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Sample records for iced tea hot

  1. Removal of caffeine from green tea by microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zaixiang; Er, Chaojuan; Li, Jing; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Sun, Juntao

    2012-02-24

    In order to selectively remove caffeine from green tea, a microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction (MVIE) method was proposed. The effects of MVIE variables including extraction time, microwave power, and solvent to solid radio on the removal yield of caffeine and the loss of total phenolics (TP) from green tea were investigated. The optimized conditions were as follows: solvent (mL) to solid (g) ratio was 10:1, microwave extraction time was 6 min, microwave power was 350 W and 2.5 h of vacuum ice water extraction. The removal yield of caffeine by MVIE was 87.6%, which was significantly higher than that by hot water extraction, indicating a significant improvement of removal efficiency. Moreover, the loss of TP of green tea in the proposed method was much lower than that in the hot water extraction. After decaffeination by MVIE, the removal yield of TP tea was 36.2%, and the content of TP in green tea was still higher than 170 mg g(-1). Therefore, the proposed microwave-enhanced vacuum ice water extraction was selective, more efficient for the removal of caffeine. The main phenolic compounds of green tea were also determined, and the results indicated that the contents of several catechins were almost not changed in MVIE. This study suggests that MVIE is a new and good alternative for the removal of caffeine from green tea, with a great potential for industrial application. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold?

    PubMed

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: -5 ± 1 beats.min -1 ; hot tea: -1 ± 1 beats.min -1 , p < 0.05), double product, skin blood flow and hand temperature and (2) an increase in baroreflex sensitivity, fat oxidation and energy expenditure (cold tea: +8.3%; hot tea: +3.7%, p < 0.05). Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion, we observed no differences of tea temperature on cardiac output work and mean blood pressure responses. Conclusion: Ingestion of an unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at cold temperature induced a greater stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation than hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control.

  3. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold?

    PubMed Central

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: −5 ± 1 beats.min−1; hot tea: −1 ± 1 beats.min−1, p < 0.05), double product, skin blood flow and hand temperature and (2) an increase in baroreflex sensitivity, fat oxidation and energy expenditure (cold tea: +8.3%; hot tea: +3.7%, p < 0.05). Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion, we observed no differences of tea temperature on cardiac output work and mean blood pressure responses. Conclusion: Ingestion of an unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at cold temperature induced a greater stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation than hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control. PMID:29681860

  4. Evaluation of ice-tea quality by DART-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Rajchl, Aleš; Prchalová, Jana; Kružík, Vojtěch; Ševčík, Rudolf; Čížková, Helena

    2015-11-01

    DART (Direct Analysis in Real Time) coupled with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF/MS) has been used for analyses of ice-teas. The article focuses on quality and authenticity of ice-teas as one of the most important tea-based products on the market. Twenty-one samples of ice-teas (black and green) were analysed. Selected compounds of ice-teas were determined: theobromine, caffeine, total phenolic compounds, total soluble solids, total amino acid concentration, preservatives and saccharides were determined. Fingerprints of DART-TOF/MS spectra were used for comprehensive assessment of the ice-tea samples. The DART-TOF/MS method was used for monitoring the following compounds: citric acid, caffeine, saccharides, artificial sweeteners (saccharin, acesulphame K), and preservatives (sorbic and benzoic acid), phosphoric acid and phenolic compounds. The measured data were subjected to a principal components analysis. The HPLC and DART-TOF/MS methods were compared in terms of determination of selected compounds (caffeine, benzoic acid, sorbic acid and saccharides) in the ice-teas. The DART-TOF/MS technique seems to be a suitable method for fast screening, testing quality and authenticity of tea-based products. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Corneal Staining and Hot Black Tea Compresses.

    PubMed

    Achiron, Asaf; Birger, Yael; Karmona, Lily; Avizemer, Haggay; Bartov, Elisha; Rahamim, Yocheved; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia

    2017-03-01

    Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects. To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye. We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium's integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use. Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid. An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.

  6. Tea consumption is inversely associated with weight status and other markers for Metabolic Syndrome in U.S. adults1

    PubMed Central

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a widely consumed beverage, and laboratory and some intervention studies have indicated the potential health benefits of hot tea. The present study examines the association between tea consumption (evaluating hot and iced tea independently) and markers for MetS adults in a sample of 6,472 who participated in the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES) surveys. Methods Tea consumption was evaluated using food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour dietary recalls. Seventy percent of the sample reported any consumption of iced tea, and 16% were daily consumers; whereas approximately 56% of this sample reported hot tea consumption and 9% were daily consumers. Results Hot tea consumption was inversely associated with obesity: tea consumers had lower mean waist circumference and lower BMI (25 vs. 28 kg/m2 in men; 26 vs. 29 kg/m2 in women; both P<0.001), than non-consumers after controlling for age, physical activity, total energy intake, and other confounders. For iced tea consumption, the association was reversed: increased iced tea consumption was associated with higher BMI, greater waist circumference, and greater subcutaneous skinfold thickness after controlling for age, physical activity, energy intake, sugar intake, and other confounders. Hot tea consumption was associated with beneficial biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk and inflammation (increased high density lipoprotein-associated cholesterol and decreased C-reactive protein in both sexes, and reduced triglycerides in women), whereas the association with iced tea consumption was again reversed. Conclusions These cross-sectional results support growing laboratory data which demonstrate the negative association of hot tea intake with markers of MetS. PMID:22777108

  7. Use of a Tea Infuser to Submerge Low-Density Dry Ice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fictorie, Carl P.; Vitz, Ed

    2004-01-01

    A simple tea infuser is obtained and been used as a container for the dry ice to simulate the effect from high-density dry ice. The tea infuser is a simple, low cost device to allow instructors with access to dry ice makers to effectively use the interesting demonstration.

  8. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  9. Joint effects of citrus peel use and black tea intake on the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Iman A; Harris, Robin B

    2001-01-01

    Background Differences in tea drinking habits and/or citrus peel use are likely to vary by populations and could contribute to the inconsistencies found between studies comparing their consumption and cancer risk. Methods A population-based case-control study was used to evaluate the relationships between citrus peel use and black tea intake and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin. Moreover, we assessed the independent and interactive effects of citrus peel and black tea in the development of SCC. Results Hot and iced teas were consumed by 30.7% and 51.8% of the subjects, respectively. Peel consumption was reported by 34.5% of subjects. Controls were more likely than were cases to report citrus peel use (odds ratio (OR) = 0.67) and hot tea intake (OR = 0.79). After adjustment for hot and iced tea intake, the ORs associated with citrus peel use were 0.55 and 0.69, respectively, whereas the corresponding adjusted ORs for hot and iced tea intake after adjustment for citrus peel use were 0.87 and 1.22 respectively. Compared with those who did not consume hot black tea or citrus peel, the adjusted ORs associated with sole consumption of hot black tea or citrus peel were 0.60 and 0.30, respectively. Subjects who reported consumption of both hot black tea and citrus peel had a significant marked decrease (OR= 0.22; 95% CI = 0.10 – 0.51) risk of skin SCC. Conclusion These results indicate that both citrus peel use and strong (hot) black tea have independent potential protective effects in relation to skin SCC. PMID:11527506

  10. Evaluation of Listeria monocytogenes survival in ice cream mixes flavored with herbal tea using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ismet; Golec, Adem; Karaman, Safa; Sagdic, Osman; Kayacier, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the effects of the incorporation of some herbal teas at different concentrations into the ice cream mix on the population of Listeria monocytogenes were studied using Taguchi method. The ice cream mix samples flavored with herbal teas were prepared using green tea and sage at different concentrations. Afterward, fresh culture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated into the samples and the L. monocytogenes was counted at different storage periods. Taguchi method was used for experimental design and analysis. In addition, some physicochemical properties of samples were examined. Results suggested that there was some effect, although little, on the population of L. monocytogenes when herbal tea was incorporated into the ice cream mix. Additionally, the use of herbal tea caused a decrease in the pH values of the samples and significant changes in the color values.

  11. Pre-cometary ice composition from hot core chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tornow, Carmen; Kührt, Ekkehard; Motschmann, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Pre-cometary ice located around star-forming regions contains molecules that are pre-biotic compounds or pre-biotic precursors. Molecular line surveys of hot cores provide information on the composition of the ice since it sublimates near these sites. We have combined a hydrostatic hot core model with a complex network of chemical reactions to calculate the time-dependent abundances of molecules, ions, and radicals. The model considers the interaction between the ice and gas phase. It is applied to the Orion hot core where high-mass star formation occurs, and to the solar-mass binary protostar system IRAS 16293-2422. Our calculations show that at the end of the hot core phase both star-forming sites produce the same prebiotic CN-bearing molecules. However, in the Orion hot core these molecules are formed in larger abundances. A comparison of the calculated values with the abundances derived from the observed line data requires a chemically unprocessed molecular cloud as the initial state of hot core evolution. Thus, it appears that these objects are formed at a much younger cloud stage than previously thought. This implies that the ice phase of the young clouds does not contain CN-bearing molecules in large abundances before the hot core has been formed. The pre-biotic molecules synthesized in hot cores cause a chemical enrichment in the gas phase and in the pre-cometary ice. This enrichment is thought to be an important extraterrestrial aspect of the formation of life on Earth and elsewhere.

  12. Ice-cooled vest for work in hot mines

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1979-04-01

    A specially designed ice-cooled vest is worn while working in hot environments where cooling the mine air is not possible. The vest holds a total of 44 individual ice cells in packets that are firmly held near the wearer's skin. These ice cells remove heat from the wearer, reducing heat stress and increasing comfort. Laboratory testing at Pennsylvania State University showed that the cooling vest greatly prolongs the time that men can work in hot environments. Rescue men, wearing breathing apparatus and working in very humid air at 96/sup 0/F were able to work about 40% longer when using themore » vest. The vest has also been tested for several months in a chemical plant.« less

  13. HOT WATER DRILL FOR TEMPERATE ICE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Philip L.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a high-pressure hot-water drill is described, which has been used reliably in temperate ice to depths of 400 meters with an average drill rate of about 1. 5 meters per minute. One arrangement of the equipment weighs about 500 kilograms, and can be contained on two sleds, each about 3 meters long. Simplified performance equations are given, and experiments with nozzle design suggest a characteristic number describing the efficiency of each design, and a minimum bore-hole diameter very close to 6 centimeters for a hot water drill. Also discussed is field experience with cold weather, water supply, and contact with englacial cavities and the glacier bed.

  14. Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.

    PubMed

    Okaru, Alex O; Rullmann, Anke; Farah, Adriana; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira; Stern, Mariana C; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2018-03-01

    Consumption of very hot (> 65 °C) beverages is probably associated with increased risk of oesophageal cancer. First associations were reported for yerba mate and it was initially believed that high content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might explain the risk. Later research on other beverage groups such as tea and coffee, which are also consumed very hot, found associations with increased risk of oesophageal cancer as well. The risk may therefore not be inherent in any compound contained in mate, but due to temperature. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the risk of PAH in comparison with the risk of the temperature effect using the margin of exposure (MOE) methodology. The human dietary benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, and benzo[b]fluoranthene) exposure through consumption of coffee, mate, and tea was estimated. The oesophageal cancer risk assessment for both PAH and temperature was conducted using the MOE approach. Considering differences in the transfer of the PAH from the leaves of mate and tea or from the ground coffee to the infusion, and considering the different preparation methods, exposures may vary considerably. The average individual exposure in μg/kg bw/day arising from consumption of 1 cup (0.2 L) of infusion was highest for mate (2.85E-04 BaP and 7.22E-04 PAH4). The average per capita exposure in μg/kg bw/day was as follows: coffee (4.21E-04 BaP, 4.15E-03 PAH4), mate (4.26E-03 BaP, 2.45E-02 PAH4), and tea (8.03E-04 BaP, 4.98E-03 PAH4). For all individual and population-based exposure scenarios, the average MOE for BaP and PAH4 was > 100,000 independent of beverage type. MOE values in this magnitude are considered as a very low risk. On the contrary, the MOE for the temperature effect was estimated as < 1 for very hot drinking temperatures, corroborating epidemiological observations about a probable oesophageal cancer risk caused by this behaviour. The

  15. Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Freedman, Neal D.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Sweetened beverages, coffee, and tea are the most consumed non-alcoholic beverages and may have important health consequences. We prospectively evaluated the consumption of various types of beverages assessed in 1995–1996 in relation to self-reported depression diagnosis after 2000 among 263,923 participants of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regressions. The OR (95% CI) comparing ≥4 cans/cups per day with none were 1.30 (95%CI: 1.17–1.44) for soft drinks, 1.38 (1.15–1.65) for fruit drinks, and 0.91 (0.84–0.98) for coffee (all P for trend<0.0001). Null associations were observed for iced-tea and hot tea. In stratified analyses by drinkers of primarily diet versus regular beverages, the ORs were 1.31 (1.16–1.47) for diet versus 1.22 (1.03–1.45) for regular soft drinks, 1.51 (1.18–1.92) for diet versus 1.08 (0.79–1.46) for regular fruit drinks, and 1.25 (1.10–1.41) for diet versus 0.94 (0.83–1.08) for regular sweetened iced-tea. Finally, compared to nondrinkers, drinking coffee or tea without any sweetener was associated with a lower risk for depression, adding artificial sweeteners, but not sugar or honey, was associated with higher risks. Frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, especially diet drinks, may increase depression risk among older adults, whereas coffee consumption may lower the risk. PMID:24743309

  16. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  17. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ren, J S; Freedman, N D; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, C C

    2010-07-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric non-cardia cancer, 123 Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 Oesophageal Adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of > or =1 cup/day was 0.37 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last 3 years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Tea, coffee, carbonated soft drinks and upper gastrointestinal tract cancer risk in a large United States prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, JS; Freedman, ND; Kamangar, F; Dawsey, SM; Hollenbeck, AR; Schatzkin, A; Abnet, CC

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between hot tea, iced tea, coffee and carbonated soft drinks consumption and upper gastrointestinal tract cancers risk in the NIH-AARP Study. During 2,584,953 person-years of follow-up on 481,563 subjects, 392 oral cavity, 178 pharynx, 307 larynx, 231 gastric cardia, 224 gastric noncardia cancer, 123 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 305 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) cases were accrued. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95%CIs) were calculated by multivariate-adjusted Cox regression. Compared to non-drinking, the hazard ratio for hot tea intake of ≥1 cup/day was 0.37 (95%CI: 0.20, 0.70) for pharyngeal cancer. The authors also observed a significant association between coffee drinking and risk of gastric cardia cancer (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.03, 2.39)), and an inverse association between coffee drinking and EADC for the cases occurring in the last three years of follow-up (compared to <1 cup/day, the hazard ratio for drinking >3 cups/day was 0.54 (95%CI: 0.31, 0.92)), but no association in earlier follow-up. In summary, hot tea intake was inversely associated with pharyngeal cancer, and coffee was directly associated with gastric cardia cancer, but was inversely associated with EADC during some follow-up periods. PMID:20395127

  19. The analysis of aroma/flavor compounds in green tea using ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer.

    PubMed

    Alluhayb, Abdullah H; Logue, Brian A

    2017-10-06

    Worldwide, green tea is one of the most popular beverages. It promotes blood circulation, liver function, and lowers the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This drink is characterized by the distinctive odors and flavors produced by its constituent compounds, with its value predicated on the amount and type of constituents extracted from the tea leaves during brewing. Ice concentration linked with extractive stirrer (ICECLES) is a novel sample preparation technique, especially applicable for the extraction of relatively polar compounds while retaining excellent extraction efficiencies for non-polar compounds. In this study, ICECLES was used to prepare green tea for analysis of aroma/flavor compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ICECLES performed very well, revealing 301 constituents as compared to 245 for SBSE (i.e., 56 more constituents were detected via ICECLES). Moreover, ICECLES produced stronger signal to noise ratios for all except 4 of 301 constituents, with a maximum signal enhancement of 19. Of the constituents which were only detectable using ICECLES, some very important aroma/flavor and/or medicinal compounds were easily identified, including furfural, furfural alcohol, maltol, eugenol, 2-methylpyrazine, phenethyl alcohol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and α-terpineol. Overall, we confirmed that ICECLES sample preparation followed by GC-MS consistently allowed more complete green tea aroma/flavor analysis, especially for relatively polar compounds, some of which are critical for flavor quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparisons of ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesia injection for the treatment of centipede envenomations in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chaou, Chung-Hsien; Chen, Chian-Kuang; Chen, Jih-Chang; Chiu, Te-Fa; Lin, Chih-Chuan

    2009-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of ice packs and hot water immersion for the treatment of centipede envenomations. Sixty patients envenomated by centipedes were randomized into three groups and were treated with ice packs, hot water immersion, or analgesia injection. The visual analog score (VAS) for pain was measured before the treatment and 15 min afterward. Demographic data and data on local and systemic effects after centipede bites were collected. The VAS scores and the pain decrease (DeltaVAS) were compared between the three groups. All patients suffered from pain at the affected sites; other local effects included redness (n = 49, 81.7%), swelling (n = 32, 53.3%), heat (n = 14, 23.3%), itchiness (n = 5, 8.3), and bullae formation (n = 3, 5.0%). Rare systemic effects were reported. All three groups had similar VAS scores before and after treatment. They also had similar effectiveness in reducing pain caused by centipedes bites (DeltaVAS = 2.55 +/- 1.88, 2.33 +/- 1.78, and 1.55 +/- 1.68, with ice packs, analgesia, and hot water immersion, respectively, p = 0.165). Ice packs, hot water immersion, and analgesics all improved the pain from centipede envenomation. Ice pack treatment is a safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive method for pre-hospital management in patients with centipede envenomation.

  1. Infrared Observations of Hot Gas and Cold Ice Toward the Low Mass Protostar Elias 29

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Boonman, A. M. S.; vanDishoeck, E. F.; Keane, J. V.; Whittet, D. C. B.; deGraauw, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained the full 1-200 micrometer spectrum of the low luminosity (36 solar luminosity Class I protostar Elias 29 in the rho Ophiuchi molecular cloud. It provides a unique opportunity to study the origin and evolution of interstellar ice and the interrelationship of interstellar ice and hot core gases around low mass protostars. We see abundant hot CO and H2O gas, as well as the absorption bands of CO, CO2, H2O and "6.85 micrometer" ices. We compare the abundances and physical conditions of the gas and ices toward Elias 29 with the conditions around several well studied luminous, high mass protostars. The high gas temperature and gas/solid ratios resemble those of relatively evolved high mass objects (e.g. GL 2591). However, none of the ice band profiles shows evidence for significant thermal processing, and in this respect Elias 29 resembles the least evolved luminous protostars, such as NGC 7538 : IRS9. Thus we conclude that the heating of the envelope of the low mass object Elias 29 is qualitatively different from that of high mass protostars. This is possibly related to a different density gradient of the envelope or shielding of the ices in a circumstellar disk. This result is important for our understanding of the evolution of interstellar ices, and their relation to cometary ices.

  2. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Christie L.; Yanagihara, Angel A.

    2016-01-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes. PMID:27043628

  3. Heated Debates: Hot-Water Immersion or Ice Packs as First Aid for Cnidarian Envenomations?

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Christie L; Yanagihara, Angel A

    2016-04-01

    Cnidarian envenomations are an important public health problem, responsible for more deaths than shark attacks annually. For this reason, optimization of first-aid care is essential. According to the published literature, cnidarian venoms and toxins are heat labile at temperatures safe for human application, which supports the use of hot-water immersion of the sting area(s). However, ice packs are often recommended and used by emergency personnel. After conducting a systematic review of the evidence for the use of heat or ice in the treatment of cnidarian envenomations, we conclude that the majority of studies to date support the use of hot-water immersion for pain relief and improved health outcomes.

  4. Ice-associated norovirus outbreak predominantly caused by GII.17 in Taiwan, 2015.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Hung, Min-Nan; Chen, Wan-Chin; Lo, Yi-Chun; Su, Ying-Shih; Wei, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Meng-Yu; Tuan, Yen-Chang; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yen; Wang, Yu-Ying; Wu, Fang-Tzy

    2017-11-07

    On 5 March 2015, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control was notified of more than 200 students with gastroenteritis at a senior high school during excursion to Kenting. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the causative agent and possible vehicle of the pathogen. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using a structured questionnaire to interview all students for consumed food items during their stay at the resort. Students were defined as a gastroenteritis case while having vomiting or diarrhea after the breakfast on 4 March. We inspected the environment to identify possible contamination route. We collected stool or vomitus samples from ill students, food handlers and environmental specimens for bacterial culture for common enteropathogens, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rotavirus. Norovirus PCR-positive products were then sequenced and genotyped. Of 267 students enrolled, 144 (54%) met our case definition. Regression analysis revealed elevated risk associated with iced tea, which was made from tea powder mixed with hot water and self-made ice (risk ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.98). Ice used for beverages, water before and after water filter of the ice machine and 16 stool and vomitus samples from ill students were tested positive for norovirus; Multiple genotypes were identified including GI.2, GI.4 and GII.17. GII.17 was the predominant genotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that noroviruses identified in ice, water and human samples were clustered into the same genotypes. Environmental investigation revealed the ice was made by inadequate-filtered and un-boiled water. We identified the ice made by norovirus-contaminated un-boiled water caused the outbreak and the predominant genotype was GII.17. Adequately filtered or boiled water should be strongly recommended for making ice to avoid possible contamination.

  5. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  6. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but withmore » higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.« less

  7. The Occurrence of Additional Giant Planets Inside the Water-Ice Line in Systems with Hot Jupiters: Evidence Against High-Eccentricity Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2016-07-01

    The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. It is widely believed that these planets formed near the water-ice line of the protoplanetary disk, and subsequently migrated into much smaller orbits. Most of the proposed migration mechanisms can be classified either as disk-driven migration, or as excitation of a very high eccentricity followed by tidal circularization. In the latter scenario, the giant planet that is destined to become a hot Jupiter spends billions of years on a highly eccentric orbit, with apastron near the water-ice line. Eventually, tidal dissipation at periastron shrinks and circularizes the orbit. If this is correct, then it should be especially rare for hot Jupiters to be accompanied by another giant planet interior to the water-ice line. Using the current sample of giant planets discovered with the Doppler technique, we find that hot Jupiters with P orb < 10 days are no more or less likely to have exterior Jupiter-mass companions than longer-period giant planets with P orb ≥ 10 days. This result holds for exterior companions both inside and outside of the approximate location of the water-ice line. These results are difficult to reconcile with the high-eccentricity migration scenario for hot Jupiter formation.

  8. [Effect of tea extracts, catechin and caffeine against type-I allergic reaction].

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, T; Sugiyama, K; Nakazato, K; Takeo, T

    1997-07-01

    The antiallergic effects of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea extracts by hot water were examined. These extracts inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction of rat after oral administration. Three tea catechins, (--)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (--)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (--)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) isolated from green tea showed stronger inhibitory effects than that of a green tea extract on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory effects of EGC and EGCg on the PCA reaction were greater than that of ECg. Caffeine also showed a inhibitory effect on the PCA reaction. These results indicate that tea could provide a significant protection against the type-I allergic reaction. These findings also suggest that tea catechins and caffeine play an important role in having an inhibitory effect on the type-I allergic reaction.

  9. The Powdering Process with a Set of Ceramic Mills for Green Tea Promoted Catechin Extraction and the ROS Inhibition Effect.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Kouki; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shima, Hidekazu; Tomaru, Keiko; Saito, Hideki; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Yoshidome, Akihiro; Kawamura, Yuri; Manome, Yoshinobu

    2016-04-11

    For serving green tea, there are two prominent methods: steeping the leaf or the powdered leaf (matcha style) in hot water. The purpose of the present study was to reveal chemical and functional differences before and after the powdering process of green tea leaf, since powdered green tea may contribute to expanding the functionality because of the different ingesting style. In this study, we revealed that the powdering process with a ceramic mill and stirring in hot water increased the average extracted concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) by more than three times compared with that in leaf tea using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Moreover, powdered green tea has a higher inhibition effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in vitro compared with the same amount of leaf tea. Our data suggest that powdered green tea might have a different function from leaf tea due to the higher catechin contents and particles.

  10. Effect of black tea consumption on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and ischaemia-reperfusion in humans.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Tim H A; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Greyling, Arno; Draijer, Richard; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-02-01

    Tea consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. Previous studies found that tea flavonoids work through direct effects on the vasculature, leading to dose-dependent improvements in endothelial function. Cardioprotective effects of regular tea consumption may relate to the prevention of endothelial ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Therefore, we examined the effect of black tea consumption on endothelial function and the ability of tea to prevent IR injury. In a randomized, crossover study, 20 healthy subjects underwent 7 days of tea consumption (3 cups per day) or abstinence from tea. We examined brachial artery (BA) endothelial function via flow-mediated dilation (FMD), using high resolution echo-Doppler, before and 90 min after tea or hot water consumption. Subsequently, we followed a 20-min ischaemia and 20-min reperfusion protocol of the BA after which we measured FMD to examine the potential of tea consumption to protect against IR injury. Tea consumption resulted in an immediate increase in FMD% (pre-consumption: 5.8 ± 2.5; post-consumption: 7.2 ± 3.2; p < 0.01), whilst no such change occurred after ingestion of hot water. The IR protocol resulted in a significant decrease in FMD (p < 0.005), which was also present after tea consumption (p < 0.001). This decline was accompanied by an increase in the post-IR baseline diameter. In conclusion, these data indicate that tea ingestion improves BA FMD. However, the impact of the IR protocol on FMD was not influenced by tea consumption. Therefore, the cardioprotective association of tea ingestion relates to a direct effect of tea on the endothelium in humans in vivo.

  11. Africa’s oesophageal cancer corridor - do hot beverages contribute?

    PubMed Central

    Munishi, Michael Oresto; Hanisch, Rachel; Mapunda, Oscar; Ndyetabura, Theonest; Ndaro, Arnold; Schüz, Joachim; Kibiki, Gibson; McCormack, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Hot beverage consumption has been linked to oesophageal squamous cell cancer (EC) but its contribution to the poorly-understood East African EC corridor is not known. Methods In a cross-sectional study of general-population residents in Kilimanjaro, North Tanzania, tea drinking temperatures and times were measured. Using linear regression models, we compared drinking temperatures to those in previous studies, by socio-demographic factors and tea type (“milky tea” which can be 50% or more milk and water boiled together vs “black tea” which has no milk). Results Participants started drinking at a mean of 70.6°C (standard deviation 3.9, n=188), which exceeds that in all previous studies (p≤0.01 for each). Tea type, gender and age were associated with drinking temperatures. After mutual adjustment for each other, milky tea drinkers drank their tea 1.9°C (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.9) hotter than drinkers of black tea, largely because black tea cooled twice as fast as milky tea. Men commenced drinking tea 0.9°C (−0.2, 2.1) hotter than women did, and finished their cups 30 (−9, 69) seconds faster. 70% and 39% of milky and black tea drinkers, respectively, reported a history of tongue burning. Conclusions Hot tea consumption, especially milky tea, may be an important and modifiable risk factor for EC in Tanzania. The contribution of this habit to EC risk needs to be evaluated in this setting, jointly with that of the many risk factors acting synergistically in this multi-factorial disease. PMID:26245249

  12. Coffee or Tea, Hot or Cold, Are Not Associated With Risk of Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Krishna C; El-Serag, Hashem B; Thrift, Aaron P

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiologic data regarding coffee and tea consumption and risk of esophageal inflammation, Barrett's esophagus (BE), and adenocarcinoma are sparse and inconclusive. This study examined the association between consumption of tea or coffee with risk of BE. We conducted a cross-sectional study among US veterans, comparing 310 patients with histologically confirmed BE with 1728 individuals with no endoscopic or histopathologic features of BE (controls). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. In univariate models, we found a statistically significant association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.06-1.87) or tea (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05-1.71). However, in multivariate analysis, in which models were adjusted for confounders including sex and race, we found no association between risk of BE and consumption of coffee (adjusted OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.76-1.42) or tea (adjusted OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.85-1.44). These data do not support an association between consumption of coffee or tea and the risk of BE. It is unlikely that avoidance of coffee or tea will protect against BE. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  14. Tea waste: an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Doudou; Liang, Jin; Wang, Yunsheng; Sun, Feng; Tao, Hong; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-01-30

    Tea waste is the residue that remains after tea leaves have been extracted by hot water to obtain water-soluble components. The waste contains a re-usable energy substrate and nutrients which may pollute the environment if they are not dealt with appropriately. Other agricultural wastes have been widely studied as substrates for cultivating mushrooms. In the present study, we cultivated oyster mushroom using tea waste as substrate. To study the feasibility of re-using it, tea waste was added to the substrate at different ratios in different experimental groups. Three mushroom strains (39, 71 and YOU) were compared and evaluated. Mycelia growth rate, yield, biological efficiency and growth duration were measured. Substrates with different tea waste ratios showed different growth and yield performance. The substrate containing 40-60% of tea waste resulted in the highest yield. Tea waste could be used as an effective and economic substrate for oyster mushroom cultivation. This study also provided a useful way of dealing with massive amounts of tea waste. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  16. Pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion lowers the core temperature in a hot environment as compared with the ingestion of a single bolus.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takashi; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2016-07-01

    The timing in which ice is ingested may be important for optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion has not been studied in resting participants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion on rectal temperature (Tre) and rating of perceptual sensation in a hot environment. Seven males ingested 1.25gkg(-1) of crushed ice (ICE1.25: 0.5°C) or cold water (CON: 4°C) every 5min for 30min, or were given 7.5gkgBM(-1) of crushed ice (ICE7.5) to consume for 30min in a hot environment (35°C, 30% relative humidity). The participants then remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, Tre, body mass and urine specific gravity were measured. Rating of thermal sensation was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. ICE1.25 continued to decrease Tre until approximately 50min, and resulted in a greater reduction in Tre (-0.56±0.20°C) than ICE7.5 (-0.41±0.14°C). Tre was reduced from 40 to 75min by ICE1.25, which is a significant reduction in comparison to ICE7.5 (p<.05). Mean RTS with ICE1.25 at 50-65min was significantly lower than that with ICE7.5 (p<.05). These results suggest that pre-cooling with intermittent ice ingestion is a more effective strategy both for lowering the Tre and for the rating of thermal sensation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Thermal Analysis of a Hot-Wire Probe for Icing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Rigby, David L.; Venkataraman, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a steady-state thermal model of a hot-wire instrument applicable to atmospheric measurement of water content in clouds. In this application, the power required to maintain the wire at a given temperature is used to deduce the water content of the cloud. The model considers electrical resistive heating, axial conduction, convection to the flow, radiation to the surroundings, as well as energy loss due to the heating, melting, and evaporation of impinging liquid and or ice. All of these parameters can be varied axially along the wire. The model further introduces a parameter called the evaporation potential which locally gauges the maximum fraction of incoming water that evaporates. The primary outputs of the model are the steady-state power required to maintain a spatially-average constant temperature as well as the variation of that temperature and other parameters along the wire. The model is used to understand the sensitivity of the hot-wire performance to various flow and boundary conditions including a detailed comparison of dry air and wet (i.e. cloud-on) conditions. The steady-state power values are compared to experimental results from a Science Engineering Associates (SEA) Multi-Element probe, a commonly used water-content measurement instrument. The model results show good agreement with experiment for both dry and cloud-on conditions with liquid water content. For ice, the experimental measurements under read the actual water content due to incomplete evaporation and splashing. Model results, which account for incomplete evaporation, are still higher than experimental results where the discrepancy is attributed to splashing mass-loss which is not accounted in the model.

  18. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages.

    PubMed

    Pramudya, Ragita C; Seo, Han-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  19. Influences of Product Temperature on Emotional Responses to, and Sensory Attributes of, Coffee and Green Tea Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Pramudya, Ragita C.; Seo, Han-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Coffee and green tea are popular beverages consumed at both hot and cold temperatures. When people consume hot beverages concurrently with other activities, they may experience at different temperatures over the period of consumption. However, there has been limited research investigating the effects of product temperatures on emotional responses and sensory attributes of beverages. This study aimed to determine whether emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, brewed coffee and green tea vary as a function of sample temperature. Using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) method, 157 participants (79 for coffee and 78 for green tea) were asked to evaluate either coffee or green tea samples served at cold (5°C), ambient (25°C), and hot (65°C) temperatures with respect to emotional responses and sensory attributes. The results showed that sample temperature could have significant influences on emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea samples. More specifically, 6 and 18 sensory attributes of coffee and green tea samples, respectively, significantly differed with sample temperature. Beverage samples evaluated at 65°C were characterized, regardless of activation/arousal level, by positive emotional responses terms and favorable sensory attributes. While beverages evaluated at 25°C were associated more with negative emotional responses with low activation/arousal, those evaluated at 5°C were more frequently characterized as having negative emotional responses with high activation/arousal. Sensory and emotional drivers of liking for both coffee and green tea differed both with sample temperature and gender. While both emotional responses and sensory attributes were identified as drivers of liking among females, only emotional responses were identified as drivers of liking among males. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that both emotional responses to, and sensory attributes of, coffee and green tea beverages can

  20. Image analysis and green tea color change kinetics during thin-layer drying.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Mohammad; Rafiee, Shahin; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Hosseinpour, Soleiman

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of air temperature and air flow velocity on kinetics of color parameter changes during hot-air drying of green tea, to obtain the best model for hot-air drying of green tea, to apply a computer vision system and to study the color changes during drying. In the proposed computer vision system system, at first RGB values of the images were converted into XYZ values and then to Commission International d'Eclairage L*a*b* color coordinates. The obtained color parameters of L*, a* and b* were calibrated with Hunter-Lab colorimeter. These values were also used for calculation of the color difference, chroma, hue angle and browning index. The values of L* and b* decreased, while the values of a* and color difference (ΔE*ab ) increased during hot-air drying. Drying data were fitted to three kinetic models. Zero, first-order and fractional conversion models were utilized to describe the color changes of green tea. The suitability of fitness was determined using the coefficient of determination (R (2)) and root-mean-square error. Results showed that the fraction conversion model had more acceptable fitness than the other two models in most of color parameters. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  2. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J M; Puddey, I B; Croft, K D; Burke, V; Mori, T A; Caccetta, R A; Beilin, L J

    2000-05-01

    Tea has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism of this risk reduction involves inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation in vivo by antioxidant polyphenolic compounds derived from tea. However, controlled interventions uniformly failed to show that ingestion of tea can inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo. The absence of effects in previous studies may be due to the isolation of LDL particles from polyphenolic compounds that are present in the aqueous phase of serum. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on ex vivo Cu(2+)-induced lipoprotein oxidation without prior isolation of lipoproteins from serum. The acute effects of 4 hot drinks-green tea and black tea (each at a dose equivalent to 4 standard cups), water matched to the teas for caffeine content, and water-were assessed in 20 healthy men by using a Latin-square design. The lag time to lipoprotein diene formation, slope of the propagation phase of the oxidation curve, and area under the oxidation curve were calculated. Urinary concentrations of 4-O-methylgallic acid were used as a marker of uptake and metabolism of polyphenolic compounds from tea. Significant increases in urinary 4-O-methylgallic acid for black and green tea (P < 0. 0001) were observed. Caffeine did not significantly influence lipoprotein oxidation. Compared with the water control, there was a greater lag time for black tea (5.4 +/- 2.9 min; P = 0.05) that was of borderline significance and a similar trend for green tea (4.4 +/- 2.8 min; P = 0.17). Slope and area under the oxidation curve were not altered. Black tea has a mild acute effect on ex vivo lipoprotein oxidation in human serum. 2000;71:-7.

  4. A Simple Method for Isolation of Caffeine from Black Tea Leaves: Use of a Dichloromethane-Alkaline Water Mixture as an Extractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onami, Tetsuo; Kanazawa, Hitoshi

    1996-06-01

    A simple procedure for the isolation of caffeine from tea leaves has been established without using hot or boiling water. A mixture of tea leaves, dichloromethane, and 0.2 M NaOH was shaken for 7 min, and the organic layer was separated. After evaporation of the organic solvent, residual crystals were purified by recrystallization to give 20-30 mg (student yield) of pure caffeine from one tea bag (2 g).

  5. Hot tea and juk: the institutional meaning of food for Chinese elders in an American nursing home.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shirley; Barker, Judith C

    2008-11-01

    This qualitative study describes how Chinese elders in an American nursing home perceived their food and mealtime experiences. Data collection included 20 meal observations and interviews with 7 residents, 9 family members, and 17 staff members. Field notes and interviews were coded and analyzed using an iterative approach similar to grounded theory. All participant groups described institutional food and meals as individualized, nutritious therapy for medical illnesses. Mealtimes lacked sociability and sharing, and although family members provided Chinese food, they did not eat with residents. Residents generally did not consider the institution's effort to provide an "Asian diet" of hot tea and juk (rice porridge) to be Chinese food. These findings suggest that, for these Chinese elders, the biomedicalized, individualized food service and mealtime caregiving practices stripped food of its meaning as a social, shared mealtime experience with family. Nursing professionals and researchers should understand that provision of culturally competent mealtime care for ethnic (Chinese) long-term care residents involves important food service practices in addition to kinds of food.

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric W C; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng

    2011-10-01

    The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  7. Tea, coffee, and caffeine and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M.; Leffell, David J.; Bale, Allen E.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis via bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data supports an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand if tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. Methods BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, gender, and biopsy site. Subjects completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Results Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38–0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared to non-consumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34–0.95, p-trend=0.037). Conclusions Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset BCC that may, in part, be due to caffeine. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting potential health benefits from these beverages. PMID:24841641

  8. Tea, coffee, and caffeine and early-onset basal cell carcinoma in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Cartmel, Brenda; Molinaro, Annette M; Leffell, David J; Bale, Allen E; Mayne, Susan T

    2014-07-01

    Tea and coffee are hypothesized to play a protective role in skin carcinogenesis through bioactive components, such as caffeine, yet the epidemiologic evidence is mixed. Existing data support an inverse association with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), more so than for melanoma or squamous cell carcinoma. To understand whether tea, coffee, and caffeine are related to early-onset BCC, we evaluated data from 767 non-Hispanic Whites under age 40 in a case-control study in Connecticut. BCC cases (n=377) were identified through Yale's Dermatopathology database. Controls (n=390) were randomly sampled from individuals in the same database with benign skin diagnoses and frequency matched to cases on age, sex, and biopsy site. Participants completed an in-person interview including assessment of caffeinated coffee and hot tea. We calculated multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with unconditional logistic regression for regular consumption and frequency and duration measures. Combined regular consumption of caffeinated coffee plus hot tea was inversely associated with early-onset BCC (OR=0.60, 95% CI=0.38-0.96). Those in the highest category of caffeine from these sources had a 43% reduced risk of BCC compared with nonconsumers (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.34-0.95, P-trend=0.037). Our findings suggest a modest protective effect for caffeinated coffee plus tea in relation to early-onset BCC that may, in part, be due to caffeine. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting potential health benefits from these beverages.

  9. [Simultaneous extraction of tea-polyphenols and caffeine from green tea].

    PubMed

    Hai, L; Sun, H; Li, Z

    1998-05-01

    Tea-polyphenols and caffeine were extracted simultaneously from green tea. The factors influencing on the process of impregnation and extraction were studied. The result indicated that the content of tea-polyphenols and caffeine in tea was increased with the duration of extraction and decreased with the frequency of extraction. The authors discuss the effect of pH on the precipition of calcium-tea-polyphenols.

  10. The acute effect of green tea consumption on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Baou, Katerina; Vasiliadou, Carmen; Pietri, Panagiota; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Stefanadi, Elli; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Tea consumption is associated with decreased cardiovascular risk. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery is related to coronary endothelial function and it is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. Black tea has a beneficial effect on endothelial function; the effect, however, of green tea on brachial artery reactivity has not been defined yet. We studied 14 healthy individuals (age 30+/-3 years) with no cardiovascular risk factors except from smoking (50%) on three separate occasions on which they took: (a) 6 g of green tea, (b) 125 mg of caffeine (the amount contained in 6 g of tea), or (c) hot water. FMD of the brachial artery was measured before each intervention and 30, 90, and 120 min afterward. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukins 6 (Il-6) and 1b (Il-1b), total plasma antioxidative capacity, and total plasma oxidative status/stress were measured at baseline and at 120 min after each intervention. Resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter did not change either with tea or with caffeine. FMD increased significantly with tea (by 3.69%, peak at 30 min, P<0.02), whereas it did not change significantly with caffeine (increase by 1.72%, peak at 30 min, P=NS). Neither tea nor caffeine had any effect on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Il-6, Il-1b, total plasma antioxidative capacity, or total plasma oxidative status/stress. Green tea consumption has an acute beneficial effect on endothelial function, assessed with FMD of the brachial artery, in healthy individuals. This may be involved in the beneficial effect of tea on cardiovascular risk.

  11. Evaluation of transfer rates of multiple pesticides from green tea into infusion using water as pressurized liquid extraction solvent and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongping; Pan, Meiling; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-02-01

    Pesticide residues could be transferred from tea into its infusion and by-products, and subsequently consumed by humans. Extra extraction conditions may induce more pesticide leaching into the infusion and by-products of tea and cause greater damage to humans. The aim of this study is to evaluate the infusion of multiple pesticides from green tea into hot water via pressurized liquid extraction. The results showed that pesticides in spiked samples generally have higher leaching (0.8-45.0%) than those in the positive samples. There was a marked rise of transfer rates when water solubility increased from 20mgL(-1) to 450mgL(-1) and LogKow decreased from 6 to 4. All pesticides had more leaching into hot water using pressurized liquid extraction than traditional tea brewing. This study helps in risk assessment of pesticide residues and in the formulation of maximum residue levels (MRLs) in tea and its by-products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  13. Using tea stalk lignocellulose as an adsorbent for separating decaffeinated tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Ye, J H; Jin, J; Liang, H L; Lu, J L; Du, Y Y; Zheng, X Q; Liang, Y R

    2009-01-01

    Lignocelluloses prepared from woody tea stalk, pine sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were used as adsorbents to isolate decaffeinated catechins from tea extracts and compared with synthetic macroporous resin HPD 600. HPD 600 had the highest adsorption capacity to catechins, followed by tea stalk lignocellulose while lignocelluloses of pine sawdust and bagasse the least. Tea stalk lignocellulose absorbed preferentially tea catechins and showed a good selectivity. HPD 600 absorbed caffeine and tea catechins simultaneously. The kinetics data of tea stalk lignocellulose showed a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm model. It is considered that tea stalk lignocellulose is an alternative low-cost adsorbent for preparing decaffeinated tea catechins.

  14. Tea production characteristics of tea growers (plantations and smallholdings) and livelihood dimensions of tea workers in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Eloise M; Gupta, Niladri; Saikia, Sukanya D; Duncan, John M A

    2018-04-01

    This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam). Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha) and small- (< 10 ha) holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al. [1] regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see 'The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate' by Biggs et al. [1].

  15. Spectrophotometric determination of the tannin contents of various Turkish black tea, beer and wine samples.

    PubMed

    Tinkiliç, N; Uyanik, A

    2001-05-01

    This study reports tannin contents of various tea (19), beer (6) and wine (6) samples, produced or sold in Turkey under different brand names. Determinations were carried out by employing a previously reported UV-vis spectrophotometric method. The standard addition procedure was also compared to the direct determination procedure and found to be more reliable. The tannin contents of hot water extracts of tea, tea bag and herbal tea samples ranged between 6.20-8.33, 8.03-6.59 and 2.76-6.54 percent (w/w) respectively. Tannin contents of beer and wine samples determined without extraction were found ranging between 66.36-77.26 and 67.18-107.62 micrograms/mL respectively. Iron contents of analysed wine samples were also found ranging between 0.36 and 10.33 ppm by AAS and no relation is found between tannin and iron contents.

  16. Characterization of Two Homogalacturonan Pectins with Immunomodulatory Activity from Green Tea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huijun; Wei, Guodong; Liu, Fei; Banerjee, Gautam; Joshi, Manoj; Bligh, S. W. Annie; Shi, Songshan; Lian, Hui; Fan, Hongwei; Gu, Xuelan; Wang, Shunchun

    2014-01-01

    Two natural homogalacturonan (HG) pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa) were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2) were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b) were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG) pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked α-d-galacturonic acid (GalA) residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells. PMID:24901527

  17. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying

    2015-04-01

    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, Alicja; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., benzo(a)pyrene and sum of benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(a)pyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively) were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55–1.72% for red, white and green teas. PMID:29283369

  19. Hot tea and tiny tots don't mix: A cross-sectional survey on hot beverage scalds.

    PubMed

    Burgess, J D; Kimble, R M; Watt, K A; Cameron, C M

    2017-12-01

    Hot beverage scalds are a leading cause of burns in young children. The aim of this study was to look at the circumstances surrounding these injuries in terms of setting, mechanism, supervision and first aid to inform a prevention campaign. A cross-sectional study was delivered via iPad to parents and caregivers presenting with a child aged 0-36 months with a hot beverage scald at a major paediatric burns centre. Of the 101 children aged 0-36 months that presented with a hot beverage scald over a 12-month period, 54 participants were included. The scald aetiology was as expected with the peak prevalence in children aged 6-24 months, pulling a cup of hot liquid down over themselves. The majority of injuries occurred in the child's home and were witnessed by the caregiver or parent. The supervising adult was often in close proximity when the scald occurred. Less than a third (28%) of participants received recommended first aid treatment at the scene, with an additional 18% receiving this treatment with three hours of the injury-usually at an emergency department. While the aetiology of these scalds were as expected, the low use of recommended burn first aid was of concern. Although supervision was present in almost all cases, with the parent/caregiver close-by, this proximity still permitted injury. Attentiveness and continuity of supervision, which can be difficult with competing parental demands, appear to play a more important role role; as do considerations of other safety mechanisms such as hazard reduction through keeping hot drinks out of reach and engineering factors such as improved cup design. By incorporating the findings from this study and other research into a hot beverage scald prevention campaign, we hope to see a change in knowledge and behaviour in parents and caregivers of young children, and ultimately a reduction in the incidence of hot beverage scalds. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  1. Does green tea consumption improve the salivary antioxidant status of smokers?

    PubMed

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Mansouri, Zahra; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Daraei, Azam

    2017-06-01

    
Considering the higher rate of oral cancer, and reduction in salivary antioxidants in smokers as indicated in previous studies, antioxidant- containing nutrients such as green tea, seem to be beneficial in counteracting against oxidative stress in this group. This study assessed the salivary total antioxidant alteration in smokers compared to nonsmokers, after short-tem (7days) and long-term (3 weeks), green tea drinking. In this experimental study, 20 volunteer moderate-to-heavy male smokers, and 20 matched healthy non-smokers were selected to participate, according to the inclusion criteria. Participants were instructed to drink two cups of green tea per day, by dissolving 2g of green tea in 150ml of hot water for each cup. After saliva collection, antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured at baseline, after 7days, and after 21days. Statistical evaluation was done by SPSS 21, using paired samplet tests, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. 
 At day zero nonsmokers had a higher antioxidant capacity than smokers (686.6±62.22 vs. 338.8±59.9) mM/50μl, P<0.001. There was also a significant difference between two groups in salivary total antioxidant capacity after one week and three weeks of green tea consumption (P<0.001). However, there was an upward trend in both smokers and non-smokers over the study period (after tea drinking). In addition, a significant difference was found in total antioxidant capacity alteration in smokers compared to non-smokers from baseline to day 21. Results support the effectiveness of green tea consumption in salivary antioxidants enhancement in smokers, in both the short- and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation and application of prebiotic and probiotic ingredients for development of ready to drink tea beverage.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Shweta; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Singhal, Rekha S

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) ice tea is a ready prepared tea, produced from green and black tea originating from same plant Camellia sinensis . The objective of this study was to determine the effect of prebiotics [galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), and inulin] or synbiotic ingredients (GOS, FOS, inulin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus ) on the sensory properties and consumer acceptability of RTD. The quality of green tea extract (GTE) and black tea extract (BTE) was improved with pretreatment of cellulase and pectinase enzymes. The combined enzymatic extraction amplified total extractives up to 76% in GTE and 72% in BTE. Total polyphenol was found to be enhanced to 24% in GTE and 19% in BTE. GTE was further selected for development of RTD in two different formats; synbiotic RTD and prebiotic RTD premix and analyzed for sensory attributes (colour, aroma, taste, and acceptability). Synbiotic RTD was also evaluated for stability over a period of 28 days at 4 °C. Synbiotic RTD developed an unpleasant flavor and aroma during the shelf life. Premix format of RTD developed using spray drying was reconstituted and found to be functionally and sensorially acceptable.

  3. Analytical ice shape predictions for flight in natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Brian M.; Riley, James T.

    1988-01-01

    LEWICE is an analytical ice prediction code that has been evaluated against icing tunnel data, but on a more limited basis against flight data. Ice shapes predicted by LEWICE is compared with experimental ice shapes accreted on the NASA Lewis Icing Research Aircraft. The flight data selected for comparison includes liquid water content recorded using a hot wire device and droplet distribution data from a laser spectrometer; the ice shape is recorded using stereo photography. The main findings are as follows: (1) An equivalent sand grain roughness correlation different from that used for LEWICE tunnel comparisons must be employed to obtain satisfactory results for flight; (2) Using this correlation and making no other changes in the code, the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in flight are in general as good as the comparisons to ice shapes accreted in the tunnel (as in the case of tunnel ice shapes, agreement is least reliable for large glaze ice shapes at high angles of attack); (3) In some cases comparisons can be somewhat improved by utilizing the code so as to take account of the variation of parameters such as liquid water content, which may vary significantly in flight.

  4. Ice in Volcanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Few, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    It is widely recognized that lightning activity in thunderstorm clouds is associated with ice in the clouds. In volcanic plumes the lower electrical discharges near the vent are clearly not associated with ice; however, the electrical discharges from the upper volcanic clouds very likely are associated with ice. There is ample water in volcanic plumes and clouds. The explosive volcanic eruption is produced by volatile components in the rising magma. Researchers estimate that the water content of the volatiles is up to 99% by mole; other gases are mainly sulfur and chlorine species. These volatiles carry with them a wide range of hot magma melts and solids, importantly silicate particles and tephra. The more massive components fall out near the vent carrying with them much of the heat from the plume; these large components are not in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gases, ash, and lapilli; thus the heat removed does not lower the temperature of the materials carried aloft in the plume. Upward motion is initially provided by the thrust from the volcanic eruption, then by buoyancy of the hot plume. The rising plume is cooled by entrainment of environmental air, which contains water, and by adiabatic expansion; the plume transitions into a volcanic cloud. Further lifting and cooling produces supercooled water droplets (T ~ -5 C) in a limited zone (z ~ 9 km) before the fast updraft (~ 60 m/s) rapidly transforms them into ice. Computer models of volcanic clouds that include water and ice microphysics indicate that the latent heat of condensation is not significant in cloud dynamics because it occurs in a region where buoyancy is provided by the original hot plume material. The latent heat of ice formation occurs at higher and colder levels and seems to contribute to the final lifting of the cloud top by ~1.5km. Laboratory results indicate that the fine silicate ash particles, which are abundant, are good ice nuclei, IN. Because of the abundance of the silicate ash

  5. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  7. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-27

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ~34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid”more » (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.« less

  8. Cholera returns to southern Vietnam in an outbreak associated with consuming unsafe water through iced tea: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuong V; Pham, Quang D; Do, Quoc K; Diep, Tai T; Phan, Hung C; Ho, Thang V; Do, Hong T; Phan, Lan T; Tran, Huu N

    2017-04-01

    After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors. Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84-39.25), not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03-6.67), having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37-13.88), living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77-67.97), and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18-20.19) were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63), eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10-0.73), and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07-0.70) were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples. The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between drinking iced tea and cholera and the spread of V. cholerae O1, altered El Tor strains

  9. Cholera returns to southern Vietnam in an outbreak associated with consuming unsafe water through iced tea: A matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Do, Quoc K.; Diep, Tai T.; Phan, Hung C.; Ho, Thang V.; Do, Hong T.; Phan, Lan T.; Tran, Huu N.

    2017-01-01

    Background After more than a decade of steadily declining notifications, the number of reported cholera cases has recently increased in Vietnam. We conducted a matched case-control study to investigate transmission of cholera during an outbreak in Ben Tre, southern Vietnam, and to explore the associated risk factors. Methodology/Principal findings Sixty of 71 diarrheal patients confirmed to be infected with cholera by culture and diagnosed between May 9 and August 3, 2010 in Ben Tre were consecutively recruited as case-patients. Case-patients were matched 1:4 to controls by commune, sex, and 5-year age group. Risk factors for cholera were examined by multivariable conditional logistic regression. In addition, environmental samples from villages containing case-patients were taken to identify contamination of food and water sources. The regression indicated that drinking iced tea (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 8.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.84–39.25), not always boiling drinking water (aOR = 2.62, 95% CI: 1.03–6.67), having the main source of water for use being close to a toilet (aOR = 4.36, 95% CI: 1.37–13.88), living with people who had acute diarrhea (aOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 2.77–67.97), and little or no education (aOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 1.18–20.19) were significantly associated with increased risk of cholera. In contrast, drinking stored rainwater (aOR = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04–0.63), eating cooked seafood (aOR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10–0.73), and eating steamed vegetables (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.07–0.70) were protective against cholera. Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa carrying ctxA was found in two of twenty-five river water samples and one of six wastewater samples. Conclusions/Significance The magnitude of the cholera outbreak in Ben Tre was lower than in other similar settings. This investigation identified several risk factors and underscored the importance of continued responses targeting cholera prevention in southern Vietnam. The association between

  10. Efficacy of fermented green tea on peripheral skin temperature: a randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Lee, Bum-Jin; Ha, Jaehyoun; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Chung, Jin-Oh

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the therapeutic efficacy of green tea on peripheral skin for cold hypersensitive subjects, who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures, one of the most common complaints in Asian women. This randomized and placebo-controlled clinical study included 60 female Korean subjects who had the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups to receive fermented green tea or a placebo (hot water). The skin temperature of the hands and feet was measured using digital infrared thermography at the baseline and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after the oral administration of the tea or placebo. The skin temperature of the hands and feet of the fermented green tea-administered group was significantly higher than that of the placebo-administered group. The temperature difference between the finger and the dorsum of the hand was significantly lower in the fermented green tea-administered group than that in the placebo group. Fermented green tea is helpful for cold hypersensitivity. This is the first clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of fermented green tea on peripheral skin in subjects having the feeling of cold hands and feet at cold temperatures by infrared thermography. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of the fermented green tea for cold hypersensitivity and to elucidate the underlying physiological mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption.

    PubMed

    Van Dorsten, Ferdi A; Daykin, Clare A; Mulder, Theo P J; Van Duynhoven, John P M

    2006-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of black and green tea consumption on human metabolism. Seventeen healthy male volunteers consumed black tea, green tea, or caffeine in a randomized crossover study. Twenty-four-hour urine and blood plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabonomics, that is, high-resolution 1H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate statistics. Green and black tea consumption resulted in similar increases in urinary excretion of hippuric acid and 1,3-dihydroxyphenyl-2-O-sulfate, both of which are end products of tea flavonoid degradation by colonic bacteria. Several unidentified aromatic metabolites were detected in urine specifically after green tea intake. Interestingly, green and black tea intake also had a different impact on endogenous metabolites in urine and plasma. Green tea intake caused a stronger increase in urinary excretion of several citric acid cycle intermediates, which suggests an effect of green tea flavanols on human oxidative energy metabolism and/or biosynthetic pathways.

  12. Potential use of tea extract as a complementary mouthwash: comparative evaluation of two commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Esimone, C O; Adikwu, M U; Nwafor, S V; Okolo, C O

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of using tea extracts as complementary mouthwash and to test the comparative efficacy of two commercial samples. A randomized controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 6 subjects per group. The ability of Ndu tea (from Cameroon) and Lipton tea (from Nigeria) to reduce colony forming units (CFU) in the liquid expectorated after 60 seconds of gargling from the mouth of the volunteers at 5 and 60 minutes were evaluated. These were compared to the values obtained from bank water and Minty Brett (thymol 0.047%), a standard antiseptic. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty healthy human volunteers (18 males and 12 females, between 22-30 years of age) who met the eligibility requirement of being nonsmokers and not taking any other antimicrobial agent were selected for the study. Relative to the bank water, the results indicated that the hot water extract of both teas significantly (p < 0.05) reduced CFU per milliliter in the liquid expectorated after gargling at both 5 and 60 minutes. Minty Brett showed higher activity than both tea extracts; however, unlike Minty Brett both extracts still reduced the CFU per milliliter at time 60 minutes (an indication of longer duration of activity). The combination of the tea extracts with sodium lauryl sulfate (1.2% w/v), a surfactant and emulsifier, significantly increased the antimicrobial activity relative to each tea alone. Comparatively, the activity of Ndu tea was found to be slightly higher than that of Lipton tea but this was not significant (p < 0.05). Lipton and Ndu tea extracts potently reduced the CFU per milliliter. This activity was potentiated by sodium lauryl sulfate. Although Minty Brett had more potent antimicrobial activity, both tea extracts have longer duration of activity. The results indicate the potential usefulness of tea extracts as a complementary mouthwash.

  13. Tea polyphenols for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been shown to be responsible for much of the health promoting ability of green tea. Tea and tea preparations have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models of carcinogenesis. However, with increasing interest in the health promoting properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and health benefits of tea with special reference to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17655876

  14. Tea enhances insulin activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M

    2002-11-20

    The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate.

  15. Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

    2004-01-01

    Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

  16. Multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS for tea, herbal infusions and the derived drinkable products.

    PubMed

    Monbaliu, Sofie; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah

    2010-12-22

    In recent years the consumption of tea and herbal infusions has increased. These hot drinks are consumed as daily drinks as well as for medicinal purposes. All tea varieties (white, yellow, green, oolong, black and puerh) originate from the leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis. All extracts made of plant or herbal materials which do not contain Camellia sinensis are referred as herbal infusions or tisanes. During processing and manufacturing fungal contamination of the plant materials is possible, enabling contamination of these products with mycotoxins. In this study a multimycotoxin UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the analysis of the raw tea and herbal infusion materials as well as for their drinkable products. The samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), with a mobile phase consisting of variable mixtures of water and methanol with 0.3% formic acid. The limits of detection for the different mycotoxins varied between 2.1 μg/kg and 121 μg/kg for raw materials and between 0.4 μg/L and 46 μg/L for drinkable products. Afterward 91 different tea and herbal infusion samples were analyzed. Only in one sample, Ceylon melange, 76 μg/kg fumonisin B(1) was detected. No mycotoxins were detected in the drinkable products.

  17. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea), Monsonia burkeana (special tea) and synergistic effects of both combined herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell

    2014-09-01

    To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3

  18. Antioxidant activity of an invasive plant, Melastoma malabathricum and its potential as herbal tea product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, N. M.; Kuspradini, H.; Amirta, R.; Kusuma, I. W.

    2018-04-01

    East Kalimantan possesses abundant biodiversity of tropical medicinal plant. Melastoma malabathricum (known locally as karamunting, senduduk) is an invasive plant along with other species in the family of Melastomataceae with traditional medicinal purposes. This research explored the potential of Karamunting (M. malabathricum) plant for its antioxidant activity and the potential as a material for herbal tea product. The plant was macerated to yield ethanolic extract, and at the same time plant powder was packed into tea bags and extracted with hot water to obtain the infused water. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging assay. The results showed that the ethanol extracts of plant samples displayed ability to inhibit DPPH free radical formation by 82% at 50 ppm concentration. Evaluation of the tea water extract showed that the highest inhibition obtained by leaves powder by 90% and fruit 88% at 1 minutes immersion time. This finding suggest that leaves and fruit of M. malabathricum plants display potential as herbal tea material having antioxidant activity if the safety aspect can be assured.

  19. Air Force Flight Feeding. Volume 1. Evaluation of Current System and Alternative Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    3. How does ’show time’ (the time between actual pickup of meals and aircraft departure), affect flight kitchen food processing ? 4. What is the...inflexible meal heating process offered through use of convection ovens to reheat the frozen meals. Through discussions with active duty person- nel it...Fruit Punch Iced Tea, Hot Tea Milk Coffee Water Diet, Decaffeinated Drinks % of Responses 39.9 38.3 28.5 23.3 23.0 21.5 13.3 5.0 -59

  20. Alternative hot spot formation techniques using liquid deuterium-tritium layer inertial confinement fusion capsules

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.

    2013-09-15

    The baseline DT ice layer inertial confinement fusion (ICF) ignition capsule design requires a hot spot convergence ratio of ∼34 with a hot spot that is formed from DT mass originally residing in a very thin layer at the inner DT ice surface. In the present paper, we propose alternative ICF capsule designs in which the hot spot is formed mostly or entirely from mass originating within a spherical volume of DT vapor. Simulations of the implosion and hot spot formation in two DT liquid layer ICF capsule concepts—the DT wetted hydrocarbon (CH) foam concept and the “fast formed liquid”more » (FFL) concept—are described and compared to simulations of standard DT ice layer capsules. 1D simulations are used to compare the drive requirements, the optimal shock timing, the radial dependence of hot spot specific energy gain, and the hot spot convergence ratio in low vapor pressure (DT ice) and high vapor pressure (DT liquid) capsules. 2D simulations are used to compare the relative sensitivities to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries in the DT ice and DT liquid capsules. It is found that the overall thermonuclear yields predicted for DT liquid layer capsules are less than yields predicted for DT ice layer capsules in simulations using comparable capsule size and absorbed energy. However, the wetted foam and FFL designs allow for flexibility in hot spot convergence ratio through the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density, with a potentially improved robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetry.« less

  1. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-01-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg−1. In comparison to coffee (152–682 μg kg−1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73–108 μg kg−1) and tea (10–97 μg kg−1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg−1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey. PMID:28150749

  2. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-02

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg -1 . In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg -1 ), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg -1 ) and tea (10-97 μg kg -1 ) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg -1 , and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  3. Occurrence of acrylamide carcinogen in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea from Saudi Arabian market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu; Alomary, Ahmed Khodran; Alfadul, Sulaiman Mohammed; Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Algamdi, Mohammad Saad

    2017-02-01

    The present work describes the outcomes of the assessment on acrylamide contents in a number of thermally treated foods (Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea) obtained from the Saudi Arabian markets. A total of 56 food samples of different brands and origin were studied, the amounts of acrylamide in Arabic coffee Qahwa, coffee and tea were obtained in the range of 10 to 682 μg kg-1. In comparison to coffee (152-682 μg kg-1), the Arabic coffee Qahwa (73-108 μg kg-1) and tea (10-97 μg kg-1) contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Among the analyzed samples, the green tea contained low amounts of acrylamide ranged from 10 to 18 μg kg-1, and thus the green tea could be considered as a healthier hot drink. A great variation of acrylamide formation has been observed in these food products. This divergence may be due to the initial concentration of amino acids especially asparagines and reducing sugars in food products, in addition to roasting temperature and time, pH and water activity. The obtained data can also be used in epidemiological investigation to estimate the acrylamide exposure from nutritional survey.

  4. Antioxidant Effects of Herbal Tea Leaves from Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) on Multiple Free Radical and Reducing Power Assays, Especially on Different Superoxide Anion Radical Generation Systems.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Shintaro; Ueda, Yuto; Fukuhara, Kumiko; Kamamuta, Yuki; Matsuda, Yasushi; Murata, Tatsuro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Ono, Masateru; Igoshi, Keiji; Yasuda, Shin

    2015-11-01

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius), a native Andean plant, has been cultivated as a crop and locally used as a traditional folk medicine for the people suffering from diabetes and digestive/renal disorders. However, the medicinal properties of this plant and its processed foods have not been completely established. This study investigates the potent antioxidative effects of herbal tea leaves from yacon in different free radical models and a ferric reducing model. A hot-water extract exhibited the highest yield of total polyphenol and scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical among four extracts prepared with hot water, methanol, ethanol, and ethylacetate. In addition, a higher reducing power of the hot-water extract was similarly demonstrated among these extracts. Varying concentrations of the hot-water extract resulted in different scavenging activities in four synthetic free radical models: DPPH radical (EC50 28.1 μg/mL), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical (EC50 23.7 μg/mL), galvinoxyl radical (EC50 3.06 μg/mL), and chlorpromazine cation radical (EC50 475 μg/mL). The yacon tea-leaf extract further demonstrated superoxide anion (O2(-)) radical scavenging effects in the phenazine methosulfate-NADH-nitroblue tetrazolium (EC50 64.5 μg/mL) and xanthine oxidase assay systems (EC50 20.7 μg/mL). Subsequently, incubating human neutrophilic cells in the presence of the tea-leaf extract could suppress the cellular O2(-) radical generation (IC50 65.7 μg/mL) in a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated cell model. These results support yacon tea leaves may be a good source of natural antioxidants for preventing O2(-) radical-mediated disorders. Yacon has been considered to be a potent alternative food source for patients who require a dietary cure in regional area, while the leaf part has been provided and consumed as an herbal tea in local markets. We demonstrated here potent antioxidative effects of the tea

  5. Clean subglacial access: prospects for future deep hot-water drilling

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, David; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Smith, Andrew M.; Rose, Mike; Ross, Neil; Mowlem, Matt; Parnell, John

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and sampling subglacial environments deep beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet presents several challenges to existing drilling technologies. With over half of the ice sheet believed to be resting on a wet bed, drilling down to this environment must conform to international agreements on environmental stewardship and protection, making clean hot-water drilling the most viable option. Such a drill, and its water recovery system, must be capable of accessing significantly greater ice depths than previous hot-water drills, and remain fully operational after connecting with the basal hydrological system. The Subglacial Lake Ellsworth (SLE) project developed a comprehensive plan for deep (greater than 3000 m) subglacial lake research, involving the design and development of a clean deep-ice hot-water drill. However, during fieldwork in December 2012 drilling was halted after a succession of equipment issues culminated in a failure to link with a subsurface cavity and abandonment of the access holes. The lessons learned from this experience are presented here. Combining knowledge gained from these lessons with experience from other hot-water drilling programmes, and recent field testing, we describe the most viable technical options and operational procedures for future clean entry into SLE and other deep subglacial access targets. PMID:26667913

  6. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  7. Investigation of the Intake of a Stationary Gas Turbine to Prevent Ice Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramposch, Andreas; Molnár, Vojtech; Ridzoň, František

    2011-12-01

    Repeated emergency shutdowns of a stationary gas turbine under conditions of sub-freezing temperatures and moist air have led to the suspicion that ice formation in the intake channel and compressor may be a contributing factor. To understand the reason, why the installed ice protection system is not effective, a numerical investigation of the intake channel with the installed hot air ice protection system has been performed. It is shown that mixing of hot air with cold outside air is incomplete, explaining the ice accretion.

  8. Water, ice and mud: Lahars and lahar hazards at ice- and snow-clad volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Large-volume lahars are significant hazards at ice and snow covered volcanoes. Hot eruptive products produced during explosive eruptions can generate a substantial volume of melt water that quickly evolves into highly mobile flows of ice, sediment and water. At present it is difficult to predict the size of lahars that can form at ice and snow covered volcanoes due to their complex flow character and behaviour. However, advances in experiments and numerical approaches are producing new conceptual models and new methods for hazard assessment. Eruption triggered lahars that are ice-dominated leave behind thin, almost unrecognizable sedimentary deposits, making them likely to be under-represented in the geological record.

  9. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  10. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  11. Comparison of Antioxidative Effects of Insect Tea and Its Raw Tea (Kuding Tea) Polyphenols in Kunming Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Yi, Ruokun; Li, Guijie; Sun, Peng; Park, Kun-Young; Suo, Huayi

    2018-01-19

    Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage. After determination in serum, liver and spleen, ITP-treated mice showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH) activities and lower nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA) activities than VC-treated mice, KTP-treated mice and untreated oxidation mice (control group). By H&E section observation, the mice induced by d-galactose-induced oxidation showed more changes than normal mice, and oxidative damage appeared in liver and spleen tissues; ITP, VC and KTP improved oxidative damage of liver and spleen tissues, and the effects of ITP were better than VC and KTP. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot experiments, it was observed that ITP could increase the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), cupro/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in liver and spleen tissues compared to the control group. These effects were stronger than for VC and KTP. Both ITP and KTP had good antioxidative effects, and after the

  12. Protective effects of dietary chamomile tea on diabetic complications.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Minoshima, Yuka; Yamamoto, Jo; Adachi, Isao; Watson, Alison A; Nash, Robert J

    2008-09-10

    Matricaria chamomilla L., known as "chamomile", has been used as an herbal tea or supplementary food all over the world. We investigated the effects of chamomile hot water extract and its major components on the prevention of hyperglycemia and the protection or improvement of diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus. Hot water extract, esculetin (3) and quercetin (7) have been found to show moderate inhibition of sucrase with IC50 values of 0.9 mg/mL and 72 and 71 microM, respectively. In a sucrose-loading test, the administration of esculetin (50 mg/kg body weight) fully suppressed hyperglycemia after 15 and 30 min, but the extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (50 mg/kg body weight) were less effective. On the other hand, a long-term feed test (21 days) using a streptozotocin-induced rat diabetes model revealed that the same doses of extract and quercetin showed significant suppression of blood glucose levels. It was also found that these samples increased the liver glycogen levels. Moreover, chamomile extract showed potent inhibition against aldose reductase (ALR2), with an IC50 value of 16.9 microg/mL, and its components, umbelliferone (1), esculetin (3), luteolin (6), and quercetin (7), could significantly inhibit the accumulation of sorbitol in human erythrocytes. These results clearly suggested that daily consumption of chamomile tea with meals could contribute to the prevention of the progress of hyperglycemia and diabetic complications.

  13. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes Part 2 - LEWICE/Thermal

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center: LEWICE/Thermal 1 (electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing), and ANTICE 2 (hot gas and el...

  14. 9,10-Anthraquinone deposit in tea plantation might be one of the reasons for contamination in tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Sun, Hezhi; Yang, Mei; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2018-04-01

    9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ) was a new contaminant, with unknown sources, occurred globally in tea. European Union (EU) fixed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mg/kg. The pollution source of AQ in tea was traced from the view of AQ deposit on tea crop by simulation. The possible contamination pathway and main factors to decrease AQ were explored in tea cultivation- tea manufacture- tea infusion, on the basis of AQ analytical methods by using solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification. 58.8-84.6% of AQ degraded in tea processing, and drying played a key role to reduce the AQ contamination. Certain concentration of AQ deposited on tea shoots could resulted in AQ beyond the MRL of 0.02mg/kg in tea. AQ leaching into tea brew (about 10%) could lead to the possible health risk. AQ deposit on tea crop during the tea cultivation might cause the AQ contamination in tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  16. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shilpa S; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-11-16

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener.

  17. Killing K channels with TEA+.

    PubMed

    Khodakhah, K; Melishchuk, A; Armstrong, C M

    1997-11-25

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA+) is widely used for reversible blockade of K channels in many preparations. We noticed that intracellular perfusion of voltage-clamped squid giant axons with a solution containing K+ and TEA+ irreversibly decreased the potassium current when there was no K+ outside. Five minutes of perfusion with 20 mM TEA+, followed by removal of TEA+, reduced potassium current to < 5% of its initial value. The irreversible disappearance of K channels with TEA+ could be prevented by addition of > or = 10 mM K+ to the extracellular solution. The rate of disappearance of K channels followed first-order kinetics and was slowed by reducing the concentration of TEA+. Killing is much less evident when an axon is held at -110 mV to tightly close all of the channels. The longer-chain TEA+ derivative decyltriethylammonium (C10+) had irreversible effects similar to TEA+. External K+ also protected K channels against the irreversible action of C10+. It has been reported that removal of all K+ internally and externally (dekalification) can result in the disappearance of K channels, suggesting that binding of K+ within the pore is required to maintain function. Our evidence further suggests that the crucial location for K+ binding is external to the (internal) TEA+ site and that TEA+ prevents refilling of this location by intracellular K+. Thus in the absence of extracellular K+, application of TEA+ (or C10+) has effects resembling dekalification and kills the K channels.

  18. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  19. Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Hou, C W; Jeng, K C; Chen, Y S

    2010-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is known as a fermented tea and longer storage enhances its flavor and taste. Recently, Aspergillus, Blastobotrys, and Streptomyces are found to play important roles in nutritional enhancement of Pu-erh tea by fermentation. Since water and temperature affect the microbial growth, we therefore explored the factors that might enhance the Pu-erh tea fermentation. The results showed that the addition of fresh tea-leaf extract (TLE) enhanced the withered tea fermentation (at 37 degrees C, 80 to 85% RH) as compared with the water only. Contents of statin, GABA, gallic acid, DPPH scavenging and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were increased, whereas polyphenols and caffeine were decreased over 6 mo. TLE dose-dependently enhanced some of the qualities (that is, statin, PPO) of Pu-erh tea significantly as compared with the water only. The effect was related to the increase population of A. niger and A. carbonarius at 6 mo (from 7.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(1) and 3.2 +/- 1.3 x 10(1) to 3.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) and 2.4 +/- 1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units [CFU]/g, respectively). After drying process (90 degrees C, 30 min), the total microbial count from these samples returned to background level (3 +/- 0.5 x 10(2) CFU/g). None of ochratoxin and fumonisin, toxins from Aspergillus, was detected in the final products. The flavor and taste were also enhanced by treatment with TLE. The inoculation with S. cinereus Y11 with 2% TLE further enhanced these functional contents (about 2-fold increase of statin level) in the experimental Pu-erh tea. Therefore, this result may add a new process for Pu-erh tea manufacture.

  20. Common tea formulations modulate in vitro digestive recovery of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Green, Rodney J; Murphy, Angus S; Schulz, Burkhard; Watkins, Bruce A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for tea catechins in reduction of chronic disease risk. However, stability of catechins under digestive conditions is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of common food additives on digestive recovery of tea catechins. Green tea water extracts were formulated in beverages providing 4.5, 18, 23, and 3.5 mg per 100 mL epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), and epicatechin-gallate (ECG), respectively. Common commercial beverage additives; citric acid (CA), BHT, EDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), milk (bovine, soy, and rice), and citrus juice (orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime) were formulated into finished tea beverages at incremental dosages. Samples were then subjected to in vitro digestion simulating gastric and small intestinal conditions with pre- and post-digestion catechin profiles assessed by HPLC. Catechin stability in green tea was poor with <20% total catechins remaining post-digestion. EGC and EGCG were most sensitive with less, not double equals 10% recovery. Teas formulated with 50% bovine, soy, and rice milk increased total catechin recovery significantly to 52, 55, and 69% respectively. Including 30 mg AA in 250 mL of tea beverage significantly (p<0.05) increased catechin recovery of EGC, EGCG, EC, and ECG to 74, 54, 82, and 45% respectively. Juice preparation resulted in the highest recovery of any formulation for EGC (81-98%), EGCG (56-76%), EC (86-95%), and ECG (30-55%). These data provide evidence that tea consumption practices and formulation factors likely impact catechin digestive recovery and may result in diverse physiological profiles.

  1. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage.

    PubMed

    Guerrero Legarreta, I; Usborne, W R; Ashton, G C

    1987-01-01

    The first experiment evaluated the effect of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) addition to hot-boned meat, in different proportions, upon the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage patties. Dry ice had some negative effects at levels of 20% to 40%, such as hardening and colour fading of samples, although it increased water-holding capacity of the sausage. In the second experiment three proportions of hot-boned meat and chilled meat were evaluated as a means to extend the retail storage time of fresh pork sausage links. Hot-boned pork was treated by three methods: freezing the meat before grinding, salting and freezing, and salting plus dry ice addition. The results favoured the use of 50% hot-boned meat and 50% chilled meat, for which the lowest hardness and oxidation values were obtained. Microbial counts and hue values showed no significant variation among the three treatments. Salting and freezing hot-boned meat before grinding was the method which produced the best overall quality. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Study on the simultaneous determination of seven benzoylurea pesticides in Oolong tea and their leaching characteristics during infusing process by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Chen, JinFa; Guo, Ying; Li, JianRong; Yang, YiQiang; Xu, LiangJun; Fu, FengFu

    2014-01-15

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 7 benzoylurea pesticides (chlorfluazuron, diflubenzuron, fluazuron, flufenoxuron, hexaflumuron, teflubenzuron and triflumuron) in the manufactured Oolong tea leaves and its infusion was described. The method has a LOD of 0.03-1.00ng/mL, a recovery of 90.4-103% for made tea and 90.3-102% for tea-infused liquid, respectively. By using the proposed method, the leaching characteristics of above 7 pesticides during infusing process were investigated. The experimental results revealed that: (1) diflubenzuron can be most easily extracted out during infusing process, followed by triflumuron, teflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, chlorfluazuron, flufenoxuron and fluazuron. (2) The leaching of flufenoxuron and chlorfluazuron during infusing process seems to be controlled by only their solubility, whereas, the leaching of other 5 benzoylurea insecticides was primarily controlled by their partitioning coefficient between made tea and hot water. The results of this study are helpful for the accurate evaluation of the safety of Oolong tea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  4. Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenship, D.D.; Bell, R.E.; Hodge, S.M.; Brozena, J.M.; Behrendt, John C.; Finn, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    IT is widely understood that the collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) would cause a global sea level rise of 6 m, yet there continues to be considerable debate about the detailed response of this ice sheet to climate change1-3. Because its bed is grounded well below sea level, the stability of the WAIS may depend on geologically controlled conditions at the base which are independent of climate. In particular, heat supplied to the base of the ice sheet could increase basal melting and thereby trigger ice streaming, by providing the water for a lubricating basal layer of till on which ice streams are thought to slide4,5. Ice streams act to protect the reservoir of slowly moving inland ice from exposure to oceanic degradation, thus enhancing ice-sheet stability. Here we present aerogeophysical evidence for active volcanism and associated elevated heat flow beneath the WAIS near the critical region where ice streaming begins. If this heat flow is indeed controlling ice-stream formation, then penetration of ocean waters inland of the thin hot crust of the active portion of the West Antarctic rift system could lead to the disappearance of ice streams, and possibly trigger a collapse of the inland ice reservoir.

  5. Total polyphenols, catechin profiles and antioxidant activity of tea products from purple leaf coloured tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kerio, L C; Wachira, F N; Wanyoko, J K; Rotich, M K

    2013-02-15

    Black (aerated) and green (unaerated) tea products, processed from 10 green and 18 purple leaf coloured cultivars of Kenyan origin, and two tea products, from the Japanese cultivars, Yabukita and Yutakamidori, were assayed for total polyphenols (TP) content, individual catechin profiles and in vitro antioxidant capacity (AA). In addition, the phenolic content of the tea products was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent. Catechin fractions were identified using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a binary gradient elution system. The AA% of the tea products was determined using a 2,2'-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay method. The results showed that TPs, catechin profiles and antioxidant activities were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in unaerated than in aerated teas. Tea products from the purple leaf coloured tea cultivars had levels of TPs, total catechin (TC) and antioxidant activities similar to those from the green leaf coloured cultivars, except for teas from the Japanese cultivars that were very low in the assayed parameters. Caffeine content was significantly (p≤0.05) lower in products from the purple leaf coloured cultivars than in those from the green leaf coloured tea cultivars. Antioxidant activity (%) was higher in tea products from the Kenyan germplasm than in those from the Japanese cultivars. Antioxidant potency of tea products was significantly (r=0.789(∗∗), p≤0.01) influenced by the total anthocyanin content of the purple leaf coloured cultivars. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was the anthocyanin most highly correlated with AA% (r=0.843(∗∗), p≤0.01 in unaerated tea). Total catechins in the unaerated products from the green leaf coloured tea cultivars were also significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity (r=0.818(∗∗), p≤0.01). Results from this study suggest that the antioxidant potency of teas is dependent on the predominant flavonoid compound, the type of tea cultivar and

  6. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  7. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  8. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  9. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  10. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  11. Hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties of a new fermented tea product obtained by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazunari; Tamaru, Shizuka; Nishizono, Shoko; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Matsui, Toshiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Echizen, Yoshie; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. The mixed fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and effectively suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Rats fed a diet containing 1% freeze-dried fermented tea extract for 4 weeks had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol concentration and white adipose tissue weight than those fed the control diet lacking fermented tea extract. The activity of fatty acid synthase in hepatic cytosol markedly decreased in the fermented tea extract group as compared to the control group. The serum and liver triacylglycerol- and body fat-lowering effects of the mixed fermented tea extract were strong relative to the level of dietary supplementation. These results suggest that the new fermented tea product exhibited hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties through suppression of both liver fatty acid synthesis and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  12. The Tea Tree Genome Provides Insights into Tea Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, En-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Sheng, Jun; Li, Kui; Zhang, Qun-Jie; Kim, Changhoon; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Wei; Huang, Hui; Tong, Yan; Nan, Hong; Shi, Cong; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Mao, Shu-Yan; Jiao, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yuan; Zhao, You-Jie; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Ben-Ying; Yu, Yue; Shao, Sheng-Fu; Ni, De-Jiang; Eichler, Evan E; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2017-06-05

    Tea is the world's oldest and most popular caffeine-containing beverage with immense economic, medicinal, and cultural importance. Here, we present the first high-quality nucleotide sequence of the repeat-rich (80.9%), 3.02-Gb genome of the cultivated tea tree Camellia sinensis. We show that an extraordinarily large genome size of tea tree is resulted from the slow, steady, and long-term amplification of a few LTR retrotransposon families. In addition to a recent whole-genome duplication event, lineage-specific expansions of genes associated with flavonoid metabolic biosynthesis were discovered, which enhance catechin production, terpene enzyme activation, and stress tolerance, important features for tea flavor and adaptation. We demonstrate an independent and rapid evolution of the tea caffeine synthesis pathway relative to cacao and coffee. A comparative study among 25 Camellia species revealed that higher expression levels of most flavonoid- and caffeine- but not theanine-related genes contribute to the increased production of catechins and caffeine and thus enhance tea-processing suitability and tea quality. These novel findings pave the way for further metabolomic and functional genomic refinement of characteristic biosynthesis pathways and will help develop a more diversified set of tea flavors that would eventually satisfy and attract more tea drinkers worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites.

    PubMed

    Sõukand, Renata; Quave, Cassandra L; Pieroni, Andrea; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Tardío, Javier; Kalle, Raivo; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kolosova, Valeria; Aceituno-Mata, Laura; Menendez-Baceta, Gorka; Kołodziejska-Degórska, Iwona; Pirożnikow, Ewa; Petkevičius, Rolandas; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet

    2013-08-13

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad.

  14. Plants used for making recreational tea in Europe: a review based on specific research sites

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a review of local plants used in water infusions as aromatic and refreshing hot beverages (recreational tea) consumed in food-related settings in Europe, and not for specific medicinal purposes. The reviewed 29 areas are located across Europe, covering the post-Soviet countries, eastern and Mediterranean Europe. Altogether, 142 taxa belonging to 99 genera and 40 families were reported. The most important families for making herbal tea in all research areas were Lamiaceae and Asteraceae, while Rosaceae was popular only in eastern and central Europe. With regards to botanical genera, the dominant taxa included Mentha, Tilia, Thymus, Origanum, Rubus and Matricaria. The clear favorite was Origanum vulgare L., mentioned in 61% of the regions. Regionally, other important taxa included Rubus idaeus L. in eastern Europe, Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All. in southern Europe and Rosa canina L. in central Europe. Future research on the pharmacological, nutritional and chemical properties of the plants most frequently used in the tea-making process is essential to ensure their safety and appropriateness for daily consumption. Moreover, regional studies dedicated to the study of local plants used for making recreational tea are important to improve our understanding of their selection criteria, cultural importance and perceived properties in Europe and abroad. PMID:23941692

  15. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  17. Plasma appearance and correlation between coffee and green tea metabolites in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Mathieu; Guy, Philippe; Marmet, Cynthia; Longet, Karin; Fraering, Anne-Lise; Moulin, Julie; Barron, Denis; Dionisi, Fabiola; Cavin, Christophe; Steiling, Heike; Williamson, Gary

    2010-12-01

    Coffee and green tea are two of the most widely consumed hot beverages in the world. Their respective bioavailability has been studied separately, but absorption of their respective bioactive phenolics has not been compared. In a randomised cross-over design, nine healthy subjects drank instant coffee and green tea. Blood samples were collected over 12 h and at 24 h to assess return to baseline. After green tea consumption, (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) was the major catechin, appearing rapidly in the plasma; (-)-EGC gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were also present, but (-)-EC gallate and C were not detected. Dihydroferulic acid and dihydrocaffeic acid were the major metabolites that appeared after coffee consumption with a long time needed to reach maximum plasma concentration, suggesting metabolism and absorption in the colon. Other phenolic acid equivalents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA) and isoferulic acid (iFA)) were detected earlier, and they peaked at lower concentrations. Summations of the plasma area under the curves (AUC) for the measured metabolites showed 1.7-fold more coffee-derived phenolic acids than green tea-derived catechins (P = 0.0014). Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between coffee metabolites based on AUC. Inter-individual differences were observed, but individuals with a high level of CA also showed a correspondingly high level of FA. However, no such correlation was observed between the tea catechins and coffee phenolic acids. Correlation between AUC and maximum plasma concentration was also significant for CA, FA and iFA and for EGCg. This implies that the mechanisms of absorption for these two classes of compounds are different, and that a high absorber of phenolic acids is not necessarily a high absorber of catechins.

  18. Design and Construction of an Ice-in-Tank Diurnal Ice Storage for the PX Building at Fort Stewart, GA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    of a Eutectic Salt System 16 0 11 Energy Characteristics of Fort Stewart PX on a Hot Day 21 12 Peak Day Load Profile for Fort Stewart 21 13 Chiller...at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ in FY 88. An ice-shucking and a eutectic salt DIS cooling system are scheduled to be installed in the coming years. The...water, ice, or freezing eutectic salt . Ice and salt systems can be grouped • together as phase-change systems. In a recent survey of over a hundred

  19. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  20. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition.

    PubMed

    Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Large Yellow Tea Attenuates Macrophage-Related Chronic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome in High-Fat Diet Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Chu, Jun; Wang, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-04-18

    Large yellow tea is a traditional beverage in China with a unique toasty flavor. A preliminary study using 3T3-L1 cells indicated that large yellow tea possessed more potent lipid-lowering efficacy than green, black, dark, and white teas. In the present study we further investigated its influence on metabolic syndrome in a high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model with an emphasis on dose response. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD + 2.5% large yellow tea hot-water extract (YT, equivalent to 10 cups of tea daily for humans), HFD + 0.5% YT. Our data indicated that YT treatment for 12 weeks significantly reduced body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue weight of the mice; lowered serum insulin and leptin; and raised serum adiponectin with dose effect. H&E staining showed that the HFD group exhibited significant enlargement of adipose cell sizes and the corresponding decrease of adipose cell numbers, which were dose-dependently attenuated in both YT groups. IHC results revealed that YT decreased macrophage recruitment in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and depressed serum inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YT decreased serum glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, as well as ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance independent of dose. Overall, YT would be a unique tea with dose-independent antihyperglycemic and robust lipid-lowering efficacies.

  3. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Leung, L K; Su, Y; Chen, R; Zhang, Z; Huang, Y; Chen, Z Y

    2001-09-01

    Green tea catechins, including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are oxidized and dimerized during the manufacture of black tea and oolong tea to form orange-red pigments, theaflavins (TF), a mixture of theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of individual TF with that of each catechin using human LDL oxidation as a model. All catechins and TF tested inhibited Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. Analysis of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes produced during LDL oxidation revealed that the antioxidant activity was in the order: TF3 > ECG > EGCG > or = TF2B > or = TF2A > TF1 > or = EC > EGC. Four TF derivatives also demonstrated a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation at concentrations of 5-40 micromol/L. These results demonstrate that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechins to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical-scavenging activity.

  4. Formation of (E)-nerolidol in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-09-15

    (E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    PubMed

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  7. Icing Sensor Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, Edward; Kok, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    Aircraft icing is a serious safety problem for the general aviation and some commuter transport airplanes. There has been tremendous growth in the commuter aviation industry in the last few years, Since these type of aircraft generally operate at lower altitudes they consequently spend a far greater proportion of their time operating in icing conditions. For the past thirty years airborne and ground based facilities have relied primarily on two types of cloud physics instrumentation to measure the characteristics of icing clouds: hot wire liquid water content probes and laser based particle sizing probes for the measurement of water droplet size. The instrumentation is severely limited by the technology that was developed during the 1970's and is quite large in size. The goal of this research is to develop one instrument with a wide bandwidth, better response time, higher resolution, user selectability, and small and lightweight. NASA Glenn Research Center, Droplet Measurement Technology, and Meteorology Society of Canada have developed a collaborative effort to develop such an instrument. This paper describes the development and test results of the prototype Icing Sensor Probe.

  8. Heat recovery, ice storage to cut user's energy costs 40%

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ponczak, G.

    1985-12-02

    A new recovery system which uses waste heat generated by an Illinois ice rink's compressors for space heating and domestic hot water will benefit from low off-peak electricity rates at a time when demand rates for the rink will be increasing 30%. The thermal storage system uses the same compressors to build ice. The Wilmette Centennial Park Recreation Complex expects to reduce gas and electricity costs by 40%, or about $100,000 per year. Part of the project involved installing new, high-efficiency compressor motors. A preliminary energy audit revealed that the old compressors were throwing off 2.25 million Btu of heatmore » per hour. An air-to-water heat exchanger now provides space heating as needed. Two double-vented heat exchangers generate hot water for swimming pools and the ice-making machine. The ice storage tank is used for cooling. An energy management system controls these and other building systems.« less

  9. Identification and quantitation of alkaloids in coca tea

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Amanda J.; Llosa, Teobaldo; Montoya, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of coca tea is a common occurrence in many South American countries. The tea is often packaged in individual servings as tea bags which contain approximately 1 g of plant material. The consumption of coca tea leads to ingestion of cocaine and other alkaloids: however, there is little information available regarding the pharmacological or toxicological effects that result from consumption of coca tea. We performed a series of studies with coca tea bags from two South American countries, Peru and Bolivia. The alkaloidal content of the ‘coca leaf’ in coca tea bags was determined by two different extraction methods: Soxhlet extraction with methanol (exhaustive extraction), and mechanical agitation with methanol. Extracts were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Coca tea prepared from Peruvian and Bolivian coca tea bags was also analyzed by SPE-GC/MS assay. In addition, urine specimens were analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of Peruvian coca tea and one cup of Bolivian coca tea on separate occasions. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay (TDxR) and SPE-GC/MS. Analysis of coca tea bags and coca tea indicated that cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and trans-cinnamoylcocaine were present in varying quantities. With exhaustive extraction, an average of 5.11 mg, and 4.86 mg of cocaine per tea bag were found in coca leaf from Peru and Bolivia, respectively. The average amounts of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester in Peruvian coca leaf were 0.11 and 1.15 mg, and in Bolivian coca leaf were 0.12 and 2.93 mg per tea bag, respectively. trans-Cinnamoylcocaine was found in trace amounts in Peruvian tea bags and 0.16 mg/tea bag of Bolivian tea. When tea was prepared, an average of 4.14 mg of cocaine was present in a cup of Peruvian coca tea and 4.29 mg of cocaine was present in Bolivian tea. Following the consumption of a cup of Peruvian tea by one

  10. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  11. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑ 5 PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D 4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log K ow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  12. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    PubMed

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  13. Effectiveness of chamomile tea on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rafraf, M; Zemestani, M; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of chamomile tea consumption on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 individuals with T2DM (males and females) aged between 30 and 60 years. The intervention group (n = 32) consumed chamomile tea (3 g/150 mL hot water) three times per day immediately after meals for 8 weeks. The control group (n = 32) followed a water regimen for the same intervention period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 3-day, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, Pearson correlation test, and analysis of covariance. Chamomile tea significantly decreased concentration of HbA1C (p = 0.03), serum insulin levels (p < 0.001), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p < 0.001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.05) compared with control group. No significant changes were shown in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both groups. Chamomile tea has some beneficial effects on glycemic control and serum lipid profile in T2DM patients.

  14. The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wang, Y; Xie, Z; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y; Wan, X

    2014-10-01

    Many researchers have reported that obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several forms of cancer (such as breast, colon and prostate), pulmonary, osteoarticular and metabolic diseases in the past decades. Recently, the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of green tea in animals and humans have slowly become a hot topic in nutritional and food science research. This review will up-date the information of the anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and animal studies. During recent years, an increasing number of clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of green tea on obesity. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to the very different results from studies with a similar design, which may be caused by differences in the extent of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, the strength of subjects' compliance to test instruction, the genetic background of populations, body composition and dietary habits. Therefore, further investigations on a larger scale and with longer periods of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic risk factors and to determine differences in beneficial effects among diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that green tea has important roles in fat metabolism by reducing food intake, interrupting lipid emulsification and absorption, suppressing adipogenesis and lipid synthesis and increasing energy expenditure via thermogenesis, fat oxidation and fecal lipid excretion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive.

  15. Bioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milk.

    PubMed

    van het Hof, K H; Kivits, G A; Weststrate, J A; Tijburg, L B

    1998-05-01

    To assess the blood concentration of catechins following green or black tea ingestion and the effect of addition of milk to black tea. Twelve volunteers received a single dose of green tea, black tea and black tea with milk in a randomized cross-over design with one-week intervals. Blood samples were drawn before and up to eight hours after tea consumption. The study was performed at the Unilever Research Vlaardingen in The Netherlands. Twelve healthy adult volunteers (7 females, 5 males) participated in the study. They were recruited among employees of Unilever Research Vlaardingen. Green tea, black tea and black tea with semi-skimmed milk (3 g tea solids each). Consumption of green tea (0.9 g total catechins) or black tea (0.3 g total catechins) resulted in a rapid increase of catechin levels in blood with an average maximum change from baseline (CVM) of 0.46 micromol/l (13%) after ingestion of green tea and 0.10 micromol/l (13%) in case of black tea. These maximum changes were reached after (mean (s.e.m.)) t=2.3 h (0.2) and t=2.2 h (0.2) for green and black tea respectively. Blood levels rapidly declined with an elimination rate (mean (CVM)) of t1/2=4.8 h (5%) for green tea and t1/2=6.9 h (8%) for black tea. Addition of milk to black tea (100 ml in 600 ml) did not significantly affect the blood catechin levels (areas under the curves (mean (CVM) of 0.53 h. micromol/l (11%) vs 0.60 h. micromol/l (9%) for black tea and black tea with milk respectively. Catechins from green tea and black tea are rapidly absorbed and milk does not impair the bioavailability of tea catechins.

  16. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  17. Travelling with tea: a Tuckerella’s tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tuckerella japonica appears strongly associated with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze., Theaceae) and, due to certain cultural practices in tea production, has in fact become a world traveller, accompanying the greatly coveted tea plant as it spread across the planet. The history of tea productio...

  18. Study of Cold Heat Energy Release Characteristics of Flowing Ice Water Slurry in a Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Ozaki, Koichi; Yokota, Maki

    This paper has dealt with melting heat transfer characteristics of ice water slurry in an inside tube of horizontal double tube heat exchanger in which a hot water circulated in an annular gap between the inside and outside tubes. Two kinds of heat exchangers were used; one is made of acrylic resin tube for flow visualization and the other is made of stainless steel tube for melting heat transfer measurement. The result of flow visualization revealed that ice particles flowed along the top of inside tube in the ranges of small ice packing factor and low ice water slurry velocity, while ice particles diffused into the whole of tube and flowed like a plug built up by ice particles for large ice packing factor and high velocity. Moreover, it was found that the flowing ice plug was separated into numbers of small ice clusters by melting phenomenon. Experiments of melting heat transfer were carried out under some parameters of ice packing factor, ice water slurry flow rate and hot water temperature. Consequently, the correlation equation of melting heat transfer was derived as a function of those experimental parameters.

  19. Oolong tea increases energy metabolism in Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Tatsushi; Nakamori, Masayo; Komatsu, Keiko; Hosoda, Kazuaki; Okamura, Mariko; Toyama, Kenji; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Tohru; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2003-08-01

    Oolong tea is a traditional Chinese tea that has long been believed to be beneficial to health such as decreasing body fat. We were interested in this assertion and tried to evaluate the effect of oolong tea on energy expenditure (EE) in comparison with green tea. The subjects were eleven healthy Japanese females (age 20+/-1 y; body mass index (BMI) 21.2+/-2.5 kg/m2) who each consumed of three treatments in a crossover design: 1) water, 2) oolong tea, 3) green tea. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and EE after the consumption of the test beverage for 120 min were measured using an indirect calorimeter. The cumulative increases of EE for 120 min were significantly increased 10% and 4% after the consumption of oolong tea and green tea, respectively. EE at 60 and 90 min were significantly higher after the consumption of oolong tea than that of water (P<0.05). In comparison with green tea, oolong tea contained approximately half the caffeine and epigallocatechin galate, while polymerized polyphenols were double. These results suggest that oolong tea increases EE by its polymerized polyphenols.

  20. Probable Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David

    1997-01-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462

  1. Modelling and simulation of wood chip combustion in a hot air generator system.

    PubMed

    Rajika, J K A T; Narayana, Mahinsasa

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on modelling and simulation of horizontal moving bed/grate wood chip combustor. A standalone finite volume based 2-D steady state Euler-Euler Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed for packed bed combustion. Packed bed combustion of a medium scale biomass combustor, which was retrofitted from wood log to wood chip feeding for Tea drying in Sri Lanka, was evaluated by a CFD simulation study. The model was validated by the experimental results of an industrial biomass combustor for a hot air generation system in tea industry. Open-source CFD tool; OpenFOAM was used to generate CFD model source code for the packed bed combustion and simulated along with an available solver for free board region modelling in the CFD tool. Height of the packed bed is about 20 cm and biomass particles are assumed to be spherical shape with constant surface area to volume ratio. Temperature measurements of the combustor are well agreed with simulation results while gas phase compositions have discrepancies. Combustion efficiency of the validated hot air generator is around 52.2 %.

  2. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  3. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  4. Toxic and essential mineral elements content of black tea leaves and their tea infusions consumed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salahinejad, Maryam; Aflaki, Fereydoon

    2010-04-01

    The metal contents of eleven black tea samples, four cultivated in Iran and seven imported, and their tea infusions were determined. Twelve elements consisting toxic metals (Al, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) and essential mineral elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Al, Ca, Mg, and Mn ranged in black tea leaves at mg g(-1) levels, while Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn were at microg g(-1) levels. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences among most elements determined in cultivated and imported black teas in Iran except for Ni and Cu. The extraction efficiency of each element into tea infusions was evaluated. The solubility of measured metals in infusion extracts varied widely and ranged from 0 to 59.3%. Among the studied elements, Cr, Pb, and Cd showed the lowest rates of solubility and Ni had the highest rates of solubility. The amount of toxic metals and essential mineral elements that one may take up through consumption of black tea infusion was estimated. The amount of realizing each element into tea infusions and acceptable daily intake, for safety consumption of black tea, was compared.

  5. Soil fluoride fractions and their bioavailability to tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Yi, Xiaoyun; Qiao, Sha; Ma, Lifeng; Wang, Jie; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-10-01

    Drinking teas containing high fluoride (F) imposes fluorosis risk. The soil F bioavailability is an important factor influencing its uptake and contents in teas. The present work was conducted to investigate F fractions in soil and their bioavailability to tea plants. Tea seedlings were cultivated on 6 typical soils treated with a mixture consisting of dolomite, lime, peat and KCl at variable rates in the pot experiment. Soils and young shoots were collected in pairs from 63 sites of 21 plantations in a field experiment. Soil fluoride was sequentially separated into hot water soluble [Formula: see text], exchangeable [Formula: see text] (by 1 mol L -1 MgCl 2 , pH = 7.0), F bound to Mn and Fe hydroxides [F (oxides,s) ], and organic matter [F (OM,s) ] or extracted independently by water [Formula: see text] or 0.01 mol L -1 CaCl 2 solution [Formula: see text]. Averaged [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], F (oxides,s) and F (OM,s) accounted for 51, 14, 5 and 30 % of the total sequential extracts, respectively. There were significant correlations among [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and F (OM,s) . Fluoride contents in leaves correlated with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.71, p < 0.001), [Formula: see text] (r = 0.93, p < 0.001) and F (OM,s) (r = 0.69, p < 0.01) but not other fractions in the pot experiment and with [Formula: see text] (r = 0.43-0.57, p < 0.001) and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.42-0.79, p < 0.001) in the field experiment. It was concluded that 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable fluoride can be a good indicator of soil F bioavailability to tea plants. The significant correlations among some of the F fractions suggested that F in solution, AlF complexes (AlF 2 + , AlF 2+ ) and those bound to organic matter likely represent the available pools to tea plants.

  6. Simplified recovery of enzymes and nutrients in sweet potato wastewater and preparing health black tea and theaflavins with scrap tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Rong; Luo, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Guang-Ying; Chen, Rui; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Min; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2018-04-15

    The industry discards generous organic wastewater in sweet potato starch factory and scrap tea in tea production. A simplified procedure to recover all biochemicals from the wastewater of sweet potato starch factory and use them to make health black tea and theaflavins from scrap green tea was developed. The sweet potato wastewater was sequentially treated by isoelectric precipitation, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to recover polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-amylase, and small molecular fractions, respectively. The PPO fraction can effectively transform green tea extracts into black tea with high content of theaflavins through the optimized fed-batch feeding fermentation. The PPO transformed black tea with sporamins can be used to make health black tea, or make theaflavins by fractionation with ethyl acetate. This work provides a resource- and environment-friendly approach for economically utilizing the sweet potato wastewater and the scrap tea, and making biochemical, nutrient and health products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A two millennium-long hot drought in the southwestern United States driven by Arctic sea-ice retreat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. J.; Denniston, R. F.

    2017-12-01

    The Great Basin and lower Colorado River Basin are susceptible to sustained droughts that impact water resources and economic activity for millions of residents of the southwestern United States. The causes of past droughts in the basin remain debated. Herein, we document a strong Arctic to mid-latitude teleconnection during the Holocene that resulted in an extreme `hot drought' persisting for more than two millennia in the southwestern United States, based on a continuous growth rate and new high-resolution carbon and oxygen isotopic time series from a precisely-dated stalagmite from Leviathan Cave, Nevada. Between 9850-7670 yr B2k, highest Holocene oxygen isotope values indicate warm temperatures and moisture-sensitive proxies of high carbon isotope values and low stalagmite growth rate and minimal soil productivity and aquifer recharge. We refer to this period as the Altithermal Hot Drought. A second interval (6770 to 5310 yr B2k) indicates a warm drought. The two Altithermal droughts exceed in severity and duration any droughts observed in the modern and tree-ring records. Further, we show that Altithermal hot droughts were widespread in the southwestern United States, at a time when human populations in the Great Basin were low. The droughts show strong similarities to proxies for Arctic paleoclimate and we suggest that insolation-driven changes in sea ice and snow cover extent in the high latitudes drove atmospheric circulation anomalies in the Great Basin. Because rising greenhouse gas concentrations are projected to increase global and Arctic temperatures with a possible loss of summer sea by the end of the 21st century, our record suggests that a return to prolonged hotter and drier conditions in the southern Great Basin and lower Colorado River Basin is possible within coming centuries.

  8. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    PubMed Central

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  9. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  10. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas.

    PubMed

    Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H

    1996-03-01

    The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.

  11. Tea Tells All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carol

    2007-01-01

    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  12. Stability of green tea catechins in commercial tea leaves during storage for 6 months.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, C E; Lee, S-U; Kozukue, N

    2009-03-01

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC 7 catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin 3-gallate (CG)] in samples of 8 commercial green tea leaves of unknown history sold as tea bags in the United States, Korea, and Japan. The samples were stored at 20 degrees C and sampled at 1 wk and 1, 2, 4, and 6 mo. The following ranges in the initial values (0 controls) were observed (in mg/g tea leaves): EGC and C, 0 to trace amounts; EC, 1.9 to 21.1; EGCG, 13.3 to 113.0; GCG, 0.2 to 1.6; ECG, 5.7 to 50.5; CG 0.5 to 3.7; total catechins 36.5 to 169.7. Statistical analysis of the results and plots of changes in individual and total catechin levels as a function of storage time indicate a progressive decrease in the content in the total levels, most of which is due to losses in the most abundant catechins, EGCG and ECG. Possible mechanisms of degradations of catechins during storage and the possible significance of the results to consumers of tea are discussed.

  13. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    PubMed

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption.

  15. Simultaneous determination of twelve tea catechins by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Sano, M; Tabata, M; Suzuki, M; Degawa, M; Miyase, T; Maeda-Yamamoto, M

    2001-06-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection was developed for the determination of twelve tea catechins including four major catechins: epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG); four of their epimers at the C-2 position, C, GC, CG and GCG; and four methylated catechin derivatives, epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate, gallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate, epigallocatechin-3-O-(4-O-methyl)gallate and epicatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate. These catechins were separated on an ODS C18 reversed-phase column by isocratic elution with 0.1 M NaH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5)-acetonitrile (87:13) containing 0.1 mM EDTA.2Na. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of these catechins were approximately 10-40 pmol ml-1 at an applied voltage of 600 mV. Extracting these catechins from tea leaf powder with H2O-acetonitrile (1:1) at 30 degrees C for 40 min inhibited the epimerization at C-2 significantly from these epicatechins compared to extraction with hot water at 90 degrees C. This analytical method is sensitive to and appropriate for the simultaneous determination of various biologically active catechins in green tea.

  16. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (p<0.05) as a result of the up-regulation of the linalool synthases (CsLIS1 and CsLIS2) (p<0.05). Continuous mechanical damage significantly enhanced CsLIS1 and CsLIS2 expression levels and linalool emission (p<0.05). Therefore, continuous wounding was a key factor causing the formation and emission of linalool from tea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  18. Hot and cold water infusion aroma profiles of Hibiscus sabdariffa: fresh compared with dried.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rodrigues, M M; Balaban, M O; Marshall, M R; Rouseff, R L

    2011-03-01

    Calyxes from the Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) were used to prepare cold (22 °C for 4 h) and hot (98 °C for 16 min) infusions/teas from both fresh and dried forms. Aroma volatiles were extracted using static headspace SPME and analyzed using GC-MS and GC-O with 2 different columns (DB-5 and DB-Wax). Totals of 28, 25, 17, and 16 volatiles were identified using GC-MS in the dried hot extract (DHE), dried cold extract (DCE), fresh hot extract (FHE), and fresh cold extract (FCE) samples, respectively. In terms of total GC-MS peak areas DHE ≫ DCE > FHE ≫ FCE. Nonanal, decanal, octanal, and 1-octen-3-ol were among the major volatiles in all 4 beverage types. Thirteen volatiles were common to all 4 teas. Furfural and 5-methyl furfural were detected only in dried hibiscus beverages whereas linalool and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were detected only in beverages from fresh hibiscus. In terms of aroma active volatiles, 17, 16, 13, and 10 aroma active volatiles were detected for DHE, DCE, FHE, and FCE samples, respectively. The most intense aroma volatiles were 1-octen-3-one and nonanal with a group of 4 aldehydes and 3 ketones common to all samples. Dried samples contained dramatically higher levels of lipid oxidation products such as hexanal, nonanal, and decanal. In fresh hibiscus extracts, linalool (floral, citrus) and octanal (lemon, citrus) were among the highest intensity aroma compounds but linalool was not detected in any of the dried hibiscus extracts. Hibiscus teas/infusions are one of the highest volume specialty botanical products in international commerce. The beverage is consumed for both sensory pleasure and health attributes and is prepared a number of ways throughout the world. Although color and taste attributes have been examined, little information is known about its aroma volatiles and no other study has compared extractions from both fresh and dried as well as extraction temperature differences. This is also, apparently, the first study to identify

  19. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Green Tea Polyphenols and Green Tea Nano Zero-Valent Iron (GT-nZVI).

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, M; Reeves, K

    2017-03-01

    This study reports on the direct reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by green tea polyphenols, including a green tea solution and pure epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) solution. A linear trend was observed between the amount of reduced Cr(VI) and the amount of added polyphenols. The green tea solution showed a continued decrease in the observed stoichiometry with increasing pH, from a maximum of 1.4 mol per gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of green tea at pH 2.5, to 0.2 mol/GAE at pH 8.8. The EGCG solution exhibited different behavior, with a maximum stoichiometry of 2 at pH 7 and minimum of 1.6 at pH 4.4 and 8.9. When green tea was used to first react with Fe 3+ and form GT-nZVI, the amount of Cr(VI) reduced by a certain volume of GT-nZVI was double compared to green tea, and 6 times as high considering that GT-nZVI only contains 33 % green tea.

  20. Late Summer Frazil Ice-Associated Algal Blooms around Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, Hans B.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Lyons, Evan A.

    2018-01-01

    Antarctic continental shelf waters are the most biologically productive in the Southern Ocean. Although satellite-derived algorithms report peak productivity during the austral spring/early summer, recent studies provide evidence for substantial late summer productivity that is associated with green colored frazil ice. Here we analyze daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite images for February and March from 2003 to 2017 to identify green colored frazil ice hot spots. Green frazil ice is concentrated in 11 of the 13 major sea ice production polynyas, with the greenest frazil ice in the Terra Nova Bay and Cape Darnley polynyas. While there is substantial interannual variability, green frazil ice is present over greater than 300,000 km2 during March. Late summer frazil ice-associated algal productivity may be a major phenomenon around Antarctica that is not considered in regional carbon and ecosystem models.

  1. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  2. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  3. Hydrogen isotope exchanges between water and methanol in interstellar ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, A.; Faure, M.; Theulé, P.; Quirico, E.; Schmitt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The deuterium fractionation of gas-phase molecules in hot cores is believed to reflect the composition of interstellar ices. The deuteration of methanol is a major puzzle, however, because the isotopologue ratio [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD], which is predicted to be equal to 3 by standard grain chemistry models, is much larger (~20) in low-mass hot corinos and significantly lower (~1) in high-mass hot cores. This dichotomy in methanol deuteration between low-mass and massive protostars is currently not understood. In this study, we report a simplified rate equation model of the deuterium chemistry occurring in the icy mantles of interstellar grains. We apply this model to the chemistry of hot corinos and hot cores, with IRAS 16293-2422 and the Orion KL Compact Ridge as prototypes, respectively. The chemistry is based on a statistical initial deuteration at low temperature followed by a warm-up phase during which thermal hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchanges occur between water and methanol. The exchange kinetics is incorporated using laboratory data. The [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] ratio is found to scale inversely with the D/H ratio of water, owing to the H/D exchange equilibrium between the hydroxyl (-OH) functional groups of methanol and water. Our model is able to reproduce the observed [CH2DOH]/[CH3OD] ratios provided that the primitive fractionation of water ice [HDO]/[H2O] is ~2% in IRAS 16293-2422 and ~0.6% in Orion KL. We conclude that the molecular D/H ratios measured in hot cores may not be representative of the original mantles because molecules with exchangeable deuterium atoms can equilibrate with water ice during the warm-up phase.

  4. Dissipation kinetics of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea and their transfer from processed tea to infusion.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Deepa, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Dissipation kinetics of mixed formulation consisting beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea crop under an open field ecosystem was investigated. The mixed formulation was applied on tea plant at recommended (27 + 63) and double the recommended (54 + 126g a.i./ha) dose and residues were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture detector and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector for beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, respectively. The limit of quantification of analytical method was 0.05µg/g and the average recoveries were ranged from 88.36% to 103.49% with relative standard deviations of less than 6% at three spiked levels. The experimental results showed that in the green tea leaves imidacloprid dissipated faster than beta-cyfluthrin with the half-life ranging between 1.20-1.39 and 2.89-3.15days, respectively. The beta-cyfluthrin residues present in the processed tea not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process and imidacloprid transferred in the range 43.12-49.7%. On the basis of the transfer of residues from processed tea to infusion, a waiting period of 17 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D; Sang, Shengmin

    2009-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and prevention of DNA damage have been suggested as possible cancer preventive mechanisms for tea and tea polyphenols. In this chapter, we discuss these topics in the light of biotransformation and bioavailability of tea polyphenols. We also review the preventive effects of tea polyphenols in animal models of carcinogenesis and some of the possible post-initiation mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss the effects of tea consumption on cancer risk in humans. It is our aim to raise some of the unanswered questions regarding cancer prevention by tea and to stimulate further research in this area.

  6. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  7. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  8. [Preparation and component analysis of tea pigments].

    PubMed

    Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun; Xia, Tao

    2004-11-01

    To prepare tea pigments. Tea pigments are prepared by solvent extraction from Sri lanka black tea. Tea pigments contains the components as follows: caffeine 1.77%, epigallocatechin 1.37%, catechin 1.20%, epicatechin 9.55%, epigallocatechin gallate 10.52%, epicatechin gallate 9.94%, theaflavin 10.34%, theaflavin monogallate 9.57%, theaflavin digallate 4.81%, thearubigin about 40.93%. The best proportions of the compound that are obtained with HPLC analysis.

  9. The erosive effect of herbal tea on dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Brunton, P A; Hussain, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether conventional black tea and a herbal tea were capable of eroding dental enamel. A further aim was to investigate whether herbal tea of the type tested eroded dental hard tissues to a greater or lesser extent than conventional black tea. Three groups of 21 teeth were exposed to a conventional black tea Typhoo (Group A), a herbal tea Twinings Blackcurrant, Ginsing and Vanilla (Group B) and water, which acted as a control (Group C). Sequential profilometric tracings of the specimens were taken, superimposed and the degree of enamel loss calculated as the area of disparity between the tracings before and after exposure. Conventional black tea and herbal tea, of the type tested, both resulted in tooth surface loss. Tooth surface loss, which resulted from exposure to herbal tea (mean 0.05mm(2), s.d. 0.02), however, was significantly greater (P=0.00) than that which resulted from exposure to conventional black tea (mean 0.01mm(2), s.d. 0.00) and water (mean 0.00mm(2), s.d. 0.00). It was concluded that herbal tea and conventional black tea of the type tested result in erosion of dental enamel. The erosive effect of the herbal tea of the type tested was five times more severe than that of the conventional black tea tested. The cumulative effects of regular consumption of herbal tea of the type tested are likely, therefore, to be of clinical significance.

  10. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  11. Chamomile tea improves glycemic indices and antioxidants status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zemestani, Maryam; Rafraf, Maryam; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a major factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. The objectives were to investigate the effects of chamomile tea consumption on glycemic control and antioxidant status in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). This single-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 subjects with T2 DM (males and females) ages 30 to 60 y. The intervention group (n = 32) consumed chamomile tea (3 g/150 mL hot water) 3 times per day immediately after meals for 8 wk. The control group (n = 32) followed a water regimen for same intervention period. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measurements, and 3-d, 24-h dietary recalls were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial. Data were analyzed by independent t test, paired t test, and analysis of covariance. Chamomile tea significantly decreased concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin, serum insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, and serum malondialdehyde, compared with control group (all P < 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were significantly increased by 6.81%, 26.16 %, 36.71 % and 45.06% respectively in chamomile group compared with these variables in control group at the end of the intervention (all P < 0.05). Short term intake of chamomile tea has beneficial effects on glycemic control and antioxidant status in patients with T2 DM. A larger sample population and a longer intervention period may be required to show significant clinical improvements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Green tea: a promising natural product in oral health.

    PubMed

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror; Levy, Yishai

    2012-05-01

    Green tea is a leading beverage in the Far East for thousands of years; it is regarded for a long time as a health product. Green tea is important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There is a growing body of evidence pointing a beneficial role of green tea and its polyphenols in oral health. Green tea protects against bacterial induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza virus. Additionally, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation, consequent to cigarette smoking and cigarettes' deleterious compounds nicotine and acrolein, may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Generally, green tea defends healthy cells from malignant transformation and locally has the ability to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells. All together, there is an increasing interest in the health benefits of green tea in the field of oral health. Nonetheless, there is still a need for more clinical and biological studies to support guidelines for green tea intake as part of prevention and treatment of specific oral pathologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  14. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.

  15. Association between tea consumption and osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. Methods and Findings: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords “tea and osteoporosis,” without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I2. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Results: Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case–control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46–0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 94%, P < .01). There was, however, no publication bias of the meta-analysis about tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. Conclusion: In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis. PMID:29245297

  16. [Determination of catechins and caffeine in tea and tea beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Zhao, Yun-feng; Li, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Gong; Wu, Yongning

    2005-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of total tea catechin and caffeine. The catechins needed to be determined are: (-)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-catechin gallate and caffeine. The catechins in the tea was extracted with water:ethanol (3:7) by sonication for 20 min. After the extraction solution was centrifuged, it was analyzed by HPLC. The column used was a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG (4.6mm I.D. x 150mm) and gradient elution at constant column temperature with 30 degrees C under UV detector with 210nm. Mobile phase A was 0.1% H3PO4 in water, mobile phase B was 0.1% H3PO4 in methanol with the flow rate 1ml/min. The results showed that the concentration of the catechins and caffeine and their peak areas achieved good linear relation, r > 0.999. The recoveries were between 61.7%-117.3%. RSD was below 10%. With this method, some tea samples were determined, the results were favorable. The method can be applied for determination of catechin and caffeine in tea and tea beverages.

  17. Primary cancer prevention by green tea, and tertiary cancer prevention by the combination of green tea catechins and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Suganuma, Masami

    2015-03-01

    Green tea is a daily beverage, a non-oxidized non-fermented product containing at least four green tea catechins. Considering our first results when repeated applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) prevented tumor promotion in mouse skin, we have continued to look at green tea as a possible cancer preventive agent. 1) The 10-year prospective cohort study by Drs. K. Nakachi and K. Imai revealed that drinking 10 Japanese-size cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day delayed cancer onset in humans by 7.3 years among females and by 3.2 years among males. The delay of cancer onset is of course significant evidence of primary cancer prevention in humans. 2) In collaboration with Dr. H. Moriwaki's group we successfully presented a prototype of tertiary cancer prevention showing that 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea daily, supplemented with tablets of green tea extract (G.T.E), reduced recurrence of colorectal adenomas in polypectomy patients by 51.6% (from 31% to 15%). 3) In 1999, we first reported that the combination of green tea catechins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed synergistic anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, along with elucidation of the mechanism. 4) Further studies by other investigators have revealed that various combinations of EGCG or green tea extract and anticancer compounds inhibit tumor volume in xenograft mouse models implanted with various human cancer cell lines. Green tea is a cancer preventive, and green tea catechins act as synergists with anticancer compounds.

  18. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  20. Tea Consumption and Mortality Among Oldest-Old Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality among oldest-old Chinese. Design Population-based longitudinal data from The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) was analyzed using Cox semi-parametric proportional hazard model. Setting 631 randomly selected counties and cities of China’s 22 provinces. Participants 9,093 old adults aged 80 and above who provided complete data at baseline survey (year 1998). Measurements Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency around age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey, and follow-up survey was conducted respectively in years 2000, 2002 and 2005. Results Among oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI 1.01–1.07) for occasional tea drinkers respectively (P for linear trend=0.003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status around age 60 was used in analysis. Further analysis showed that compared to consistently infrequent tea drinkers, subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at both age 60 and at baseline survey had a 10% reduction in mortality (HR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.97). Conclusion Tea consumption is associated reduced risk of mortality among oldest-old Chinese. PMID:24117374

  1. ESA's Ice Cloud Imager on Metop Second Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Ulf; Loiselet, Marc; Mason, Graeme; Gonzalez, Raquel; Brandt, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Since 2006, the European contribution to operational meteorological observations from polar orbit has been provided by the Meteorological Operational (MetOp) satellites, which is the space segment of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS). The first MetOp satellite was launched in 2006, 2nd 2012 and 3rd satellite is planned for launch in 2018. As part of the next generation EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS-SG), the MetOp Second Generation (MetOp-SG) satellites will provide continuity and enhancement of these observations in the 2021 - 2042 timeframe. The noel Ice Cloud Imager (ICI) is one of the instruments selected to be on-board the MetOp-SG satellite "B". The main objective of the ICI is to enable cloud ice retrieval, with emphasis on cirrus clouds. ICI will provide information on cloud ice mean altitude, cloud ice water path and cloud ice effective radius. In addition, it will provide water vapour profile measurement capability. ICI is a 13-channel microwave/sub-millimetre wave radiometer, covering the frequency range from 183 GHz up to 664 GHz. The instrument is composed of a rotating part and a fixed part. The rotating part includes the main antenna, the feed assembly and the receiver electronics. The fixed part contains the hot calibration target, the reflector for viewing the cold sky and the electronics for the instrument control and interface with the platform. Between the fixed and the rotating part is the scan mechanism. Scan mechanism is not only responsible of rotating the instrument and providing its angular position, but it will also have pass through the power and data lines. The Scan mechanism is controlled by the fully redundant Control and Drive Electronics ICI is calibrated using an internal hot target and a cold sky mirror, which are viewed once per rotation. The internal hot target is a traditional pyramidal target. The hot target is covered by an annular shield during rotation with only a small opening for the feed horns to guarantee a stable environment

  2. Fungal isolates from a Pu-erh type tea fermentation and their ability to convert tea polyphenols to theabrownins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2015-04-01

    The natural microbiota involved in the fermentation influence the quality and taste of fully postfermented teas such as China's Pu-erh tea. Ten microbial isolates representing 6 species were recovered from a solid-state fermentation of a Pu-erh type tea. The isolates were Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus marvanovae, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizomucor tauricus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida mogii. With the exception of A. marvanovae and C. mogii, all these microorganisms have been previously reported in solid-state fermentations of native Pu-erh tea. The ability of the isolates for converting the tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins in infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves in a submerged fermentation process was subsequently investigated. All isolates except C. mogii TISTR 5938 effectively produced theabrownins in a 4-d fermentation in shake flasks at 40 °C, 250 rpm. A. tubingensis TISTR 3646, A. tubingensis TISTR 3647, A. marvanovae TISTR 3648, and A. fumigatus TISTR 3654 produced theabrownins at particularly high levels of 6.5, 12.4, 11.1, and 8.4 g/L, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Kombucha fermentation test used for various types of herbal teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho

    2018-05-01

    Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.

  4. Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yan-Hong; Cao, Hai-Qun; Fang, Qing-Kui; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Hua, Ri-Mao

    2017-09-08

    The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm -2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were C t = 0.0227e 0.0566t (R² = 0.9154) and C t = 0.0298e -0.0306t (R² = 0.7156), and were C t = 3.8435e 0.055t (R² = 0.9698) and C t = 1.5627e -0.048t (R² = 0.9634) for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.

  5. The Effect of Different Tea Varieties on Iron Chelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, S. K.; Karim, R.

    2016-12-01

    The chief objectives of this experiment are to distinguish which type of tea of four variants, pomegranate blackberry green, green, lemon chamomile (herbal), and earl grey (black), are capable of chelating the most iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) through titration. We hypothesized that if each tea variety chelates differing amounts of iron chloride, and if we conduct an experiment in which four different teas are mixed in the same amount of water, iron chloride, and iron chloride indicator EDTA, then the pomegranate blackberry green tea will bind to the most iron due to its large amount of fruit antioxidants. To summarize our methodology, we prepared three solutions of each tea, dissolved with 1 gram of FeCl3 to test three trials per tea variety. The chelation process took place overnight as teas cooled. Six drops of iron chloride indicator added to each solution began the titration. The necessary amount of 0.1M EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) drops required for each solution to turn to a universal amber color from its original dark tone indicates how many free iron molecules were left unbound by the tea solution. After careful analysis of the data, we discovered that blackberry pomegranate green tea possessed the best chelating abilities with 97.48% of FeCl3 adsorbed. Green tea followed with 96.67%. Herbal tea chelated 94.24% of the iron while earl grey absorbed the least amount at 93.43%. From our conclusion, we drew that since blackberry pomegranate green tea contained the highest amount of polyphenols and antioxidants as well as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green teas, it was able to chelate the most amount of iron. The substances mentioned in blackberry pomegranate green tea possess the ability to form strong bonds with multiple heavy metals, such as iron (III) chloride atoms. Overall, each variety of tea contains different organic substances. Each of these substances possesses a unique chelating ability, determining how well the type of tea can

  6. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. Findings This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Conclusions Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues. PMID:23578062

  7. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-04-11

    Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.

  8. Tracking residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green, herbal, and black tea leaves and infusions of commercially available tea products marketed in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Zalesak, Michal; Pohoryło, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The content of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in green, herbal, and black tea leaves as well as in their infusions prepared from tea products marketed in the main supermarkets in Poland. It was found that the detected mean levels of organochlorine residues in tea leaves ranged from tea occurred in the highest concentrations. Among dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites the highest level of p,p'DDT (1.96 ng g -1 dw) was in green tea samples. The transfer of OCPs from tea leaves to brew was investigated. The present study revealed that during the infusion process, a significant percentage of the residues, particularly pesticides with high water solubility, were transferred to the infusions. The obtained results show that the percentage transfer of each pesticides from tea to the tea infusions ranged from 6.74% (heptachlor) to 86.6% (endrin). The detected residues were below current MRLs for these pesticides.

  9. Does oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) made from a combination of leaf and stem smell more aromatic than leaf-only tea? Contribution of the stem to oolong tea aroma.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lanting; Zhou, Ying; Fu, Xiumin; Mei, Xin; Cheng, Sihua; Gui, Jiadong; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jinchi; Ma, Shengzhou; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    The raw materials used to make oolong tea (Camellia sinensis) are a combination of leaf and stem. Oolong tea made from leaf and stem is thought to have a more aromatic smell than leaf-only tea. However, there is no available evidence to support the viewpoint. In this study, sensory evaluation and detailed characterization of emitted and internal volatiles (not readily emitted, but stored in samples) of dry oolong teas and infusions indicated that the presence of stem did not significantly improve the total aroma characteristics. During the enzyme-active processes, volatile monoterpenes and theanine were accumulated more abundantly in stem than in leaf, while jasmine lactone, indole, and trans-nerolidol were lower in stem than in leaf. Tissue-specific aroma-related gene expression and availability of precursors of aroma compounds resulted in different aroma distributions in leaf and stem. This study presents the first determination of the contribution of stem to oolong tea aroma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Towards generating caffeine-free tea by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2007-12-01

    Tea is a rich source of antioxidants which are contributing substantially to the promotion of health and the prevention of various chronic diseases. Despite the fact that tea has various important compounds, it also contains a purine alkaloid, caffeine. High intake of tea leads to an increase in level of caffeine in addition to its important antioxidant constituents. Increased level of caffeine causes several health related problems. Therefore, tea can become a most useful source of beneficial compounds, if only its caffeine level is either decreased or eliminated all together from the plant itself. This could be achieved through either of the techniques; overexpressing caffeine degradative pathway genes or silencing caffeine biosynthesis pathway gene. The identification and cloning of caffeine biosynthesis in tea and degradative genes in microorganisms opens up the possibility of using genetic engineering to produce naturally decaffeinated tea. Here we review these different strategies which can be employed to make caffeine-free tea, a human health beneficial drink.

  11. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  12. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer 26Al. 26Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous 27Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the 26Al, compared to 27Al, serum concentration × time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F = 0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F = 0.1 to 0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F = 0.1%). Time to maximum serum 26Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8 h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability × daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water. PMID:18848597

  13. Determination of lutein from green tea and green tea by-products using accelerated solvent extraction and UPLC.

    PubMed

    Heo, Ji-Young; Kim, Suna; Kang, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Bokyung

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to identify the optimum conditions for the extraction of lutein from green tea using accelerated solvent extraction, and achieve improved analytical resolution and sensitivity between lutein and zeaxanthin using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system. The optimized method employed 80% ethanol as the extraction solvent, 160 °C as the temperature, 2 static cycles, and 5 min of static time. In the validation of the UPLC method, recovery was found to be in the range approximately 93.73 to 108.79%, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9974 and a relative standard deviation of <9.29% in inter- and intraday precision analyses. Finally, the lutein contents of green tea and green tea by-products were measured as 32.67 ± 0.70 and 18.18 ± 0.68 mg/100g dw, respectively. Furthermore, we verified that green tea by-products, which are discarded after producing green tea beverages, might be used as a great resource for massive lutein production. We have demonstrated that the common problem of inadequate resolution between lutein and zeaxanthin during carotenoid analyses can be overcome by optimizing the combined techniques of accelerated solvent extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). UPLC was highly effective for saving time, solvent, and labor, as well as providing better resolution. The results in this study demonstrated that green tea by-products could be used as new sources for industrial lutein production owing to their massive production during the extraction of green tea beverages. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  15. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  16. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Zinc ion enhances GABA tea-mediated oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Show-Mei; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hsiao, Ching-Chuan; Cherng, Shur-Hueih

    2012-02-15

    GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous study has demonstrated a synergistic effect of GABA tea and copper ions on DNA breakage. This study further explored whether zinc (Zn), a nonredox metal, modulated DNA cleavage induced by GABA tea extract. In a cell-free system, Zn(2+) significantly enhanced GABA tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)- or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage at 24 h of incubation. Additionally, low dosages of GABA tea extract (1-10 μg/mL) possessed pro-oxidant activity to increase H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+)-induced DNA cleavage in a dose-dependent profile. By use of various reactive oxygen scavengers, it was observed that glutathione, catalase, and potassium iodide effectively inhibited DNA degradation caused by the GABA tea extract/H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+) system. Moreover, the data showed that the GABA tea extract itself (0.5-5 mg/mL) could induce DNA cleavage in a long-term exposure (48 h). EGCG, but not the GABA tea extract, enhanced H(2)O(2)-induced DNA cleavage. In contrast, GABA decreased H(2)O(2)- and EGCG-induced DNA cleavage, suggesting that GABA might contribute the major effect on the antioxidant activity of GABA tea extract. Furthermore, a comet assay revealed that GABA tea extract (0.25 mg/mL) and GABA had antioxidant activity on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that GABA tea has the potential of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant. It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract.

  18. Measured performance of the heat exchanger in the NASA icing research tunnel under severe icing and dry-air conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W.; Vanfossen, J.; Nussle, R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of the pressure drop and thermal perfomance of the unique refrigeration heat exchanger in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) under severe icing and frosting conditions and also with dry air. This data will be useful to those planning to use or extend the capability of the IRT and other icing facilities (e.g., the Altitude Wind Tunnel-AWT). The IRT heat exchanger and refrigeration system is able to cool air passing through the test section down to at least a total temperature of -30 C (well below icing requirements), and usually up to -2 C. The system maintains a uniform temperature across the test section at all airspeeds, which is more difficult and time consuming at low airspeeds, at high temperatures, and on hot, humid days when the cooling towers are less efficient. The very small surfaces of the heat exchanger prevent any icing cloud droplets from passing through it and going through the tests section again. The IRT heat exchanger was originally designed not to be adversely affected by severe icing. During a worst-case icing test the heat exchanger iced up enough so that the temperature uniformaity was no worse than about +/- 1 deg C. The conclusion is that the heat exchanger design performs well.

  19. Novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Zijuan tea and biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylated catechin in tea plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Xi-Wen; Dai, Xin-Long; Hua, Fang; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Chu, Ming-Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Gao, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhong-Wen; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described. We also provide the first evidence that 1 is synthesized via a two-step pathway in tea plant. The three HCCs (1-3) were investigated on their bioactivity through molecular modeling simulation and biochemical experiments. Our results show that they bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) tightly and have strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 value at 2.49, 11.41, 62.26μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  1. How would you like your tea, vicar?

    PubMed

    Jamnadas-Khoda, Benjamin; See, M S; Cubison, Colonel T C; Dheansa, B S

    2010-05-01

    Scald injuries are the commonest cause of paediatric burns leading to hospital admission both in the United Kingdom (National Burn Care Review Committee Report; 2001) and around the world. The cost and significant morbidity resulting from scald injuries reiterates the need for effective prevention campaigns for primary caregivers. The majority of scalds in children occur in the kitchen (49%) at home. Three children a day under the age of 5 (1100/year) are involved in scalds resulting from pulling on a cup of beverage onto themselves. We therefore aim to study the temperature of common beverages made at home and their potential to cause significant thermal injury. Common household beverages were formulated to assess the thermal characteristics. Each beverage was made in a standardized environment with constant ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Beverages were made in 230 ml ceramic mugs, using boiled water from an electric kettle, instant coffee granules and teabags. Hot milk and hot water were prepared for comparison. Temperature readings were taken from 0 to 10 min. Cooling curves were then plotted. Milky beverages had the lowest starting temperatures (75-77 degrees C). Black tea and black coffee remained at temperatures greater than 65 degrees C despite cooling for 10 min. The addition of sugar did not alter the cooling rate. Similarly there was very little difference in cooling rates for skimmed and full fat milk. Addition of 10 ml rather than 5 ml of milk lowered the starting temperature and increased the cooling rates. Hot beverages can cause significant scald injuries especially in the paediatric population. We demonstrated the potential for a full thickness burn despite cooling for 10 min or the addition of cold milk. Thus the complacent attitude surrounding beverages under such conditions should be abolished. Our work also reiterates the need for education amongst caregivers regarding the handling of hot beverages in order to reduce the number of

  2. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  3. A comparison of aluminum levels in tea products from Hong Kong markets and in varieties of tea plants from Hong Kong and India.

    PubMed

    Fung, K F; Carr, H P; Poon, B H T; Wong, M H

    2009-05-01

    This study project aimed to investigate the concentrations of aluminum (Al) in tea products available in Hong Kong markets. Tea samples consisting of 47 different tea bags and 28 samples of tea leaves were analysed for concentrations of Al. All tea samples released Al (0.70-5.93 mg L(-1)) during a standard infusion period. In comparison to the Joint FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake guideline of 7 mg Al kg(-1) body weight, it was concluded that tea made with these tea leaves will not impose adverse human health impacts. The relative effects of age, soil available Al, and genetic differences on the levels of Al accumulated by tea bushes were investigated. It was found that there was no definite trend between the amount of Al accumulated and the age of tea bushes. The soil available Al influenced the levels of Al in Camellia sinensis to a certain extent, but it was evident that the ability of different varieties of C. sinensis to accumulate Al was variable. C. sinensis accumulated Al in all stages of growth. Young seedlings had lower contents of Al while the mobility of Al within the tea bushes was high. In a manner typical of hyperaccumulators, Al was not retained in the roots, but was consistently transported to the shoots. Aluminum in the tea bush was distributed between the different parts in the following order: mature leaves>roots>branches>young leaves.

  4. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  5. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  6. Comparison of Catechins and Antioxidant Activity in Four kinds of Sichuan tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.

  7. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  8. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying

    2016-12-07

    Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  9. Three-dimensional modeling of tea-shoots using images and models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zeng, Xianyin; Liu, Jianbing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a method for three-dimensional modeling of tea-shoots with images and calculation models is introduced. The process is as follows: the tea shoots are photographed with a camera, color space conversion is conducted, using an improved algorithm that is based on color and regional growth to divide the tea shoots in the images, and the edges of the tea shoots extracted with the help of edge detection; after that, using the divided tea-shoot images, the three-dimensional coordinates of the tea shoots are worked out and the feature parameters extracted, matching and calculation conducted according to the model database, and finally the three-dimensional modeling of tea-shoots is completed. According to the experimental results, this method can avoid a lot of calculations and has better visual effects and, moreover, performs better in recovering the three-dimensional information of the tea shoots, thereby providing a new method for monitoring the growth of and non-destructive testing of tea shoots.

  10. [Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.

  11. Dietary risk evaluation for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tea preparations made of teas available on the Polish retail market.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2018-01-02

    The aim of this work was to assess dietary risk resulting from consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with tea infusions. To this end, levels of 28 PAHs in black, green, red and white teas available on the Polish retail market have been assessed. Profiles and correlation between concentrations of individual PAHs have been identified. A model study on transfer of PAHs from tea leaves into tea preparations has been conducted. Relatively high concentrations of 28 evaluated PAHs have been found in 58 tested samples of black, green, red and white teas sampled on the Polish retail market. Total concentration ∑28PAH ranged from 57 to 696 µg kg -1 with mean 258 µg kg -1 (dry tea leaves). The most mature tea leaves fermented to a small degree contained relatively the highest PAH levels among all four tested tea types. Relatively low PAH transfer rates into tea infusions and limited volumes of the consumed tea keep the risks associated with PAH dietary intake at a safely low level. The worst-case scenario dietary intake values were 7.62/0.82/0.097 ng kg -1 b.w. day -1 (estimated on the basis of the maximum found concentrations 696/113/23 µg kg -1 and maximum observed transfer rates 24/16/9%) for ∑28PAH/∑PAH4/B[a]P, respectively. MOE values calculated using the above worst case estimates exceeded 700,000 and 400,000 (BMDL 10 0.07 and 0.34 mg kg -1 b.w. day -1 ) for B[a]P and PAH4, respectively. Both B[a]P and PAH4 concentrations may be used as indicators of total PAH concentration in tea leaves; PAH4 slightly better fits low molecular weight PAHs. Several correlations between various PAHs/groups of PAHs have been identified, the strongest one (R 2 = 0.92) between PAH4 and EU PAH 15+1.

  12. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  13. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 3; The Validation of Antice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Horvath, Charles; Miller, Dean R.; Wright, William B.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental program was generated by the Icing Technology Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center to validate two ice protection simulation codes: (1) LEWICE/Thermal for transient electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing simulations, and (2) ANTICE for steady state hot gas and electrothermal anti-icing simulations. An electrothermal ice protection system was designed and constructed integral to a 36 inch chord NACA0012 airfoil. The model was fully instrumented with thermo-couples, RTD'S, and heat flux gages. Tests were conducted at several icing environmental conditions during a two week period at the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel. Experimental results of running-wet and evaporative cases were compared to the ANTICE computer code predictions and are presented in this paper.

  14. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  15. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice. Except for decaffeinated green tea ... hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615 Web site: nccih.nih.gov E-mail: info@nccih. ...

  16. An analysis of antioxidants, organoleptics and hedonics with variations of boiling time in Jasmine tea and Jasmine root tea a study on Kaliprau, Pemalang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifan, Fahmi; Winarni, Sri; Handoyo, Gentur; Nurdiana, Asri; Nabila Rahma H, Afkar; Risdiyanti, Sri

    2018-05-01

    There are so many jasmine plantations without any preservation and post production in Kaliprau, Pemalang. The aims of this research are analyzing the amount of antioxidant and organoleptic-hedonic test. The measurement of antioxidant used in this research is using DPPH. The organoleptic and hedonic test on 25 respondents. Jasmines that been used on this research are the flower and the root part. Through the test, some results have been found from the jasmine tea’s sampling with the boiling time of 15 minutes and it contain antioxidant for about 55.0% and 74.84% for the jasmine root tea. Whereas for the boiling time of 30 minutes, it contained 54.00% of antioxidant for the jasmine tea and 84.00% of antioxidant in jasmine root tea. Jasmine tea and jasmine root tea contains flavonoids. Despite the large amount of antioxidant were found in jasmine tea and jasmine root tea (50-100%). There’s a decreasing of antioxidant amount found in the samples, along with the prolonged boiling time. 84% of tresponden like the scent, flavor, color and the texture of jasmine tea and jasmine root tea. These products are finally accepted by the people and have its large amount of antioxidant contain for the jasmine tea.

  17. Fluoride in Ceylon tea and its implications to dental health.

    PubMed

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Abeypala, Uthpala; Dissanayake, C B; Tobschall, H J

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the fluoride content of Ceylon Tea, which is a popular beverage throughout the world. The fluoride content of tea infusions prepared from different grades of tea leaves collected from different parts of the tea-growing regions (25 samples) of Sri Lanka was measured using a fluoride-selective electrode. Fluoride leaching was found to vary from 0.32 to 1.69 mg F/l, but there were no significant differences in terms of fluoride leaching between tea from different tea-growing regions or between tea of different grades. Dental fluorosis is widespread throughout the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and drinking water has traditionally been considered to be the main contributory factor to the development of fluorosis. However, diet, the consumption of tea in particular, may also contribute to the manifestation of dental diseases.

  18. Obtaining of caffeine from Turkish tea fiber and stalk wastes.

    PubMed

    Gürü, M; Içen, H

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find a cheap method to obtain caffeine. Experiments were performed on fiber and stalk wastes of Turkish tea plants that had no economical value other than being used merely as low grade fuel and fodder. Tea stalks and fiber were obtained from tea factories. Parameters affecting caffeine extraction from tea wastes were determined to be, mixing rate, water/tea ratio, temperature, time and particle size. The maximum yields by dried mass from the tea fibers and stalks were 1.16% and 0.92%, respectively.

  19. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  20. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  1. Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, Jon J.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    1989-01-01

    Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or snow by subglacial eruptions or geothermal activity, (4) ejection of water by eruptions through a crater lake, and (5) deposition of tephra fall. Historical records of volcanic eruptions at snow-clad volcanoes show the following: (1) Flowing pyroclastic debris (pyroclastic flows and surges) and blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris are the most common volcanic events that generate lahars and floods; (2) Surficial lava flows generally cannot melt snow and ice rapidly enough to form large lahars or floods; (3) Heating the base of a glacier or snowpack by subglacial eruptions or by geothermal activity can induce basal melting that may result in ponding of water and lead to sudden outpourings of water or sediment-rich debris flows; (4) Tephra falls usually alter ablation rates of snow and ice but generally produce little meltwater that results in the formation of lahars and floods; (5) Lahars and floods generated by flowing pyroclastic debris, blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, or basal melting of snow and ice commonly have volumes that exceed 105 m3.The glowing lava (pyroclastic flow) which flowed with force over ravines and ridges...gathered in the basin quickly and then forced downwards. As a result, tremendously wide and deep pathways in the ice and snow were made and produced great streams of water (Wolf 1878).

  2. Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, Jon J.; Newhall, Christopher G.

    1989-10-01

    Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or snow by subglacial eruptions or geothermal activity, (4) ejection of water by eruptions through a crater lake, and (5) deposition of tephra fall. Historical records of volcanic eruptions at snow-clad volcanoes show the following: (1) Flowing pyroclastic debris (pyroclastic flows and surges) and blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris are the most common volcanic events that generate lahars and floods; (2) Surficial lava flows generally cannot melt snow and ice rapidly enough to form large lahars or floods; (3) Heating the base of a glacier or snowpack by subglacial eruptions or by geothermal activity can induce basal melting that may result in ponding of water and lead to sudden outpourings of water or sediment-rich debris flows; (4) Tephra falls usually alter ablation rates of snow and ice but generally produce little meltwater that results in the formation of lahars and floods; (5) Lahars and floods generated by flowing pyroclastic debris, blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, or basal melting of snow and ice commonly have volumes that exceed 105 m3. The glowing lava (pyroclastic flow) which flowed with force over ravines and ridges...gathered in the basin quickly and then forced downwards. As a result, tremendously wide and deep pathways in the ice and snow were made and produced great streams of water (Wolf 1878).

  3. Analyses of fungal community by Illumina MiSeq platforms and characterization of Eurotium species on Liupao tea, a distinctive post-fermented tea from China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan; Wei, BaoYao; Teng, JianWen; Huang, Li; Xia, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Liupao tea is a distinctive Chinese dark tea obtained by indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by the symbiotic association of bacteria and fungi. The composition of fungal community in 4 Liupao tea samples stored for several years under natural microbial fermentation was evaluated by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed 3 phyla, 6 families, 8 genera. The genera Eurotium and Aspergillus were dominant fungi in almost all the samples. A total of 85 strains found in 41 other tea samples were species of Eurotium. amstelodami, Eurotium. niveoglaucum, Eurotium. repens, Eurotium. rubrum, Eurotium. tonophilum and Eurotium. cristatum by culture-dependent method. Of these species, E. repens, E. rubrum and E. tonophilum have not been previously associated with Liupao tea. This report is the first to reveal fungal flora composition using Illumina-based sequencing and provide useful information for relevant studies on the isolation of Eurotium species in Liupao tea. The predominant molds are Eurotium species, and the comparison of fungal diversity in dark teas is worth considering. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial community would also aid the further study of functional genes and metabolic pathways of Liupao tea fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jie; Zhou, Wen; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Wenfang; Huang, Yahui; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-20

    Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea, with high GABA content, is a kind of special green tea. The goals of this study are to analyze the changes in quality components of green tea during anaerobic treatment, and to investigate whether or not the extract of GABA present in green tea can prevent depression or improve the depressive state of animals. Results showed that GABA content in green tea had increased significantly after anaerobic treatment. The contents of tea polysaccharides, total free amino acids, and water extracts were also increased whereas tea polyphenols were reduced. More importantly, the extract of GABA green tea could alleviate mouse depression and stress from desperate environments through the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mRNA and protein expression levels of GABA A receptors. Therefore, these results indicate that GABA green tea may have a health effect on prevention and alleviation of depression, and it works on the GABAergic neurotransmission of mouse cerebral cortex via up-regulating expression of the GABA A receptor α1 subunit, thus ameliorating depression.

  5. Therapeutic properties of green tea against environmental insults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Cromie, Meghan M; Lu, Chuanwen; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are the most common environmental toxins and toxicants to humans. These toxins and toxicants may impact on human health at the molecular (DNA, RNA, or protein), organelle (mitochondria, lysosome, or membranes), cellular (growth inhibition or cell death), tissue, organ, and systemic levels. Formation of reactive radicals, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, neurological alterations, apoptosis, and carcinogenic events are some of the mechanisms mediating the toxic effects of the environmental toxins and toxicants. Green tea, the non-oxidized and non-fermented form of tea that contains several polyphenols, including green tea catechins, exhibits protective effects against these environmental toxins and toxicants in preclinical studies and to a much-limited extent, in clinical trials. The protective effects are collectively mediated by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, hepato- and neuroprotective, and anti-carcinogenic activities. In addition, green tea modulates signaling pathway including NFκB and ERK pathways, preserves mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits caspase-3 activity, down-regulates pro-apoptotic proteins, and induces the phase II detoxifying pathway. The bioavailability and metabolism of green tea and its protective effects against environmental insults induced by pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are reviewed in this paper. Future studies with emphasis on clinical trials should identify biomarkers of green tea intake, examine the mechanisms of action of green tea polyphenols, and investigate potential interactions of green tea with other toxicant-modulating dietary factors. PMID:27723473

  6. Carpal tunnel syndrome in women working in tea agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Devrimsel, Gul; Kirbas, Serkan; Yildirim, Murat; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Sahin, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among women using tea leaf scissors and compare it with normal population. METHODS: Two hundred hands of 100 women using tea leaf scissors (tea leaf scissors group) and 112 hands of 56 healthy women (control group) were clinically and electrophysiologically evaluated for CTS. Women using tea leaf scissors were evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire for symptoms and functional status. RESULTS: Carpal tunnel syndrome was diagnosed bilaterally in 62 (62%) and unilaterally in 7 (7%) women using tea leaf scissors, whereas 2 (3.57%) bilateral and 6 (10.71%) unilateral cases of CTS was diagnosed in controls. The differences in demographic factors were not statistically significant. In women with CTS using tea leaf scissors, mean symptom severity, functional status, and VAS scores were 2.73±0.60, 2.42±0.71 and 5.19±1.84, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the frequency of CTS between women using tea leaf scissors and the control group and the risk of having CTS among women using tea leaf scissors was approximately 12 times greater (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In tea agriculture, working with repetitive flexions and extensions of the wrist highly increases the risk of developing CTS. PMID:28058318

  7. Green tea: Health benefits as cancer preventive for humans.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Hirota

    2005-01-01

    Green tea is an acknowledged cancer preventive in Japan. The aim of this review article is to develop the concept of cancer prevention with green tea beverage for humans, which has largely been our exclusive research territory. This paper briefly reviews several topics, beginning with the introduction of our initial work on penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea extract. The mechanisms of EGCG action, particularly the reduction of TNF-alpha are discussed, and we show how use of 3H-EGCG revealed a wide range of target organs for cancer prevention. The results of an epidemiological study in Saitama Prefecture allowed us to determine the cancer preventive amount of green tea-10 Japanese-size cups per day, about 2.5 g green tea extract-which made it possible for us to introduce the two-stage strategy of cancer prevention with green tea. The first stage is the delay of cancer onset for the general population. The second stage is the prevention of recurrence of cancer for patients following cancer treatment. Combination cancer prevention with green tea and cancer preventive drugs is proving especially beneficial for Japanese, who drink green tea every day. And finally, the stimulating comments of Prof. Jim Watson have encouraged green tea scientists. Copyright (c) 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese. Population-based longitudinal data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) were analyzed using a Cox semiparametric proportional hazard model. Six hundred thirty-one randomly selected counties and cities of China's 22 provinces. Individuals aged 80 and older (N = 9,093) who provided complete data in the baseline survey (1998). Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at approximately age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey; a follow-up survey was conducted 2000, 2002, and 2005. In the oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI = 1.01-1.07) for occasional tea drinkers (P for linear trend .003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status at age 60 was used in the analysis. Further analysis showed that subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at age 60 and at the baseline survey had a 10% lower risk of mortality than subjects who reported infrequent tea drinking at age 60 and at the baseline survey (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97). Tea consumption is associated with lower risk of mortality in the oldest-old Chinese. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in tea.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

    2009-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted at two places in Tamil Nadu (India) during dry season of 2006 to determine the residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in fresh green tea leaves and black tea. Residues were quantified at different harvest intervals of '0' (3h), 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and 14th day after insecticide application. Persistence, dissipation pattern, half-life value and safe harvest interval of the insecticide in tea were calculated. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin dissipated exponentially after application at both the locations and reached below the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) of 1mg/kg on the 5th day. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed that like other insecticides it followed the first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 2.8 to 3.5 days for lambda-cyhalothrin and a safety harvest interval of 5 days is suggested for tea at the recommended dosage.

  10. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (<30% relative humidity [RH]) and high (>90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  11. The effect of green tea and sour tea on blood pressure of patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Ahadi, Zeinab; Barzegar, Kazem

    2013-06-01

    The use of herbal medicines including different types of tea is among the different strategies for preventing and controlling the side-effects of diabetes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of sour tea and green tea on mildly hypertensive patients with diabetes. The present study was a randomized clinical trial in which 100 mildly hypertensive patients with diabetes were randomly assigned into sour tea group (ST) and green tea group (GT). They were instructed to drink sour tea and green tea infusion, respectively, three times a day 2 hr after each meal for 4 weeks. The participants' blood pressure was measured at days 1, 15, and at the end of study. The systolic pressure of both groups statistically decreased at the end of the study; it decreased from 123.1 ± 15.5 to 116.8 ± 16.3 mmHg in the ST and from 119.4 ± 15.1 to 114.8 ± 15.9 mmHg in the GT. The diastolic pressure of both groups statistically decreased by the end of the study; it decreased from 79.4 ± 11.1 to 74.5 ± 9.3 mmHg in the ST and from 78.9 ± 8.3 to 75.3 ± 7.7 mmHg in the GT. The therapeutic effectiveness of tea drinking by the end of intervention was 43.5% in the ST and 39.6% in the GT compared to the beginning. The present study revealed that mildly hypertensive type 2 diabetic individuals who drink three glasses of green or sour tea daily for 4 weeks show significant decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

  12. Black tea increases hypertonic stress resistance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pei; Pan, Lian-Yun; Xiong, Li-Gui; Tong, Jie-Wen; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2018-06-22

    Here we identified that BTE (black tea extract), within the studied concentration range, is more effective than GTE (green tea extract) in protecting C. elegans against hypertonic stress, by enhancing survival after exposure to various salts, and alleviating suffered motility loss and body shrinkage. The mechanism of such protection may be due to the ability of black tea to induce the conserved WNK/GCK signaling pathway and down-regulation of the expression levels of nlp-29. Intriguingly, black tea does not relieve hypertonicity-induced protein damage. The findings implicate the potential health benefits of black tea consumed worldwide.

  13. [Induction of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase by anticarcinogenic ingredients of tea].

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Han, C

    1998-09-30

    By assaying the activity of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) in Hep G2 cells exposed to inducing agents, a variety of ingredients in tea, we compared their abilities on inducing QR and preventing cancer. The results showed that tea polyphenols, tea pigments and mixed tea were all able to induce the activity of QR significantly. The single-component ingredients of tea polyphenols and tea pigments, including thearubigens, EGCG and ECG, also enhanced the activity of QR. But EGC, EC, theaflavins, tea polysaccharide and tea caffeine, showed no apparent induction of QR. We found that among those tea ingredients studied, the multi-component ingredients were more effective than the single-component ones. So we thought that the abilities of antioxidation and cancer prevention of tea depended on the combined effects of several kinds of active ingredients, which mainly include tea polyphenols and tea pigments.

  14. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  15. Coffee and tea: perks for health and longevity?

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-11-01

    Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.

  16. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  17. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  18. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  19. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  20. Pressure-Induced Melting of Confined Ice.

    PubMed

    Sotthewes, Kai; Bampoulis, Pantelis; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Lohse, Detlef; Poelsema, Bene

    2017-12-26

    The classic regelation experiment of Thomson in the 1850s deals with cutting an ice cube, followed by refreezing. The cutting was attributed to pressure-induced melting but has been challenged continuously, and only lately consensus emerged by understanding that compression shortens the O:H nonbond and lengthens the H-O bond simultaneously. This H-O elongation leads to energy loss and lowers the melting point. The hot debate survived well over 150 years, mainly due to a poorly defined heat exchange with the environment in the experiment. In our current experiment, we achieved thermal isolation from the environment and studied the fully reversible ice-liquid water transition for water confined between graphene and muscovite mica. We observe a transition from two-dimensional (2D) ice into a quasi-liquid phase by applying a pressure exerted by an atomic force microscopy tip. At room temperature, the critical pressure amounts to about 6 GPa. The transition is completely reversible: refreezing occurs when the applied pressure is lifted. The critical pressure to melt the 2D ice decreases with temperature, and we measured the phase coexistence line between 293 and 333 K. From a Clausius-Clapeyron analysis, we determine the latent heat of fusion of two-dimensional ice at 0.15 eV/molecule, being twice as large as that of bulk ice.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  2. Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Tea, one of the world’s most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. PMID:29678829

  3. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, W; Seale, J; Clevidence, B; Judd, J; Wiley, E; Yamamoto, S; Komatsu, T; Sawaki, T; Ishikura, Y; Hosoda, K

    2001-11-01

    According to traditional Chinese belief, oolong tea is effective in the control of body weight. Few controlled studies, however, have been conducted to measure the impact of tea on energy expenditure (EE) of humans. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare 24-h EE of 12 men consuming each of four treatments: 1) water, 2) full-strength tea (daily allotment brewed from 15 g of tea), 3) half-strength tea (brewed from 7.5 g tea) and 4) water containing 270 mg caffeine, equivalent to the concentration in the full-strength tea treatment. Subjects refrained from consuming caffeine or flavonoids for 4 d prior to the study. Tea was brewed each morning; beverages were consumed at room temperature as five 300 mL servings. Subjects received each treatment for 3 d; on the third day, EE was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter. For the 3 d, subjects consumed a typical American diet. Energy content of the diet was tailored to each subject's needs as determined from a preliminary measure of 24-h EE by calorimetry. Relative to the water treatment, EE was significantly increased 2.9 and 3.4% for the full-strength tea and caffeinated water treatments, respectively. This increase over water alone represented an additional expenditure of 281 and 331 kJ/d for subjects treated with full-strength tea and caffeinated water, respectively. In addition, fat oxidation was significantly higher (12%) when subjects consumed the full-strength tea rather than water.

  4. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  6. 19 CFR 181.53 - Collection and waiver or reduction of duty under duty-deferral programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Canada or Mexico. Example. Company N imports tea into the United States and makes a Class 6 warehouse entry. Company N manufactures sweetened ice tea mix by combining the imported tea with refined cane sugar and other flavorings and packaging it in retail size canisters. Upon withdrawal of the ice tea mix...

  7. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  8. [Progress in research for pharmacological effects of Pu-erh tea].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Pan; Pan, Bo; Wu, Zhen; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Tu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Jiao

    2017-06-01

    Pu-erh tea has gradually aroused general concern with social development and people's enhanced awareness of health. Pu-erh tea is rich in multiple active constitute such as flavonoids, catechins, phenolic acids, flavanols polymer, purine alkaloids, and hydrolysable tannin as a microbial-fermented tea.It is reported that Pu-erh tea have a variety of pharmacologically activities, such as anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral effects. In this paper, the main pharmacological effects of Pu-erh tea are reviewed. We wish this work will provide some references and clues for further research of Pu-erh tea. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Nonspherical and Spherical Characterization of Ice in Hurricane Erin for Wideband Passive Microwave Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail; Holthaus, Eric; Albers, Cerese; Kim, Min-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    In order to better understand the characteristics of frozen cloud particles in hurricane systems, computed brightness temperatures were compared with radiometric observations of Hurricane Erin (2001) from the NASA ER-2 aircraft. The focus was oil the frozen particle microphysics and the high frequencies (2 85 GHz) that are particularly sensitive to frozen particles. Frozen particles in hurricanes are an indicator of increasing hurricane intensity. In fact "hot towers" associated with increasing hurricane intensity are composed of frozen ice cloud particles. (They are called hot towers because their column of air is warmer than the surrounding air temperature, but above about 5-7 km to the tops of the towers at 15-19 km, the cloud particles are frozen.) This work showed that indeed, one can model information about cloud ice particle characteristics and indicated that nonspherical ice shapes, instead of spherical particles, provided the best match to the observations. Overall, this work shows that while non-spherical particles show promise, selecting and modeling a proper ice particle parameterization can be difficult and additional in situ measurements are needed to define and validate appropriate parameterizations. This work is important for developing Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission satellite algorithms for the retrieval of ice characteristics both above the melting layer, as in Hurricane Erin, and for ice particles that reach the surface as falling snow.

  10. The protective effect of habitual tea consumption on hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2004-07-26

    Tea has long been believed to possess hypotensive effects in popular Chinese medicine. However, conflicting results have been shown among human trials and animal studies on the relation between tea consumption and blood pressure. Epidemiological evidence about the long-term effect of tea on hypertensive risk is also inconsistent. We examined the effect of tea drinking, measured in detail for the past decades, on the risk of newly diagnosed hypertension in 1507 subjects (711 men and 796 women), 20 years or older, who did not have a hypertensive history during 1996 in Taiwan. Six hundred subjects (39.8%) were habitual tea drinkers, defined by tea consumption of 120 mL/d or more for at least 1 year. Compared with nonhabitual tea drinkers, the risk of developing hypertension decreased by 46% for those who drank 120 to 599 mL/d and was further reduced by 65% for those who drank 600 mL/d or more after carefully adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history of hypertension, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, lifestyle factors (total physical activity, high sodium intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and coffee drinking), and dietary factors (vegetable, fruit, unrefined grain, fish, milk, visible-fat food, and deep fried food intake). However, tea consumption for more than 1 year was not associated with a further reduction of hypertension risk. Habitual moderate strength green or oolong tea consumption, 120 mL/d or more for 1 year, significantly reduces the risk of developing hypertension in the Chinese population.

  11. SOME ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SHELLED AND KERNEL TEA (Camellia sinensis) SEEDS.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Ebubekir; Yildiz, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis is the source of tea leaves and it is an economic crop now grown around the World. Tea seed oil has been used for cooking in China and other Asian countries for more than a thousand years. Tea is the most widely consumed beverages after water in the world. It is mainly produced in Asia, central Africa, and exported throughout the World. Some engineering properties (size dimensions, sphericity, volume, bulk and true densities, friction coefficient, colour characteristics and mechanical behaviour as rupture force of shelled and kernel tea ( Camellia sinensis ) seeds were determined in this study. This research was carried out for shelled and kernel tea seeds. The shelled tea seeds used in this study were obtained from East-Black Sea Tea Cooperative Institution in Rize city of Turkey. Shelled and kernel tea seeds were characterized as large and small sizes. The average geometric mean diameter and seed mass of the shelled tea seeds were 15.8 mm, 10.7 mm (large size); 1.47 g, 0.49 g (small size); while the average geometric mean diameter and seed mass of the kernel tea seeds were 11.8 mm, 8 mm for large size; 0.97 g, 0.31 g for small size, respectively. The sphericity, surface area and volume values were found to be higher in a larger size than small size for the shelled and kernel tea samples. The shelled tea seed's colour intensity (Chroma) were found between 59.31 and 64.22 for large size, while the kernel tea seed's chroma values were found between 56.04 68.34 for large size, respectively. The rupture force values of kernel tea seeds were higher than shelled tea seeds for the large size along X axis; whereas, the rupture force values of along X axis were higher than Y axis for large size of shelled tea seeds. The static coefficients of friction of shelled and kernel tea seeds for the large and small sizes higher values for rubber than the other friction surfaces. Some engineering properties, such as geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, bulk

  12. Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, NarayananNair

    2011-05-01

    Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India.

  13. Volatile aroma compounds in various brewed green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Adhikari, Koushik; Yoon, Youngmo

    2013-08-20

    This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

  14. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  15. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. PMID:28239138

  16. [Study on processed senna found in health teas].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Miyazawa, Maki; Sakurai, Katsumi; Watabe, Kenjiro; Kojima, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    Sennoside A and B were detected in 21 commercial health tea products surveyed in 2000-2007, but there were 8 products in which the leaves could not be identified as senna because the leaves had become discolored. The results of assay of sennoside levels and TLC chromatograms suggested that processed senna had been used in these products. Next, with reference to tea and health tea manufacturing methods, pharmaceutical senna was roasted or wet-processed experimentally. The results indicated that the discolored leaves contained in commercial health tea were most likely derived from senna leaves. Moreover, sennosides in medicinal doses were detected in some processed senna samples, and were determined to have a cathartic action in mice. Based on morphological confirmation and the results of component analysis, including sennoside, the discolored leaves found in commercial health teas were therefore determined to be senna leaves. There may be possible health risks, including diarrhea.

  17. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Samara, Marilia; Hancock, Barry; Wicks, Robert; Moore, Tom; Rust, Duncan; Jones, Jonathan; Saito, Yoshifumi; Pollock, Craig; Owen, Chris; Rae, Jonny

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves). A novel capability to time tag individual electron events during short intervals for the purposes of ground analysis of wave-particle interactions is also planned.

  18. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  19. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  20. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  1. Identification, quantitation, and method validation for flavan-3-ols in fermented ready-to-drink teas from the Italian market using HPLC-UV/DAD and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cordero, Chiara; Canale, Francesca; Del Rio, Daniele; Bicchi, Carlo

    2009-11-01

    The present study is focused on flavan-3-ols characterizing the antioxidant properties of fermented tea (Camellia sinensis). These bioactive compounds, object of nutritional claims in commercial products, should be quantified with rigorous analytical procedures whose accuracy and precision have been stated with a certain level of confidence. An HPLC-UV/DAD method, able to detect and quantify flavan-3-ols in infusions and ready-to-drink teas, has been developed for routine analysis and validated by characterizing several performance parameters. The accuracy assessment has been run through a series of LC-MS/MS analyses. Epigallocatechin, (+)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-gallocatechingallate, (-)-epicatechingallate, and (-)-catechingallate were chosen as markers of the polyphenolic fraction. Quantitative results showed that samples obtained from tea leaves infusion were richer in polyphenolic antioxidants than those obtained through other industrial processes. The influence of shelf-life and packaging material on the flavan-3-ols content was also considered; markers decreased, with an exponential trend, as a function of time within the shelf life while packaging materials demonstrated to influence differently the flavan-3-ol fraction composition over time. The method presented here provides quantitative results with a certain level of confidence and is suitable for a routine quality control of iced teas whose antioxidant properties are object of nutritional claim.

  2. The safety of green tea and green tea extract consumption in adults - Results of a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Webster, Donna; Cao, Joyce; Shao, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    A systematic review of published toxicology and human intervention studies was performed to characterize potential hazards associated with consumption of green tea and its preparations. A review of toxicological evidence from laboratory studies revealed the liver as the target organ and hepatotoxicity as the critical effect, which was strongly associated with certain dosing conditions (e.g. bolus dose via gavage, fasting), and positively correlated with total catechin and epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) content. A review of adverse event (AE) data from 159 human intervention studies yielded findings consistent with toxicological evidence in that a limited range of concentrated, catechin-rich green tea preparations resulted in hepatic AEs in a dose-dependent manner when ingested in large bolus doses, but not when consumed as brewed tea or extracts in beverages or as part of food. Toxico- and pharmacokinetic evidence further suggests internal dose of catechins is a key determinant in the occurrence and severity of hepatotoxicity. A safe intake level of 338 mg EGCG/day for adults was derived from toxicological and human safety data for tea preparations ingested as a solid bolus dose. An Observed Safe Level (OSL) of 704 mg EGCG/day might be considered for tea preparations in beverage form based on human AE data. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-05-01

    Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  5. Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2011-10-12

    The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.

  6. Radionuclides in tea and their behaviour in the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Zehringer, Markus; Kammerer, Franziska; Wagmann, Michael

    2018-06-08

    Tea plantations may be strongly affected by radioactive fallout. Tea plantations on the Turkish coast of the Black Sea were heavily contaminated by the fallout from the reactor fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Two years later, the contamination level was reduced by about 90%. When tea is brewed, the original contamination in the tea leaves is more or less leached into the tea water. While most of the radiocaesium (60-80%) is washed out by brewing, most of the radiostrontium remains in the leaves (70-80%). In food laws, a dilution factor of 40-50 is considered for tea brewing. Most laws only define limit values for radiocaesium. Radiostrontium is not specially regulated, even though its dose coefficients for ingestion are higher than the corresponding coefficients for radiocaesium. Radiostrontium in tea occurs primarily from global fallout (bomb tests from 1945-1965). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Crushed Ice Ingestion Does Not Improve Female Cycling Time Trial Performance in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Matthew; Landers, Grant Justin; Wallman, Karen Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effects of precooling via ice ingestion on female cycling performance in hot, humid conditions. Ten female endurance athletes, mean age (28 ± 6 y), height (167.6 ± 6.5 cm) and body-mass (68.0 ± 11.5 kg) participated in the study. Participants completed an 800 kJ cycle time-trial in hot, humid conditions (34.9 ± 0.3 °C, 49.8 ± 3.5% RH). This was preceded by the consumption of 7 g∙kg -1 of crushed ice (ICE) or water (CON). There was no difference in performance time (CON 3851 ± 449 s; ICE 3767 ± 465 s), oxygen consumption (CON 41.6 ± 7.0 ml∙kg∙min -1 ; ICE 42.4 ± 6.0 ml∙kg∙min -1 ) or respiratory exchange ratio (CON 0.88 ± 0.05; ICE 0.90 ± 0.06) between conditions (p > .05, d < 0.5). Core and skin temperature following the precooling period were lower in ICE (T c 36.4 ± 0.4 °C; T sk 31.6 ± 1.2 °C) compared with CON (T c 37.1 ± 0.4 °C; T sk 32.4 ± 0.7 °C) and remained lower until the 100 kJ mark of the cycle time-trial (p < .05, d > 1.0). Sweat onset occurred earlier in CON (228 ± 113 s) compared with ICE (411 ± 156 s) (p < .05, d = 1.63). Mean thermal sensation (CON 1.8 ± 2.0; ICE 1.2 ± 2.5, p < .05, d = 2.51), perceived exertion (CON 15.3 ± 2.9; ICE 14.9 ± 3.0, p < .05, d = 0.38) and perceived thirst (CON 5.6 ± 2.2; ICE 4.6 ± 2.4, p < .05, d = 0.98) were lower in ICE compared with CON. Crushed ice ingestion did not improve cycling performance in females, although perceptual responses were reduced.

  8. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-05

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas.

  9. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Trap Color, Height, and Orientation on the Capture of Yellow and Stick Tea Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Nontarget Insects in Tea Gardens.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Yang, P X; Yao, Y J; Luo, Z X; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2016-02-03

    Two thrips species-the yellow tea thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and the stick tea thrips (Dendrothrips minowai Priesner)-are serious pests affecting tea plants in southern China. Although the stick tea thrips is primarily restricted to southern China, the yellow tea thrips is gradually proliferating worldwide. Colored sticky card traps may be useful for monitoring and capturing these species, but a systematic analysis has not been conducted to identify the most effective trap color, height, and orientation. We performed indoor experiments using an orthogonal experimental design, as well as field tests in tea gardens, to identify the color most attractive to the two thrips species. Field tests were then conducted using color-optimized traps-lawngreen (RGB: 124, 252, 0) for yellow thrips and lime (RGB: 0, 255, 0) for stick tea thrips-to determine the most effective trap height and orientation. The greatest numbers of both yellow and stick tea thrips were captured on traps positioned 0-20 cm above the tea canopy in an east-west orientation. We also evaluated the performance of the color-optimized sticky card traps compared with commercially available yellow ones. Significantly more yellow and stick tea thrips and fewer natural enemies were captured on the color-optimized traps than on commercial ones. Although additional research is needed to explain the responses of the two different species and to increase trap effectiveness, our findings should assist in the control of these harmful insects. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Bell P-39 in the Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1944-11-21

    A Bell P-39 Airacobra in the NACA Aircraft Engine Research Laboratory’s Icing Research Tunnel for a propeller deicing study. The tunnel, which began operation in June 1944, was built to study the formation of ice on aircraft surfaces and methods of preventing or eradicating that ice. Ice buildup adds extra weight to aircraft, effects aerodynamics, and sometimes blocks airflow through engines. NACA design engineers added the Icing Research Tunnel to the new AERL’s original layout to take advantage of the massive refrigeration system being constructed for the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The Icing Research Tunnel is a closed-loop atmospheric wind tunnel with a 6- by 9-foot test section. The tunnel can produce speeds up to 300 miles per hour and temperatures from about 30 to –45⁰ F. During World War II AERL researchers analyzed different ice protection systems for propeller, engine inlets, antennae, and wings in the icing tunnel. The P-39 was a vital low-altitude pursuit aircraft of the US during the war. NACA investigators investigated several methods of preventing ice buildup on the P-39’s propeller, including the use of internal and external electrical heaters, alcohol, and hot gases. They found that continual heating of the blades expended more energy than the aircraft could supply, so studies focused on intermittent heating. The results of the wind tunnel investigations were then compared to actual flight tests on aircraft.

  12. In vitro anticancer effects of insect tea in TCA8113 cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Li, Gui-Jie; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Ya-Lin; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Insect tea is widely used a traditional drink or traditional Chinese medicine in China. This study was conducted with an aim to determine the in vitro anticancer effect of Insect tea in cancer cells. The anticancer effects of Insect tea were evaluated in human tongue carcinoma TCA8113 cells using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry analysis, nuclear staining with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and western bolt assay. At 200 μg/mL, Insect tea inhibited the growth of TCA8113 cells by 80.7%, which was higher than the inhibition caused by 100 μg/mL Insect tea but lower than that of 200 μg/mL green tea. Compared to the control cancer cells, Insect tea significantly (P<0.05) induced apoptosis as determined by DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis results. Insect tea significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells by upregulating BAX, CASP3, CASP9 and downregulating BCL2. Genes encoding nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were significantly downregulated by Insect tea, demonstrating its anti-inflammatory properties. Insect tea also exerted a great anti-metastasis effect on cancer cells as demonstrated by decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The results showed that Insect tea has good in vitro anticancer effects in TCA8113 cells, like green tea.

  13. Coca tea consumption causes positive urine cocaine assay.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Suzan S; Mycyk, Mark B; Wills, Brandon K; Brace, Larry D; Gussow, Leon; Erickson, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    Coca tea, derived from the same plant that is used to synthesize cocaine, is commonly consumed in South America and easily obtained in the United States. To determine whether consumption of coca tea would result in a positive urine toxicology screen for cocaine metabolites. Five healthy adult volunteers consumed coca tea and underwent serial quantitative urine testing for cocaine metabolites by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The cutoff for a positive assay was chosen at 300 ng/ml, the National Institute on Drug Abuse standard. Each participant's urine cocaine assay was positive (level exceeding 300 ng/ml) by 2 h after ingestion. Three out of five participants' samples remained positive at 36 h. Mean urine benzoylecgonine concentrations in all postconsumption samples was 1777 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 1060-2495). Coca tea ingestion resulted in a positive urine assay for cocaine metabolite. Healthcare professionals should consider a history of coca tea ingestion when interpreting urine toxicology results.

  14. [Short-term screening of anticarcinogenic ingredients of tea by cell biology assays].

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Han, C; Chen, J

    1998-01-01

    By using a panel of short term cell biology assays, several ingredients of tea (tea pigments, caffeine, tea polysaccharide, tea polyphenols tablet and mixed tea) were screened in order to investigate their anticarcinogenic effects. The cytokinesis block micronuclei test in V79 cells induced by mitomycin, the test of metabolic cooperation between V79 and M cells and the test of growth ability of Hela cells in soft agar were used in the screening. The results showed that the six kinds of tea ingredients tested were effective in the test involved in different stages of carcinogenesis, i.e. initiation, promotion and progression. The effects of mixed tea and tea pigments were the strongest among the ingredients tested.

  15. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  16. Jasmine tea consumption and upper gastrointestinal cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Hu, Nan; Han, XiaoYou; Giffen, Carol; Ding, Ti; Goldstein, Alisa M; Taylor, Philip R

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological data on green/jasmine tea and esophageal as well as gastric cancer are limited and inconclusive. In order to study the effect of jasmine tea in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers, we evaluated 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 598 gastric cardia cancer (GCA), and 316 gastric non-cardia cancer (GNCA) cases and 1,514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression adjusted for matching factors and potential confounders. Among controls, 35% of males and 8% of females reported consumption of jasmine tea; other tea consumption was rare. Consumption of jasmine tea (ever vs. never) was not associated with risk of ESCC (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.44), GCA (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.88–1.37), or GNCA (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.64–1.15) in males and females combined. Among males, cumulative lifetime consumption showed a significant positive dose–response relation with ESCC risk, but not for GCA and GNCA. In exploratory analyses, occupation affected the relation between tea and ESCC such that consumption in males was associated with increased risk only in non-office workers. Overall, we found no evidence for a protective effect of tea in esophageal or gastric cancer. Further studies of the potential effects of thermal damage, tea quality, and water quality on UGI cancers are suggested.

  17. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  18. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  19. Changing climate and the value of the tea landscape in Assam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Gupta, N.; Duncan, J.; Saikia, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tea production has a measurable impact upon millions of people's livelihoods in northeast India. The region is experiencing changes in climate characteristics which are placing added pressure on the tea industry for sustaining livelihoods. To increase understanding of the role of tea within the Assam landscape, this research has engaged with multiple local tea-producing stakeholders. Approximately 65% of Assam's tea is produced in large plantations, with the remaining 35% produced in smallholdings. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on land management practices operationalised by plantation managers and smallholders. Focus group sessions using the Delphi technique were conducted with tea workers (labourers for the plantations) to ascertain the level of importance of the tea sector to sustaining their livelihoods. Questionnaires and focus group surveys also attempted to establish stakeholder understanding of climate change. Data were analysed using spatial statistics to investigate intra- and inter-region variation in responses. Focus group responses were categorised to determine the livelihood asset base available to tea workers within plantations, with patterns of (dis)similarity observed spatially. Results indicate that land management practices (e.g. fertiliser and pesticide application), tea processing methods (e.g. onsite factory and energy generation), and social provisions for tea workers (e.g. sanitation and education facilities) varied greatly across the main tea growing regions of Assam. Tea workers listed numerous environmental and social factors as important for sustaining livelihoods, with the top ranked factors similar across some plantations (e.g. drinking water availability and access). Plantation managers are highly concerned with how climate conditions are affecting tea production, and although workers were aware of climate change issues in some plantations, socioeconomic conditions seemed of more pressing concern to their livelihoods.

  20. Green Nanotechnology from Tea: Phytochemicals in Tea as Building Blocks for Production of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2009-06-01

    Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.

  1. Hydrologic consequences of hot-rock/snowpack interactions at Mount St. Helens Volcano, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierson, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Emplacement of hot volcanic debris onto a thick snowpack can trigger hazardous rapid flows of sediment (including ice grains) and water, which can travel far beyond the flanks of a volcano. Five papers in this volume document aspects of rapid-snowmelt events that occurred in Mount St. Helens between 1982 and 1984; one paper offers a theoretical explanation of features present at depositional contacts between hot rock and snow.

  2. Tea intake, COMT genotype, and breast cancer in Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Yu, Mimi C

    2003-11-01

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. In a case-control study conducted among Asian-American women in Los Angeles County, we reported a significant inverse relationship between intake of green tea and risk of breast cancer (A. H. Wu et al., Int. J. Cancer, 106: 574-579, 2003). Because catechol-containing tea polyphenols are very rapidly O-methylated by human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), we are interested in determining whether the association between tea intake and breast cancer differed in women according to COMT genotype. We examined the interrelationships between tea intake, COMT genotype, and breast cancer risk in 589 incident cases and 563 population-based controls from a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Chinese-, Japanese-, and Filipino-American women in Los Angeles County. Risk of breast cancer was influenced significantly by intake of tea, particularly green tea intake. However, the inverse association between tea intake and breast cancer risk was observed only among individuals who possessed at least one low-activity COMT allele. Among women who carried at least one low activity COMT allele, tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.77) compared with nontea drinkers after adjustment for relevant demographic, menstrual, reproductive, and dietary factors. This risk reduction was observed in relation to both green tea and black tea intake. In contrast, risk of breast cancer did not differ between tea drinkers and nontea drinkers among those who were homozygous for the high activity COMT allele (adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.60). In conclusion, tea catechins appeared to reduce breast cancer risk in this study of Asian-American women. Reduction in risk was strongest among persons who had the low activity COMT alleles, suggesting

  3. Effect of Green Tea Mouthwash on Oral Malodor

    PubMed Central

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks. PMID:24977093

  4. Effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks.

  5. Fluorine in food with special reference to tea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.

    A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530more » p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.« less

  6. A Three-phase Chemical Model of Hot Cores: The Formation of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH2CH2COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures ~40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 × 10-11-8 × 10-9, occurring at ~200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH2, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  7. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be builtmore » at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant

  8. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction and Metabolic Syndrome Alleviation by Tea

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Zhang, Jinsong; Zhang, Le; Huang, Jinbao; Wang, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a popular beverage made from leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has been shown to reduce body weight, alleviate metabolic syndrome, and prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in animal models and humans. Such beneficial effects have generally been observed in most human studies when the level of tea consumption was 3 to 4 cups (600–900 mg tea catechins) or more per day. Green tea is more effective than black tea. In spite of numerous studies, the fundamental mechanisms for these actions still remain unclear. From a review of the literature, we propose that the two major mechanisms are: 1) decreasing absorption of lipids and proteins by tea constituents in the intestine, thus reducing calorie intake; and 2) activating AMPK by tea polyphenols that are bioavailable in the liver, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissues. The relative importance of these two mechanisms depends on the types of tea and diet consumed by individuals. The activated AMPK would decrease gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis and increase catabolism, leading to body weight reduction and MetS alleviation. Other mechanisms and the health relevance of these beneficial effects of tea consumption remain to be further investigated. PMID:26577614

  9. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  10. Tea Consumption Enhances Endothelial-Dependent Vasodilation; a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ras, Rouyanne T.; Zock, Peter L.; Draijer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Background Tea consumption is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease including stroke. Direct effects of tea components on the vasculature, particularly the endothelium, may partly explain this association. Objective We performed a meta-analysis of controlled human intervention studies on the effect of tea on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, a measurement of endothelial function, which is suggested to be associated with cardiovascular risk. Methods Human intervention studies were identified by systematic search of the databases Medline, Embase, Chemical Abstracts and Biosis through March 2009 and by hand-searching related articles. Studies were selected based on predefined criteria: intervention with tea as the sole experimental variable, placebo-controlled design, and no missing data on FMD outcome or its variability. A random effects model was used to calculate the pooled overall effect on FMD due to the intake of tea. The impact of various subject and treatment characteristics was investigated in the presence of heterogeneity. Results In total, 9 studies from different research groups were included with 15 relevant study arms. The overall absolute increase in FMD of tea vs. placebo was 2.6% of the arterial diameter (95% CI: 1.8-3.3%; P-value <0.001) for a median daily dose of 500 mL of tea (2–3 cups). This is a relative increase of approximately 40% compared to the average FMD of 6.3% measured under placebo or baseline conditions. There was significant heterogeneity between studies (P-value <0.001) that might partly be explained by the cuff position either distal or proximal to the area of FMD measurement. No indication for publication bias was found. Conclusion Moderate consumption of tea substantially enhances endothelial-dependent vasodilation. This may provide a mechanistic explanation for the reduced risk of cardiovascular events and stroke observed among tea drinkers. PMID:21394199

  11. Boron and strontium isotope ratios and major/trace elements concentrations in tea leaves at four major tea growing gardens in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Ta; You, Chen-Feng; Aggarwal, Suresh Kumar; Chung, Chuan-Hsiung; Chao, Hung-Chun; Liu, Hou-Chun

    2016-06-01

    Isotopic compositions of B and Sr in rocks and sediments can be used as tracers for plant provincial sources. This study aims to test whether tea leaf origin can be discriminated using (10)B/(11)B and Sr isotopic composition data, along with concentrations of major/trace elements, in tea specimens collected from major plantation gardens in Taiwan. The tea leaves were digested by microwave and analyzed by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The data showed significant variations in (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios (from 0.70482 to 0.71462), which reflect changes in soil, groundwater or irrigation conditions. The most radiogenic tea leaves were found at the Taitung garden and the least radiogenic ones were from the Hualien garden. The δ (11)B was found to change appreciably (δ (11)B = 0.38-23.73 ‰) which could be due to fertilizers. The maximum δ (11)B was also observed in tea samples from the Hualien garden. Principal component analysis combining (87)Sr/(86)Sr, δ (11)B and major/trace elements results successfully discriminated different sources of major tea gardens in Taiwan, except the Hualien gardens, and this may be due to rather complicated local geological settings.

  12. Antidepressive-like effects and antioxidant activity of green tea and GABA green tea in a mouse model of post-stroke depression.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Sureda, Antoni; Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Arcidiaco, Patrizia; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and some psychiatric disorders. Tea consumption exerts beneficial effects against damage induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in ischemic stroke and depressive symptoms in depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vivo, the protective activity of green tea (GT) and GABA green tea (GGT) against post-stroke depression (PSD), a common consequence of stroke. The antidepressive-like effects of GT and GGT were determined by behavioral tests in a mouse model of post-stroke depression. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by GSH, SOD, and TBARS measurements on mouse brain. The chemical composition of tea extracts was characterized through chromatographic methods. GGT and GT resulted active in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior, and at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses. The higher polyphenol, theanine, glutamine, and caffeine content may justify the higher activity found in GGT. This work represents the first attempt to demonstrate the positive effect of tea, and especially GGT, on post-stroke depression and to correlate this effect with the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of tea. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  14. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear < 0.001). Our findings indicate that tea consumption has an inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  16. [Development of throat clearing herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Milasius

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal herbs in tea for throat clearing are used from ancient times. Taking into consideration the bronchial mucus secretion stimulating and antispasmodic, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic and stimulating effect on the ciliated epithelium two new formulations of throat clearing herbal tea were originated. The first formulation consists of liquorice roots, sweet fennel and thyme, and the second one consists of pine gemmae, thyme and elder flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances of the components were adapted. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by the limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. Expiry date of both throat clearing herbal teas was confirmed to be 2 years.

  17. Associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance in Chinese men and women.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of <1, 1-15, 16-30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27-0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12-0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17-0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of <1, 1-15, 16-30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48-0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43-0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16-30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16-30 cups per week.

  18. Tea Consumption and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pan, C-W; Ma, Q; Sun, H-P; Xu, Y; Luo, N; Wang, P

    2017-01-01

    Although tea consumption has been reported to have various health benefits in humans, its association with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been investigated directly. We aimed to examine the relationship between tea consumption and HRQOL among older Chinese adults. We analyzed community-based cross-sectional data of 5,557 older Chinese individuals aged 60 years or older who participated in the Weitang Geriatric Diseases study. Information on tea consumption and HRQOL assessed by the European Quality of Life-5 dimensions (EQ-5D) were collected by questionnaires. We estimated the relationship of tea consumption and the EQ-5D index score using linear regression models and the association between tea consumption and self-reported EQ-5D health problems using logistic regression models. The EQ-5D index score was higher for habitual tea drinkers than their counterparts. In multivariate linear analyses controlling for socio-demographic conditions, health conditions, and lifestyle habits, the differences in ED-5D index score between individuals with and without tea drinking habits was 0.012 (95% confidence interval, 0.006-0.017). In multivariate logistic analyses, habitual tea drinking was inversely associated with reporting of problems in EQ-5D dimensions mobility (odds ration [OR], 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23-0.84); pain/discomfort (OR, 0.74; 95% CI: 0.61-0.90); and anxiety/depression (OR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97). These associations were more evident for black or oolong tea than green tea. Habitual tea consumption was associated with better HRQOL in older adults.

  19. Respiratory Morbidity among Indian Tea Industry Workers.

    PubMed

    Moitra, S; Thapa, P; Das, P; Das, J; Debnath, S; Singh, Mahipal; Datta, A; Sen, S; Moitra, S

    2016-07-01

    Indian tea industry workers are exposed to various exposures at their workplace. To investigate the respiratory health of Indian tea industry workers. We administered a respiratory questionnaire to and measured lung function in workers of 34 tea gardens and 46 tea factories. We used correlation matrices to test the association between their respiratory symptoms and lung functions. The garden workers complained of shortness of breath 3 times higher than the factory workers. However, nasal allergy was more predominant among the factory workers compared to garden workers (69.6% vs 41.2%, p=0.02). The factory workers had higher total (median 107.3% vs 92.9%, p=0.05, as measured by R at 5 Hz) and peripheral airway resistance (143.8% vs 61.1%, p=0.005, as measured by R at 5-20 Hz) than the garden workers. Respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with airway obstruction as measured by the ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and positively correlated with increased overall airway reactance among the workers. Respiratory symptoms and increased allergen susceptibility of Indian tea industry workers due to occupational exposures warrant routine systematic surveillance of their workplace air quality and health monitoring.

  20. Trace element content in tea brewed in traditional metallic and stainless steel teapots.

    PubMed

    Petit, D; El Houari, W; Jacobs, K; Baeyens, W; Leermakers, M

    2013-11-01

    The migration of metals in tea brewed in metallic teapots was investigated. The teapots were obtained from North Africa stores in Brussels in 2005-2006 and in 2011. Chinese gunpowder green tea, the most commonly used tea in the Moroccan community, was used to prepare the tea. Tea brewed in metallic teapots was compared to tea brewed in a glass vessel in order to evaluate the contribution of the tea and the teapots to the metal concentrations in the brewed tea. Tea samples were also collected in Moroccan households and in tearooms in Brussels. The elements As, Cd, Pb, Sn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Al were analyzed by high-resolution sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The relationship between the metal composition of the alloy of the teapot and the metal concentration in tea was also investigated. Migration of Pb and to a lesser amount Ni, Cu, and Zn was observed in brass teapots and migration of Cd from a number of stainless steel teapots was observed. The soldering connecting the sprout to the teapot was shown to be an important source of Pb to the tea. High levels of Mn and Al were also observed in the brewed tea and these elements where shown to originate from the tea itself. Metal exposure from tea drinking was calculated for different tea consumption levels and different metal concentration levels and compared to toxicological reference values.

  1. Pressure-Induced Melting of Confined Ice

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The classic regelation experiment of Thomson in the 1850s deals with cutting an ice cube, followed by refreezing. The cutting was attributed to pressure-induced melting but has been challenged continuously, and only lately consensus emerged by understanding that compression shortens the O:H nonbond and lengthens the H–O bond simultaneously. This H–O elongation leads to energy loss and lowers the melting point. The hot debate survived well over 150 years, mainly due to a poorly defined heat exchange with the environment in the experiment. In our current experiment, we achieved thermal isolation from the environment and studied the fully reversible ice–liquid water transition for water confined between graphene and muscovite mica. We observe a transition from two-dimensional (2D) ice into a quasi-liquid phase by applying a pressure exerted by an atomic force microscopy tip. At room temperature, the critical pressure amounts to about 6 GPa. The transition is completely reversible: refreezing occurs when the applied pressure is lifted. The critical pressure to melt the 2D ice decreases with temperature, and we measured the phase coexistence line between 293 and 333 K. From a Clausius–Clapeyron analysis, we determine the latent heat of fusion of two-dimensional ice at 0.15 eV/molecule, being twice as large as that of bulk ice. PMID:29112376

  2. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p < 0.05), albeit to different extents, were observed among volatile compounds, sugars, organic acids, and free amino acids in seven grades of black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  3. [Chemical studies on plant polyphenols and formation of black tea polyphenols].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Recent biological and pharmacological studies strongly suggested that plant polyphenols in foods, beverages and crude drugs have various health benefits. However, still there are chemically uncharacterized polyphenols, especially those with large molecular weights. The typical example is black tea polyphenols. Four tea catechins of fresh tea leaves are enzymatically oxidized in tea fermentation process of black tea manufacture to give a complex mixture of the oxidation products. Despite many efforts since 1950's, major part of the black tea polyphenols has not been clarified yet. We have investigated the oxidation mechanism of each catechin by employing a newly developed in vitro model fermentation system. The oxidation was initiated by enzymatic dehydrogenation of catechins, and subsequent intermolecular quinone-phenol coupling reactions followed by cascade-type degradation of the unstable products resulted in the formation of complex black tea polyphenols. Besides black tea polyphenols, this review introduces the chemistry of insolubilization of persimmon proanthocyanidins, wood polyphenols in connection with whisky polyphenols, and co-polymerization of cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins in cinnamon bark.

  4. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M

    2009-12-01

    The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.

  5. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Association between tea consumption and osteoporosis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui

    2017-12-01

    Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords "tea and osteoporosis," without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I = 94%, P < .01). There was, however, no publication bias of the meta-analysis about tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  7. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  8. Anticariogenic Activity of Black Tea - An Invivo Study.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina; Srivastava, Ankit; Nandlal, Swati

    2016-03-01

    Teas is known for its anticariogenic properties and various mechanisms have been invoked to explain this effect. One such proposed mechanism is inhibition of salivary alpha amylase activity by endogenous tannins present in tea. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the ingestion of black tea decoction inhibits the enzyme salivary amylase and thus interferes with the release of maltose from intraoral entrapped particles of food. A total of 30 children in the age group of 12 - 15 years were selected for the study. After two hours of fasting subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 second following which they rinsed with water (control solution) and then with 1.5% black tea decoction (test solution) next day. Retained food particles were recovered from buccal aspect of left mandibular premolar and salivary amylase activity was noted via chromatography. Paired t-test was applied for statistical analysis. Maltose to Sucrose ratio was used to evaluate the result. The average ratio was 3.27 for control solution and 1.82 for test solution. The results were statistically highly significant (p <0.005). Tea inhibited the activity of salivary amylase and this inhibition assumes a special significance when it is considered that the effect of tea could be manifested over a prolonged period of time, as in a real life situation.

  9. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  10. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    PubMed

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; P<0.001) and the benchmark (92.32±1.33%), but insignificant removed eyeliner (87.50±5.15%; P=0.059). Tea seed oil remover caused none of skin irritation as examined in 20 human volunteers. A single-blind, randomized control exhibited that the tea seed oil remover gained a better preference over the benchmark (75.42±8.10 and 70.00±7.78%; P=0.974). The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Corona Preionization Technique for Carbon Dioxide TEA Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-30

    34’" " " " "- -. .. " "I~ 82R8O701-02 CORONA PREIONIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CARBON DIOXIDE TEA LASERS W after R. Kamnki SUnited Technologiles Research Center C...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED CORONA PREIONIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CARBON Final Report DIOXIDE TEA LASERS May 5, 1981...Preionization Laser UV Preionization Pulsed CO2 Laser Corona Preionization CO2 TEA Laser 10. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeeiny md Identify

  12. Carboxymethyl- and carboxyl-catechins from ripe Pu-er tea.

    PubMed

    Tian, Li-Wen; Tao, Mu-Ke; Xu, Min; Hu, Jing; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Wen-Yong; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2014-12-17

    Ripe Pu-er tea, a special microbial postfermented tea originated from Yunnan Province, China, since ancient times, is made from green Pu-er tea prepared from the leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica (Theaceae). Chemical investigation on thearubigin (n-BuOH-soluble) fraction of the commercial ripe Pu-er tea, led to the identification of four new flavan-3-ol derivatives, 8-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin (1), 8-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin methyl ester (2), 6-carboxymethyl-(+)-catechin (3), and 6-carboxyl-(-)-gallocatechin (4), together with 18 known compounds, including other three flavan-3-ol derivatives (5-7), 10 flavonoid glycosides (8-17), two hydrolyzable tannins (18 and 19), two quinic acid derivatives (20-21), and a purine alkaloid (22). Flavonoid glycosides 8-11 are reported from tea plants for the first time. The thearubigin fraction of ripe Pu-er tea was qualitatively analyzed by HPLC, and gallic acid was found to be the major component. Compounds 4, 6-17, 21 and 22 were tested for their acute activities on insulin sensitivity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but none of them showed significant bioactivity at a concentration of 10 μM.

  13. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  14. Finite wing aerodynamics with simulated glaze ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khodadoust, A.; Bragg, M. B.; Kerho, M.; Wells, S.; Soltani, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of a simulated glaze ice accretion on the aerodynamic performance of a three-dimensional wing is studied experimentally. The model used for these tests was a semi-span wing of effective aspect ratio five, mounted from the sidewall of the UIUC subsonic wind tunnel. The model has an NACA 0012 airfoil section on a rectangular, untwisted planform with interchangeable leading edges to allow for testing both the baseline and the iced wing geometry. A three-component sidewall balance was used to measure lift, drag and pitching moment on the clean and iced model. A four-beam two-color fiberoptic laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was used to map the flowfield along several spanwise cuts on the model. Preliminary results from LDV scans, which will be the bulk of this paper, are presented following the force balance measurement results. Initial comparison of LDV surveys compare favorably with inviscid theory results and 2D split hot-film measurements near the model surface.

  15. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579

  17. [Study on adsorption of tea polyphenol and caffine with polyamide resin].

    PubMed

    Tang, Ke-wen; Zhou, Chun-shan; Zhong, Shi-an; Zhu, Jie-ding

    2003-02-01

    The performance of adsorption of tea polyphenol and caffine with polyamide resin was investigated. The results obtained by spectrophotometry and HPLC show that the ability of adsorption of tea polyphenol with polyamide is stronger than that of caffine, in which hydrogen bond plays a very important role. The adsorption amount of caffine is 2.65 mg.g-1 with 7.5% adsorption ratio when 100 mL of 0.71 g.L-1 caffine is adsorbed on polyamide resine, but the adsorption amount of tea polyphenol is up to 148.13 mg.g-1 with 85% adsorption ratio when 700 mL of 1.98 g.L-1 tea polyphenol is adsorbed on polyamide resine. The dilution ratios of caffine and tea polyphenol are 74% and 90%, respectively, when they are diluted by 85% alcohol. The static adsorptions of caffine and tea polyphenol on polyamide resine reach equilibrium quickly in 80 min, and the plots of adsorption kinetics are nearly linear. Tea polyphenol and caffine are successfully separated on polyamide resine, and the obtained product contains more than 96% of tea polyphenol and 80% of EGCC with caffine less than 2.8%.

  18. Effect of decaffeination of coffee or tea on gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Wendl, B; Pfeiffer, A; Pehl, C; Schmidt, T; Kaess, H

    1994-06-01

    Coffee and tea are believed to cause gastro-oesophageal reflux; however, the effects of these beverages and of their major component, caffeine, have not been quantified. The aim of this study was to evaluate gastro-oesophageal reflux induced by coffee and tea before and after a decaffeination process, and to compare it with water and water-containing caffeine. Three-hour ambulatory pH-metry was performed on 16 healthy volunteers, who received 300 ml of (i) regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee or tap water (n = 16), (ii) normal tea, decaffeinated tea, tap water, or coffee adapted to normal tea in caffeine concentration (n = 6), and (iii) caffeine-free and caffeine-containing water (n = 8) together with a standardized breakfast. Regular coffee induced a significant (P < 0.05) gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with tap water and normal tea, which were not different from each other. Decaffeination of coffee significantly (P < 0.05) diminished gastro-oesophageal reflux, whereas decaffeination of tea or addition of caffeine to water had no effect. Coffee adapted to normal tea in caffeine concentration significantly (P < 0.05) increased gastro-oesophageal reflux. Coffee, in contrast to tea, increases gastro-oesophageal reflux, an effect that is less pronounced after decaffeination. Caffeine does not seem to be responsible for gastro-oesophageal reflux which must be attributed to other components of coffee.

  19. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i) Responses...

  20. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i) Responses...

  1. Effect of different types of tea on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Eswara, Uma; Maheshwar Reddy, K R

    2012-01-01

    If tea can be shown to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans there can be a basis for using it as an agent for reducing caries. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of aqueous and organic extracts of three types of tea (green, oolong, and black tea) on the growth of S. mutans. In vitro study. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the three types of tea was done. Organic extracts of methanol and ethanol and aqueous extracts (50% and 100%) of tea were prepared. Fifty microliters of these extracts were inoculated into wells prepared on Mueller-Hinton agar plates that had been previously smeared with S. mutans. The agar plates were incubated at 37΀C for 24 hours. A similar procedure was followed using 0.2% chlorhexidine, which served as the positive control. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc Tukey test, Student's 't ' test (two-tailed, dependent), and Student's 't' test (two-tailed, independent) were used for analysis of the data. All the phytochemicals were found to be higher in oolong tea. Both aqueous and organic extracts of oolong tea showed greatest zones of inhibition, followed by green tea and black tea. Aqueous extracts of oolong and green tea showed greater zone of inhibition than chlorhexidine. All the three types of tea inhibited growth of S. mutans. The greatest inhibition was observed with aqueous extract of oolong tea. Oolong tea extracts (aqueous and organic) showed a greater inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans than the other tea extracts .

  2. Tea and flavonoids: where we are, where to go next12345

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to evaluate the evidence about the health effects of tea flavonoids and to provide valid, specific, and actionable tea consumption information to consumers. Emerging evidence suggests that the flavonoids in tea may be associated with beneficial health outcomes, whereas the benefits and risks of tea extracts and supplements are less well known. The next steps in developing tea science should include a focus on the most promising leads, such as reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke, rather than pursuing smaller, more diffuse studies of many different health outcomes. Future tea research should also include the use of common reference standards, better characterization of intervention products, and application of batteries of biomarkers of intakes and outcomes across studies, which will allow a common body of evidence to be developed. Mechanistic studies should determine which tea bioactive constituents have effects, whether they act alone or in combination, and how they influence health. Clinical studies should use well-characterized test products, better descriptions of baseline diets, and validated biomarkers of intake and disease risk reduction. There should be more attention to careful safety monitoring and adverse event reporting. Epidemiologic investigations should be of sufficient size and duration to detect small effects, involve populations most likely to benefit, use more complete tea exposure assessment, and include both intermediary markers of risk as well as morbidity and mortality outcomes. The construction of a strong foundation of scientific evidence on tea and health outcomes is essential for developing more specific and actionable messages on tea for consumers. PMID:24172298

  3. Green tea and anticancer perspectives: updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Sultan, M Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Naz, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components.

  4. Autonomic nervous responses according to preference for the odor of jasmine tea.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohiko; Kuroda, Kyoko; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami; Fushiki, Tohru

    2003-06-01

    The effect of jasmine tea odor on the autonomic nervous system was investigated by a power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. We assigned eight volunteers to two groups with either a predilection for or antipathy toward the jasmine tea odor. We tested both high- and low-intensity jasmine tea odors. The low-intensity odor was produced by diluting 20-fold the jasmine tea used for the high-intensity odor test. The low-intensity odor produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity in both the predilection and antipathy groups. The high-intensity odor produced an increase in parasympathetic nervous activity in the predilection group, but an increase in sympathetic nervous activity in the antipathy group. The odor of Chinese green tea, a basic ingredient of jasmine tea, produced no effects similar to those of the jasmine tea odor. These results suggest that the jasmine tea odor activated the parasympathetic nerve, whereas the higher-intensity odor activated the sympathetic nerve in those subjects who disliked the odor.

  5. The design of tea garden environmental monitoring system based on WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huajun; Yuan, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Through the application of wireless sensor network (WSN) in tea garden, it can realize the change of traditional tea garden to the modern ones, and effectively improves the comprehensive productive capacity of tea garden. According to the requirement of real-time remote in agricultural information collection and monitoring and the power supply affected by environmental limitations, based on WSN, this paper designs a set of tea garden environmental monitoring system, which achieves the monitoring nodes with ad-hoc network as well as automatic acquisition and transmission to the tea plantations of air temperature, light intensity, soil temperature and humidity.

  6. Drive Fan of the NACA's Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-10-21

    A researcher examines the drive fan inside the Icing Research Tunnel at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Flight Propulsion Research Laboratory in Cleveland, Ohio. The facility was built in the mid-1940s to simulate the atmospheric conditions that caused ice to build up on aircraft. Carrier Corporation refrigeration equipment reduced the internal air temperature to -45⁰ F, and a spray bar system injected water droplets into the air stream. The 24-foot diameter drive fan, seen in this photograph, created air flow velocities up to 400 miles per hour. The 1950s were prime years for the Icing Research Tunnel. NACA engineers had spent the 1940s trying to resolve the complexities of the spray bar system. The final system put into operation in 1950 included six horizontal spray bars with 80 nozzles that produced a 4- by 4-foot cloud in the test section. The icing tunnel was used for extensive testing of civilian and military aircraft components in the 1950s. The NACA also launched a major investigation of the various methods of heating leading edge surfaces. The hot-air anti-icing technology used on today’s commercial transports was largely developed in the facility during this period. Lewis researchers also made significant breakthroughs with icing on radomes and jet engines. Although the Icing Research Tunnel yielded major breakthroughs in the 1950s, the Lewis icing research program began tapering off as interest in the space program grew. The icing tunnel’s use declined in 1956 and 1957. The launch of Sputnik in October 1957 signaled the end of the facility’s operation. The icing staff was transferred to other research projects and the icing tunnel was temporarily mothballed.

  7. Tea consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Si, Jiahui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Ren, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ge; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association between tea consumption and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods Prospective study using the China Kadoorie Biobank; participants from 10 areas across China were enrolled during 2004–2008 and followed up until 31 December 2013. After excluding participants with cancer, heart disease and stroke at baseline, the present study included 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30–79 years at baseline. Information on IHD incidence was collected through disease registries and the new national health insurance databases. Results During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, we documented 24 665 (7.19 cases/1000 person-years) incident IHD cases and 3959 (1.13 cases/1000 person-years) major coronary events (MCEs). Tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of IHD and MCE. In the whole cohort, compared with participants who never consumed tea during the past 12 months, the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for less than daily and daily tea consumers were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) and 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95) for IHD, 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) for MCE. No linear trends in the HRs across the amount of tea were observed in daily consumers for IHD and MCE (PLinear >0.05). The inverse association between tea consumption and IHD was stronger in rural (PInteraction 0.006 for IHD, <0.001 for MCE), non-obese (PInteraction 0.012 for MCE) and non-diabetes participants (PInteraction 0.004 for IHD). Conclusions In this large prospective study, daily tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of IHD. PMID:28077466

  8. 76 FR 12753 - Notice of Temporary Closures on Public Lands in Ada and Elmore Counties, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... ( FNW4) and Hot Tea Fire ( FTF6) closures to motorized vehicle use are in effect on public lands... slickspot peppergrass plants and their associated habitat in this area. The Hot Tea closure affects public lands in Elmore County, Idaho, burned August 27-29, 2010, by the Hot Tea Fire, 12 miles northwest of...

  9. Associations of Green Tea and Rock Tea Consumption with Risk of Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Chinese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huibin; Guo, Qiuxuan; Qiu, Changsheng; Huang, Baoying; Fu, Xianguo; Yao, Jin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Chen, Ling; Tang, Kaka; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang; Wen, Junping; Lin, Caijing; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the associations of green tea and rock tea consumption with risk of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods A multistage, stratified, cluster, random-sampling method was used to select a representative sample from Fujian Province in China. In total, 4808 subjects without cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cancer, or pancreatic, liver, kidney, or gastrointestinal diseases were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to gather data on tea (green, rock, and black) consumption and other relevant factors. The assessment of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) was using 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the diagnostic criteria of normal glucose tolerance was according to American Diabetes Association. Results Green tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IFG, while rock tea consumption was associated with a lower risk of IGT. The adjusted odds ratios for IFG for green tea consumption of <1, 1–15, 16–30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.42 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.27–0.65), 0.23 (95% CI, 0.12–0.46), and 0.41 (95% CI, 0.17–0.93), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for IGT for rock tea consumption of <1, 1–15, 16–30, and >30 cups per week were 1.0 (reference), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.48–0.98), 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39–0.90), and 0.64 (95% CI, 0.43–0.97), respectively. A U-shaped association was observed, subjects who consumed 16–30 cups of green or rock tea per week having the lowest odds ratios for IFG or IGT. Conclusions Consumption of green or rock tea may protect against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese men and women, particularly in those who drink 16–30 cups per week. PMID:24260170

  10. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  11. Application of enzymes in the production of RTD black tea beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandini S; Subramanian, R; Rao, L Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) tea is a popular beverage in many countries. Instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is the common problem faced in the production of RTD black tea beverages. Thus decreaming is an important step in the process to meet the cold stability requirements of the product. Enzymatic decreaming approaches overcome some of the disadvantages associated with other conventional decreaming methods such as cold water extraction, chill decreaming, chemical stabilization, and chemical solubilization. Enzyme treatments have been attempted at three stages of black tea processing, namely, enzymatic treatment to green tea and conversion to black tea, enzymatic treatment to black tea followed by extraction, and enzymatic clarification of extract. Tannase is the most commonly employed enzyme (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) aiming at improving cold water extractability/solubility and decreasing tea cream formation as well as improving the clarity. The major enzymatic methods proposed for processing black tea having a direct or indirect bearing on RTD tea production, have been discussed along with their relative advantages and limitations.

  12. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  13. Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Tea and coffee contain bioactive compounds and both beverages have recently been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, US. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by five-year age groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among controls, 19% and 58% consumed at least one cup per day of tea and coffee, respectively. The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage. Conclusions: Our results contribute further evidence that tea consumption may be a modifiable exposure that reduces PCa risk. PMID:23412806

  14. Selective material ablation by the TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi; Shiratori, Akira; Ninomiya, Yutaka; Obara, Minoru

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports two topics in the material processing using TEA CO2 lasers. We demonstrated selective ablation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin layer on a quartz substrate by the second harmonic (SH) radiation of TEA CO2 laser generated by AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystal. Si-H bonds contained in a-Si:H strongly absorb the 5 micrometers SH radiation and resulted in the selective ablation of the a-Si:H layer. The successful ablation processing of ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) copolymer by the 9.6 micrometers fundamental wavelength TEA CO2 laser is also reported. Only ETFE thin film adhered to an aluminum substrate can be ablated by the TEA CO2 laser.

  15. Priority PAHs in orthodox black tea during manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Orthodox black tea is obtained from fresh leaves followed by withering, rolling, fermentation and drying. The presence of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in fresh leaves and at various stages of manufacturing. Benzo(a)pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in dried tea leaves only whereas, naphthalene (2B: probable human carcinogen) was present during all the stages of manufacturing. Dry tea leaves showed higher content of total 16 PAHs (∑PAHs) about 3 and 211 times than present in withered and dried leaves, respectively. Chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indendo[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and benzo[a]antracene were not found during manufacturing stages of tea.

  16. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Hammer, K A; Carson, C F; Riley, T V

    1998-11-01

    The in-vitro activity of a range of essential oils, including tea tree oil, against the yeast candida was examined. Of the 24 essential oils tested by the agar dilution method against Candida albicans ATCC 10231, three did not inhibit C. albicans at the highest concentration tested, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil. Sandalwood oil had the lowest MIC, inhibiting C. albicans at 0.06%. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil was investigated for activity against 81 C. albicans isolates and 33 non-albicans Candida isolates. By the broth microdilution method, the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates for both C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species was 0.25% (v/v). The minimum concentration of oil killing 90% of isolates was 0.25% for C. albicans and 0.5% for non-albicans Candida species. Fifty-seven Candida isolates were tested for sensitivity to tea tree oil by the agar dilution method; the minimum concentration of oil inhibiting 90% of isolates was 0.5%. Tests on three intra-vaginal tea tree oil products showed these products to have MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations comparable to those of non-formulated tea tree oil, indicating that the tea tree oil contained in these products has retained its anticandidal activity. These data indicate that some essential oils are active against Candida spp., suggesting that they may be useful in the topical treatment of superficial candida infections.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Sintering and microstructure of ice: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, Jane R.

    2007-11-01

    Sintering of ice is driven by the thermodynamic requirement to decrease surface energy. The structural morphology of ice in nature has many forms—from snowflakes to glaciers. These forms and their evolution depend critically on the balance between the thermodynamic and kinetic factors involved. Ice is a crystalline material so scientific understanding and approaches from more conventional materials can be applied to ice. The early models of solid state ice sintering are based on power law models originally developed in metallurgy. For pressure sintering of ice, these are based on work on hot isostatic pressing of metals and ceramics. Recent advances in recognizing the grain boundary groove geometry between sintering ice particles require models that use new approaches in materials science. The newer models of sintering in materials science are beginning to incorporate more realistic processing conditions and microstructural complexity, and so there is much to be gained from applying these to ice in the future. The vapour pressure of ice is high, which causes it to sublime readily. The main mechanism for isothermal sintering of ice particles is by vapour diffusion; however other transport mechanisms certainly contribute. Plastic deformation with power law creep combined with recrystallization become important mechanisms in sintering with external pressure. Modern experimental techniques, low temperature scanning electron microscopy and x-ray tomography, are providing new insights into the evolution of microstructures in ice. Sintering in the presence of a small volume fraction of the liquid phase causes much higher bond growth rates. This may be important in natural snow which contains impurities that form a liquid phase. Knowledge of ice microstructure and sintering is beneficial in understanding mechanical behaviour in ice friction and the stability of snow slopes prone to avalanches.

  18. Acceleration of Cooling of Ice Giants by Condensation in Early Atmospheres

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kurosaki, Kenji; Ikoma, Masahiro, E-mail: kurosaki.k@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: ikoma@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    The present infrared brightness of a planet originates partly from the accretion energy that the planet gained during its formation and hence provides important constraints to the planet formation process. A planet cools down from a hot initial state to the present state by losing energy through radiative emission from its atmosphere. Thus, the atmospheric properties affect the planetary cooling rate. Previous theories of giant planet cooling assume that the atmospheric composition is unchanged throughout the evolution. Planet formation theories, however, suggest that the atmospheres especially of ice giants are rich in heavy elements in the early stages. These heavy elementsmore » include condensable species such as H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 4}, which are expected to have a great impact on atmospheric temperature and thus on radiative emission through latent heat release. In this study we investigate the effect of such condensation on the planetary emission flux and quantify the impact on the cooling timescale. We then demonstrate that the latent heat of these species keeps the atmosphere hot and thus the emission flux high for billions of years, resulting in an acceleration of the cooling of ice giants. This sheds light on the long-standing problem that Uranus is much less bright than theoretically predicted and is different in brightness from Neptune in spite of the similarity in mass and radius. We also find that young ice giants with highly enriched atmospheres are much brighter in the mid-infrared than ice giants with non-enriched atmospheres. This provides important implications for future direct imaging of extrasolar ice giants.« less

  19. Effect of black tea on enteral feeding tolerance in ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    Mojdeh, Soheila; Shahin, Samire; Khalili, Gholamreza

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tea consumption has been known mostly as a well-drink after water in the world. Tea drink can affect balance of fluids and renal function. In addition, it can cause loss of many viruses in the stomach and can increase or decrease gastrointestinal movements. This research was done to determine the effect of tea on increasing enteral feeding tolerance in ICU patients in Alzahra Hospital. METHODS: In this clinical trial study, 45 patients were enrolled in two groups, tea consumption group and the standard method of nutrition as control group. Tea gavage was performed two times in the morning; 100 cc tea used for the study group and the same volume of water was used for the control group. Residual volume was measured before gavage. Data collected for one week. Information sheet had two pages; the first page described how to complete the form and the method of tea gavage and the second page was for data collection. Data were analyzed by t-student test, chi-square, and analysis of variance. RESULTS: In two groups, 92% of patients tolerated liquid gavage. Their difference by chi-square test was not significant. Average urine volume after black tea gavage was 783.3 L in the study group and 802.2 L in the control group. ANOVA test showed no significant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Although the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups, but in study group consumption of tea was acceptable by patients. PMID:21589775

  20. Chamomile and marigold tea: chemical characterization and evaluation of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Matić, Ivana Z; Juranić, Zorica; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Nađvinski, Neva; Gođevac, Dejan

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to evaluate the selectivity in the antitumor action, the cytotoxic activity of chamomile and marigold tea was tested against various malignant cell lines and against healthy immunocompetent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Chemical profiles of chamomile and marigold infusions and decoctions were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; their total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity were determined, too. Results from present research demonstrate that chamomile and marigold tea exert selective dose-dependent cytotoxic action against target cancer cells. It is noteworthy that cytotoxicity of tea prepared from Calendula officinalis is remarkably higher in comparison to that from Matricaria recutita tea. The cytotoxic effect of chamomile tea is very weak to healthy PBMC, while the effect of marigold tea on PBMC is more pronounced. Marigold tea exerts highly selective antitumor effect especially to melanoma Fem-x cells in comparison to the action to normal healthy PBMC. Chemical analyses show that dominant phenolic compounds in examined infusions and decoctions are flavonoid glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. There are no considerable differences in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between examined infusions. Antitumor potential of chamomile and marigold tea should be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (a) The importation of any merchandise as tea which is inferior in purity...

  2. Simultaneous analysis of tropane alkaloids in teas and herbal teas by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap).

    PubMed

    Romera-Torres, Ana; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2018-05-01

    A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 tropane alkaloids in tea and herbal teas using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an Exactive-Orbitrap analyzer. A mixture of methanol, water, and formic acid was used for the extraction of the target compounds followed by a solid-phase extraction step. The validated method provided recoveries from 75 to 128% with intra- and interday precision lower than or equal to 24% (except for apoatropine). Limits of quantification ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Eleven tea and herbal tea samples and two contaminated samples with Datura stramonium seeds were analyzed. Tropane alkaloids were detected in six samples with concentrations from 5 (apoatropine) to 4340 μg/kg (sum of physoperuvine, pseudotropine, and tropine), whereas concentrations from 5 (apoatropine) to 1725 μg/kg (sum of physoperuvine, pseudotropine, and tropine) were found in the contaminated samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A Non-targeted Approach to Chemical Discrimination Between Green Tea Dietary Supplements and Green Tea Leaves by HPLC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Green tea-based dietary supplements (GTDSs) have gained popularity in the U.S. market in recent years. This study evaluated the phytochemical composition difference of GTDS in comparison with green tea leaves using an HPLC/MS fingerprinting technique coupled with chemometric analysis. Five components that are most responsible for class separation among samples were identified as (−) epicatechin gallate, strictinin, trigalloylglucose, quercetin-3-O-glucosylrhamnosylglucoside, and kaempferol-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosylglucoside, according to the accurate mass measurements and MS/MS data. The similarity coefficients between the GTDSs in solid form with green tea were 0.55 to 0.91, while for the GTDSs in liquid form they were 0.12 to 0.89, which suggested that chemical composition variance across the GTDSs was significant. Flavonol aglycone concentrations were higher in GTDSs than in tea leaves, indicating the degradation of flavonol glycosides or the oxidation of catechin during the manufacturing and storage processes. In some GTDS samples, compounds were identified that were on the label. The results demonstrate the urgency of QC for GTDS products. PMID:21563682

  4. Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Hepatoprotective and curative properties of Kombucha tea against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G S; Sathishkumar, M; Jayabalan, R; Binupriya, A R; Swaminathan, K; Yun, S E

    2009-04-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is sugared black tea fermented with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts, which is said to be tea fungus. KT is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. In the present study, KT along with black tea (BT) and black tea manufactured with tea fungus enzymes (enzyme-processed tea, ET) was evaluated for hepatoprotective and curative properties against CCl4-induced toxicity, using male albino rats as an experimental model by analyzing aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma and malondialdehyde content in plasma and liver tissues. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also included. Results showed that BT, ET, and KT have the potential to revert the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Among the three types of teas tried, KT was found to be more efficient than BT and ET. Antioxidant molecules produced during the fermentation period could be the reason for the efficient hepatoprotective and curative properties of KT against CCI4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. Black tea aroma inhibited increase of salivary chromogranin-A after arithmetic tasks.

    PubMed

    Yoto, Ai; Fukui, Natsuki; Kaneda, Chisa; Torita, Shoko; Goto, Keiichi; Nanjo, Fumio; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2018-01-24

    Growing attention has been paid to the effects of food flavor components on alleviating negative brain functions caused by stressful lifestyles. In this study, we investigated the alleviating effect of two kinds of black tea aromas on physical and psychological stress induced by the Uchida-Kraepelin test, based on salivary chromogranin-A (CgA) levels as a stress marker and subjective evaluations (Profile of Mood States). Compared with the water exposure control, inhaling black tea aroma (Darjeeling and Assam in this study) induced lower salivary CgA concentration levels after 30 min of mental stress load tasks. This anti-stress effect of black tea aroma did not differ between the two tea types even though the concentration of the anti-stress components in the Darjeeling tea aroma was higher than that in the Assam aroma. However, Darjeeling tea aroma tended to decrease the tension and/or anxiety score immediately after the first exposure. Inhaling black tea aroma may diminish stress levels caused by arithmetic mental stress tasks, and Darjeeling tea aroma tended to improve mood before mental stress load.

  7. Numerical modeling of runback water on ice protected aircraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical simulation for 'running wet' aircraft anti-icing systems is developed. The model includes breakup of the water film, which exists in regions of direct impingement, into individual rivulets. The wetness factor distribution resulting from the film breakup and the rivulet configuration on the surface are predicted in the numerical solution procedure. The solid wall is modeled as a multilayer structure and the anti-icing system used is of the thermal type utilizing hot air and/or electrical heating elements embedded with the layers. Details of the calculation procedure and the methods used are presented.

  8. TMDB: a literature-curated database for small molecular compounds found from tea.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yi; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Liu, Xue-Shi; Tang, Xing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Guang-Jin; Yang, Tao; Ling, Tie-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Xia, Tao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2014-09-16

    Tea is one of the most consumed beverages worldwide. The healthy effects of tea are attributed to a wealthy of different chemical components from tea. Thousands of studies on the chemical constituents of tea had been reported. However, data from these individual reports have not been collected into a single database. The lack of a curated database of related information limits research in this field, and thus a cohesive database system should necessarily be constructed for data deposit and further application. The Tea Metabolome database (TMDB), a manually curated and web-accessible database, was developed to provide detailed, searchable descriptions of small molecular compounds found in Camellia spp. esp. in the plant Camellia sinensis and compounds in its manufactured products (different kinds of tea infusion). TMDB is currently the most complete and comprehensive curated collection of tea compounds data in the world. It contains records for more than 1393 constituents found in tea with information gathered from 364 published books, journal articles, and electronic databases. It also contains experimental 1H NMR and 13C NMR data collected from the purified reference compounds or collected from other database resources such as HMDB. TMDB interface allows users to retrieve tea compounds entries by keyword search using compound name, formula, occurrence, and CAS register number. Each entry in the TMDB contains an average of 24 separate data fields including its original plant species, compound structure, formula, molecular weight, name, CAS registry number, compound types, compound uses including healthy benefits, reference literatures, NMR, MS data, and the corresponding ID from databases such as HMDB and Pubmed. Users can also contribute novel regulatory entries by using a web-based submission page. The TMDB database is freely accessible from the URL of http://pcsb.ahau.edu.cn:8080/TCDB/index.jsp. The TMDB is designed to address the broad needs of tea biochemists

  9. Effect of Ice Formations on Section Drag of Swept NACA 63A-009 Airfoil with Partial-Span Leading-Edge Slat for Various Modes of Thermal Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe H.; Gray, Vernon H.

    1954-01-01

    The effects of primary and runback ice formations on the section drag of a 36 deg swept NACA 63A-009 airfoil section with a partial-span leading-edge slat were studied over a range of angles of attack from 2 to 8 deg and airspeeds up to 260 miles per hour for icing conditions with liquid-water contents ranging from 0.39 to 1.23 grams per cubic meter and datum air temperatures from 10 to 25 F. The results with slat retracted showed that glaze-ice formations caused large and rapid increases in section drag coefficient and that the rate of change in section drag coefficient for the swept 63A-009 airfoil was about 2-1 times that for an unswept 651-212 airfoil. Removal of the primary ice formations by cyclic de-icing caused the drag to return almost to the bare-airfoil drag value. A comprehensive study of the slat icing and de-icing characteristics was prevented by limitations of the heating system and wake interference caused by the slat tracks and hot-gas supply duct to the slat. In general, the studies showed that icing on a thin swept airfoil will result in more detrimental aerodynamic characteristics than on a thick unswept airfoil.

  10. Formation of methyl formate in comets by irradiation of methanol-bearing ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modica, P.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2012-12-01

    Methyl formate is a complex organic molecule considered potentially relevant as precursor of biologically active molecules. It has been observed in several astrophysical environments, such as hot cores, hot corinos, and comets. The processes that drive the formation of molecules in cometary ices are poorly understood. In particular it is not yet clear if molecules are directly accreted from the pre-solar nebula to form comets or are formed after accretion. The present work analyzes the possible role of cosmic ion irradiation and radioactive decay in methyl formate formation in methanol-bearing ices. The results indicate that cosmic ion irradiation can account for about 12% of the methyl formate observed in comet Hale-Bopp, while radioactive decay can account for about 6% of this amount. The need of new data coming from earth based and space observational projects as well as from laboratory experiments is outlined.

  11. Poppy tea drinking in East Anglia.

    PubMed

    London, M; O'Regan, T; Aust, P; Stockford, A

    1990-10-01

    Poppy tea drinking was a widespread traditional practice in the Fenlands of East Anglia during the nineteenth century. The subsequent social changes which led to greater integration of the area with the rest of the country may have contributed to a decline in the practice. In recent years poppy tea drinking has been revived within the illicit drug using community and a survey using a self-report questionnaire was carried out among patients attending the Cambridge Drug Dependency Unit. Forty-three patients admitted to drinking poppy tea, usually during the summer months and on an intermittent basis. The potency of the infusion varied and was unpredictable but in general was low. Although poisoning from herbicides and pesticides was seen as the main risk, it is in the main perceived by drug users as a harmless secondary activity existing alongside the more regular and more potent drugs of misuse.

  12. Tea Consumption and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Elderly.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ying, Xuhua; Li, Songtao; Zhai, Yujia; Shang, Xiaopeng; Li, Fudong; Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Xiyi; He, Fan; Lin, Junfen

    2015-01-01

    Laboratorial and epidemiological researches suggested that tea exhibited potential neuroprotective effect which may prevent cognitive impairment, but there were few data among the elderly aged 60 years and above in China. The objective was to explore the relationship between characteristics of tea consumption and cognitive impairment. We analyzed the baseline data from Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance Program (ZPHS) which was conducted in 2014. Totally 9,375 residents aged 60 years and above were recruited in this study. Face-to-face interview based on a self-developed questionnaire was performed for each participant. Detailed tea consumption habits were included in the questionnaire. Cognitive impairment screening was performed by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Education-specific cut-off points for Chinese were applied to determine the status of cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of cognitive impairment associated with tea consumption. The means (SD) of MMSE scores for the subjects who did not consume tea and consumed <2 cups/d, 2-4 cups/d, ≥4 cups/d were 23.3 (SD = 5.61), 23.8 (SD = 5.60), 24.5 (SD = 5.63) and 25.0 (SD = 5.08), respectively. An inverse correlation was found between tea consumption (of all types) and prevalence of cognitive impairment. Volume of tea consumption was significantly associated with cognitive impairment: compared with non-consumption participants, those who consumed < 2 cups/d, 2-4 cups/d, and ≥4 cups/d were observed ORs of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.07), 0.62 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.81), and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.66), respectively. Compared with non-consumption, black tea presented a positive correlation with cognitive function after controlling for potential confounders (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.95), while green tea showed no significant difference (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.51). Participants who consumed weak tea, moderate tea or strong tea more often were

  13. Infusing pleasure: Mood effects of the consumption of a single cup of tea.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J L; Rowson, Matthew; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood benefits. Nevertheless, few studies have empirically investigated mood changes after tea consumption. We explored immediate effects of a single cup of tea up to an hour post-consumption on self-reported valence, arousal, discrete emotions, and implicit measures of mood. In a parallel group design, 153 participants received a cup of tea or placebo tea, or a glass of water. Immediately (i.e. 5 min) after consumption, tea increased valence but reduced arousal, as compared to the placebo. There were no differences at later time points. Discrete emotions did not differ significantly between conditions, immediately or over time. Water consumption increased implicit positivity as compared to placebo. Finally, consumption of tea and water resulted in higher interest in activities overall and in specific activity types compared to placebo. The present study shows that effects of a single cup of tea may be limited to an immediate increase in pleasure and decrease in arousal, which can increase interest in activities. Differences between tea and water were not significant, while differences between water and placebo on implicit measures were unexpected. More servings over a longer time may be required to evoke tea's arousing effects and appropriate tea consumption settings may evoke more enduring valence effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.

  15. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa

    2013-07-01

    Green tea, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), a major source of flavonoids such as catechins, has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies. These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events, and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate. Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, ischemic heart diseases, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress, preventing inflammatory events, reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals. Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules. Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion. Additionally, catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure. In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TEA: the epigenome platform for Arabidopsis methylome study.

    PubMed

    Su, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lu, I-Hsuan; Chiang, Yih-Shien; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Pao-Yang; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-22

    Bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) has become a standard technology to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution. It allows researchers to conduct genome-wise cytosine methylation analyses on issues about genomic imprinting, transcriptional regulation, cellular development and differentiation. One single data from a BS-Seq experiment is resolved into many features according to the sequence contexts, making methylome data analysis and data visualization a complex task. We developed a streamlined platform, TEA, for analyzing and visualizing data from whole-genome BS-Seq (WGBS) experiments conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To capture the essence of the genome methylation level and to meet the efficiency for running online, we introduce a straightforward method for measuring genome methylation in each sequence context by gene. The method is scripted in Java to process BS-Seq mapping results. Through a simple data uploading process, the TEA server deploys a web-based platform for deep analysis by linking data to an updated Arabidopsis annotation database and toolkits. TEA is an intuitive and efficient online platform for analyzing the Arabidopsis genomic DNA methylation landscape. It provides several ways to help users exploit WGBS data. TEA is freely accessible for academic users at: http://tea.iis.sinica.edu.tw .

  17. [Chemical and sensory characterization of tea (Thea sinensis) consumed in Chile].

    PubMed

    Wittig de Penna, Emma; José Zúñiga, María; Fuenzalida, Regina; López-Planes, Reinaldo

    2005-03-01

    By means of descriptive analysis four varieties of tea (Thea sinensis) were assesed: Argentinean OP (orange pekoe) tea (black), Brazilian OP tea (black), Ceylan OP tea (black) and Darjeeling OP tea (green). The appearance of dry tea leaves were qualitatively characterized comparing with dry leaves standard. The attributes: colour, form, regularity of the leaves, fibre and stem cutting were evaluated The differences obtained were related to the differences produced by the effect of the fermentation process. Flavour and aroma descriptors of the tea liqueur were generated by a trained panel. Colour and astringency were evaluated in comparison with qualified standards using non structured linear scales. In order to relate the sensory analysis and the chemical composition for the different varieties of tea, following determinations were made: chemical moisture, dry material, aqueous extract, tannin and caffeine. Through multifactor regression analysis the equations in relation to the following chemical parameters were determined. Dry material, aqueous extract and tannins for colour and moisture, dry material and aqueous extract for astringency, respectively. Statistical analysis through ANOVA (3 variation sources: samples, judges and replications) showed for samples four significant different groups for astringency and three different groups for colour. No significant differences between judges or repetitions were found. By multifactor regression analysis of both, colour and astringency, on their dependence of chemist results were calculated in order to asses the corresponding equations.

  18. Theoretical Analysis on Marangoni-driven Cavity Formation in Ice during In Situ Burning of Oil Spills in Ice-infested Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmahini Farahani, H.; Jomaas, G.; Rangwala, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    In situ burning, intentional burning of discharged oil on the water surface, is a promising response method to oil spill accidents in the Arctic. However, burning of the oil adjacent to ice bodies creates a lateral cavity in the ice. As a result of the cavity formation the removal efficiency which is a key success criterion for in situ burning operation will decrease. The formation of lateral cavities are noticed recently and only a few experimental studies have addressed them. These experiments have shown lateral cavities with a length of <12 cm for 5 minutes burning of crude oil in laboratory. Our previous findings indicate the existence of a direct relation between the burning rate of the oil and penetration length in the ice. In addition, on the surface of the oil and near the ice the anchoring of the flame on the oil surface creates a severe horizontal temperature gradient which in turn generates a Marangoni flow from hot to cold regions. This is found to be the dominant heat transfer mechanism that is providing the heat for the ice to melt. Here, we introduce an order of magnitude analysis on the governing equations of the ice melting problem to estimate the penetration length of a burning oil near ice. This correlation incorporates the flame heat feedback with the surface flow driven by Marangoni convection. The melting energy continuity is also included in the analysis to complete the energy transfer cycle that leads to melting of the ice. The comparison between this correlation and the existing experimental data shows a very good agreement. Therefore, this correlation can be used to estimate the penetration length for burning of an actual spill and can be applied towards improved guidelines of burning adjacent to ice bodies, so as to enhance the chances for successful implantation of in situ burning.

  19. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysismore » (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was

  20. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot.

    PubMed

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  1. What is in your cup of tea? DNA Verity Test to characterize black and green commercial teas

    PubMed Central

    Comparone, Maria; Di Maio, Antonietta; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Menale, Bruno; Troisi, Jacopo; Aliberti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we used several molecular techniques to develop a fast and reliable protocol (DNA Verity Test, DVT) for the characterization and confirmation of the species or taxa present in herbal infusions. As a model plant for this protocol, Camellia sinensis, a traditional tea plant, was selected due to the following reasons: its historical popularity as a (healthy) beverage, its high selling value, the importation of barely recognizable raw product (i.e., crushed), and the scarcity of studies concerning adulterants or contamination. The DNA Verity Test includes both the sequencing of DNA barcoding markers and genotyping of labeled-PCR DNA barcoding fragments for each sample analyzed. This protocol (DVT) was successively applied to verify the authenticity of 32 commercial teas (simple or admixture), and the main results can be summarized as follows: (1) the DVT protocol is suitable to detect adulteration in tea matrices (contaminations or absence of certified ingredients), and the method can be exported for the study of other similar systems; (2) based on the BLAST analysis of the sequences of rbcL+matK±rps7-trnV(GAC) chloroplast markers, C. sinensis can be taxonomically characterized; (3) rps7-trnV(GAC) can be employed to discriminate C. sinensis from C. pubicosta; (4) ITS2 is not an ideal DNA barcode for tea samples, reflecting potential incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization/introgression phenomena in C. sinensis taxa; (5) the genotyping approach is an easy, inexpensive and rapid pre-screening method to detect anomalies in the tea templates using the trnH(GUG)-psbA barcoding marker; (6) two herbal companies provided no authentic products with a contaminant or without some of the listed ingredients; and (7) the leaf matrices present in some teabags could be constituted using an admixture of different C. sinensis haplotypes and/or allied species (C. pubicosta). PMID:28542606

  2. Diversity of Catechin in Northeast Indian Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g−1, 202 ± 5 mg g−1, and 157 ± 4 mg g−1 of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis. PMID:22448135

  3. The synergistic potential of various teas, herbs and therapeutic drugs in health improvement: a review.

    PubMed

    Malongane, Florence; McGaw, Lyndy J; Mudau, Fhatuwani N

    2017-11-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains l-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle. Many of these phytochemicals are reported to be biologically active when combined. Knowledge of the synergistic interactions of tea with other teas or herbs in terms of biological activities will be of benefit for therapeutic enhancement. There is evidence that various types of teas act synergistically in exhibiting health benefits to humans, improving consumer acceptance and economic value. Similar observations have been made when teas and herbs or medicinal drugs were combined. The aim of this review is to highlight potential beneficial synergies between combinations of different types of teas, tea and herbs, and tea and medicinal drugs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Oolong tea does not improve glucose metabolism in non-diabetic adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies of the influence of tea on glucose metabolism have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to lack of dietary control and/or unclear characterization of tea products. Therefore, a double-blind crossover study was conducted in which healthy males (n=19) consumed each of three oolong tea ...

  5. Ambient Profiling of Phenolic Content in Tea Infusions by Matrix-Assisted Ionization in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Robert B.

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum (MAIV) was used to analyze the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions. Nine different Camellia sinensis infusions were analyzed including three green teas, two black teas, two oolong teas, jasmine tea, and white tea. An infusion of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea was also analyzed. Each freshly brewed tea was diluted 1:1 with methanol, and 100 ppm of phenolphthalein was added as an internal standard. An excess of 3-nitrobenzonitrile (NBN) was added to each vial, and the solution containing NBN crystals was analyzed by aspiration directly into the mass spectrometer sampling orifice. A working curve constructed for dilutions of catechin with phenolphthalein internal standard showed good linearity for five replicates of each concentration. The measured relative abundances of flavonoid polyphenols in each tea were in good agreement with previously reported values. Polyphenol content in tea infusions varied from 19.2 to 108.6 mg 100 mL-1. In addition to the expected catechin flavonoids, abundant quinic acid and gallic acid was detected in the C. sinensis infusions. Characteristic A. linearis flavonoids were detected in the rooibos tea.

  6. Clinical study on constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver.

  7. A meta-analysis of tea consumption and the risk of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Lin, Yi-Wei; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Jian; Mao, Qi-Qi; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xie, Li-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on the association between tea consumption and bladder cancer risk have only illustrated contradictory results. The role of tea in bladder carcinogenesis still remains conflicting. In order to illustrate the potential relationship between tea consumption and bladder cancer, a meta-analysis of case-control and cohort studies was conducted. Eligible studies were retrieved via both computerized searches and review of references. Stratified analyses on types of tea, gender, study design, ethnicity and smoking status were performed. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of OR with 95% CIs. Seventeen studies were eligible for our analysis. No statistical significance was detected between tea consumption and bladder cancer risk when comparing the highest with the lowest intake of tea (OR = 0.825, 95% CI 0.652-1.043). In the subgroup of green tea, we observed it illustrated a protective effect on bladder cancer (OR = 0.814, 95% CI 0.678-0.976). Our analysis indicated that green tea may have a protective effect on bladder cancer in Asian people. Further studies need to be conducted to better clarify the biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Direct scavenging of nitric oxide and superoxide by green tea.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Yokozawa, T

    2002-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects of green tea extract and green tea tannin mixture and its components using a nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) generating system in vitro. Green tea extract showed direct scavenging activity against NO and O(2)(-) and green tea tannin mixture, at the same concentration, showed high scavenging activity. Comparison of the activities of seven pure compounds isolated from green tea tannin mixture showed that (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg) and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg) had higher scavenging activities than (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (C), showing the importance of the structure of flavan-3-ol linked to gallic acid for this activity. Among the gallate-free tannins, EGC and GC were more effective O(2)(-) scavengers than EC and C, indicating the O-trihydroxy structure in the B ring is an important determinant of such activity. However, this structure did not affect the NO scavenging activity. These findings confirm that green tea tannin has excellent antioxidant properties, which may be involved in the beneficial effect of this compound.

  9. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was <5%. The risk of emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of teapot materials on the chemical composition of oolong tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zih-Hui; Chen, Ying-Jie; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, Maw-Rong; Mai, Fu-Der; Rairat, Tirawat; Chou, Chi-Chung

    2018-01-01

    The flavor and quality of tea are widely believed to be associated with the pot in which the tea is made. However, this claim is mostly by experiences and lacks solid support from scientific evidence. The current study investigated and compared the chemical compositions of oolong tea made with six different teapot materials, namely Zisha, Zhuni, stainless steel, ceramic, glass and plastic. For each tea sample, polyphenols and caffeine were examined by HPLC-UV, volatile compounds by GC/MS, amino acids by LC/MS and minerals by ICP-MS. The results suggested that tea infusions from Zisha and Zhuni pots contain higher levels of EGC, EGCG and total catechins and less caffeine than those from ceramic, glass and plastic pots and tend to have the lowest total mineral contents, potassium and volatile compounds in tea soup. The statistical differences were not all significant among Zisha, Zhuni and stainless steel pots. Based on the overall chemical composition of the tea infusion, Yixing clay pots (Zisha and Zhuni) produce tea infusions that are presumably less bitter and more fragrant and tend to contain more healthful compounds than tea infusions from other pots. The results could partially explain why Yixing clay pots are among the most popular teapots. The beneficial effects of long-term repeated use of these teapots warrants further study. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Spontaneously Assembled Nano-aggregates in Clear Green Tea Infusions from Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Bin

    2017-05-10

    Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates. In addition, iron, copper, nickel, proteins, and gallated catechins exhibited higher aggregating affinity than other components, whereas methylxanthines and calcium contributed to the transformation of nano-aggregates into tea cream. Green tea nano-aggregates were partly destroyed by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and removing theses peculiar particles dramatically attenuated the bioaccessibility of methylxanthines, theanine, and some catechin monomers in green tea infusions. This study enhanced our knowledge of molecular interactions in the formation of green tea cream and provided insight into physicochemical profiles, phytochemical nature, and functional effects of green tea nano-aggregates.

  12. Probable gastrointestinal toxicity of Kombucha tea: is this beverage healthy or harmful?

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Smolinske, S; Greenbaum, D

    1997-10-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha "mushroom" in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association.

  13. Ice patterns and hydrothermal plumes, Lake Baikal, Russia - Insights from Space Shuttle hand-held photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Helfert, Michael R.; Helms, David R.

    1992-01-01

    Earth photography from the Space Shuttle is used to examine the ice cover on Lake Baikal and correlate the patterns of weakened and melting ice with known hydrothermal areas in the Siberian lake. Particular zones of melted and broken ice may be surface expressions of elevated heat flow in Lake Baikal. The possibility is explored that hydrothermal vents can introduce local convective upwelling and disrupt a stable water column to the extent that the melt zones which are observed in the lake's ice cover are produced. A heat flow map and photographs of the lake are overlaid to compare specific areas of thinned or broken ice with the hot spots. The regions of known hydrothermal activity and high heat flow correlate extremely well with circular regions of thinned ice, and zones of broken and recrystallized ice. Local and regional climate data and other sources of warm water, such as river inlets, are considered.

  14. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Hassarajani, Sham A; Maity, Biswanath; Narayan, Geetha; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2010-12-01

    The healing activity of black tea (BT) and BT fermented with Candida parapsilosis and kombucha culture, designated as CT and KT respectively against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied in a mouse model. The KT sample (KT4) produced by fermenting BT for four days, showed the best DPPH radical scavenging capacity and phenolics contents. Hence the ulcer-healing activity of KT4 was compared with those of CT4 and BT. All the tea extracts (15 mg kg(-1)) could effectively heal the gastric ulceration as revealed from the histopathological and biochemical studies, with relative efficacy as KT4 > CT4 ∼ BT. The healing capacities of the tea extracts could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to protect the mucin content of the gastric tissues. In addition, the ability of KT4 to reduce gastric acid secretion might also contribute to its ulcer-healing activity. The tea preparation KT4 (15 mg kg(-1)) was as effective as the positive control, omeprazole (3 mg kg(-1)) in ulcer healing.

  16. Tea Consumption and Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-Sectional Study among Chinese Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Wei; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Ying, Xuhua; Li, Songtao; Zhai, Yujia; Shang, Xiaopeng; Li, Fudong; Wang, Xiyi; He, Fan; Lin, Junfen

    2015-01-01

    Background Laboratorial and epidemiological researches suggested that tea exhibited potential neuroprotective effect which may prevent cognitive impairment, but there were few data among the elderly aged 60 years and above in China. Objective The objective was to explore the relationship between characteristics of tea consumption and cognitive impairment. Design We analyzed the baseline data from Zhejiang Major Public Health Surveillance Program (ZPHS) which was conducted in 2014. Totally 9,375 residents aged 60 years and above were recruited in this study. Face-to-face interview based on a self-developed questionnaire was performed for each participant. Detailed tea consumption habits were included in the questionnaire. Cognitive impairment screening was performed by using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Education-specific cut-off points for Chinese were applied to determine the status of cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) of cognitive impairment associated with tea consumption. Results The means (SD) of MMSE scores for the subjects who did not consume tea and consumed <2 cups/d, 2–4 cups/d, ≥4 cups/d were 23.3 (SD = 5.61), 23.8 (SD = 5.60), 24.5 (SD = 5.63) and 25.0 (SD = 5.08), respectively. An inverse correlation was found between tea consumption (of all types) and prevalence of cognitive impairment. Volume of tea consumption was significantly associated with cognitive impairment: compared with non-consumption participants, those who consumed < 2 cups/d, 2–4 cups/d, and ≥4 cups/d were observed ORs of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.07), 0.62 (95% CI: 0.47, 0.81), and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.66), respectively. Compared with non-consumption, black tea presented a positive correlation with cognitive function after controlling for potential confounders (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.95), while green tea showed no significant difference (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.72, 1.51). Participants who consumed weak tea

  17. Biophysical Approach to Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Green Tea Catechins.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Masami; Takahashi, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Iida, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Takahisa; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y; Fujiki, Hirota

    2016-11-18

    Green tea catechin and green tea extract are now recognized as non-toxic cancer preventives for humans. We first review our brief historical development of green tea cancer prevention. Based on exciting evidence that green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in drinking water inhibited lung metastasis of B16 melanoma cells, we and other researchers have studied the inhibitory mechanisms of metastasis with green tea catechins using biomechanical tools, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and microfluidic optical stretcher. Specifically, determination of biophysical properties of cancer cells, low cell stiffness, and high deformability in relation to migration, along with biophysical effects, were studied by treatment with green tea catechins. The study with AFM revealed that low average values of Young's moduli, indicating low cell stiffness, are closely associated with strong potential of cell migration and metastasis for various cancer cells. It is important to note that treatments with EGCG and green tea extract elevated the average values of Young's moduli resulting in increased stiffness (large elasticity) of melanomas and various cancer cells. We discuss here the biophysical basis of multifunctions of green tea catechins and green tea extract leading to beneficial effects for cancer prevention and treatment.

  18. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  19. Changes of constituents and activity to apoptosis and cell cycle during fermentation of tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-Kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.

  20. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  1. Calculating the optimum temperature for serving hot beverages.

    PubMed

    Brown, Fredericka; Diller, Kenneth R

    2008-08-01

    Hot beverages such as tea, hot chocolate, and coffee are frequently served at temperatures between 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C) and 185 degrees F (85 degrees C). Brief exposures to liquids in this temperature range can cause significant scald burns. However, hot beverages must be served at a temperature that is high enough to provide a satisfactory sensation to the consumer. This paper presents an analysis to quantify hot beverage temperatures that balance limiting the potential scald burn hazard and maintaining an acceptable perception of adequate product warmth. A figure of merit that can be optimized is defined that quantifies and combines both the above effects as a function of the beverage temperature. An established mathematical model for simulating burns as a function of applied surface temperature and time of exposure is used to quantify the extent of thermal injury. Recent data from the literature defines the consumer preferred drinking temperature of coffee. A metric accommodates the thermal effects of both scald hazard and product taste to identify an optimal recommended serving temperature. The burn model shows the standard exponential dependence of injury level on temperature. The preferred drinking temperature of coffee is specified in the literature as 140+/-15 degrees F (60+/-8.3 degrees C) for a population of 300 subjects. A linear (with respect to temperature) figure of merit merged the two effects to identify an optimal drinking temperature of approximately 136 degrees F (57.8 degrees C). The analysis points to a reduction in the presently recommended serving temperature of coffee to achieve the combined result of reducing the scald burn hazard and improving customer satisfaction.

  2. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled "Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes" (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD'). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.

  3. 37 CFR 2.53 - Requirements for drawings filed through the TEAS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... filed through the TEAS. 2.53 Section 2.53 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for drawings filed through the TEAS. The drawing must meet the requirements of § 2.52. In addition, in a TEAS submission, the drawing must meet the following requirements: (a) Standard character drawings...

  4. Social constraints before sanitation improvement in tea gardens of Sylhet, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Begum, Anwara; Chowdhury, M A I

    2010-05-01

    Sylhet, the northeastern divisional city of Bangladesh, is the major tea-producing region of the country where a large number of low-income workers completely depending on extremely labor-intensive economic activity for their bread and butter, live in and around the tea gardens. The living conditions of these communities are remarkably meager due to the lack of proper utility facilities, especially in water supply and sanitation sectors. A study was conducted at Lakkatura and Ali Bahar Tea Estates to assess the deteriorated sanitation condition of the tea garden workers community and to determine the constraints before the improvement of the condition. It was found that the existing sanitary condition of both of the tea garden slums is very poor because of the same topographical condition and socioeconomic and cultural status of the dwellers. About 50% to 60% tea garden workers still are used to open defecation causing various excreta related diseases and not practiced with washing hand after defecation. Lack of knowledge and awareness about health and hygiene, unwillingness, poverty, superstitions, etc. are responsible for the deteriorated condition of the sanitation system. Based on the analysis, providing latrines free of costs, undertaking extensive motivational and awareness programs and publicity, regular consultation of tea garden workers with the health specialists, and vector control staff of concerned utilities as well as an integrated water supply, sanitation, and hygiene promotion programs should be considered as the priority in order to improve the deteriorated sanitary conditions in two tea gardens.

  5. Ice Slurry Ingestion and Physiological Strain During Exercise in Non-Compensable Heat Stress.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason; Wingo, Jonathan E; Bishop, Phillip A; Casey, Jason C; Aldrich, Elizabeth K

    2018-05-01

    Precooling with ice slurry ingestion attenuates the increase in rectal temperature (Tre) during subsequent running and cycling. It remains unclear how this cooling method affects physiological strain during work while wearing protective garments. This study investigated the effect of ice slurry ingestion on physiological strain during work in hot conditions while wearing firefighter protective clothing. In three counterbalanced trials, eight men (mean ± SD; age = 21 ± 2 yr, height = 179.5 ± 3.5 cm, mass = 79.1 ± 4.1 kg, body fat = 11.4 ± 3.7%) wore firefighter protective clothing and walked (4 km · h-1, 12% incline, ∼7 METs) for 30 min in hot conditions (35°C, 40% RH). Every 2.5 min, subjects ingested 1.25 g · kg-1 (relative total: 15 g · kg-1, absolute total: 1186.7 ± 61.3 g) of a tepid (22.4 ± 1.7°C), cold (7.1 ± 1.5°C), or ice slurry (-1.3 ± 0.2°C) beverage. Heart rates (HR) were lower with ice slurry ingestion compared to both fluid trials starting 5 min into exercise (tepid = 158 ± 14, cold = 157 ± 11, ice slurry = 146 ± 13 bpm) and persisting for the remainder of the bout (min 30: tepid = 196 ± 10, cold = 192 ± 10, ice slurry = 181 ± 13 bpm). Tre was lower with ice slurry ingestion compared to cold and tepid trials (min 5: tepid = 37.17 ± 0.38, cold = 37.17 ± 0.39, ice slurry = 37.05 ± 0.43°C; min 30: tepid = 38.15 ± 0.29, cold = 38.31 ± 0.36, ice slurry = 37.95 ± 0.32°C). The physiological strain index (PSI) was lower with ice slurry ingestion compared to fluid trials starting at min 5 (tepid = 3.8 ± 0.7, cold = 3.8 ± 0.6, ice slurry = 3.0 ± 0.5) and remained lower throughout exercise (min 30: tepid = 8.2 ± 0.6, cold = 8.3 ± 0.9, ice slurry = 6.9 ± 1.2). A large quantity of ice slurry ingested under non-compensable heat stress conditions mitigated physiological strain during exercise by blunting the rise in heart rate and rectal temperature.Ng J, Wingo JE, Bishop PA, Casey JC, Aldrich EK. Ice slurry ingestion and

  6. White and green teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis): variation in phenolic, methylxanthine, and antioxidant profiles.

    PubMed

    Unachukwu, Uchenna J; Ahmed, Selena; Kavalier, Adam; Lyles, James T; Kennelly, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    Recent investigations have associated white teas with anti-carcinogenic, immune-boosting, and antioxidative properties that may impact human health in a manner comparable to green teas. An in-depth chemical analysis of white tea types was conducted to quantify polyphenols and antioxidant potential of 8 commercially available white teas, and compare them to green tea. Extraction and HPLC protocols were optimized and validated for the quantification of 9 phenolic and 3 methylxanthine compounds to examine inter- and intra-variation in white and green tea types and subtypes. A sampling strategy was devised to assess various subtypes procured from different commercial sources. Variation in antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of both tea types was further assessed by the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau (F-C) assays, respectively. Total catechin content (TCC) for white teas ranged widely from 14.40 to 369.60 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 47.16 to 163.94 mg/g for methanol extracts. TCC for green teas also ranged more than 10-fold, from 21.38 to 228.20 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 32.23 to 141.24 mg/g for methanol extracts. These findings indicate that statements suggesting a hierarchical order of catechin content among tea types are inconclusive and should be made with attention to a sampling strategy that specifies the tea subtype and its source. Certain white teas have comparable quantities of total catechins to some green teas, but lesser antioxidant capacity, suggesting that white teas have fewer non-catechin antioxidants present. Practical Application: In this investigation white and green teas were extracted in ways that mimic common tea preparation practices, and their chemical profiles were determined using validated analytical chemistry methods. The results suggest certain green and white tea types have comparable levels of catechins with potential health promoting qualities

  7. Tea-induced improvement of endothelial function in humans: No role for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Mario; Rauhut, Franziska; Hofer, Christine; Gwosc, Stefanie; Müller, Eda; Praeger, Damaris; Zimmermann, Benno F; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Stangl, Verena

    2017-05-23

    Consumption of tea is inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the active compound(s) responsible for the protective effects of tea are unknown. Although many favorable cardiovascular effects in vitro are mediated by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), its contribution to the beneficial effects of tea in vivo remains unresolved. In a randomised crossover study, a single dose of 200 mg EGCG was applied in three different formulas (as green tea beverage, green tea extract (GTE), and isolated EGCG) to 50 healthy men. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial-independent nitro-mediated dilation (NMD) was measured before and two hours after ingestion. Plasma levels of tea compounds were determined after each intervention and correlated with FMD. FMD significantly improved after consumption of green tea containing 200 mg EGCG (p < 0.01). However, GTE and EGCG had no significant effect on FMD. NMD did not significantly differ between interventions. EGCG plasma levels were highest after administration of EGCG and lowest after consumption of green tea. Plasma levels of caffeine increased after green tea consumption. The results show that EGCG is most likely not involved in improvement of flow-mediated dilation by green tea. Instead, other tea compounds, metabolites or combinations thereof may play a role.

  8. Spray System Trials in the Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1949-09-21

    The spray bar system introduces water droplets into the Icing Research Tunnel’s air stream at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The icing tunnel was designed in the early 1940s to study ice accretion on airfoils and models. The Carrier Corporation designed a refrigeration system that reduced temperatures to -45° F. The tunnel’s drive fan generated speeds up to 400 miles per hour. The uniform injection of water droplets to the air was a key element of the facility’s operation. The system had to generate small droplets, distribute them uniformly throughout the airstream, and resist freezing and blockage. The Icing Research Tunnel’s designers struggled to develop a realistic spray system because they did not have access to data on the size of naturally occurring water droplets. For five years a variety of different designs were painstakingly developed and tested before the system was perfected. This photograph shows one of the trials using eight air-atomizing nozzles placed 48 feet upstream from the test section. A multi-cylinder device measured the size, liquid content, and distribution of the water droplets. The final system that was put into operation in 1950 included six horizontal spray bars with 80 nozzles that produced a 4- by 4-foot cloud in the test section. The Icing Research Tunnel produced excellent data throughout the 1950s and provided the basis for a hot air anti-icing system used on many transport aircraft.

  9. Clinical Study on Constitutional Herbal Tea for Treating Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720

  10. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  11. Evolution of Titan's High-Pressure Ice layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, C.; Kalousova, K.

    2016-12-01

    Constraints on the present interior structure of Titan come from the gravity science experiment onboard the Cassini spacecraft and from the interpretation of the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave observed by the Huygens probe [1, 2]. From the surface to the center, Titan would be composed of 4 layers: an icy crust, a global salty ocean, a layer of high-pressure ice (HP ice) and a core made of hydrated silicates [2, 3, 4]. The presence of a large amount of 40Ar in Titan's atmosphere argues for a geologically recent exchange process between the silicate core, where 40Ar is produced by the decay of 40K, and the atmosphere. Argon must then be able to be transported from the silicate core to the surface. This study investigates how volatiles can be transported through the HP ice layer.Recent numerical simulations [5] have demonstrated that the dynamics of the HP ice layer is controlled by convection processes in a two-phase material (water and high-pressure ice). The silicate / HP ice interface is maintained at the melting temperature, which might allow for the incorporation of volatiles such as 40Ar into the convecting HP ice. Above the hot thermal boundary layer, the temperature of the convecting HP ice is below the melting temperature, except for the upwelling plumes when they approach the cold thermal boundary layer. The upper part of the HP ice layer is at the melting point and permeable for water transport, providing a path for the transfer of volatiles trapped in the ice towards the ocean.Scaling laws are inferred from the numerical simulations [5]. They are then used to model the evolution of the HP ice layer. Specifically, we look at the effect of (i) ice viscosity, (ii) heat flux at the silicate/HP ice interface, and (iii) presence of anti-freeze compounds in the ocean, on the thickness of the HP ice layer. In addition, our results provide insights on possible resurfacing processes that could explain the geologically young age of Titan's surface. This work

  12. Laboratory Investigation of Ice Formation and Elimination in the Induction System of a Large Twin-engine Cargo Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colis, William D

    1947-01-01

    The icing characteristics, the de-icing rate with hot air, and the effect of impact ice on fuel metering and mixture distribution have been determined in a laboratory investigation of that part of the engine induction system consisting of a three-barrel injection-type carburetor and a supercharger housing with spinner-type fuel injection from an 18-cylinder radial engine used on a large twin-engine cargo airplane. The induction system remained ice-free at carburetor-air temperatures above 36 F regardless of the moisture content of the air. Between carburetor-air temperatures of 32 F and 36 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious throttling ice formed in the carburetor because of expansion cooling of the air; at carburetor-air temperatures below 32 F with humidity ratios in excess of saturation, serious impact-ice formations occurred, Spinner-type fuel injection at the entrance to the supercharger and heating of the supercharger-inlet elbow and the guide vanes by the warn oil in the rear engine housing are design features that proved effective in eliminating fuel-evaporation icing and minimized the formation of throttling ice below the carburetor. Air-flow recovery time with fixed throttle was rapidly reduced as the inlet -air wet -bulb temperature was increased to 55 F; further temperature increase produced negligible improvement in recovery time. Larger ice formations and lower icing temperatures increased the time required to restore proper air flow at a given wet-bulb temperature. Impact-ice formations on the entrance screen and the top of the carburetor reduced the over-all fuel-air ratio and increased the spread between the over-all ratio and the fuel-air ratio of the individual cylinders. The normal spread of fuel-air ratio was increased from 0.020 to 0.028 when the left quarter of the entrance screen was blocked in a manner simulating the blocking resulting from ice formations released from upstream duct walls during hot-air de-icing.

  13. Long-Term Green Tea Supplementation Does Not Change the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Pilou L. H. R.; Penders, John; Hursel, Rick; Budding, Andries E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Green tea catechins may play a role in body weight regulation through interactions with the gut microbiota. Aim We examined whether green tea supplementation for 12 weeks induces changes in composition of the human gut microbiota. Methods 58 Caucasian men and women were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled design. For 12 weeks, subjects consumed either green tea (>0.56 g/d epigallocatechin-gallate + 0.28 ∼ 0.45 g/d caffeine) or placebo capsules. Fecal samples were collected twice (baseline, vs. week 12) for analyses of total bacterial profiles by means of IS-profiling, a 16S-23S interspacer region-based profiling method. Results No significant changes between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea or placebo capsules, and no significant interactions between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) were observed for body composition. Analysis of the fecal samples in subjects receiving green tea and placebo showed similar bacterial diversity and community structures, indicating there were no significant changes in bacterial diversity between baseline and week 12 in subjects receiving green tea capsules or in subjects receiving placebo capsules. No significant interactions were observed between treatment (green tea or placebo) and time (baseline and week 12) for the gut microbial diversity. Although, there were no significant differences between normal weight and overweight subjects in response to green tea, we did observe a reduced bacterial alpha diversity in overweight as compared to normal weight subjects (p = 0.002). Conclusion Green tea supplementation for 12 weeks did not have a significant effect on composition of the gut microbiota. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01556321 PMID:27054321

  14. Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arab, Lenore; Liu, Weiqing; Elashoff, David

    2009-05-01

    Experimental models of stroke provide consistent evidence of smaller stroke volumes in animals ingesting tea components or tea extracts. To assess whether a similar association of black or green tea consumption with reduced risk is evident in human populations, we sought to identify and summarize all human clinical and observational data on tea and stroke. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for all studies on stroke and tea consumption in humans with original data, including estimation or measurement of tea consumption and outcomes of fatal or nonfatal stroke. Data from 9 studies involving 4378 strokes among 194 965 individuals were pooled. The main outcome was the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke. We tested for heterogeneity and calculated the summary effect estimate associated with consumption of >or=3 cups of tea (green or black) per day using random-effects and fixed-effects models for the homogeneous studies. Publication bias was also evaluated. Regardless of their country of origin, individuals consuming >or=3 cups of tea per day had a 21% lower risk of stroke than those consuming <1 cup per day (absolute risk reduction, 0.79; CI, 0.73 to 0.85). The proportion of heterogeneity not explained by chance alone was 23.8%. Although a randomized clinical trial would be necessary to confirm the effect, this meta-analysis suggests that daily consumption of either green or black tea equaling 3 cups per day could prevent the onset of ischemic stroke.

  15. Unexplained severe illness possibly associated with consumption of Kombucha tea--Iowa, 1995.

    PubMed

    1995-12-08

    Kombucha tea is a popular health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha mushroom in sweet black tea. Although advocates of Kombucha tea have attributed many therapeutic effects to the drink (1-3), its beneficial and/or adverse effects have not been determined scientifically. During April 1995, cases of unexplained severe illness (including one death) occurred in two persons in a rural town in northwestern Iowa who had been drinking Kombucha tea daily for approximately 2 months. Based on the findings of a preliminary investigation by the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH), on April 10 IDPH issued a news release recommending that persons refrain from drinking Kombucha tea until the role of the tea in the two cases of illness had been evaluated fully. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases by the IDPH, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  16. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  17. An EPR study on tea: identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Biyik, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-15

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn(2+) and Fe(3+) centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 degrees C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 degrees C while Mn(2+) sextet disappears just above 100 degrees C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn(2+) and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe(3+) line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  18. Cluster analysis of the biochemical composition in 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Meng, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The EGCG3"Me contents in the young tea leaves of 102 tea resources in sichuan were analyzed accurately using HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in EGCG3"Me levels among different tea resources. The EGCG3"Me content in different tea resources was in a range from 0 to 11.04 mg/g, mean was 2.33 mg/g.53 tea resources contained EGCG3"Me, accounting for 51.96% of the total number of resources survey. Shucha5, Jinguanyin, Chengxi11, Fenghuang-dancong, Chongpi 71-1 were found to contain higher EGCG3"Me content (>10mg/g).Cluster analysis showed that: 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources were divided into six groups and the difference was obvious between their biochemical composition; tea resources rich in EGCG3"Me were mainly distributed in Sichuan, Chongqing and Fujian Province, mostly were shrub and mid-leaf, mainly existed in tea resources which were suitable to make green tea, oolong tea. The morphological and biochemical distribution provided a good theoretical basis for selecting and utilizing higher EGCG3"Me resources.

  19. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.

  20. Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Han Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guibin; Liu, Guibin; Liu, Liu Hongmei; Zhao, Huanli; Zhang, Fengfang; Li, Shufa; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhenchun

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between oolong tea drinking and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Han Chinese women, while living and diet habits, fertility, disease elements and other baseline conditions were controlled. One group included 124 cases who routinely drank oolong tea, and the other included 556 who did not drink tea. Data were collected on participant age, lifestyle habits, fertility condition, disease elements, and lumbar, and hip bone densities. It was found that the bone densities of the greater trochanteric bone in tea drinkers were higher (0.793 ± 0.119 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.759 ± 0.116 kg/cm(2), F = 6.248, p = 0.013). Similarly, the bone density of Ward's triangular bone in tea drinkers was higher (0.668 ± 0.133 kg/cm(2)) than that in non-tea drinkers (0.637 ± 0.135 kg/cm(2), F = 6.152, p = 0.013). Oolong tea drinking could help prevent bone loss in postmenopausal Chinese women.

  1. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for... reduced filing fee under § 2.6(a)(1)(iii) if it is filed through TEAS and includes: (1) The applicant's...

  2. Micronutrients (B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn) content in made tea (Camellia sinensis L.) and tea infusion with health prospect: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Kutu, Funso Raphael; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Sanyal, Sandip; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Dutta, Amrit Kumar

    2017-09-22

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is a perennial acidophilic crop, and known to be a nonalcoholic stimulating beverage that is most widely consumed after water. The aim of this review paper is to provide a detailed documentation of selected micronutrient contents, viz. boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), and zinc (Zn) in made tea and tea infusion. Available data from the literature were used to calculate human health aspect associated with the consumption of tea infusion. A wide range of micronutrients reported in both made tea and tea infusion could be the major sources of micronutrients for human. The content of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn in made tea are ranged from 3.04 to 58.44 μg g -1 , below detectable limit (BDL) to 122.4 μg g -1 , BDL to 602 μg g -1 , 0.275 to 13,040 μg g -1 , 0.004 to 15,866 μg g -1 , 0.04 to 570.80 μg g -1 and 0.01 to 1120 μg g -1 , respectively. Only 3.2 μg L -1 to 7.25 mg L -1 , 0.01 μg L -1 to 7 mg L -1 , 3.80 μg L -1 to 6.13 mg L -1 , 135.59 μg L -1 -11.05 mg L -1 , 0.05 μg L -1 to 1980.34 mg L -1 , 0.012 to 3.78 μg L -1 , and 1.12 μg L -1 to 2.32 μg L -1 of B, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, and Zn, respectively, are found in tea infusion which are lower than the prescribed limit of micronutrients in drinking water by World Health Organization. Furthermore, micronutrient contents in tea infusion depend on infusion procedure as well as on the instrument used for analysis. The proportion of micronutrients found in different tea types are 1.0-88.9% for B, 10-60% for Co, 2.0-97.8% for Cu, 67.8-89.9% for Fe, 71.0-87.4% for Mn, 13.3-34% for Mo, and 34.9-83% for Zn. From the results, it can also be concluded that consumption of three cups of tea infusion per day does not have any adverse effect on human health with respect to the referred micronutrients rather got beneficial effects to human.

  3. Ice Shelf-Ocean Interactions Near Ice Rises and Ice Rumples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, M. A.; Rückamp, M.; Kleiner, T.

    2013-12-01

    The stability of ice shelves depends on the existence of embayments and is largely influenced by ice rises and ice rumples, which act as 'pinning-points' for ice shelf movement. Of additional critical importance are interactions between ice shelves and the water masses underlying them in ice shelf cavities, particularly melting and refreezing processes. The present study aims to elucidate the role of ice rises and ice rumples in the context of climate change impacts on Antarctic ice shelves. However, due to their smaller spatial extent, ice rumples react more sensitively to climate change than ice rises. Different forcings are at work and need to be considered separately as well as synergistically. In order to address these issues, we have decided to deal with the following three issues explicitly: oceanographic-, cryospheric and general topics. In so doing, we paid particular attention to possible interrelationships and feedbacks in a coupled ice-shelf-ocean system. With regard to oceanographic issues, we have applied the ocean circulation model ROMBAX to ocean water masses adjacent to and underneath a number of idealized ice shelf configurations: wide and narrow as well as laterally restrained and unrestrained ice shelves. Simulations were performed with and without small ice rises located close to the calving front. For larger configurations, the impact of the ice rises on melt rates at the ice shelf base is negligible, while for smaller configurations net melting rates at the ice-shelf base differ by a factor of up to eight depending on whether ice rises are considered or not. We employed the thermo-coupled ice flow model TIM-FD3 to simulate the effects of several ice rises and one ice rumple on the dynamics of ice shelf flow. We considered the complete un-grounding of the ice shelf in order to investigate the effect of pinning points of different characteristics (interior or near calving front, small and medium sized) on the resulting flow and stress fields

  4. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  5. A comparative study of volatile components in Dianhong teas from fresh leaves of four tea cultivars by using chromatography-mass spectrometry, multivariate data analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Chenxia; Kong, Yawen; Peng, Xiaopei; Li, Changwen; Liu, Shunhang; Du, Liping; Xiao, Dongguang; Xu, Yongquan

    2017-10-01

    Dianhong teas produced from fresh leaves of different tea cultivars (YK is Yunkang No. 10, XY is Xueya 100, CY is Changyebaihao, SS is Shishengmiao), were compared in terms of volatile compounds and descriptive sensory analysis. A total of 73 volatile compounds in 16 tea samples were tentatively identified. YK, XY, CY, and SS contained 55, 53, 49, and 51 volatile compounds, respectively. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used to classify the samples, and 40 key components were selected based on variable importance in the projection. Moreover, 11 flavor attributes, namely, floral, fruity, grass/green, woody, sweet, roasty, caramel, mellow and thick, bitter, astringent, and sweet aftertaste were identified through descriptive sensory analysis (DSA). In generally, innate differences among the tea varieties significantly affected the intensities of most of the key sensory attributes of Dianhong teas possibly because of the different amounts of aroma-active and taste components in Dianhong teas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible green tea-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Liatsos, George D; Moulakakis, Antonios; Ketikoglou, Ioannis; Klonari, Stella

    2010-04-01

    A case of a patient who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) after consuming a weight-loss product containing green tea is reported. A 38-year-old, 68-kg Caucasian woman arrived at the emergency department with a one-week history of malaise, fatigue, and petechiae of the skin. She had no symptoms of infection and denied illegal drug use. Her medical history included hypothyroidism, for which she was treated with levothyroxine 150 microg daily for the past four years. She reported that she had been using a green tea preparation for the two months before admission to lose body weight. The daily preparation contained 200 mg of green tea extract 5:1, equivalent to 1 g of natural green tea. On clinical examination, the patient appeared acutely ill and was afebrile, with pallor, petechiae, and purpura of the extremities. Laboratory test results at the time of admission revealed that the patient had anemia and marked thrombocytopenia. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated a feature of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13 were detected. On hospital day 3, the patient appeared confused and exhibited aphasia that was initially transient but then recurrent. Brain computerized tomography did not exhibit focal pathology. Over the next few days, her neurologic symptoms subsided and her platelet count and hematocrit value gradually increased. Plasmapheresis was performed (12 procedures). Corticosteroid treatment was also initiated. After 20 days of hospitalization, the patient was discharged. A 38-year-old woman developed TTP after consuming a weight-loss product containing green tea extract for two months.

  7. Using Defatted Rice Bran as a Bioadsorbent for Carrying Tea Catechins.

    PubMed

    Shi, Meng; Yang, Ya-Ping; Jin, Jing; Huang, Long-Yue; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2015-10-01

    The potential of rice bran as a bioabsorbent for tea catechins was examined. Defatted rice bran had the highest adsorption capacity for tea catechins and the best selectivity for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate over total catechins among water-washed rice bran and untreated rice bran. The adsorption characteristics of tea catechins onto defatted rice bran were determined over a range of concentration (0.5 to 2.5 g/L) and temperatures (10, 25, and 45 °C). The adsorption of tea catechins onto defatted rice bran showed excellent fitness with the pseudo-second-order model at different temperature. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models adequately describe the isothermal adsorption of tea catechins onto defatted rice bran. The adsorption of total catechins on rice bran decreased from 10 to 25 °C, whereas was greatly enhanced at 45 °C. The adsorption system of bioadsorbent with multiconstituents may not be as simple as the single-force-driving adsorption system. Protein and cellulose are the main contributors to the adsorption of tea catechins on defatted rice bran. Rice bran is regarded as a good fibre source that can be added to various food products and health supplements, which is a potential biocarrier for bioactives. Our study showed that defatted rice bran had a high affinity for tea catechins but caffeine, and provided a promising way for selective enrichment of catechins on defatted rice bran under practical condition. Protein and cellulose are the main contributors to the adsorption of tea catechins on defatted rice bran. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T

    1991-02-01

    Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  9. iTRAQ-based proteomics monitors the withering dynamics in postharvest leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Ma, Hong-Yu; Zhuang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a typical leaf-type beverage crop. Many secondary metabolites, such as tea polyphenols, theanine, and caffeine that accumulated in tea leaves are beneficial to human health. The fresh leaves of tea plant are harvested and timely processed into tea products with different flavors. The withering of fresh tea leaves is the first step in tea processing and directly affects tea color, taste, and fragrance. To understand the molecular mechanism that influences tea quality during withering, we investigated the dynamic changes in the proteome of postharvest tea leaves in four withering stages (0, 1, 4, and 12 h treatments). A total of 863 unique differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by iTRAQ. The up- and down-regulated DEPs and the protein-protein interaction networks in different samples presented dynamic changes in their characteristics. The results of the functional annotation revealed that the molecular characteristics of tea withering are similar to leaf senescence. The biosynthesis of main tea-specific compounds that constitute tea color, taste, and fragrance of tea is restricted during withering. The substance transformation and degradation may have positive contributions to tea quality in withering technology. The proteome dynamics can be a useful aid for understanding the withering mechanisms and providing available information for functional discovery of proteins in the future.

  10. Green tea consumption affects cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takuma, Norikata; Park, Mijong; Wakamiya, Noriko; Nakase, Junpei; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M

    2014-09-29

    Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J) score: <28) participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years). The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants' MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03). This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  11. Proline-rich proteins moderate the inhibitory effect of tea on iron absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Seon; Miller, Dennis D

    2005-03-01

    Tea inhibits iron absorption in studies in which tea is given with radiolabeled iron to humans as a single dose. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may act as a defense against this effect by forming complexes with tannins, thereby preventing them from inhibiting iron absorption. Two studies were conducted. In study 1, rats were given test solutions containing (59)FeCl(3) in water, tea, or tea + gelatin (T/G). In study 2, the rats were divided into 3 groups and assigned to one of 3 nutritionally complete diets: control, tea (5 g tea tannin/kg diet), or T/G (5 g tea tannin + 60 g gelatin/kg diet). Rats were fed the respective diets for 5 d and then given a single (59)Fe-labeled meal of the diet. Iron absorption was measured by whole-body retention of the (59)Fe over a 2-wk period. Iron absorption in study 1 was lower in the tea group (24 +/- 9.6%, P < 0.05) than in the T/G (42 +/- 19.4%) or water groups (50 +/- 7.5%). In study 2, iron absorption did not differ among the groups. Rats fed the tea diet had dramatic hypertrophy of the parotid salivary glands. Adding gelatin as a proxy for salivary PRPs to the tea eliminated the inhibitory effect of tea on iron absorption. The results suggest that PRPs, whether from salivary glands or diet, can protect against the inhibition of iron absorption by tea.

  12. Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Julia A.; Wu, Anna H.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S.; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Methods Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Results There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Conclusions Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:22864870

  13. Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese.

    PubMed

    Montague, Julia A; Butler, Lesley M; Wu, Anna H; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C

    2012-10-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk.

  14. Myocardial potency of Bio-tea against Isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Reema Orison; Shenoy, Chandrakala K

    2015-07-01

    Kombucha (Bio-tea) is a beverage produced by the fermentation of sugared black tea using a symbiotic association of bacteria and yeasts. Traditional claims about Kombucha report beneficial effects such as antibiotic properties, gastric regulation, relief from joint rheumatism and positive influence on the cholesterol level, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and aging problems. The present investigation was carried out to understand the preventive effect of Kombucha on heart weight, blood glucose, total protein, lipid profile and cardiac markers in rats with myocardial damage induced using Isoproterenol. As Bio-tea is produced by fermenting tea, the parameters were compared in rats pre-treated with normal black tea and Bio-tea for 30 days followed by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight). Normal rats as well as Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats were also used, which served as controls. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted control rats showed a significant increase in heart weight, blood glucose and cardiac markers and a decrease in plasma protein. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipids (LDL) and very low density lipids (VLDL) were also observed, while the high density lipid (HDL) content decreased. Bio-tea showed a higher preventive effect against myocardial infarction when compared to tea, as was observed by the significant reduction in heart weight, and blood glucose and increase in plasma albumin levels. Bio-tea significantly decreased cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL while simultaneously increasing the levels of HDL. Similarly a decrease in leakage of cardiac markers from the myocardium was also observed.

  15. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  16. Studies on toxicity, anti-stress and hepato-protective properties of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Anju, B; Kavimani, S; Sharma, S K; Kain, A K; Sarada, S K; Sairam, M; Ilavazhagan, G; Devendra, K; Selvamurthy, W

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate toxicity, anti-stress activity and hepato-protective properties of Kombucha tea. Kombucha tea was fed orally for 15 days using three different doses i.e. normal dose, five and ten times the dose. Rats were then sacrificed and various biochemical, and histological parameters were estimated. Anti-stress activity was evaluated either by 1) by exposing animals to cold and hypoxia and estimating the levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione in plasma/blood or 2) by subjecting the animals to restraint stress and recording faecal output. Hepato-toxicity was induced by challenging the animals to an acute dose of paracetamol (1 gm/kg) orally and determining the plasma levels of SGPT, SGOT and MDA. The effect of oral administration of different doses of K-tea to albino rats was examined and the results indicate that K-tea has no significant toxicity as revealed by various biochemical and histopathological parameters. K-tea has been found to prevent lipid peroxidation and fall in reduced glutathione level when rats were exposed to cold and hypoxia in simulated chamber. Further, K-tea has also been found to decrease the Wrap-restraint faecal pellet output in rats. K-tea has also been found to decrease paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity significantly. The study shows that K-tea has anti-stress and hepato-protective activities.

  17. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  18. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  19. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  20. Zinc stress affects ionome and metabolome in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Wang, Hui; Song, Lubin; Jia, Sisi; Ma, Dexin

    2017-02-01

    The research of physiological responses to Zn stress in plants has been extensively studied. However, the ionomics and metabolomics responses of plants to Zn stress remain largely unknown. In present study, the nutrient elements were identified involved in ion homeostasis and metabolomics changes related to Zn deficiency or excess in tea plants. Nutrient element analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Zn affected the ion-uptake in roots and the nutrient element transportation to leaves, leading to the different distribution of P, S, Al, Ca, Fe and Cu in the tea leaves or roots. Metabolomics analysis revealed that Zn deficiency or excess differentially influenced the metabolic pathways in the tea leaves. More specifically, Zn deficiency affected the metabolism of carbohydrates, and Zn excess affected flavonoids metabolism. Additionally, the results showed that both Zn deficiency and Zn excess led to reduced nicotinamide levels, which speeded up NAD + degradation and thus reduced energy metabolism. Furthermore, element-metabolite correlation analysis illustrated that Zn contents in the tea leaves were positively correlated with organic acids, nitrogenous metabolites and some carbohydrate metabolites, and negatively correlated with the metabolites involved in secondary metabolism and some other carbohydrate metabolites. Meanwhile, metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis demonstrated that organic acids, sugars, amino acids and flavonoids played dominant roles in the regulation of the tea leaf metabolism under Zn stress. Therefore, the conclusion should be drawn that the tea plants responded to Zn stress by coordinating ion-uptake and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, nitrogenous metabolites, and flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Tea drinking and cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Li, J; Ng, T-P; Lee, T-S; Kua, E-H; Zeng, Y

    2012-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. population-based longitudinal cohort study. The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= -0.12, P=0.02; "Time" was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese.

  2. A History of Catechin Chemistry with Special Reference to Tea Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoyasu, Saijo; Katoh, Miyuki

    This review describes the history of the discovery of catechins, i.e., flavan 3-ols in the flavonoid compounds, with a special reference to tea leaves. 1. Catechin was first separated from gambier catechu and acacia catechu, and its molecular weight and chemical structure were proposed in 1902. By 1948 the six catechins,(+)-catechin,(-)-epicatechin,(-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate,(-)-epigallocatechin,(+)-gallocatechin, and(-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate, as shown in Table 1, had been found in a variety of plants, including tea. Table 1 summarizes each catechin, the plant associated with it, and the year and authorship of each first reporting.(-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate was isolated from tea leaves in 1948 as the last compound of the six catechins, even though it accounted for the largest proportion of total catechin content. The compound was not isolated and purified by traditional separation methods, such as the ethyl acetate extraction and lead acetate precipitation methods; instead, silica gel column chromatography was the key technique used to succeed in the separation and purification of the compound, from which the determination of the chemical structure followed. 2. The six catechins in fresh tea leaves are easily epimerized by heat treatment to form the corresponding epimerized catechins, as shown in Table 2. Observation indicates that the six natural and six epimerized catechins can be present in heat-treated dried tea leaves or green teas. 3. The chemical structures of the ten catechins, which include the compounds in Table 1, are shown in Table 3. As the contents of the catechins in fresh tea leaves have been reported many times in the literature, it is certain that these compounds are naturally present in tea leaves. 4. Table 4 summarizes the chemical structures of eight minor catechin derivatives found in tea leaves and oolong teas, the first reporting authors, and the year reported. Because the presence of these catechin derivatives in fresh tea

  3. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of Chinese dark teas obtained by different processing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Yue; Shi, Jiang; Lin, Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Dark teas are rich in secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids, which have been suggested to be associated with their health benefits. In this study, the concentrations of tea polyphenols, tea pigments, catechins, flavonoids, alkaloid, and volatile components in 44 dark tea samples, including Pu-erh, Fuzhuan and Liubao teas, were systematically examined. Among the samples tested, Pu-erh tea contained the highest total flavonoid content (5.24±0.05%), followed by Liubao (4.45±0.61%) and Fuzhuan teas (3.33±0.23%). The tea polyphenols levels in the dark teas were approximately 10%, and no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found among the different types. Hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant aroma component in the dark teas, accounting for 15-20% of the total volatile oils. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these dark teas were analyzed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay (HepG2 cells). The fat metabolism modulation activities (FMMA) of the dark teas were tested using a high-throughput screening method (SMMC-7221 cells). The results indicated that the different dark teas had diverse antioxidant activities, and the variation in the activities was significant. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the levels of EGCG and antioxidant activities measured using the ABTS (r=0.916) and FRAP (r=0.853) assays, and the levels of total flavonoids and theabrownins correlated well with the values determined using the CAA (r=0.845 and 0.865, respectively) assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for the beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouny, S; Ranwala, D; Shapiro, M; Shepard, B M; Farrar, Robert R

    2009-10-01

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5% provided 85-100% UV protection, whereas cocoa provided 50% UV protection. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, and caffeine, a component of tea and coffee, also were tested as UV protectants. Both compounds were ineffective when tested alone. When EGCG and caffeine were combined, UV protection increased in a synergistic manner, but <35% of the original virus activity was maintained. This study demonstrated that coffee was comparable to green tea and black tea as a UV protectant. Further studies should be conducted to optimize their use in biopesticide formulations.

  5. Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes. Part 1; Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Dean; Bond, Thomas; Sheldon, David; Wright, William; Langhals, Tammy; Al-Khalil, Kamel; Broughton, Howard

    1996-01-01

    The Icing Technology Branch at NASA Lewis has been involved in an effort to validate two thermal ice protection codes developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. LEWICE/Thermal (electrothermal deicing & anti-icing), and ANTICE (hot-gas & electrothermal anti-icing). The Thermal Code Validation effort was designated as a priority during a 1994 'peer review' of the NASA Lewis Icing program, and was implemented as a cooperative effort with industry. During April 1996, the first of a series of experimental validation tests was conducted in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel(IRT). The purpose of the April 96 test was to validate the electrothermal predictive capabilities of both LEWICE/Thermal, and ANTICE. A heavily instrumented test article was designed and fabricated for this test, with the capability of simulating electrothermal de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Thermal measurements were then obtained over a range of test conditions, for comparison with analytical predictions. This paper will present an overview of the test, including a detailed description of: (1) the validation process; (2) test article design; (3) test matrix development; and (4) test procedures. Selected experimental results will be presented for de-icing and anti-icing modes of operation. Finally, the status of the validation effort at this point will be summarized. Detailed comparisons between analytical predictions and experimental results are contained in the following two papers: 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 2- The Validation of LEWICE/Thermal' and 'Validation of NASA Thermal Ice Protection Computer Codes: Part 3-The Validation of ANTICE'

  6. Effect of black tea consumption on radial blood pulse spectrum and cognitive health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Wei; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Jan, Ming-Yie; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2017-04-01

    Black tea consumption has been proven to improve endothelial function and to lower the risk of stroke and cognitive impairment. Several effects of black tea on cardiovascular system had been surveyed. However, the black tea effect on pressure pulse spectrum remains unknown. The study was aimed to investigate the influence of black tea on radial blood pressure and Pulse Spectrum. Fourteen healthy subjects received water and single doses of black tea (0.05g/Kg) in separate weeks. The radial blood pressure and pulse wave were measured and the pressure pulses were evaluated using harmonic analysis. This report confirmed that black tea consumption (dose=0.05g/Kg) significantly increased third, fifth, (P<0.1), sixth, seventh, and eighth harmonics (p<0.05) of radial pressure wave comparing to water control. We proposed that black tea may increase cerebral blood flow (CBF), which was deduced from the results and from the conclusions of previous studies. The results also showed that the harmonic components of pressure pulse could be the vascular kinetic index that assessed the hemodynamic status in each time frame before and after consumption of black tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemopreventive potential of the tannase-mediated biotransformation of green tea.

    PubMed

    Macedo, J A; Ferreira, L R; Camara, L E; Santos, J C; Gambero, A; Macedo, G A; Ribeiro, M L

    2012-07-15

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world. The cancer chemopreventive qualities of green tea have been well documented. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is often described as the most potently chemopreventive green tea catechin; however, the low bioavailability of EGCG is a limiting factor for its biological effect. Thus, the aim of this work was to test the chemopreventive potential of green tea extract and EGCG after tannase-mediated hydrolysis. The results showed that the biotransformed compounds retained most of the beneficial properties of the original compounds, and some beneficial properties were improved in the biotransformed compounds. Biotransformation of EGCG decreased its toxicity without affecting its antiproliferative effects. Furthermore, human cells gene expression profiling showed that the biotransformed compounds modulated the expression of several genes related to carcinogenesis. These results demonstrate the benefits of the biotechnological modification of natural food molecules, allowing the improvement of the nutraceutical potential of a beverage as green tea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzymatic treatment to improve the quality of black tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Chandini, S K; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Gowthaman, M K; Haware, D J; Subramanian, R

    2011-08-01

    Enzymatic extraction was investigated to improve the quality of black tea extracts with pretreatment of pectinase and tannase independently, successively and simultaneously. Pectinase improved the extractable-solids-yield (ESY) up to 11.5%, without much of an improvement in polyphenols recovery, while tannase pre-treatment showed a significant improvement in polyphenols recovery (14.3%) along with an 11.1% improvement in ESY. Among the four treatments, tannase-alone treatment showed the maximum improvement in tea quality, with higher polyphenols-in-extracted solids. Treatments involving tannase resulted in the significant release of gallic acid, due to its hydrolytic activity, leading to greater solubility besides favourably improving TF/TR ratio. The results suggested that employing a single enzyme, tannase, for the pre-treatment of black tea is desirable. Enzymatic extraction may be preferred over enzymatic clarification as it not only displayed reduction in tea cream and turbidity but also improved the recovery of polyphenols and ESY in the extract, as well as maintaining a good balance of tea quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  10. Characterisation of odorants in roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Koshi, Erina; Take, Harumi; Michihata, Toshihide; Maruya, Masachika; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2017-04-01

    Roasted stem tea has a characteristic flavour, which is obtained by roasting tea stems, by-product of green tea production. This research aims to understand the characteristic odorants in roasted stem tea by comparing it to roasted leaf tea. We revealed potent odorants in commercial roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The difference between roasted stem and leaf tea derived from the same tea plants were investigated using GC-MS. Pyrazine compounds exhibited a roasted odour and high flavour dilution (FD) factors, as determined via AEDA. Roasted stem tea was richer in these pyrazines than roasted leaf tea. Geraniol and linalool exhibited high FD factors and a floral odour, and roasted stem tea was richer in these compounds than roasted leaf tea. These results may have a positive impact on the development of tea products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  12. Does tea consumption during early pregnancy have an adverse effect on birth outcomes?

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Hua; He, Jian-Rong; Shen, Song-Ying; Wei, Xue-Ling; Chen, Nian-Nian; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Lan; Li, Wei-Dong; Chen, Qiao-Zhu; Hu, Cui-Yue; Xia, Hui-Min; Bartington, Suzanne; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Qiu, Xiu

    2017-09-01

    Tea, a common beverage, has been suggested to exhibit a number of health benefits. However, one of its active ingredients, caffeine, has been associated with preterm birth and low birthweight. We investigated whether tea consumption during early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth and abnormal fetal growth. A total of 8775 pregnant women were included from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. Tea consumption (type, frequency, and strength) during their first trimester and social and demographic factors were obtained by way of questionnaires administered during pregnancy. Information on birth outcomes and complications during pregnancy was obtained from hospital medical records. Overall habitual tea drinking (≥1 serving/week) prevalence among pregnant women was low, at 16%. After adjustment for potential confounding factors (eg, maternal age, educational level, monthly income) tea drinking during early pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth (small or large for gestational age) (P>.05). We did not identify a consistent association between frequency of tea consumption or tea strength and adverse birth outcomes among Chinese pregnant women with low tea consumption. Our findings suggest that occasional tea drinking during pregnancy is not associated with increased risk of preterm birth or abnormal fetal growth. Given the high overall number of annual births in China, our findings have important public health significance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Detecting aroma changes of local flavored green tea (Camellia sinensis) using electronic nose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralisnawati, D.; Sukartiko, A. C.; Suryandono, A.; Triyana, K.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is currently the sixth largest tea producer in the world. However, consumption of the product in the country was considered low. Besides tea, the country also has various local flavor ingredients that are potential to be developed. The addition of local flavored ingredients such as ginger, lemon grass, and lime leaves on green tea products is gaining acceptance from consumers and producers. The aroma of local flavored green tea was suspected to changes during storage, while its sensory testing has some limitations. Therefore, the study aimed to detect aroma changes of local flavors added in green tea using electronic nose (e-nose), an instrument developed to mimic the function of the human nose. The test was performed on a four-gram sample. The data was collected with 120 seconds of sensing time and 60 seconds of blowing time. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to find out the aroma changes of local flavored green tea during storage. We observed that electronic nose could detect aroma changes of ginger flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 with variance percentage 99.6%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lemon grass flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.3%. Variance proportion of aroma changes of lime leaves flavored green tea from day 0 to day 6 was 99.4%.

  14. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p < 0.05) in air-dried green tea-yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  15. Effect of tea products on the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Lv, Yangjun; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2018-03-15

    The importance of postprandial hyperglycemia in the treatment of diabetes has been recognized recently. Tea products, such as tea polyphenols (TP), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), matcha, and instant tea, were chosen as constituents of tea-flour food, aimed at regulating the release of glucose from starchy foods in the postprandial period. Six starches were chosen for internal composition analysis and hydrolysis studies in vitro. Corn starch, wheat starch, and lily root flour appeared to have higher resistant starch content, slower digestion profiles, and lower kinetic constants, implying sustained release of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of tea products on starch digestion was determined in order to get a desired formulation of dietary product for patients with hyperglycemia. Compared with macha and instant tea, TP and EGCG exerted greater inhibition of amylase and amyloglucosidase, especially for corn starch with 0.5% TP or 0.5% EGCG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green tea and its major polyphenol EGCG increase the activity of oral peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Narotzki, Baruch; Levy, Yishai; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-01-01

    Oral peroxidases (OPO) consist mainly of salivary peroxidase and myeloperoxidase and are involved in oral defense mechanisms. Salivary peroxidase is synthesized and secreted by salivary glands, whereas myeloperoxidase is found in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which migrate into the oral cavity at gingival crevices. Green tea is the world's second most popular drink after water. Polyphenols are the most biologically active group of tea components. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the interaction between green tea & EGCG (Epigallocatechin 3-gallate), its main polyphenol and OPO. In previous studies we have shown that elderly trained people who drink green tea for 3 months, have a higher level of OPO activity compared to non-drinkers. Thus, we decided to extend our project in order to understand the above observations by studying the interaction of green tea and OPO both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of green tea and black tea infusions (50 μl/ml) and EGCG (50 μM) to saliva, resulted in a sharp rise of OPO activity +280% (p = 0.009), 54% (p = 0.04) and 42% (p = 0.009), respectively. The elevation of OPO activity due to addition of green tea and EGCG was in a dose dependent manner: r = 0.91 (p = 0.001) and r = 0.637 (p = 0.019), respectively. Also, following green tea infusion mouth rinsing, a rise of OPO activity was observed: +268% (p = 0.159). These results may be of great clinical importance, as tea consumer's oral epithelium may have better protection against the deleterious effects of hydroxyl radicals, produced by not removed hydrogen peroxides in the presence of metal ions. Higher OPO activity upon green tea drinking may provide an extra protection against oxidative stress in the oral cavity.

  17. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased tea consumption is associated with decreased arterial stiffness in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Hao; Yang, Yi-Ching; Wu, Jin-Shang; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Tea has attracted considerable attention for its potential cardioprotective effects. The primary chemical components of tea are thought to have a beneficial effect by reducing arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to assess the association between tea consumption and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a relatively healthy Chinese population. We enrolled 3,135 apparently healthy subjects from October 2006 to August 2009. Subjects taking medication for diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, or with a history of cardiovascular disease, were excluded from the study. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to their tea-drinking habits: (1) none to low (n = 1615), defined as non-habitual tea drinkers, or drinking for <1 year, or drinking ≤150 mL per day for ≥1 year ; (2) moderate tea consumption, defined as drinking for ≥1 year and consumption between 151 and 450 mL per day; and (3) heavy tea consumption, defined as a drinking for ≥1 year and consumption >450 mL per day. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether different levels of consumption were independently associated with the highest quartile of baPWV values, defined as ≥1428.5 cm/s. Of the 3,135 subjects, 48.5% had drunk >150 mL of tea per day for at least 1 year. In multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for co-variables, including, age, sex, current smoking, alcohol use, habitual exercise, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio >5, obesity, newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes, subjects with high tea consumption had a decreased risk of highest quartile of baPWV by 22% (odds ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.98, p = 0.032), while subjects with moderate tea consumption did not (p = 0.742), as compared subjects with none to low tea consumption. High, but not moderate, habitual tea consumption may decrease arterial stiffness.

  19. Increased Tea Consumption Is Associated with Decreased Arterial Stiffness in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chung-Hao; Yang, Yi-Ching; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lu, Feng-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Background Tea has attracted considerable attention for its potential cardioprotective effects. The primary chemical components of tea are thought to have a beneficial effect by reducing arterial stiffness. The objective of this study was to assess the association between tea consumption and brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in a relatively healthy Chinese population. Methods We enrolled 3,135 apparently healthy subjects from October 2006 to August 2009. Subjects taking medication for diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, or with a history of cardiovascular disease, were excluded from the study. The subjects were categorized into three groups according to their tea-drinking habits: (1) none to low (n = 1615), defined as non-habitual tea drinkers, or drinking for <1 year, or drinking ≤150 mL per day for ≥1 year ; (2) moderate tea consumption, defined as drinking for ≥1 year and consumption between 151 and 450 mL per day; and (3) heavy tea consumption, defined as a drinking for ≥1 year and consumption >450 mL per day. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether different levels of consumption were independently associated with the highest quartile of baPWV values, defined as ≥1428.5 cm/s. Results Of the 3,135 subjects, 48.5% had drunk >150 mL of tea per day for at least 1 year. In multivariate regression analysis with adjustment for co-variables, including, age, sex, current smoking, alcohol use, habitual exercise, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio >5, obesity, newly diagnosed hypertension and diabetes, subjects with high tea consumption had a decreased risk of highest quartile of baPWV by 22% (odds ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval = 0.62–0.98, p = 0.032), while subjects with moderate tea consumption did not (p = 0.742), as compared subjects with none to low tea consumption. Conclusions High, but not moderate, habitual tea consumption may decrease arterial

  20. Low-dose green tea intake reduces incidence of atrial fibrillation in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Chen; Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, You-Nan; Wang, Ze-Mu; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Yao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Li; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2016-12-20

    The aim of the present study was to assessthe association between green tea intake and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a Chinese population. A total of 801 (mean age: 62 years; 56% male) subjects were enrolled: 401 AF patients and 400 controls. All subjects completed a questionnaire and the associations between their green tea drinking habits and incidence of AF were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and binary logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, green tea intake presented as a protective factor against the incidence of AF (OR: 0.349, 95% CI: 0.253-0.483, P < 0.001). The green tea protection showed downward trend with increasing green tea intake (P for the trend= 0.001). Low frequency, low concentration, short-term tea consumption was classified as low-dose green tea intake. Green tea intake decreased the incidence of both paroxysmal AF (OR: 0.307, 95% CI: 0.216-0.436, P < 0.001) and persistent AF (OR: 0.355, 95% CI: 0.261-0.482, P < 0.001) and may be associated with a decreased incidence of AF. This study suggests that low-dose green tea intake strongly protects against AF.

  1. Low-dose green tea intake reduces incidence of atrial fibrillation in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze-Mu; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Yao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Li; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assessthe association between green tea intake and incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a Chinese population. A total of 801 (mean age: 62 years; 56% male) subjects were enrolled: 401 AF patients and 400 controls. All subjects completed a questionnaire and the associations between their green tea drinking habits and incidence of AF were assessed using the odds ratio (OR) and binary logistic regression. After multivariate adjustment, green tea intake presented as a protective factor against the incidence of AF (OR: 0.349, 95% CI: 0.253-0.483, P < 0.001). The green tea protection showed downward trend with increasing green tea intake (P for the trend= 0.001). Low frequency, low concentration, short-term tea consumption was classified as low-dose green tea intake. Green tea intake decreased the incidence of both paroxysmal AF (OR: 0.307, 95% CI: 0.216-0.436, P < 0.001) and persistent AF (OR: 0.355, 95% CI: 0.261-0.482, P < 0.001) and may be associated with a decreased incidence of AF. This study suggests that low-dose green tea intake strongly protects against AF. PMID:27683043

  2. Total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Rababah, Taha M; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Horax, Ronny

    2004-08-11

    The total phenolics and antioxidant activities of fenugreek, green tea, black tea, grape seed, ginger, rosemary, gotu kola, and ginkgo extracts, vitamin E, and tert-butylhydroquinone, were determined. Grape seed and green tea were analyzed for their phenolic constituents using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolics of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g dry material. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts determined by conjugated diene measurement of methyl linoleate were 3.4-86.3%. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using chicken fat by an oxidative stability instrument (4.6-10.2 h of induction time) followed a similar trend in antioxidant activity as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Seven phenolics in grape seed and green tea extracts were identified that ranged from 15.38 to 1158.49 and 18.3 to 1087.02 mg/100 g of extract, respectively. Plant extracts such as green tea and grape seed extracts can be used to retard lipid oxidation in a variety of food products.

  3. Microwave heating of tea residue yields polysaccharides, polyphenols, and plant biopolyester.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Iida, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Masahiro; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2008-12-10

    Microwave heating was used to produce aqueous-soluble components from green, oolong, and black tea residues. Heating at 200-230 degrees C for 2 min extracted 40-50% of polysaccharides and 60-70% of the polyphenols. Solubilization of arabinose and galactose by autohydrolysis occurred with heating above 170 degrees C, whereas heating above 200 degrees C was necessary to solubilize xylose. Catechins were soluble in water by heating at low temperature (110 degrees C); however, new polyphenols having strong antioxidant activity were produced above 200 degrees C. The amount of solubilized materials and antioxidant activity increased with increased fermentation of harvested tea leaves (green tea < oolong tea < black tea). Cutin, a plant biopolyester, remained in the residue after heating as did cellulose and lignin/tannin. The predominant cutin monomer that was recovered was 9,10-epoxy-18-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid, followed by dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid and 9,10,18-trihydroxyoctadecanoic acid.

  4. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  5. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in herbs and fruit teas].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of which benzo[a]pyrene is the most commonly studied and measured, are fused - ring aromatic compounds formed in both natural and man made processes and are found widely distributed throughout the human environment. PAHs occur as contaminants in different food categories and beverages including water, vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, barbecued and smoked meat. The sources of PAHs in food are predominantly from environmental pollution and food processing. PAHs emissions from automobile traffic and industry activities were show to influence the PAHs levels in vegetables and fruits. The present study was carried out to determine levels of 16 basic PAHs in herbs and fruit teas. The method was based on the hexane extraction and cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The extracts were analysed by GC-MS. The levels of total PAHs varied from 48,27 microg/kg (hibiscus tea) to 1703 microg/kg (green tea). The highest level of BaP was found in lime tea (74,2 microg/kg).

  6. Impact of surface melt and ponding on the stability of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulessa, Bernd; Luckman, Adrian; Hubbard, Bryn; Bevan, Suzanne; O'Leary, Martin; Ashmore, David; Kuipers Munneke, Peter; Jansen, Daniela; Booth, Adam; Sevestre, Heidi; Holland, Paul; McGrath, Daniel; Brisbourne, Alex; Rutt, Ian

    2017-04-01

    Several ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula have disintegrated rapidly in recent decades, and surface meltwater is strongly implicated as a driver. The Larsen C Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf on the peninsula and one of the largest in Antarctica, and is subject to pronounced surface melting and meltwater ponding, especially in the northern sectors and landward inlets. As part of the MIDAS project we have investigated the structure and physical properties of the firn and ice layers in the 2014/15 and 2015/16 austral summers, using a combination of radar and seismic geophysical surveys together with hot water drilling and borehole optical televiewing and temperature measurements. We found that Larsen C's firn column and ice temperatures are modified strongly by surface melting and ponding, including the presence of massive ice bodies in the Cabinet and Whirlwind inlets. Numerical modelling reveals that these modifications have been altering ice shelf deformation, flow and fracture significantly. The findings from our MIDAS project thus suggest that the response of Antarctic ice shelves to climatic warming is more complex than previously thought.

  7. Green Tea Polyphenols Extend the Lifespan of Male Drosophila melanogaster While Impairing Reproductive Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E.; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T.; Huey, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans. PMID:25058464

  8. Effects of Hot-Spot Geometry on Backscattering and Down-Scattering Neutron Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Z. L.; Mannion, O. M.; Forrest, C. J.; Knauer, J. P.; Anderson, K. S.; Radha, P. B.

    2017-10-01

    The measured neutron spectrum produced by a fusion experiment plays a key role in inferring observable quantities. One important observable is the areal density of an implosion, which is inferred by measuring the scattering of neutrons. This project seeks to use particle-transport simulations to model the effects of hot-spot geometry on backscattering and down-scattering neutron spectra along different lines of sight. Implosions similar to those conducted at the Laboratory of Laser Energetics are modeled by neutron transport through a DT plasma and a DT ice shell using the particle transport codes MCNP and IRIS. Effects of hot-spot geometry are obtained by ``detecting'' scattered neutrons along different lines of sight. This process is repeated for various hot-spot geometries representing known shape distortions between the hot spot and the shell. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  9. If Lava Mingled with Ground Ice on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2001-06-01

    Clusters of small cones on the lava plains of Mars have caught the attention of planetary geologists for years for a simple and compelling reason: ground ice. These cones look like volcanic rootless cones found on Earth where hot lava flows over wet surfaces such as marshes, shallow lakes or shallow aquifers. Steam explosions fragment the lava into small pieces that fall into cone-shaped debris piles. Peter Lanagan, Alfred McEwen, Laszlo Keszthelyi (University of Arizona), and Thorvaldur Thordarson (University of Hawaii) recently identified groups of cones in the equatorial region of Mars using new high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images. They report that the Martian cones have the same appearance, size, and geologic setting as rootless cones found in Iceland. If the Martian and terrestrial cones formed in the same way, then the Martian cones mark places where ground ice or groundwater existed at the time the lavas surged across the surface, estimated to be less than 10 million years ago, and where ground ice may still be today.

  10. TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE

    PubMed Central

    Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= −0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

  11. Association between green tea intake and coronary artery disease in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi-Ming; Gong, Qing-Yue; Yan, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Jun; Tang, Jian-Jin; Wang, Ming-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2010-02-01

    There is still conflicting evidence that green tea may protect against coronary atherosclerosis therefore the present study investigated the association between green tea consumption and arteriographically determined coronary atherosclerosis in a Chinese population. The study population consisted of 520 consecutive patients (379 men and 141 women) who underwent coronary arteriography for the first time. Patients were divided into 2 groups (Non-coronary artery disease [CAD] and CAD groups) according to the results of coronary arteriography. After adjusting the established and potential confounders, green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of CAD in male patients, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.38-1.01) compared with those who did not drink green tea. Compared to non-tea drinkers, the adjusted ORs were 1.09 (0.61-1.96) in male patients consuming less than 125 g of dried green tea leaves per month, 0.36 (0.19-0.71) for 125-249 g per month and 0.36 (0.17-0.73) for > or =250 g per month, with a statistically significant test for trend (P<0.001). Similar dose-response relationships were also observed for frequency, duration, concentration and starting age of green tea drinking in male patients. In female patients, no inverse association was found between green tea consumption and CAD. Green tea consumption can protect against the development of coronary atherosclerosis in Chinese male patients.

  12. Aluminum induced physiological and proteomic responses in tea (Camellia sinensis) roots and leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingshan; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Fan, Kai; Ma, Dexin; Zhang, Yongliang; Yin, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze), is an aluminum (Al) hyperaccumulator and grows well in acid soils. Although Al-induced growth of tea plant has been studied, the proteomic profiles of tea plants in response to Al are unclear. In the present study, the proteomic profiles in tea roots and leaves under Al stress were investigated using iTRAQ proteomics approach. In total, 755 and 1059 differentially expressed proteins were identified in tea roots and leaves, respectively. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed proteins in roots were mainly involved in 11 pathways whereas those from leaves were mainly involved in 9 pathways. Abundance of most protein functions in glycolytic metabolism were enhanced in tea roots, and proteins involved in photosynthesis were stimulated in tea leaves. The protein ferulate-5-hydroxylase (F5H) in lignin biosynthetic pathway was down-regulated in both roots and leaves. Furthermore, antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase) and citrate synthesis were accumulated in tea roots in response to Al. The results indicated that active photosynthesis and glycolysis as well as increased activities of antioxidant enzymes can be considered as a possible reason for the stimulatory effects of Al on the growth of tea plants. Additionally, the down-regulation of F5H and the binding of Al and phenolic acids may reduce the accumulation of lignin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea

    PubMed Central

    Tang, John Yew Huat; Izenty, Bariah Ibrahim; Nur' Izzati, Ahmad Juanda; Masran, Siti Rahmah; Yeo, Chew Chieng; Roslan, Arshad; Abu Bakar, Che Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with