Achiron, Asaf; Birger, Yael; Karmona, Lily; Avizemer, Haggay; Bartov, Elisha; Rahamim, Yocheved; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia
Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects. To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye. We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium's integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use. Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid. An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.
Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre
Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: -5 ± 1 beats.min -1 ; hot tea: -1 ± 1 beats.min -1 , p < 0.05), double product, skin blood flow and hand temperature and (2) an increase in baroreflex sensitivity, fat oxidation and energy expenditure (cold tea: +8.3%; hot tea: +3.7%, p < 0.05). Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion, we observed no differences of tea temperature on cardiac output work and mean blood pressure responses. Conclusion: Ingestion of an unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at cold temperature induced a greater stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation than hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control.
Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre
Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: −5 ± 1 beats.min−1; hot tea: −1 ± 1 beats.min−1, p < 0.05), double product, skin blood flow and hand temperature and (2) an increase in baroreflex sensitivity, fat oxidation and energy expenditure (cold tea: +8.3%; hot tea: +3.7%, p < 0.05). Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion, we observed no differences of tea temperature on cardiac output work and mean blood pressure responses. Conclusion: Ingestion of an unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at cold temperature induced a greater stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation than hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control. PMID:29681860
Lou, Zaixiang; Er, Chaojuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Sun, Juntao
In order to selectively remove caffeine from green tea, a microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction (MVIE) method was proposed. The effects of MVIE variables including extraction time, microwave power, and solvent to solid radio on the removal yield of caffeine and the loss of total phenolics (TP) from green tea were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: solvent (mL) to solid (g) ratio was 10:1, microwave extraction time was 6 min, microwave power was 350 W and 2.5 h of vacuum ice water extraction. The removal yield of caffeine by MVIE was 87.6%, which was significantly higher than that by hot water extraction, indicating a significant improvement of removal efficiency. Moreover, the loss of TP of green tea in the proposed method was much lower than that in the hot water extraction. After decaffeination by MVIE, the removal yield of TP tea was 36.2%, and the content of TP in green tea was still higher than 170 mg g(-1). Therefore, the proposed microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction was selective, more efficient for the removal of caffeine. The main phenolic compounds of green tea were also determined, and the results indicated that the contents of several catechins were almost not changed in MVIE. This study suggests that MVIE is a new and good alternative for the removal of caffeine from green tea, with a great potential for industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fictorie, Carl P.; Vitz, Ed
A simple tea infuser is obtained and been used as a container for the dry ice to simulate the effect from high-density dry ice. The tea infuser is a simple, low cost device to allow instructors with access to dry ice makers to effectively use the interesting demonstration.
Rajchl, Aleš; Prchalová, Jana; Kružík, Vojtěch; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena
DART (Direct Analysis in Real Time) coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) has been used for analyses of ice-teas. The article focuses on quality and authenticity of ice-teas as one of the most important tea-based products on the market. Twenty-one samples of ice-teas (black and green) were analysed. Selected compounds of ice-teas were determined: theobromine, caffeine, total phenolic compounds, total soluble solids, total amino acid concentration, preservatives and saccharides were determined. Fingerprints of DART-TOF/MS spectra were used for comprehensive assessment of the ice-tea samples. The DART-TOF/MS method was used for monitoring the following compounds: citric acid, caffeine, saccharides, artificial sweeteners (saccharin, acesulphame K), and preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acid), phosphoric acid and phenolic compounds. The measured data were subjected to a principal components analysis. The HPLC and DART-TOF/MS methods were compared in terms of determination of selected compounds (caffeine, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and saccharides) in the ice-teas. The DART-TOF/MS technique seems to be a suitable method for fast screening, testing quality and authenticity of tea-based products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed
In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.
Taylor, Philip L.
The development of a high-pressure hot-water drill is described, which has been used reliably in temperate ice to depths of 400 meters with an average drill rate of about 1. 5 meters per minute. One arrangement of the equipment weighs about 500 kilograms, and can be contained on two sleds, each about 3 meters long. Simplified performance equations are given, and experiments with nozzle design suggest a characteristic number describing the efficiency of each design, and a minimum bore-hole diameter very close to 6 centimeters for a hot water drill. Also discussed is field experience with cold weather, water supply, and contact with englacial cavities and the glacier bed.
Tornow, Carmen; Kührt, Ekkehard; Motschmann, Uwe
Pre-cometary ice located around star-forming regions contains molecules that are pre-biotic compounds or pre-biotic precursors. Molecular line surveys of hot cores provide information on the composition of the ice since it sublimates near these sites. We have combined a hydrostatic hot core model with a complex network of chemical reactions to calculate the time-dependent abundances of molecules, ions, and radicals. The model considers the interaction between the ice and gas phase. It is applied to the Orion hot core where high-mass star formation occurs, and to the solar-mass binary protostar system IRAS 16293-2422. Our calculations show that at the end of the hot core phase both star-forming sites produce the same prebiotic CN-bearing molecules. However, in the Orion hot core these molecules are formed in larger abundances. A comparison of the calculated values with the abundances derived from the observed line data requires a chemically unprocessed molecular cloud as the initial state of hot core evolution. Thus, it appears that these objects are formed at a much younger cloud stage than previously thought. This implies that the ice phase of the young clouds does not contain CN-bearing molecules in large abundances before the hot core has been formed. The pre-biotic molecules synthesized in hot cores cause a chemical enrichment in the gas phase and in the pre-cometary ice. This enrichment is thought to be an important extraterrestrial aspect of the formation of life on Earth and elsewhere.
A specially designed ice-cooled vest is worn while working in hot environments where cooling the mine air is not possible. The vest holds a total of 44 individual ice cells in packets that are firmly held near the wearer's skin. These ice cells remove heat from the wearer, reducing heat stress and increasing comfort. Laboratory testing at Pennsylvania State University showed that the cooling vest greatly prolongs the time that men can work in hot environments. Rescue men, wearing breathing apparatus and working in very humid air at 96/sup 0/F were able to work about 40% longer when using themore » vest. The vest has also been tested for several months in a chemical plant.« less
Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Lambert, Joshua D.
Purpose Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage, and laboratory and some intervention studies have indicated the potential health benefits of hot tea. The present study examines the association between tea consumption (evaluating hot and iced tea independently) and markers for MetS adults in a sample of 6,472 who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) surveys. Methods Tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls. Seventy percent of the sample reported any consumption of iced tea, and 16% were daily consumers; whereas approximately 56% of this sample reported hot tea consumption and 9% were daily consumers. Results Hot tea consumption was inversely associated with obesity: tea consumers had lower mean waist circumference and lower BMI (25 vs. 28 kg/m2 in men; 26 vs. 29 kg/m2 in women; both P<0.001), than non-consumers after controlling for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other confounders. For iced tea consumption, the association was reversed: increased iced tea consumption was associated with higher BMI, greater waist circumference, and greater subcutaneous skinfold thickness after controlling for age, physical activity, energy intake, sugar intake, and other confounders. Hot tea consumption was associated with beneficial biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation (increased high density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol and decreased C-reactive protein in both sexes, and reduced triglycerides in women), whereas the association with iced tea consumption was again reversed. Conclusions These cross-sectional results support growing laboratory data which demonstrate the negative association of hot tea intake with markers of MetS. PMID:22777108
Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A
Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as < 1 for very hot drinking temperatures, corroborating epidemiological observations about a probable oesophageal cancer risk caused by this behaviour. The
Hakim, Iman A; Harris, Robin B
Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67) and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79). After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51) risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot) black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC. PMID:11527506
Sajja, Krishna C; El-Serag, Hashem B; Thrift, Aaron P
Epidemiologic data regarding coffee and tea consumption and risk of esophageal inflammation, Barrett's esophagus (BE), and adenocarcinoma are sparse and inconclusive. This study examined the association between consumption of tea or coffee with risk of BE. We conducted a cross-sectional study among US veterans, comparing 310 patients with histologically confirmed BE with 1728 individuals with no endoscopic or histopathologic features of BE (controls). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In univariate models, we found a statistically significant association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.87) or tea (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05-1.71). However, in multivariate analysis, in which models were adjusted for confounders including sex and race, we found no association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (adjusted OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.76-1.42) or tea (adjusted OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.85-1.44). These data do not support an association between consumption of coffee or tea and the risk of BE. It is unlikely that avoidance of coffee or tea will protect against BE. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley
Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002
Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; deGraauw, T.
We have obtained the full 1-200 micrometer spectrum of the low luminosity (36 solar luminosity Class I protostar Elias 29 in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 micrometer" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices.
Burgess, J D; Kimble, R M; Watt, K A; Cameron, C M
Hot beverage scalds are a leading cause of burns in young children. The aim of this study was to look at the circumstances surrounding these injuries in terms of setting, mechanism, supervision and first aid to inform a prevention campaign. A cross-sectional study was delivered via iPad to parents and caregivers presenting with a child aged 0-36 months with a hot beverage scald at a major paediatric burns centre. Of the 101 children aged 0-36 months that presented with a hot beverage scald over a 12-month period, 54 participants were included. The scald aetiology was as expected with the peak prevalence in children aged 6-24 months, pulling a cup of hot liquid down over themselves. The majority of injuries occurred in the child's home and were witnessed by the caregiver or parent. The supervising adult was often in close proximity when the scald occurred. Less than a third (28%) of participants received recommended first aid treatment at the scene, with an additional 18% receiving this treatment with three hours of the injury-usually at an emergency department. While the aetiology of these scalds were as expected, the low use of recommended burn first aid was of concern. Although supervision was present in almost all cases, with the parent/caregiver close-by, this proximity still permitted injury. Attentiveness and continuity of supervision, which can be difficult with competing parental demands, appear to play a more important role role; as do considerations of other safety mechanisms such as hazard reduction through keeping hot drinks out of reach and engineering factors such as improved cup design. By incorporating the findings from this study and other research into a hot beverage scald prevention campaign, we hope to see a change in knowledge and behaviour in parents and caregivers of young children, and ultimately a reduction in the incidence of hot beverage scalds. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilcox, Christie L.; Yanagihara, Angel A.
Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes. PMID:27043628
Wilcox, Christie L; Yanagihara, Angel A
Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes.
Wu, Shirley; Barker, Judith C
This qualitative study describes how Chinese elders in an American nursing home perceived their food and mealtime experiences. Data collection included 20 meal observations and interviews with 7 residents, 9 family members, and 17 staff members. Field notes and interviews were coded and analyzed using an iterative approach similar to grounded theory. All participant groups described institutional food and meals as individualized, nutritious therapy for medical illnesses. Mealtimes lacked sociability and sharing, and although family members provided Chinese food, they did not eat with residents. Residents generally did not consider the institution's effort to provide an "Asian diet" of hot tea and juk (rice porridge) to be Chinese food. These findings suggest that, for these Chinese elders, the biomedicalized, individualized food service and mealtime caregiving practices stripped food of its meaning as a social, shared mealtime experience with family. Nursing professionals and researchers should understand that provision of culturally competent mealtime care for ethnic (Chinese) long-term care residents involves important food service practices in addition to kinds of food.
Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Chian-Kuang; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Lin, Chih-Chuan
To compare the effectiveness of ice packs and hot water immersion for the treatment of centipede envenomations. Sixty patients envenomated by centipedes were randomized into three groups and were treated with ice packs, hot water immersion, or analgesia injection. The visual analog score (VAS) for pain was measured before the treatment and 15 min afterward. Demographic data and data on local and systemic effects after centipede bites were collected. The VAS scores and the pain decrease (DeltaVAS) were compared between the three groups. All patients suffered from pain at the affected sites; other local effects included redness (n = 49, 81.7%), swelling (n = 32, 53.3%), heat (n = 14, 23.3%), itchiness (n = 5, 8.3), and bullae formation (n = 3, 5.0%). Rare systemic effects were reported. All three groups had similar VAS scores before and after treatment. They also had similar effectiveness in reducing pain caused by centipedes bites (DeltaVAS = 2.55 +/- 1.88, 2.33 +/- 1.78, and 1.55 +/- 1.68, with ice packs, analgesia, and hot water immersion, respectively, p = 0.165). Ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesics all improved the pain from centipede envenomation. Ice pack treatment is a safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive method for pre-hospital management in patients with centipede envenomation.
Struk, Peter M.; Rigby, David L.; Venkataraman, Krishna
This paper presents a steady-state thermal model of a hot-wire instrument applicable to atmospheric measurement of water content in clouds. In this application, the power required to maintain the wire at a given temperature is used to deduce the water content of the cloud. The model considers electrical resistive heating, axial conduction, convection to the flow, radiation to the surroundings, as well as energy loss due to the heating, melting, and evaporation of impinging liquid and or ice. All of these parameters can be varied axially along the wire. The model further introduces a parameter called the evaporation potential which locally gauges the maximum fraction of incoming water that evaporates. The primary outputs of the model are the steady-state power required to maintain a spatially-average constant temperature as well as the variation of that temperature and other parameters along the wire. The model is used to understand the sensitivity of the hot-wire performance to various flow and boundary conditions including a detailed comparison of dry air and wet (i.e. cloud-on) conditions. The steady-state power values are compared to experimental results from a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) Multi-Element probe, a commonly used water-content measurement instrument. The model results show good agreement with experiment for both dry and cloud-on conditions with liquid water content. For ice, the experimental measurements under read the actual water content due to incomplete evaporation and splashing. Model results, which account for incomplete evaporation, are still higher than experimental results where the discrepancy is attributed to splashing mass-loss which is not accounted in the model.
Nguyen, Thuong V; Pham, Quang D; Do, Quoc K; Diep, Tai T; Phan, Hung C; Ho, Thang V; Do, Hong T; Phan, Lan T; Tran, Huu N
After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors. Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-39.25), not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03-6.67), having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37-13.88), living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77-67.97), and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18-20.19) were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63), eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73), and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples. The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between drinking iced tea and cholera and the spread of V. cholerae O1, altered El Tor strains
Do, Quoc K.; Diep, Tai T.; Phan, Hung C.; Ho, Thang V.; Do, Hong T.; Phan, Lan T.; Tran, Huu N.
Background After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors. Methodology/Principal findings Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84–39.25), not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03–6.67), having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37–13.88), living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77–67.97), and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18–20.19) were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04–0.63), eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10–0.73), and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07–0.70) were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples. Conclusions/Significance The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between
Naito, Takashi; Ogaki, Tetsuro
The timing in which ice is ingested may be important for optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion has not been studied in resting participants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion on rectal temperature (Tre) and rating of perceptual sensation in a hot environment. Seven males ingested 1.25gkg(-1) of crushed ice (ICE1.25: 0.5°C) or cold water (CON: 4°C) every 5min for 30min, or were given 7.5gkgBM(-1) of crushed ice (ICE7.5) to consume for 30min in a hot environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity). The participants then remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, Tre, body mass and urine specific gravity were measured. Rating of thermal sensation was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. ICE1.25 continued to decrease Tre until approximately 50min, and resulted in a greater reduction in Tre (-0.56±0.20°C) than ICE7.5 (-0.41±0.14°C). Tre was reduced from 40 to 75min by ICE1.25, which is a significant reduction in comparison to ICE7.5 (p<.05). Mean RTS with ICE1.25 at 50-65min was significantly lower than that with ICE7.5 (p<.05). These results suggest that pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion is a more effective strategy both for lowering the Tre and for the rating of thermal sensation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han
Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.
A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…
Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Winn, Joshua N.
The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. It is widely believed that these planets formed near the water-ice line of the protoplanetary disk, and subsequently migrated into much smaller orbits. Most of the proposed migration mechanisms can be classified either as disk-driven migration, or as excitation of a very high eccentricity followed by tidal circularization. In the latter scenario, the giant planet that is destined to become a hot Jupiter spends billions of years on a highly eccentric orbit, with apastron near the water-ice line. Eventually, tidal dissipation at periastron shrinks and circularizes the orbit. If this is correct, then it should be especially rare for hot Jupiters to be accompanied by another giant planet interior to the water-ice line. Using the current sample of giant planets discovered with the Doppler technique, we find that hot Jupiters with P orb < 10 days are no more or less likely to have exterior Jupiter-mass companions than longer-period giant planets with P orb ≥ 10 days. This result holds for exterior companions both inside and outside of the approximate location of the water-ice line. These results are difficult to reconcile with the high-eccentricity migration scenario for hot Jupiter formation.
Young, Darrell D.
Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…
Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Denniston, R. F.
The Great Basin and lower Colorado River Basin are susceptible to sustained droughts that impact water resources and economic activity for millions of residents of the southwestern United States. The causes of past droughts in the basin remain debated. Herein, we document a strong Arctic to mid-latitude teleconnection during the Holocene that resulted in an extreme `hot drought' persisting for more than two millennia in the southwestern United States, based on a continuous growth rate and new high-resolution carbon and oxygen isotopic time series from a precisely-dated stalagmite from Leviathan Cave, Nevada. Between 9850-7670 yr B2k, highest Holocene oxygen isotope values indicate warm temperatures and moisture-sensitive proxies of high carbon isotope values and low stalagmite growth rate and minimal soil productivity and aquifer recharge. We refer to this period as the Altithermal Hot Drought. A second interval (6770 to 5310 yr B2k) indicates a warm drought. The two Altithermal droughts exceed in severity and duration any droughts observed in the modern and tree-ring records. Further, we show that Altithermal hot droughts were widespread in the southwestern United States, at a time when human populations in the Great Basin were low. The droughts show strong similarities to proxies for Arctic paleoclimate and we suggest that insolation-driven changes in sea ice and snow cover extent in the high latitudes drove atmospheric circulation anomalies in the Great Basin. Because rising greenhouse gas concentrations are projected to increase global and Arctic temperatures with a possible loss of summer sea by the end of the 21st century, our record suggests that a return to prolonged hotter and drier conditions in the southern Great Basin and lower Colorado River Basin is possible within coming centuries.
... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice. Except for decaffeinated green tea ... hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615 Web site: nccih.nih.gov E-mail: info@nccih. ...
Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei
Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309
Walker, C. C.; Gardner, A. S.
Over the past 50 years, several Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have retreated or collapsed completely. One such collapse was the Wordie Ice Shelf (WIS), located in Marguerite Bay, which began to disintegrate around 1989. We use several observational datasets to show that the glaciers that used to maintain WIS have experienced a surprising acceleration in flow ( 500m/yr) that began 2008, nearly 20 years after the onset of WIS collapse. During the same period, airborne altimetry from NASA Operation IceBridge shows the glaciers experienced a drawdown at their calving fronts between 4 and 9 m/yr, a near-doubling in rate of elevation change from the 1990's and early-2000's. The time lag between WIS collapse and rapid glacier drawdown suggests that these recent changes are unrelated to loss of buttressing. We identify possible links to changes in ocean conditions using in-situ Palmer Station Long-Term Ecological Research (PAL LTER) ocean CTD-gridded observations (Martinson et al., 2008) taken along the continental shelf on the west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) since 1993. We use ECCO2 simulations and atmospheric reanalysis data to characterize changes in atmospheric forcing. We also measure changes in ice shelf area using historic archives and Landsat imagery for 50 glacier systems along the WAP from 1945 to present. Surface structural changes in the WIS system, e.g., melt ponds, sea/fast ice presence, and crevasse density/orientation, are also examined. We conclude that recent changes in WIS tributaries likely resulted from a significant increase in upwelling of warm, salty Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) due to enhanced wind forcing following coincident global atmospheric oscillation events, namely a positive Southern Annular Mode and a moderate La Nina event. This enabled enhanced incursions of UCDW into Marguerite Bay between 2008-2014, in part due to the deep Marguerite Trough that connects the bay to the continental shelf break, along which the southern boundary
Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver
We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.
Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but withmore » higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.« less
Ren, J S; Freedman, N D; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, C C
The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric non-cardia cancer, 123 Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of > or =1 cup/day was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last 3 years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ren, JS; Freedman, ND; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, SM; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, CC
The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric noncardia cancer, 123 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of ≥1 cup/day was 0.37 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last three years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127
Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O
Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.
Shiozaki, T; Sugiyama, K; Nakazato, K; Takeo, T
The antiallergic effects of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea extracts by hot water were examined. These extracts inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction of rat after oral administration. Three tea catechins, (--)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (--)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (--)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) isolated from green tea showed stronger inhibitory effects than that of a green tea extract on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory effects of EGC and EGCg on the PCA reaction were greater than that of ECg. Caffeine also showed a inhibitory effect on the PCA reaction. These results indicate that tea could provide a significant protection against the type-I allergic reaction. These findings also suggest that tea catechins and caffeine play an important role in having an inhibitory effect on the type-I allergic reaction.
Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M
The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate.
Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Hung, Min-Nan; Chen, Wan-Chin; Lo, Yi-Chun; Su, Ying-Shih; Wei, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Meng-Yu; Tuan, Yen-Chang; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yen; Wang, Yu-Ying; Wu, Fang-Tzy
On 5 March 2015, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control was notified of more than 200 students with gastroenteritis at a senior high school during excursion to Kenting. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the causative agent and possible vehicle of the pathogen. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using a structured questionnaire to interview all students for consumed food items during their stay at the resort. Students were defined as a gastroenteritis case while having vomiting or diarrhea after the breakfast on 4 March. We inspected the environment to identify possible contamination route. We collected stool or vomitus samples from ill students, food handlers and environmental specimens for bacterial culture for common enteropathogens, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rotavirus. Norovirus PCR-positive products were then sequenced and genotyped. Of 267 students enrolled, 144 (54%) met our case definition. Regression analysis revealed elevated risk associated with iced tea, which was made from tea powder mixed with hot water and self-made ice (risk ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.98). Ice used for beverages, water before and after water filter of the ice machine and 16 stool and vomitus samples from ill students were tested positive for norovirus; Multiple genotypes were identified including GI.2, GI.4 and GII.17. GII.17 was the predominant genotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that noroviruses identified in ice, water and human samples were clustered into the same genotypes. Environmental investigation revealed the ice was made by inadequate-filtered and un-boiled water. We identified the ice made by norovirus-contaminated un-boiled water caused the outbreak and the predominant genotype was GII.17. Adequately filtered or boiled water should be strongly recommended for making ice to avoid possible contamination.
Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.
The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.
Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.
Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.
There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653
A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…
Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J
Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p < 0.01), whilst no such change occurred after ingestion of hot water. The IR protocol resulted in a significant decrease in FMD (p < 0.005), which was also present after tea consumption (p < 0.001). This decline was accompanied by an increase in the post-IR baseline diameter. In conclusion, these data indicate that tea ingestion improves BA FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.
Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan
People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been shown to be responsible for much of the health promoting ability of green tea. Tea and tea preparations have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models of carcinogenesis. However, with increasing interest in the health promoting properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and health benefits of tea with special reference to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17655876
Khodakhah, K; Melishchuk, A; Armstrong, C M
Tetraethylammonium (TEA+) is widely used for reversible blockade of K channels in many preparations. We noticed that intracellular perfusion of voltage-clamped squid giant axons with a solution containing K+ and TEA+ irreversibly decreased the potassium current when there was no K+ outside. Five minutes of perfusion with 20 mM TEA+, followed by removal of TEA+, reduced potassium current to < 5% of its initial value. The irreversible disappearance of K channels with TEA+ could be prevented by addition of > or = 10 mM K+ to the extracellular solution. The rate of disappearance of K channels followed first-order kinetics and was slowed by reducing the concentration of TEA+. Killing is much less evident when an axon is held at -110 mV to tightly close all of the channels. The longer-chain TEA+ derivative decyltriethylammonium (C10+) had irreversible effects similar to TEA+. External K+ also protected K channels against the irreversible action of C10+. It has been reported that removal of all K+ internally and externally (dekalification) can result in the disappearance of K channels, suggesting that binding of K+ within the pore is required to maintain function. Our evidence further suggests that the crucial location for K+ binding is external to the (internal) TEA+ site and that TEA+ prevents refilling of this location by intracellular K+. Thus in the absence of extracellular K+, application of TEA+ (or C10+) has effects resembling dekalification and kills the K channels.
The annual Women's and Girls' Tea Party and Storytelling Ceremony is held in a Berkeley redwood grove by a creek. Seeking to generate community support for creek restoration, the ceremony/celebration/site-specific performance piece uses childhood rituals and story telling to help participants connect emotionally to each other, the place, its past,…
Chan, Eric W C; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng
The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.
Hodgson, J M; Puddey, I B; Croft, K D; Burke, V; Mori, T A; Caccetta, R A; Beilin, L J
Tea has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism of this risk reduction involves inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation in vivo by antioxidant polyphenolic compounds derived from tea. However, controlled interventions uniformly failed to show that ingestion of tea can inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo. The absence of effects in previous studies may be due to the isolation of LDL particles from polyphenolic compounds that are present in the aqueous phase of serum. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on ex vivo Cu(2+)-induced lipoprotein oxidation without prior isolation of lipoproteins from serum. The acute effects of 4 hot drinks-green tea and black tea (each at a dose equivalent to 4 standard cups), water matched to the teas for caffeine content, and water-were assessed in 20 healthy men by using a Latin-square design. The lag time to lipoprotein diene formation, slope of the propagation phase of the oxidation curve, and area under the oxidation curve were calculated. Urinary concentrations of 4-O-methylgallic acid were used as a marker of uptake and metabolism of polyphenolic compounds from tea. Significant increases in urinary 4-O-methylgallic acid for black and green tea (P < 0. 0001) were observed. Caffeine did not significantly influence lipoprotein oxidation. Compared with the water control, there was a greater lag time for black tea (5.4 +/- 2.9 min; P = 0.05) that was of borderline significance and a similar trend for green tea (4.4 +/- 2.8 min; P = 0.17). Slope and area under the oxidation curve were not altered. Black tea has a mild acute effect on ex vivo lipoprotein oxidation in human serum. 2000;71:-7.
Esimone, C O; Adikwu, M U; Nwafor, S V; Okolo, C O
To evaluate the potential of using tea extracts as complementary mouthwash and to test the comparative efficacy of two commercial samples. A randomized controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 6 subjects per group. The ability of Ndu tea (from Cameroon) and Lipton tea (from Nigeria) to reduce colony forming units (CFU) in the liquid expectorated after 60 seconds of gargling from the mouth of the volunteers at 5 and 60 minutes were evaluated. These were compared to the values obtained from bank water and Minty Brett (thymol 0.047%), a standard antiseptic. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty healthy human volunteers (18 males and 12 females, between 22-30 years of age) who met the eligibility requirement of being nonsmokers and not taking any other antimicrobial agent were selected for the study. Relative to the bank water, the results indicated that the hot water extract of both teas significantly (p < 0.05) reduced CFU per milliliter in the liquid expectorated after gargling at both 5 and 60 minutes. Minty Brett showed higher activity than both tea extracts; however, unlike Minty Brett both extracts still reduced the CFU per milliliter at time 60 minutes (an indication of longer duration of activity). The combination of the tea extracts with sodium lauryl sulfate (1.2% w/v), a surfactant and emulsifier, significantly increased the antimicrobial activity relative to each tea alone. Comparatively, the activity of Ndu tea was found to be slightly higher than that of Lipton tea but this was not significant (p < 0.05). Lipton and Ndu tea extracts potently reduced the CFU per milliliter. This activity was potentiated by sodium lauryl sulfate. Although Minty Brett had more potent antimicrobial activity, both tea extracts have longer duration of activity. The results indicate the potential usefulness of tea extracts as a complementary mouthwash.
Munishi, Michael Oresto; Hanisch, Rachel; Mapunda, Oscar; Ndyetabura, Theonest; Ndaro, Arnold; Schüz, Joachim; Kibiki, Gibson; McCormack, Valerie
Purpose Hot beverage consumption has been linked to oesophageal squamous cell cancer (EC) but its contribution to the poorly-understood East African EC corridor is not known. Methods In a cross-sectional study of general-population residents in Kilimanjaro, North Tanzania, tea drinking temperatures and times were measured. Using linear regression models, we compared drinking temperatures to those in previous studies, by socio-demographic factors and tea type (“milky tea” which can be 50% or more milk and water boiled together vs “black tea” which has no milk). Results Participants started drinking at a mean of 70.6°C (standard deviation 3.9, n=188), which exceeds that in all previous studies (p≤0.01 for each). Tea type, gender and age were associated with drinking temperatures. After mutual adjustment for each other, milky tea drinkers drank their tea 1.9°C (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.9) hotter than drinkers of black tea, largely because black tea cooled twice as fast as milky tea. Men commenced drinking tea 0.9°C (−0.2, 2.1) hotter than women did, and finished their cups 30 (−9, 69) seconds faster. 70% and 39% of milky and black tea drinkers, respectively, reported a history of tongue burning. Conclusions Hot tea consumption, especially milky tea, may be an important and modifiable risk factor for EC in Tanzania. The contribution of this habit to EC risk needs to be evaluated in this setting, jointly with that of the many risk factors acting synergistically in this multi-factorial disease. PMID:26245249
Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping
Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858
Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol
The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.
Yang, Doudou; Liang, Jin; Wang, Yunsheng; Sun, Feng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun
Tea waste is the residue that remains after tea leaves have been extracted by hot water to obtain water-soluble components. The waste contains a re-usable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute the environment if they are not dealt with appropriately. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied as substrates for cultivating mushrooms. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of re-using it, tea waste was added to the substrate at different ratios in different experimental groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. Substrates with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. The substrate containing 40-60% of tea waste resulted in the highest yield. Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided a useful way of dealing with massive amounts of tea waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Onami, Tetsuo; Kanazawa, Hitoshi
A simple procedure for the isolation of caffeine from tea leaves has been established without using hot or boiling water. A mixture of tea leaves, dichloromethane, and 0.2 M NaOH was shaken for 7 min, and the organic layer was separated. After evaporation of the organic solvent, residual crystals were purified by recrystallization to give 20-30 mg (student yield) of pure caffeine from one tea bag (2 g).
... report menopausal hot flashes than do women of European descent. Hot flashes are less common in women of Japanese and Chinese descent than in white European women. Complications Nighttime hot flashes (night sweats) can ...
Zachara, Alicja; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław
The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., benzo(a)pyrene and sum of benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(a)pyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively) were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55–1.72% for red, white and green teas. PMID:29283369
The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.
Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki
Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ye, J H; Jin, J; Liang, H L; Lu, J L; Du, Y Y; Zheng, X Q; Liang, Y R
Lignocelluloses prepared from woody tea stalk, pine sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were used as adsorbents to isolate decaffeinated catechins from tea extracts and compared with synthetic macroporous resin HPD 600. HPD 600 had the highest adsorption capacity to catechins, followed by tea stalk lignocellulose while lignocelluloses of pine sawdust and bagasse the least. Tea stalk lignocellulose absorbed preferentially tea catechins and showed a good selectivity. HPD 600 absorbed caffeine and tea catechins simultaneously. The kinetics data of tea stalk lignocellulose showed a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm model. It is considered that tea stalk lignocellulose is an alternative low-cost adsorbent for preparing decaffeinated tea catechins.
Fujioka, Kouki; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shima, Hidekazu; Tomaru, Keiko; Saito, Hideki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Yoshidome, Akihiro; Kawamura, Yuri; Manome, Yoshinobu
For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style) in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.
Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Baou, Katerina; Vasiliadou, Carmen; Pietri, Panagiota; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Stefanadi, Elli; Stefanadis, Christodoulos
Tea consumption is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery is related to coronary endothelial function and it is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. Black tea has a beneficial effect on endothelial function; the effect, however, of green tea on brachial artery reactivity has not been defined yet. We studied 14 healthy individuals (age 30+/-3 years) with no cardiovascular risk factors except from smoking (50%) on three separate occasions on which they took: (a) 6 g of green tea, (b) 125 mg of caffeine (the amount contained in 6 g of tea), or (c) hot water. FMD of the brachial artery was measured before each intervention and 30, 90, and 120 min afterward. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 (Il-6) and 1b (Il-1b), total plasma antioxidative capacity, and total plasma oxidative status/stress were measured at baseline and at 120 min after each intervention. Resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter did not change either with tea or with caffeine. FMD increased significantly with tea (by 3.69%, peak at 30 min, P<0.02), whereas it did not change significantly with caffeine (increase by 1.72%, peak at 30 min, P=NS). Neither tea nor caffeine had any effect on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Il-6, Il-1b, total plasma antioxidative capacity, or total plasma oxidative status/stress. Green tea consumption has an acute beneficial effect on endothelial function, assessed with FMD of the brachial artery, in healthy individuals. This may be involved in the beneficial effect of tea on cardiovascular risk.
FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.
Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850
Tinkiliç, N; Uyanik, A
This study reports tannin contents of various tea (19), beer (6) and wine (6) samples, produced or sold in Turkey under different brand names. Determinations were carried out by employing a previously reported UV-vis spectrophotometric method. The standard addition procedure was also compared to the direct determination procedure and found to be more reliable. The tannin contents of hot water extracts of tea, tea bag and herbal tea samples ranged between 6.20-8.33, 8.03-6.59 and 2.76-6.54 percent (w/w) respectively. Tannin contents of beer and wine samples determined without extraction were found ranging between 66.36-77.26 and 67.18-107.62 micrograms/mL respectively. Iron contents of analysed wine samples were also found ranging between 0.36 and 10.33 ppm by AAS and no relation is found between tannin and iron contents.
Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi
Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464
Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz
The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.
Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.
Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth
Jamnadas-Khoda, Benjamin; See, M S; Cubison, Colonel T C; Dheansa, B S
Scald injuries are the commonest cause of paediatric burns leading to hospital admission both in the United Kingdom (National Burn Care Review Committee Report; 2001) and around the world. The cost and significant morbidity resulting from scald injuries reiterates the need for effective prevention campaigns for primary caregivers. The majority of scalds in children occur in the kitchen (49%) at home. Three children a day under the age of 5 (1100/year) are involved in scalds resulting from pulling on a cup of beverage onto themselves. We therefore aim to study the temperature of common beverages made at home and their potential to cause significant thermal injury. Common household beverages were formulated to assess the thermal characteristics. Each beverage was made in a standardized environment with constant ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Beverages were made in 230 ml ceramic mugs, using boiled water from an electric kettle, instant coffee granules and teabags. Hot milk and hot water were prepared for comparison. Temperature readings were taken from 0 to 10 min. Cooling curves were then plotted. Milky beverages had the lowest starting temperatures (75-77 degrees C). Black tea and black coffee remained at temperatures greater than 65 degrees C despite cooling for 10 min. The addition of sugar did not alter the cooling rate. Similarly there was very little difference in cooling rates for skimmed and full fat milk. Addition of 10 ml rather than 5 ml of milk lowered the starting temperature and increased the cooling rates. Hot beverages can cause significant scald injuries especially in the paediatric population. We demonstrated the potential for a full thickness burn despite cooling for 10 min or the addition of cold milk. Thus the complacent attitude surrounding beverages under such conditions should be abolished. Our work also reiterates the need for education amongst caregivers regarding the handling of hot beverages in order to reduce the number of
Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W
Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.
Berkowitz, Brian M.; Riley, James T.
LEWICE is an analytical ice prediction code that has been evaluated against icing tunnel data, but on a more limited basis against flight data. Ice shapes predicted by LEWICE is compared with experimental ice shapes accreted on the NASA Lewis Icing Research Aircraft. The flight data selected for comparison includes liquid water content recorded using a hot wire device and droplet distribution data from a laser spectrometer; the ice shape is recorded using stereo photography. The main findings are as follows: (1) An equivalent sand grain roughness correlation different from that used for LEWICE tunnel comparisons must be employed to obtain satisfactory results for flight; (2) Using this correlation and making no other changes in the code, the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in flight are in general as good as the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in the tunnel (as in the case of tunnel ice shapes, agreement is least reliable for large glaze ice shapes at high angles of attack); (3) In some cases comparisons can be somewhat improved by utilizing the code so as to take account of the variation of parameters such as liquid water content, which may vary significantly in flight.
Biggs, Eloise M; Gupta, Niladri; Saikia, Sukanya D; Duncan, John M A
This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam). Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha) and small- (< 10 ha) holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al.  regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see 'The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate' by Biggs et al. .
Few, A. A.
It is widely recognized that lightning activity in thunderstorm clouds is associated with ice in the clouds. In volcanic plumes the lower electrical discharges near the vent are clearly not associated with ice; however, the electrical discharges from the upper volcanic clouds very likely are associated with ice. There is ample water in volcanic plumes and clouds. The explosive volcanic eruption is produced by volatile components in the rising magma. Researchers estimate that the water content of the volatiles is up to 99% by mole; other gases are mainly sulfur and chlorine species. These volatiles carry with them a wide range of hot magma melts and solids, importantly silicate particles and tephra. The more massive components fall out near the vent carrying with them much of the heat from the plume; these large components are not in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gases, ash, and lapilli; thus the heat removed does not lower the temperature of the materials carried aloft in the plume. Upward motion is initially provided by the thrust from the volcanic eruption, then by buoyancy of the hot plume. The rising plume is cooled by entrainment of environmental air, which contains water, and by adiabatic expansion; the plume transitions into a volcanic cloud. Further lifting and cooling produces supercooled water droplets (T ~ -5 C) in a limited zone (z ~ 9 km) before the fast updraft (~ 60 m/s) rapidly transforms them into ice. Computer models of volcanic clouds that include water and ice microphysics indicate that the latent heat of condensation is not significant in cloud dynamics because it occurs in a region where buoyancy is provided by the original hot plume material. The latent heat of ice formation occurs at higher and colder levels and seems to contribute to the final lifting of the cloud top by ~1.5km. Laboratory results indicate that the fine silicate ash particles, which are abundant, are good ice nuclei, IN. Because of the abundance of the silicate ash
Sea ice is seen out the window of NASA's DC-8 research aircraft as it flies 2,000 feet above the Bellingshausen Sea in West Antarctica on Wednesday, Oct., 21, 2009. This was the fourth science flight of NASA’s Operation Ice Bridge airborne Earth science mission to study Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice, and ice shelves. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jane Peterson)
Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Bum-Jin; Ha, Jaehyoun; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Jin-Oh
This study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy of green tea on peripheral skin for cold hypersensitive subjects, who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures, one of the most common complaints in Asian women. This randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study included 60 female Korean subjects who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups to receive fermented green tea or a placebo (hot water). The skin temperature of the hands and feet was measured using digital infrared thermography at the baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after the oral administration of the tea or placebo. The skin temperature of the hands and feet of the fermented green tea-administered group was significantly higher than that of the placebo-administered group. The temperature difference between the finger and the dorsum of the hand was significantly lower in the fermented green tea-administered group than that in the placebo group. Fermented green tea is helpful for cold hypersensitivity. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of fermented green tea on peripheral skin in subjects having the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures by infrared thermography. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of the fermented green tea for cold hypersensitivity and to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan
Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).
Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L
The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.
Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.
The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer 26Al. 26Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous 27Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the 26Al, compared to 27Al, serum concentration × time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F = 0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F = 0.1 to 0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F = 0.1%). Time to maximum serum 26Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8 h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability × daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water. PMID:18848597
Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun; Xia, Tao
To prepare tea pigments. Tea pigments are prepared by solvent extraction from Sri lanka black tea. Tea pigments contains the components as follows: caffeine 1.77%, epigallocatechin 1.37%, catechin 1.20%, epicatechin 9.55%, epigallocatechin gallate 10.52%, epicatechin gallate 9.94%, theaflavin 10.34%, theaflavin monogallate 9.57%, theaflavin digallate 4.81%, thearubigin about 40.93%. The best proportions of the compound that are obtained with HPLC analysis.
Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.
Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.
Hai, L; Sun, H; Li, Z
Tea-polyphenols and caffeine were extracted simultaneously from green tea. The factors influencing on the process of impregnation and extraction were studied. The result indicated that the content of tea-polyphenols and caffeine in tea was increased with the duration of extraction and decreased with the frequency of extraction. The authors discuss the effect of pH on the precipition of calcium-tea-polyphenols.
Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.
Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook
Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David
Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462
An iceberg is seen out the window of NASA's DC-8 research aircraft as it flies 2,000 feet above the Amundsen Sea in West Antarctica on Wednesday, Oct., 21, 2009. This was the fourth science flight of NASA‚Äôs Operation Ice Bridge airborne Earth science mission to study Antarctic ice sheets, sea ice, and ice shelves. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jane Peterson)
An area of broken glacier ice seen from the IceBridge DC-8 on Oct. 22, 2012. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay
Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.
Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived,…
Bramwell, Steven T.; Gingras, Michel J. P.; Holdsworth, Peter C. W.
Pauling's model of hydrogen disorder in water ice represents the prototype of a frustrated system. Over the years it has spawned several analogous models, including Anderson's model antiferromagnet and the statistical "vertex" models. Spin Ice is a sixteen vertex model of "ferromagnetic frustration" that is approximated by real materials, most notably the rare earth pyrochlores Ho2Ti2O7, Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Sn2O7. These "spin ice materials" have the Pauling zero point entropy and in all respects represent almost ideal realisations of Pauling's model. They provide experimentalists with unprecedented access to a wide variety of novel magnetic states and phase transitions that are located in different regions of the field-temperature phase diagram. They afford theoreticians the opportunity to explore many new features of the magnetic interactions and statistical mechanics of frustrated systems. This chapter is a comprehensive review of the physics -- both experimental and theoretical -- of spin ice. It starts with a discussion of the historic problem of water ice and its relation to spin ice and other frustrated magnets. The properties of spin ice are then discussed in three sections that deal with the zero field spin ice state, the numerous field-induced states (including the recently identified "kagomé ice") and the magnetic dynamics. Some materials related to spin ice are briefly described and the chapter is concluded with a short summary of spin ice physics.
Fazakerley, Andrew; Samara, Marilia; Hancock, Barry; Wicks, Robert; Moore, Tom; Rust, Duncan; Jones, Jonathan; Saito, Yoshifumi; Pollock, Craig; Owen, Chris; Rae, Jonny
Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves). A novel capability to time tag individual electron events during short intervals for the purposes of ground analysis of wave-particle interactions is also planned.
Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok
Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.
The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center: LEWICE/Thermal 1 (electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing), and ANTICE 2 (hot gas and el...
Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan
Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443
Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S
Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.
Kato, Atsushi; Minoshima, Yuka; Yamamoto, Jo; Adachi, Isao; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J
Matricaria chamomilla L., known as "chamomile", has been used as an herbal tea or supplementary food all over the world. We investigated the effects of chamomile hot water extract and its major components on the prevention of hyperglycemia and the protection or improvement of diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus. Hot water extract, esculetin (3) and quercetin (7) have been found to show moderate inhibition of sucrase with IC50 values of 0.9 mg/mL and 72 and 71 microM, respectively. In a sucrose-loading test, the administration of esculetin (50 mg/kg body weight) fully suppressed hyperglycemia after 15 and 30 min, but the extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) were less effective. On the other hand, a long-term feed test (21 days) using a streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes model revealed that the same doses of extract and quercetin showed significant suppression of blood glucose levels. It was also found that these samples increased the liver glycogen levels. Moreover, chamomile extract showed potent inhibition against aldose reductase (ALR2), with an IC50 value of 16.9 microg/mL, and its components, umbelliferone (1), esculetin (3), luteolin (6), and quercetin (7), could significantly inhibit the accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes. These results clearly suggested that daily consumption of chamomile tea with meals could contribute to the prevention of the progress of hyperglycemia and diabetic complications.
Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.
During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.
Emery, Edward; Kok, Gregory L.
Aircraft icing is a serious safety problem for the general aviation and some commuter transport airplanes. There has been tremendous growth in the commuter aviation industry in the last few years, Since these type of aircraft generally operate at lower altitudes they consequently spend a far greater proportion of their time operating in icing conditions. For the past thirty years airborne and ground based facilities have relied primarily on two types of cloud physics instrumentation to measure the characteristics of icing clouds: hot wire liquid water content probes and laser based particle sizing probes for the measurement of water droplet size. The instrumentation is severely limited by the technology that was developed during the 1970's and is quite large in size. The goal of this research is to develop one instrument with a wide bandwidth, better response time, higher resolution, user selectability, and small and lightweight. NASA Glenn Research Center, Droplet Measurement Technology, and Meteorology Society of Canada have developed a collaborative effort to develop such an instrument. This paper describes the development and test results of the prototype Icing Sensor Probe.
Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman
An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a
Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, P<0.001. There was also a significant difference between two groups in salivary total antioxidant capacity after one week and three weeks of green tea consumption (P<0.001). However, there was an upward trend in both smokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg -1 . In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg -1 ), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg -1 ) and tea (10-97 μg kg -1 ) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg -1 , and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749
Monbaliu, Sofie; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah
In recent years the consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased. These hot drinks are consumed as daily drinks as well as for medicinal purposes. All tea varieties (white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh) originate from the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. All extracts made of plant or herbal materials which do not contain Camellia sinensis are referred as herbal infusions or tisanes. During processing and manufacturing fungal contamination of the plant materials is possible, enabling contamination of these products with mycotoxins. In this study a multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of the raw tea and herbal infusion materials as well as for their drinkable products. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), with a mobile phase consisting of variable mixtures of water and methanol with 0.3% formic acid. The limits of detection for the different mycotoxins varied between 2.1 μg/kg and 121 μg/kg for raw materials and between 0.4 μg/L and 46 μg/L for drinkable products. Afterward 91 different tea and herbal infusion samples were analyzed. Only in one sample, Ceylon melange, 76 μg/kg fumonisin B(1) was detected. No mycotoxins were detected in the drinkable products.
Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad
The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.
Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying
We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia
The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption.
Shultz, Mary Jane
Ice is a fundamental solid with important environmental, biological, geological, and extraterrestrial impact. The stable form of ice at atmospheric pressure is hexagonal ice, I h . Despite its prevalence, I h remains an enigmatic solid, in part due to challenges in preparing samples for fundamental studies. Surfaces of ice present even greater challenges. Recently developed methods for preparation of large single-crystal samples make it possible to reproducibly prepare any chosen face to address numerous fundamental questions. This review describes preparation methods along with results that firmly establish the connection between the macroscopic structure (observed in snowflakes, microcrystallites, or etch pits) and the molecular-level configuration (detected with X-ray or electron scattering techniques). Selected results of probing interactions at the ice surface, including growth from the melt, surface vibrations, and characterization of the quasi-liquid layer, are discussed.
Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)
An ice detector is provided for the determination of the thickness of ice on the outer surface on an object (e.g., aircraft) independently of temperature or the composition of the ice. First capacitive gauge, second capacitive gauge, and temperature gauge are embedded in embedding material located within a hollowed out portion of the outer surface. This embedding material is flush with the outer surface to prevent undesirable drag. The first capacitive gauge, second capacitive gauge, and the temperature gauge are respectively connected to first capacitive measuring circuit, second capacitive measuring circuit, and temperature measuring circuit. The geometry of the first and second capacitive gauges is such that the ratio of the voltage outputs of the first and second capacitance measuring circuits is proportional to the thickness of ice, regardless of ice temperature or composition. This ratio is determined by offset and dividing circuit.
van het Hof, K H; Kivits, G A; Weststrate, J A; Tijburg, L B
To assess the blood concentration of catechins following green or black tea ingestion and the effect of addition of milk to black tea. Twelve volunteers received a single dose of green tea, black tea and black tea with milk in a randomized cross-over design with one-week intervals. Blood samples were drawn before and up to eight hours after tea consumption. The study was performed at the Unilever Research Vlaardingen in The Netherlands. Twelve healthy adult volunteers (7 females, 5 males) participated in the study. They were recruited among employees of Unilever Research Vlaardingen. Green tea, black tea and black tea with semi-skimmed milk (3 g tea solids each). Consumption of green tea (0.9 g total catechins) or black tea (0.3 g total catechins) resulted in a rapid increase of catechin levels in blood with an average maximum change from baseline (CVM) of 0.46 micromol/l (13%) after ingestion of green tea and 0.10 micromol/l (13%) in case of black tea. These maximum changes were reached after (mean (s.e.m.)) t=2.3 h (0.2) and t=2.2 h (0.2) for green and black tea respectively. Blood levels rapidly declined with an elimination rate (mean (CVM)) of t1/2=4.8 h (5%) for green tea and t1/2=6.9 h (8%) for black tea. Addition of milk to black tea (100 ml in 600 ml) did not significantly affect the blood catechin levels (areas under the curves (mean (CVM) of 0.53 h. micromol/l (11%) vs 0.60 h. micromol/l (9%) for black tea and black tea with milk respectively. Catechins from green tea and black tea are rapidly absorbed and milk does not impair the bioavailability of tea catechins.
Shahabi, Mohammad; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinpour, Soleiman
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of air temperature and air flow velocity on kinetics of color parameter changes during hot-air drying of green tea, to obtain the best model for hot-air drying of green tea, to apply a computer vision system and to study the color changes during drying. In the proposed computer vision system system, at first RGB values of the images were converted into XYZ values and then to Commission International d'Eclairage L*a*b* color coordinates. The obtained color parameters of L*, a* and b* were calibrated with Hunter-Lab colorimeter. These values were also used for calculation of the color difference, chroma, hue angle and browning index. The values of L* and b* decreased, while the values of a* and color difference (ΔE*ab ) increased during hot-air drying. Drying data were ﬁtted to three kinetic models. Zero, ﬁrst-order and fractional conversion models were utilized to describe the color changes of green tea. The suitability of fitness was determined using the coefficient of determination (R (2)) and root-mean-square error. Results showed that the fraction conversion model had more acceptable fitness than the other two models in most of color parameters. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried
A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D
Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.
This historical film footage, originally produced in the early 1950s as part of a series by WOI-TV, shows atomic research at Ames Laboratory. The work was conducted in a special area of the Laboratory known as the "Hot Canyon".
Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda
This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…
Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.
IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.
Waythomas, Christopher F.
Large-volume lahars are significant hazards at ice and snow covered volcanoes. Hot eruptive products produced during explosive eruptions can generate a substantial volume of melt water that quickly evolves into highly mobile flows of ice, sediment and water. At present it is difficult to predict the size of lahars that can form at ice and snow covered volcanoes due to their complex flow character and behaviour. However, advances in experiments and numerical approaches are producing new conceptual models and new methods for hazard assessment. Eruption triggered lahars that are ice-dominated leave behind thin, almost unrecognizable sedimentary deposits, making them likely to be under-represented in the geological record.
S86-E-5346 (30 September 1997) --- This Electronic Still Camera (ESC) image shows astronaut C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, hydrating tea in the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. Foale, now a STS-86 crew member, has been onboard the Russian Mir Space Station as a cosmonaut guest researcher since mid-May 1997. He was replaced by astronaut David A. Wolf during the STS-86 Atlantis/Mir docking mission. This is the seventh Atlantis/Mir docking mission. This view was taken at 00:35:35 GMT on September 30, 1997.
Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok
Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can
Pramudya, Ragita C; Seo, Han-Seok
Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can
Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun
Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Tuckerella japonica appears strongly associated with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze., Theaceae) and, due to certain cultural practices in tea production, has in fact become a world traveller, accompanying the greatly coveted tea plant as it spread across the planet. The history of tea productio...
Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui
Abstract Background: Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. Methods and Findings: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords “tea and osteoporosis,” without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I2. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Results: Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case–control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46–0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 94%, P < .01). There was, however, no publication bias of the meta-analysis about tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. Conclusion: In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis. PMID:29245297
Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S
Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.
Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun
Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen
As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.
Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung
Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075
Ice Waves - May 21st, 2001 Description: Along the southeastern coast of Greenland, an intricate network of fjords funnels glacial ice to the Atlantic Ocean. During the summer melting season, newly calved icebergs join slabs of sea ice and older, weathered bergs in an offshore slurry that the southward-flowing East Greenland Current sometimes swirls into stunning shapes. Exposed rock of mountain peaks, tinted red in this image, hints at a hidden landscape. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook
Huang, J; Wang, Y; Xie, Z; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y; Wan, X
Many researchers have reported that obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several forms of cancer (such as breast, colon and prostate), pulmonary, osteoarticular and metabolic diseases in the past decades. Recently, the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of green tea in animals and humans have slowly become a hot topic in nutritional and food science research. This review will up-date the information of the anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and animal studies. During recent years, an increasing number of clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of green tea on obesity. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to the very different results from studies with a similar design, which may be caused by differences in the extent of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, the strength of subjects' compliance to test instruction, the genetic background of populations, body composition and dietary habits. Therefore, further investigations on a larger scale and with longer periods of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic risk factors and to determine differences in beneficial effects among diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that green tea has important roles in fat metabolism by reducing food intake, interrupting lipid emulsification and absorption, suppressing adipogenesis and lipid synthesis and increasing energy expenditure via thermogenesis, fat oxidation and fecal lipid excretion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive.
Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet
This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.
Sari, N. M.; Kuspradini, H.; Amirta, R.; Kusuma, I. W.
East Kalimantan possesses abundant biodiversity of tropical medicinal plant. Melastoma malabathricum (known locally as karamunting, senduduk) is an invasive plant along with other species in the family of Melastomataceae with traditional medicinal purposes. This research explored the potential of Karamunting (M. malabathricum) plant for its antioxidant activity and the potential as a material for herbal tea product. The plant was macerated to yield ethanolic extract, and at the same time plant powder was packed into tea bags and extracted with hot water to obtain the infused water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the ethanol extracts of plant samples displayed ability to inhibit DPPH free radical formation by 82% at 50 ppm concentration. Evaluation of the tea water extract showed that the highest inhibition obtained by leaves powder by 90% and fruit 88% at 1 minutes immersion time. This finding suggest that leaves and fruit of M. malabathricum plants display potential as herbal tea material having antioxidant activity if the safety aspect can be assured.
This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad. PMID:23941692
Van Dorsten, Ferdi A; Daykin, Clare A; Mulder, Theo P J; Van Duynhoven, John P M
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of black and green tea consumption on human metabolism. Seventeen healthy male volunteers consumed black tea, green tea, or caffeine in a randomized crossover study. Twenty-four-hour urine and blood plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabonomics, that is, high-resolution 1H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate statistics. Green and black tea consumption resulted in similar increases in urinary excretion of hippuric acid and 1,3-dihydroxyphenyl-2-O-sulfate, both of which are end products of tea flavonoid degradation by colonic bacteria. Several unidentified aromatic metabolites were detected in urine specifically after green tea intake. Interestingly, green and black tea intake also had a different impact on endogenous metabolites in urine and plasma. Green tea intake caused a stronger increase in urinary excretion of several citric acid cycle intermediates, which suggests an effect of green tea flavanols on human oxidative energy metabolism and/or biosynthetic pathways.
Xia, En-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Sheng, Jun; Li, Kui; Zhang, Qun-Jie; Kim, Changhoon; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Wei; Huang, Hui; Tong, Yan; Nan, Hong; Shi, Cong; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Mao, Shu-Yan; Jiao, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yuan; Zhao, You-Jie; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Ben-Ying; Yu, Yue; Shao, Sheng-Fu; Ni, De-Jiang; Eichler, Evan E; Gao, Li-Zhi
Tea is the world's oldest and most popular caffeine-containing beverage with immense economic, medicinal, and cultural importance. Here, we present the first high-quality nucleotide sequence of the repeat-rich (80.9%), 3.02-Gb genome of the cultivated tea tree Camellia sinensis. We show that an extraordinarily large genome size of tea tree is resulted from the slow, steady, and long-term amplification of a few LTR retrotransposon families. In addition to a recent whole-genome duplication event, lineage-specific expansions of genes associated with flavonoid metabolic biosynthesis were discovered, which enhance catechin production, terpene enzyme activation, and stress tolerance, important features for tea flavor and adaptation. We demonstrate an independent and rapid evolution of the tea caffeine synthesis pathway relative to cacao and coffee. A comparative study among 25 Camellia species revealed that higher expression levels of most flavonoid- and caffeine- but not theanine-related genes contribute to the increased production of catechins and caffeine and thus enhance tea-processing suitability and tea quality. These novel findings pave the way for further metabolomic and functional genomic refinement of characteristic biosynthesis pathways and will help develop a more diversified set of tea flavors that would eventually satisfy and attract more tea drinkers worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breakup of Pack Ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf (53.5S, 3.0E) produced this mosaic of ice floes off the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with strong katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filamets of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. 53.5S, 3.0E
Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.
Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716
Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair
Field experiments were conducted at two places in Tamil Nadu (India) during dry season of 2006 to determine the residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in fresh green tea leaves and black tea. Residues were quantified at different harvest intervals of '0' (3h), 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and 14th day after insecticide application. Persistence, dissipation pattern, half-life value and safe harvest interval of the insecticide in tea were calculated. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin dissipated exponentially after application at both the locations and reached below the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) of 1mg/kg on the 5th day. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed that like other insecticides it followed the first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 2.8 to 3.5 days for lambda-cyhalothrin and a safety harvest interval of 5 days is suggested for tea at the recommended dosage.
A colleague walked by my office one time as I was conducting a meeting. There were about five or six members of my team present. The colleague, a man who had been with our institution (The Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab, a.k.a. APL) for many years, could not help eavesdropping. He said later it sounded like we we re having a raucous argument, and he wondered whether he should stand by the door in case things got out of hand and someone threw a punch. Our Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) team was a hot group, to invoke the language that is fashionable today, although we never thought of ourselves in those terms. It was just our modus operandi. The tenor of the discussion got loud and volatile at times, but I prefer to think of it as animated, robust, or just plain collaborative. Mary Chiu and her "hot" team from the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory built the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft for NASA. Instruments on the spacecraft continue to collect data that inform us about what's happening on our most important star, the Sun.
Kerio, L C; Wachira, F N; Wanyoko, J K; Rotich, M K
Black (aerated) and green (unaerated) tea products, processed from 10 green and 18 purple leaf coloured cultivars of Kenyan origin, and two tea products, from the Japanese cultivars, Yabukita and Yutakamidori, were assayed for total polyphenols (TP) content, individual catechin profiles and in vitro antioxidant capacity (AA). In addition, the phenolic content of the tea products was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent. Catechin fractions were identified using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a binary gradient elution system. The AA% of the tea products was determined using a 2,2'-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay method. The results showed that TPs, catechin profiles and antioxidant activities were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in unaerated than in aerated teas. Tea products from the purple leaf coloured tea cultivars had levels of TPs, total catechin (TC) and antioxidant activities similar to those from the green leaf coloured cultivars, except for teas from the Japanese cultivars that were very low in the assayed parameters. Caffeine content was significantly (p≤0.05) lower in products from the purple leaf coloured cultivars than in those from the green leaf coloured tea cultivars. Antioxidant activity (%) was higher in tea products from the Kenyan germplasm than in those from the Japanese cultivars. Antioxidant potency of tea products was significantly (r=0.789(∗∗), p≤0.01) influenced by the total anthocyanin content of the purple leaf coloured cultivars. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was the anthocyanin most highly correlated with AA% (r=0.843(∗∗), p≤0.01 in unaerated tea). Total catechins in the unaerated products from the green leaf coloured tea cultivars were also significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity (r=0.818(∗∗), p≤0.01). Results from this study suggest that the antioxidant potency of teas is dependent on the predominant flavonoid compound, the type of tea cultivar and
Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin
Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.
Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H
Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.
Schönthal, Axel H
A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho
Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.
Li, Qing-Rong; Luo, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Guang-Ying; Chen, Rui; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Min; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang
The industry discards generous organic wastewater in sweet potato starch factory and scrap tea in tea production. A simplified procedure to recover all biochemicals from the wastewater of sweet potato starch factory and use them to make health black tea and theaflavins from scrap green tea was developed. The sweet potato wastewater was sequentially treated by isoelectric precipitation, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to recover polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-amylase, and small molecular fractions, respectively. The PPO fraction can effectively transform green tea extracts into black tea with high content of theaflavins through the optimized fed-batch feeding fermentation. The PPO transformed black tea with sporamins can be used to make health black tea, or make theaflavins by fractionation with ethyl acetate. This work provides a resource- and environment-friendly approach for economically utilizing the sweet potato wastewater and the scrap tea, and making biochemical, nutrient and health products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi
Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352
Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira
The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong
Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305
Gürü, M; Içen, H
The aim of this study was to find a cheap method to obtain caffeine. Experiments were performed on fiber and stalk wastes of Turkish tea plants that had no economical value other than being used merely as low grade fuel and fodder. Tea stalks and fiber were obtained from tea factories. Parameters affecting caffeine extraction from tea wastes were determined to be, mixing rate, water/tea ratio, temperature, time and particle size. The maximum yields by dried mass from the tea fibers and stalks were 1.16% and 0.92%, respectively.
Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe; Marmet, Cynthia; Longet, Karin; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Moulin, Julie; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary
Coffee and green tea are two of the most widely consumed hot beverages in the world. Their respective bioavailability has been studied separately, but absorption of their respective bioactive phenolics has not been compared. In a randomised cross-over design, nine healthy subjects drank instant coffee and green tea. Blood samples were collected over 12 h and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. After green tea consumption, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) was the major catechin, appearing rapidly in the plasma; (-)-EGC gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were also present, but (-)-EC gallate and C were not detected. Dihydroferulic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid were the major metabolites that appeared after coffee consumption with a long time needed to reach maximum plasma concentration, suggesting metabolism and absorption in the colon. Other phenolic acid equivalents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (iFA)) were detected earlier, and they peaked at lower concentrations. Summations of the plasma area under the curves (AUC) for the measured metabolites showed 1.7-fold more coffee-derived phenolic acids than green tea-derived catechins (P = 0.0014). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between coffee metabolites based on AUC. Inter-individual differences were observed, but individuals with a high level of CA also showed a correspondingly high level of FA. However, no such correlation was observed between the tea catechins and coffee phenolic acids. Correlation between AUC and maximum plasma concentration was also significant for CA, FA and iFA and for EGCg. This implies that the mechanisms of absorption for these two classes of compounds are different, and that a high absorber of phenolic acids is not necessarily a high absorber of catechins.
Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Yi, Ruokun; Li, Guijie; Sun, Peng; Park, Kun-Young; Suo, Huayi
Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage. After determination in serum, liver and spleen, ITP-treated mice showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH) activities and lower nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA) activities than VC-treated mice, KTP-treated mice and untreated oxidation mice (control group). By H&E section observation, the mice induced by d-galactose-induced oxidation showed more changes than normal mice, and oxidative damage appeared in liver and spleen tissues; ITP, VC and KTP improved oxidative damage of liver and spleen tissues, and the effects of ITP were better than VC and KTP. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot experiments, it was observed that ITP could increase the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), cupro/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in liver and spleen tissues compared to the control group. These effects were stronger than for VC and KTP. Both ITP and KTP had good antioxidative effects, and after the
DeJong, Hans B.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Lyons, Evan A.
Antarctic continental shelf waters are the most biologically productive in the Southern Ocean. Although satellite-derived algorithms report peak productivity during the austral spring/early summer, recent studies provide evidence for substantial late summer productivity that is associated with green colored frazil ice. Here we analyze daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images for February and March from 2003 to 2017 to identify green colored frazil ice hot spots. Green frazil ice is concentrated in 11 of the 13 major sea ice production polynyas, with the greenest frazil ice in the Terra Nova Bay and Cape Darnley polynyas. While there is substantial interannual variability, green frazil ice is present over greater than 300,000 km2 during March. Late summer frazil ice-associated algal productivity may be a major phenomenon around Antarctica that is not considered in regional carbon and ecosystem models.
Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin
Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.
Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Sun, Hezhi; Yang, Mei; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao
9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ) was a new contaminant, with unknown sources, occurred globally in tea. European Union (EU) fixed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mg/kg. The pollution source of AQ in tea was traced from the view of AQ deposit on tea crop by simulation. The possible contamination pathway and main factors to decrease AQ were explored in tea cultivation- tea manufacture- tea infusion, on the basis of AQ analytical methods by using solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification. 58.8-84.6% of AQ degraded in tea processing, and drying played a key role to reduce the AQ contamination. Certain concentration of AQ deposited on tea shoots could resulted in AQ beyond the MRL of 0.02mg/kg in tea. AQ leaching into tea brew (about 10%) could lead to the possible health risk. AQ deposit on tea crop during the tea cultivation might cause the AQ contamination in tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H
The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.
Chandrajith, Rohana; Abeypala, Uthpala; Dissanayake, C B; Tobschall, H J
The purpose of this study was to assess the fluoride content of Ceylon Tea, which is a popular beverage throughout the world. The fluoride content of tea infusions prepared from different grades of tea leaves collected from different parts of the tea-growing regions (25 samples) of Sri Lanka was measured using a fluoride-selective electrode. Fluoride leaching was found to vary from 0.32 to 1.69 mg F/l, but there were no significant differences in terms of fluoride leaching between tea from different tea-growing regions or between tea of different grades. Dental fluorosis is widespread throughout the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and drinking water has traditionally been considered to be the main contributory factor to the development of fluorosis. However, diet, the consumption of tea in particular, may also contribute to the manifestation of dental diseases.
Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja
Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.
Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy
Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.
Moitra, S; Thapa, P; Das, P; Das, J; Debnath, S; Singh, Mahipal; Datta, A; Sen, S; Moitra, S
Indian tea industry workers are exposed to various exposures at their workplace. To investigate the respiratory health of Indian tea industry workers. We administered a respiratory questionnaire to and measured lung function in workers of 34 tea gardens and 46 tea factories. We used correlation matrices to test the association between their respiratory symptoms and lung functions. The garden workers complained of shortness of breath 3 times higher than the factory workers. However, nasal allergy was more predominant among the factory workers compared to garden workers (69.6% vs 41.2%, p=0.02). The factory workers had higher total (median 107.3% vs 92.9%, p=0.05, as measured by R at 5 Hz) and peripheral airway resistance (143.8% vs 61.1%, p=0.005, as measured by R at 5-20 Hz) than the garden workers. Respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with airway obstruction as measured by the ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and positively correlated with increased overall airway reactance among the workers. Respiratory symptoms and increased allergen susceptibility of Indian tea industry workers due to occupational exposures warrant routine systematic surveillance of their workplace air quality and health monitoring.
Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell
To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3
Evaluation of transfer rates of multiple pesticides from green tea into infusion using water as pressurized liquid extraction solvent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin
Pesticide residues could be transferred from tea into its infusion and by-products, and subsequently consumed by humans. Extra extraction conditions may induce more pesticide leaching into the infusion and by-products of tea and cause greater damage to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the infusion of multiple pesticides from green tea into hot water via pressurized liquid extraction. The results showed that pesticides in spiked samples generally have higher leaching (0.8-45.0%) than those in the positive samples. There was a marked rise of transfer rates when water solubility increased from 20mgL(-1) to 450mgL(-1) and LogKow decreased from 6 to 4. All pesticides had more leaching into hot water using pressurized liquid extraction than traditional tea brewing. This study helps in risk assessment of pesticide residues and in the formulation of maximum residue levels (MRLs) in tea and its by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok
The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976
Samant, Shilpa S; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok
The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener.
Hou, C W; Jeng, K C; Chen, Y S
Pu-erh tea is known as a fermented tea and longer storage enhances its flavor and taste. Recently, Aspergillus, Blastobotrys, and Streptomyces are found to play important roles in nutritional enhancement of Pu-erh tea by fermentation. Since water and temperature affect the microbial growth, we therefore explored the factors that might enhance the Pu-erh tea fermentation. The results showed that the addition of fresh tea-leaf extract (TLE) enhanced the withered tea fermentation (at 37 degrees C, 80 to 85% RH) as compared with the water only. Contents of statin, GABA, gallic acid, DPPH scavenging and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were increased, whereas polyphenols and caffeine were decreased over 6 mo. TLE dose-dependently enhanced some of the qualities (that is, statin, PPO) of Pu-erh tea significantly as compared with the water only. The effect was related to the increase population of A. niger and A. carbonarius at 6 mo (from 7.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(1) and 3.2 +/- 1.3 x 10(1) to 3.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) and 2.4 +/- 1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units [CFU]/g, respectively). After drying process (90 degrees C, 30 min), the total microbial count from these samples returned to background level (3 +/- 0.5 x 10(2) CFU/g). None of ochratoxin and fumonisin, toxins from Aspergillus, was detected in the final products. The flavor and taste were also enhanced by treatment with TLE. The inoculation with S. cinereus Y11 with 2% TLE further enhanced these functional contents (about 2-fold increase of statin level) in the experimental Pu-erh tea. Therefore, this result may add a new process for Pu-erh tea manufacture.
In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.
Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror; Levy, Yishai
Green tea is a leading beverage in the Far East for thousands of years; it is regarded for a long time as a health product. Green tea is important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There is a growing body of evidence pointing a beneficial role of green tea and its polyphenols in oral health. Green tea protects against bacterial induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza virus. Additionally, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation, consequent to cigarette smoking and cigarettes' deleterious compounds nicotine and acrolein, may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Generally, green tea defends healthy cells from malignant transformation and locally has the ability to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells. All together, there is an increasing interest in the health benefits of green tea in the field of oral health. Nonetheless, there is still a need for more clinical and biological studies to support guidelines for green tea intake as part of prevention and treatment of specific oral pathologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Komatsu, Tatsushi; Nakamori, Masayo; Komatsu, Keiko; Hosoda, Kazuaki; Okamura, Mariko; Toyama, Kenji; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Tohru; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru
Oolong tea is a traditional Chinese tea that has long been believed to be beneficial to health such as decreasing body fat. We were interested in this assertion and tried to evaluate the effect of oolong tea on energy expenditure (EE) in comparison with green tea. The subjects were eleven healthy Japanese females (age 20+/-1 y; body mass index (BMI) 21.2+/-2.5 kg/m2) who each consumed of three treatments in a crossover design: 1) water, 2) oolong tea, 3) green tea. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and EE after the consumption of the test beverage for 120 min were measured using an indirect calorimeter. The cumulative increases of EE for 120 min were significantly increased 10% and 4% after the consumption of oolong tea and green tea, respectively. EE at 60 and 90 min were significantly higher after the consumption of oolong tea than that of water (P<0.05). In comparison with green tea, oolong tea contained approximately half the caffeine and epigallocatechin galate, while polymerized polyphenols were double. These results suggest that oolong tea increases EE by its polymerized polyphenols.
London, M; O'Regan, T; Aust, P; Stockford, A
Poppy tea drinking was a widespread traditional practice in the Fenlands of East Anglia during the nineteenth century. The subsequent social changes which led to greater integration of the area with the rest of the country may have contributed to a decline in the practice. In recent years poppy tea drinking has been revived within the illicit drug using community and a survey using a self-report questionnaire was carried out among patients attending the Cambridge Drug Dependency Unit. Forty-three patients admitted to drinking poppy tea, usually during the summer months and on an intermittent basis. The potency of the infusion varied and was unpredictable but in general was low. Although poisoning from herbicides and pesticides was seen as the main risk, it is in the main perceived by drug users as a harmless secondary activity existing alongside the more regular and more potent drugs of misuse.
Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Milasius
Medicinal herbs in tea for throat clearing are used from ancient times. Taking into consideration the bronchial mucus secretion stimulating and antispasmodic, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic and stimulating effect on the ciliated epithelium two new formulations of throat clearing herbal tea were originated. The first formulation consists of liquorice roots, sweet fennel and thyme, and the second one consists of pine gemmae, thyme and elder flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances of the components were adapted. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by the limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. Expiry date of both throat clearing herbal teas was confirmed to be 2 years.
Press and Public Interest IceCube Acronym Dictionary Articles about IceCube "Inside Story the End of the Earth" LBNL CRD Report Education/ Public Interest A New Window on the Universe Ice
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Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon
Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.
Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Torrance, J D; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F
The effect of tea on iron absorption was studied in human volunteers. Absorption from solutions of FeCl3 and FeSO4, bread, a meal of rice with potato and onion soup, and uncooked haemoglobin was inhibited whether ascorbic acid was present or not. No inhibition was noted if the haemoglobin was cooked. The effect on the absorption of non-haem iron was ascribed to the formation of insoluble iron tannate complexes. Drinking tannin-containing beverages such as tea with meals may contribute to the pathogenesis of iron deficiency if the diet consists largely of vegetable foodstuffs. PMID:1168162
Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Diepvens, Kristel; Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Tremblay, Angelo
Consumption of spiced foods or herbal drinks leads to greater thermogenesis and in some cases to greater satiety. In this regard, capsaicin, black pepper, ginger, mixed spices, green tea, black tea and caffeine are relevant examples. These functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome sometimes may appear straightforwardly but also depends too strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.
Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo
Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.
Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.
Objectives Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis via bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data supports an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand if tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. Methods BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, gender, and biopsy site. Subjects completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Results Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38–0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared to non-consumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34–0.95, p-trend=0.037). Conclusions Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset BCC that may, in part, be due to caffeine. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting potential health benefits from these beverages. PMID:24841641
Ferrucci, Leah M; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T
Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis through bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data support an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand whether tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and biopsy site. Participants completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38-0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared with nonconsumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34-0.95, P-trend=0.037). Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset BCC that may, in part, be due to caffeine. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting potential health benefits from these beverages.
Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin
To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.
Brunton, P A; Hussain, A
The aim of this study was to determine whether conventional black tea and a herbal tea were capable of eroding dental enamel. A further aim was to investigate whether herbal tea of the type tested eroded dental hard tissues to a greater or lesser extent than conventional black tea. Three groups of 21 teeth were exposed to a conventional black tea Typhoo (Group A), a herbal tea Twinings Blackcurrant, Ginsing and Vanilla (Group B) and water, which acted as a control (Group C). Sequential profilometric tracings of the specimens were taken, superimposed and the degree of enamel loss calculated as the area of disparity between the tracings before and after exposure. Conventional black tea and herbal tea, of the type tested, both resulted in tooth surface loss. Tooth surface loss, which resulted from exposure to herbal tea (mean 0.05mm(2), s.d. 0.02), however, was significantly greater (P=0.00) than that which resulted from exposure to conventional black tea (mean 0.01mm(2), s.d. 0.00) and water (mean 0.00mm(2), s.d. 0.00). It was concluded that herbal tea and conventional black tea of the type tested result in erosion of dental enamel. The erosive effect of the herbal tea of the type tested was five times more severe than that of the conventional black tea tested. The cumulative effects of regular consumption of herbal tea of the type tested are likely, therefore, to be of clinical significance.
Yuan, Pei; Pan, Lian-Yun; Xiong, Li-Gui; Tong, Jie-Wen; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua
Here we identified that BTE (black tea extract), within the studied concentration range, is more effective than GTE (green tea extract) in protecting C. elegans against hypertonic stress, by enhancing survival after exposure to various salts, and alleviating suffered motility loss and body shrinkage. The mechanism of such protection may be due to the ability of black tea to induce the conserved WNK/GCK signaling pathway and down-regulation of the expression levels of nlp-29. Intriguingly, black tea does not relieve hypertonicity-induced protein damage. The findings implicate the potential health benefits of black tea consumed worldwide.
Xu, Na; Chu, Jun; Wang, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun
Large yellow tea is a traditional beverage in China with a unique toasty flavor. A preliminary study using 3T3-L1 cells indicated that large yellow tea possessed more potent lipid-lowering efficacy than green, black, dark, and white teas. In the present study we further investigated its influence on metabolic syndrome in a high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model with an emphasis on dose response. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD + 2.5% large yellow tea hot-water extract (YT, equivalent to 10 cups of tea daily for humans), HFD + 0.5% YT. Our data indicated that YT treatment for 12 weeks significantly reduced body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue weight of the mice; lowered serum insulin and leptin; and raised serum adiponectin with dose effect. H&E staining showed that the HFD group exhibited significant enlargement of adipose cell sizes and the corresponding decrease of adipose cell numbers, which were dose-dependently attenuated in both YT groups. IHC results revealed that YT decreased macrophage recruitment in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and depressed serum inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YT decreased serum glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, as well as ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance independent of dose. Overall, YT would be a unique tea with dose-independent antihyperglycemic and robust lipid-lowering efficacies.
Tramposch, Andreas; Molnár, Vojtech; Ridzoň, František
Repeated emergency shutdowns of a stationary gas turbine under conditions of sub-freezing temperatures and moist air have led to the suspicion that ice formation in the intake channel and compressor may be a contributing factor. To understand the reason, why the installed ice protection system is not effective, a numerical investigation of the intake channel with the installed hot air ice protection system has been performed. It is shown that mixing of hot air with cold outside air is incomplete, explaining the ice accretion.
Flegel, Ashlie B.
Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion system's core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.
Flegel, Ashlie B.
Ice crystals found at high altitude near convective clouds are known to cause jet engine power-loss events. These events occur due to ice crystals entering a propulsion systems core flowpath and accreting ice resulting in events such as uncommanded loss of thrust (rollback), engine stall, surge, and damage due to ice shedding. As part of a community with a growing need to understand the underlying physics of ice crystal icing, NASA has been performing experimental efforts aimed at providing datasets that can be used to generate models to predict the ice accretion inside current and future engine designs. Fundamental icing physics studies on particle impacts, accretion on a single airfoil, and ice accretions observed during a rollback event inside a full-scale engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory are summarized. Low fidelity code development using the results from the engine tests which identify key parameters for ice accretion risk and the development of high fidelity codes are described. These activities have been conducted internal to NASA and through collaboration efforts with industry, academia, and other government agencies. The details of the research activities and progress made to date in addressing ice crystal icing research challenges are discussed.
This photo, taken onboard the Chilean Navy P3 aircraft, shows the ice front of Venable Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, in October 2008. It is an example of a small-size ice shelf that is a large melt water producer.
Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean
This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Green, Rodney J; Murphy, Angus S; Schulz, Burkhard; Watkins, Bruce A; Ferruzzi, Mario G
Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for tea catechins in reduction of chronic disease risk. However, stability of catechins under digestive conditions is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of common food additives on digestive recovery of tea catechins. Green tea water extracts were formulated in beverages providing 4.5, 18, 23, and 3.5 mg per 100 mL epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), and epicatechin-gallate (ECG), respectively. Common commercial beverage additives; citric acid (CA), BHT, EDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), milk (bovine, soy, and rice), and citrus juice (orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime) were formulated into finished tea beverages at incremental dosages. Samples were then subjected to in vitro digestion simulating gastric and small intestinal conditions with pre- and post-digestion catechin profiles assessed by HPLC. Catechin stability in green tea was poor with <20% total catechins remaining post-digestion. EGC and EGCG were most sensitive with less, not double equals 10% recovery. Teas formulated with 50% bovine, soy, and rice milk increased total catechin recovery significantly to 52, 55, and 69% respectively. Including 30 mg AA in 250 mL of tea beverage significantly (p<0.05) increased catechin recovery of EGC, EGCG, EC, and ECG to 74, 54, 82, and 45% respectively. Juice preparation resulted in the highest recovery of any formulation for EGC (81-98%), EGCG (56-76%), EC (86-95%), and ECG (30-55%). These data provide evidence that tea consumption practices and formulation factors likely impact catechin digestive recovery and may result in diverse physiological profiles.
This complex area on the side of Europa which faces away from Jupiter shows several types of features which are formed by disruptions of Europa's icy crust. North is to the top of the image, taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft, and the Sun illuminates the surface from the left. The prominent wide, dark bands are up to 20 kilometers (12 miles) wide and over 50 kilometers (30 miles) long. They are believed to have formed when Europa's icy crust fractured, separated and filled in with darker, 'dirtier' ice or slush from below. A relatively rare type of feature on Europa is the 15-kilometer-diameter (9.3-mile) impact crater in the lower left corner. The small number of impact craters on Europa's surface is an indication of its relatively young age. A region of chaotic terrain south of this impact crater contains crustal plates which have broken apart and rafted into new positions. Some of these 'ice rafts' are nearly 1 kilometer (about half a mile) across. Other regions of chaotic terrain are visible and indicate heating and disruption of Europa's icy crust from below. The youngest features in this scene are the long, narrow cracks in the ice which cut across all other features. One of these cracks is about 30 kilometers (18 miles) to the right of the impact crater and extends for hundreds of miles from the top to the bottom of the image.The image, centered near 23 degrees south latitude and 179 degrees longitude, covers an area about 240 by 215 kilometers (150 by 130 miles) across. The finest details that can be discerned in this picture are about 460 meters (500 yards) across. The image was taken as Galileo flew by Europa on March 29, 1998. The image was taken by the onboard solid state imaging system camera from an altitude of 23,000 kilometers (14,000 miles).The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech
Sano, M; Tabata, M; Suzuki, M; Degawa, M; Miyase, T; Maeda-Yamamoto, M
A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection was developed for the determination of twelve tea catechins including four major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG); four of their epimers at the C-2 position, C, GC, CG and GCG; and four methylated catechin derivatives, epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate, gallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate, epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)gallate and epicatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate. These catechins were separated on an ODS C18 reversed-phase column by isocratic elution with 0.1 M NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5)-acetonitrile (87:13) containing 0.1 mM EDTA.2Na. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of these catechins were approximately 10-40 pmol ml-1 at an applied voltage of 600 mV. Extracting these catechins from tea leaf powder with H2O-acetonitrile (1:1) at 30 degrees C for 40 min inhibited the epimerization at C-2 significantly from these epicatechins compared to extraction with hot water at 90 degrees C. This analytical method is sensitive to and appropriate for the simultaneous determination of various biologically active catechins in green tea.
Wang, Huijun; Wei, Guodong; Liu, Fei; Banerjee, Gautam; Joshi, Manoj; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Shi, Songshan; Lian, Hui; Fan, Hongwei; Gu, Xuelan; Wang, Shunchun
Two natural homogalacturonan (HG) pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa) were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2) were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b) were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG) pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid (GalA) residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells. PMID:24901527
Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh
Tea is a rich source of antioxidants which are contributing substantially to the promotion of health and the prevention of various chronic diseases. Despite the fact that tea has various important compounds, it also contains a purine alkaloid, caffeine. High intake of tea leads to an increase in level of caffeine in addition to its important antioxidant constituents. Increased level of caffeine causes several health related problems. Therefore, tea can become a most useful source of beneficial compounds, if only its caffeine level is either decreased or eliminated all together from the plant itself. This could be achieved through either of the techniques; overexpressing caffeine degradative pathway genes or silencing caffeine biosynthesis pathway gene. The identification and cloning of caffeine biosynthesis in tea and degradative genes in microorganisms opens up the possibility of using genetic engineering to produce naturally decaffeinated tea. Here we review these different strategies which can be employed to make caffeine-free tea, a human health beneficial drink.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa
Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.
Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, NarayananNair
Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India.
Chan, J T; Koh, S H
The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.
Zehringer, Markus; Kammerer, Franziska; Wagmann, Michael
Tea plantations may be strongly affected by radioactive fallout. Tea plantations on the Turkish coast of the Black Sea were heavily contaminated by the fallout from the reactor fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Two years later, the contamination level was reduced by about 90%. When tea is brewed, the original contamination in the tea leaves is more or less leached into the tea water. While most of the radiocaesium (60-80%) is washed out by brewing, most of the radiostrontium remains in the leaves (70-80%). In food laws, a dilution factor of 40-50 is considered for tea brewing. Most laws only define limit values for radiocaesium. Radiostrontium is not specially regulated, even though its dose coefficients for ingestion are higher than the corresponding coefficients for radiocaesium. Radiostrontium in tea occurs primarily from global fallout (bomb tests from 1945-1965). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Friedman, Mendel; Levin, C E; Lee, S-U; Kozukue, N
To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC 7 catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin 3-gallate (CG)] in samples of 8 commercial green tea leaves of unknown history sold as tea bags in the United States, Korea, and Japan. The samples were stored at 20 degrees C and sampled at 1 wk and 1, 2, 4, and 6 mo. The following ranges in the initial values (0 controls) were observed (in mg/g tea leaves): EGC and C, 0 to trace amounts; EC, 1.9 to 21.1; EGCG, 13.3 to 113.0; GCG, 0.2 to 1.6; ECG, 5.7 to 50.5; CG 0.5 to 3.7; total catechins 36.5 to 169.7. Statistical analysis of the results and plots of changes in individual and total catechin levels as a function of storage time indicate a progressive decrease in the content in the total levels, most of which is due to losses in the most abundant catechins, EGCG and ECG. Possible mechanisms of degradations of catechins during storage and the possible significance of the results to consumers of tea are discussed.
Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang
Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839
Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang
Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.
Leung, L K; Su, Y; Chen, R; Zhang, Z; Huang, Y; Chen, Z Y
Green tea catechins, including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are oxidized and dimerized during the manufacture of black tea and oolong tea to form orange-red pigments, theaflavins (TF), a mixture of theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of individual TF with that of each catechin using human LDL oxidation as a model. All catechins and TF tested inhibited Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. Analysis of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes produced during LDL oxidation revealed that the antioxidant activity was in the order: TF3 > ECG > EGCG > or = TF2B > or = TF2A > TF1 > or = EC > EGC. Four TF derivatives also demonstrated a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation at concentrations of 5-40 micromol/L. These results demonstrate that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechins to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical-scavenging activity.
Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.
Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)
Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...
Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia
Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin
Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.
Jenkins, Amanda J.; Llosa, Teobaldo; Montoya, Ivan
The consumption of coca tea is a common occurrence in many South American countries. The tea is often packaged in individual servings as tea bags which contain approximately 1 g of plant material. The consumption of coca tea leads to ingestion of cocaine and other alkaloids: however, there is little information available regarding the pharmacological or toxicological effects that result from consumption of coca tea. We performed a series of studies with coca tea bags from two South American countries, Peru and Bolivia. The alkaloidal content of the ‘coca leaf’ in coca tea bags was determined by two different extraction methods: Soxhlet extraction with methanol (exhaustive extraction), and mechanical agitation with methanol. Extracts were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Coca tea prepared from Peruvian and Bolivian coca tea bags was also analyzed by SPE-GC/MS assay. In addition, urine specimens were analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of Peruvian coca tea and one cup of Bolivian coca tea on separate occasions. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay (TDxR) and SPE-GC/MS. Analysis of coca tea bags and coca tea indicated that cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and trans-cinnamoylcocaine were present in varying quantities. With exhaustive extraction, an average of 5.11 mg, and 4.86 mg of cocaine per tea bag were found in coca leaf from Peru and Bolivia, respectively. The average amounts of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester in Peruvian coca leaf were 0.11 and 1.15 mg, and in Bolivian coca leaf were 0.12 and 2.93 mg per tea bag, respectively. trans-Cinnamoylcocaine was found in trace amounts in Peruvian tea bags and 0.16 mg/tea bag of Bolivian tea. When tea was prepared, an average of 4.14 mg of cocaine was present in a cup of Peruvian coca tea and 4.29 mg of cocaine was present in Bolivian tea. Following the consumption of a cup of Peruvian tea by one
Yi, Xiaoyun; Qiao, Sha; Ma, Lifeng; Wang, Jie; Ruan, Jianyun
Drinking teas containing high fluoride (F) imposes fluorosis risk. The soil F bioavailability is an important factor influencing its uptake and contents in teas. The present work was conducted to investigate F fractions in soil and their bioavailability to tea plants. Tea seedlings were cultivated on 6 typical soils treated with a mixture consisting of dolomite, lime, peat and KCl at variable rates in the pot experiment. Soils and young shoots were collected in pairs from 63 sites of 21 plantations in a field experiment. Soil fluoride was sequentially separated into hot water soluble [Formula: see text], exchangeable [Formula: see text] (by 1 mol L -1 MgCl 2 , pH = 7.0), F bound to Mn and Fe hydroxides [F (oxides,s) ], and organic matter [F (OM,s) ] or extracted independently by water [Formula: see text] or 0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 solution [Formula: see text]. Averaged [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], F (oxides,s) and F (OM,s) accounted for 51, 14, 5 and 30 % of the total sequential extracts, respectively. There were significant correlations among [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and F (OM,s) . Fluoride contents in leaves correlated with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), [Formula: see text] (r = 0.93, p < 0.001) and F (OM,s) (r = 0.69, p < 0.01) but not other fractions in the pot experiment and with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.43-0.57, p < 0.001) and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.42-0.79, p < 0.001) in the field experiment. It was concluded that 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable fluoride can be a good indicator of soil F bioavailability to tea plants. The significant correlations among some of the F fractions suggested that F in solution, AlF complexes (AlF 2 + , AlF 2+ ) and those bound to organic matter likely represent the available pools to tea plants.
Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle
Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.
Thomas, R. H.
The effect of climate warming on the size of ice sheet margins in polar regions is considered. Particular attention is given to the possibility of a rapid response to warming on the order of tens to hundreds of years. It is found that the early response of the polar regions to climate warming would be an increase in the area of summer melt on the ice sheets and ice shelves. For sufficiently large warming (5-10C) the delayed effects would include the breakup of the ice shelves by an increase in ice drainage rates, particularly from the ice sheets. On the basis of published data for periodic changes in the thickness and melting rates of the marine ice sheets and fjord glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica, it is shown that the rate of retreat (or advance) of an ice sheet is primarily determined by: bedrock topography; the basal conditions of the grounded ice sheet; and the ice shelf condition downstream of the grounding line. A program of satellite and ground measurements to monitor the state of ice sheet equilibrium is recommended.
Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Sheldon, David W.
This report presents results from the first icing tests performed in the Modem Airfoils program. Two airfoils have been subjected to icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). Both airfoils were two dimensional airfoils; one was representative of a commercial transport airfoil while the other was representative of a business jet airfoil. The icing test conditions were selected from the FAR Appendix C envelopes. Effects on aerodynamic performance are presented including the effects of varying amounts of glaze ice as well as the effects of approximately the same amounts of glaze, mixed, and rime ice. Actual ice shapes obtained in these tests are also presented for these cases. In addition, comparisons are shown between ice shapes from the tests and ice shapes predicted by the computer code, LEWICE for similar conditions. Significant results from the tests are that relatively small amounts of ice can have nearly as much effect on airfoil lift coefficient as much greater amounts of ice and that glaze ice usually has a more detrimental effect than either rime or mixed ice. LEWICE predictions of ice shapes, in general, compared reasonably well with ice shapes obtained in the IRT, although differences in details of the ice shapes were observed.
Reinmann, John J.
The global aircraft industry and its regulatory agencies are currently involved in three major icing efforts: ground icing; advanced technologies for in-flight icing; and tailplane icing. These three major icing topics correspondingly support the three major segments of any aircraft flight profile: takeoff; cruise and hold; and approach and land. This lecture addressess these three topics in the same sequence as they appear in flight, starting with ground deicing, followed by advanced technologies for in-flight ice protection, and ending with tailplane icing.
Zemestani, Maryam; Rafraf, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad
Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. The objectives were to investigate the effects of chamomile tea consumption on glycemic control and antioxidant status in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). This single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 subjects with T2 DM (males and females) ages 30 to 60 y. The intervention group (n = 32) consumed chamomile tea (3 g/150 mL hot water) 3 times per day immediately after meals for 8 wk. The control group (n = 32) followed a water regimen for same intervention period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Chamomile tea significantly decreased concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin, serum insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, and serum malondialdehyde, compared with control group (all P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were significantly increased by 6.81%, 26.16 %, 36.71 % and 45.06% respectively in chamomile group compared with these variables in control group at the end of the intervention (all P < 0.05). Short term intake of chamomile tea has beneficial effects on glycemic control and antioxidant status in patients with T2 DM. A larger sample population and a longer intervention period may be required to show significant clinical improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rafraf, M; Zemestani, M; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M
This study aimed at assessing the effects of chamomile tea consumption on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 individuals with T2DM (males and females) aged between 30 and 60 years. The intervention group (n = 32) consumed chamomile tea (3 g/150 mL hot water) three times per day immediately after meals for 8 weeks. The control group (n = 32) followed a water regimen for the same intervention period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 3-day, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, Pearson correlation test, and analysis of covariance. Chamomile tea significantly decreased concentration of HbA1C (p = 0.03), serum insulin levels (p < 0.001), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.05) compared with control group. No significant changes were shown in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both groups. Chamomile tea has some beneficial effects on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in T2DM patients.
The Wilkins Ice Shelf, as seen by NASA Terra spacecraft, on the western side of the Antarctic Peninsula, experienced multiple disintegration events in 2008. By the beginning of 2009, a narrow ice bridge was all that remained to connect the ice shelf to ice fragments fringing nearby Charcot Island. That bridge gave way in early April 2009. Days after the ice bridge rupture, on April 12, 2009, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the southern base of the ice bridge, where it connected with the remnant ice shelf. Although the ice bridge has played a role in stabilizing the ice fragments in the region, its rupture doesn't guarantee the ice will immediately move away. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11991
Gerland, S.; Rösel, A.; King, J.; Spreen, G.; Divine, D.; Eltoft, T.; Gallet, J. C.; Hudson, S. R.; Itkin, P.; Krumpen, T.; Liston, G. E.; Merkouriadi, I.; Negrel, J.; Nicolaus, M.; Polashenski, C.; Assmy, P.; Barber, D. G.; Duarte, P.; Doulgeris, A. P.; Haas, C.; Hughes, N.; Johansson, M.; Meier, W.; Perovich, D. K.; Provost, C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Skourup, H.; Wagner, P.; Wilkinson, J.; Granskog, M. A.; Steen, H.
Sea-ice thickness is a crucial parameter to consider when assessing the status of Arctic sea ice, whether for environmental management, monitoring projects, or regional or pan-arctic assessments. Modern satellite remote sensing techniques allow us to monitor ice extent and to estimate sea-ice thickness changes; but accurate quantifications of sea-ice thickness distribution rely on in situ and airborne surveys. From January to June 2015, an international expedition (N-ICE2015) took place in the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard, with the Norwegian research vessel RV Lance frozen into drifting sea ice. In total, four drifts, with four different floes were made during that time. Sea-ice and snow thickness measurements were conducted on all main ice types present in the region, first year ice, multiyear ice, and young ice. Measurement methods included ground and helicopter based electromagnetic surveys, drillings, hot-wire installations, snow-sonde transects, snow stakes, and ice mass balance and snow buoys. Ice thickness distributions revealed modal thicknesses in spring between 1.6 and 1.7 m, which is lower than reported for the region from comparable studies in 2009 (2.4 m) and 2011 (1.8 m). Knowledge about the ice thickness distribution in a region is crucial to the understanding of climate processes, and also relevant to other disciplines. Sea-ice thickness data collected during N-ICE2015 can also give us insights into how ice and snow thicknesses affect ecosystem processes. In this presentation, we will explore the influence of snow cover and ocean properties on ice thickness, and the role of sea-ice thickness in air-ice-ocean interactions. We will also demonstrate how information about ice thickness aids classification of different sea ice types from SAR satellite remote sensing, which has real-world applications for shipping and ice forecasting, and how sea ice thickness data contributes to climate assessments.
Truong, S. K.; Karim, R.
The chief objectives of this experiment are to distinguish which type of tea of four variants, pomegranate blackberry green, green, lemon chamomile (herbal), and earl grey (black), are capable of chelating the most iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) through titration. We hypothesized that if each tea variety chelates differing amounts of iron chloride, and if we conduct an experiment in which four different teas are mixed in the same amount of water, iron chloride, and iron chloride indicator EDTA, then the pomegranate blackberry green tea will bind to the most iron due to its large amount of fruit antioxidants. To summarize our methodology, we prepared three solutions of each tea, dissolved with 1 gram of FeCl3 to test three trials per tea variety. The chelation process took place overnight as teas cooled. Six drops of iron chloride indicator added to each solution began the titration. The necessary amount of 0.1M EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) drops required for each solution to turn to a universal amber color from its original dark tone indicates how many free iron molecules were left unbound by the tea solution. After careful analysis of the data, we discovered that blackberry pomegranate green tea possessed the best chelating abilities with 97.48% of FeCl3 adsorbed. Green tea followed with 96.67%. Herbal tea chelated 94.24% of the iron while earl grey absorbed the least amount at 93.43%. From our conclusion, we drew that since blackberry pomegranate green tea contained the highest amount of polyphenols and antioxidants as well as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green teas, it was able to chelate the most amount of iron. The substances mentioned in blackberry pomegranate green tea possess the ability to form strong bonds with multiple heavy metals, such as iron (III) chloride atoms. Overall, each variety of tea contains different organic substances. Each of these substances possesses a unique chelating ability, determining how well the type of tea can
The surface topography of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets between 72 degrees north and south was mapped using radar altimetry data from the U.S. Navy GEOSAT. The glaciological objectives of this activity were to study the dynamics of the ice flow, changes in the position of floating ice-shelf fronts, and ultimately to measure temporal changes in ice surface elevation indicative of ice sheet mass balance.
Greenwood, R.J.; Bair, W.C.
Wild and captive giant Canada geese (Branta canadensis maxima) and captive mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) accumulated ice on neck collars and/or nasal saddles during winter storm periods in 1971 and 1972. Weather conditions associated with icing were documented, and characteristics of icing are discussed. Severe marker icing occurred during subfreezing weather when the windchill reached approximately -37 deg.C. Birds appeared able to de-ice nasal saddles in most instances.
Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684
Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.
Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224
Chuang, Show-Mei; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hsiao, Ching-Chuan; Cherng, Shur-Hueih
GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous study has demonstrated a synergistic effect of GABA tea and copper ions on DNA breakage. This study further explored whether zinc (Zn), a nonredox metal, modulated DNA cleavage induced by GABA tea extract. In a cell-free system, Zn(2+) significantly enhanced GABA tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)- or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage at 24 h of incubation. Additionally, low dosages of GABA tea extract (1-10 μg/mL) possessed pro-oxidant activity to increase H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+)-induced DNA cleavage in a dose-dependent profile. By use of various reactive oxygen scavengers, it was observed that glutathione, catalase, and potassium iodide effectively inhibited DNA degradation caused by the GABA tea extract/H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+) system. Moreover, the data showed that the GABA tea extract itself (0.5-5 mg/mL) could induce DNA cleavage in a long-term exposure (48 h). EGCG, but not the GABA tea extract, enhanced H(2)O(2)-induced DNA cleavage. In contrast, GABA decreased H(2)O(2)- and EGCG-induced DNA cleavage, suggesting that GABA might contribute the major effect on the antioxidant activity of GABA tea extract. Furthermore, a comet assay revealed that GABA tea extract (0.25 mg/mL) and GABA had antioxidant activity on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that GABA tea has the potential of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant. It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract.
Sotthewes, Kai; Bampoulis, Pantelis; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef; Poelsema, Bene
The classic regelation experiment of Thomson in the 1850s deals with cutting an ice cube, followed by refreezing. The cutting was attributed to pressure-induced melting but has been challenged continuously, and only lately consensus emerged by understanding that compression shortens the O:H nonbond and lengthens the H-O bond simultaneously. This H-O elongation leads to energy loss and lowers the melting point. The hot debate survived well over 150 years, mainly due to a poorly defined heat exchange with the environment in the experiment. In our current experiment, we achieved thermal isolation from the environment and studied the fully reversible ice-liquid water transition for water confined between graphene and muscovite mica. We observe a transition from two-dimensional (2D) ice into a quasi-liquid phase by applying a pressure exerted by an atomic force microscopy tip. At room temperature, the critical pressure amounts to about 6 GPa. The transition is completely reversible: refreezing occurs when the applied pressure is lifted. The critical pressure to melt the 2D ice decreases with temperature, and we measured the phase coexistence line between 293 and 333 K. From a Clausius-Clapeyron analysis, we determine the latent heat of fusion of two-dimensional ice at 0.15 eV/molecule, being twice as large as that of bulk ice.
2003-01-01[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Heavy water ice clouds almost completely obscure the surface in Vastitas Borealis.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 69.5, Longitude 283.6 East (76.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.
In this brief frontline, we want to describe the well-known fact that, when freshwater ice melts, the freshwater liquid level does not change. In the Italian Ministerial programs, fluid statics is introduced in the three years of middle school (students of 11-13 years) and during the first two years of high school (14-15 years). The Italian textbooks do not clearly explain why the abovementioned phenomenon occurs. The explanations are qualitative and they may lead to misinterpretation. I have noted that the students are very curious about this phenomenon. They sought a demonstration from books and from the web; and when they do not find it they asked me. Moreover, they have allowed me to observe that there are contradictory statements about the melting of icebergs. Some authors claim that they would not raise the sea-level, others say the opposite. Honestly speaking, I had never thought about this phenomenon and in classroom I tried to give them proof, expressing my opinion about the melting of icebergs.
Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.
The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1)more » calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.« less
Sugahara, Shintaro; Ueda, Yuto; Fukuhara, Kumiko; Kamamuta, Yuki; Matsuda, Yasushi; Murata, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Ono, Masateru; Igoshi, Keiji; Yasuda, Shin
Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a native Andean plant, has been cultivated as a crop and locally used as a traditional folk medicine for the people suffering from diabetes and digestive/renal disorders. However, the medicinal properties of this plant and its processed foods have not been completely established. This study investigates the potent antioxidative effects of herbal tea leaves from yacon in different free radical models and a ferric reducing model. A hot-water extract exhibited the highest yield of total polyphenol and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical among four extracts prepared with hot water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylacetate. In addition, a higher reducing power of the hot-water extract was similarly demonstrated among these extracts. Varying concentrations of the hot-water extract resulted in different scavenging activities in four synthetic free radical models: DPPH radical (EC50 28.1 μg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (EC50 23.7 μg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (EC50 3.06 μg/mL), and chlorpromazine cation radical (EC50 475 μg/mL). The yacon tea-leaf extract further demonstrated superoxide anion (O2(-)) radical scavenging effects in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium (EC50 64.5 μg/mL) and xanthine oxidase assay systems (EC50 20.7 μg/mL). Subsequently, incubating human neutrophilic cells in the presence of the tea-leaf extract could suppress the cellular O2(-) radical generation (IC50 65.7 μg/mL) in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated cell model. These results support yacon tea leaves may be a good source of natural antioxidants for preventing O2(-) radical-mediated disorders. Yacon has been considered to be a potent alternative food source for patients who require a dietary cure in regional area, while the leaf part has been provided and consumed as an herbal tea in local markets. We demonstrated here potent antioxidative effects of the tea
Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C
There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low
Ling, Yun; Zhao, Yun-feng; Li, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Gong; Wu, Yongning
A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of total tea catechin and caffeine. The catechins needed to be determined are: (-)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-catechin gallate and caffeine. The catechins in the tea was extracted with water:ethanol (3:7) by sonication for 20 min. After the extraction solution was centrifuged, it was analyzed by HPLC. The column used was a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG (4.6mm I.D. x 150mm) and gradient elution at constant column temperature with 30 degrees C under UV detector with 210nm. Mobile phase A was 0.1% H3PO4 in water, mobile phase B was 0.1% H3PO4 in methanol with the flow rate 1ml/min. The results showed that the concentration of the catechins and caffeine and their peak areas achieved good linear relation, r > 0.999. The recoveries were between 61.7%-117.3%. RSD was below 10%. With this method, some tea samples were determined, the results were favorable. The method can be applied for determination of catechin and caffeine in tea and tea beverages.
Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli
Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.
Arrigo, Kevin R
Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.
Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca
Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960
Brimicombe, M. W.
A macroscopic way of modeling hot air balloons using a Newtonian approach is presented. Misleading examples using a car tire and the concept of hot air rising are discussed. Pressure gradient changes in the atmosphere are used to explain how hot air balloons work. (KR)
Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang
Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.
Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E
Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.
Kamara, B Irene; Brand, D Jacobus; Brandt, E Vincent; Joubert, Elizabeth
Cyclopia subternata is one of the 24 Cyclopia species that are used to brew honeybush tea, a unique South African herbal beverage with a pleasant taste and flavor. It contains various antioxidants, very low tannin content, and no caffeine. Many health properties are associated with regular consumption of the tea. Honeybush infusions have been noted as a tonic for colds and influenza, catarrh, and pulmonic tuberculosis and is becoming well-known for its effectiveness in alleviating menopausal symptoms in women. "Unfermented" leaves of C. subternata contain pinitol, shikimic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-glucosyltyrosol, epigallocatechin gallate, the isoflavone orobol, the flavanones hesperedin, narirutin, and eriocitrin, a glycosylated flavan, the flavones luteolin, 5-deoxyluteolin, and scolymoside, the xanthone mangiferin, and the flavonol C-6-glucosylkaempferol. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis.
In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.
STS048-152-007 (12-18 Sept 1991) --- The periphery of the Antarctic ice shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula were photographed by the STS 48 crew members. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with katabatic winds from the interior of the continent, are peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into ribbons of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits and growlers into the cold waters of the circum-Antarctic southern ocean.
Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit
In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the
Qi, L; Han, C
By assaying the activity of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) in Hep G2 cells exposed to inducing agents, a variety of ingredients in tea, we compared their abilities on inducing QR and preventing cancer. The results showed that tea polyphenols, tea pigments and mixed tea were all able to induce the activity of QR significantly. The single-component ingredients of tea polyphenols and tea pigments, including thearubigens, EGCG and ECG, also enhanced the activity of QR. But EGC, EC, theaflavins, tea polysaccharide and tea caffeine, showed no apparent induction of QR. We found that among those tea ingredients studied, the multi-component ingredients were more effective than the single-component ones. So we thought that the abilities of antioxidation and cancer prevention of tea depended on the combined effects of several kinds of active ingredients, which mainly include tea polyphenols and tea pigments.
Chen, Lei; Chen, JinFa; Guo, Ying; Li, JianRong; Yang, YiQiang; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu
A method for the simultaneous determination of 7 benzoylurea pesticides (chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, fluazuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and triflumuron) in the manufactured Oolong tea leaves and its infusion was described. The method has a LOD of 0.03-1.00ng/mL, a recovery of 90.4-103% for made tea and 90.3-102% for tea-infused liquid, respectively. By using the proposed method, the leaching characteristics of above 7 pesticides during infusing process were investigated. The experimental results revealed that: (1) diflubenzuron can be most easily extracted out during infusing process, followed by triflumuron, teflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, chlorfluazuron, flufenoxuron and fluazuron. (2) The leaching of flufenoxuron and chlorfluazuron during infusing process seems to be controlled by only their solubility, whereas, the leaching of other 5 benzoylurea insecticides was primarily controlled by their partitioning coefficient between made tea and hot water. The results of this study are helpful for the accurate evaluation of the safety of Oolong tea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
34’" " " " "- -. .. " "I~ 82R8O701-02 CORONA PREIONIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CARBON DIOXIDE TEA LASERS W after R. Kamnki SUnited Technologiles Research Center C...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED CORONA PREIONIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CARBON Final Report DIOXIDE TEA LASERS May 5, 1981...Preionization Laser UV Preionization Pulsed CO2 Laser Corona Preionization CO2 TEA Laser 10. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeeiny md Identify
Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas
Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.
Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Horvath, Charles; Miller, Dean R.; Wright, William B.
An experimental program was generated by the Icing Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center to validate two ice protection simulation codes: (1) LEWICE/Thermal for transient electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing simulations, and (2) ANTICE for steady state hot gas and electrothermal anti-icing simulations. An electrothermal ice protection system was designed and constructed integral to a 36 inch chord NACA0012 airfoil. The model was fully instrumented with thermo-couples, RTD'S, and heat flux gages. Tests were conducted at several icing environmental conditions during a two week period at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. Experimental results of running-wet and evaporative cases were compared to the ANTICE computer code predictions and are presented in this paper.
Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab
Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579
Green tea is an acknowledged cancer preventive in Japan. The aim of this review article is to develop the concept of cancer prevention with green tea beverage for humans, which has largely been our exclusive research territory. This paper briefly reviews several topics, beginning with the introduction of our initial work on penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea extract. The mechanisms of EGCG action, particularly the reduction of TNF-alpha are discussed, and we show how use of 3H-EGCG revealed a wide range of target organs for cancer prevention. The results of an epidemiological study in Saitama Prefecture allowed us to determine the cancer preventive amount of green tea-10 Japanese-size cups per day, about 2.5 g green tea extract-which made it possible for us to introduce the two-stage strategy of cancer prevention with green tea. The first stage is the delay of cancer onset for the general population. The second stage is the prevention of recurrence of cancer for patients following cancer treatment. Combination cancer prevention with green tea and cancer preventive drugs is proving especially beneficial for Japanese, who drink green tea every day. And finally, the stimulating comments of Prof. Jim Watson have encouraged green tea scientists. Copyright (c) 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Devrimsel, Gul; Kirbas, Serkan; Yildirim, Murat; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Sahin, Nilay
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among women using tea leaf scissors and compare it with normal population. METHODS: Two hundred hands of 100 women using tea leaf scissors (tea leaf scissors group) and 112 hands of 56 healthy women (control group) were clinically and electrophysiologically evaluated for CTS. Women using tea leaf scissors were evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire for symptoms and functional status. RESULTS: Carpal tunnel syndrome was diagnosed bilaterally in 62 (62%) and unilaterally in 7 (7%) women using tea leaf scissors, whereas 2 (3.57%) bilateral and 6 (10.71%) unilateral cases of CTS was diagnosed in controls. The differences in demographic factors were not statistically significant. In women with CTS using tea leaf scissors, mean symptom severity, functional status, and VAS scores were 2.73±0.60, 2.42±0.71 and 5.19±1.84, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the frequency of CTS between women using tea leaf scissors and the control group and the risk of having CTS among women using tea leaf scissors was approximately 12 times greater (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In tea agriculture, working with repetitive flexions and extensions of the wrist highly increases the risk of developing CTS. PMID:28058318
Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D; Sang, Shengmin
Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and prevention of DNA damage have been suggested as possible cancer preventive mechanisms for tea and tea polyphenols. In this chapter, we discuss these topics in the light of biotransformation and bioavailability of tea polyphenols. We also review the preventive effects of tea polyphenols in animal models of carcinogenesis and some of the possible post-initiation mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss the effects of tea consumption on cancer risk in humans. It is our aim to raise some of the unanswered questions regarding cancer prevention by tea and to stimulate further research in this area.
Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A
Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.
Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab
Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.
Blackford, Jane R.
Sintering of ice is driven by the thermodynamic requirement to decrease surface energy. The structural morphology of ice in nature has many forms—from snowflakes to glaciers. These forms and their evolution depend critically on the balance between the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved. Ice is a crystalline material so scientific understanding and approaches from more conventional materials can be applied to ice. The early models of solid state ice sintering are based on power law models originally developed in metallurgy. For pressure sintering of ice, these are based on work on hot isostatic pressing of metals and ceramics. Recent advances in recognizing the grain boundary groove geometry between sintering ice particles require models that use new approaches in materials science. The newer models of sintering in materials science are beginning to incorporate more realistic processing conditions and microstructural complexity, and so there is much to be gained from applying these to ice in the future. The vapour pressure of ice is high, which causes it to sublime readily. The main mechanism for isothermal sintering of ice particles is by vapour diffusion; however other transport mechanisms certainly contribute. Plastic deformation with power law creep combined with recrystallization become important mechanisms in sintering with external pressure. Modern experimental techniques, low temperature scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography, are providing new insights into the evolution of microstructures in ice. Sintering in the presence of a small volume fraction of the liquid phase causes much higher bond growth rates. This may be important in natural snow which contains impurities that form a liquid phase. Knowledge of ice microstructure and sintering is beneficial in understanding mechanical behaviour in ice friction and the stability of snow slopes prone to avalanches.
Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo
A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100
Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan
Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our
of a Eutectic Salt System 16 0 11 Energy Characteristics of Fort Stewart PX on a Hot Day 21 12 Peak Day Load Profile for Fort Stewart 21 13 Chiller...at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ in FY 88. An ice-shucking and a eutectic salt DIS cooling system are scheduled to be installed in the coming years. The...water, ice, or freezing eutectic salt . Ice and salt systems can be grouped • together as phase-change systems. In a recent survey of over a hundred
A Bell P-39 Airacobra in the NACA Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory’s Icing Research Tunnel for a propeller deicing study. The tunnel, which began operation in June 1944, was built to study the formation of ice on aircraft surfaces and methods of preventing or eradicating that ice. Ice buildup adds extra weight to aircraft, effects aerodynamics, and sometimes blocks airflow through engines. NACA design engineers added the Icing Research Tunnel to the new AERL’s original layout to take advantage of the massive refrigeration system being constructed for the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The Icing Research Tunnel is a closed-loop atmospheric wind tunnel with a 6- by 9-foot test section. The tunnel can produce speeds up to 300 miles per hour and temperatures from about 30 to –45⁰ F. During World War II AERL researchers analyzed different ice protection systems for propeller, engine inlets, antennae, and wings in the icing tunnel. The P-39 was a vital low-altitude pursuit aircraft of the US during the war. NACA investigators investigated several methods of preventing ice buildup on the P-39’s propeller, including the use of internal and external electrical heaters, alcohol, and hot gases. They found that continual heating of the blades expended more energy than the aircraft could supply, so studies focused on intermittent heating. The results of the wind tunnel investigations were then compared to actual flight tests on aircraft.
This photo, aken onboard a National Science Foundation/NASA chartered Twin Otter aircraft, shows the ice front of Dibble Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, a significant melt water producer from the Wilkes Land region, East Antarctica.
article title: Waves on White: Ice or Clouds? View Larger ... like a wavy cloud pattern was actually a wavy pattern on the ice surface. One of MISR's cloud classification products, the Angular Signature ...
This image was targeted for NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft to look at a candidate new crater on a lobate apron. Such aprons are often ice-rich, but the crater shows no bright material that would indicate ice.
Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor
The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551
Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor
The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.
Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Ozaki, Koichi; Yokota, Maki
This paper has dealt with melting heat transfer characteristics of ice water slurry in an inside tube of horizontal double tube heat exchanger in which a hot water circulated in an annular gap between the inside and outside tubes. Two kinds of heat exchangers were used; one is made of acrylic resin tube for flow visualization and the other is made of stainless steel tube for melting heat transfer measurement. The result of flow visualization revealed that ice particles flowed along the top of inside tube in the ranges of small ice packing factor and low ice water slurry velocity, while ice particles diffused into the whole of tube and flowed like a plug built up by ice particles for large ice packing factor and high velocity. Moreover, it was found that the flowing ice plug was separated into numbers of small ice clusters by melting phenomenon. Experiments of melting heat transfer were carried out under some parameters of ice packing factor, ice water slurry flow rate and hot water temperature. Consequently, the correlation equation of melting heat transfer was derived as a function of those experimental parameters.
transmission and storage of data. Fi- nally, recommendations are made for further work in the field of ice data collection. North Atlantic \\N...Missouri River Division (MRD) Kansas City Omaha MRK MRO 7 32 20 11 North Atlantic Division (NAD) Baltimore New York Norfolk Philadelphia... Western 1 r~ T T Ice Thickness U Water Temperature < > Air Temperature i ► Discharge < | Water Stage < [ Ice Areal Coverage a Ice
Glenn, D.F.; Suciu, D.F.; Harris, T.L.; Ingram, J.C.
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.
Glenn, David F.; Suciu, Dan F.; Harris, Taryl L.; Ingram, Jani C.
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for removing heavy metals from waste water, soils, or process streams by electrolytic cell means. The method includes cooling a cell cathode to form an ice layer over the cathode and then applying an electric current to deposit a layer of the heavy metal over the ice. The metal is then easily removed after melting the ice. In a second embodiment, the same ice-covered electrode can be employed to form powdered metals.
Rumpler, W; Seale, J; Clevidence, B; Judd, J; Wiley, E; Yamamoto, S; Komatsu, T; Sawaki, T; Ishikura, Y; Hosoda, K
According to traditional Chinese belief, oolong tea is effective in the control of body weight. Few controlled studies, however, have been conducted to measure the impact of tea on energy expenditure (EE) of humans. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare 24-h EE of 12 men consuming each of four treatments: 1) water, 2) full-strength tea (daily allotment brewed from 15 g of tea), 3) half-strength tea (brewed from 7.5 g tea) and 4) water containing 270 mg caffeine, equivalent to the concentration in the full-strength tea treatment. Subjects refrained from consuming caffeine or flavonoids for 4 d prior to the study. Tea was brewed each morning; beverages were consumed at room temperature as five 300 mL servings. Subjects received each treatment for 3 d; on the third day, EE was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter. For the 3 d, subjects consumed a typical American diet. Energy content of the diet was tailored to each subject's needs as determined from a preliminary measure of 24-h EE by calorimetry. Relative to the water treatment, EE was significantly increased 2.9 and 3.4% for the full-strength tea and caffeinated water treatments, respectively. This increase over water alone represented an additional expenditure of 281 and 331 kJ/d for subjects treated with full-strength tea and caffeinated water, respectively. In addition, fat oxidation was significantly higher (12%) when subjects consumed the full-strength tea rather than water.
Ron Urban's International Ice Shows set up portable ice rinks for touring troupes performing on temporary rinks at amusement parks, sports arenas, dinner theaters, shopping malls and civic centers. Key to enhanced rink portability, fast freezing and maintaining ice consistency is a mat of flexible tubing called ICEMAT, an offshoot of a solar heating system developed by Calmac, Mfg. under contract with Marshall.
Rule, Audrey C.; Olson, Eric A.; Dehm, Janet
During a snow bank exploration, students noticed "ice caves," or pockets, in some of the larger snow banks, usually below darker layers. Most of these caves had many icicles hanging inside. Students offered reasonable explanations of ice cave formation--squirrels, kids, snow blowers--and a few students came close to the true ice cave-formation…
This report makes use of the results obtained in the Gottingen ice tunnel in which the atmospheric conditions are simulated and the process of ice formation photographed. The effect of ice formation is threefold: 1) added weight to the airplane; 2) a change in the lift and drag forces; 3) a change in the stability characteristics.
The International Antarctic Glaciological Project has collected information on the East Antarctic ice sheet since 1969. Analysis of ice cores revealed climatic history, and radar soundings helped map bedrock of the continent. Computer models of the ice sheet and its changes over time will aid in predicting the future. (DH)
Martin, P. F.; And Others
Describes experiments in ice physics that demonstrate the behavior and properties of ice. Show that ice behaves as an ionic conductor in which charge is transferred by the movement of protons, its electrical conductivity is highly temperature-dependent, and its dielectric properties show dramatic variation in the kilohertz range. (Author/GA)
Canacci, Victor A.
/sec (Mach 0.45). The air turbine and instrumentation are housed inside a fiberglass nacelle. Total and static pressure measurements can be taken around the loop, and velocity and flow angularity measurements can be taken with hot-wire and five-hole probes at specific locations. The Scale Model Icing Research Tunnel (SMIRT) is undergoing checkout tests to determine how its airflow characteristics compare with the IRT. Near-term uses for this scale-model tunnel include determining the aerodynamic effects of replacing the 52-yearold W-shaped heat exchanger with a flat-faced heat exchanger. SMIRT is an integral part of the improvements planned for the IRT because testing the proposed IRT improvements in a scale-model tunnel will lower costs and improve productivity.
Hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties of a new fermented tea product obtained by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves.
Tanaka, Kazunari; Tamaru, Shizuka; Nishizono, Shoko; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Matsui, Toshiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Echizen, Yoshie; Ikeda, Ikuo
We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. The mixed fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and effectively suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Rats fed a diet containing 1% freeze-dried fermented tea extract for 4 weeks had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol concentration and white adipose tissue weight than those fed the control diet lacking fermented tea extract. The activity of fatty acid synthase in hepatic cytosol markedly decreased in the fermented tea extract group as compared to the control group. The serum and liver triacylglycerol- and body fat-lowering effects of the mixed fermented tea extract were strong relative to the level of dietary supplementation. These results suggest that the new fermented tea product exhibited hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties through suppression of both liver fatty acid synthesis and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by inhibition of pancreatic lipase.
The classic regelation experiment of Thomson in the 1850s deals with cutting an ice cube, followed by refreezing. The cutting was attributed to pressure-induced melting but has been challenged continuously, and only lately consensus emerged by understanding that compression shortens the O:H nonbond and lengthens the H–O bond simultaneously. This H–O elongation leads to energy loss and lowers the melting point. The hot debate survived well over 150 years, mainly due to a poorly defined heat exchange with the environment in the experiment. In our current experiment, we achieved thermal isolation from the environment and studied the fully reversible ice–liquid water transition for water confined between graphene and muscovite mica. We observe a transition from two-dimensional (2D) ice into a quasi-liquid phase by applying a pressure exerted by an atomic force microscopy tip. At room temperature, the critical pressure amounts to about 6 GPa. The transition is completely reversible: refreezing occurs when the applied pressure is lifted. The critical pressure to melt the 2D ice decreases with temperature, and we measured the phase coexistence line between 293 and 333 K. From a Clausius–Clapeyron analysis, we determine the latent heat of fusion of two-dimensional ice at 0.15 eV/molecule, being twice as large as that of bulk ice. PMID:29112376
Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V
Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.
Wang, Wei; Fu, Xi-Wen; Dai, Xin-Long; Hua, Fang; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Chu, Ming-Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Gao, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhong-Wen; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu
Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described. We also provide the first evidence that 1 is synthesized via a two-step pathway in tea plant. The three HCCs (1-3) were investigated on their bioactivity through molecular modeling simulation and biochemical experiments. Our results show that they bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) tightly and have strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 value at 2.49, 11.41, 62.26μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong
It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.
Gao, Ying; Hu, Nan; Han, XiaoYou; Giffen, Carol; Ding, Ti; Goldstein, Alisa M; Taylor, Philip R
Epidemiological data on green/jasmine tea and esophageal as well as gastric cancer are limited and inconclusive. In order to study the effect of jasmine tea in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers, we evaluated 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 598 gastric cardia cancer (GCA), and 316 gastric non-cardia cancer (GNCA) cases and 1,514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression adjusted for matching factors and potential confounders. Among controls, 35% of males and 8% of females reported consumption of jasmine tea; other tea consumption was rare. Consumption of jasmine tea (ever vs. never) was not associated with risk of ESCC (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.44), GCA (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.88–1.37), or GNCA (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.64–1.15) in males and females combined. Among males, cumulative lifetime consumption showed a significant positive dose–response relation with ESCC risk, but not for GCA and GNCA. In exploratory analyses, occupation affected the relation between tea and ESCC such that consumption in males was associated with increased risk only in non-office workers. Overall, we found no evidence for a protective effect of tea in esophageal or gastric cancer. Further studies of the potential effects of thermal damage, tea quality, and water quality on UGI cancers are suggested.
Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Cromie, Meghan M; Lu, Chuanwen; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Shen, Chwan-Li
Pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are the most common environmental toxins and toxicants to humans. These toxins and toxicants may impact on human health at the molecular (DNA, RNA, or protein), organelle (mitochondria, lysosome, or membranes), cellular (growth inhibition or cell death), tissue, organ, and systemic levels. Formation of reactive radicals, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, neurological alterations, apoptosis, and carcinogenic events are some of the mechanisms mediating the toxic effects of the environmental toxins and toxicants. Green tea, the non-oxidized and non-fermented form of tea that contains several polyphenols, including green tea catechins, exhibits protective effects against these environmental toxins and toxicants in preclinical studies and to a much-limited extent, in clinical trials. The protective effects are collectively mediated by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, hepato- and neuroprotective, and anti-carcinogenic activities. In addition, green tea modulates signaling pathway including NFκB and ERK pathways, preserves mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits caspase-3 activity, down-regulates pro-apoptotic proteins, and induces the phase II detoxifying pathway. The bioavailability and metabolism of green tea and its protective effects against environmental insults induced by pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are reviewed in this paper. Future studies with emphasis on clinical trials should identify biomarkers of green tea intake, examine the mechanisms of action of green tea polyphenols, and investigate potential interactions of green tea with other toxicant-modulating dietary factors. PMID:27723473
Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John
Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…
Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei
It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear < 0.001). Our findings indicate that tea consumption has an inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.
Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying
Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.
Fan, Frank S
Tea interferes with iron absorption and can lead to iron deficiency anemia when consumed in large quantities. The rechallenge effect of green tea on anemia in a middle-aged man emphasizes the potential causal role of this beverage. Lifestyle and dietary habits are important diagnostic considerations in diseases of this type.
Takahashi, Mitsuko; Miyazawa, Maki; Sakurai, Katsumi; Watabe, Kenjiro; Kojima, Takashi
Sennoside A and B were detected in 21 commercial health tea products surveyed in 2000-2007, but there were 8 products in which the leaves could not be identified as senna because the leaves had become discolored. The results of assay of sennoside levels and TLC chromatograms suggested that processed senna had been used in these products. Next, with reference to tea and health tea manufacturing methods, pharmaceutical senna was roasted or wet-processed experimentally. The results indicated that the discolored leaves contained in commercial health tea were most likely derived from senna leaves. Moreover, sennosides in medicinal doses were detected in some processed senna samples, and were determined to have a cathartic action in mice. Based on morphological confirmation and the results of component analysis, including sennoside, the discolored leaves found in commercial health teas were therefore determined to be senna leaves. There may be possible health risks, including diarrhea.
Mazor, Suzan S; Mycyk, Mark B; Wills, Brandon K; Brace, Larry D; Gussow, Leon; Erickson, Timothy
Coca tea, derived from the same plant that is used to synthesize cocaine, is commonly consumed in South America and easily obtained in the United States. To determine whether consumption of coca tea would result in a positive urine toxicology screen for cocaine metabolites. Five healthy adult volunteers consumed coca tea and underwent serial quantitative urine testing for cocaine metabolites by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The cutoff for a positive assay was chosen at 300 ng/ml, the National Institute on Drug Abuse standard. Each participant's urine cocaine assay was positive (level exceeding 300 ng/ml) by 2 h after ingestion. Three out of five participants' samples remained positive at 36 h. Mean urine benzoylecgonine concentrations in all postconsumption samples was 1777 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 1060-2495). Coca tea ingestion resulted in a positive urine assay for cocaine metabolite. Healthcare professionals should consider a history of coca tea ingestion when interpreting urine toxicology results.
Larsson, Susanna C
Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.
Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.
The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014
Konig, Christof S.
Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as
Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi
Objectives To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality among oldest-old Chinese. Design Population-based longitudinal data from The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) was analyzed using Cox semi-parametric proportional hazard model. Setting 631 randomly selected counties and cities of China’s 22 provinces. Participants 9,093 old adults aged 80 and above who provided complete data at baseline survey (year 1998). Measurements Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency around age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey, and follow-up survey was conducted respectively in years 2000, 2002 and 2005. Results Among oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI 1.01–1.07) for occasional tea drinkers respectively (P for linear trend=0.003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status around age 60 was used in analysis. Further analysis showed that compared to consistently infrequent tea drinkers, subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at both age 60 and at baseline survey had a 10% reduction in mortality (HR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.97). Conclusion Tea consumption is associated reduced risk of mortality among oldest-old Chinese. PMID:24117374
Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi
To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese. Population-based longitudinal data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) were analyzed using a Cox semiparametric proportional hazard model. Six hundred thirty-one randomly selected counties and cities of China's 22 provinces. Individuals aged 80 and older (N = 9,093) who provided complete data in the baseline survey (1998). Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at approximately age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey; a follow-up survey was conducted 2000, 2002, and 2005. In the oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI = 1.01-1.07) for occasional tea drinkers (P for linear trend .003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status at age 60 was used in the analysis. Further analysis showed that subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at age 60 and at the baseline survey had a 10% lower risk of mortality than subjects who reported infrequent tea drinking at age 60 and at the baseline survey (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97). Tea consumption is associated with lower risk of mortality in the oldest-old Chinese. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.
Salahinejad, Maryam; Aflaki, Fereydoon
The metal contents of eleven black tea samples, four cultivated in Iran and seven imported, and their tea infusions were determined. Twelve elements consisting toxic metals (Al, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) and essential mineral elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Al, Ca, Mg, and Mn ranged in black tea leaves at mg g(-1) levels, while Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn were at microg g(-1) levels. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences among most elements determined in cultivated and imported black teas in Iran except for Ni and Cu. The extraction efficiency of each element into tea infusions was evaluated. The solubility of measured metals in infusion extracts varied widely and ranged from 0 to 59.3%. Among the studied elements, Cr, Pb, and Cd showed the lowest rates of solubility and Ni had the highest rates of solubility. The amount of toxic metals and essential mineral elements that one may take up through consumption of black tea infusion was estimated. The amount of realizing each element into tea infusions and acceptable daily intake, for safety consumption of black tea, was compared.
Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin
Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (p<0.05) as a result of the up-regulation of the linalool synthases (CsLIS1 and CsLIS2) (p<0.05). Continuous mechanical damage significantly enhanced CsLIS1 and CsLIS2 expression levels and linalool emission (p<0.05). Therefore, continuous wounding was a key factor causing the formation and emission of linalool from tea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
an airfoil surface. icenhobig - A surface property exhibiting a reduced adhesion to ice; literally, "ice-hating." light icing - The rate of...power, and are a light weight system of reasonable cost. K. ill I-I1 1.I.2 Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection A Pneumatic Impulse Ice Protection System...should be about 5 to 6 seconds. During moderate icing a 60 second cycle is suggested, while for light icing, longer accretion times of 3 to 4 minutes
Evans, Cynthia A.; Helfert, Michael R.; Helms, David R.
Earth photography from the Space Shuttle is used to examine the ice cover on Lake Baikal and correlate the patterns of weakened and melting ice with known hydrothermal areas in the Siberian lake. Particular zones of melted and broken ice may be surface expressions of elevated heat flow in Lake Baikal. The possibility is explored that hydrothermal vents can introduce local convective upwelling and disrupt a stable water column to the extent that the melt zones which are observed in the lake's ice cover are produced. A heat flow map and photographs of the lake are overlaid to compare specific areas of thinned or broken ice with the hot spots. The regions of known hydrothermal activity and high heat flow correlate extremely well with circular regions of thinned ice, and zones of broken and recrystallized ice. Local and regional climate data and other sources of warm water, such as river inlets, are considered.
Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (a) The importation of any merchandise as tea which is inferior in purity...
Vink, Gregory E.; And Others
Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)
Within this huge national park (over two million acres spread across Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho) are steaming geysers, hot springs, bubbling mudpots, and fumaroles, or steam vents. Drives on the main roads of Yellowstone take tourists through the major hot attractions, which also include Norris Geyser Basin, Upper and Lower Geyser Basin, West…
Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Suganuma, Masami
Green tea is a daily beverage, a non-oxidized non-fermented product containing at least four green tea catechins. Considering our first results when repeated applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) prevented tumor promotion in mouse skin, we have continued to look at green tea as a possible cancer preventive agent. 1) The 10-year prospective cohort study by Drs. K. Nakachi and K. Imai revealed that drinking 10 Japanese-size cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day delayed cancer onset in humans by 7.3 years among females and by 3.2 years among males. The delay of cancer onset is of course significant evidence of primary cancer prevention in humans. 2) In collaboration with Dr. H. Moriwaki's group we successfully presented a prototype of tertiary cancer prevention showing that 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea daily, supplemented with tablets of green tea extract (G.T.E), reduced recurrence of colorectal adenomas in polypectomy patients by 51.6% (from 31% to 15%). 3) In 1999, we first reported that the combination of green tea catechins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed synergistic anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, along with elucidation of the mechanism. 4) Further studies by other investigators have revealed that various combinations of EGCG or green tea extract and anticancer compounds inhibit tumor volume in xenograft mouse models implanted with various human cancer cell lines. Green tea is a cancer preventive, and green tea catechins act as synergists with anticancer compounds.
SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.
6. HOT AIR PORTION OF DAMPERS. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Lamar Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR
Olsen, W.; Vanfossen, J.; Nussle, R.
Measurements were made of the pressure drop and thermal perfomance of the unique refrigeration heat exchanger in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) under severe icing and frosting conditions and also with dry air. This data will be useful to those planning to use or extend the capability of the IRT and other icing facilities (e.g., the Altitude Wind Tunnel-AWT). The IRT heat exchanger and refrigeration system is able to cool air passing through the test section down to at least a total temperature of -30 C (well below icing requirements), and usually up to -2 C. The system maintains a uniform temperature across the test section at all airspeeds, which is more difficult and time consuming at low airspeeds, at high temperatures, and on hot, humid days when the cooling towers are less efficient. The very small surfaces of the heat exchanger prevent any icing cloud droplets from passing through it and going through the tests section again. The IRT heat exchanger was originally designed not to be adversely affected by severe icing. During a worst-case icing test the heat exchanger iced up enough so that the temperature uniformaity was no worse than about +/- 1 deg C. The conclusion is that the heat exchanger design performs well.
A researcher examines the drive fan inside the Icing Research Tunnel at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The facility was built in the mid-1940s to simulate the atmospheric conditions that caused ice to build up on aircraft. Carrier Corporation refrigeration equipment reduced the internal air temperature to -45⁰ F, and a spray bar system injected water droplets into the air stream. The 24-foot diameter drive fan, seen in this photograph, created air flow velocities up to 400 miles per hour. The 1950s were prime years for the Icing Research Tunnel. NACA engineers had spent the 1940s trying to resolve the complexities of the spray bar system. The final system put into operation in 1950 included six horizontal spray bars with 80 nozzles that produced a 4- by 4-foot cloud in the test section. The icing tunnel was used for extensive testing of civilian and military aircraft components in the 1950s. The NACA also launched a major investigation of the various methods of heating leading edge surfaces. The hot-air anti-icing technology used on today’s commercial transports was largely developed in the facility during this period. Lewis researchers also made significant breakthroughs with icing on radomes and jet engines. Although the Icing Research Tunnel yielded major breakthroughs in the 1950s, the Lewis icing research program began tapering off as interest in the space program grew. The icing tunnel’s use declined in 1956 and 1957. The launch of Sputnik in October 1957 signaled the end of the facility’s operation. The icing staff was transferred to other research projects and the icing tunnel was temporarily mothballed.
Sea Ice , and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sunlight, Sea Ice , and the Ice Albedo Feedback in a Changing Arctic Sea Ice Cover 5a...during a period when incident solar irradiance is large increasing solar heat input to the ice . Seasonal sea ice typically has a smaller albedo
Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.
The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ~34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid”more » (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.« less
Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.
The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid”more » (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.« less
Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Sultan, M Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Naz, Ambreen
Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components.
Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei
Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.
Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.
Purpose: Tea and coffee contain bioactive compounds and both beverages have recently been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, US. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by five-year age groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among controls, 19% and 58% consumed at least one cup per day of tea and coffee, respectively. The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage. Conclusions: Our results contribute further evidence that tea consumption may be a modifiable exposure that reduces PCa risk. PMID:23412806
Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630
Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.
Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110
Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.
Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui
Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords "tea and osteoporosis," without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I = 94%, P < .01). There was, however, no publication bias of the meta-analysis about tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan
The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102
Hecht, Michael; Carsey, Frank
The subsurface ice probe (SIPR) is a proposed apparatus that would bore into ice to depths as great as hundreds of meters by melting the ice and pumping the samples of meltwater to the surface. Originally intended for use in exploration of subsurface ice on Mars and other remote planets, the SIPR could also be used on Earth as an alternative to coring, drilling, and melting apparatuses heretofore used to sample Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets. The SIPR would include an assembly of instrumentation and electronic control equipment at the surface, connected via a tether to a compact assembly of boring, sampling, and sensor equipment in the borehole (see figure). Placing as much equipment as possible at the surface would help to attain primary objectives of minimizing power consumption, sampling with high depth resolution, and unobstructed imaging of the borehole wall. To the degree to which these requirements would be satisfied, the SIPR would offer advantages over the aforementioned ice-probing systems.
Since the discovery of ice-nucleating bacteria in 1974 by Maki et al., a large number of studies on the biological characteristics, ice-nucleating substance, ice nucleation gene and frost damage etc. of the bacteria have been carried out. Ice-nucleating bacteria can cause the freezing of water at relatively warm temperature (-2.3°C). Tween 20 was good substrates for ice-nucleating activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens KUIN-1. Major fatty acids of Isolate (Pseudomonas fluorescens) W-11 grown at 30°C were palmitic, cis-9-hexadecenoic and cis-11-octadecenoic which amounted to 90% of the total fatty acids. Sequence analysis shows that an ice nucleation gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens is related to the gene of Pseudomonas syringae.
The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)
Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N
The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; P<0.001) and the benchmark (92.32±1.33%), but insignificant removed eyeliner (87.50±5.15%; P=0.059). Tea seed oil remover caused none of skin irritation as examined in 20 human volunteers. A single-blind, randomized control exhibited that the tea seed oil remover gained a better preference over the benchmark (75.42±8.10 and 70.00±7.78%; P=0.974). The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Chih-Jen
Tea has long been believed to possess hypotensive effects in popular Chinese medicine. However, conflicting results have been shown among human trials and animal studies on the relation between tea consumption and blood pressure. Epidemiological evidence about the long-term effect of tea on hypertensive risk is also inconsistent. We examined the effect of tea drinking, measured in detail for the past decades, on the risk of newly diagnosed hypertension in 1507 subjects (711 men and 796 women), 20 years or older, who did not have a hypertensive history during 1996 in Taiwan. Six hundred subjects (39.8%) were habitual tea drinkers, defined by tea consumption of 120 mL/d or more for at least 1 year. Compared with nonhabitual tea drinkers, the risk of developing hypertension decreased by 46% for those who drank 120 to 599 mL/d and was further reduced by 65% for those who drank 600 mL/d or more after carefully adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history of hypertension, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, lifestyle factors (total physical activity, high sodium intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and coffee drinking), and dietary factors (vegetable, fruit, unrefined grain, fish, milk, visible-fat food, and deep fried food intake). However, tea consumption for more than 1 year was not associated with a further reduction of hypertension risk. Habitual moderate strength green or oolong tea consumption, 120 mL/d or more for 1 year, significantly reduces the risk of developing hypertension in the Chinese population.
Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi
Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract
. PDF file High pT muons in Cosmic-Ray Air Showers with IceCube. PDF file IceCube Performance with Artificial Light Sources: the road to a Cascade Analyses + Energy scale calibration for EHE. PDF file , 2006. PDF file Thorsten Stetzelberger "IceCube DAQ Design & Performance" Nov 2005 PPT
Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological Commentary of D (air) 1209, Icing,* Germany, Reichsamt fur...Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. a, No. 29, 1943. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological-Physical Limitations of Icing on the Atmosphere...Apparatus for Measurement,’ Harvard - Mt. Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676.. Findeisen , W., "The
Low-lying clouds over sea ice on the Bellingshausen Sea. Credit: NASA / Maria-Jose Vinas NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Edge of an ice shelf in Adelaide Island, off the Antarctic Peninsula. Credit: NASA / Maria-Jose Vinas NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Sunlight reflecting off of ice in the Bellingshausen Sea on Oct. 19, 2012. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Kesavarapu, Keerthana; Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth
We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.
Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth
We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects. PMID:29204300
Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah
India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic
Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K
The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.
Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi
A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.
Petit, D; El Houari, W; Jacobs, K; Baeyens, W; Leermakers, M
The migration of metals in tea brewed in metallic teapots was investigated. The teapots were obtained from North Africa stores in Brussels in 2005-2006 and in 2011. Chinese gunpowder green tea, the most commonly used tea in the Moroccan community, was used to prepare the tea. Tea brewed in metallic teapots was compared to tea brewed in a glass vessel in order to evaluate the contribution of the tea and the teapots to the metal concentrations in the brewed tea. Tea samples were also collected in Moroccan households and in tearooms in Brussels. The elements As, Cd, Pb, Sn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Al were analyzed by high-resolution sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The relationship between the metal composition of the alloy of the teapot and the metal concentration in tea was also investigated. Migration of Pb and to a lesser amount Ni, Cu, and Zn was observed in brass teapots and migration of Cd from a number of stainless steel teapots was observed. The soldering connecting the sprout to the teapot was shown to be an important source of Pb to the tea. High levels of Mn and Al were also observed in the brewed tea and these elements where shown to originate from the tea itself. Metal exposure from tea drinking was calculated for different tea consumption levels and different metal concentration levels and compared to toxicological reference values.
Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.
Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.
Chrysochoou, M; Reeves, K
This study reports on the direct reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by green tea polyphenols, including a green tea solution and pure epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) solution. A linear trend was observed between the amount of reduced Cr(VI) and the amount of added polyphenols. The green tea solution showed a continued decrease in the observed stoichiometry with increasing pH, from a maximum of 1.4 mol per gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of green tea at pH 2.5, to 0.2 mol/GAE at pH 8.8. The EGCG solution exhibited different behavior, with a maximum stoichiometry of 2 at pH 7 and minimum of 1.6 at pH 4.4 and 8.9. When green tea was used to first react with Fe 3+ and form GT-nZVI, the amount of Cr(VI) reduced by a certain volume of GT-nZVI was double compared to green tea, and 6 times as high considering that GT-nZVI only contains 33 % green tea.
Paramasivam, M; Deepa, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S
Dissipation kinetics of mixed formulation consisting beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea crop under an open field ecosystem was investigated. The mixed formulation was applied on tea plant at recommended (27 + 63) and double the recommended (54 + 126g a.i./ha) dose and residues were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture detector and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector for beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, respectively. The limit of quantification of analytical method was 0.05µg/g and the average recoveries were ranged from 88.36% to 103.49% with relative standard deviations of less than 6% at three spiked levels. The experimental results showed that in the green tea leaves imidacloprid dissipated faster than beta-cyfluthrin with the half-life ranging between 1.20-1.39 and 2.89-3.15days, respectively. The beta-cyfluthrin residues present in the processed tea not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process and imidacloprid transferred in the range 43.12-49.7%. On the basis of the transfer of residues from processed tea to infusion, a waiting period of 17 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin
(E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin
The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑ 5 PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D 4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log K ow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.
Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun
Tea, one of the world’s most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. PMID:29678829
Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi
Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.
Sasaki, Tetsuya; Koshi, Erina; Take, Harumi; Michihata, Toshihide; Maruya, Masachika; Enomoto, Toshiki
Roasted stem tea has a characteristic flavour, which is obtained by roasting tea stems, by-product of green tea production. This research aims to understand the characteristic odorants in roasted stem tea by comparing it to roasted leaf tea. We revealed potent odorants in commercial roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The difference between roasted stem and leaf tea derived from the same tea plants were investigated using GC-MS. Pyrazine compounds exhibited a roasted odour and high flavour dilution (FD) factors, as determined via AEDA. Roasted stem tea was richer in these pyrazines than roasted leaf tea. Geraniol and linalool exhibited high FD factors and a floral odour, and roasted stem tea was richer in these compounds than roasted leaf tea. These results may have a positive impact on the development of tea products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zonenshain, L. P.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Bocharova, N. Yu.
Intraplate, hot spot related volcanic occurrences do not have a random distribution on the Earth's surface. They are concentrated in two large regions (up to 10,000 km in diameter), the Pacific and the African, and two smaller areas (2000-3000 km in diameter), the Central Asian and the Tasmanian. These regions are considered as manifestations of hot fields in the mantle, whereas the regions lying in between are expressions of cold fields in the mantle. Large-scale anomalies coincide with the hot fields: topographic swells, geoid highs, uplifts of the "asthenospheric table", inferred heated regions in the lowermost mantle according to seismic tomographic images, geochemical anomalies showing the origin of volcanics from undepleted mantle sources. Hot fields are relatively stable features, having remained in the same position on the Earth's surface during the last 120 Ma, although they have other configurations and other positions in the Late Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic. Available data show that two main hot fields (Pacific and African) are possibly moving one with respect to the other, converging along the Eastern Pacific subduction system and diverging along that of the Western Pacific. If so, well-known differences between these subduction systems can also be connected with related displacement of the hot fields. Hot fields are assumed to correspond to upwelling branches of mantle and rather deep mantle convection, and cold fields to downwelling branches. Thus, hot fields can be regarded as expressions of deeper tectonics, comparative to the plate tectonics, which is operating in the upper layers of the Earth. We call it hot-field tectonics. Plate tectonics is responsible for the opening and closure of oceans and for the formation of orogenic belts, whereas hot-field tectonics accounts for a larger cyclicity of the Earth's evolution and for amalgamation and break up of Pangea-type supercontinents. Hot-field tectonics seems to be the only process to have existed
During cruise CU-B UAF UW Airborne expendable Ice Buoy (AXIB) Ahead, at and inside ice edge Surface meteorology T, SLP ~1 year CU-B UW...Balance (IMB) buoys Inside ice edge w/ >50cm thickness Ice mass balance T in snow-ice-ocean, T, SLP at surface ~1 year WHOI CRREL (SeaState DRI
Foulger, G. R.
The term “hot spot” is taken variously to imply a) the presence of excessive volcanism, or b) that the melt formed in an unusually hot source. Case b) is intrinsic to the plume hypothesis. Temperature anomalies of 200-300 degrees Celsius are expected, though there is widespread downward-revision of this where observations do not support it. It is not self-evident that “hot spots” are hot in the sense of case b), despite the fact that this is widely assumed. Furthermore, a hot source is not strongly supported by observations, and is at odds with many data. The temperature of the mantle has been studied using many different methods. Global oceanic heat flow values were recently assessed, but reveal no evidence for elevated temperatures around proposed plume localities. Mapping surface heat flow is only sensitive to anomalies at the level of 100 degrees Celsius, however. Seismological methods include correlating velocity with crustal thickness at LIPs, measuring transition zone thickness, and mapping velocity, e.g., using tomography. The first of these does not find evidence for elevated temperatures. The latter two are both sensitive to the presence of partial melt and variations in rock composition, in addition to temperature, which is the weakest potential effect. They thus cannot be used as thermometers. In particular, it cannot be assumed that red = hot and blue = cold in tomographic cross sections. Petrological and geochemical approaches include the “global systematics”. This has now been shown to not work for estimating temperature and its application should be discontinued. Mineralogical phase relationships are applied by comparing data from laboratory melting experiments to observations. Olivine control-line analysis has been extensively used in attempts to measure the differences in melt-formation temperature between mid-ocean ridges and melting anomalies. Difficulties arise in choosing the correct olivine geothermometer and because picrite glass
Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R
Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions.
This viewgraph presentation describes the icing effects, risk mitigation practices, and icing certifications for various Cessna small aircraft models. NASA's role in the development of simulation tools for icing certifications is also discussed.
Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.
Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057
Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...
The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second
A determination method has been developed for azoxystrobin in tea by HPLC. Azoxystrobin was extracted from a sample with acetone, and the extract was passed through an alumina column to remove tannin. The eluate was concentrated to ca. 25 mL and passed through a Sep-Pak Vac tC18 to remove pigments. The eluate was cleaned-up by using liquid-liquid partition, and Florisil and silica-gel columns. The HPLC analysis for azoxystrobin was carried out on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water (9:11) as the mobile phase, with ultraviolet detection at 260 nm. The recovery of azoxystrobin fortified at the level of 0.4 microgram/g was 90.2% and the limit of determination was 0.2 microgram/g.
Ye, Jian-Hui; Wang, Liu-Xiang; Chen, Hao; Dong, Jun-Jie; Lu, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Wu, Ming-Yan; Liang, Yue-Rong
An adsorption separation method using Polyamide-6 (PA) as an adsorbent was developed to separate catechins from green tea extract. The adsorption capacity of total catechins for PA was 193.128 mg g⁻¹ with an adsorption selectivity coefficient K(A)(B) of total catechins over caffeine 21.717, which was better than macroporous resin model HPD 600. The Langmuir model and the pseudo-second order mode were primely fitted to describe its equilibrium data and adsorption kinetics, respectively. PA column separation by two-step elution using water and 80% (v/v) aqueous ethanol was established to prepare catechins complex which contained 670.808 mg g⁻¹ total catechins and 1.828 mg g⁻¹ caffeine. It is considered that PA was a promising adsorbent for selective isolation of catechins. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris
The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.
Pearl, J. C.; Sinton, W. M.
The size and temperature, morphology and distribution, variability, possible absorption features, and processes of hot spots on Io are discussed, and an estimate of the global heat flux is made. Size and temperature information is deconvolved to obtain equivalent radius and temperature of hot spots, and simultaneously obtained Voyager thermal and imaging data is used to match hot sources with specific geologic features. In addition to their thermal output, it is possible that hot spots are also characterized by production of various gases and particulate materials; the spectral signature of SO2 has been seen. Origins for relatively stable, low temperature sources, transient high temperature sources, and relatively stable, high-tmperature sources are discussed.
This frame from an animation based on data obtained by NASA Cassini spacecraft shows how the explosions of hot plasma on the night side orange and white periodically inflate Saturn magnetic field white lines.
Brimicombe, N. W.
Hot air balloons can be modelled in a number of different ways. The most satisfactory, but least useful model is at a microscopic level. Macroscopic models are easier to use but can be very misleading.
This infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope shows a galaxy that appears to be sizzling hot, with huge plumes of smoke swirling around it. The galaxy is known as Messier 82 or the Cigar galaxy.
Koegeboehn, L. P.
A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.
Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali
Orthodox black tea is obtained from fresh leaves followed by withering, rolling, fermentation and drying. The presence of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in fresh leaves and at various stages of manufacturing. Benzo(a)pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in dried tea leaves only whereas, naphthalene (2B: probable human carcinogen) was present during all the stages of manufacturing. Dry tea leaves showed higher content of total 16 PAHs (∑PAHs) about 3 and 211 times than present in withered and dried leaves, respectively. Chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indendo[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and benzo[a]antracene were not found during manufacturing stages of tea.
Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi; Shiratori, Akira; Ninomiya, Yutaka; Obara, Minoru
This paper reports two topics in the material processing using TEA CO2 lasers. We demonstrated selective ablation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin layer on a quartz substrate by the second harmonic (SH) radiation of TEA CO2 laser generated by AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystal. Si-H bonds contained in a-Si:H strongly absorb the 5 micrometers SH radiation and resulted in the selective ablation of the a-Si:H layer. The successful ablation processing of ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) copolymer by the 9.6 micrometers fundamental wavelength TEA CO2 laser is also reported. Only ETFE thin film adhered to an aluminum substrate can be ablated by the TEA CO2 laser.
Bragg, Mike; Rothmayer, Alric; Thompson, David
2-D ice accretion and aerodynamics reasonably well understood for engineering applications To significantly improve our current capabilities we need to understand 3-D: a) Important ice accretion physics and modeling not well understood in 3-D; and b) Aerodynamics unsteady and 3-D especially near stall. Larger systems issues important and require multidisciplinary team approach
Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III
This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…
Kopaska-Merkel, David C.
Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)
A low gravity experiment to assess the effect of the presence of supercooled cloud droplets on the diffusional growth rate of ice crystals is described. The theoretical work and the feasibility studies are summarized. The nucleation of ice crystals in supercooled clouds is also discussed.
Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael
What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…
article title: Unique Views of a Shattered Ice Shelf View Larger Image ... views of the breakup of the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf are shown in this image pair from the Multi-angle Imaging ...
Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael
The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.
Erdemoğlu, Sema B; Güçer, Seref
In this study, an analytical method for indirect measurement of Al bound with tannin in tea infusion was studied. This method utilizes the ability of the tannins to precipitate with protein. Separation conditions were investigated using model solutions. This method is uncomplicated, inexpensive and suitable for real samples. About 34% of the total Al in brew extracted from commercially available teas was bound to condensed and hydrolyzable tannins.
Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver.
Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720
Greenwalt, C J; Steinkraus, K H; Ledford, R A
Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.
Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier
Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.
An iceberg embedded in sea ice as seen from the IceBridge DC-8 over the Bellingshausen Sea on Oct. 19, 2012. Credit: NASA / James Yungel NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Brooks, R. L.
Generalized surface slopes were computed for the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets by differencing plotted contour levels and dividing them by the distance between the contours. It was observed that more than 90% of the ice sheets have surface slopes less than 1%. Seasat test mode-1 Seasat altimeter measurements over Greenland were analyzed by comparisons with collinear and intersecting normal mode Seasat altimeter passes. Over the ice sheet, the computed surface elevations from test mode-1 measurements were consistently lower by about 45 m and the AGC levels were down by approximately 6 dB. No test mode-1 data were acquired over Antarctica. It is concluded that analysis of the existing altimeter data base over the two ice sheets is crucial in designing a future improved altimeter tracking capability. It is recommended that additional waveform retracking be performed to characterize ice sheet topography as a function of geographic area and elevation.
Malongane, Florence; McGaw, Lyndy J; Mudau, Fhatuwani N
Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains l-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle. Many of these phytochemicals are reported to be biologically active when combined. Knowledge of the synergistic interactions of tea with other teas or herbs in terms of biological activities will be of benefit for therapeutic enhancement. There is evidence that various types of teas act synergistically in exhibiting health benefits to humans, improving consumer acceptance and economic value. Similar observations have been made when teas and herbs or medicinal drugs were combined. The aim of this review is to highlight potential beneficial synergies between combinations of different types of teas, tea and herbs, and tea and medicinal drugs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick
The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.
Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong
Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374
Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie
The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.
Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M
The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.
Nakagawa, T; Yokozawa, T
In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects of green tea extract and green tea tannin mixture and its components using a nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) generating system in vitro. Green tea extract showed direct scavenging activity against NO and O(2)(-) and green tea tannin mixture, at the same concentration, showed high scavenging activity. Comparison of the activities of seven pure compounds isolated from green tea tannin mixture showed that (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg) and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg) had higher scavenging activities than (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (C), showing the importance of the structure of flavan-3-ol linked to gallic acid for this activity. Among the gallate-free tannins, EGC and GC were more effective O(2)(-) scavengers than EC and C, indicating the O-trihydroxy structure in the B ring is an important determinant of such activity. However, this structure did not affect the NO scavenging activity. These findings confirm that green tea tannin has excellent antioxidant properties, which may be involved in the beneficial effect of this compound.
Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida
This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks. PMID:24977093
Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida
This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks.
Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.
A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530more » p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.« less
Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Adhikari, Koushik; Yoon, Youngmo
This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.
Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina; Srivastava, Ankit; Nandlal, Swati
Teas is known for its anticariogenic properties and various mechanisms have been invoked to explain this effect. One such proposed mechanism is inhibition of salivary alpha amylase activity by endogenous tannins present in tea. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the ingestion of black tea decoction inhibits the enzyme salivary amylase and thus interferes with the release of maltose from intraoral entrapped particles of food. A total of 30 children in the age group of 12 - 15 years were selected for the study. After two hours of fasting subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 second following which they rinsed with water (control solution) and then with 1.5% black tea decoction (test solution) next day. Retained food particles were recovered from buccal aspect of left mandibular premolar and salivary amylase activity was noted via chromatography. Paired t-test was applied for statistical analysis. Maltose to Sucrose ratio was used to evaluate the result. The average ratio was 3.27 for control solution and 1.82 for test solution. The results were statistically highly significant (p <0.005). Tea inhibited the activity of salivary amylase and this inhibition assumes a special significance when it is considered that the effect of tea could be manifested over a prolonged period of time, as in a real life situation.
Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W
To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.
Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao
Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao
The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was <5%. The risk of emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J
Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.
Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda
Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.
Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong
The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved
Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun
This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sotin, C.; Kalousova, K.
Constraints on the present interior structure of Titan come from the gravity science experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft and from the interpretation of the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave observed by the Huygens probe [1, 2]. From the surface to the center, Titan would be composed of 4 layers: an icy crust, a global salty ocean, a layer of high-pressure ice (HP ice) and a core made of hydrated silicates [2, 3, 4]. The presence of a large amount of 40Ar in Titan's atmosphere argues for a geologically recent exchange process between the silicate core, where 40Ar is produced by the decay of 40K, and the atmosphere. Argon must then be able to be transported from the silicate core to the surface. This study investigates how volatiles can be transported through the HP ice layer.Recent numerical simulations  have demonstrated that the dynamics of the HP ice layer is controlled by convection processes in a two-phase material (water and high-pressure ice). The silicate / HP ice interface is maintained at the melting temperature, which might allow for the incorporation of volatiles such as 40Ar into the convecting HP ice. Above the hot thermal boundary layer, the temperature of the convecting HP ice is below the melting temperature, except for the upwelling plumes when they approach the cold thermal boundary layer. The upper part of the HP ice layer is at the melting point and permeable for water transport, providing a path for the transfer of volatiles trapped in the ice towards the ocean.Scaling laws are inferred from the numerical simulations . They are then used to model the evolution of the HP ice layer. Specifically, we look at the effect of (i) ice viscosity, (ii) heat flux at the silicate/HP ice interface, and (iii) presence of anti-freeze compounds in the ocean, on the thickness of the HP ice layer. In addition, our results provide insights on possible resurfacing processes that could explain the geologically young age of Titan's surface. This work
Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J
The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (<30% relative humidity [RH]) and high (>90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.
Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.
A numerical simulation for 'running wet' aircraft anti-icing systems is developed. The model includes breakup of the water film, which exists in regions of direct impingement, into individual rivulets. The wetness factor distribution resulting from the film breakup and the rivulet configuration on the surface are predicted in the numerical solution procedure. The solid wall is modeled as a multilayer structure and the anti-icing system used is of the thermal type utilizing hot air and/or electrical heating elements embedded with the layers. Details of the calculation procedure and the methods used are presented.
Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu
This paper presents data related to an article entitled "Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes" (Han et al., 2016) . Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD'). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.
Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote
The natural microbiota involved in the fermentation influence the quality and taste of fully postfermented teas such as China's Pu-erh tea. Ten microbial isolates representing 6 species were recovered from a solid-state fermentation of a Pu-erh type tea. The isolates were Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus marvanovae, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizomucor tauricus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida mogii. With the exception of A. marvanovae and C. mogii, all these microorganisms have been previously reported in solid-state fermentations of native Pu-erh tea. The ability of the isolates for converting the tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins in infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves in a submerged fermentation process was subsequently investigated. All isolates except C. mogii TISTR 5938 effectively produced theabrownins in a 4-d fermentation in shake flasks at 40 °C, 250 rpm. A. tubingensis TISTR 3646, A. tubingensis TISTR 3647, A. marvanovae TISTR 3648, and A. fumigatus TISTR 3654 produced theabrownins at particularly high levels of 6.5, 12.4, 11.1, and 8.4 g/L, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Background Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. Findings This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Conclusions Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues. PMID:23578062
Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay
Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.
Ide, Robert F.; Oldenburg, John R.
The icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center underwent a major rehabilitation in 1999, necessitating recalibration of the icing clouds. This report describes the methods used in the recalibration, including the procedure used to establish a uniform icing cloud and the use of a standard icing blade technique for measurement of liquid water content. The instruments and methods used to perform the droplet size calibration are also described. The liquid water content/droplet size operating envelopes of the icing tunnel are shown for a range of airspeeds and compared to the FAA icing certification criteria. The capabilities of the IRT to produce large droplet icing clouds is also detailed.
Faure, A.; Faure, M.; Theulé, P.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.
The deuterium fractionation of gas-phase molecules in hot cores is believed to reflect the composition of interstellar ices. The deuteration of methanol is a major puzzle, however, because the isotopologue ratio [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD], which is predicted to be equal to 3 by standard grain chemistry models, is much larger (~20) in low-mass hot corinos and significantly lower (~1) in high-mass hot cores. This dichotomy in methanol deuteration between low-mass and massive protostars is currently not understood. In this study, we report a simplified rate equation model of the deuterium chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. We apply this model to the chemistry of hot corinos and hot cores, with IRAS 16293-2422 and the Orion KL Compact Ridge as prototypes, respectively. The chemistry is based on a statistical initial deuteration at low temperature followed by a warm-up phase during which thermal hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanges occur between water and methanol. The exchange kinetics is incorporated using laboratory data. The [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] ratio is found to scale inversely with the D/H ratio of water, owing to the H/D exchange equilibrium between the hydroxyl (-OH) functional groups of methanol and water. Our model is able to reproduce the observed [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] ratios provided that the primitive fractionation of water ice [HDO]/[H2O] is ~2% in IRAS 16293-2422 and ~0.6% in Orion KL. We conclude that the molecular D/H ratios measured in hot cores may not be representative of the original mantles because molecules with exchangeable deuterium atoms can equilibrate with water ice during the warm-up phase.
Wolff, Eric W
Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land-atmosphere and ocean-atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2-3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas.
Sammonds, P. R.; Bailey, E.; Lishman, B.; Scourfield, S.
Frictional mechanics are controlled by the ice micro-structure - surface asperities and flaws - but also the ice fabric and permeability network structure of the contacting blocks. Ice properties are dependent upon the temperature of the bulk ice, on the normal stress and on the sliding velocity and acceleration. This means the shear stress required for sliding is likewise dependent on sliding velocity, acceleration, and temperature. We aim to describe the micro-physics of the contacting surface. We review micro-mechanical models of friction: the elastic and ductile deformation of asperities under normal loads and their shear failure by ductile flow, brittle fracture, or melting and hydrodynamic lubrication. Combinations of these give a total of six rheological models of friction. We present experimental results in ice mechanics and physics from laboratory experiments to understand the mechanical models. We then examine the scaling relations of the slip of ice, to examine how the micro-mechanics of ice friction can be captured simple reduced-parameter models, describing the mechanical state and slip rate of the floes. We aim to capture key elements that they may be incorporated into mid and ocean-basin scale modelling.
Campbell, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Ramseier, R. O.; Weaver, R. J.; Weeks, W. F.
The author has identified the following significant results. Coupling of the aircraft data with the ground truth observations proved to be highly successful with interesting results being obtained with IR and SLAR passive microwave techniques, and standard photography. Of particular interest were the results of the PMIS system which operated at 10.69 GHz with both vertical and horizontal polarizations. This was the first time that dual polarized images were obtained from floating ice. In both sea and lake ice, it was possible to distinguish a wide variety of thin ice types because of their large differences in brightness temperatures. It was found that the higher brightness temperature was invariably obtained in the vertically polarized mode, and as the age of the ice increases the brightness temperature increases in both polarizations. Associated with this change in age, the difference in temperature was observed as the different polarizations decreased. It appears that the horizontally polarized data is the most sensitive to variations in ice type for both fresh water and sea ice. The study also showed the great amount of information on ice surface roughness and deformation patterns that can be obtained from X-band SLAR observations.
Cebeci, T.; Chen, H. H.; Kaups, K.; Schimke, S.; Shin, J.
A method for computing ice shapes along the leading edge of a wing and a method for predicting its aerodynamic performance degradation due to icing is described. Ice shapes are computed using an extension of the LEWICE code which was developed for airfoils. The aerodynamic properties of the iced wing are determined with an interactive scheme in which the solutions of the inviscid flow equations are obtained from a panel method and the solutions of the viscous flow equations are obtained from an inverse three-dimensional finite-difference boundary-layer method. A new interaction law is used to couple the inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The application of the LEWICE wing code to the calculation of ice shapes on a MS-317 swept wing shows good agreement with measurements. The interactive boundary-layer method is applied to a tapered ice wing in order to study the effect of icing on the aerodynamic properties of the wing at several angles of attack.
The Ralph instrument on NASA's New Horizons spacecraft detected water ice on Pluto's surface, picking up on the ice's near-infrared spectral characteristics. (See featured image from Oct. 8, 2015.) The middle panel shows a region west of Pluto's "heart" feature -- which the mission team calls Tombaugh Regio -- about 280 miles (450 kilometers) across. It combines visible imagery from Ralph's Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) with infrared spectroscopy from the Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array (LEISA). Areas with the strongest water ice spectral signature are highlighted in blue. Major outcrops of water ice occur in regions informally called Viking Terra, along Virgil Fossa west of Elliot crater, and in Baré Montes. Numerous smaller outcrops are associated with impact craters and valleys between mountains. In the lower left panel, LEISA spectra are shown for two regions indicated by cyan and magenta boxes. The white curve is a water ice model spectrum, showing similar features to the cyan spectrum. The magenta spectrum is dominated by methane ice absorptions. The lower right panel shows an MVIC enhanced color view of the region in the white box, with MVIC's blue, red and near-infrared filters displayed in blue, green and red channels, respectively. The regions showing the strongest water ice signature are associated with terrains that are actually a lighter shade of red. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20030
Wang, Hanfu; Bell, Richard C; Iedema, Martin J; Schenter, Gregory K; Wu, Kai; Cowin, James P
Water ice usually is thought to have zero pyroelectricity by symmetry. However, biasing it with ions breaks the symmetry because of the induced partial dipole alignment. This unmasks a large pyroelectricity. Ions were soft-landed upon 1 mum films of water ice at temperatures greater than 160 K. When cooled below 140-150 K, the dipole alignment locks in. Work function measurements of these films then show high and reversible pyroelectric activity from 30 to 150 K. For an initial approximately 10 V induced by the deposited ions at 160 K, the observed bias below 150 K varies approximately as 10 Vx(T/150 K)2. This implies that water has pyroelectric coefficients as large as that of many commercial pyroelectrics, such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The pyroelectricity of water ice, not previously reported, is in reasonable agreement with that predicted using harmonic analysis of a model system of SPC ice. The pyroelectricity is observed in crystalline and compact amorphous ice, deuterated or not. This implies that for water ice between 0 and 150 K (such as astrophysical ices), temperature changes can induce strong electric fields (approximately 10 MV/m) that can influence their chemistry, ion trajectories, or binding.
Wolff, Eric W.
Snow and ice play their most important role in the nitrogen cycle as a barrier to land–atmosphere and ocean–atmosphere exchanges that would otherwise occur. The inventory of nitrogen compounds in the polar ice sheets is approximately 260 Tg N, dominated by nitrate in the much larger Antarctic ice sheet. Ice cores help to inform us about the natural variability of the nitrogen cycle at global and regional scale, and about the extent of disturbance in recent decades. Nitrous oxide concentrations have risen about 20 per cent in the last 200 years and are now almost certainly higher than at any time in the last 800 000 years. Nitrate concentrations recorded in Greenland ice rose by a factor of 2–3, particularly between the 1950s and 1980s, reflecting a major change in NOx emissions reaching the background atmosphere. Increases in ice cores drilled at lower latitudes can be used to validate or constrain regional emission inventories. Background ammonium concentrations in Greenland ice show no significant recent trend, although the record is very noisy, being dominated by spikes of input from biomass burning events. Neither nitrate nor ammonium shows significant recent trends in Antarctica, although their natural variations are of biogeochemical and atmospheric chemical interest. Finally, it has been found that photolysis of nitrate in the snowpack leads to significant re-emissions of NOx that can strongly impact the regional atmosphere in snow-covered areas. PMID:23713125
A volcano discovered six years ago by researchers Blankenship and Bell under Antarctica poses questions about a potential climatic catastrophe. The researchers claim that the volcano is still active, erupting occasionally and growing. A circular depression on the surface of the ice sheet has ice flowing into it and is used to provide a portrait of the heat source. The volcano is on a critical transition zone within West Antarctica with fast flowing ice streams directly downhill. Work by Blankenship shows that a soft layer of water-logged sediments called till provide the lubricating layer on the underside of the icemore » streams. Volcanos may provide the source of this till. The ice streams buffer the thick interior ice from the ocean and no one know what will happen if the ice streams continue to shorten. These researchers believe their results indicate that the stability of West Antarctica ultimately depends less on the current climate than on the location of heat and sediments under the ice and the legacy of past climatic changes.« less
McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.
We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.
Cukuroglu, Engin; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem
Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion.
This view shows Mercury's north polar region, colored by the maximum biannual surface temperature, which ranges from >400 K (red) to 50 K (purple). As expected for the Solar System's innermost planet, areas of Mercury's surface that are sunlit reach high temperatures, and hence most of this image is colored red! In contrast, some craters near Mercury's poles have regions that remain permanently in shadow, and in these regions even the maximum temperatures can be extremely low. Evidence from MESSENGER and Earth-based observations indicate that water ice deposits are present in these cold craters. The craters nearest Mercury' poles have surface temperatures less than 100 K (-173°C, -280°F), and water ice is stable on the surface, such as in Prokofiev. However, many craters near but somewhat farther from Mercury's poles have cold, permanently shadowed interiors, but the maximum temperature is too high for water ice to persist at the surface. In these craters, water ice is present but is buried beneath a thin, low-reflectance volatile layer likely consisting of organic-rich material, such as in Berlioz crater. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19247
Pierson, Thomas C.
Emplacement of hot volcanic debris onto a thick snowpack can trigger hazardous rapid flows of sediment (including ice grains) and water, which can travel far beyond the flanks of a volcano. Five papers in this volume document aspects of rapid-snowmelt events that occurred in Mount St. Helens between 1982 and 1984; one paper offers a theoretical explanation of features present at depositional contacts between hot rock and snow.
Fung, K F; Carr, H P; Poon, B H T; Wong, M H
This study project aimed to investigate the concentrations of aluminum (Al) in tea products available in Hong Kong markets. Tea samples consisting of 47 different tea bags and 28 samples of tea leaves were analysed for concentrations of Al. All tea samples released Al (0.70-5.93 mg L(-1)) during a standard infusion period. In comparison to the Joint FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake guideline of 7 mg Al kg(-1) body weight, it was concluded that tea made with these tea leaves will not impose adverse human health impacts. The relative effects of age, soil available Al, and genetic differences on the levels of Al accumulated by tea bushes were investigated. It was found that there was no definite trend between the amount of Al accumulated and the age of tea bushes. The soil available Al influenced the levels of Al in Camellia sinensis to a certain extent, but it was evident that the ability of different varieties of C. sinensis to accumulate Al was variable. C. sinensis accumulated Al in all stages of growth. Young seedlings had lower contents of Al while the mobility of Al within the tea bushes was high. In a manner typical of hyperaccumulators, Al was not retained in the roots, but was consistently transported to the shoots. Aluminum in the tea bush was distributed between the different parts in the following order: mature leaves>roots>branches>young leaves.
Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino
In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chung, J.S.; Hallam, S.D.; Maatanen, M.
This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the interaction of icebergs with offshore platforms. Topics considered at the symposium included advances in ice mechanics in the United Kingdom, ice mechanics in Finland, recent advances in ice mechanics in Canada, advances in sea ice mechanics in the USA, foundations, monitoring, hazards, risk assessment, and deformation.
Hughes, Michael T.; McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Broeren, Andy
To improve existing ice accretion simulation codes, more data regarding ice roughness and its effects on convective heat transfer are required. To build on existing research on this topic, this study used the Vertical Icing Studies Tunnel (VIST) at NASA Glenn Research to model realistic ice roughness in the stagnation region of a NACA 0012 airfoil. Using the VIST, a test plate representing the leading 2% chord of the airfoil was subjected to flows of 7.62 m/s (25 ft/s), 12.19 m/s (40 ft/s), and 16.76 m/s (55 ft/s). The test plate was fitted with 3 surfaces, each with a different representation of ice roughness: 1) a control surface with no ice roughness, 2) a surface with ice roughness with element height scaled by 10x and streamwise rough zone width from the stagnation point scaled by 10x, and 3) a surface with ice roughness with element height scaled by 10x and streamwise rough zone width from the stagnation point scaled by 25x. Temperature data from the tests were recorded using an infrared camera and thermocouples imbedded in the test plate. From the temperature data, a convective heat transfer coefficient map was created for each case. Additional testing was also performed to validate the VIST's flow quality. These tests included five-hole probe and hot-wire probe velocity traces to provide flow visualization and to study boundary layer formation on the various test surfaces. The knowledge gained during the experiments will help improve ice accretion codes by providing heat transfer coefficient validation data and by providing flow visualization data helping understand current and future experiments performed in the VIST.
Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs
Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D
Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential
Li, Xia; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Si, Jiahui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Ren, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ge; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming
Objective To prospectively examine the association between tea consumption and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods Prospective study using the China Kadoorie Biobank; participants from 10 areas across China were enrolled during 2004–2008 and followed up until 31 December 2013. After excluding participants with cancer, heart disease and stroke at baseline, the present study included 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30–79 years at baseline. Information on IHD incidence was collected through disease registries and the new national health insurance databases. Results During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, we documented 24 665 (7.19 cases/1000 person-years) incident IHD cases and 3959 (1.13 cases/1000 person-years) major coronary events (MCEs). Tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of IHD and MCE. In the whole cohort, compared with participants who never consumed tea during the past 12 months, the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for less than daily and daily tea consumers were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) and 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95) for IHD, 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) for MCE. No linear trends in the HRs across the amount of tea were observed in daily consumers for IHD and MCE (PLinear >0.05). The inverse association between tea consumption and IHD was stronger in rural (PInteraction 0.006 for IHD, <0.001 for MCE), non-obese (PInteraction 0.012 for MCE) and non-diabetes participants (PInteraction 0.004 for IHD). Conclusions In this large prospective study, daily tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of IHD. PMID:28077466
Cammaert, A.B.; Muggeridge, D.B.
Oil platforms and other offshore structures being built in the arctic regions must be able to withstand icebergs, ice islands, and pack ice. This reference explain the effect ice has on offshore structures and demonstrates design and construction methods that allow such structures to survive in harsh, ice-ridden environments. It analyzes the characteristics of sea ice as well as dynamic ice forces on structures. Techniques for ice modeling and field testing facilitate the design and construction of sturdy, offshore constructions. Computer programs included.
Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav
Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture medium, diameter of zone of inhibition was measured to assess the antibacterial efficacy of tea. Results: Maximum zone of inhibition was found with lemon tea (27 mm) followed by green tea (26 mm) and black tea (13 mm) against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Zone of inhibition was highest at 7.5 g concentration (1 and half tea spoon) for lemon tea followed by green tea and black tea. Results were statistically analyzed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA). For pairwise intergroup multiple comparisons, bonferroni test was applied. The difference between black tea, green tea, and lemon tea were statistically significant (P < 0.001) at 5% of level of significance. Conclusion: Lemon tea at 7.5 g concentration was more effective followed by green tea and black tea against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. PMID:29085267
Herzstock, James J.
Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.
Oz, Helieh S.
Chronic inflammatory diseases affect millions of people globally and the incidence rate is on the rise. While inflammation contributes to the tissue healing process, chronic inflammation can lead to life-long debilitation and loss of tissue function and organ failure. Chronic inflammatory diseases include hepatic, gastrointestinal and neurodegenerative complications which can lead to malignancy. Despite the millennial advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, there remains no effective cure for patients who suffer from inflammatory diseases. Therefore, patients seek alternatives and complementary agents as adjunct therapies to relieve symptoms and possibly to prevent consequences of inflammation. It is well known that green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) are potent antioxidants with important roles in regulating vital signaling pathways. These comprise transcription nuclear factor-kappa B mediated I kappa B kinase complex pathways, programmed cell death pathways like caspases and B-cell lymphoma-2 and intervention with the surge of inflammatory markers like cytokines and production ofcyclooxygenase-2. This paper concisely reviews relevant investigations regarding protective effects of GrTPs and some reported adverse effects, as well as possible applications for GrTPs in the treatment of chronic and inflammatory complications. PMID:28587181
Drummond, Colin K.
A FORTRAN computer program for the semi analytic prediction of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector performance has been developed, based on a theoretical analysis for ejectors. That analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with control-volume mixing region elements. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region allowed flexibility in the modeling of the physics for each region. In particular, the inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady-analysis, justified by the assumption that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Only the mixing region is assumed to be dominated by viscous effects. The present work provides an overview of the code structure, a description of the required input and output data file formats, and the results for a test case. Since there are limitations to the code for applications outside the bounds of the test case, the user should consider TEA as a research code (not as a production code), designed specifically as an implementation of the proposed ejector theory. Program error flags are discussed, and some diagnostic routines are presented.
Stefanick, M.; Jurdy, D. M.
Statistical analyses are compared for two published hot spot data sets, one minimal set of 42 and another larger set of 117, using three different approaches. First, the earths surface is divided into 16 equal-area fractions and the observed distribution of hot spots among them is analyzed using chi-square tests. Second, cumulative distributions about the principal axes of the hot spot inertia tensor are used to describe hot spot distribution. Finally, a hot spot density function is constructed for each of the two hot spot data sets. The methods all indicate that hot spots have a nonuniform distribution, even when statistical fluctuations are considered. To the first order, hot spots are concentrated on one half of of the earth's surface area; within that portion, the distribution is consistent with a uniform distribution. The observed hot spot densities for neither data set are explained solely by plate speed.
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... Larger Image According to researchers funded by the National Science Foundation, several penguin colonies near the Ross Ice Shelf, ... Hut Point Peninsula. For a press release from the National Science Foundation containing additional details and MISR imagery ...
Computer and video gamers of a certain vintage will have fond memories of Lemmings, a game in which players must shepherd pixelated, suicidal rodents around a series of obstacles to reach safety. At first glance, Ice Flows is strikingly similar.
Described is a teaching technique which uses the collection of ice cream sticks as a means of increasing awareness of quantity in a self-contained elementary special class for students with learning disabilities and mild mental retardation. (DB)
Concrete is a porous material. When saturated with water and then cooled to below 00C, it cracks internally. Upon repeated freezing and thawing, the cracks grow, interact, and lead eventually to macroscopic degradation, termed ice damage. This report...
Ion Composition Elucidation (ICE) utilizes selected ion recording with a double focusing mass spectrometer to simultaneously determine exact masses and relative isotopic abundances from mass peak profiles. These can be determined more accurately and at higher sensitivity ...
Layland, J. W.
Acquiring telemetry data from the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) at its encounter with the comet Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985 proved to be among the more difficult challenges the DSN has met in recent years. The ICE spacecraft began its life as an Earth orbiting monitor of the Solar Wind. At the comet, ICE was nearly 50 times as distant as in its initial role, with its signal strength diminished nearly 2500 times. Collecting enough of that weak signal to provide meaningful scientific data about the comet required unique new telemetry capabilities and special handling by the DSN. This article describes the development and validation of the DSN telemetry capability for ICE from its early planning stages through the successful comet encounter.
Jupiter moon Europa, as seen in this image taken June 27, 1996 by NASA Galileo spacecraft, displays features in some areas resembling ice floes seen in Earth polar seas. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00291
Iceberg embedded in sea ice with a lead on one side. This opening was likely caused by winds blowing against the side of the iceberg. Credit: NASA / George Hale NASA's Operation IceBridge is an airborne science mission to study Earth's polar ice. For more information about IceBridge, visit: www.nasa.gov/icebridge NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram
Mass loss from Greenland and Antarctica is highly sensitive to the presence of warm ocean water that drives melting at the grounding line. Rapid melting near the grounding line causes ice shelf thinning, loss of buttressing, flow acceleration, grounding line retreat, and ultimately mass loss and sea-level rise. If the grounding line enters a section of overdeepened bed the ice sheet may even enter a runaway collapse via the marine ice sheet instability. The warm water that triggers this process resides offshore at depth and accesses the grounding line through deep troughs in the continental shelf. In Greenland, warm water transport is further constricted through narrow fjords. Here, I propose blocking warm water transport through these choke points with an artificial sill. Using a simple width- and depth-averaged model of ice stream flow coupled to a buoyant-plume model of ocean melting, I find that grounding line retreat and sea level rise can be delayed or reversed for hundreds of years if warm water is prevented from accessing the grounding line at depth. Blocking of warm water from the sub-ice cavity causes ice shelf thickening, increased buttressing, and grounding line readvance. The increase in buttressing is greatly magnified if the thickened ice shelf regrounds on a bathymetric high or on the artificial sill itself. In some experiments for Thwaites Glacier the grounding line is able to recover from a severely retreated state over 100 km behind its present-day position. Such a dramatic recovery demonstrates that it is possible, at least in principle, to stop and reverse an ongoing marine ice sheet collapse. If the ice shelf regrounds on the artificial sill itself, erosion of the sill beneath the grounded ice could reduce the effectiveness of the intervention. However, experiments including sill erosion suggest that even a very weak sill (1 kPa) could delay a collapse for centuries. The scale of the artificial sills in Greenlandic fjords is comparable to
34.-0 " -4 to -0 ) i ’ to-0 - 0-1J :x0. tf1 0 0 * *4-0 0- - C -4- - t)0o U 4- fa -- Etot 0 In 00)- r 4- a..- - D 4- 0 41 0 --- 0). S- E4JaW 4) 4- CJ - ea... valves ). Figure B2. Icing patterns, copolymer-coated surface left, uncoated right, continuous sheet. 17 Figure B3. Icing pattern, copolymer-coated
the IEEE Spectrum reflects on the deployment of IceCube's last string. (February 2011). From the Daily Californian (January 26, 2011) includes current group photo. From the Guardian and Observer (UK) (January 23 , 2011) NSF Press Release (December 2010) Major Milestone - Completion of the IceCube Detector December
Murawski, Jens; Kleine, Eckhard
Sea ice remains one of the frontiers of ocean modelling and is of vital importance for the correct forecasts of the northern oceans. At large scale, it is commonly considered a continuous medium whose dynamics is modelled in terms of continuum mechanics. Its specifics are a matter of constitutive behaviour which may be characterised as rigid-plastic. The new developed sea ice dynamic module bases on general principles and follows a systematic approach to the problem. Both drift field and stress field are modelled by a variational property. Rigidity is treated by Lagrangian relaxation. Thus one is led to a sensible numerical method. Modelling fast ice remains to be a challenge. It is understood that ridging and the formation of grounded ice keels plays a role in the process. The ice dynamic model includes a parameterisation of the stress associated with grounded ice keels. Shear against the grounded bottom contact might lead to plastic deformation and the loss of integrity. The numerical scheme involves a potentially large system of linear equations which is solved by pre-conditioned iteration. The entire algorithm consists of several components which result from decomposing the problem. The algorithm has been implemented and tested in practice.
Stroeve, Julienne C.; Schroder, David; Tsamados, Michel; Feltham, Daniel
Winter 2016/2017 saw record warmth over the Arctic Ocean, leading to the least amount of freezing degree days north of 70° N since at least 1979. The impact of this warmth was evaluated using model simulations from the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) and CryoSat-2 thickness estimates from three different data providers. While CICE simulations show a broad region of anomalously thin ice in April 2017 relative to the 2011-2017 mean, analysis of three CryoSat-2 products show more limited regions with thin ice and do not always agree with each other, both in magnitude and direction of thickness anomalies. CICE is further used to diagnose feedback processes driving the observed anomalies, showing 11-13 cm reduced thermodynamic ice growth over the Arctic domain used in this study compared to the 2011-2017 mean, and dynamical contributions of +1 to +4 cm. Finally, CICE model simulations from 1985 to 2017 indicate the negative feedback relationship between ice growth and winter air temperatures may be starting to weaken, showing decreased winter ice growth since 2012, as winter air temperatures have increased and the freeze-up has been further delayed.
Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun
Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.
Heo, Ji-Young; Kim, Suna; Kang, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Bokyung
We aimed to identify the optimum conditions for the extraction of lutein from green tea using accelerated solvent extraction, and achieve improved analytical resolution and sensitivity between lutein and zeaxanthin using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system. The optimized method employed 80% ethanol as the extraction solvent, 160 °C as the temperature, 2 static cycles, and 5 min of static time. In the validation of the UPLC method, recovery was found to be in the range approximately 93.73 to 108.79%, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9974 and a relative standard deviation of <9.29% in inter- and intraday precision analyses. Finally, the lutein contents of green tea and green tea by-products were measured as 32.67 ± 0.70 and 18.18 ± 0.68 mg/100g dw, respectively. Furthermore, we verified that green tea by-products, which are discarded after producing green tea beverages, might be used as a great resource for massive lutein production. We have demonstrated that the common problem of inadequate resolution between lutein and zeaxanthin during carotenoid analyses can be overcome by optimizing the combined techniques of accelerated solvent extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). UPLC was highly effective for saving time, solvent, and labor, as well as providing better resolution. The results in this study demonstrated that green tea by-products could be used as new sources for industrial lutein production owing to their massive production during the extraction of green tea beverages. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan
Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.
The spray bar system introduces water droplets into the Icing Research Tunnel’s air stream at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The icing tunnel was designed in the early 1940s to study ice accretion on airfoils and models. The Carrier Corporation designed a refrigeration system that reduced temperatures to -45° F. The tunnel’s drive fan generated speeds up to 400 miles per hour. The uniform injection of water droplets to the air was a key element of the facility’s operation. The system had to generate small droplets, distribute them uniformly throughout the airstream, and resist freezing and blockage. The Icing Research Tunnel’s designers struggled to develop a realistic spray system because they did not have access to data on the size of naturally occurring water droplets. For five years a variety of different designs were painstakingly developed and tested before the system was perfected. This photograph shows one of the trials using eight air-atomizing nozzles placed 48 feet upstream from the test section. A multi-cylinder device measured the size, liquid content, and distribution of the water droplets. The final system that was put into operation in 1950 included six horizontal spray bars with 80 nozzles that produced a 4- by 4-foot cloud in the test section. The Icing Research Tunnel produced excellent data throughout the 1950s and provided the basis for a hot air anti-icing system used on many transport aircraft.
Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R
Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas.
5. NORTHWEST FACADE OF JAPANESE TEA HOUSE, 1950s, BY YOSHIMIERA IN SUKIYA SHOIN STYLE AFTER THE KATSURA IMPERIAL VILLA - Kykuit, Japanese Tea House, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY
Liu, L; Han, C; Chen, J
By using a panel of short term cell biology assays, several ingredients of tea (tea pigments, caffeine, tea polysaccharide, tea polyphenols tablet and mixed tea) were screened in order to investigate their anticarcinogenic effects. The cytokinesis block micronuclei test in V79 cells induced by mitomycin, the test of metabolic cooperation between V79 and M cells and the test of growth ability of Hela cells in soft agar were used in the screening. The results showed that the six kinds of tea ingredients tested were effective in the test involved in different stages of carcinogenesis, i.e. initiation, promotion and progression. The effects of mixed tea and tea pigments were the strongest among the ingredients tested.
Khodadoust, A.; Bragg, M. B.; Kerho, M.; Wells, S.; Soltani, M. R.
The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semi-span wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model has an NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular, untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced wing geometry. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along several spanwise cuts on the model. Preliminary results from LDV scans, which will be the bulk of this paper, are presented following the force balance measurement results. Initial comparison of LDV surveys compare favorably with inviscid theory results and 2D split hot-film measurements near the model surface.
Aleong, J M; Frochot, S; Goff, H D
The effectiveness of propylene glycol monostearate (PGMS) to inhibit ice recrystallization was evaluated in ice cream and frozen sucrose solutions. PGMS (0.3%) dramatically reduced ice crystal sizes in ice cream and in sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer before and after heat shock, but had no effect in quiescently frozen solutions. PGMS showed limited emulsifier properties by promoting smaller fat globule size distributions and enhanced partial coalescence in the mix and ice cream, respectively, but at a much lower level compared to conventional ice cream emulsifier. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy revealed highly irregular crystal morphology in both ice cream and sucrose solutions frozen in a scraped-surface freezer. There was strong evidence to suggest that PGMS directly interacts with ice crystals and interferes with normal surface propagation. Shear during freezing may be required for its distribution around the ice and sufficient surface coverage.
Oude Vrielink, Anneloes S; Aloi, Antonio; Olijve, Luuk L C; Voets, Ilja K
Ice binding proteins (IBPs) are produced by various cold-adapted organisms to protect their body tissues against freeze damage. First discovered in Antarctic fish living in shallow waters, IBPs were later found in insects, microorganisms, and plants. Despite great structural diversity, all IBPs adhere to growing ice crystals, which is essential for their extensive repertoire of biological functions. Some IBPs maintain liquid inclusions within ice or inhibit recrystallization of ice, while other types suppress freezing by blocking further ice growth. In contrast, ice nucleating proteins stimulate ice nucleation just below 0 °C. Despite huge commercial interest and major scientific breakthroughs, the precise working mechanism of IBPs has not yet been unraveled. In this review, the authors outline the state-of-the-art in experimental and theoretical IBP research and discuss future scientific challenges. The interaction of IBPs with ice, water and ions is examined, focusing in particular on ice growth inhibition mechanisms.
Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa
Green tea, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), a major source of flavonoids such as catechins, has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies. These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events, and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate. Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, ischemic heart diseases, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress, preventing inflammatory events, reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals. Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules. Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion. Additionally, catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure. In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Morsy, M. A.; Khaled, M. M.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is utilized to investigate several categories of green and black tea: Twining green tea (TGT), Chinese green tea (CGT), Red-labels black tea (RBT). Basically, two EPR signals from all the studied samples are observed: One of them is a very weak sharp EPR signal with Δ Hpp≅10 G and g-factor=2.00023 superimposed on the other broad signal with Δ Hpp≅550 G and g-factor=2.02489. The broad signal is a characteristic one of manganese(II) complex, while the sharp signal is related to a stable radical of aromatic origin exist in a powder condition. The feature of the manganese EPR signal is attributed to manganese(II) complex and reflected the molecular behavior of Mn(II) in the protein system of the natural leaves. The sharp signal, which is most probably due to a semiquinones radicals, is observed at room temperature and its intensity is remarkably affected by photo degradation of the studied samples. The intensity of manganese(II) EPR signal is found to be related to ageing and disintegration of the tea leaves. Moreover, direct relation between the relative intensity of the semiquinones radical signal and antioxidant activity of the studied samples was also correlated.
Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M
The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.
Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj
The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p < 0.05) in air-dried green tea-yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.
Su, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lu, I-Hsuan; Chiang, Yih-Shien; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Pao-Yang; Lin, Chung-Yen
Bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) has become a standard technology to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution. It allows researchers to conduct genome-wise cytosine methylation analyses on issues about genomic imprinting, transcriptional regulation, cellular development and differentiation. One single data from a BS-Seq experiment is resolved into many features according to the sequence contexts, making methylome data analysis and data visualization a complex task. We developed a streamlined platform, TEA, for analyzing and visualizing data from whole-genome BS-Seq (WGBS) experiments conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To capture the essence of the genome methylation level and to meet the efficiency for running online, we introduce a straightforward method for measuring genome methylation in each sequence context by gene. The method is scripted in Java to process BS-Seq mapping results. Through a simple data uploading process, the TEA server deploys a web-based platform for deep analysis by linking data to an updated Arabidopsis annotation database and toolkits. TEA is an intuitive and efficient online platform for analyzing the Arabidopsis genomic DNA methylation landscape. It provides several ways to help users exploit WGBS data. TEA is freely accessible for academic users at: http://tea.iis.sinica.edu.tw .
Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Stott-Miller, Marni; Stanford, Janet L.
Background Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer. Methods We investigated associations of pre-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption with risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date. Prostate cancer outcome events were identified using a detailed follow-up survey. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The analysis of coffee intake in relation to prostate cancer recurrence/progression included 630 patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years, during which 140 prostate cancer recurrence/progression events were recorded. Approximately 61% of patients consumed at least one cup of coffee per day. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.81; P for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14% of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Conclusion Results indicate that pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. This finding will require replication in larger studies. PMID:23907772
Hu, Gang; Bidel, Siamak; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko
Several prospective studies have assessed the association between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but the results are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of incident PD among 29,335 Finnish subjects aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 102 men and 98 women developed an incident PD. The multivariate-adjusted (age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol and tea consumption, and history of diabetes) hazard ratios (HRs) of PD associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0, 1-4, and > or = 5 cups) were 1.00, 0.55, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.063) in men, 1.00, 0.50, and 0.39 (P for trend = 0.073) in women, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.40 (P for trend = 0.005) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex), respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of PD for subjects drinking > or = 3 cups of tea daily compared with tea nondrinkers was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.83). These results suggest that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. More tea drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.
Chandini, S K; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Gowthaman, M K; Haware, D J; Subramanian, R
Enzymatic extraction was investigated to improve the quality of black tea extracts with pretreatment of pectinase and tannase independently, successively and simultaneously. Pectinase improved the extractable-solids-yield (ESY) up to 11.5%, without much of an improvement in polyphenols recovery, while tannase pre-treatment showed a significant improvement in polyphenols recovery (14.3%) along with an 11.1% improvement in ESY. Among the four treatments, tannase-alone treatment showed the maximum improvement in tea quality, with higher polyphenols-in-extracted solids. Treatments involving tannase resulted in the significant release of gallic acid, due to its hydrolytic activity, leading to greater solubility besides favourably improving TF/TR ratio. The results suggested that employing a single enzyme, tannase, for the pre-treatment of black tea is desirable. Enzymatic extraction may be preferred over enzymatic clarification as it not only displayed reduction in tea cream and turbidity but also improved the recovery of polyphenols and ESY in the extract, as well as maintaining a good balance of tea quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joughin, Ian; Kwok, Ron; Fahnestock, M.; MacAyeal, Doug
Early observations with ERS-1 SAR image data revealed a large ice stream in North East Greenland (Fahnestock 1993). The ice stream has a number of the characteristics of the more closely studied ice streams in Antarctica, including its large size and gross geometry. The onset of rapid flow close to the ice divide and the evolution of its flow pattern, however, make this ice stream unique. These features can be seen in the balance velocities for the ice stream (Joughin 1997) and its outlets. The ice stream is identifiable for more than 700 km, making it much longer than any other flow feature in Greenland. Our research goals are to gain a greater understanding of the ice flow in the northeast Greenland ice stream and its outlet glaciers in order to assess their impact on the past, present, and future mass balance of the ice sheet. We will accomplish these goals using a combination of remotely sensed data and ice sheet models. We are using satellite radar interferometry data to produce a complete maps of velocity and topography over the entire ice stream. We are in the process of developing methods to use these data in conjunction with existing ice sheet models similar to those that have been used to improve understanding of the mechanics of flow in Antarctic ice streams.
These thermal images show a hot south pole on the planet Neptune. These warmer temperatures provide an avenue for methane to escape out of the deep atmosphere. The images were obtained with the Very Large Telescope in Chile Sept. 1 and 2, 2006.
interferométrico sobre binarias calientes y estrellas múltiples, desde las primeras inter- ferometŕıas oculares hasta recientes catastros de “speckle” y...óptica adaptativa. Se discute la multiplicidad fraccionaria de cúmulos, campos y “runaway” de estrellas O. ABSTRACT Interferometric work on hot binary
Nozik, Arthur J.
In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.
Allen, David J.; Tomazic, William A.
As part of the DOE/NASA Automotive Stirling Engine Project, tests were made at NASA Lewis Research Center to determine whether appendix gap losses could be reduced and Stirling engine performance increased by installing an additional piston ring near the top of each piston dome. An MTI-designed upgraded Mod I Automotive Stirling Engine was used. Unlike the conventional rings at the bottom of the piston, these hot rings operated in a high temperature environment (700 C). They were made of a high temperature alloy (Stellite 6B) and a high temperature solid lubricant coating (NASA Lewis-developed PS-200) was applied to the cylinder walls. Engine tests were run at 5, 10, and 15 MPa operating pressure over a range of operating speeds. Tests were run both with hot rings and without to provide a baseline for comparison. Minimum data to assess the potential of both the hot rings and high temperature low friction coating was obtained. Results indicated a slight increase in power and efficiency, an increase over and above the friction loss introduced by the hot rings. Seal leakage measurements showed a significant reduction. Wear on both rings and coating was low.
Brisco, Nicole D.
In the past, the newspaper was one of the world's most used sources of information. Recently, however, its use has declined due to the popularity of cable television and the Internet. Yet the idea of reading the morning paper with a hot cup of coffee holds many warm memories for children who watched their parents in this daily ritual. In this…
The long-term cooling of Earth's mantle is recorded in the declining temperature and volume of its volcanic outpourings over time. However, analyses of 89-million-year-old lavas from Costa Rica suggest that extremely hot mantle still lurks below.
Nozik, Arthur J.
In current solar cells, any photon energy exceeding the semiconductor bandgap is lost before being collected, limiting the cell performance. Hot carrier solar cells could avoid these losses. Now, a detailed experimental study and analysis shows that this strategy could lead to an improvement of the photoconversion efficiency in practice.
Unachukwu, Uchenna J; Ahmed, Selena; Kavalier, Adam; Lyles, James T; Kennelly, Edward J
Recent investigations have associated white teas with anti-carcinogenic, immune-boosting, and antioxidative properties that may impact human health in a manner comparable to green teas. An in-depth chemical analysis of white tea types was conducted to quantify polyphenols and antioxidant potential of 8 commercially available white teas, and compare them to green tea. Extraction and HPLC protocols were optimized and validated for the quantification of 9 phenolic and 3 methylxanthine compounds to examine inter- and intra-variation in white and green tea types and subtypes. A sampling strategy was devised to assess various subtypes procured from different commercial sources. Variation in antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of both tea types was further assessed by the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau (F-C) assays, respectively. Total catechin content (TCC) for white teas ranged widely from 14.40 to 369.60 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 47.16 to 163.94 mg/g for methanol extracts. TCC for green teas also ranged more than 10-fold, from 21.38 to 228.20 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 32.23 to 141.24 mg/g for methanol extracts. These findings indicate that statements suggesting a hierarchical order of catechin content among tea types are inconclusive and should be made with attention to a sampling strategy that specifies the tea subtype and its source. Certain white teas have comparable quantities of total catechins to some green teas, but lesser antioxidant capacity, suggesting that white teas have fewer non-catechin antioxidants present. Practical Application: In this investigation white and green teas were extracted in ways that mimic common tea preparation practices, and their chemical profiles were determined using validated analytical chemistry methods. The results suggest certain green and white tea types have comparable levels of catechins with potential health promoting qualities
1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Wave -Ice and Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction During the...Chukchi Sea in the late summer have potentially changed the impact of fall storms by creating wave fields in the vicinity of the advancing ice edge. A...first) wave -ice interaction field experiment that adequately documents the relationship of a growing pancake ice cover with a time and space varying
Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T
Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.
Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J
Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.
Hodson, A. J.
It is well known from ice cores that organic and mineral debris accumulates within glacier ice following atmospheric deposition. However, the concentrations of such debris are usually greatest upon the ice surface, especially at the margins of continental glaciers and ice sheets, where it forms mm-scale aggregate particles called “cryoconite”. According to the literature, cryoconite covers about 2 % of the ablation areas of glaciers outside Greenland and Antarctica, equivalent to a mass loading of ca. 25 g/m2. Of the great ice sheets not included in this figure, Greenland is the easiest to estimate, and new observations from the NE and SW sectors indicate mass loadings in the range 17 - 440 g/m2. Studies of cryoconite often report the presence of a significant biomass (usually 10^4 - 10^7 cells/g) that is capable of a wide range of biogeochemical functions. The first part of this presentation will therefore explore the contention that the formation of cryoconite represents the first stages of pedogenesis, resulting in the production of soil-type aggregates that inoculate glacial forefields following glacier retreat. Emphasis will be given to the relevant processes that result in aggregate formation, including rapid cell-mineral attachment within melting snowpacks and the slower, biological processes of cementation within thermodynamically stable habitats such as cryoconite holes. The second part of the presentation will use examples from Svalbard, Greenland and Antarctica to consider the carbon balance of the cryoconite during the longest phase of its life cycle: upon the ice. It will be demonstrated how the efficacy of photosynthesis is strongly influenced by thermodynamic conditions at or near this surface. Data from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will show how thermal equilibration decouples variations in photosynthesis from variations in incident radiation over timescales > 1 d, resulting in an equitable, low-carbon economy for aggregates within
Rutting of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement at or near intersections is very common both in cold and hot climates. Obviously, the problem is more acute in hot climates compared to cold climates because the stiffness of HMA decreases with increase in pa...
Arifan, Fahmi; Winarni, Sri; Handoyo, Gentur; Nurdiana, Asri; Nabila Rahma H, Afkar; Risdiyanti, Sri
There are so many jasmine plantations without any preservation and post production in Kaliprau, Pemalang. The aims of this research are analyzing the amount of antioxidant and organoleptic-hedonic test. The measurement of antioxidant used in this research is using DPPH. The organoleptic and hedonic test on 25 respondents. Jasmines that been used on this research are the flower and the root part. Through the test, some results have been found from the jasmine tea’s sampling with the boiling time of 15 minutes and it contain antioxidant for about 55.0% and 74.84% for the jasmine root tea. Whereas for the boiling time of 30 minutes, it contained 54.00% of antioxidant for the jasmine tea and 84.00% of antioxidant in jasmine root tea. Jasmine tea and jasmine root tea contains flavonoids. Despite the large amount of antioxidant were found in jasmine tea and jasmine root tea (50-100%). There’s a decreasing of antioxidant amount found in the samples, along with the prolonged boiling time. 84% of tresponden like the scent, flavor, color and the texture of jasmine tea and jasmine root tea. These products are finally accepted by the people and have its large amount of antioxidant contain for the jasmine tea.
Thomas, R. H.
Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.
Thomas, R. H.
Satellite remote sensing provides unique opportunities for observing ice-covered terrain. Passive-microwave data give information on snow extent on land, sea-ice extent and type, and zones of summer melting on the polar ice sheets, with the potential for estimating snow-accumulation rates on these ice sheets. All weather, high-resolution imagery of sea ice is obtained using synthetic aperture radars, and ice-movement vectors can be deduced by comparing sequential images of the same region. Radar-altimetry data provide highly detailed information on ice-sheet topography, with the potential for deducing thickening/thinning rates from repeat surveys. The coastline of Antarctica can be mapped accurately using altimetry data, and the size and spatial distribution of icebergs can be monitored. Altimetry data also distinguish open ocean from pack ice and they give an indication of sea-ice characteristics.
... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i) Responses...
Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...
Studies of the influence of tea on glucose metabolism have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to lack of dietary control and/or unclear characterization of tea products. Therefore, a double-blind crossover study was conducted in which healthy males (n=19) consumed each of three oolong tea ...
Lin, Xiaorong; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Bin
Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates. In addition, iron, copper, nickel, proteins, and gallated catechins exhibited higher aggregating affinity than other components, whereas methylxanthines and calcium contributed to the transformation of nano-aggregates into tea cream. Green tea nano-aggregates were partly destroyed by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and removing theses peculiar particles dramatically attenuated the bioaccessibility of methylxanthines, theanine, and some catechin monomers in green tea infusions. This study enhanced our knowledge of molecular interactions in the formation of green tea cream and provided insight into physicochemical profiles, phytochemical nature, and functional effects of green tea nano-aggregates.
Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Mul...
Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying
Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618
Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping
Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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... filed through the TEAS. 2.53 Section 2.53 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for drawings filed through the TEAS. The drawing must meet the requirements of § 2.52. In addition, in a TEAS submission, the drawing must meet the following requirements: (a) Standard character drawings...
... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i) Responses...
Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...
The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...
Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun
The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.
Hu, Jiang; Webster, Donna; Cao, Joyce; Shao, Andrew
A systematic review of published toxicology and human intervention studies was performed to characterize potential hazards associated with consumption of green tea and its preparations. A review of toxicological evidence from laboratory studies revealed the liver as the target organ and hepatotoxicity as the critical effect, which was strongly associated with certain dosing conditions (e.g. bolus dose via gavage, fasting), and positively correlated with total catechin and epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) content. A review of adverse event (AE) data from 159 human intervention studies yielded findings consistent with toxicological evidence in that a limited range of concentrated, catechin-rich green tea preparations resulted in hepatic AEs in a dose-dependent manner when ingested in large bolus doses, but not when consumed as brewed tea or extracts in beverages or as part of food. Toxico- and pharmacokinetic evidence further suggests internal dose of catechins is a key determinant in the occurrence and severity of hepatotoxicity. A safe intake level of 338 mg EGCG/day for adults was derived from toxicological and human safety data for tea preparations ingested as a solid bolus dose. An Observed Safe Level (OSL) of 704 mg EGCG/day might be considered for tea preparations in beverage form based on human AE data. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liao, Min; Shi, Yan-Hong; Cao, Hai-Qun; Fang, Qing-Kui; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Hua, Ri-Mao
The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm -2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were C t = 0.0227e 0.0566t (R² = 0.9154) and C t = 0.0298e -0.0306t (R² = 0.7156), and were C t = 3.8435e 0.055t (R² = 0.9698) and C t = 1.5627e -0.048t (R² = 0.9634) for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.
Kim, Yoo Suk; Kim, Chul-Ho
In the era of personalized medicine, selecting the ideal treatment modality for head and neck cancer is becoming more complex. Also, despite the use of the newest agents, overall survival has not been improved notably over the past few decades. Currently, in accordance with the development of diagnostic tools, prevention and early detection of cancer are being emphasized more in obtaining better treatment outcomes. Among the various cancer preventative methods, the use of green tea is one of the most common approaches, and tea is known to be involved in multiple steps of carcinogenesis. Thus, in this short review, the protective roles of green tea components against the initiation, progression, and metastasis of head and neck malignancies will be discussed.
Frazier, Richard A; Deaville, Eddie R; Green, Rebecca J; Stringano, Elisabetta; Willoughby, Ian; Plant, John; Mueller-Harvey, Irene
Binding parameters for the interactions of four types of tannins: tea catechins, grape seed proanthocyanidins, mimosa 5-deoxy proanthocyanidins, and sorghum procyanidins (mDP=17), with gelatin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been determined from isothermal titration calorimetry data. Equilibrium binding constants determined for the interaction with gelatin were in the range 10(4) to 10(6) M(-1) and in the order: sorghum procyanidins > grape seed proanthocyanidins > mimosa 5-deoxy proanthocyanidins > tea catechins. Interaction with BSA was generally weaker, with equilibrium binding constants of < or =10(3)M(-1) for grape seed proanthocyanidins, mimosa 5-deoxy proanthocyanidins and tea catechins, and 10(4)M(-1) for the sorghum procyanidins. In all cases the interactions with proteins were exothermic and involved multiple binding sites on the protein. The data are discussed in relation to the structures and the known nutritional effects of the condensed tannins.
Hasan, H A H
The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.
Row, Kyung Ho; Jin, Yinzhe
Catechin compounds from Korean green tea as potential sources of anticancer and antioxidant components were target materials in this work. The methodologies of solvent extraction and partition were utilized to recover catechin compounds from green tea. The optimum experimental condition was obtained by optimizing operating factors, such as, the extraction solvent, extraction time and operating temperature. After extracting the green tea with water at 80 degrees C for 40 min, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the catechin compounds of EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG. The experimental result in this work could be extended to preparative HPLC to obtain EGCG on commercial scale.
A new recovery system which uses waste heat generated by an Illinois ice rink's compressors for space heating and domestic hot water will benefit from low off-peak electricity rates at a time when demand rates for the rink will be increasing 30%. The thermal storage system uses the same compressors to build ice. The Wilmette Centennial Park Recreation Complex expects to reduce gas and electricity costs by 40%, or about $100,000 per year. Part of the project involved installing new, high-efficiency compressor motors. A preliminary energy audit revealed that the old compressors were throwing off 2.25 million Btu of heatmore » per hour. An air-to-water heat exchanger now provides space heating as needed. Two double-vented heat exchangers generate hot water for swimming pools and the ice-making machine. The ice storage tank is used for cooling. An energy management system controls these and other building systems.« less
Dykstra, Joseph H; Hill, Holly M; Miller, Michael G; Cheatham, Christopher C; Michael, Timothy J; Baker, Robert J
Context: Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different types of cold application, including cold whirlpools, ice packs, and chemical packs. However, few have investigated the effectiveness of different types of ice used in ice packs, even though ice is one of the most common forms of cold application. Objective: To evaluate and compare the cooling effectiveness of ice packs made with cubed, crushed, and wetted ice on intramuscular and skin surface temperatures. Design: Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. Setting: Human performance research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twelve healthy participants (6 men, 6 women) with no history of musculoskeletal disease and no known preexisting inflammatory conditions or recent orthopaedic injuries to the lower extremities. Intervention(s): Ice packs made with cubed, crushed, or wetted ice were applied to a standardized area on the posterior aspect of the right gastrocnemius for 20 minutes. Each participant was given separate ice pack treatments, with at least 4 days between treatment sessions. Main Outcome Measure(s): Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus one-half skinfold measurement) temperatures of the right gastrocnemius were measured every 30 seconds during a 20-minute baseline period, a 20-minute treatment period, and a 120-minute recovery period. Results: Differences were observed among all treatments. Compared with the crushed-ice treatment, the cubed-ice and wetted-ice treatments produced lower surface and intramuscular temperatures. Wetted ice produced the greatest overall temperature change during treatment and recovery, and crushed ice produced the smallest change. Conclusions: As administered in our protocol, wetted ice was superior to cubed or crushed ice at reducing surface temperatures, whereas both cubed ice and wetted ice were superior to crushed ice at reducing intramuscular temperatures. PMID:19295957
Stokes, C R; Margold, M; Clark, C D; Tarasov, L
The contribution of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets to sea level has increased in recent decades, largely owing to the thinning and retreat of outlet glaciers and ice streams. This dynamic loss is a serious concern, with some modelling studies suggesting that the collapse of a major ice sheet could be imminent or potentially underway in West Antarctica, but others predicting a more limited response. A major problem is that observations used to initialize and calibrate models typically span only a few decades, and, at the ice-sheet scale, it is unclear how the entire drainage network of ice streams evolves over longer timescales. This represents one of the largest sources of uncertainty when predicting the contributions of ice sheets to sea-level rise. A key question is whether ice streams might increase and sustain rates of mass loss over centuries or millennia, beyond those expected for a given ocean-climate forcing. Here we reconstruct the activity of 117 ice streams that operated at various times during deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (from about 22,000 to 7,000 years ago) and show that as they activated and deactivated in different locations, their overall number decreased, they occupied a progressively smaller percentage of the ice sheet perimeter and their total discharge decreased. The underlying geology and topography clearly influenced ice stream activity, but--at the ice-sheet scale--their drainage network adjusted and was linked to changes in ice sheet volume. It is unclear whether these findings can be directly translated to modern ice sheets. However, contrary to the view that sees ice streams as unstable entities that can accelerate ice-sheet deglaciation, we conclude that ice streams exerted progressively less influence on ice sheet mass balance during the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.
Ruff, Gary A.; Anderson, David N.
The comparison of ice accretion characteristics is an integral part of aircraft icing research. It is often necessary to compare an ice accretion obtained from a flight test or numerical simulation to one produced in an icing wind tunnel or for validation of an icing scaling method. Traditionally, this has been accomplished by overlaying two-dimensional tracings of ice accretion shapes. This paper addresses the basic question of how to compare ice accretions using more quantitative methods. For simplicity, geometric characteristics of the ice accretions are used for the comparison. One method evaluated is a direct comparison of the percent differences of the geometric measurements. The second method inputs these measurements into a fuzzy inference system to obtain a single measure of the goodness of the comparison. The procedures are demonstrated by comparing ice shapes obtained in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center during recent icing scaling tests. The results demonstrate that this type of analysis is useful in quantifying the similarity of ice accretion shapes and that the procedures should be further developed by expanding the analysis to additional icing data sets.
Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.
The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in
Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Wang, Hui; Song, Lubin; Jia, Sisi; Ma, Dexin
The research of physiological responses to Zn stress in plants has been extensively studied. However, the ionomics and metabolomics responses of plants to Zn stress remain largely unknown. In present study, the nutrient elements were identified involved in ion homeostasis and metabolomics changes related to Zn deficiency or excess in tea plants. Nutrient element analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Zn affected the ion-uptake in roots and the nutrient element transportation to leaves, leading to the different distribution of P, S, Al, Ca, Fe and Cu in the tea leaves or roots. Metabolomics analysis revealed that Zn deficiency or excess differentially influenced the metabolic pathways in the tea leaves. More specifically, Zn deficiency affected the metabolism of carbohydrates, and Zn excess affected flavonoids metabolism. Additionally, the results showed that both Zn deficiency and Zn excess led to reduced nicotinamide levels, which speeded up NAD + degradation and thus reduced energy metabolism. Furthermore, element-metabolite correlation analysis illustrated that Zn contents in the tea leaves were positively correlated with organic acids, nitrogenous metabolites and some carbohydrate metabolites, and negatively correlated with the metabolites involved in secondary metabolism and some other carbohydrate metabolites. Meanwhile, metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis demonstrated that organic acids, sugars, amino acids and flavonoids played dominant roles in the regulation of the tea leaf metabolism under Zn stress. Therefore, the conclusion should be drawn that the tea plants responded to Zn stress by coordinating ion-uptake and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, nitrogenous metabolites, and flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.
Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= −0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816
Feng, L; Li, J; Ng, T-P; Lee, T-S; Kua, E-H; Zeng, Y
We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. population-based longitudinal cohort study. The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= -0.12, P=0.02; "Time" was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese.
Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed
The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This image is a portion of the all-sky survey from NASA WISE. It highlights the first of about 1,000 hot DOGs found by the mission magenta circle. Hot DOGs are hot dust-obscured galaxies and are among the most powerful galaxies known.