analogue for volcanically-hosted chemosynthetic biological communities that may exist beneath the ice-covered ocean of Europa. In both cases the key enabling technologies are robotic (untethered) vehicles that can swim freely under the ice and the supporting hardware and software. The development of robotic technology for deep- sea research beneath ice-covered oceans thus has relevance to both polar oceanography and future astrobiological missions to Europa. These considerations motivated a technology development effort under the auspices of NASA's ASTEP program and NSF's Office of Polar Programs that culminated in the AGAVE expedition aboard the icebreaker Oden from July 1 - August 10, 2007. The scientific objective was to study hydrothermal processes on the Gakkel Ridge, which is a key target for global studies of deep-sea vent fields. We developed two new autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) for the project, and deployed them to search for vent fields beneath the ice. We conducted eight AUV missions (four to completion) during the 40-day long expedition, which also included ship-based bathymetric surveys, CTD/rosette water column surveys, and wireline photographic and sampling surveys of remote sections of the Gakkel Ridge. The AUV missions, which lasted 16 hours on average and achieved operational depths of 4200 meters, returned sensor data that showed clear evidence of hydrothermal venting, but for a combination of technical reasons and time constraints, the AUVs did not ultimately return images of deep-sea vent fields. Nevertheless we used our wireline system to obtain images and samples of extensive microbial mats that covered fresh volcanic surfaces on a newly discovered set of volcanoes. The microbes appear to be living in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. These discoveries

  8. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The availability of advanced robotic technologies to the Earth Science community has largely increased in the last decade. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) enable spatially extensive scientific investigations underneath the sea ice of the polar oceans, covering a larger range and longer diving times than divers with significantly lower risks. Here we present our experiences and scientific results acquired from ROV operations during the last five years in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice region. Working under the sea ice means to have all obstacles and investigated objects above the vehicle, and thus changes several paradigms of ROV operations as compared to blue water applications. Observations of downwelling spectral irradiance and radiance allow a characterization of the optical properties of sea ice and the spatial variability of the energy partitioning across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary. Our results show that the decreasing thickness and age of the sea ice have led to a significant increase in light transmission during summer over the last three decades. Spatially extensive measurements from ROV surveys generally provide more information on the light field variability than single spot measurements. The large number of sampled ice conditions during five cruises with the German research icebreaker RV Polarstern allows for the investigations of the seasonal evolution of light transmittance. Both, measurements of hyperspectral light transmittance through sea ice, as well as classification of upward-looking camera images were used to investigate the spatial distribution of ice-algal biomass. Buoyant ice-algal aggregates were found to be positioned in the stretches of level ice, rather than pressure ridges due to a physical interaction of aggregate-buoyancy and under-ice currents. Synchronous measurements of sea ice thickness by upward looking sonar provides crucial additional information to put light-transmittance and biological observations into context

  9. New view on tectonic structure of Siberian Sector of the Amerasian Basin (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinokurov, Yu. I.

    2014-05-01

    In 2012, JSC Sevmorgeo with assistance of several research institutions of Federal Agency of Mineral Resources (Rosnedra) and Ministry of Defense carried out a unique set of offshore seismic and geological studies in the Mendeleev Rise area and adjacent areas of the Amerasia Basin. Two specially re-equipped icebreakers ("Kapitan Dranitsin" and "Dixon") were used in this campaign. The main results of the expedition were 5315 km of multichannel seismic profiles both with long and short streamers (4500 m and 600 m, respectively), 480 km long refraction profile crossing Mendeleev Rise. Seismic acquisition with short streamers was accompanied by deployment of sonobuoys. Geological studies included deep-water drilling and sea-bottom sampling by dredge, gravity corer, grab and by specially equipped research submarine. The newly acquired geological and geophysical data allowed for the following conclusions: 1. The Mendeleev Rise, the adjacent Lomonosov Ridge and Chukchi Plateau are the direct continuations of the East Siberian Sea tectonic structures. It is confirmed by direct tracking of some morphostructures, faults, gravity and magnetic anomalies from the shelf to deep-water highs. 2. The East Arctic Shelf and the adjacent Arctic Ocean represent offshore extent of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma crustal domain constituted by a mosaic of separate blocks of the Pre-Cambrian basement (Okhotsk, Omulevka, Omolon, Wrangel-Gerald and Central Arctic) and Late Mesozoic orogens. This area differs significantly from the Ellesmerian crustal domain located to the east (including the Northwind Ridge, which coincides with inferred eastern boundary of the Mesozoides). The Central Arctic domain includes structures of the Mendeleev Ridge and the Chukchi Plateau. Western boundary of this block is inferred along the Spur of Geophysicists, which separates the Podvodnikov Basin into two unequal parts with different basement structure. From the south, southwest and west, the Central Arctic domain is

  10. Large-scale temperature and salinity changes in the upper Canadian basin of the Arctic Ocean at a time of a drastic Arctic Oscillation inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgain, P.; Gascard, J. C.; Shi, J.; Zhao, J.

    2012-05-01

    Between 2008 and 2010, the Arctic Oscillation index over Arctic regions shifted from positive values corresponding to more cyclonic conditions prevailing during IPY period (2007-2008) to extremely negative values corresponding to strong anticyclonic conditions in 2010. In this context, we investigated the recent large scale evolution of the upper Western Arctic Ocean based on temperature and salinity summertime observations collected during icebreaker campaigns and from Ice-Tethered Platforms (ITP) drifting across the region in 2008 and 2010. Particularly, we focused on (1) the freshwater content which was extensively studied during previous years, (2) the Near Surface Temperature Maximum due to incoming solar radiation and (3) the water masses advected from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans into the deep Arctic Ocean. The observations revealed a freshwater content change in the Canadian basin during this time period. South of 80° N, the freshwater content increased, while north of 80° N, less freshening occurred in 2010 compared to 2008. This was more likely due to the strong anticyclonicity characteristic of a low AO index mode that enhanced both a wind-generated Ekman pumping in the Beaufort Gyre and a diversion of the Siberian rivers runoff toward the Eurasian basin at the same time. The Near Surface Temperature Maximum due to incoming solar radiation was almost 1 °C colder in the Southern Canada basin (south of 75° N) in 2010 compared to 2008 which contrasted with the positive trend observed during previous years. This was more likely due to higher summer sea ice concentration in 2010 compared to 2008 in that region, and surface albedo feedback reflecting more sun radiation back in space. The Pacific waters were also subjected to strong spatial and temporal variability between 2008 and 2010. In the Canada basin, both Summer and Winter Pacific waters influence increased between 75° N and 80° N. This was more likely due to a strong recirculation within the

  11. Pseudo-thermal bar in poorly salted autumnal waters of the Gulf of Finland from satellite-airborne SAR/ASAR/ALSAR survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, Vladimir; Bobylev, Leonid; Tsepelev, Valery; Melentyev, Konstantin; Bednov, Petr

    2010-05-01

    The thermal bar (TB) was disclosed at the end of XIX century by F.A. Forel - world-famed founder of limnology, who studied different processes in Lake Leman from point of view ecology and hydrobiology. Forel supposed that TB arises in temperate large lakes for short period in spring in presence windless calm weather. Well-directed investigations of TB were recommenced in the beginning 1950-s at the Institute of Lake Research Russian Academy of Sciences by Dr A.I. Tikhomirov who had described also specific features of this phenomenon in fall. At the end of 1960-s we began examination thermal and ice regime of fresh and saltish inland water bodies with using remote sensing including multi-spectral airborne-satellite SLR/SAR/ASAR/ALSAR survey. And as result the possibility revealing TB parameters in fall season by low-frequency radar (ALSAR) installed onboard research aircraft was fixed documentally in the Lake Ladoga [Melentyev et. al., 2002]. According to [Tikhomirov, 1959] TB represents convergence zone around temperature of maximum density of fresh water + 4 °C (3, 98 °C, really). This narrow vertical "curtain" appears in littoral in spring owing to heating coastal waters, in fall - due to its cooling. TB divides large lakes and artificial reservoirs on two unequal thermic zones - heat-active (HAZ) and heat-inert (HIZ) that has different stratification of water temperature. Possible existence of TB in poorly salted sea waters was predicted by outstanding Russian oceanographer professor N. Zubov. Obviously firstly it was disclosed but without explanation the physics by [Bychkova, 1987]. Our own sub-satellite studies onboard nuclear icebreaker "Jamal" in western Arctic in fall 1996 allows reveal the TB on saltish waters in north-eastern "corner" of the Yenisei Gulf in mixing zone of marine and river waters. Long-lived converged zone that we call as pseudo-thermal bar (PTB) was marked by stationary banding narrow continuous rough strip that could be destroyed by

  12. Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, Klaus; Rex, Markus; Shupe, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    be used to identify specific gaps and parameterization needs. Preliminary modeling and operational forecasting will also be necessary to directly guide field planning and optimal implementation of field resources, and to support the safety of the project. The MOSAiC Observatory will be deployed in, and drift with, the Arctic sea-ice pack for at least a full annual cycle, starting in fall 2019 and ending in autumn 2020. Initial plans are for the drift to start in the newly forming autumn sea-ice in, or near, the East Siberian Sea. The specific location will be selected to allow for the observatory to follow the Transpolar Drift towards the North Pole and on to the Fram Strait. IASC has adopted MOSAiC as a key international activity, the German Alfred Wegener Institute has made the huge contribution of the icebreaker Polarstern to serve as the central drifting observatory for this year long endeavor, and the US Department of Energy has committed a comprehensive atmospheric measurement suite. Many other nations and agencies have expressed interest in participation and in gaining access to this unprecedented observational dataset. International coordination is needed to support this groundbreaking endeavor.

  13. Production and Cycling of Methylated Mercury Species in Arctic Marine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, I.; St. Louis, V. L.; Hintelmann, H.

    2009-12-01

    Monomethyl mercury (MMHg), a vertebrate neurotoxin which bioaccumulates through foodwebs, is found in some Arctic marine mammals at levels that may be harmful to northern peoples consuming them as food. Unfortunately, sources of MMHg to polar marine food webs remain unknown, in part due to the complex nature of Hg cycling in polar marine waters. Since 2005, we have been sampling the marine waters of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from the Canadian Coast Guard research icebreaker CCGS Amundsen. Early results demonstrated that elevated concentrations of both MMHg and dimethyl mercury (DMHg, a toxic, gaseous Hg species) are found in sub-surface Arctic marine waters (89±36 pg L-1 and 73±37 pg L-1, respectively) despite low total Hg (THg) concentrations (290±220 pg L-1), suggesting an internal source of methylated Hg. We tested the hypothesis that methylated Hg species are produced directly in the marine water column using stable-isotope Hg tracers. Seawater samples were amended with 198Hg(II) and incubated for 0, 8, 16 or 24 hours to measure the production of MM198Hg, DM198Hg and gaseous elemental 198Hg(0) (GEM) over time. A second tracer, MM199Hg, was also added to quantify MMHg methylation (formation of DM199Hg), demethylation (loss of MM199Hg) and reduction (formation of 199Hg(0)). Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that Hg(II) is methylated in polar marine waters to form both MMHg (first order rate-constant km1 ~6x10-4 d-1) and DMHg (km2 ~5x10-6 d-1). We also found that DMHg production from MMHg is ~50x faster than with Hg(II) as the substrate. Furthermore, at a small number of sites, we measured methylation rates that were elevated by almost a full order of magnitude compared to the average, suggesting that methylation hotspots may exist in Arctic marine waters. However, during the less productive fall season when the CCGS Amundsen cruises were conducted, demethylation of MMHg generally appears to dominate in the water column and can occur via a number

  14. Decommissioning and Dismantling of the Floating Maintenance Base 'Lepse' - 13316

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; Mizen, K.

    2013-07-01

    The Lepse was built in Russia in 1934 and commissioned as a dry cargo ship. In 1961 she was re-equipped for use as a nuclear service ship (NSS), specifically a floating maintenance base (FMB), to support the operation of the civilian nuclear fleet (ice-breakers) of the USSR. In 1988 Lepse was taken out of service and in 1990 she was re-classified as a 'berth connected ship', located at a berth near the port of Murmansk under the ownership of Federal State Unitary Enterprise (FSUE) Atomflot. Lepse has special storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel assemblies (SFA) that have been used to store several hundred SFAs for nearly 40 years. High and intermediate-level liquid radioactive waste (LRW) is also present in the spent nuclear fuel assembly storage channels, in special tanks and also in the SFA cooling circuit. Many of the SFAs stored in Lepse are classified as damaged and cannot be removed using standard procedures. The removal of the SFA and LRW from the Lepse storage facilities is a hazardous task and requires specially designed tools, equipment and an infrastructure in which these can be deployed safely. Lepse is a significant environmental hazard in the North West of Russia. Storing spent nuclear fuel and high-level liquid radioactive waste on board Lepse in the current conditions is not acceptable with respect to Russian Federation health, safety and environmental standards and with international best practice. The approved concept design for the removal of the SFA and LRW and dismantling of Lepse requires that the ship be transported to Nerpa shipyard where specialist infrastructure will be constructed and equipment installed. One of the main complexities of the Project lies within the number of interested stakeholders involved in the Project. The Lepse project has been high focus on the international stage for many years with previous international efforts failing to make significant progress towards the objective of decommissioning Lepse. The Northern

  15. Development of a conditioning system for the dual-purpose transport and storage cask for spent nuclear fuel from decommissioned Russian submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Guskov, V.; Makarchuk, T.

    2007-07-01

    Russia, stores large quantities of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from submarine and ice-breaker nuclear powered naval vessels. This high-level radioactive material presents a significant threat to the Arctic and marine environments. Much of the SNF from decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines is stored either onboard the submarines or in floating storage vessels in Northwest and Far East Russia. Some of the SNF is damaged, stored in an unstable condition, or of a type that cannot currently be reprocessed. In many cases, the existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing all of this fuel from remote locations. Additional transport and storage options are required. Some of the existing storage facilities being used in Russia do not meet health and safety and physical security requirements. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a new dual-purpose metal-concrete transport and storage cask (TUK-108/1) for their military SNF and assisted them in building several new facilities for off-loading submarine SNF and storing these TUK-108/1 casks. These efforts have reduced the technical, ecological, and security challenges for removal, handling, interim storage, and shipment of this submarine fuel. Currently, Russian licensing limits the storage period of the TUK-108/1 casks to no more than two years before the fuel must be shipped for reprocessing. In order to extend this licensed storage period, a system is required to condition the casks by removing residual water and creating an inert storage environment by backfilling the internal canisters with a noble gas such as argon. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a mobile cask conditioning system for the TUK-108/1 cask. This new conditioning system allows the TUK 108/1 casks to be stored for up to five years after which the license may be considered for renewal for an additional five years or the fuel will be shipped to

  16. Japan - UK Conference: Trends in Physics and Chemistry Education in Secondary Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    always benefits from gaining a wider view. Whether this is a need to see a classroom other than your own, a school other than your own or a country other than your own, the result is the same: setting challenges and discussions in context and helping to provide a sense of perspective. What we had to give to the conference During the conference the British contingent reviewed the present state of science education in Britain, particularly giving information on the Institute of Physics 16-19 Initiative and National Curriculum consultation, concentrating rather more on the principles than the detail, which by nature was not immediately relevant to the audience. To this was added a research perspective on Children's Learning in Science, focusing on the importance of discussion and conversation in reaching understanding. The central day was dominated by workshops attempting to argue why we undertake some experimental work in physics education. Four possible purposes of practical work were identified and then demonstrated by a hands-on practical circus. An investigative practical, necessarily open-ended and probably empirically messy, possibly not yielding clean results. A clearly illustrative practical intended to readily allow observation and discussion of a phenomenon with the ability to alter appropriate parameters and stimulating discussion. Practical work intended to produce clear, reproducible, reliable results if good care is taken: the `can-do' aspect of physics giving pride in obtaining a result. The demonstration intended to stimulate teacher-led class discussion. The abiding memory of this practical circus was of its role as the ultimate international ice-breaker. Previously formal conference discussion became animated and language difficulties became less important as teachers engaged in the truly international business of playing with and becoming fascinated with practical apparatus. What we gained from the conference On the Saturday evening we were treated to

  17. White Sea's Severe Winter Hydrological Hazard and Its Effect On Decrease of Population of Greenland Seals (1998/99 Winter Ecological Catastrophe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, Konstantin V.; Chernook, Vladimir I.

    soundig with resolution 20-25 m, changed situation. High transparency of snow and relatively deep penetration of signals in ice is basis of sub-surface sounding. SAR images allow fix documentary different ice parameters: development and arrangement, ice type, shape of floes, ice concentration and compactness. Unfortunately time being resolution couldn't resolve individual sea mammal. In order to investigate the ice regime, estimate number of seals at the different winter conditions and forecast the future tendency of population decrease we perform regularly ice reconnaissance. Accomplish these observations and computations more precisely could be done at the time of mass accumulation of seals, that is whelping and moulting period. Aerial inspection is difficult task: weather conditions and masking coloration obstructs the problems, sometimes mammals couldn't be quite founded. Comprehensive study of ERS SAR signatures for diagnosis type of winter hydrology of the Arctic seas and ice conditions produced by severe winter , assessment of possibility forecast of future development of ice and studying ice as non-biotic factor of ecology of Pagophilus groenladicus and other ice-associated forms of sea mammals is a new interdisciplinary approach in marine biology. First experience of such application SAR data for diagnosis of hydrological hazard produced by severe winter has been undertaken in the White Sea and contiguous seas in 1996. Sub-satellite experiments onboard nuclear icebreaker "Taymir" provided validation program, ice cores and water samples were gathered and evaluated using chemi-luminiscent methods in connection with seal' behavior patterns. Since then aircraft Antonov-26 «Arktika» provided ice and seals investigations systematically. Helicopter is employed for in situ observations, ice cores and water samples are investigated in laboratory for measurement of different pollutant , dissolved organic matter and other hydro-chemical and radio-physical paramet ers