Sample records for icelandic horses influence

  1. Comparison of grass haylage digestibility and metabolic plasma profile in Icelandic and Standardbred horses.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare digestibility and metabolic response in Icelandic and Standardbred horses fed two grass haylages harvested at different stages of maturity. Six horses of each breed were used in a 24-day change-over design. A total collection of faeces was made on days 15-17 and 22-24. Blood samples were collected on day 24 of each period and analysed for total plasma protein (TPP), plasma urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cortisol and insulin concentration. There were no differences in digestibility coefficients of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre or energy between breeds but organic matter digestibility was higher in the Standardbred horses. On both haylages, the Icelandic horses gained weight whereas the Standardbred horses lost weight. The Icelandic horses had higher TPP, plasma insulin and lower plasma urea concentrations. Our results indicate that the Icelandic horse may be more prone to maintain positive energy balance in relation to the Standardbred horse, but there were no indication of a better digestive capacity in the Icelandic horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rasmus B; Danielsen, Signe H; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-10-20

    Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms were included. All horses were assigned a BCS on a scale from 1 to 9 (1 is poor, 5 is moderate and 9 is extremely fat) by their owner and by an experienced person. Two weight tapes were used to assess BW. Girth circumference (GC), neck circumference (NC) and height at withers (HW) were measured, and the GC:HW and NC:HW ratios were calculated. Categorising the horses into four groups, 5.9 % were underweight (BCS 3-4), 70.1 % were optimal (BCS 5-6), 13.8 % were overweight (BCS 7) and 10.2 % were obese (BCS 8-9). The GC:HW and NC:HW ratios increased with increasing BCS, as did the BW estimated with the weight tapes. A GC:HW ratio >1.21 might indicate overweight or obesity in Icelandic horses. Horse owners underestimated the BCS of their horses compared to an experienced person. The results from this study show that 24.0 % of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark are overweight or obese, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.

  3. Modulation of allergy incidence in icelandic horses is associated with a change in IL-4-producing T cells.

    PubMed

    Hamza, E; Doherr, M G; Bertoni, G; Jungi, T W; Marti, E

    2007-01-01

    Equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction provoked by insect-derived allergens. Icelandic horses living in Iceland do not have IBH due to absence of relevant insects, but acquire it at high frequency after being imported to mainland Europe. In contrast, their offspring born in mainland Europe has reduced IBH incidence. T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells and cytokines were determined in Icelandic horses born in Iceland and on the continent and which either have IBH or are healthy. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these horses were stimulated for 18 h during summer and winter with polyclonal T cell stimuli, IBH allergen(s) or irrelevant allergen(s). Cells were analysed by flow cytometry for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4); RNA was analysed for IFN-gamma, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA. During summer, but not during winter, IBH PBMC stimulated polyclonally showed reduced IFN-gamma mRNA and IFN-gamma-producing cells when compared with those of healthy horses, regardless of origin. PBMC stimulated polyclonally or with IBH allergen showed increased IL-4 mRNA levels and higher numbers of IL-4-producing cells when born in Iceland or showing IBH symptoms. IL-5 and IL-13 mRNA were modulated neither by disease nor by origin. Abrogation of IL-4 production in healthy horses born in mainland Europe may be due, at least in part, to IL-10. There was an increased level of IL-10 in supernatants from PBMC of healthy horses born in mainland Europe and stimulated polyclonally or with IBH allergen. Modulation of IBH incidence is governed by altered Th1/Th2 ratio, which might be influenced by IL-10. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The refractive state of the eye in Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria K; Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Kim; Lindgren, Gabriella; Ekesten, Björn

    2017-06-02

    The syndrome Multiple Congenital Ocular Anomalies (MCOA) is a congenital eye disorder in horses. Both the MCOA syndrome and the Silver coat colour in horses are caused by the same missense mutation in the premelanosome protein (PMEL) gene. Horses homozygous for the Silver mutation (TT) are affected by multiple ocular defects causing visual impairment or blindness. Horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation (CT) have less severe clinical signs, usually cysts arising from the ciliary body iris or retina temporally. It is still unknown if the vision is impaired in horses heterozygous for the Silver mutation. A recent study reported that Comtois horses carrying the Silver mutation had significantly deeper anterior chambers of the eye compared to wild-type horses. This could potentially cause refractive errors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate if Icelandic horses with the Silver mutation have refractive errors compared to wild-type horses. One hundred and fifty-two Icelandic horses were included in the study, 71 CT horses and five TT horses. All horses were genotyped for the missense mutation in PMEL. Each CT and TT horse was matched by a wild-type (CC) horse of the same age ± 1 year. Skiascopy and a brief ophthalmic examination were performed in all horses. Association between refraction and age, eye, genotype and sex was tested by linear mixed-effect model analysis. TT horses with controls were not included in the statistical analyses as they were too few. The interaction between age and genotype had a significant impact on the refractive state (P = 0.0001). CT horses older than 16 years were on average more myopic than wild-type horses of the same age. No difference in the refractive state could be observed between genotypes (CT and CC) in horses younger than 16 years. TT horses were myopic (-2 D or more) in one or both eyes regardless of age. Our results indicate that an elderly Icelandic horse (older than 16 years) carrying the Silver

  5. The effect of rider weight and additional weight in Icelandic horses in tölt: part II. Stride parameters responses.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, V; Stefánsdóttir, G J; Jansson, A; Roepstorff, L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of rider weight in the BW ratio (BWR) range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on stride parameters in tölt in Icelandic horses. The kinematics of eight experienced Icelandic school horses were measured during an incremental exercise test using a high-speed camera (300 frames/s). Each horse performed five phases (642 m each) in tölt at a BWR between rider (including saddle) and horse starting at 20% (BWR20) and increasing to 25% (BWR25), 30% (BWR30), 35% (BWR35) and finally 20% (BWR20b) was repeated. One professional rider rode all horses and weight (lead) was added to saddle and rider as needed. For each phase, eight strides at speed of 5.5 m/s were analyzed for stride duration, stride frequency, stride length, duty factor (DF), lateral advanced placement, lateral advanced liftoff, unipedal support (UPS), bipedal support (BPS) and height of front leg action. Stride length became shorter (Y=2.73-0.004x; P0.05). In conclusion, increased BWR decreased stride length and increased DF proportionally to the same extent in all limbs, whereas BPS increased at the expense of decreased UPS. These changes can be expected to decrease tölt quality when subjectively evaluated according to the breeding goals for the Icelandic horse. However, beat, symmetry and height of front leg lifting were not affected by BWR.

  6. The origin of ambling horses.

    PubMed

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of rider weight and additional weight in Icelandic horses in tölt: part I. Physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Stefánsdóttir, G J; Gunnarsson, V; Roepstorff, L; Ragnarsson, S; Jansson, A

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the effect of increasing BW ratio (BWR) between rider and horse, in the BWR range common for Icelandic horses (20% to 35%), on heart rate (HR), plasma lactate concentration (Lac), BWR at Lac 4 mmol/l (W4), breathing frequency (BF), rectal temperature (RT) and hematocrit (Hct) in Icelandic horses. In total, eight experienced school-horses were used in an incremental exercise test performed outdoors on an oval riding track and one rider rode all horses. The exercise test consisted of five phases (each 642 m) in tölt, a four-beat symmetrical gait, at a speed of 5.4±0.1 m/s (mean±SD), where BWR between rider (including saddle) and horse started at 20% (BWR20), was increased to 25% (BWR25), 30% (BWR30), and 35% (BWR35) and finally decreased to 20% (BWR20b). Between phases, the horses were stopped (~5.5 min) to add lead weights to specially adjusted saddle bags and a vest on the rider. Heart rate was measured during warm-up, the exercise test and after 5, 15 and 30 min of recovery and blood samples were taken and BF recorded at rest, and at end of each of these aforementioned occasions. Rectal temperature was measured at rest, at end of the exercise test and after a 30-min recovery period. Body size and body condition score (BCS) were registered and a clinical examination performed on the day before the test and for 2 days after. Heart rate and BF increased linearly (P0.05), but negative correlations (P<0.05) existed between body size measurements and Hct. While HR, Hct and BF recovered to values at rest within 30 min, Lac and RT did not. All horses had no clinical remarks on palpation and at walk 1 and 2 days after the test. In conclusion, increasing BWR from 20% to 35% resulted in increased HR, Lac, RT and BF responses in the test group of experienced adult Icelandic riding horses. The horses mainly worked aerobically until BWR reached 22.7%, but considerable individual differences (17.0% to 27.5%) existed that were not linked to horse size, but

  8. To pace or not to pace: a pilot study of four- and five-gaited Icelandic horses homozygous for the DMRT3 'Gait Keeper' mutation.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist Fegraeus, K; Hirschberg, I; Árnason, T; Andersson, L; Velie, B D; Andersson, L S; Lindgren, G

    2017-12-01

    The Icelandic horse is a breed known mainly for its ability to perform the ambling four-beat gait 'tölt' and the lateral two-beat gait pace. The natural ability of the breed to perform these alternative gaits is highly desired by breeders. Therefore, the discovery that a nonsense mutation (C>A) in the DMRT3 gene was the main genetic factor for horses' ability to perform gaits in addition to walk, trot and canter was of great interest. Although several studies have demonstrated that homozygosity for the DMRT3 mutation is important for the ability to pace, only about 70% of the homozygous mutant (AA) Icelandic horses are reported to pace. The aim of the study was to genetically compare four- and five-gaited (i.e. horses with and without the ability to pace) AA Icelandic horses by performing a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis. All horses (n = 55) were genotyped on the 670K Axiom Equine Genotyping Array, and a GWA analysis was performed using the genabel package in r. No SNP demonstrated genome-wide significance, implying that the ability to pace goes beyond the presence of a single gene variant. Despite its limitations, the current study provides additional information regarding the genetic complexity of pacing ability in horses. However, to fully understand the genetic differences between four- and five-gaited AA horses, additional studies with larger sample materials and consistent phenotyping are needed. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  9. Impact of feeding level on digestibility of a haylage-only diet in Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, S; Lindberg, J E

    2010-10-01

    Eight mature Icelandic geldings were used in an experiment arranged as a change-over design to evaluate the effect of feeding level on the digestibility of a high-energy haylage-only diet. The horses were fed a low feeding level 10.7 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) (maintenance) and a high feeding level 18.1 g DM/kg BW (1.5 × maintenance) during two 23 days experimental periods. Total collection of faeces was performed for 6 days at the end of each period to determine the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD). The CTTAD for DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and energy was higher in horses fed at the low level of feed intake, while feeding level did not affect the CTTAD of crude protein. The largest difference in CTTAD between feeding levels was found for NDF. The content (/kg DM) of digestible energy in the haylage was 11.3 MJ at the low level of feed intake and 10.6 MJ at the high level of feed intake. It can be concluded that feeding level has a large impact on the digestibility and energy value of early cut haylage in Icelandic horses. © 2009 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Risk factors for faecal sand excretion in Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Husted, L; Andersen, M S; Borggaard, O K; Houe, H; Olsen, S N

    2005-07-01

    Sandy soil is often mentioned as a risk factor in the development of sand-related gastrointestinal disease (SGID) in the horse. There are other variables, but few studies confirm any of these. To investigate soil type, pasture quality, feeding practice in the paddock, age, sex and body condition score as risk factors for sand intake in the horse. Faeces were collected from 211 Icelandic horses on 19 different studs in Denmark together with soil samples and other potential risk factors. Sand content in faeces determined by a sand sedimentation test was interpreted as evidence of sand intake. Soil types were identified by soil analysis and significance of the data was tested using logistic analysis. Of horses included in the study, 56.4% showed sand in the faeces and 5.7% had more than 5 mm sand as quantified by the rectal sleeve sedimentation test. Soil type had no significant effect when tested as main effect, but there was interaction between soil type and pasture quality. Significant interactions were also found between paddock feeding practice and pasture quality. To evaluate the risk of sand intake it is important to consider 3 variables: soil type, pasture quality and feeding practice. Pasture quality was identified as a risk factor of both short and long grass in combination with sandy soil, while clay soil had the lowest risk in these combinations. Feeding practice in the paddock revealed feeding directly on the ground to be a risk factor when there was short (1-5 cm) or no grass. Also, no feeding outdoors increased the risk on pastures with short grass, while this had no effect in paddocks with no grass. More than 50% of all horses investigated in this study had sand in the faeces. The identification of risk factors is an important step towards prevention of SGID. Further research is necessary to determine why some horses exhibit more than 5 mm sand in the sedimentation test and whether this is correlated with geophagic behaviour.

  11. Interday variation and effect of transportation on indirect blood pressure measurements, plasma endothelin-1 and serum cortisol in Standardbred and Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic hypertension is a prominent feature in humans with metabolic syndrome (MS) and this is partly caused by an enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1) mediated vasoconstriction. There are indications that systemic hypertension might be a feature in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) but if ET-1 is involved in the development of hypertension in horses is not known. Increased levels of cortisol have also been found in humans with MS but there are no reports of this in horses. Before blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol can be evaluated in horses with EMS, it is necessary to investigate the interday variation of these parameters on clinically healthy horses. The aims of the present study were therefore to evaluate the interday variation and influence of transportation on systemic blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol in healthy Standardbred and Icelandic horses, and to detect potential breed differences. Methods Nine horses of each breed were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples were collected between 6 and 9 am on two separate days. Eight of the horses (four of each breed) were transported to a new stable were they stayed overnight. The next morning, the sampling procedure was repeated. Results The interday variation was higher for plasma ET-1 (37%) than for indirect pressure measurements (8-21%) and serum cortisol (18%). There were no differences in systemic blood pressure between the two breeds. The Icelandic horses had significantly lower serum cortisol and significantly higher plasma ET-1 concentrations compared to the Standardbred horses. Plasma ET-1 was significantly elevated after transportation, but systemic blood pressure and serum cortisol did not differ from the values obtained in the home environment. Conclusions Indirect blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol are of interest as markers for cardiovascular dysfunction in horses with EMS. The elevated plasma ET-1 concentrations recorded after

  12. Genomic Dissection of an Icelandic Epidemic of Respiratory Disease in Horses and Associated Zoonotic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður; Harris, Simon R.; Svansson, Vilhjálmur; Gunnarsson, Eggert; Sigurðardóttir, Ólöf G.; Gammeljord, Kristina; Steward, Karen F.; Newton, J. Richard; Robinson, Carl; Charbonneau, Amelia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iceland is free of the major infectious diseases of horses. However, in 2010 an epidemic of respiratory disease of unknown cause spread through the country’s native horse population of 77,000. Microbiological investigations ruled out known viral agents but identified the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) in diseased animals. We sequenced the genomes of 257 isolates of S. zooepidemicus to differentiate epidemic from endemic strains. We found that although multiple endemic clones of S. zooepidemicus were present, one particular clone, sequence type 209 (ST209), was likely to have been responsible for the epidemic. Concurrent with the epidemic, ST209 was also recovered from a human case of septicemia, highlighting the pathogenic potential of this strain. Epidemiological investigation revealed that the incursion of this strain into one training yard during February 2010 provided a nidus for the infection of multiple horses that then transmitted the strain to farms throughout Iceland. This study represents the first time that whole-genome sequencing has been used to investigate an epidemic on a national scale to identify the likely causative agent and the link to an associated zoonotic infection. Our data highlight the importance of national biosecurity to protect vulnerable populations of animals and also demonstrate the potential impact of S. zooepidemicus transmission to other animals, including humans. PMID:28765219

  13. Major histocompatibility complex and other allergy-related candidate genes associated with insect bite hypersensitivity in Icelandic horses.

    PubMed

    Klumplerova, Marie; Vychodilova, Leona; Bobrova, Olga; Cvanova, Michaela; Futas, Jan; Janova, Eva; Vyskocil, Mirko; Vrtkova, Irena; Putnova, Lenka; Dusek, Ladislav; Marti, Eliane; Horin, Petr

    2013-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of insects. IBH is a multifactorial disease with contribution of genetic and environmental factors. Candidate gene association analysis of IBH was performed in a group of 89 Icelandic horses all born in Iceland and imported to Europe. Horses were classified in IBH-affected and non-affected based on clinical signs and history of recurrent dermatitis, and on the results of an in vitro sulfidoleukotriene (sLT)-release assay with Culicoides nubeculosus and Simulium vittatum extract. Different genetic markers were tested for association with IBH by the Fisher's exact test. The effect of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene region was studied by genotyping five microsatellites spanning the MHC region (COR112, COR113, COR114, UM011 and UMN-JH34-2), and exon 2 polymorphisms of the class II Eqca-DRA gene. Associations with Eqca-DRA and COR113 were identified (p < 0.05). In addition, a panel of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 17 candidate allergy-related genes was tested. During the initial screen, no marker from the panel was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with IBH. Five SNPs associated with IBH at p < 0.10 were therefore used for analysis of combined genotypes. Out of them, SNPs located in the genes coding for the CD14 receptor (CD14), interleukin 23 receptor (IL23R), thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFB3) molecules were associated with IBH as parts of complex genotypes. These results are supported by similar associations and by expression data from different horse populations and from human studies.

  14. Detection of early osteoarthritis in the centrodistal joints of Icelandic horses: Evaluation of radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ley, C J; Björnsdóttir, S; Ekman, S; Boyde, A; Hansson, K

    2016-01-01

    Validated noninvasive detection methods for early osteoarthritis (OA) are required for OA prevention and early intervention treatment strategies. To evaluate radiography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of early stage OA osteochondral lesions in equine centrodistal joints using microscopy as the reference standard. Prospective imaging of live horses and imaging and microscopy of cadaver tarsal joints. Centrodistal (distal intertarsal) joints of 38 Icelandic research horses aged 27-29 months were radiographed. Horses were subjected to euthanasia approximately 2 months later and cadaver joints examined with low-field MRI. Osteochondral joint specimens were classified as negative or positive for OA using light microscopy histology or scanning electron microscopy. Radiographs and MRIs were evaluated for osteochondral lesions and results compared with microscopy. Forty-two joints were classified OA positive with microscopy. Associations were detected between microscopic OA and the radiography lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P<0.0001), joint margin lesion (P<0.0001), central osteophyte (P = 0.03) and the low-field MRI lesion categories; mineralisation front defect (P = 0.01), joint margin lesion (P = 0.02) and articular cartilage lesion (P = 0.0003). The most frequent lesion category detected in microscopic OA positive joints was the mineralisation front defect in radiographs (28/42 OA positive joints, specificity 97%, sensitivity 67%). No significant differences were detected between the sensitivity and specificity of radiography and low-field MRI pooled lesion categories, but radiography was often superior when individual lesion categories were compared. Early stage centrodistal joint OA changes may be detected with radiography and low-field MRI. Detection of mineralisation front defects in radiographs may be a useful screening method for detection of early OA in centrodistal joints of young Icelandic horses. © 2015 EVJ

  15. Osteochondral lesions in distal tarsal joints of Icelandic horses reveal strong associations between hyaline and calcified cartilage abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ley, C J; Ekman, S; Hansson, K; Björnsdóttir, S; Boyde, A

    2014-03-25

    Osteochondral lesions in the joints of the distal tarsal region of young Icelandic horses provide a natural model for the early stages of osteoarthritis (OA) in low-motion joints. We describe and characterise mineralised and non-mineralised osteochondral lesions in left distal tarsal region joint specimens from twenty-two 30 ±1 month-old Icelandic horses. Combinations of confocal scanning light microscopy, backscattered electron scanning electron microscopy (including, importantly, iodine staining) and three-dimensional microcomputed tomography were used on specimens obtained with guidance from clinical imaging. Lesion-types were described and classified into groups according to morphological features. Their locations in the hyaline articular cartilage (HAC), articular calcified cartilage (ACC), subchondral bone (SCB) and the joint margin tissues were identified and their frequency in the joints recorded. Associations and correlations between lesion-types were investigated for centrodistal joints only. In centrodistal joints the lesion-types HAC chondrocyte loss, HAC fibrillation, HAC central chondrocyte clusters, ACC arrest and ACC advance had significant associations and strong correlations. These lesion-types had moderate to high frequency in centrodistal joints but low frequencies in tarsometatarsal and talocalcaneal-centroquartal joints. Joint margin lesion-types had no significant associations with other lesion-types in the centrodistal joints but high frequency in both the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. The frequency of SCB lesion-types in all joints was low. Hypermineralised infill phase lesion-types were detected. Our results emphasise close associations between HAC and ACC lesions in equine centrodistal joints and the importance of ACC lesions in the development of OA in low-motion compression-loaded equine joints.

  16. Genetic diversity in German draught horse breeds compared with a group of primitive, riding and wild horses by means of microsatellite DNA markers.

    PubMed

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-08-01

    We compared the genetic diversity and distance among six German draught horse breeds to wild (Przewalski's Horse), primitive (Icelandic Horse, Sorraia Horse, Exmoor Pony) or riding horse breeds (Hanoverian Warmblood, Arabian) by means of genotypic information from 30 microsatellite loci. The draught horse breeds included the South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Mecklenburg Coldblood, Saxon Thuringa Coldblood, Black Forest Horse and Schleswig Draught Horse. Despite large differences in population sizes, the average observed heterozygosity (H(o)) differed little among the heavy horse breeds (0.64-0.71), but was considerably lower than in the Hanoverian Warmblood or Icelandic Horse population. The mean number of alleles (N(A)) decreased more markedly with declining population sizes of German draught horse breeds (5.2-6.3) but did not reach the values of Hanoverian Warmblood (N(A) = 6.7). The coefficient of differentiation among the heavy horse breeds showed 11.6% of the diversity between the heavy horse breeds, as opposed to 21.2% between the other horse populations. The differentiation test revealed highly significant genetic differences among all draught horse breeds except the Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldbloods. The Schleswig Draught Horse was the most distinct draught horse breed. In conclusion, the study demonstrated a clear distinction among the German draught horse breeds and even among breeds with a very short history of divergence like Rhenish German Draught Horse and its East German subpopulations Mecklenburg and Saxon Thuringa Coldblood.

  17. An isotopic comparison of cross-latitudinal horse hair data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Elisabeth; Ramsey, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    This study explores whether the Rayleigh distillation process latitude effect, of depleted δ18O in precipitation toward the poles, can be observed in horse hair. This study specifically compares δ18O values in horse hair with meteorological variables, and examines whether regional changes in global climate can be observed. The sampling sites and the pony breeds used in this study will add to the increasing network of isotopic horse hair data and will create an even better understanding of the intra-species variation within the δ18O values of horse hair. By directly correlating the meteorological variables to δ18O variations, the effects of specific weather events at different latitudes can also be explored at a very high resolution. 24 horses were sampled within approximately 24 hours on the 7th March 2016 from Thordale Stud in Shetland; the Icelandic Food And Veterinary Authority in Iceland; the Exmoor Pony Centre in Exmoor; and the Pigeon House Equestrian Centre in Oxfordshire. Starting the sampling process from the most recent growth at the follicle, the sampling date becomes a chronological marker, temporally fixing the first sample within a sequential set of data points extending for one year or longer, depending on the length of each individual hair. Preliminary results confirm the hypothesis, demonstrating that a study of oxygen isotope ratios in horse hair from Oxfordshire to Iceland shows a latitudinal depletion gradient, consistent with a depletion of oxygen isotope ratios due to decreasing temperatures.

  18. Influence of 4-H Horse Project Involvement on Development of Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, K. P.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.

    2011-01-01

    Four-H horse project members who competed in non-riding horse contests were surveyed to evaluate the influence of their horse project participation on life-skill development. Contests in which youth competed included Horse Bowl, Demonstrations, Public Speaking, and Art. Youth indicated a positive influence on both life-skill development and horse…

  19. Asymmetric seafloor spreading on the Reykjanes Ridge - influence of the Iceland anomaly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benediktsdóttir, Ásdís; Hey, Richard; Martinez, Fernando; Höskulddson, Ármann

    2017-04-01

    Recently it has been shown that the crustal accretion on the Reykjanes Ridge (RR) is asymmetric with more lithosphere being consistently transferred from the Eurasian Plate to the North American Plate. In Iceland, the center of spreading has moved to the east, creating an age-asymmetry on Iceland, with more lithosphere on the North American side than the Eurasian side. The eastward movement of the spreading center is likely explained by the presence of the Iceland anomaly; if the anomaly is fixed with respect to the plate movements then the ridge system is drifting to the west and therefore the shift of the system is to the east, toward the Iceland anomaly. The shift of the center of spreading in Iceland must somehow be observed in the ridge systems off shore. We argue that the asymmetry on the RR south of Iceland, as observed in the magnetic data, is a result of the spreading center movements in Iceland. The RR extends down to the 15 km long right-lateral Bight Transform Fault (BTF) 1000 km south of south Iceland. Although it is short, it is a a sturdy and long lived offset, dating back to at least 37 Ma when spreading ceased in the Labrador Sea, and before that it was a triple junction between the North America-Greenland-Eurasia plates. Just south of the BTF, asymmetries in the magnetic data have been documented. The asymmetry is consistent to what is occurring in Iceland. Lithosphere is being transferred from the Eurasia Plate to the North America Plate. The question arises whether this is an influence of the Iceland anomaly? How far from Iceland do the influence of its anomaly reach and how to we quantify them? The off-shore asymmetries discussed here are not continuous, but seen in the magnetic fabric as if the ridge center was transferred a few kilometers, consistently to the east. A continuous asymmetry would have a different magnetic signature. The best documented asymmetry producing mechanism is a propagating rift (e.g. the Galapagos propagator). The

  20. Phylogenetic relationships of German heavy draught horse breeds inferred from mitochondrial DNA D-loop variation.

    PubMed

    Aberle, K S; Hamann, H; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2007-04-01

    We analysed a 610-bp mitochondrial (mt)DNA D-loop fragment in a sample of German draught horse breeds and compared the polymorphic sites with sequences from Arabian, Hanoverian, Exmoor, Icelandic, Sorraia and Przewalski's Horses as well as with Suffolk, Shire and Belgian horses. In a total of 65 horses, 70 polymorphic sites representing 47 haplotypes were observed. The average percentage of polymorphic sites was 11.5% for the mtDNA fragment analysed. In the nine different draught horse breeds including South German, Mecklenburg, Saxon Thuringa coldblood, Rhenisch German, Schleswig Draught Horse, Black Forest Horse, Shire, Suffolk and Belgian, 61 polymorphic sites and 24 haplotypes were found. The phylogenetic analysis failed to show monophyletic groups for the draught horses. The analysis indicated that the draught horse populations investigated consist of diverse genetic groups with respect to their maternal lineage.

  1. A modified oral sugar test for evaluation of insulin and glucose dynamics in horses.

    PubMed

    Lindåse, Sanna; Nostell, Katarina; Bröjer, Johan

    2016-10-20

    An oral sugar test (OST) using Karo ® Light Corn Syrup has been developed in the USA as a field test for the assessment of insulin dysregulation in horses but the syrup is not available in Scandinavian grocery stores. The aim of the study was to compare the results of a modified OST between horses with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) and healthy horses using a Scandinavian commercially available glucose syrup (Dansukker glykossirap). In addition, the effect of breed and the repeatability of the test were evaluated. In the present study, clinically healthy horses (7 Shetland ponies, 8 Icelandic horses, 8 Standardbred horses) and 20 horses of various breeds with EMS underwent the modified OST test. The Icelandic horses and Shetland ponies underwent the OST twice. Insulin and glucose data from the OST were used to calculate peak insulin concentration (Peak INS ), time to peak insulin concentration (T-peak INS ), area under the curve for insulin (AUC INS ) and glucose (AUC GLU ) as well as whole body insulin sensitivity index (ISI COMP ). Compared to the healthy group, the EMS group had 6-7 times higher geometric mean for Peak INS and AUC INS and 8 times lower geometric mean for ISI COMP . The EMS group had a delayed T-peak INS compared to the healthy group. There was no effect of breed in the group of healthy horses on Peak INS , T-peak INS , AUC INS , AUC GLU and ISI COMP . Coefficient of variation for repeated tests was 19.8, 19.0 and 17.6 % for Peak INS , AUC INS and ISI COMP respectively. The results of the present study demonstrate that the modified OST appears to be a practical and useful diagnostic tool for assessment of insulin dysregulation in the horse. However, to make it possible to establish the most appropriate sampling interval and to evaluate the accuracy of the modified OST, further studies in horses with a variable degree of insulin resistance are needed, where results from the modified OST are compared with quantitative measurements for IS.

  2. Iceland.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    This issue of Background Notes examines the country of Iceland. In the profile section, the geography, people, government, economy, and membership in international organizations are briefly examined. An island located in the North Atlantic Ocean east of Greenland, almost 80% of Iceland's land mass is relative wasteland (glaciers, lakes, a mountainous lava desert, and others). Literature is the heritage that Iceland has given the world, especially in the forms of poetry and the Sagas. Iceland is governed by a president who is elected to a 4-year term and who has limited powers as well as a Prime Minister and the Cabinet with most of the executive functions. The current party coalition is committed to Iceland's continued membership in NATO and to maintaining the presence of US forces at the Keflavik NATO Base. Mainly, the coalition has attempted to adopt economic measures to counter Iceland's economic difficulties. Its economic backbone is the fishing industry and the US is the major overseas market for fish products. There is currently an effort underway to spur greater GNP growth rates. Iceland maintains diplomatic and commercial relations with the most important nations of the East and West but its ties with other Nordic countries and the US are especially lose. Also included in this Background Notes issue is a section on travel notes, principal Iceland related US officials, principal, Iceland government officials, and history of the country.

  3. Influence of detomidine and buprenorphine on motor-evoked potentials in horses.

    PubMed

    Nollet, H; Van Ham, L; Gasthuys, F; Dewulf, J; Vanderstraeten, G; Deprez, P

    2003-04-26

    Horses need to be sedated before they are investigated by transcranial magnetic stimulation because of the mild discomfort induced by the evoked muscle contraction and the noise of stimulation. This paper describes the influence of a combination of detomidine (10 microg/kg bodyweight) and a low dose of buprenorphine (2.4 microg/kg) on the onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of magnetic motor-evoked potentials in normal horses. There were no significant differences between measurements of these parameters made before the horses were sedated and measurements made 10 and 30 minutes after the drugs were administered.

  4. Icelandic: Linguistic Maintenance or Change? The Role of English. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda

    The Icelandic language has a long and stable history, and Old Icelandic is still accessible to modern day Icelanders. This is despite being ruled from Denmark, with influence by the Danish language, for about 500 years. Icelandic may now be under a more serious threat from the onslaught of English. This paper evaluates the linguistic situation in…

  5. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  6. Education in Iceland: Its Rise and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Bragi S.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a Doctorate of Education dissertation on the development of education in Iceland since 874 A.D. Special attention has been given to social, political, and economic issues influencing Icelandic education. The procedure consisted of reviewing the literature, interviewing…

  7. Influence of training on the biokinematics in trotting Andalusian horses.

    PubMed

    Cano, M R; Miró, F; Diz, A M; Agüera, E; Galisteo, A M

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a 10-month training programme on the linear, temporal and angular characteristics of the fore and hind limbs at the trot in the Andalusian horse, using standard computer-aided videography. Sixteen male Andalusian horses were observed before and after training. Six strides were randomly selected for analysis in each horse and linear, temporal and angular parameters were calculated for fore and hind limbs. The training programme used here produced significant changes in kinematic parameters, such as shortening of stride length, and increase in swing duration and a decrease in hind limb stance percentage. No significant differences were recorded in the angular values for the forelimb joints. In trained horses, the more proximal joints of the hind limb, especially the hip and stifle, had a greater flexion while the fetlock showed a smaller extension angle. At the beginning of the swing phase, hip and stifle joints presented angles that were significantly more flexed. When the hind limbs came into contact with the ground, all the joints presented greater flexion after training.

  8. Influence of consonant frequency on Icelandic-speaking children's speech acquisition.

    PubMed

    Másdóttir, Thóra; Stokes, Stephanie F

    2016-04-01

    A developmental hierarchy of phonetic feature complexity has been proposed, suggesting that later emerging sounds have greater articulatory complexity than those learned earlier. The aim of this research was to explore this hierarchy in a relatively unexplored language, Icelandic. Twenty-eight typically-developing Icelandic-speaking children were tested at 2;4 and 3;4 years. Word-initial and word-medial phonemic inventories and a phonemic implicational hierarchy are described. The frequency of occurrence of Icelandic consonants in the speech of 2;4 and 3;4 year old children was, from most to least frequent, n, s, t, p, r, m, l, k, f, ʋ, j, ɵ, h, kʰ, c, [Formula: see text], ɰ, pʰ, tʰ, cʰ, ç, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. Consonant frequency was a strong predictor of consonant accuracy at 2;4 months (r(23) = -0.75), but the effect was weaker at 3;4 months (r(23) = -0.51). Acquisition of /c/, /[Formula: see text]/ and /l/ occurred earlier, relative to English, Swedish, Dutch and German. A frequency-bound practice effect on emerging consonants is proposed to account for the early emergence of /c/, /[Formula: see text]/ and /l/ in Icelandic.

  9. Is Snow a sufficient Source of Water for Horses kept Outdoors in Winter? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mejdell, CM; Simensen, E; Bøe, KE

    2005-01-01

    Due to extreme weather conditions, a flock of outwintered Icelandic horses had to manage for several days on snow as the source of free water. They were fed grass silage ad lib, and any change in feed consumption was not observed. After nine days, blood samples were taken and analysed for plasma osmolality, they were subjected to a simple clinical examination, and offered drinking water. Osmolality levels were within normal limits and mean value did not differ significantly from samples which previously were taken of the same individuals. The general condition of the horses was normal, with no signs of clinical dehydration or disease. The horses showed very little interest for the offered drinking water. This suggests that in cold winter weather, horses being fed grass silage and adjusted to eat snow, can manage for several days with snow substituting liquid water without their physiology and welfare being challenged. PMID:16108209

  10. Icelandic-type crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Du, Z.; Julian, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous seismic studies, in particular using receiver functions and explosion seismology, have provided a detailed picture of the structure and thickness of the crust beneath the Iceland transverse ridge. We review the results and propose a structural model that is consistent with all the observations. The upper crust is typically 7 ?? 1 km thick, heterogeneous and has high velocity gradients. The lower crust is typically 15-30 ?? 5 km thick and begins where the velocity gradient decreases radically. This generally occurs at the V p ??? 6.5 km s-1 level. A low-velocity zone ??? 10 000 km2 in area and up to ??? 15 km thick occupies the lower crust beneath central Iceland, and may represent a submerged, trapped oceanic microplate. The crust-mantle boundary is a transition zone ???5 ?? 3 km thick throughout which V p increases progressively from ???7.2 to ???8.0 km s-1. It may be gradational or a zone of alternating high- and low-velocity layers. There is no seismic evidence for melt or exceptionally high temperatures in or near this zone. Isostasy indicates that the density contrast between the lower crust and the mantle is only ???90 kg m-3 compared with ???300 kg m-3 for normal oceanic crust, indicating compositional anomalies that are as yet not understood. The seismological crust is ???30 km thick beneath the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faeroe ridges, and eastern Iceland, ???20 km beneath western Iceland, and ???40 km thick beneath central Iceland. This pattern is not what is predicted for an eastward-migrating plume. Low attenuation and normal V p/V s ratios in the lower crust beneath central and southwestern Iceland, and normal uppermost mantle velocities in general, suggest that the crust and uppermost mantle are subsolidus and cooler than at equivalent depths beneath the East Pacific Rise. Seismic data from Iceland have historically been interpreted both in terms of thin-hot and thick-cold crust models, both of which have been cited as supporting the plume

  11. Lunar cycles at mating do not influence sex ratio at birth in horses.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, J J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Santa Juliana, L

    2015-02-01

    It is scientifically demonstrated that lunar cycles have important effects on several biological events. Controversy exists about the lunar influence on human and animal parturition. In addition, in the horse industry, especially in Polo Horse breeders of Argentina and around the world there is a higher demand for female offspring than for males. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between the lunar phase at the time of mating and the sex ratio at birth in horses. The Argentinean Stud Book provided information related to all matings registered for Thoroughbred and Arab horses between 2003 and 2011. Statistical associations were tested between dates of matings at different lunar phases or days and sex ratio at birth. A total of 65.535 gestations were studied. Overall, sex ratio at birth resulted in 33.396 fillies (50.96%) and 32.139 colts (49.04%). The percentages of males and females at birth were not statistically different amongst the different lunar phases or days. We can strongly conclude that managing the breeding dates in relation to lunar cycles in order to manipulate the sex ratio of the offspring is not a viable option in horses.

  12. Iceland - Troubled Ally

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    Thorarinsson, "Population Changes in Iceland," The Geographical Review, October 1961, p. 519. 14. Ibid. 15. B-jorn Thordarson , "Iceland, Past and Present...1966, p. 182 66. Bjorn Thordarson , "Iceland, Past and Present," Oxford, London, 1945. 67. Ibid., p. 12. 68. Ibid., p. 14. 69. Ibid., p. 15. 70

  13. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrún; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Vogfjörd, Kristin; Jonsson, Trausti; Oddsson, Björn; Reynisson, Vidir; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdóttir, Sigrún; Bergsveinsson, Sölvi; Oddsdóttir, Thorarna

    2017-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes (CIV) is a newly developed open-access web resource (http://icelandicvolcanoes.is) intended to serve as an official source of information about volcanoes in Iceland for the public and decision makers. CIV contains text and graphic information on all 32 active volcanic systems in Iceland, as well as real-time data from monitoring systems in a format that enables non-specialists to understand the volcanic activity status. The CIV data portal contains scientific data on all eruptions since Eyjafjallajökull 2010 and is an unprecedented endeavour in making volcanological data open and easy to access. CIV forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the European Union funded effort FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. The supersite concept implies integration of space and ground based observations for improved monitoring and evaluation of volcanic hazards, and open data policy. This work is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office, the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere.

  14. Strongylids in domestic horses: Influence of horse age, breed and deworming programs on the strongyle parasite community.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Dzeverin, Igor; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A

    2016-08-30

    An extensive analysis of the relationships between strongylid egg shedding in domestic horses and the strongylid community structure in regard to the age of the horses, their breeds and different strategies of horse management, particularly with anthelmintic treatment programs was performed. Domestic horses (n=197) of different ages (5 months to 22 years) and of various breeds from 15 farms with different types of deworming programs were included in this study. Strongylids (totally, 82,767 specimens) were collected in vivo after deworming of the horses with the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic ("Univerm", 0.2% aversectin C), and identified to the species level. Models of multiple regressions with dummy variables were used to estimate the effects of age, breed, type of farm and deworming programs on number of eggs shed per gram of feces (EPG value) and the strongylid community. Totally, 33 strongylid species were collected (8 species of Strongylinae and 25 - of Cyathostominae); a significant correlation (r=0.67; p<0.001) between the prevalence and proportion of species in the strongylid community was observed. The highest number of species (32) was found in young horses (1.5-4 years old); the lowest (17) - in old horses (>16years). Foals (<1year old) had significantly higher EPG value than older horses. The linear regression models of the strongyle egg counts (EPG) with three predictors: horse age (AGE), number of strongylids (SN), and type of farm (FARM) revealed significant effects of SN and FARM, but an effect of AGE was near the limit of significance. Horses from farms with rare or no anthelmintic treatments (type A) shed significantly more strongyle eggs than horses from farms with regular treatments; frequency of dewormings - 1-2 (type B) or 3-4 and more times per year (type C) did not have a significant impact on the EPG value. Thoroughbreds, Ukrainian Saddlers and Russian Racers had much higher EPG values comparing to non-breed horses. Analysis of the

  15. Horse impoundments under Control of Horses legislation in the Munster region of Ireland: factors affecting euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, M; O'Sullivan, E; Collins, D M; Byrne, A W; More, S J

    2015-01-24

    Recently, considerable international attention has been paid to the problem of unwanted horses. In Ireland, stray horses, particularly in urban areas, are a further problem. The Control of Horses Act 1996 was enacted in response to an ongoing problem of uncontrolled horses in public places. As yet, no research work has been conducted focusing on stray horses in Ireland. This paper describes horses impounded under the Act in the Munster region of Ireland during 2005-2012 and the factors influencing decisions regarding their disposal. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate factors influencing the probability that a horse was euthanised during impoundment. In total, 3625 seizure events were recorded, most towards the end of the study period. Predictors for euthanasia during 2010-2012 included seizure location, sex, age, colour, body condition score and year. This study highlights the problem of stray horses in Ireland, particularly in urban areas. There is a need for rigorous enforcement of newly enacted horse identification legislation, allowing a fully integrated traceability system. More is required to manage the long-established societal problems of stray horses in urban settings, with a uniform approach by all Local Authorities being long overdue. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Sedation with detomidine and acepromazine influences the endoscopic evaluation of laryngeal function in horses.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, C; Husted, L; Ullum, H; Fjeldborg, J

    2007-11-01

    Endoscopy of the upper airways of horses is used as a diagnostic tool and at purchase examinations. On some occasions it is necessary to use sedation during the procedure and it is often speculated that the result of the examination might be influenced due to the muscle-relaxing properties of the most commonly used sedatives. To evaluate the effect of detomidine (0.01 mg/kg bwt) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg bwt) on the appearance of symmetry of rima glottidis, ability to abduct maximally the arytenoid cartilages and the effect on recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) grade. Forty-two apparently normal horses underwent endoscopic examination of the upper airways on 3 different occasions, under the influence of 3 different treatments: no sedation (control), sedation with detomidine and sedation with acepromazine. All examinations were performed with a minimum of one week apart. The study was performed as an observer-blind cross-over study. Sedation with detomidine had a significant effect on the RLN grading (OR = 2.91) and ability maximally to abduct the left arytenoid cartilages (OR = 2.91). Sedation with acepromazine resulted in OR = 2.43 for the RLN grading and OR = 2.22 for the ability to abduct maximally. The ability to abduct maximally the right arytenoid cartilage was not altered. Sedating apparently healthy horses with detomidine or acepromazine significantly impairs these horses' ability to abduct fully the left but not the right arytenoid cartilage. This resulted in different diagnosis with respect to RLN when comparing sedation to no sedation. Since the ability to abduct the right arytenoid cartilage fully is not altered by sedation, it is speculated that horses changing from normal to abnormal laryngeal function when sedated, might be horses in an early stage of the disease. To confirm or reject these speculations, further studies are needed. Until then sedation during endoscopy should be used with care.

  17. Playing with fire - What is influencing horse owners' decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    PubMed

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners' attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners' location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against Hendra

  18. Climate variability and the Icelandic marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astthorsson, Olafur S.; Gislason, Astthor; Jonsson, Steingrimur

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the main features of the Icelandic marine ecosystem and its response to climate variations during the 20th century. The physical oceanographic character and faunal composition in the southern and western parts of the Icelandic marine ecosystem are different from those in the northern and the eastern areas. The former areas are more or less continuously bathed by warm and saline Atlantic water while the latter are more variable and influenced by Atlantic, Arctic and even Polar water masses to different degrees. Mean annual primary production is higher in the Atlantic water than in the more variable waters north and east of Iceland, and higher closer to land than farther offshore. Similarly, zooplankton production is generally higher in the Atlantic water than in the waters north and east of Iceland. The main spawning grounds of most of the exploited fish stocks are in the Atlantic water south of the country while nursery grounds are off the north coast. In the recent years the total catch of fish and invertebrates has been in the range of 1.6-2.4 million ton. Capelin ( Mallotus villosus) is the most important pelagic stock and cod ( Gadus morhua) is by far the most important demersal fish stock. Whales are an important component of the Icelandic marine ecosystem, and Icelandic waters are an important habitat for some of the largest seabird populations in the Northeast Atlantic. In the waters to the north and east of Iceland, available information suggests the existence of a simple bottom-up controlled food chain from phytoplankton through Calanus, capelin and to cod. Less is known about the structure of the more complex southern part of the ecosystem. The Icelandic marine ecosystem is highly sensitive to climate variations as demonstrated by abundance and distribution changes of many species during the warm period in the 1930s, the cold period in the late 1960s and warming observed during the recent years. Some of these are highlighted in the

  19. Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Larsen, Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Magnus T.; Vogfjord, Kristin; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Oddsson, Bjorn; Barsotti, Sara; Karlsdottir, Sigrun

    2016-04-01

    The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a newly developed open-access web resource in English intended to serve as an official source of information about active volcanoes in Iceland and their characteristics. The Catalogue forms a part of an integrated volcanic risk assessment project in Iceland GOSVÁ (commenced in 2012), as well as being part of the effort of FUTUREVOLC (2012-2016) on establishing an Icelandic volcano supersite. Volcanic activity in Iceland occurs on volcanic systems that usually comprise a central volcano and fissure swarm. Over 30 systems have been active during the Holocene (the time since the end of the last glaciation - approximately the last 11,500 years). In the last 50 years, over 20 eruptions have occurred in Iceland displaying very varied activity in terms of eruption styles, eruptive environments, eruptive products and the distribution lava and tephra. Although basaltic eruptions are most common, the majority of eruptions are explosive, not the least due to magma-water interaction in ice-covered volcanoes. Extensive research has taken place on Icelandic volcanism, and the results reported in numerous scientific papers and other publications. In 2010, the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) funded a 3 year project to collate the current state of knowledge and create a comprehensive catalogue readily available to decision makers, stakeholders and the general public. The work on the Catalogue began in 2011, and was then further supported by the Icelandic government and the EU through the FP7 project FUTUREVOLC. The Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes is a collaboration of the Icelandic Meteorological Office (the state volcano observatory), the Institute of Earth Sciences at the University of Iceland, and the Civil Protection Department of the National Commissioner of the Iceland Police, with contributions from a large number of specialists in Iceland and elsewhere. The Catalogue is built up of chapters with texts and various

  20. Strongylosis in horses slaughtered in Italy for meat production: epidemiology, influence of the horse origin and evidence of parasite self-regulation.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, L; Usai, F; Stancampiano, L

    2011-06-30

    The influence of host and parasite-related factors on the strongyle infection in 50 horses coming from 6 European countries and slaughtered in Italy for meat production was investigated using a multivariable modelling approach. The study was carried out by examining adult helminths, faecal eggs (identified by culture to the third larval stage) and mucosal larval stages of Cyathostominae. A modified Transmural Illumination technique (TMI) has been performed and Cyathostominae empty mucosal cysts were also evaluated in order to obtain further indications about small strongyles dynamic. All species found in this study were previously reported in European horses. Major differences were detected comparing Hungarian (#24) and Italian (#13) horses. Sex was confirmed as uninfluential, while relations with host age were only partially consistent with the development of acquired resistance. The analysis of both mucosal Cyathostominae larvae (more in Italy) and of the percentage of empty cysts (higher in Hungary) along with lower large strongyle abundance in Hungary allowed to hypothesise a wider use of anthelmintic treatments in Hungarian horses compared to Italian ones. The results regarding adult Cyathostominae (no significant differences nor regarding age or origin) suggested the important role of ecological interactions between larval and adult stages in regulating small strongyle populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Playing with fire – What is influencing horse owners’ decisions to not vaccinate their horses against deadly Hendra virus infection?

    PubMed Central

    Goyen, Kailiea Arianna; Wright, John David; Cunneen, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus. A total of 43.1% (N = 162) of horse owners indicated that they currently did not vaccinate against Hendra virus infection, while 56.9% (N = 214) currently vaccinated against Hendra virus infection. A total of 52 risk factors were evaluated relating to equestrian activities, horse management, perceived risk and severity of horse and human infection with Hendra virus, side effects of Hendra vaccination, other vaccinations conducted by horse owners and horse owners’ attitudes towards veterinarians. The final multivariable logistics regression model identified the following risk factors associated with increased odds of non-vaccination against Hendra virus: 1) perceived low risk (compared to high) of Hendra virus infection to horses (considering the horse owners’ location and management practices) or horse owners were unsure about the risk of infection, 2) perceived moderate severity (compared to very severe or severe) of Hendra virus infection in humans, 3) horse owners non-vaccination of their pets, 4) horse owners non-vaccination against strangles disease in horses, 5) handling of more than three horses per week (compared to one horse only) and 6) perceived attitude that veterinarians had a high motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination (compared to veterinarians having a low motivation of making money from Hendra virus vaccination). Horse owners were more likely to vaccinate against

  2. Influence of seating styles on head and pelvic vertical movement symmetry in horses ridden at trot

    PubMed Central

    Hernlund, Elin; Pfau, Thilo; Haubro Andersen, Pia; Rhodin, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of how a rider’s seating style and riding on a circle influences the movement symmetry of the horse’s head and pelvis may aid rider and trainer in an early recognition of low grade lameness. Such knowledge is also important during both subjective and objective lameness evaluations in the ridden horse in a clinical setting. In this study, inertial sensors were used to assess how different rider seating styles may influence head and pelvic movement symmetry in horses trotting in a straight line and on the circle in both directions. A total of 26 horses were subjected to 15 different conditions at trot: three unridden conditions and 12 ridden conditions where the rider performed three different seating styles (rising trot, sitting trot and two point seat). Rising trot induced systematic changes in movement symmetry of the horses. The most prominent effect was decreased pelvic rise that occurred as the rider was actively rising up in the stirrups, thus creating a downward momentum counteracting the horses push off. This mimics a push off lameness in the hindlimb that is in stance when the rider sits down in the saddle during the rising trot. On the circle, the asymmetries induced by rising trot on the correct diagonal counteracted the circle induced asymmetries, rendering the horse more symmetrical. This finding offers an explanation to the equestrian tradition of rising on the ‘correct diagonal.’ In horses with small pre-existing movement asymmetries, the asymmetry induced by rising trot, as well as the circular track, attenuated or reduced the horse’s baseline asymmetry, depending on the sitting diagonal and direction on the circle. A push off hindlimb lameness would be expected to increase when the rider sits during the lame hindlimb stance whereas an impact hindlimb lameness would be expected to decrease. These findings suggest that the rising trot may be useful for identifying the type of lameness during subjective lameness assessment

  3. Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.

    PubMed

    Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert

    2009-05-25

    Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1

  4. A comparative study of the apparent total tract digestibility of carbohydrates in Icelandic and Danish warmblood horses fed two different haylages and a concentrate consisting of sugar beet pulp and black oats.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Brokner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-10-01

    Four Icelandic (ICE) and four Danish Warmblood (DW) horses were used in a crossover study with two treatments to investigate the effect of breed and the effect of stage of maturity of haylage on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of a diet consisting of sugar beet pulp, black oats and haylage early or late cut. Fibre was analysed as crude fibre (CF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and dietary fibre (DF = non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) plus lignin). In haylage all analysed fibre fractions increased with advancing stage of maturity, with the cell wall components cellulose, non-cellulosic residue, xylose and lignin causing this increase. Crude protein (CP) and sugars decreased with advancing stage of maturity. Feeding early cut haylage resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05) higher ATTD of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), energy, NDF, total NSP, DF and CP compared to feeding late cut haylage. There was a significantly (p < 0.05) higher ATTD of CF, DF and starch in ICE than in DW. Diet affected several faecal parameters with a significantly (p < 0.05) lower pH in faeces when horses were fed the early cut haylage. Concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in faeces from horses fed early cut haylage, reflecting the higher fermentability (higher ATTD) of this diet. There was no marked effect of breed on faecal parameters. The DF analysis method gave the most appropriate differentiation of the fibre fractions and their digestibility, compared to the traditional CF, ADF and NDF analyses. A major advantage of the DF analysis is the capacity of recovering soluble fibres. The results suggested that ICE had higher ATTD of DF than DW, and this was caused by a tendency for a higher ATTD of cellulose, but further studies are required to verify that in general.

  5. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  6. Analysis of horse movements from non-commercial horse properties in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Rosanowski, S M; Cogger, N; Rogers, C W; Bolwell, C F; Benschop, J; Stevenson, M A

    2013-09-01

    To investigate property-level factors associated with the movement of horses from non-commercial horse properties, including the size and location of the property, number and reason for keeping horses. Using a cross-sectional survey 2,912 questionnaires were posted to randomly selected non-commercial horse properties listed in a rural property database. The survey collected information about the number of horses, and reasons for keeping horses on the property, and any movement of horses in the previous 12 months. Three property-level outcomes were investigated; the movement status of the property, the frequency of movement events, and the median distance travelled from a property. Associations were examined using logistic regression and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. In total 62.0% (488/791) of respondents reported at least one movement event in the year prior to the survey, for a total of 22,050 movement events. The number of movement events from a property varied significantly by the number of horses on the property (p<0.02), while the median distance travelled per property varied significantly by both region (p<0.03) and property size (p<0.01). Region, property size, the number of horses kept, and keeping horses for competition, recreation, racing or as pets were all significantly associated with movement status in the multivariable analyses (p<0.001). This study showed that there are characteristics of non-commercial horse properties that influence movement behaviour. During an exotic disease outbreak the ability to identify properties with these characteristics for targeted control will enhance the effectiveness of control measures.

  7. The impact of volcanic tephra on weathering and soil development of Icelandic Histosols, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonatotzky, Theresa; Ottner, Franz; Gísladóttir, Guðrún

    2017-04-01

    A mixture of poorly decomposed plant remains, crystalline volcanic material and intense aeolian deposition sets Icelandic Histosols apart from other Histosols in the northern hemisphere. They exhibit a unique combination of histic (organic) and andic soil characteristics. Allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite are common minerals in Icelandic soils while layer silicates are rare. The volcanically active area south of Vatnajökull has received numerous tephra deposits of varying thickness during Holocene. Two distinct tephra layers, the light coloured rhyolitic tephra from the Öræfajökull eruption in AD 1362 and a black basaltic tephra from a Veiðivötn fissure eruption within the Bárðarbunga volcanic system in AD 1477, are well preserved in the soils. This provides a unique opportunity to study weathering behaviour of tephra deposits of different composition and to examine their contrasting mineralogy and impact on soils south of Vatnajökull glacier. The investigated soils can be classified as Histosols with plant residues as parent material and influenced by volcanic ejecta (tephra) and aeolian material. Low pH (H2O) and high organic matter (OM) content are the two dominating factors influencing their weathering behaviour. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content was found to between 16 - 31%. As OM inhibits the formation of amorphous secondary minerals, the clay content in Icelandic soils is generally low while Al-humus complexes are predominant. The soil horizons developed from rhyolitic and basaltic tephra both show differences. Investigations of the mineralogy show small evidence of weathering in the basaltic V1477 tephra, whereas the rhyolitic volcanic ejecta has hardly altered since its formation.

  8. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  9. The Language Situation in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilmarsson-Dunn, Amanda; Kristinsson, Ari Pall

    2010-01-01

    Purist language policies in Iceland have preserved and modernized Icelandic up until the present time. However, the impact of globalization and global English has led to the perception that the language is less secure than in the past and has prompted efforts by policy makers towards greater protection of Icelandic. This monograph presents the…

  10. Aeolian Environments of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Dagsson Waldhauserová, Pavla

    2017-04-01

    Iceland has the largest area of volcaniclastic sandy desert on Earth or 22,000 km2. The sand has been mostly produced by glacio-fluvial processes, leaving behind fine-grained unstable sediments which are later re-distributed by repeated aeolian events. Volcanic eruptions add to this pool of unstable sediments, often from subglacial eruptions. Icelandic desert surfaces are divided into sand fields, sandy lavas and sandy lag gravel, each with separate aeolian surface characteristics such as threshold velocities. Storms are frequent due to Iceland's location on the North Atlantic Storm track. Dry winds occur on the leeward sides of mountains and glaciers, in spite of the high moisture content of the Atlantic cyclones. Surface winds often move hundreds to more than 1000 kg m-1 per annum, and more than 10,000 kg m-1 have been measured in a single storm. Desertification occurs when aeolian processes push sand fronts and have thus destroyed many previously fully vegetated ecosystems since the time of the settlement of Iceland in the late ninth century. There are about 135 dust events per annum, ranging from minor storms to >300,000 t of dust emitted in single storms. Dust can be generated from all the major sandy areas of Iceland; however the amount of finer particles that become dust varies with the surfaces. There are areas that produce more dust by far compared to the general sandy deserts; they have therefore been termed "dust plume areas" or "dust hot-spots". They are characterized by repeated charging of fine sediments with a relatively high proportion of finer (silty) materials which, upon repeated wind erosion become sorted downwind from the sources with loss of silt (dust) and an increasing saltation component (sand). Dust production is on the order of 30-40 million tons annually, some travelling over 1000 km and deposited on land and sea. Dust deposited on deserts tends to be re-suspended during subsequent storms. High PM10 concentrations occur during major dust

  11. Changing prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotypes in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Björnsdottir, Thora B; Stanzeit, Barbara; Sällberg, Matti; Löve, Arthur; Hultgren, Catharina

    2005-12-01

    At present eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes have been characterized: A to H. The most common genotype in Northern Europe is genotype A. So far there is no record of the specific HBV genotype distribution in Iceland. Iceland has a small population whose homogeneity has changed due to increasing migration during the past decades. The distribution of HBV genotypes in Iceland was analyzed using sera from 170 Icelandic patients. The samples were obtained before 1989, during an HBV epidemic among intravenous drug users in 1989 to 1992 and after 1994. A fragment of the HBV S-gene was amplified, sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Among samples derived before 1989 genotypes A, C, and D were found. Most of the samples diagnosed during the epidemic belonged to genotype D and a smaller portion to genotype A. This suggests that the epidemic was most likely caused either by an endogenous HBV strain or by a strain imported from Europe or the USA. Among samples obtained after 1994, genotypes A to E and G were found, but the majority were of genotypes A, C, and D. This is consistent with an increase in migration and immigration from regions in Asia and Africa during the past 10 years. Thus, the changing prevalence of HBV genotypes in a small isolated community such as Iceland reflects the influence of migration and increasing contacts with regions outside the Western World. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, inc.

  12. Midwifery in Iceland: From vocational training to university education.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Olof A; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2018-07-01

    Midwifery education is a foundation for health professionals' competence in providing quality healthcare for the benefit of women, their families and society. This paper describes midwifery and the development of midwifery education in Iceland. It examines policy and extensive reforms, from hospital-based vocational training in midwifery to an academic university education, and the impact on the scope of midwifery practice in Iceland. The university-based programme, with its emphasis on autonomy of the midwife, seems to have affected the context of home birth and strengthened midwives' role in primary healthcare. Education reform with a focus on evidence-based practice and midwife-led continuity of care has had limited influence within the hospital system, where the structure of care is fragmented and childbirth is under threat of increasing interventions. Research is needed on the role of education in supporting evidence-based practice, normal childbirth and reproductive health in the Icelandic context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthelmintic resistance in cyathostomins of brood horses in Ukraine and influence of anthelmintic treatments on strongylid community structure.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetyana A; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O

    2008-07-04

    In 2004-2006, 322 brood horses from 11 horse farms were examined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) to determine the presence and distribution of anthelmintic resistance in strongylids in Ukraine. The anthelmintic drugs "Albendazole-7.5" (7.5mg of albenazole, Ukraine) at a dose of 5mg per kg body weight and "Univerm" (0.2% aversectin C, Russia) at a dose of 0.5mg per kg body weight were used. Seventy-one horses from six farms were examined in vivo to investigate the influence of anthelmintic treatment on the gastrointestinal strongylid community structure. Horses were treated with anthelmintics; faecal sampling (200 g in each sample) for strongylid expulsion was performed 24, 36, 48 and 60 h after treatment; and all strongylids expelled (25,292 specimens) were collected and identified. Fourteen horses from the Dubrovsky horse farm were also examined to determine the benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomin species; 5208 specimens of benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomins were collected and identified. According to the FECRT data, benzimidazole resistance in strongylids was observed only at the Dubrovsky horse farm (FECRT=68.7%). No resistance to macrocyclic lactones in strongylids or in Parascaris equorum was observed. Twenty-nine strongylid species were found in horses from six horse farms. The number of species per horse ranged from 4-9 (5.8+/-1.5) to 10-20 (14.4+/-2.9) and depended on horse anthelmintic treatment strategies. From 4 to 13 strongylid species predominated (prevalence>66.7%) in the strongylid community. Eleven cyathostomin species (Cylicocyclus nassatus, C. ashworthi, C. leptostomum, Cyathostomum catinatum, C. pateratum, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. longibursatus, C. goldi, C. minutus, Coronocyclus coronatus and C. labiatus) were found to be resistant to benzimidazoles at the Dubrovsky horse farm. Ten of these were the dominant species in the strongylid community; only C. labiatus was a rare species (prevalence 29.4%). Species richness

  14. Management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Jørgensen, G H M; Mejdell, C M; Dahlborn, K

    2017-03-01

    Limited information is available on the extent to which blankets are used on horses and the owners' reasoning behind clipping the horse's coat. Research on the effects of those practices on horse welfare is scarce but results indicate that blanketing and clipping may not be necessary from the horse's perspective and can interfere with the horse's thermoregulatory capacities. Therefore, this survey collected robust, quantitative data on the housing routines and management of horses with focus on blanketing and clipping practices as reported by members of the Swedish and Norwegian equestrian community. Horse owners were approached via an online survey, which was distributed to equestrian organizations and social media. Data from 4,122 Swedish and 2,075 Norwegian respondents were collected, of which 91 and 84% of respondents, respectively, reported using blankets on horses during turnout. Almost all respondents owning warmblood riding horses used blankets outdoors (97% in Sweden and 96% in Norway) whereas owners with Icelandic horses and coldblood riding horses used blankets significantly less ( < 0.05). Blankets were mainly used during rainy, cold, or windy weather conditions and in ambient temperatures of 10°C and below. The horse's coat was clipped by 67% of respondents in Sweden and 35% of Norwegian respondents whereby owners with warmblood horses and horses primarily used for dressage and competition reported clipping the coat most frequently. In contrast to scientific results indicating that recovery time after exercise increases with blankets and that clipped horses have a greater heat loss capacity, only around 50% of respondents agreed to these statements. This indicates that evidence-based information on all aspects of blanketing and clipping has not yet been widely distributed in practice. More research is encouraged, specifically looking at the effect of blankets on sweaty horses being turned out after intense physical exercise and the effect of blankets

  15. Geographic Names of Iceland's Glaciers: Historic and Modern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigurðsson, Oddur; Williams, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Climatic changes and resulting glacier fluctuations alter landscapes. In the past, such changes were noted by local residents who often documented them in historic annals; eventually, glacier variations were recorded on maps and scientific reports. In Iceland, 10 glacier place-names are to be found in Icelandic sagas, and one of Iceland's ice caps, Snaefellsjokull, appeared on maps of Iceland published in the 16th century. In the late 17th century, the first description of eight of Iceland's glaciers was written. Therefore, Iceland distinguishes itself in having a more than 300-year history of observations by Icelanders on its glaciers. A long-term collaboration between Oddur Sigurdsson and Richard S. Williams, Jr., led to the authorship of three books on the glaciers of Iceland. Much effort has been devoted to documenting historical glacier research and related nomenclature and to physical descriptions of Icelandic glaciers by Icelanders and other scientists from as far back as the Saga Age to recent (2008) times. The first book, Icelandic Ice Mountains, was published by the Icelandic Literary Society in 2004 in cooperation with the Icelandic Glaciological Society and the International Glaciological Society. Icelandic Ice Mountains was a glacier treatise written by Sveinn Palsson in 1795 and is the first English translation of this important scientific document. Icelandic Ice Mountains includes a Preface, including a summary of the history and facsimiles of page(s) from the original manuscript, a handwritten copy, and an 1815 manuscript (without maps and drawings) by Sveinn Palsson on the same subject which he wrote for Rev. Ebenezer Henderson; an Editor's Introduction; 82 figures, including facsimiles of Sveinn Palsson's original maps and perspective drawings, maps, and photographs to illustrate the text; a comprehensive Index of Geographic Place-Names and Other Names in the treatise; References, and 415 Endnotes. Professional Paper 1746 (this book) is the second

  16. Social feeding decisions in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Krüger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit

    2008-05-01

    Like many other herbivores, in a natural environment equids feed on rather evenly distributed resources. However, the vegetation in their vast habitats constantly changes. If food is plentiful only little competition occurs over food, and in non-competitive situations domestic horses tend to return to the same feeding site until it is overgrazed. In contrast, they compete over limited food for which the social status of the individuals appears to be important. Especially in ruminants several studies have proved an influence of social organisations, rank, sex and the depletion of feeding sites on the feeding behaviour of individuals. However, it is not yet understood whether and how social aspects affect horses' feeding decisions. Curiosity about the influence of social rank on the horses' feeding decisions between two, equally with high-quality surplus food-filled buckets placed in different social feeding conditions, led us to create the test below. The observer horses were alternately tested with a dominant and a subordinate demonstrator placed in one of the three different positions. We conclude that domestic horses use social cognition and strategic decision making in order to decide where to feed in a social feeding situation. When possible they tend to return to the same, continuously supplied feeding site and switch to an "avoidance tendency" in the presence of dominant horses or when another horse is already feeding there. Thus, the social rank and the position of conspecifics affect the feeding strategy of horses.

  17. MABEL Iceland 2012 Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, William B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; De Marco, Eugenia L.; Reed, Daniel L.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Markus, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In March and April 2012, NASA conducted an airborne lidar campaign based out of Keflavik, Iceland, in support of Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) algorithm development. The survey targeted the Greenland Ice Sheet, Iceland ice caps, and sea ice in the Arctic Ocean during the winter season. Ultimately, the mission, MABEL Iceland 2012, including checkout and transit flights, conducted 14 science flights, for a total of over 80 flight hours over glaciers, icefields, and sea ice.

  18. Is earthquake rate in south Iceland modified by seasonal loading?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S.; Aoki, Y.; Drouin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Several temporarily varying processes have the potential of modifying the rate of earthquakes in the south Iceland seismic zone, one of the two most active seismic zones in Iceland. These include solid earth tides, seasonal meteorological effects and influence from passing weather systems, and variations in snow and glacier loads. In this study we investigate the influence these processes may have on crustal stresses and stressing rates in the seismic zone and assess whether they appear to be influencing the earthquake rate. While historical earthquakes in the south Iceland have preferentially occurred in early summer, this tendency is less clear for small earthquakes. The local earthquake catalogue (going back to 1991, magnitude of completeness < 1.0) has indeed more earthquakes in summer than in winter. However, this pattern is strongly influenced by aftershock sequences of the largest M6+ earthquakes, which occurred in June 2000 and May 2008. Standard Reasenberg earthquake declustering or more involved model independent stochastic declustering algorithms are not capable of fully eliminating the aftershocks from the catalogue. We therefore inspected the catalogue for the time period before 2000 and it shows limited seasonal tendency in earthquake occurrence. Our preliminary results show no clear correlation between earthquake rates and short-term stressing variations induced from solid earth tides or passing storms. Seasonal meteorological effects also appear to be too small to influence the earthquake activity. Snow and glacier load variations induce significant vertical motions in the area with peak loading occurring in Spring (April-May) and maximum unloading in Fall (Sept.-Oct.). Early summer occurrence of historical earthquakes therefore correlates with early unloading rather than with the peak unloading or unloading rate, which appears to indicate limited influence of this seasonal process on the earthquake activity.

  19. The Influence of the Size, Age and Sex on the Computed Tomographic Measured Size of the Pituitary Gland in Normal Horses.

    PubMed

    Crijns, C P; Van Bree, H J; Broeckx, B J G; Schauvliege, S; Van Loon, G; Martens, A; Vanderperren, K; Dingemanse, W B; Gielen, I M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of the size, age and sex of the horse on the size of the pituitary gland and determine the possibility of using the pituitary gland height-to-brain area ratio (P:B ratio) to allow comparison of different sized and aged horses. Thirty-two horses without pituitary pars inter-media dysfunction that underwent a contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) examination were included in a cross-sectional study. On the CT images, the pituitary gland height was measured and the P:B ratio was calculated. These measurements were correlated to the size, age and sex of the horses. The pituitary gland height was significantly associated with the size (P < 0.001) and the age (P < 0.001), but not with the sex (P = 0.40), of the horses. No significant association was found between the P:B ratio and the size (P = 0.25), the age (P = 0.06) or the sex (P = 0.25) of the horses. In conclusion, the pituitary gland size varies between different sized and aged horses. The use of the P:B ratio is a valuable metric for making comparisons between the pituitary glands of these horses. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-09

    Iceland, dressed in winter white, peaked through a hole in a complex system of clouds in late February, 2015. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured this true-color image on February 21 as it passed over the region. Ice and snow covers Iceland almost entirely, except for coastal regions in the southwest and southeast. The extensive, roughly H-shaped area in the southeast section of the island is Vatnajökull, Iceland’s largest glacier. Hidden underneath the ice lies Bardarbunga, a large subglacial stratovolcano. On August 31, 2014 the volcano began an eruption at two fissures to the north of the glacier and deposited a lava field that measured about 131 feet (40 meters) at its thickest points, and covered an area about 33 sq. mi (85 sq. km) by the time the eruption ended on February 27, 2015. The massive lava flow left its mark on Iceland – the cooled lava can be seen as the roughly oval black area to the north of the Vatnajökull glacier. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  1. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Ash from Eyjafjallajökull Volcano, Iceland Stretches over the North Atlantic   ... that occurred in late March 2010, the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano in Iceland began erupting again on April 14, 2010. The resulting ash ...

  2. Färoe-Iceland Ridge Experiment: 1. Crustal structure of northeastern Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staples, Robert K.; White, Robert S.; Brandsdottir, Bryndis; Menke, William; Maguire, Peter K.H.; McBride, John H.

    1997-01-01

    Results from the Färoe-Iceland Ridge Experiment (FIRE) constrain the crustal thickness as 19 km under the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland and 35 km under older Tertiary areas of northeastern Iceland. The Moho is defined by strong P wave and S wave reflections. Synthetic seismogram modeling of the Moho reflection indicates mantle velocities of at least 8.0 km/s beneath the Tertiary areas of northeastern Iceland and at least 7.9 km/s beneath the neovolcanic zone. Crustal diving rays resolve the structure of the upper and lower crust. Surface P wave velocities are 1.1–4.0 km/s in Quaternary rocks and are rather higher, 4.4–4.7 km/s, in the Tertiary basalts that outcrop elsewhere. The highest crustal P wave velocities observed directly from diving rays are 7.1 km/s, from rays that turn at 24 km depth. Velocities of 7.35 km/s at the base of the crust are inferred from extrapolation of the lower crustal velocity gradient (0.024 s−1). A Poisson's ratio of approximately 0.27, equivalent to an S wave to P wave travel time ratio of 1.78, is measured throughout the crust east of the neovolcanic zone. The Poisson's ratio and the steep Moho topography (in places up to 30° from the horizontal) indicate that the entire crust outside the neovolcanic zone is cool (<800°C). Gravity data are well matched by a velocity/density conversion of our seismic crustal model and indicate a region of low mantle density beneath the neovolcanic zone, believed to be due to elevated mantle temperatures. The crustal thickness in the neovolcanic zone is consistent with geochemical estimates of the melt generation, placing constraints on the flow within the Iceland mantle plume.

  3. Influence of riders' skill on plasma cortisol levels of horses walking on forest and field trekking courses.

    PubMed

    Ono, Ayaka; Matsuura, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Yumi; Sakai, Wakako; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Irimajiri, Mami; Hodate, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rider's skill on the plasma cortisol levels of trekking horses on two courses, walking on field and forest courses (about 4.5 to 5.1 km each). Three riders of different skills did horse trekking (HT) in a tandem line under a fixed order: advanced-leading, beginner-second and intermediate-last. A total of six horses were used and they experienced all positions in both courses; a total of 12 experiments were done. Blood samples were obtained before HT, immediately after and 2 h after HT. As a control, additional blood samples were obtained from the same horses on non-riding days. Irrespective of the course and the rider's skill, the cortisol level before HT was higher than that of control (P < 0.05). In both courses, the cortisol levels immediately after HT ridden by the advanced rider were higher than that of control (P < 0.05). However, in every case, the cortisol level 2 h after HT was closely similar to the level of the control. Thus, we concluded the stress of trekking horse was not sufficient to disturb the circadian rhythm of the cortisol level, irrespective of the course and the rider's skill. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Icelandic occupational therapists' attitudes towards educational issues.

    PubMed

    Asmundsd ttir, ELIN EBBA; Kaplan, SUSAN

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the readiness of occupational therapists in Iceland to accept a professional as opposed to a technical view of the profession. Most Icelandic occupational therapists were educated in other countries, with little emphasis on liberal arts, sciences and research. The first Icelandic occupational therapy programme, a university-level programme, was founded in 1997. All Icelandic occupational therapists were surveyed. Eighty-seven questionnaires were sent out and 80 (92%) were returned and used for statistical analysis. The results of the study showed that Icelandic occupational therapists valued academic skills over technical skills, emphasizing occupational therapy theory unique to the profession and research to validate practice. More recognition among other health professionals was considered the most needed change in the profession. The results of the study showed that the clinicians' attitudes confirmed in general what is emphasized in the curriculum and in students' fieldwork. Further research is needed to explore whether the Icelandic occupational therapy profession succeeds in promoting research and recognition by other health professions.

  5. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Brychta, Robert J.; Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Johannsson, Erlingur; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Marinac, Catherine R.; Davis, Megan; Koster, Annemarie; Caserotti, Paolo; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Harris, Tamara; Chen, Kong Y.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 ± 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger population-based longitudinal observational-cohort study in the greater Reykjavik area of Iceland. A subpopulation (n = 72) repeated the 7-day measurement during seasonal periods with greater (13.4 ± 1.4 h) and lesser (7.7 ± 1.8 h) daylight. Results: Cross-sectional analyses using multiple linear regression models revealed that day length was a significant independent predictor of sleep duration, mid-sleep, and rise time (all p < 0.05). However, the actual within-individual differences in sleep patterns of the repeaters were rather subtle between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. Compared to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 ± 80 vs. 487 ± 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 ± 18.3 vs. 40.2 ± 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar between men and women and between periods of longer and shorter day-lengths. BMI, age, gender, and overall PA all contributed to the variations in sleep parameters using multiple regression analysis. Conclusions: The sleep and PA characteristics of this unique population revealed some gender differences, but there was limited variation in response to significant daylight changes which may be due to long-term adaptation. Citation: Brychta RJ, Arnardottir NY, Johannsson E, Wright EC, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Marinac CR, Davis M, Koster A, Caserotti P, Sveinsson T, Harris T, Chen KY. Influence of day length and physical activity on sleep patterns in older Icelandic men and women. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):203–213. PMID:26414978

  6. Holocene and latest Pleistocene climate and glacier fluctuations in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Axford, Yarrow; Ólafsdóttir, Sædís

    2009-10-01

    most extensive ice margins since early Holocene deglaciation, with temperature depressions of 1-2 °C compared to the AD 1961-1990 average. Steep north-south and west-east temperature gradients are reconstructed in the Holocene records of Iceland, suggesting a strong maritime influence on the terrestrial climate of Iceland.

  7. Influence of primitive Biłgoraj horses on the glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus)-dominated understory in a mixed coniferous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klich, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the understory dominated by glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus via the influence of primitive horses were analyzed in a 28-year-old enclosure in the village of Szklarnia at the Biłgoraj Horse-Breeding Centre near Janów Lubelski (eastern Poland). The analysis was conducted in 20 circular plots (30 m2) defined in adjacent, similar forest stands (enclosed and control). Disturbance by the horses, mainly through trampling, caused numerous paths to form within the glossy buckthorn-dominated understory and led to a decrease in density of stems of lower height classes (30-80 and 81-130 cm, respectively). An increase in species diversity at the expense of glossy buckthorn density was also observed. The horses' trampling caused an increase in Padus avium density and the encroachment of other woody plant species that were less shade-tolerant and grew well in soils rich in nutrients. An increase in the density of woody plants over 180 cm above ground was observed within the enclosure, which was probably the result of the horses' excretion of feces. The results presented here provide new insight into the ecological role that horses play in forest-meadow landscape mosaics, which, via altering the development of vegetation, may contribute to an increase in biodiversity within forest habitats.

  8. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland.

    PubMed

    Torsvik, Trond H; Amundsen, Hans E F; Trønnes, Reidar G; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D; Griffin, William L; Werner, Stephanie C; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-04-14

    The magmatic activity (0-16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland--and especially the Öræfajökull volcano--is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated (87)Sr/(86)Sr and (207)Pb/(204)Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr-Nd-Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2-6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume.

  9. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in horses infected with equine infectious anaemia virus.

    PubMed

    Bolfă, Pompei Florin; Leroux, Caroline; Pintea, Adela; Andrei, Sanda; Cătoi, Cornel; Taulescu, Marian; Tăbăran, Flaviu; Spînu, Marina

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses the impact of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) infection on the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium of horses. Blood samples from 96 Romanian horses aged 1-25 years, were divided into different groups according to their EIAV-infection status, age, and time post-seroconversion. The effect of infection on oxidative stress was estimated by measuring enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and catalase), non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and carotenoids), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde [MDA]). Infection modified the oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in the horses, influencing GPx and uric acid levels (P<0.05). Time post-seroconversion also contributed to oxidative stress imbalance, exhibiting a significant influence on both SOD and MDA concentrations in the blood (P<0.05). Animal age did not have a significant influence on oxidative stress. Recently infected horses (<1 year following seroconversion), and horses >5 years old, represented the most vulnerable category in terms of oxidative stress, followed by recently infected animals <5 years old. The results of this study are novel in implicating EIAV infection in the development of oxidative stress in horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Olafsson, H.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and merged with results obtained from the Northeast Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust. Including codes 04-06 into the criteria for dust observations, the frequency was 135 dust days annually. The Sea Level Pressure (SLP) oscillation controlled whether dust events occurred in NE (16.4 dust days annually) or in southern part of Iceland (about 18 dust days annually). The most dust-frequent decade in S Iceland was the 1960s while the most frequent decade in NE Iceland was the 2000s. A total of 32 severe dust storms (visibility < 500 m) was observed in Iceland with the highest frequency during the 2000s in S Iceland. The Arctic dust events (NE Iceland) were typically warm and during summer/autumn (May-September) while the Sub-Arctic dust events (S Iceland) were mainly cold and during winter/spring (March-May). About half of dust events in S Iceland occurred in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. A good correlation was found between PM10 concentrations and visibility during dust observations at the stations Vik and Storhofdi. This study shows that Iceland is among the dustiest areas of the world and dust is emitted the year-round.

  12. Long-term variability of dust events in Iceland (1949-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Olafsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The long-term frequency of atmospheric dust observations was investigated for the southern part of Iceland and interpreted together with earlier results obtained from northeastern (NE) Iceland (Dagsson-Waldhauserova et al., 2013). In total, over 34 dust days per year on average occurred in Iceland based on conventionally used synoptic codes for dust observations. However, frequent volcanic eruptions, with the re-suspension of volcanic materials and dust haze, increased the number of dust events fourfold (135 dust days annually). The position of the Icelandic Low determined whether dust events occurred in the NE (16.4 dust days annually) or in the southern (S) part of Iceland (about 18 dust days annually). The decade with the most frequent dust days in S Iceland was the 1960s, but the 2000s in NE Iceland. A total of 32 severe dust storms (visibility < 500 m) were observed in Iceland with the highest frequency of events during the 2000s in S Iceland. The Arctic dust events (NE Iceland) were typically warm, occurring during summer/autumn (May-September) and during mild southwesterly winds, while the subarctic dust events (S Iceland) were mainly cold, occurring during winter/spring (March-May) and during strong northeasterly winds. About half of the dust events in S Iceland occurred in winter or at sub-zero temperatures. A good correlation was found between particulate matter (PM10) concentrations and visibility during dust observations at the stations Vík and Stórhöfði. This study shows that Iceland is among the dustiest areas of the world and that dust is emitted year-round.

  13. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Knight, H.D.; Burau, R.G.

    1973-05-01

    Chronic lead poisoning in horses was manifested as anorexia, loss of body weight, muscular weakness, anemia, laryngeal hemiplegia, and, terminally, inhalation pneumonia. Some deaths were sudden and unexplained. The lead content in liver specimens from 10 horses was greater than that considered indicative of lead intoxication; however, the lead content of blood was equivocal. The most conclusive laboratory finding was increased urine lead concentration after chelation therapy. The concentration of lead in a sample of vegetation considered to be representative of what a horse would eat if he was grazing in the area sampled was 325 ppM (oven-dry basis). Itmore » was determined that a 450-kg horse grazing grass of this lead content would consume 2.9 Gm of lead daily (6.4 mg/kg of body weight), an amount considered toxic for horses. Leaching lowered the calcium content of the forage but failed to reduce the lead concentration of the plants significantly, thus opening the possibility that winter rains might have influenced the onset of poisoning. Airborne fallout from a nearby lead smelter was proposed as the primary mode of pasture contamination.« less

  14. Religion, modernity and foreign nurses in Iceland 1896-1930.

    PubMed

    Björnsdóttir, Kristin; Malchau, Susanne

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the influence of foreign nurses upon the development of modern healthcare services and the nursing profession in Iceland in the first three decades of the twentieth century. It represents a case study of how new ideas, traditions and practices migrated between countries and cultures in the twentieth century. Icelandic society was, at that time, still premodern in many ways. Healthcare institutions were almost nonexistent and the means of production were undeveloped. It was into this context that the idea of nursing as a professional activity was introduced. Groups of nurses, the Catholic Sisters of St Joseph of Chambéry and secular nurses, mainly from Denmark, came to the country to organize and provide healthcare services, of which nursing was of central importance. These groups were diasporas, in that they brought traditions and practices from other cultures. The Sisters of St Joseph built, owned and ran the first modern hospital in the country. The Danish nurses introduced nursing as a specialized field of work, in leprosy and tuberculosis nursing and by initiating public health nursing services. They were instrumental in promoting education as an important condition to becoming a nurse, and the development of an Icelandic nursing profession. These nurses were generally respected by the Icelandic people for their contributions and were received with interest and appreciation. The healthcare services introduced by these different groups of nurses reflected modern ways of living and a commitment to professionalism, which involved providing assistance to patients based on the best knowledge available and a philosophy of respect and care.

  15. Increased risk of horse sensitization in southwestern Iranian horse riders.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Farjadian, Shirin; Hosseini, Zeynab; Raayat, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to investigate the frequency of sensitization to horse allergens and clinical symptoms in horse riders. A total of 42 horse riders and 50 healthy individuals were examined by means of skin prick tests for a panel of horse and common animal allergens, and pulmonary function tests were done by spirometry. The rate of sensitization to horse allergens was 31% as proven by the skin prick test in horse riders whereas horse sensitization was not seen in the control group. Occupational allergy symptoms were reported by 19 horse riders. Two horse riders with no history of clinical symptoms showed positive skin reactions to horse allergens. To decrease the high risk of occupational sensitization among horse riders, workplace conditions should be improved to reduce the load of airborne horse allergens. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Iceland Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-23

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, Volcano Ash Cloud     View larger ... Europe and captured this image of the Eyjafjallajökull Volcano ash cloud as it continued to drift over the continent. Unlike other ...

  17. Influence of the marinating type on the morphological and sensory properties of horse meat.

    PubMed

    Vlahova-Vangelova, Dessislava B; Abjanova, Sholpan; Dragoev, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of acid, alkaline and water-oil marinating on morphological changes and sensory properties of horse meat (m. Longissimus dorsi). Nine samples (C - control stored in air, AL - alkaline marinated in 2% polyphosphates and 2% sodium chloride brine solution, AC - acid marinated in 2% sodium lactate and 2% sodium chloride brine solution, WO - marinated in water-oil emulsion (50/50) contained and 2% sodium chloride and SC - marinated in 2% sodium chloride brine solution) were examined. After 24 h and 48 h of marinating changes in morphology of marinated meat, pH and sensory properties of raw and roasted samples were established. It was determined that sensory properties (aroma, flavor and tenderness) after roasting were classified as follows: AL48 > AL24 > AC24 > AC48 > SC48 > SC24 > WO24 > WO48 > С. Meat tenderness in AL48, AL24, AC24 and AC48 showed better results due to stronger morphological changes in connective and muscle tissues. Alkaline solutions were more suitable for horse meat marinating compared to acid solutions and the possible reason for strong action of alkaline solutions was lower internal meat pH. Alkaline marinating should be conducted for 24 h because after 48 h the meat acquires a soft and unusually tender texture. Water-oil marinating was not appropriate for horse meat.

  18. Holocene temperature history of northern Iceland inferred from subfossil midges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axford, Yarrow; Miller, Gifford H.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Langdon, Peter G.

    2007-12-01

    The Holocene temperature history of Iceland is not well known, despite Iceland's climatically strategic location at the intersection of major surface currents in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Existing terrestrial records reveal spatially heterogeneous changes in Iceland's glacier extent, vegetation cover, and climate over the Holocene, but these records are temporally discontinuous and mostly qualitative. This paper presents the first quantitative estimates of temperatures throughout the entire Holocene on Iceland. Mean July temperatures are inferred based upon subfossil midge (Chironomidae) assemblages from three coastal lakes in northern Iceland. Midge data from each of the three lakes indicate broadly similar temperature trends, and suggest that the North Icelandic coast experienced relatively cool early Holocene summers and gradual warming throughout the Holocene until after 3 ka. This contrasts with many sites on Iceland and around the high-latitude Northern Hemisphere that experienced an early to mid-Holocene "thermal maximum" in response to enhanced summer insolation forcing. Our results suggest a heightened temperature gradient across Iceland in the early Holocene, with suppressed terrestrial temperatures along the northern coastal fringe, possibly as a result of sea surface conditions on the North Iceland shelf.

  19. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-06-07

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid-horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection-polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent.

  20. Iceland’s Financial Crisis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-20

    distress. In particular, access to easy credit, a boom in domestic construction that fueled rapid economic growth, and a broad deregulation of...pressure on the value of the krona and worsened the trade deficit. As Iceland deregulated its commercial banks, those banks expanded to the United Kingdom...2007 valued at $9 billion. After Iceland deregulated its commercial banks, the banks expanded their operations abroad by acquiring subsidiaries in

  1. A multi-decadal study of Polar and Atlantic Water changes on the North Iceland shelf during the last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Simon, Margit; Berben, Sarah; Griem, Lisa; Dokken, Trond; Wacker, Lukas; Jansen, Eystein

    2017-04-01

    The region offshore North Iceland is known to be sensitive to broad scale climatic and oceanographic changes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Changes in surface and subsurface water conditions link to the varying influence of Polar-sourced East Icelandic Current (EIC) and Atlantic-sourced North Irminger Icelandic Current (NIIC). Cold/fresh Polar waters from the East Greenland Current feed the surface flowing EIC, while warm/saline Subpolar Mode Waters (SPMW) from the Irminger Current (IC) feed the subsurface flowing NIIC. Here, we present a new and well-dated multi-proxy record that allows high-resolution reconstruction of surface and subsurface water mass changes on the western North Iceland shelf. An age-depth model for the last Millennium has been developed based on the combined information from radionuclide measurements (137Cs, 210Pb) dating, 25 AMS 14C radiocarbon dates, and identified Tephra horizons. Our dating results provide further support to previous assumptions that North of Iceland a conventional reservoir age correction application of 400 years (ΔR=0) is inadequate (e.g., Eikíksson et al., 2000; Wanamaker Jr. et al., 2012). The combined evidence from radionuclide dating and the identified Tephra horizons point to a ΔR of c. 360 years during the last Millennium. Our benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblage and stable oxygen isotope (18O) record of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma s. (NPS) resolve the last Millennium at a centennial to multi-decadal resolution. Comparison of abundance changes of the Atlantic Water related species Cassidulina neoteretis and NPS, as well as the 18O record agree well with the instrumental data time series from the monitoring station Hunafloi nearby. This provides further support that our data is representative of relative temperature and salinity changes in surface and subsurface waters. Hence, this new record allows a more detailed investigation on the timing of Polar (EIC) and Atlantic (NIIC, IC) Water contribution

  2. Students' Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in Iceland and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gísli; Ólafsson, Brynjar; Autio, Ossi

    2012-01-01

    Craft education in both Finland and Iceland originated over 140 years ago and was influenced by the Scandinavian Sloyd pedagogy. Since then, the subject has moved away from craft and towards technology, with the aim being to increase students' technological abilities. In the beginning, the subject largely focused on the students copying artefacts,…

  3. Iceland: health system review.

    PubMed

    Sigurgeirsdóttir, Sigurbjörg; Waagfjörð, Jónína; Maresso, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the Icelandic health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Life expectancy at birth is high and Icelandic men and women enjoy longer life in good health than the average European. However, Icelanders are putting on weight, more than half of adult Icelanders were overweight or obese in 2004, and total consumption of alcohol has increased considerably since 1970. The health care system is a small, state centred, publicly funded system with universal coverage, and an integrated purchaser provider relationship in which the state as payer is also the owner of most organizations providing health care services. The country's centre of clinical excellence is the University Hospital, Landspitali, in the capital Reykjavik, which alone accounts for 70 percent of the total national budget for general hospital services. However, since 1990, the health system has become increasingly characterized by a mixed economy of care and service provision, in which the number and scope of private non profit and private for profit providers has increased. While Iceland's health outcomes are some of the best among OECD countries, the health care system faces challenges involving the financial sustainability of the current system in the context of an ageing population, new public health challenges, such as obesity, and the continued impact of the country's financial collapse in 2008. The most important challenge is to change the pattern of health care utilization to steer it away from the most expensive end of the health services spectrum towards more cost efficient and effective alternatives. To a large degree, this will involve renewed attempts to prioritize primary care as the first port of call for patients, and possibly to introduce a gatekeeping function for GPs in order to moderate the use of specialist services. World Health Organization 2014 (acting as

  4. mtDNA and the Origin of the Icelanders: Deciphering Signals of Recent Population History

    PubMed Central

    Helgason, Agnar; Sigurðardóttir, Sigrún; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Ward, Ryk; Stefánsson, Kári

    2000-01-01

    Previous attempts to investigate the origin of the Icelanders have provided estimates of ancestry ranging from a 98% British Isles contribution to an 86% Scandinavian contribution. We generated mitochondrial sequence data for 401 Icelandic individuals and compared these data with >2,500 other European sequences from published sources, to determine the probable origins of women who contributed to Iceland’s settlement. Although the mean number of base-pair differences is high in the Icelandic sequences and they are widely distributed in the overall European mtDNA phylogeny, we find a smaller number of distinct mitochondrial lineages, compared with most other European populations. The frequencies of a number of mtDNA lineages in the Icelanders deviate noticeably from those in neighboring populations, suggesting that founder effects and genetic drift may have had a considerable influence on the Icelandic gene pool. This is in accordance with available demographic evidence about Icelandic population history. A comparison with published mtDNA lineages from European populations indicates that, whereas most founding females probably originated from Scandinavia and the British Isles, lesser contributions from other populations may also have taken place. We present a highly resolved phylogenetic network for the Icelandic data, identifying a number of previously unreported mtDNA lineage clusters and providing a detailed depiction of the evolutionary relationships between European mtDNA clusters. Our findings indicate that European populations contain a large number of closely related mitochondrial lineages, many of which have not yet been sampled in the current comparative data set. Consequently, substantial increases in sample sizes that use mtDNA data will be needed to obtain valid estimates of the diverse ancestral mixtures that ultimately gave rise to contemporary populations. PMID:10712214

  5. [Icelanders' beliefs about medicines. Use of BMQ].

    PubMed

    Vilhelmsdottir, Hlif; Johannsson, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    To study beliefs held by the general public in Iceland about medicines. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire was used to explore Icelanders' beliefs about medicines. A sample of 1500 Icelandic citizens, aged 18-75, obtained from the Social Science Research Insti-tute was given The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire. The response rate was 61.6%. Most Icelanders have positive beliefs about their medication as well as general trust. Those who suffer from chronic diseases are more positive towards medicines than others and less inclined to view them as excessively used and harmful. Higher level of education predicts more positive beliefs towards medication - and vice versa. Gender and age do not seem to affect such beliefs. Gaining a better understanding of people´s beliefs about medicines and what determines these beliefs can be of considerable value in the search for ways to improve therapy and adherence, espe-cially for those suffering from chronic diseases. Promoting education for the general public about medicines might result in less mis-understanding among patients and subsequently better grounded -beliefs and more adequate therapeutic adherence. Key words: beliefs, medicines, Icelanders, BMQ, survey. Correspondence: Hlif Vilhelmsdottir, hlif84@gmail.com.

  6. Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in draught and warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Lepage, O M; Hartmann, D J; Eicher, R; Uebelhart, B; Tschudi, P; Uebelhart, D

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of the cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) and osteocalcin (OC) have been determined in the serum of one hundred clinically healthy adult Draught or Warmblood horses. The correlation between these two markers has been evaluated and the influence of gender, age and type of horse described. No significant variations were observed between animals of different sex, but a significant inverse correlation (P < 0.0001) with age was observed for both measured parameters. After correction for age, serum levels of OC were found to be lower in Draught [adjusted least square mean (LSM) = 6.612 micrograms.L-1] than in Warmblood horses (adjusted LSM = 8.596 micrograms.L-1), whereas levels of ICTP were higher in Draughts (adjusted LSM = 8.035 micrograms.L-1) than in Warmbloods (adjusted LSM = 6.643 micrograms.L-1). A significant correlation (P < 0.0001) was observed between OC and ICTP. This correlation was stronger if the type of horse was taken into account in the statistical model. The ratio OC:ICTP was independent of gender and age. A higher OC:ICTP ratio in Warmbloods compared to the Draught horses might reflect a higher bone remodelling level of horses submitted to regular daily work. It was concluded that ICTP and OC are influenced by the type of horse, and probably reflect a physiological difference in bone remodelling between these animals.

  7. Objective classification of different head and neck positions and their influence on the radiographic pharyngeal diameter in sport horses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Various head and neck positions in sport horses are significant as they can interfere with upper airway flow mechanics during exercise. Until now, research has focused on subjectively described head and neck positions. The objective of this study was to develop an objective, reproducible method for quantifying head and neck positions accurately. Results Determining the angle between the ridge of the nose and the horizontal plane (ground angle) together with the angle between the ridge of nose and the line connecting the neck and the withers (withers angle) has provided values that allow precise identification of three preselected head and neck positions for performing sport horses. The pharyngeal diameter, determined on lateral radiographs of 35 horses, differed significantly between the established flexed position and the remaining two head and neck positions (extended and neutral). There was a significant correlation between the pharyngeal diameter and the ground angle (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient −0.769, p < 0.01) as well as between the pharyngeal diameter and the withers angle (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient 0.774, p < 0.01). Conclusion The combination of the ground angle and the withers angle is a suitable tool for evaluating and distinguishing frequently used head and neck positions in sport horses. The ground angle and the withers angle show significant correlation with the measured pharyngeal diameter in resting horses. Hence, these angles provide an appropriate method for assessing the degree of head and neck flexion. Further research is required to examine the influence of increasing head and neck flexion and the related pharyngeal diameter on upper airway function in exercising horses. PMID:24886564

  8. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses

    PubMed Central

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A.; Alfarhan, Ahmed H.; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A.; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. PMID:27729493

  9. The Evolutionary Origin and Genetic Makeup of Domestic Horses.

    PubMed

    Librado, Pablo; Fages, Antoine; Gaunitz, Charleen; Leonardi, Michela; Wagner, Stefanie; Khan, Naveed; Hanghøj, Kristian; Alquraishi, Saleh A; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A; Der Sarkissian, Clio; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The horse was domesticated only 5.5 KYA, thousands of years after dogs, cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. The horse nonetheless represents the domestic animal that most impacted human history; providing us with rapid transportation, which has considerably changed the speed and magnitude of the circulation of goods and people, as well as their cultures and diseases. By revolutionizing warfare and agriculture, horses also deeply influenced the politico-economic trajectory of human societies. Reciprocally, human activities have circled back on the recent evolution of the horse, by creating hundreds of domestic breeds through selective programs, while leading all wild populations to near extinction. Despite being tightly associated with humans, several aspects in the evolution of the domestic horse remain controversial. Here, we review recent advances in comparative genomics and paleogenomics that helped advance our understanding of the genetic foundation of domestic horses. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On August 22, 2014 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Terra satellite captured a true-color image of a sunny summer day in Iceland. While most of the winter snow has melted to reveal green vegetation, the rugged northern peaks retain a snow cap. Further south bright white marks the location of glaciers. Situated in the southeast is Vatnajökull – the largest glacier in Europe and the site of Iceland’s highest mountain, Hvannadalshnjúkur. On August 20, scientists from the Icelandic Met Office closed all roads into the north of Vatnajökull Glacier due to increase seismic activity from the Bardarbunga volcano which lies under the ice cap in this area. On August 23, a small eruption was detected in Bardarbunga and the airspace near the activity was closed as a precautionary measure. Further study of the data suggested that no eruption had in fact occurred and airspace was opened under a code orange alert. Seismic activity remained high. On August 29, an eruption occurred north of Vatnajökull Glacier when a fissure, close to 1 km in length, opened up, and emitted lava at a slow pace. The eruption was short-lived, but on August 31 an eruption was confirmed in the same remote, uninhabited area. The Icelandic Meteorological Office reported that as of September 11 that eruption continued unabated. There has been no significant explosive activity, but lava flow has been the primary feature. High concentrations of sulfuric gases from the volcanic activity accompany the eruption, and are the primary health concern. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on

  11. An unexpected advantage of whiteness in horses: the most horsefly-proof horse has a depolarizing white coat

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Gábor; Blahó, Miklós; Kriska, György; Hegedüs, Ramón; Gerics, Balázs; Farkas, Róbert; Åkesson, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    White horses frequently suffer from malign skin cancer and visual deficiencies owing to their high sensitivity to the ultraviolet solar radiation. Furthermore, in the wild, white horses suffer a larger predation risk than dark individuals because they can more easily be detected. In spite of their greater vulnerability, white horses have been highly appreciated for centuries owing to their natural rarity. Here, we show that blood-sucking tabanid flies, known to transmit disease agents to mammals, are less attracted to white than dark horses. We also demonstrate that tabanids use reflected polarized light from the coat as a signal to find a host. The attraction of tabanids to mainly black and brown fur coats is explained by positive polarotaxis. As the host's colour determines its attractiveness to tabanids, this parameter has a strong influence on the parasite load of the host. Although we have studied only the tabanid–horse interaction, our results can probably be extrapolated to other host animals of polarotactic tabanids, as the reflection–polarization characteristics of the host's body surface are physically the same, and thus not species-dependent. PMID:20129982

  12. Assessing the Role of Free-Roaming Horses in a Social-Ecological System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Jonaki; Murphy, Stephen D.

    2015-08-01

    Management actions concerning free-roaming horses attract controversy in many areas. In the Chilcotin region of British Columbia, Canada, social and cultural values influence debates about management of free-roaming horses and perceptions of their ecological impacts. A dearth of current, empirical research on the role and impacts of horses in local ecosystems results in management decisions being informed largely by studies from other ecoregions and locations, which may not accurately represent local ecological, social, cultural, and economic influences. We initiated the first socio-ecological study of horse sub-populations, their grazing habitat, and past management approaches affecting current conditions in the ?Elegesi Qayuse Wild Horse Preserve in Xeni Gwet'in (Tsilhqot'in) First Nations' territory. This exploratory study used mixed methods including a review of literature and unpublished data, assessment of vegetation in core grazing habitat, and exploration of local ecological and cultural knowledge and perceptions. Plant community composition and abundance in core grazing habitat of the Wild Horse Preserve are consistent with a structurally sound ecosystem. Socio-cultural factors are important for managers to consider in effective decision-making concerning horse populations.

  13. Seafloor Spreading Reorganization South of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, R. N.; Martinez, F.; Benediktsdottir, A.; Hoskuldsson, A.

    2011-12-01

    There is a major ongoing diachronous reorganization of North Atlantic seafloor spreading occurring at present south of Iceland, from an orthogonal ridge/transform geometry to the present oblique spreading geometry without transform faults on the Reykjanes Ridge. This reorganization is presently interpreted as a thermal phenomenon, with a pulse of warmer mantle expanding away from the Iceland plume causing a progressive change in subaxial mantle rheology from brittle to ductile, so that transform faults can no longer be maintained. Given that this is certainly the most obvious and arguably the type-example of active plate boundary reorganization, it is somewhat surprising that a thermal mechanism has near universal acceptance here whereas most if not all other seafloor spreading reorganizations are equally universally thought to result from the tectonic rift propagation mechanism. This suggests the possibility that either the thermal model might be wrong here, or that the propagating rift (PR) model might be wrong elsewhere. The reason the PR alternative was ignored here was that the younger seafloor record flanking the Reykjanes Ridge consisting of V-shaped ridges, troughs & scarps (VSRs) enclosed by the reorganization wake seemed to prove that there had been no rift propagation. It had long been thought that these VSRs were symmetric about the spreading axis, & if this conventional wisdom (that led directly to the pulsing Iceland plume model) were true, rift propagation, which must produce asymmetry, could not have occurred. However, our expedition collected marine geophysical data that showed that the VSRs actually have an asymmetric geometry consistent with rift propagation, not with previous pulsing plume models, & thus they can no longer be considered convincing proof of a pulsing Iceland plume. Although we had previously noted that plume pulses might drive the propagators away from Iceland, a significant new result (Benediktsdóttir et al., 2011) is that

  14. Plague and landscape resilience in premodern Iceland.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Richard; Dugmore, Andrew J; Vésteinsson, Orri

    2012-03-06

    In debates on societal collapse, Iceland occupies a position of precarious survival, defined by not becoming extinct, like Norse Greenland, but having endured, sometimes by the narrowest of margins. Classic decline narratives for late medieval to early modern Iceland stress compounding adversities, where climate, trade, political domination, unsustainable practices, and environmental degradation conspire with epidemics and volcanism to depress the Icelanders and turn the once-proud Vikings and Saga writers into one of Europe's poorest nations. A mainstay of this narrative is the impact of incidental setbacks such as plague and volcanism, which are seen to have compounded and exacerbated underlying structural problems. This research shows that this view is not correct. We present a study of landscape change that uses 15 precisely dated tephra layers spanning the whole 1,200-y period of human settlement in Iceland. These tephras have provided 2,625 horizons of known age within 200 stratigraphic sections to form a high-resolution spatial and temporal record of change. This finding shows short-term (50 y) declines in geomorphological activity after two major plagues in A.D. 15th century, variations that probably mirrored variations in the population. In the longer term, the geomorphological impact of climate changes from the 14th century on is delayed, and landscapes (as well as Icelandic society) exhibit resilience over decade to century timescales. This finding is not a simple consequence of depopulation but a reflection of how Icelandic society responded with a scaling back of their economy, conservation of core functionality, and entrenchment of the established order.

  15. Mantle Convection beneath the Aegir Ridge, a Shadow in the Iceland Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Breivik, A. J.; Hanan, B. B.; Mjelde, R.; Sayit, K.; Vogt, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Hotspot has produced extensive volcanism spanning much of the ocean basin between Greenland and Norway, forming one of the world's largest igneous provinces. However, an apparent igneous "shadow" in hotspot activity is located at the fossil Aegir Ridge, which formed anomalously thin crust, despite this ridge being near the Iceland hotspot when it was active. The Aegir Ridge accommodated seafloor spreading northeast of present-day Iceland from the time of continental breakup at ~55 Ma until ~25 Ma, at which point spreading shifted west to the Kolbeinsey Ridge. To address the cause of the anomalously thin crust produced by the Aegir Ridge, we use three-dimensional numerical models to simulate the interaction between a mantle plume beneath the Iceland hotspot, rifting continental lithosphere, and the time-evolving North Atlantic ridge system. Two end-member hypotheses were investigated: (1) Material emanating from the Iceland mantle plume was blocked from reaching the Aegir Ridge by the thick lithosphere of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent as the Kolbeinsey Ridge began rifting it from Greenland at ~30 Ma, just east of the plume center; (2) Plume material was not blocked and did reach the Aegir Ridge, but had already experienced partial melting closer to the hotspot. This material was then unable to produce melt volumes at the Aegir Ridge comparable to those of pristine mantle. To test these hypotheses, we vary the volume flux and viscosity of the plume, and identify which conditions do and do not lead to the Aegir Ridge forming anomalously thin crust. Results show that the combination of plume material being drawn into the lithospheric channels beneath the Reykjanes Ridge and Kolbeinsey Ridge after their respective openings, and the impedance of plume flow by the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (hypothesis 1), can deprive the Aegir Ridge of plume influence. This leads to low crustal thicknesses that are comparable to those observed. We have yet to produce a model

  16. Continental crust beneath southeast Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Amundsen, Hans E. F.; Trønnes, Reidar G.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Gaina, Carmen; Kusznir, Nick J.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Corfu, Fernando; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Griffin, William L.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    The magmatic activity (0–16 Ma) in Iceland is linked to a deep mantle plume that has been active for the past 62 My. Icelandic and northeast Atlantic basalts contain variable proportions of two enriched components, interpreted as recycled oceanic crust supplied by the plume, and subcontinental lithospheric mantle derived from the nearby continental margins. A restricted area in southeast Iceland—and especially the Öræfajökull volcano—is characterized by a unique enriched-mantle component (EM2-like) with elevated 87Sr/86Sr and 207Pb/204Pb. Here, we demonstrate through modeling of Sr–Nd–Pb abundances and isotope ratios that the primitive Öræfajökull melts could have assimilated 2–6% of underlying continental crust before differentiating to more evolved melts. From inversion of gravity anomaly data (crustal thickness), analysis of regional magnetic data, and plate reconstructions, we propose that continental crust beneath southeast Iceland is part of ∼350-km-long and 70-km-wide extension of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent (JMM). The extended JMM was marginal to East Greenland but detached in the Early Eocene (between 52 and 47 Mya); by the Oligocene (27 Mya), all parts of the JMM permanently became part of the Eurasian plate following a westward ridge jump in the direction of the Iceland plume. PMID:25825769

  17. Veterinary and Equine Science Students’ Interpretation of Horse Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Gee, Erica; Martinez, Audrey; Bolwell, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Simple summary We assessed first-year veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students interpretation of expressive horse behaviours. Previous experience with horses appeared to influence the students’ perception of the horses’ behaviour. Qualitative assessments of horse behaviour may be a useful tool for assessing students’ knowledge of horse behaviour. Abstract Many veterinary and undergraduate equine science students have little previous horse handling experience and a poor understanding of horse behaviour; yet horses are one of the most unsafe animals with which veterinary students must work. It is essential for veterinary and equine students to learn how to interpret horse behaviour in order to understand demeanour and levels of arousal, and to optimise their own safety and the horses’ welfare. The study utilised a qualitative research approach to investigate veterinary science and veterinary technology and undergraduate equine science students’ interpretation of expressive behaviours shown by horses. The students (N = 127) were shown six short video clips and asked to select the most applicable terms, from a pre-determined list, to describe the behavioural expression of each individual horse. A wide variation of terms were selected by students and in some situations of distress, or situations that may be dangerous or lead to compromised welfare, apparently contradictory terms were also selected (happy or playful) by students with less experience with horses. Future studies should consider the use of Qualitative Behavioural Analysis (QBA) and free-choice profiling to investigate the range of terms used by students to describe the expressive demeanour and arousal levels of horses. PMID:28809810

  18. Public opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Óskarsson, Ýmir; Guðnason, Þórólfur; Jónsdóttir, Guðbjörg A; Kristinsson, Karl G; Briem, Haraldur; Haraldsson, Ásgeir

    2015-12-16

    In recent years, vaccine preventable diseases such as measles and pertussis have been re-emerging in Western countries, maybe because of decreasing participation in childhood vaccination programs in some countries. There is clear evidence for vaccine efficacy and the risk of adverse effects is low. This needs to be communicated to the general public. The aim of the study was to evaluate the public opinion on childhood vaccinations in Iceland. An internet based study was used to evaluate the opinion on childhood immunisations in Iceland. The cohort was divided in three groups: (a) general public (b) employees of the University Hospital Iceland and (c) employees (teachers and staff) of the University of Iceland. The cohorts could be stratified according to age, gender, education, household income, parenthood and residency. Responses were received from 5584 individuals (53% response rate). When asked about childhood vaccinations in the first and second year of life, approximately 95% of participants were "positive" or "very positive", approximately 1% were "negative" or "very negative". When participants were asked whether they would have their child immunized according to the Icelandic childhood vaccination schedule, 96% were "positive" or "very positive", 1.2% were "negative" or "very negative". Similarly, 92% trust Icelandic Health authorities to decide on childhood vaccination schedule, 2.3% did not. In total, 9.3% "rather" or "strongly" agreed to the statement "I fear that vaccinations can cause severe adverse effects", 17.5% were undecided and 66.9% "disagreed" or "strongly disagreed". Individuals with higher education were more likely to disagree with this statement (OR=1.45, CI95=1.29-1.64, p<0.001) as did males (OR=1.22, CI95=1.087-1.379, p=0.001). This study shows a very positive attitude towards vaccinations raising expectations for an ongoing success in preventing preventable communicable diseases in childhood in Iceland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  19. Evaluating nature and wilderness in Iceland

    Treesearch

    Thora Ellen Thorhallsdottir

    2002-01-01

    Iceland is sparsely populated with towns and farms mostly restricted to coastal lowlands. The country’s ca 50,000 km2 (19,000 mi2) interior is an uninhabited highland with isolated mountains and large glaciers. At present, only a small part of Iceland’s rich geothermal and hydroelectric resources have been harnessed, but if political commitments to largescale...

  20. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P < 0.001) and was partially reciprocated by a 6.0% increase in resting (F1,154 = 7.629, P = 0.006), 0.9% increase in maintenance (F1,154 = 7.028, P = 0.009), and 1.8% increase in social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors

  1. Spotted phenotypes in horses lost attractiveness in the Middle Ages

    PubMed Central

    Wutke, Saskia; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Döhle, Hans-Jürgen; Friederich, Susanne; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Hofreiter, Michael; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Horses have been valued for their diversity of coat colour since prehistoric times; this is especially the case since their domestication in the Caspian steppe in ~3,500 BC. Although we can assume that human preferences were not constant, we have only anecdotal information about how domestic horses were influenced by humans. Our results from genotype analyses show a significant increase in spotted coats in early domestic horses (Copper Age to Iron Age). In contrast, medieval horses carried significantly fewer alleles for these phenotypes, whereas solid phenotypes (i.e., chestnut) became dominant. This shift may have been supported because of (i) pleiotropic disadvantages, (ii) a reduced need to separate domestic horses from their wild counterparts, (iii) a lower religious prestige, or (iv) novel developments in weaponry. These scenarios may have acted alone or in combination. However, the dominance of chestnut is a remarkable feature of the medieval horse population. PMID:27924839

  2. Prevalence of clinical findings at examinations of young Swedish warmblood riding horses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soundness of an individual horse is important for animal welfare and owner economy. However, knowledge of health status in normal horse populations is limited due to lack of systematic health recordings. The aim of the investigation was to study the prevalence of veterinary clinical findings in 4-5-year-old Swedish warmblood riding horses, and their influence on overall health scores, where associations to future longevity has been indicated. Results The prevalence of clinical findings in 8,281 horses examined during 1983–2005 was studied according to a standardised protocol and related to overall health scores in linear statistical models. Effects of sex, age, examination event and changes over time were included. In total, 49% of the horses had clinical findings of medical health (MED), 42% in hooves (HOOF) and 74% of palpatory orthopaedic health (PALP). However, only 6%, 3% and 24% had moderate or severe findings, of MED, HOOF and PALP, respectively. Flexion test reactions were reported in 21% of the horses (5% moderate/severe), heavily influencing the overall score (H2). One fifth of these horses also had findings of unprovoked lameness while 83% had PALP findings (44% with moderate/severe findings). Acute clinical signs, i.e. heat or soreness, had a large influence on the H2 score but were rare, whereas more common clinical findings had smaller effects on overall health. Large variations in recorded health results were observed among events. A decrease in findings has occurred since 1983, in particular for PALP findings. Conclusions Results of occurrence and relevance of evaluated clinical findings could be used for advice on preventive actions to keep horses sound, and possibly for benchmarking, and genetic evaluation of health traits. The distinct effect of event on recorded clinical findings emphasises that further harmonisation of veterinary examinations are desirable. PMID:23597257

  3. Man against volcano: The eruption on Heimaey, Vestmann Islands, Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, R.S.; Moore, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey carries out scientific studies in the geological, hydrological, and cartographic sciences generally within the 50 states, but also in cooperation with scientific organizations in many foreign countries for the investigation of unusual earth science phenomena throughout the world. The following material discusses the impact of the 1973 volcanic eruption of Eldfell on the fishing port of Vestmannaeyjar on the island of Heimaey, Iceland. Before the eruption was over, approximately one-third of the town of Vestmannaeyjar had been obliterated but, more importantly, the potential damage had been reduced markedly by the spraying of seawater onto the advancing lava flows, causing them to be slowed, stopped, or diverted from the undamaged portion of the town. The Survey's interest and involvement in the Heimaey eruption in Iceland was occasioned by the possibility that the procedures used to control the course of the flowing lava and to reduce the damage in a modern town may some day be needed in Hawaii and possibly even in the continental United States. This publication is based on the observations of two USGS geologists, Richard S. Williams, Jr. and James G. Moore, as well as on information from the Icelandic Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Icelandic scientists' reports through the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena, and other published scientific reports. A number of Icelandic scientists studied the scientific aspects of the eruption and the engineering aspects of the control of lava flows, in particular, Professors Thorbjb'rn Sigurgeirsson and Sigurdur Thorarinsson of the University of Iceland Science Institute. Also, Icelandic governmental officials provided logistical and other support, in particular, Mr. Steingnmur Hermannsson, Director, Icelandic National Research Council and Professor Magnus Magnusson, Director, University of Iceland Science Institute.

  4. Examining Teaching Practices in Design and Craft Education in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Olafsson, Brynjar

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a survey which aimed to examine the present situation in Design and Craft Education (D&C) in Iceland in terms of teachers' general standing and their teaching inside the Icelandic elementary schools. A questionnaire was sent to 170 D&C teachers in Icelandic elementary schools. The questionnaire was completed by 101…

  5. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic horses in Durango State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Rodríguez-Peña, S; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were assessed in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 30 (6.1%) of 495 horses, with MAT titers of 1:25 in 19, 1:50 in 6, and 1:100 in 5. Seropositive horses were found in 8 (44.4%) of 18 farms sampled in all 3 municipalities. Age, gender, and breed of horses did not influence significantly the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. The seroprevalence in horses was higher in rural (7.8%) versus urban (0%) areas, and in larger herds (30-64 horses, 7.8%) versus smaller ones (3-28, 3.5%). The seroprevalence was higher in stall fed (16.5%) than in pastured horses (3.1%). Results indicate that infected horses represent a potential source of T. gondii infection for humans in Mexico. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in horses in Mexico.

  6. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    PubMed

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  7. Influence of Rhodococcus equi on the respiratory burst of resident alveolar macrophages from horses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brumbaugh, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is the etiologic agent of a devastating pneumonia of sporadic incidence in foals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of R. equi on the superoxide anion production, measured spectrophotometrically as the reduction of cytochrome C, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity, measured by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ liberation from /sup 14/C-1-D-glucose, of alveolar macrophages from horses. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 6 anesthetized, healthy, light-breed, adult horses by bronchoalveolar lavage. Following a randomized complete block design, the suspension of cells was divided into aliquots of 10/sup 6/ viable alveolar macrophages which were exposed to 1, 10more » or 100 g. of opsonized R. equi or opsonized zymosan A at 37 C for 2 hours. In this study the respiratory burst of equine alveolar macrophages was only evidenced by the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and superoxide anion was not coincidentally produced. Rhodococcus equi did not adversely affect that response. The insignificant superoxide anion production by the alveolar macrophages suggests that this may not be a significant oxygen metabolite in those cells.« less

  8. Where are the horses? With the sheep or cows? Uncertain host location, vector-feeding preferences and the risk of African horse sickness transmission in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Lo Iacono, Giovanni; Robin, Charlotte A.; Newton, J. Richard; Gubbins, Simon; Wood, James L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the influence of non-susceptible hosts on vector-borne disease transmission is an important epidemiological problem. However, investigation of its impact can be complicated by uncertainty in the location of the hosts. Estimating the risk of transmission of African horse sickness (AHS) in Great Britain (GB), a virus transmitted by Culicoides biting midges, provides an insightful example because: (i) the patterns of risk are expected to be influenced by the presence of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts (cattle and sheep) and (ii) incomplete information on the spatial distribution of horses is available because the GB National Equine Database records owner, rather than horse, locations. Here, we combine land-use data with available horse owner distributions and, using a Bayesian approach, infer a realistic distribution for the location of horses. We estimate the risk of an outbreak of AHS in GB, using the basic reproduction number (R0), and demonstrate that mapping owner addresses as a proxy for horse location significantly underestimates the risk. We clarify the role of non-susceptible vertebrate hosts by showing that the risk of disease in the presence of many hosts (susceptible and non-susceptible) can be ultimately reduced to two fundamental factors: first, the abundance of vectors and how this depends on host density, and, second, the differential feeding preference of vectors among animal species. PMID:23594817

  9. Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular Function in Healthy Horses and in Horses with Heart Disease Using Pulsed-Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging.

    PubMed

    Koenig, T R; Mitchell, K J; Schwarzwald, C C

    2017-03-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is not well established in horses with heart disease. To describe the use of pulsed-wave (PW) TDI for the assessment of LV function, establish reference intervals, investigate effects of mitral regurgitation (MR), aortic regurgitation (AR), and primary myocardial disease (MD), and provide proof of concept for the use of PW TDI in Warmblood horses with heart disease. Thirty healthy horses, 38 horses with MR, 25 with AR, 8 with MD. Echocardiograms were retrospectively analyzed. Reference intervals were calculated. PW TDI indices of healthy horses and horses with MR, AR, and MD were compared by one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's test. A complete set of PW TDI variables could be obtained in 94 of 101 horses. Variables corresponding to isovolumic intervals were most difficult to measure. Valvular regurgitation influenced variables describing isovolumic contraction and ejection. Horses with MD had significantly shortened ET m (-118.5 [-154.1 to -82.9] ms; mean difference [95% CI of difference of means]), increased PEP m /ET m (0.11 [0.05 to 0.17]), prolonged IMP m (0.28 [0.18 to 0.37]), increased S 1 (8.9 [5.2 to 12.6] cm/s), and decreased E 1 (-2.6 [-4.7 to -0.5] cm/s), E m (-14.2 [-19.9 to -8.5] cm/s), and E m /A m ratio (-1.6 [-2.6 to -0.6]). Pulsed-wave TDI might be useful for detection of LV dysfunction in horses with primary MD. The clinical value of TDI in horses with MR and AR remains uncertain. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. The Relevance of English Language Instruction in a Changing Linguistic Environment in Iceland: The L2 Self of Young Icelanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeeves, Anna

    2014-01-01

    In this study perceptions of post-compulsory school studies in Iceland were investigated through semi-structured interviews. While colloquial English suffices for entertainment, hobbies and Internet use in Iceland, a high level of proficiency is required for employment and tertiary study. School learners and young people in tertiary study and…

  11. Societal Influences on Children's Psychology: The Schools in Iceland and Singapore Promote Prosocial Values, Positive Self-Concepts, and Achievement in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    In most ways the island nations of Iceland and Singapore could not be more different from each other: Iceland is sparsely populated, located near the Arctic Circle, and a very free and individualistic democratic society; Singapore is densely populated, located near the equator, and a very regulated and collectivist meritocracy. But both nations…

  12. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  13. Influences of different dietary contents of macrominerals on the availability of trace elements in horses.

    PubMed

    Neustädter, L-T; Kamphues, J; Ratert, C

    2018-04-01

    In this study, influences of a reduced macromineral intake on the trace element metabolism in horses at maintenance were investigated. Background of this study is the revised recommendation on the macromineral supply for horses (GfE ). Balance studies on three adult pony geldings with body weights of 405 / 348 / 384 kg were performed to obtain data on apparent digestibility (aD), retention and serum concentrations of different trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se) at different dietary macromineral levels. A mineral supplement or a complementary feed-with a reduced macromineral content-was added to a hay-based diet (daily 5.5 kg hay per animal, split in three servings a day), beside distilled water was offered. The diets were offered one after the other in a way that all ponies had the same sequence of treatments. The native macromineral contents of the daily offered amount of hay already surpassed the new recommendations whereas dietary trace elements needed to be supplemented. There were no statistically significant differences (p ≤ .05) concerning the aD of copper, zinc and selenium comparing the diets with and without macromineral supplementation. Serum levels of these three trace elements were not affected by the different macromineral content of the diet. Results of this study, based on a 22-day feeding period for each treatment, indicate that a macromineral supplementation of a hay-based diet for adult horses at maintenance was not necessary. However, no negative effects of added macrominerals on the trace element metabolism occurred in this study. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Mathematics and Your Horse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Cathy A.

    This unit is designed to help middle school students care for a real or imaginary horse while they review basic mathematics skills. Sections in this unit include: (1) "Statistics of Your Horse"; (2) "A Home for Your Horse"; (3) "Feeding Your Horse"; (4) "Equipping Your Horse"; (5) "Showing at Halter"; (6) "Working Hunter"; (7) "Open Jumping"; (8)…

  15. Before the 'Big Chill': Patterns of plant-insect associations from the Neogene of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wappler, Torsten; Grímsson, Friðgeir

    2016-07-01

    Iceland is the only known terrestrial place in the subarctic North Atlantic providing a fairly continuous sedimentary and plant fossil record over the past 15 million years. While the basic palaeobotanical framework of this pattern has been well established during the last decade, less attention has been paid to the abundant insect traces on fossil leaves/leaflets. Here, we assess the diversity and frequency of insect herbivory on 4349 fossil angiosperm leaves/leaflets from six plant-bearing sedimentary formations exposed at 18 localities. By combining analyses of environmental factors, species interactions, ecology, biogeography, and the geological history, our results demonstrate how patterns of herbivory have changed over time in relation to temperature fluctuations that profoundly influenced levels of insect-mediated damage diversity and frequency. In addition, higher structural complexity, particularly the establishment of species-rich herb layer communities seems to have positively influenced the structure of insect communities in early late Miocene palaeoforests of Iceland.

  16. Comparison between the robo-horse and real horse movements for hippotherapy.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji H; Shurtleff, Timothy; Engsberg, Jack; Rafferty, Sandy; You, Joshua Y; You, Isaac Y; You, Sung H

    2014-01-01

    While the novel robotic hippotherapy system has gradually gained clinical application for therapeutic intervention on postural and locomotor control in individuals with neurological or musculoskeletal impairments, the system's validity and reliability for the robotic hippotherapy system has not been well established. The objective of the current study was to investigate the validity and test-retest reliability of the robotic hippotherapy system by comparing with real horse movements. The 3-axis accelerometer sensors attached on the robotic and real horse saddles were used to collect 3-dimensional acceleration data at a preferred walking velocity. Linear regression analysis showed an excellent correlation in the time-to-peak acceleration (TPA) (R(2)=0.997), but little correlation in X-axis acceleration between the real and robotic horses (R(2)=0.177), thus confirming consistent time control and a certain degree of variability between the robotic and real horse movements. The mean resultant accelerations for a real horse and robotic horse were 3.22 m/s(2) and 0.67 m/s(2), respectively, accounting for almost five times greater acceleration in the real horse than the robotic horse.

  17. Icelandic Analogs for Volcanic and Fluvial Processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A.; Burr, D.; Hardardottir, J.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Keszthelyi, L.; Lanagan, P.; Snorrason, A.; Thordarson, T.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland has proven to be an excellent location to study a wide range of Martian geologic analogs. Among these are basaltic volcanism and aqueous flooding--key geologic processes that have shaped the Martian surface and that remain active in Iceland. On both Mars and Iceland, volcanic units are interfingered in space and time with fluvial units. Well-preserved flood lavas in SE Elysium Planitia, Amazonis Planitia, and portions of the Tharsis rise are dominated by a distinctive morphology of plates and ridges, very similar to the "apalhraun" or "rubbly pahoehoe" of Iceland (Keszthelyi and Thordarson, 2000, GSA Abstract 52593). On both Iceland and Mars there are marginal regions of undisrupted inflated pahoehoe, small rootless cones, and long parallel structures in the wake of topographic obstacles. The Icelandic paleoflood channels of Jokulsa a Fjollum, extending from the Vatnajokull ice cap to the north coast, have eroded basaltic plains and provide many insights into morphologies seen on Mars. The manner in which different types of lava erode in a catastrophic flood is well illustrated and sometimes surprising. For example, there are channel floors where the crusts of inflated lavas have been completely stripped off by the floodwater, but then suddenly transitions upstream into a stretch with almost no erosion--even the cm-scale pahoehoe ropes are intact. This implies that significant aqueous floods could have occurred over some well-preserved lava flows on Mars. A streamlined "island" or mesa extending downstream from the volcanic crater Hrossaborg in Iceland appears to be mixture of remobilized older glacial deposits and a debris flow deposit. The debris flow apparently formed by collapse of the western outer crater slopes into the active floodwaters, diverting the flow northward; this process may have occurred on Mars at some of the impact craters eroded by outflow channels.

  18. Iceland as a Model for Chemical Alteration on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Schiffman, P.; Murad, E.; Southard, R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Subglacial volcanic activity on Iceland has led to the formation of a variety of silicate and iron oxide-rich alteration products that may serve as a model for chemical alteration on Mars. Multiple palagonitic tuffs, altered pillow lavas, hydrothermal springs and alteration at glacial run-off streams were observed during a recent field trip in Iceland. Formation of alteration products and ferrihydrite in similar environments on Mars may have contributed to the ferric oxide-rich surface material there. The spectral and chemical properties of Icelandic alteration products and ferrihydrites are presented here.

  19. [Infection risks associated with importation of fresh food in Iceland].

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Karl G; Georgsson, Franklín

    2015-06-01

    Access to safe food is a privilege for people living in Iceland. Rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance, related to factory farming and antimicrobial use in agriculture, is a major threat to public health. Increasing food trade between countries and continents facilitates global spread of pathogens and resistance. Icelandic agriculture has benefitted from its isolation and small size. After interventions to reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter and Salmonella at poultry farms, the incidence of human campylobacteriolsis is 17-43/100.000, of which about half is domestically acquired and Salmonella infections 10-15/100.000 mainly acquired abroad. Since Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) has not been detected in domestic cattle, the low incidence of infections is not surprising (0-0.6/100.000/year). A recent outbreak due to a multiresistant EHEC strain was traced to imported lettuce. Antimicrobial use in Icelandic agriculture is among the lowest in Europe and domestic infections caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter are rarely caused by resistant strains. Carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae have not been found in Iceland. Low use of antimicrobials in Icelandic agriculture and actions to limit the spread of Campylobacter and Salmonella have been successful. The public should be informed of the importance of the origin of food and that Icelandic food products are among the safest.

  20. Recent saltmarsh foraminiferal assemblages from Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lübbers, Julia; Schönfeld, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    This study reports for the first time boreal to subarctic intertidal foraminiferal assemblages from saltmarshes at Borgarnes and Faskrudsfjördur on Iceland. The composition of living and dead foraminiferal assemblages was investigated along transects from the tidal flat to the highest reach of halophytic plants. The foraminiferal assemblages from Borgarnes showed 18 species in the total foraminiferal assemblage of which only 7 species were recorded in the living fauna. The assemblages were dominated by agglutinated taxa, whereas 3 calcareous species were recorded, of which only Haynesina orbicularis was found in the living fauna. The distribution limit of calcifying species corresponds to the lower boundary of the lower saltmarsh vegetation zone. Furthermore, calcareous tests showed many features of dissolution, which is an indication of a carbonate corrosive environment. The species forming the dead assemblages were mainly derived from the ambient intertidal areas and were displaced by tidal currents into the saltmarsh. The foraminiferal assemblages from Faskrudsfjördur showed two species, of which only one species was recorded in the living fauna. The assemblage was dominated by the agglutinated foraminifer Trochaminita irregularis. The foraminiferal species recorded on Iceland were the same as commonly found elsewhere in Europa. Since no species was found which is endemic to North America, Iceland is considered part of the European bio province. The foraminiferal could have been immigrated to Iceland from Europe through warm water currents, migratory birds or marine traffic since the last Ice Age.

  1. A preventive immunization approach against insect bite hypersensitivity: Intralymphatic injection with recombinant allergens in Alum or Alum and monophosphoryl lipid A.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Svansson, Vilhjalmur; Stefansdottir, Sara Bjork; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Rhyner, Claudio; Marti, Eliane; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2016-04-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is an IgE-mediated dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides insects, not indigenous to Iceland. Horses born in Iceland and exported to Culicoides-rich areas are frequently affected with IBH. The aims of the study were to compare immunization with recombinant allergens using the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide (Alum) alone or combined with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) for development of a preventive immunization against IBH. Twelve healthy Icelandic horses were vaccinated intralymphatically three times with 10 μg each of four recombinant Culicoides nubeculosus allergens in Alum or in Alum/MPLA. Injection with allergens in both Alum and Alum/MPLA resulted in significant increase in specific IgG subclasses and IgA against all r-allergens with no significant differences between the adjuvant groups. The induced antibodies from both groups could block binding of allergen specific IgE from IBH affected horses to a similar extent. No IgE-mediated reactions were induced. Allergen-stimulated PBMC from Alum/MPLA horses but not from Alum only horses produced significantly more IFNγ and IL-10 than PBMC from non-vaccinated control horses. In conclusion, intralymphatic administration of small amounts of pure allergens in Alum/MPLA induces high IgG antibody levels and Th1/Treg immune response and is a promising approach for immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy against IBH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Re-Thinking Sustainable Education Systems in Iceland: The Net-University Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Frank; Johannesdottir, Sigurbjorg

    2011-01-01

    The recent economic crisis in Iceland has raised issues of the sustainability of Icelandic higher education to new levels of importance. A key strategy in relation to this economic crisis is to consider the merger of the four public universities in Iceland and to introduce a much higher engagement with online and open delivery methods of higher…

  3. Management implications of the ecology of free-roaming horses in semiarid ecosystems of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Compared to other ungulates of North America, free-roaming horses (Equus caballus) possess a unique evolutionary history that has given rise to a distinct suite of behavioral, morphological, and physiological traits. Because of their unique combination of cecal digestion, an elongate head with flexible lips, and non-uniform use of the landscape, horses represent a unique disturbance agent in semi-arid ecosystems of the western United States. Consequently, it is inappropriate to assume that influences of horses on the structure, composition, function, and pattern of arid and semi-arid ecosystems will mirror influences of cattle or other artiodactyls. Although management areas for free-roaming horses occupy 18.6 million ha of land across western North America, we know relatively little about how western ecosystems and their components have responded to this uniquely managed ungulate. I draw on my research of horse habitats in the western Great Basin (U.S.A.) to examine predictions of horses' unique influence, and advocate for continued research to refine our understanding of synecological relationships among horses and diverse ecosystem components in arid and semi-arid regions. 

  4. Iceland's Grímsvötn volcano erupts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    About 13 months after Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano began erupting on 14 April 2010, which led to extensive air traffic closures over Europe, Grímsvötn volcano in southeastern took its turn. Iceland's most active volcano, which last erupted in 2004 and lies largely beneath the Vatnajökull ice cap, began its eruption activity on 21 May, with the ash plume initially reaching about 20 kilometers in altitude, according to the Icelandic Meteorological Office. Volcanic ash from Grímsvötn has cancelled hundreds of airplane flights and prompted U.S. president Barack Obama to cut short his visit to Ireland. As Eos went to press, activity at the volcano was beginning to subside.

  5. Icelandic for Adult Foreigners: Effects of Imposing an Icelandic Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Pamela; Skaptadóttir, Unnur Dís

    2017-01-01

    Legislation linking language course attendance and passage of a language test for residence visas and citizenship, respectively, was enacted in Iceland in the early 2000s. Curricular guidelines and the language test were developed as a result. Research in other countries suggests such structures cause teachers to create "de facto"…

  6. Extratropical Cyclones near Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-22

    A cyclone is a low-pressure area of winds that spiral inwards. Although tropical storms most often come to mind, these spiraling storms can also form at mid- and high latitudes. Two such cyclones formed in tandem in November 2006. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA’s Terra satellite took this picture on November 20. This image shows the cyclones south of Iceland. Scotland appears in the lower right. The larger and perhaps stronger cyclone appears in the east, close to Scotland. Cyclones at high and mid-latitudes are actually fairly common, and they drive much of the Earth’s weather. In the Northern Hemisphere, cyclones move in a counter-clockwise direction, and both of the spiraling storms in this image curl upwards toward the northeast then the west. The eastern storm is fed by thick clouds from the north that swoop down toward the storm in a giant “V” shape on either side of Iceland. Skies over Iceland are relatively clear, allowing some of the island to show through. South of the storms, more diffuse cloud cover swirls toward the southeast. Credit: NASA NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  7. Mapping of magnetic chrons: paleomagnetic polarity map of East Iceland, 0-13 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helgason, Johann

    2016-04-01

    Through data on palaeomagnetism, stratigraphy and radiometric age dating an immense database on magnetic chrons has been established for the lava succession in Iceland (e.g. Kristjánsson, 2008). Correlation of magnetic chrons with the geomagnetic time scale provides a reasonable age estimate for vast stratigraphic sequences. The basalt lava succession in Iceland has a thickness of tens of kilometers. The magnetostratigraphic data offer, through the help of paleomagnetism and radiometric dating, a detailed timing of events in the evolution of the Iceland mantle plume region. Yet a magnetic polarity map for Iceland has been lacking but during the last 50 years, comprehensive stratigraphic mapping has paved the way for a magnetic polarity map in various parts of Iceland. Here, such a map is presented for a segment of East Iceland, i.e. for lavas ranging in age from 0 to 13 M yr. The map is a compilation based on various studies into the cliff section and stratigraphic work performed by numerous research initiatives, both in relation to hydroelectric research as well as academic projects. References: Kristjánsson, L., 2008. Paleomagnetic research on Icelandic lava flows. Jökull, 58, 101-116. Helgason, J., Duncan, R.A., Franzson, H., Guðmundsson, Á., and M. Riishuus., 2015. Magnetic polarity map of Akrafjall and Skarðsheiði and new 40Ar-39Ar age dating from West Iceland., Presentation at the spring conference of the Icelandic Geological Society, held on March 13th 2015 at the University of Iceland.

  8. Risk perceptions and trust following the 2010 and 2011 Icelandic volcanic ash crises.

    PubMed

    Eiser, J Richard; Donovan, Amy; Sparks, R Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Eruptions at the Icelandic volcanoes of Eyjafjallajökull (2010) and Grimsvötn (2011) produced plumes of ash posing hazards to air traffic over northern Europe. In imposing restrictions on air traffic, regulators needed to balance the dangers of accidents or aircraft damage against the cost and inconvenience to travelers and industry. Two surveys examined how members of the public viewed the necessity of the imposed restrictions and their trust in different agencies as estimators of the level of risk. Study 1 was conducted with 213 British citizens (112 males, 101 females), who completed questionnaires while waiting for flights at London City Airport during May 2012. Study 2 involved an online survey of 301 Icelandic citizens (172 males, 127 females, 2 undeclared gender) during April 2012. In both samples, there was general support for the air traffic restrictions, especially among those who gave higher estimates of the likelihood of an air accident or mishap having otherwise happened. However, in both countries, the (minority of) respondents who had personally experienced travel disruption were less convinced that these restrictions were all necessary. Scientists, the International Civil Aviation Organization, and (in Iceland) the Icelandic Department of Civil Protection were all highly trusted, and seen as erring on the side of caution in their risk estimates. Airlines were seen as more likely to underestimate any risk. We conclude that perceptions of the balance between risk and caution in judgments under uncertainty are influenced by one's own motives and those attributed to others. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Magmatic densities control erupted volumes in Icelandic volcanic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Margaret; Maclennan, John

    2018-04-01

    Magmatic density and viscosity exert fundamental controls on the eruptibility of magmas. In this study, we investigate the extent to which magmatic physical properties control the eruptibility of magmas from Iceland's Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ). By studying subaerial flows of known age and volume, we are able to directly relate erupted volumes to magmatic physical properties, a task that has been near-impossible when dealing with submarine samples dredged from mid-ocean ridges. We find a strong correlation between magmatic density and observed erupted volumes on the NVZ. Over 85% of the total volume of erupted material lies close to a density and viscosity minimum that corresponds to the composition of basalts at the arrival of plagioclase on the liquidus. These magmas are buoyant with respect to the Icelandic upper crust. However, a number of small-volume eruptions with densities greater than typical Icelandic upper crust are also found in Iceland's neovolcanic zones. We use a simple numerical model to demonstrate that the eruption of magmas with higher densities and viscosities is facilitated by the generation of overpressure in magma chambers in the lower crust and uppermost mantle. This conclusion is in agreement with petrological constraints on the depths of crystallisation under Iceland.

  10. Stress Modulates Instrumental Learning Performances in Horses (Equus caballus) in Interaction with Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Prunier, Armelle; Moussu, Chantal; Calandreau, Ludovic; Lansade, Léa

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates how the temperament of the animal affects the influence of acute stress on the acquisition and reacquisition processes of a learning task. After temperament was assessed, horses were subjected to a stressor before or after the acquisition session of an instrumental task. Eight days later, horses were subjected to a reacquisition session without any stressor. Stress before acquisition tended to enhance the number of successes at the beginning of the acquisition session. Eight days later, during the reacquisition session, contrary to non-stressed animals, horses stressed after acquisition, and, to a lesser extent, horses stressed before acquisition, did not improve their performance between acquisition and reacquisition sessions. Temperament influenced learning performances in stressed horses only. Particularly, locomotor activity improved performances whereas fearfulness impaired them under stressful conditions. Results suggest that direct exposure to a stressor tended to increase acquisition performances, whereas a state of stress induced by the memory of a stressor, because it has been previously associated with the learning context, impaired reacquisition performances. The negative effect of a state of stress on reacquisition performances appeared to be stronger when exposure to the stressor occurred after rather than before the acquisition session. Temperament had an impact on both acquisition and reacquisition processes, but under stressful conditions only. These results suggest that stress is necessary to reveal the influence of temperament on cognitive performances. PMID:23626801

  11. Explaining Gender Inequality in Iceland: What Makes the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heijstra, Thamar M.; O'Connor, Pat; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the explanations offered by men and women, at different academic ranks, for the scarcity of women in full professorial positions in Icelandic universities. Data derive from interviews and a survey involving the total Icelandic academic population. We test three hypotheses: Firstly, academics will not see family…

  12. Drying of seaweeds by geothermal heat in Iceland

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hallsson, S.V.

    For over a thousand years seaweeds have been sundered in Iceland for various uses, but geothermal heat was utilized for the first time for drying of seaweed in Hveragerdi 1939. During the sixties various experiments were carried on the drying of several types of seaweeds, grass, capeline and mussell in various sizes and types of experimental through-circulation dryers. On the bases of these experiments, a 5-belt through-circulation dryer was selected for the drying of seaweeds and possibly the mentioned marine and agricultural products in the commercial drying station built at Teykholar, W-Iceland, where seaweed meal has been produced since 1975.more » Results of drying experiments are compared with drying parameters in the commercial drying station at Teykholar, and the available data on drying of seaweeds using geothermal energy is summarized and compared with data from Scotland and Canada. The author looks to the future for the drying and possibly cultivation and extraction of chemicals by geothermal heat from seaweeds and various other heat sensitive products available in Iceland. Without geothermal energy seaweed industry would not exist in Iceland nor would this paper.« less

  13. Reporting from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Geoscience-related topics are in many cases difficult to communicate to the public: Often they include dead soil which not easily tells lively stories. And it is hard to sell those topics to editors of public media. In addition the topics might also be politically supercharged if they are resource-related with a visible environmental impact. Therefore any researcher involved might be overcautious while talking to journalists. With a grant from the EGU Science Journalist Fellowship I travelled to Iceland in autumn 2016 to report about the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The project which started just weeks prior to my arrival aimed to drill the deepest borehole in a volcanically active region. During earlier trials the borehole collapsed or the drill string unintentionally hit magma. If successful the IDDP promises a much higher level of geothermal energy harvested. The IDDP was therefore ideally suited to be sold to public media outlets since Iceland's volcanic legacy easily tells a lively story. But the drilling's potential environmental impact makes it a political topic in Iceland - even though geothermal energy has a positive public perception. Therefore the IDDP included some pitfalls I observed several times before while reporting about geoscience research. Those could be circumvented if researchers and journalists knew better about their expectations before any interview takes place.

  14. A Revised Earthquake Catalogue for South Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzera, Francesco; Zechar, J. Douglas; Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Eberhard, David A. J.

    2016-01-01

    In 1991, a new seismic monitoring network named SIL was started in Iceland with a digital seismic system and automatic operation. The system is equipped with software that reports the automatic location and magnitude of earthquakes, usually within 1-2 min of their occurrence. Normally, automatic locations are manually checked and re-estimated with corrected phase picks, but locations are subject to random errors and systematic biases. In this article, we consider the quality of the catalogue and produce a revised catalogue for South Iceland, the area with the highest seismic risk in Iceland. We explore the effects of filtering events using some common recommendations based on network geometry and station spacing and, as an alternative, filtering based on a multivariate analysis that identifies outliers in the hypocentre error distribution. We identify and remove quarry blasts, and we re-estimate the magnitude of many events. This revised catalogue which we consider to be filtered, cleaned, and corrected should be valuable for building future seismicity models and for assessing seismic hazard and risk. We present a comparative seismicity analysis using the original and revised catalogues: we report characteristics of South Iceland seismicity in terms of b value and magnitude of completeness. Our work demonstrates the importance of carefully checking an earthquake catalogue before proceeding with seismicity analysis.

  15. Lymphoscintigraphy of draught horses with chronic progressive lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    de Cock, H E V; Affolter, V K; Wisner, E R; Larson, R F; Ferraro, G L

    2006-03-01

    Early diagnosis of chronic progressive lymphoedema (CPL) may result in more effective interventions and provide a basis for further investigation of whether early diagnosis could be used as a means of eliminating potential genetic influences by cessation of breeding from affected individuals. Lymphoscintigraphy may be useful in draught horses to differentiate early lesions of CPL from other conditions in the pastern region. Forelimbs of 2 normal and 5 CPL-affected draught horses were evaluated with lymphoscintigraphy. Lymphoscintigraphy showed clearly the presence of interstitial fluid stasis and delayed lymphatic drainage in the affected extremities of diseased animals in contrast to normal animals of these breeds. The rate of decreased clearance of a particulate radiopharmaceutical from the tissues was related positively to the severity of clinical signs. Our findings support the hypothesis that lymph stasis is probably responsible for the progressive swelling and concurrent skin lesions observed in association with CPL in draught horses. Lymphoscintigraphy should also prove useful in diagnosis of CPL in draught horses, even in the mild stages of the disease; such early diagnosis may result in more effective intervention.

  16. Equine monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) in horses in Uruguay and southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, F; Schuch, L F; Delucchi, E; Curcio, B R; Coimbra, H; Raffi, M B; Dellagostin, O; Riet-Correa, F

    2001-09-01

    A disease named locally as churrío or churrido equino (i.e., equine scours) has occurred for at least 100 years in Uruguay and southern Brazil in farms along both shores of the Merín lake. This report describes cases of churrido equino and provides serologic, pathologic, and DNA-based evidence indicating that the disease is in fact equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Results of an epidemiological investigation conducted on an endemic farm are also presented. Clinical signs in 12 horses were fever, depression, diarrhea, dehydration, and sometimes colic and distal hind limb edema. Postmortem findings of 3 horses were of acute enterocolitis. Inclusion bodies containing ehrlichial organisms were found in the cytoplasm of macrophages of the large colon of 1 horse. Eleven of the 12 horses were serologically positive to Ehrlichia risticii (indirect fluorescent antibody assay) and, of 3 paired samples, 2 showed seroconversion. Ehrlichia risticii DNA was identified by a nested polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood of an affected horse. A healthy horse inoculated with peripheral blood from an affected horse developed the disease and antibodies to E. risticii. The disease had a peak incidence in March (summer) and was statistically associated with a marshy ecosystem near the Merín lake, where large numbers of Pomacea spp. (Ampullariidae) snails were found. Incidence density was almost 8 times higher in nonnative horses than in native horses. It was concluded that the previous diarrheic disease of horses known in Uruguay and southern Brazil as churrido equino is equine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

  17. Iceland as a demonstrator for a transition to low carbon economy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsson, Einar Jon; Stefansson, Hlynur; Finger, David Christian

    2017-04-01

    The energy supply in Iceland is quite unique, about 85% of the total primary energy is coming from renewable resources. Nevertheless, the ecological footprint of an average Icelander is with 6.5 worlds, one of the highest worldwide and the energy consumption per capita is about 7 times higher than the European average. Recent developments have shown that there is a great potential to reduce the footprint and develop towards low carbon economy. With its small population, well educated and governed society and clear system boundaries to the outside world, Iceland is a good research laboratory and an ideal demonstrator for a transition towards a low carbon economy. This presentation will outline how several innovative research projects at Reykjavik University could lead Iceland towards a sustainable and low carbon economy. The presentations will conclude with a visionary outlook how Iceland can become a demonstration nation towards a prosperous, low carbon and sustainable economy, helping stabilize global warming at an acceptable level.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of the proximal metacarpus in Quarter Horses used for cutting: Retrospective analysis of 32 horses 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Barrett, M F; Manchon, P T; Hersman, J; Kawcak, C E

    2018-03-01

    Injury to the proximal suspensory ligament is a common cause of lameness in cutting horses. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging of lesions responsible for lameness can provide ambiguous results. MRI provides the most comprehensive diagnostic imaging evaluation of lesions specifically affecting cutting horses. To describe the distribution and severity of bone and soft tissue lesions present in the proximal metacarpus of Quarter Horse cutting horses and to assess the impact of these lesions on return to competition. Retrospective case series. Retrospective analysis of 32 cutting horses referred for MRI of the proximal metacarpus between 2009 and 2012 with a 2-year follow-up period. MRI studies were evaluated by a board-certified veterinary radiologist; the severity of lesions was graded from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). A total of 20 right and 24 left forelimbs (12 bilateral studies) of 32 horses were evaluated. The most common findings were: third metacarpal (McIII) sclerosis at the proximal suspensory ligament (PSL) origin (42/44), McIII resorption at the PSL origin (32/44), PSL dorsal margin fibre irregularity (30/44) and McIII bone contusion (22/39). Of the 30 horses, 22 horses successfully returned to competition, irrespective of severity of injury. Strong correlation exists between the degree of resorption in the palmar cortex of proximal McIII, degree of McIII sclerosis and severity of dorsal margin fibre irregularity. Statistical significance was limited by small study population. Further analysis of prognosis was limited by availability of comprehensive medical records. Cutting horses with proximal metacarpal pain have significant pathological change within the proximal suspensory ligament and its enthesis on the palmar cortex of McIII. Severity of lesions and degree of lameness at the time of diagnosis does not influence return to performance. Accurate diagnosis of proximal metacarpal lesions based on MRI offers clinicians the capacity to select

  19. Marine reservoir age variability and water mass distribution in the Iceland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiríksson, Jón; Larsen, Gudrún; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Heinemeier, Jan; Símonarson, Leifur A.

    2004-11-01

    Lateglacial and Holocene tephra markers from Icelandic source volcanoes have been identified in five sediment cores from the North Icelandic shelf and correlated with tephra layers in reference soil sections in North Iceland and the GRIP ice core. Land-sea correlation of tephra markers, that have been radiocarbon dated with terrestrial material or dated by documentary evidence, provides a tool for monitoring reservoir age variability in the region. Age models developed for the shelf sediments north of Iceland, based on offshore tephrochronology on one hand and on calibrated AMS 14C datings of marine molluscs on the other, display major deviations during the last 4500 years. The inferred temporal variability in the reservoir age of the regional water masses exceeds by far the variability expected from the marine model calculations. The observed reservoir ages are generally considerably higher, by up to 450 years, than the standard model ocean. It is postulated that the intervals with increased and variable marine reservoir age reflect incursions of Arctic water masses derived from the East Greenland Current to the Iceland Sea and the North Icelandic shelf.

  20. The psychometric testing of the Nursing Teamwork Survey in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Bragadóttir, Helga; Kalisch, Beatrice J; Smáradóttir, Sigríður Bríet; Jónsdóttir, Heiður Hrund

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Nursing Teamwork Survey-Icelandic (NTS-Icelandic), which was translated from US English to Icelandic. The Nursing Teamwork Survey, with 33 items, measures overall teamwork and five factors of teamwork: trust, team orientation, backup, shared mental models, and team leadership. The psychometric testing of the NTS-Icelandic was carried out on data from a pilot study and a national study. The sample for a pilot study included 123 nursing staff from five units, and the sample for a national study included 925 nursing staff from 27 inpatient units. The overall test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient in the pilot study was 0.693 (lower bound = 0.498, upper bound = 0.821) (p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha reliability for the total scale and subscales ranged from 0.737 to 0.911. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit of the data from the national study with the five-factor model for nursing teamwork. The NTS-Icelandic tested valid and reliable in this study. Study findings support further use of the Nursing Teamwork Survey internationally. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Distribution of dust during two dust storms in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ösp Magnúsdóttir, Agnes; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Ólafur; Ólafsson, Haraldur

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter mass concentrations and size fractions of PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10, and PM15 measured in transversal horizontal profile of two dust storms in southwestern Iceland are presented. Images from a camera network were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. Numerical simulations were used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources as 180,000 and 280,000 tons for each storm. The mean PM15 concentrations inside of the dust plumes varied from 10 to 1600 ?g?m?3 (PM10 = 7 to 583 ?g?m?3). The mean PM1 concentrations were 97-241 ?g?m?3 with a maximum of 261 ?g?m?3 for the first storm. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios of >0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 show that suspension of volcanic materials in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations, similar to polluted urban areas in Europe or Asia. Icelandic volcanic dust consists of a higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. Both dust storms occurred in relatively densely inhabited areas of Iceland. First results on size partitioning of Icelandic dust presented here should challenge health authorities to enhance research in relation to dust and shows the need for public dust warning systems.

  2. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders.

    PubMed

    Richter, Svend; Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-08-29

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders.

  3. Erosive and Mechanical Tooth Wear in Viking Age Icelanders

    PubMed Central

    Eliasson, Sigfus Thor

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: The importance of the Icelandic Sagas as a source of information about diet habits in medieval Iceland, and possibly other Nordic countries, is obvious. Extensive tooth wear in archaeological material worldwide has revealed that the main cause of this wear is believed to have been a coarse diet. Near the volcano Hekla, 66 skeletons dated from before 1104 were excavated, and 49 skulls could be evaluated for tooth wear. The purpose of this study was to determine the main causes of tooth wear in light of diet and beverage consumption described in the Sagas; (2) Materials and methods: Two methods were used to evaluate tooth wear and seven for age estimation; (3) Results: Extensive tooth wear was seen in all of the groups, increasing with age. The first molars had the highest score, with no difference between sexes. These had all the similarities seen in wear from a coarse diet, but also presented with characteristics that are seen in erosion in modern Icelanders, through consuming excessive amounts of soft drinks. According to the Sagas, acidic whey was a daily drink and was used for the preservation of food in Iceland, until fairly recently; (4) Conclusions: It is postulated that the consumption of acidic drinks and food, in addition to a coarse and rough diet, played a significant role in the dental wear seen in ancient Icelanders. PMID:29563430

  4. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  5. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaf toxicosis in horses: a retrospective study of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Alward, Ashley; Corriher, Candice A; Barton, Michelle H; Sellon, Debra C; Blikslager, Anthony T; Jones, Samuel L

    2006-01-01

    Ingestion of wilted red maple leaves by horses can result in severe hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. Little is known about what factors influence the outcome of red maple leaf toxicosis in horses. Our hypothesis was that physical examination findings, clinicopathologic variables or therapeutic modalities may predict outcome in horses with red maple leaf toxicity. Horses with red maple leaf toxicosis presented to referral hospitals in the southeast region of the United States. A multi-institutional retrospective study was designed to identify factors that predict mortality in horses with red maple toxicosis. Thirty-two horses with red maple toxicosis were identified, 19 of which died. Twenty-nine horses presented with anemia and 24 had clinicopathologic evidence of systemic inflammation. Renal insufficiency was identified in 12/30 (41%) horses. Laminitis (9/28) and colic (13/30) also were identified in horses with red maple toxicosis, but development of these 2 conditions did not have a negative effect on short-term survival. Horses with red maple toxicosis that survived to discharge were likely to have developed pyrexia during hospitalization (P = .030). Horses that were treated with a corticosteroid had a significantly increased likelihood of death (P = .045). There was no significant relationship between initial serum hemoglobin concentration, methemoglobin concentration, or percentage methemoglobin and mortality in this horse series. This study suggests that information obtained on initial examination cannot be used to accurately predict survival in horses with red maple toxicosis, but horses that receive corticosteroids are unlikely to survive.

  6. Vaccination of horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs induces short-lasting antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Cassandra; Asbie, Sanda; Rohde, Jennifer; Glaser, Amy; Wagner, Bettina

    2017-07-24

    Borrelia burgdorferi can induce Lyme disease. Approved Lyme vaccines for horses are currently not available. In an effort to protect horses, veterinarians are using Lyme vaccines licensed for dogs. However, data to assess the response of horses to, or determine the efficacy of this off-label vaccine use are missing. Here, antibodies against outer surface protein A (OspA), OspC, and OspF were quantified in diagnostic serum submissions from horses with a history of vaccination with canine Lyme vaccines. The results suggested that many horses respond with low and often short-lasting antibody responses. Subsequently, four experimental vaccination trials were performed. First, we investigated antibody responses to three canine vaccines in B. burgdorferi-naïve horses. One killed bacterin vaccine induced antibodies against OspC. OspA antibodies were low for all three vaccines and lasted less than 16weeks. The second trial tested the impact of the vaccine dose using the OspA/OspC inducing bacterin vaccine in horses. A 2mL dose produced higher OspA and OspC antibody values than a 1mL dose. However, the antibody response again quickly declined, independent of dose. Third, the horses were vaccinated with 2 doses of a recombinant OspA vaccine. Previous vaccination and/or environmental exposure enhanced the magnitude and longevity of the OspA antibody response to about 20weeks. Last, the influence of intramuscular versus subcutaneous vaccine administration was investigated for the recombinant OspA vaccine. OspA antibody responses were not influenced by injection route. The current work highlights that commercial Lyme vaccines for dogs induce only transient antibody responses in horses which can also be of low magnitude. Protection from infection with B. burgdorferi should not be automatically assumed after vaccinating horses with Lyme vaccines for dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. [Stomach ulcers in the horse--clinical and gastroscopic findings in 12 horses (1989-1990)].

    PubMed

    Dieckmann, M; Deegen, E

    1991-08-01

    Twelve horses with clinical symptoms of a gastric disorder were studied by gastroscopy. Symptoms of gastric disorders were periprandial colic, bruxism, ructus and reflux. Preliminary to gastroscopy the horses were fasted for 24 h. Access to water was not restricted. The gastroscopy could be conducted easily using a fiberscope 2.5 m in length and 11 mm in outer diameter. While ulcers were present in the squamous fundus of all horses only one horse showed ulceration of the glandular fundus. Solitary ulcers near the margo plicatus were found in horses with mild clinical symptoms. In contrast, diffuse gastroesophageal ulceration was accompanied by severe clinical symptoms. Four horses were affected by an acute gastroesophageal ulceration with gastric reflux and subsequent aspiration pneumonia. Two of those horses suffered from acute gastric ulceration 3-4 days following laparatomy. All horses were treated with cimetidine (5 mg/kg bwt/q.i.d.) until clinical symptoms ceased.

  8. Disease features in horses with induced equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever).

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Penney, B E; Myrup, A C; Robl, M G; Rice, R M

    1988-10-01

    Fifty-five horses were inoculated IV and/or SC with materials containing Ehrlichia risticii, ie, infected whole blood, buffy coat cells, or cell culture, to study clinical and hematologic features of equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever). Major clinical and hematologic features of induced E risticii infection were biphasic increase in rectal temperature with peak increases of 38.9 C and 39.3 C on postinoculation days (PID) 5 and 12, respectively; depression; anorexia; decreased WBC count (maximal decrease of 47% on PID 12); and diarrhea from PID 14 to PID 18. Increased WBC count was an inconsistent feature, with a maximal increase of 51.5% on PID 20. During times of decreased and increased WBC counts, lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios remained fairly constant. However, not all horses had all clinical and hematologic features, and these features were present in different degrees among horses. Increased rectal temperature, depression, anorexia, and decreased WBC count were more consistent features, whereas diarrhea developed in 73% of the horses. Of 55 horses, 39 (71%) had all clinical and hematologic features of the disease (classic disease), whereas 16 (29%) horses did not have greater than or equal to 1 of these features (nonclassic disease). The E risticii titer in the blood (ehrlichemia) was maximum during the peak increase in rectal temperature. In 55 horses, mortality was 9%. Significant differences (P greater than 0.5) in clinical and hematologic features were not detected between horses that survived and those that died of E risticii infection.

  9. Networking of Icelandic Earth Infrastructures - Natural laboratories and Volcano Supersites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjörd, K. S.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hjaltadóttir, S.; Björnsson, H.; Arason, Ø.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Kjartansson, E.; Sigbjörnsson, R.; Halldórsson, B.; Valsson, G.

    2012-04-01

    The back-bone of Icelandic geoscientific research infrastructure is the country's permanent monitoring networks, which have been built up to monitor seismic and volcanic hazard and deformation of the Earth's surface. The networks are mainly focussed around the plate boundary in Iceland, particularly the two seismic zones, where earthquakes of up to M7.3 have occurred in centuries past, and the rift zones with over 30 active volcanic systems where a large number of powerful eruptions have occurred, including highly explosive ones. The main observational systems are seismic, strong motion, GPS and bore-hole strain networks, with the addition of more recent systems like hydrological stations, permanent and portable radars, ash-particle counters and gas monitoring systems. Most of the networks are owned by a handful of Icelandic institutions, but some are operated in collaboration with international institutions and universities. The networks have been in operation for years to decades and have recorded large volumes of research quality data. The main Icelandic infrastructures will be networked in the European Plate Observing System (EPOS). The plate boundary in the South Iceland seismic zone (SISZ) with its book-shelf tectonics and repeating major earthquakes sequences of up to M7 events, has the potential to be defined a natural laboratory within EPOS. Work towards integrating multidisciplinary data and technologies from the monitoring infrastructures in the SISZ with other fault regions has started in the FP7 project NERA, under the heading of Networking of Near-Fault Observatories. The purpose is to make research-quality data from near-fault observatories available to the research community, as well as to promote transfer of knowledge and techical know-how between the different observatories of Europe, in order to create a network of fault-monitoring networks. The seismic and strong-motion systems in the SISZ are also, to some degree, being networked nationally to

  10. The Mathematical Content Knowledge of Prospective Teachers in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsdottir, Bjorg

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the mathematical content knowledge of prospective teachers in Iceland. The sample was 38 students in the School of Education at the University of Iceland, both graduate and undergraduate students. All of the participants in the study completed a questionnaire survey and 10 were interviewed. The choice of ways to measure the…

  11. Iceland: Eyjafjallajökull Volcano

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Eyjafjallajökull Volcano Plume Heights     View ... and stereo plume   Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano produced its second major ash plume of 2010 beginning on May 7. Unlike ...

  12. The influence of distance on movement of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) between horses.

    PubMed

    Barros, A T M; Foil, L D

    2007-03-31

    Two studies evaluated the potential use of spatial barriers to reduce the mechanical transmission of disease agents by tabanids in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Tabanids at stations separated by four different distances (5, 10, 25, and 50m) were marked. In the first study, tabanids were marked and allowed to feed until engorgement or natural interruption occurred and captured if they transferred to the other horse. A total of 2847 tabanids belonging to nine different species were marked. The percentage of tabanids that moved between horses was 10.5 at 5m, 6.8 at 10m, and 4.6 at 25m. In the second study, flies were marked, feeding was then interrupted, and the flies were released approximately 50cm from the host. A total of 1274 tabanids belonging to five different species were marked. The percentage of flies that moved between horses was 9.7 at 5m, 9.7 at 10m, and 4.6 at 25m. No tabanids transferred between animals separated by 50m in either experiment. The results of this study strongly support the recommendation that segregation of animals effectively prevents the mechanical transmission of pathogens by tabanids.

  13. The use of electromyography interference pattern analysis to determine muscle force of the deep digital flexor muscle in healthy and laminitic horses.

    PubMed

    Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Back, W; van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D

    2016-01-01

    In equine laminitis, the deep digital flexor muscle (DDFM) appears to have increased muscle force, but evidence-based confirmation is lacking. The purpose of this study was to test if the DDFM of laminitic equines has an increased muscle force detectable by needle electromyography interference pattern analysis (IPA). The control group included six Royal Dutch Sport horses, three Shetland ponies and one Welsh pony [10 healthy, sound adults weighing 411 ± 217 kg (mean ± SD) and aged 10 ± 5 years]. The laminitic group included three Royal Dutch Sport horses, one Friesian, one Haflinger, one Icelandic horse, one Welsh pony, one miniature Appaloosa and six Shetland ponies (14 adults, weight 310 ± 178 kg, aged 13 ± 6 years) with acute/chronic laminitis. The electromyography IPA measurements included firing rate, turns/second (T), amplitude/turn (M) and M/T ratio. Statistical analysis used a general linear model with outcomes transformed to geometric means. The firing rate of the total laminitic group was higher than the total control group. This difference was smaller for the ponies compared to the horses; in the horses, the geometric mean difference of the laminitic group was 1.73 [geometric 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.32], and in the ponies this value was 1.09 (geometric 95% CI 0.82-1.45). In human medicine, an increased firing rate is characteristic of increased muscle force. Thus, the increased firing rate of the DDFM in the context of laminitis suggests an elevated muscle force. However, this seems to be only a partial effect as in this study, the unchanged turns/second and amplitude/turn failed to prove the recruitment of larger motor units with larger amplitude motor unit potentials in laminitic equids.

  14. Evaluation of glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different content of nonstructural carbohydrates in 2 breeds of horses.

    PubMed

    Lindåse, S; Müller, C; Nostell, K; Bröjer, J

    2018-04-09

    Information about the effect of nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) in forage on the postprandial glucose and insulin response in horses is scarce. This is of interest as postprandial hyperinsulinemia in horses is a risk factor for laminitis. In addition, insulin sensitivity (IS) differs between breeds. The aim was to evaluate the postprandial glucose and insulin response to haylage diets with different NSC content in horses of 2 different breeds and to evaluate the relationship between the postprandial insulin response and measures of IS derived from a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Standardbreds (n = 9) and Icelandic horses (n = 9) with a mean body condition score of 5.5 ± 0.6 (scale 1-9) were studied. Horses were clinically healthy at the start of the study and had no history of endocrinopathic laminitis. The experiment was conducted as a replicate 3 × 3 Latin square, in which horses were fed haylage diets with low (4.2%), medium (13.6%), and high (18.2%) NSC content of dry matter. Blood sampling was performed before feeding and every 30 min until 300 min after feeding. An FSIGTT was also performed in all horses. The early (first 60 min) and the total (300 min) postprandial glucose and insulin response (area under the curve [AUC]) was higher after a meal of both medium and high NSC haylage in comparison with low NSC haylage when both breeds were combined (P ≤ 0.02). There was a main effect of breed for the early (P ≤ 0.004) but not for the total (P > 0.12) postprandial glucose and insulin response. The IS index was comparable between breeds (P = 0.75). The natural logarithm of the peak concentration, the AUC for the first 60 min and the total AUC for insulin, after a meal of medium and high NSC haylage, were moderately negatively correlated (P < 0.02; r = -0.55 to -0.72) with the natural logarithm of IS index from the FSIGTT. This relationship was not evident for haylage with low NSC content (P > 0.054). This study

  15. Experimental reproduction of Potomac horse fever in horses with a newly isolated Ehrlichia organism.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Myrup, A C; Rice, R M; Robl, M G; Hammond, R C

    1985-08-01

    Potomac horse fever, a recently recognized disease of equines, characterized by high fever, leukopenia, and a profuse diarrhea, was studied for its etiology. An Ehrlichia organism was isolated in equine macrophage-fibroblast cell cultures and mouse macrophage cell cultures from the mononuclear cells of blood of infected horses. The agent was continuously propagated in mouse macrophage cell cultures. The organism multiplied in the cytoplasm of mouse macrophage cells and was identified by Giemsa staining, acridine orange staining, and by indirect immunofluorescence with convalescent sera from infected horses. The disease was experimentally reproduced in horses inoculated with Ehrlichia-infected cell culture material. The Ehrlichia organism was reisolated from the blood of these infected horses during the course of the disease. Antibody against the organism was detected in the sera of experimentally infected horses. This study confirmed that the new Ehrlichia organism is the etiological agent of Potomac horse fever.

  16. Plume-driven plumbing and crustal formation in Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Vogfjord, K.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Foulger, G.R.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Julian, B.R.; Pritchard, M.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.

    2002-01-01

    Through combination of surface wave and body wave constraints we derive a three-dimensional (3-D) crustal S velocity model and Moho map for Iceland. It reveals a vast plumbing system feeding mantle plume melt into upper crustal magma chambers where crustal formation takes place. The method is based on the partitioned waveform inversion to which we add additional observations. Love waves from six local events recorded on the HOTSPOT-SIL networks are fitted, Sn travel times from the same events measured, previous observations of crustal thickness are added, and all three sets of constraints simultaneously inverted for our 3-D model. In the upper crust (0-15 km) an elongated low-velocity region extends along the length of the Northern, Eastern and Western Neovolcanic Zones. The lowest velocities (-7%) are found at 5-10 km below the two most active volcanic complexes: Hekla and Bardarbunga-Grimsvotn. In the lower crust (>15 km) the low-velocity region can be represented as a vertical cylinder beneath central Iceland. The low-velocity structure is interpreted as the thermal halo of pipe work which connects the region of melt generation in the uppermost mantle beneath central Iceland to active volcanoes along the neovolcanic zones. Crustal thickness in Iceland varies from 15-20 km beneath the Reykjanes Peninsula, Krafla and the extinct Snfellsnes rift zone, to 46 km beneath central Iceland. The average crustal thickness is 29 km. The variations in thickness can be explained in terms of the temporal variation in plume productivity over the last ~20 Myr, the Snfellsnes rift zone being active during a minimum in plume productivity. Variations in crustal thickness do not depart significantly from an isostatically predicted crustal thickness. The best fit linear isostatic relation implies an average density jump of 4% across the Moho. Rare earth element inversions of basalt compositions on Iceland suggest a melt thickness (i.e., crustal thickness) of 15-20 km, given passive

  17. Quantifying Equid Behavior - A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason I.; Cade, Brian S.

    2009-01-01

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are globally distributed in free-roaming populations on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide range of habitats including forest, grassland, desert, and montane environments. The largest populations occur in Australia and North America and have been the subject of scientific study for decades, yet guidelines and ethograms for feral horse behavioral research are largely absent in the scientific literature. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center conducted research on the influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on feral horse behavior from 2003-2006 in three discrete populations in the American west. These populations were the Little Book Cliffs Wild Horse Range in Colorado, McCullough Peaks Herd Management Area in Wyoming, and Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range in Montana; the research effort included over 1,800 hours of behavioral observations of 317 adult free-roaming feral horses. An ethogram was developed during the course of this study to facilitate accurate scientific data collection on feral horse behavior, which is often challenging to quantify. By developing this set of discrete behavioral definitions and a set of strict research protocols, scientists were better able to address both applied questions, such as behavioral changes related to fertility control, and theoretical questions, such as understanding networks and dominance hierarchies within social groups of equids.

  18. The concentration of iodine in horse serum and its relationship with thyroxin concentration by geological difference.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Mariko; Hayakawa, Noriyuki; Minowa, Fumiko; Saito, Akihiro; Ishioka, Katsumi; Ueda, Fukiko; Okubo, Kimihiro; Tazaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    In this study, iodine and thyroxin (T4) concentrations in the serum of 69 horses were investigated. Higher iodine concentrations were obtained from the horses housed in Chiba Prefecture. In contrast, T4 concentrations of horses at Shizuoka Prefecture were higher than those of horses at Chiba Prefecture. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.643, P < 0.001) between the iodine and T4 concentrations of horses at Saitama and Shizuoka prefectures. Although a significant correlation (r = 0.794, P < 0.001) was also observed in the investigation of all horses at Chiba Prefecture, the distribution area of the data was separated from the data of horses housed in Saitama and Shizuoka prefectures. A higher iodine concentration in the environment is expected in the sampling area at Chiba Prefecture. Thus, it was suggested that the concentrations of iodine in the serum of horses are influenced by geological differences. It was thought that equine serum is a useful sample for monitoring.

  19. Preference for shelter and additional heat in horses exposed to Nordic winter conditions.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, G H M; Aanensen, L; Mejdell, C M; Bøe, K E

    2016-11-01

    Horses may adapt to a wide range of temperatures and weather conditions. Owners often interfere with this natural thermoregulation ability by clipping and use of blankets. To investigate the effects of different winter weather conditions on shelter seeking behaviour of horses and their preference for additional heat. Observational study in various environments. Mature horses (n = 22) were given a free choice test between staying outdoors, going into a heated shelter compartment or into a nonheated shelter compartment. Horse location and behaviour was scored using instantaneous sampling every minute for 1 h. Each horse was tested once per day and weather factors were continuously recorded by a local weather station. The weather conditions influenced time spent outdoors, ranging from 52% (of all observations) on days with mild temperatures, wind and rain to 88% on days with <0°C and dry weather. Shivering was only observed during mild temperatures and rain/sleet. Small Warmblood horses were observed to select outdoors less (34% of all observations) than small Coldblood horses (80%). We found significant correlations between hair coat sample weight and number of observations outdoors (ρ = 0.23; P = 0.004). Horses selected shelters the most on days with precipitation and horses changed from a nonheated compartment to a heated compartment as weather changed from calm and dry to wet and windy. Horse breed category affected the use of shelter and body condition score and hair coat weight were associated with voluntary shelter selection. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Outcome of palmar/plantar digital neurectomy in horses with foot pain evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging: 50 cases (2005-2011).

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Nibeyro, S D; Werpy, N M; White, N A; Mitchell, M A; Edwards, R B; Mitchell, R D; Gold, S J; Allen, A K

    2015-03-01

    There is limited knowledge of the foot lesions that influence the outcome of palmar/plantar digital neurectomy (PDN). 1) To report the short- and long-term outcomes of horses that underwent PDN to alleviate chronic foot pain due to lesions diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2) factors that may influence the outcome of PDN. Multicentre retrospective study. Medical records of 50 horses subjected to PDN due to chronic foot pain were reviewed. Age, breed, sex, athletic activity, duration of lameness, affected limb(s), response to anaesthesia of the palmar/plantar digital nerves, MRI findings and surgical technique were analysed together with follow-up data to identify factors that influenced the long-term outcomes. Forty-six of 50 horses (92%) responded positively to surgery; 40 (80%) were able to return to their previous athletic use for a median time of 20 months (range: 12-72 months). Eighteen (36%) horses developed post operative complications including residual lameness, painful neuromas, or early recurrence of lameness. Horses with pre-existing core or linear lesions of the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) had significantly shorter periods of lameness resolution after surgery than horses with dorsal border lesions of the DDFT or other foot lesions. Palmar/plantar digital neurectomy can improve or resolve lameness in horses with foot pain unresponsive to medical therapy without serious post operative complications. However, horses with core or linear lesions of the DDFT should not be subjected to PDN as these horses experience residual lameness or early recurrent lameness after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to identify these horses. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  1. U.S. and Icelandic College Student Attitudes toward Relationships/Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freysteinsdóttir, Freydís Jóna; Skúlason, Sigurgrímur; Halligan, Caitlin; Knox, David

    2014-01-01

    Seven hundred and twenty-two undergraduates from a large southeastern university in the U.S. and 368 undergraduates from The University of Iceland in the Reykjavik, Iceland completed a 100 item Internet questionnaire revealing their (mostly white and 20-24 years old) attitudes on various relationship and sexual issues. Significant differences…

  2. Creativity and Innovation in Iceland: Individual, Environmental, and Cultural Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Birdnow, Maxwell; Hallaert, Jenelle; Alexander, Keely; Malmsten, Robyn; Stull, Olivia; Wright, J. D.; Lucas, Brittany; Swanson, Rachel; Claiborn, Grace J.

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive literature review (CLR) is an analysis and synthesis of literature, observations, interviews, and artifacts as a means to answer the question, "Why is Iceland so innovative?" Iceland is considered by international indices as a leading nation in innovation in many fields, including design, music, art, and literature. A…

  3. The Origin of Noble Gas Isotopic Heterogeneity in Icelandic Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dixon, E. T.; Honda, M.; McDougall, I.

    2001-01-01

    Two models for generation of heterogeneous He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios in Icelandic basalts are evaluated using a mixing model and the observed noble gas elemental ratios in Icelandic basalts,Ocean island Basalt (OIBs) and Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORBs). Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Ancient genomes from Iceland reveal the making of a human population.

    PubMed

    Ebenesersdóttir, S Sunna; Sandoval-Velasco, Marcela; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Jagadeesan, Anuradha; Guðmundsdóttir, Valdís B; Thordardóttir, Elísabet L; Einarsdóttir, Margrét S; Moore, Kristjan H S; Sigurðsson, Ásgeir; Magnúsdóttir, Droplaug N; Jónsson, Hákon; Snorradóttir, Steinunn; Hovig, Eivind; Møller, Pål; Kockum, Ingrid; Olsson, Tomas; Alfredsson, Lars; Hansen, Thomas F; Werge, Thomas; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Gilbert, Edmund; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Walser, Joe W; Kristjánsdóttir, Steinunn; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Árnadóttir, Lilja; Magnússon, Ólafur Þ; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Stefánsson, Kári; Helgason, Agnar

    2018-06-01

    Opportunities to directly study the founding of a human population and its subsequent evolutionary history are rare. Using genome sequence data from 27 ancient Icelanders, we demonstrate that they are a combination of Norse, Gaelic, and admixed individuals. We further show that these ancient Icelanders are markedly more similar to their source populations in Scandinavia and the British-Irish Isles than to contemporary Icelanders, who have been shaped by 1100 years of extensive genetic drift. Finally, we report evidence of unequal contributions from the ancient founders to the contemporary Icelandic gene pool. These results provide detailed insights into the making of a human population that has proven extraordinarily useful for the discovery of genotype-phenotype associations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  5. [Influence of detomidine on echocardiographic function parameters and cardiac hemodynamics in horses with and without heart murmur].

    PubMed

    Gehlen, H; Kroker, K; Deegen, E; Stadler, P

    2004-03-01

    30 warmblood horses were examined before and after sedation with 20 micrograms/kg BW detomidine, to determine changes of cardiac function parameters, using B-mode, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. 15 horses showed a heart murmur, but no clinical signs of cardiac heart failure, 15 horses had neither a heart murmur nor other signs of cardiac disease. After sedation with detomidine we could recognise a significant increase of end-diastolic left atrium diameter, an increase of end-systolic left ventricular diameter and aortic root diameter. The end-systolic thickness of papillary muscle and interventricular septum showed a decrease. Fractional shortening and amplitude of left ventricular wall motion was decreased after sedation. The mitral valve echogram revealed a presystolic valve closure and an inflection in the Ac slope (B-notch) in xy horses before sedation. Both increased after sedation with detomidine. Doppler echocardiography showed a decrease of blood flow velocity and velocity time integral (VTI) in the left and right ventricular outflow tract after sedation. Regurgitant flow signals were intensified following sedation in xy horses, especially at the mitral valve.

  6. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Julie M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Although often highly rewarding, human-horse interactions can also be dangerous. Using examples from equine and other contexts, this article acknowledges the growing public awareness of animal welfare, work underway towards safer equestrian workplaces, and the potential for adapting large animal rescue skills for the purposes of horse event incident management. Additionally, we identity the need for further research into communication strategies that address animal welfare and safety issues that arise when humans and horses interact in the workplace. Abstract Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  7. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country. PMID:26986002

  9. Quantitative Risk Assessment for African Horse Sickness in Live Horses Exported from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Evan S; Grewar, John D; Weyer, Camilla T; Guthrie, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41). This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012) assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.

  10. Primitive helium isotopic compositions associated with Miocene lavas from Northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Reinhard, A.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Price, A. A.; Kurz, M. D.; Halldorsson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Elevated 3He/4He ratios identified in hotspots globally are associated with an early-formed, less degassed mantle reservoir that resides in the deep mantle, but the origin and mechanism for the long-term preservation of this mantle domain are not well understood. The highest known terrestrial mantle-derived 3He/4He ratios (49.5 Ra) have been measured in 62 million year old lavas from Baffin Island and West Greenland, associated with the proto-Iceland plume [1]. Mid-Miocene lavas from northwest Iceland have 3He/4He ratios of up to 37 Ra [2]. Thus, the Iceland plume has tapped a high-3He/4He mantle source over much of the Cenozoic. This is important, as 182W [3] and 129Xe [4] data indicate that the high 3He/4He domain sampled by the Iceland plume formed in the early Hadean. We report new 3He/4He measurements on magmatic olivine in mid-Miocene lavas from Northwest Iceland. Fusion experiments indicate that the new, high 3He/4He ratios do not have a cosmogenic 3He contribution. New Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic data place important constraints on the isotopic composition of the highest 3He/4He mantle domain sampled by mid-Miocene Iceland lavas. An important question is whether the highest 3He/4He lavas from Iceland have Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions that overlap with those found in the high-3He/4He lavas from Baffin Island. If not, it will be important to understand the mechanism responsible for the offset in Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic compositions, and whether this also explains the lower maximum 3He/4He in mid-Miocene Icelandic lavas relative to their counterparts in Baffin Island. The new data will have implications for the preservation of primitive reservoirs in the deep mantle. [1] Stuart et al., Nature, v. 424, 2003. [2] Hilton et al., Earth Planet Sci. Lett., v. 173, 1999. [3] Rizo et al., Science, v. 352, 2016. [4] Mukhopadhyay, Nature, v. 486, 2012.

  11. Influence of Various Phenolic Compounds on Properties of Gelatin Film Prepared from Horse Mackerel Trachurus japonicus Scales.

    PubMed

    Le, Thuy; Maki, Hiroki; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi; Takahashi, Kigen

    2018-06-15

    Influence of various phenolic compounds on physical properties and antioxidant activity of gelatin film from horse mackerel Trachurus japonicus scales was investigated. Tensile strength (TS) of the film was enhanced whereas elongation at break was declined by adding 1% to 5% phenolic compounds. Rutin was the most effective to improve the TS compared to the other tested phenolic compounds including ferulic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, and catechin. Gelatin films with the phenolic compounds showed the excellent UV barrier properties. FTIR spectra exhibited that wavenumber of amide-A band of films decreased with formation of hydrogen bonding between amino groups of gelatin and hydroxyl groups of the phenolic compounds. Gelatin film incorporated with rutin which has the largest number of hydroxyl groups among the tested compounds demonstrated the lowest wavenumber for the amide-A peak. It is indicated that hydroxyl groups contained in the phenolic compounds contribute to formation of hydrogen bonds involved in improvement of the mechanical properties of the films. The incorporation of the phenolic compounds with gelatin films also led to the increasing of total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Thus, it is concluded that phenolic compounds can promote the quality of gelatin film. Properties of gelatin film derived from horse mackerel scales can be improved by adding of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds containing a large number of hydroxyl groups should be selected to enhance physical properties of the gelatin film. A biodegradable film prepared from horse mackerel gelatin incorporated with phenolic compounds, which has good physical properties and antioxidant properties, can solve environmental problems caused by synthetic plastic materials. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Concepts of illness in Icelandic children.

    PubMed

    Hansdottir, I; Malcarne, V L

    1998-06-01

    To investigate the development of illness concepts among healthy Icelandic children. Participants were 68 schoolchildren, 6-7, 10-11, and 14-15 years of age, and their parents. Cognitive developmental level and understanding of physical illness were assessed within a Piagetian framework. In addition, illness experience and illness behaviors (Child Illness Behavior Questionnaire) were assessed. Results were consistent with previous studies in that the development of illness concepts among Icelandic children was consistent with Piaget's theory of cognitive development. No relation was found between illness experience and understanding of illness. A more mature understanding of illness was related to willingness to report the onset of illness. The results suggest that findings from previous studies may be generalized to a broader population.

  13. Economic conditions, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease: analysis of the Icelandic economic collapse.

    PubMed

    Birgisdóttir, Kristín Helga; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2017-12-01

    Previous research has found a positive short-term relationship between the 2008 collapse and hypertension in Icelandic males. With Iceland's economy experiencing a phase of economic recovery, an opportunity to pursue a longer-term analysis of the collapse has emerged. Using data from a nationally representative sample, fixed-effect estimations and mediation analyses were performed to explore the relationship between the Icelandic economic collapse in 2008 and the longer-term impact on hypertension and cardiovascular health. A sensitivity analysis was carried out with pooled logit models estimated as well as an alternative dependent variable. Our attrition analysis revealed that results for cardiovascular diseases were affected by attrition, but not results from estimations on the relationship between the economic crisis and hypertension. When compared to the boom year 2007, our results point to an increased probability of Icelandic women having hypertension in the year 2012, when the Icelandic economy had recovered substantially from the economic collapse in 2008. This represents a deviation from pre-crisis trends, thus suggesting a true economic-recovery impact on hypertension.

  14. Frequency of musculoskeletal injuries and risk factors associated with injuries incurred in Quarter Horses during races.

    PubMed

    Cohen, N D; Dresser, B T; Peloso, J G; Mundy, G D; Woods, A M

    1999-09-01

    To determine the frequency and anatomic location of musculoskeletal injuries incurred by Quarter Horses during races and to compare data from injured horses and matched control horses. Matched case-control study. 97 Quarter Horses that sustained a musculoskeletal injury during races and 291 horses from the same races that were not injured. Data examined included racing history, race-entrant characteristics, racing events determined by analysis of videotapes of races, and, when performed, results of prerace physical inspections. Data for injured horses were compared with data for control horses, using conditional logistic regression. Incidence of a catastrophic injury among Quarter Horses during races was approximately 0.8/1,000 race starts, whereas incidence of musculoskeletal injury during racing was approximately 2.2/1,000 race starts. Odds of musculoskeletal injury were approximately 8 times greater among horses assessed to be at increased risk of injury on the basis of results of prerace physical inspection than for horses not considered to be at increased risk of injury. Evidence was lacking that 2-year-old horses were at increased risk of injury or that sex influenced the risk of injury among Quarter Horses during races. Incidence of racing injury among Quarter Horses appears to be lower than that observed among Thoroughbreds. Regulatory veterinarians can identify horses at increased risk of injury on the basis of prerace physical inspection, indicating that these inspections could be used to reduce the risk of injury during races.

  15. Transient cultural influences on infant mortality: Fire-Horse daughters in Japan.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, Tim A; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; Catalano, Ralph A

    2011-01-01

    Parental investment theory suggests that the quality and quantity of parental care depends, in part, on assessments of whether offspring will survive and yield grandchildren. Consistent with this theory, we hypothesize that parental perception that a birth cohort will have low reproductive success coincides with higher than expected infant mortality in the cohort. We test this hypothesis in industrialized Japan in 1966 when cultural aversion to females born in the astrological year of the Fire-Horse may have jeopardized the life of female infants. We applied time-series methods to cohort infant mortality data for Japan, from 1947 to 1976, to test whether female infant mortality in 1966 rose above levels expected from history, male infant mortality, and fertility. Methods control for the secular decline in infant mortality as well as other temporal patterns that could induce spurious associations. Findings support the hypothesis in that female infant mortality rises by 1.1 deaths per 1,000 live births above expected levels (coefficient = 0.0011; standard error = 0.0005; P = 0.03). The result indicates an excess of 721 female infant deaths statistically attributable to the Fire-Horse year. Findings remain robust to control for male infant mortality and the secular decline in mortality over the test period. The discovery of a predictable, acute increase in female infant mortality during the Fire-Horse year supports the relevance of parental investment theory to developed countries. Results should encourage further research on the health sequelae of abrupt, population-level shifts in culture. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Fatal accidents in the Icelandic fishing fleet 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hjoervar, Tryggvi; Snorrason, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes how the Icelandic fleet increased from 1980 to 2005, as well as the number of fishermen employed in the various sections of the fleet. All categories of the fleet have increased considerably in tonnage, while the number of fishermen has declined. At the same time the catch per man-year at sea has increased, rendering the Icelandic fisheries among the most efficient in the world in terms of catch and value per manpower. The number of fatalities in the Icelandic fisheries has declined steadily in this period. In absolute numbers these accidents are most common on decked vessels under 45m, but when weighed against man-years, fishermen on open boats are in greatest danger of losing their lives. The most common cause of fatalities is foundering of the vessel, which may cause multiple fatalities, then is man-over-board, followed by drowning in harbour and miscellaneous accidents. The reduction in the number of fatal accidents at sea may have several reasons. Mandatory safety and survival training of all fishermen, improved working conditions at sea, better telecommunications, constant VMS surveillance and a 24hr availability of airborne rescue teams have all helped to reduce fatalities in the Icelandic fishing fleet from 1980 until 2005.

  17. Molybdenum isotope behaviour in groundwaters and terrestrial hydrothermal systems, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neely, Rebecca A.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.; Ólafsson, Magnus; McCoy-West, Alex J.; Pearce, Christopher R.; Burton, Kevin W.

    2018-03-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) isotopes have proved useful in the reconstruction of paleoredox conditions. Their application generally relies upon a simplified model of ocean inputs in which rivers dominate Mo fluxes to the oceans and hydrothermal fluids are considered to be a minor contribution. To date, however, little attention has been paid to the extent of Mo isotope variation of hydrothermal waters, or to the potential effect of direct groundwater discharge to the oceans. Here we present Mo isotope data for two Icelandic groundwater systems (Mývatn and Þeistareykir) that are both influenced by hydrothermal processes. Relative to NIST 3134 = +0.25‰, the cold (<10 °C) groundwaters (δ98/95MoGROUNDWATER = -0.15‰ to +0.47‰; n = 13) show little, if any, fractionation from the host basalt (δ 98 / 95MoBASALT = +0.16‰ to -0.12‰) and are, on average, lighter than both global and Icelandic rivers. In contrast, waters that are hydrothermally influenced (>10 °C) possess isotopically heavy δ98/95MoHYDROTHERMAL values of +0.25‰ to +2.06‰ (n = 18) with the possibility that the high temperature endmembers are even heavier. Although the mechanisms driving this fractionation remain unresolved, the incongruent dissolution of the host basalt and both the dissolution and precipitation of sulfides are considered. Regardless of the processes driving these variations, the δ98Mo data presented in this study indicate that groundwater and hydrothermal waters have the potential to modify ocean budget calculations.

  18. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  19. Additional Workload or a Part of the Job? Icelandic Teachers' Discourse on Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnþórsdóttir, Hermína; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the discourse of Icelandic compulsory school teachers on inclusive education. From 1974 and onwards, the education policy in Iceland has been towards inclusion, and Iceland is considered to be an example of a highly inclusive education system with few segregated resources for students with special educational…

  20. Immune response to Sarcocystis neurona infection in naturally infected horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jibing; Ellison, Siobhan; Gogal, Robert; Norton, Heather; Lindsay, David S; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Witonsky, Sharon

    2006-06-15

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is one of the most common neurologic diseases of horses in the United States. The primary etiologic agent is Sarcocystis neurona. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding the protective or pathophysiologic immune response to S. neurona infection or the subsequent development of EPM. The objectives of this study were to determine whether S. neurona infected horses with clinical signs of EPM had altered or suppressed immune responses compared to neurologically normal horses and if blood sample storage would influence these findings. Twenty clinically normal horses and 22 horses with EPM, diagnosed by the presence of S. neurona specific antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal (CSF) and clinical signs, were evaluated for differences in the immune cell subsets and function. Our results demonstrated that naturally infected horses had significantly (P<0.05) higher percentages of CD4 T-lymphocytes and neutrophils (PMN) in separated peripheral blood leukocytes than clinically normal horses. Leukocytes from naturally infected EPM horses had significantly lower proliferation responses, as measured by thymidine incorporation, to a non-antigen specific mitogen than did clinically normal horses (P<0.05). Currently, studies are in progress to determine the role of CD4 T cells in disease and protection against S. neurona in horses, as well as to determine the mechanism associated with suppressed in vitro proliferation responses. Finally, overnight storage of blood samples appears to alter T lymphocyte phenotypes and viability among leukocytes.

  1. Geomagnetic polarity zones for icelandic lavas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dagley, P.; Wilson, R.L.; Ade-Hall, J. M.; Walker, G.P.L.; Haggerty, S.E.; Sigurgeirsson, T.; Watkins, N.D.; Smith, P.J.; Edwards, J.; Grasty, R.L.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of cores collected from a sequence of lavas in Eastern Iceland has made possible an accurate calculation of the average rate of reversal of the Earth's magnetic field. ?? 1967 Nature Publishing Group.

  2. Non-Linear Response to Holocene Insolation Forcing Recorded by High-Resolution Lake Sediment Records Across Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsdottir, A.; Miller, G. H.; Axford, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Many Icelandic lakes have sedimentation rates in excess of 1 m ka-1 throughout the Holocene. Such high rates offer the potential for decadally resolved (or better) records of environmental change at this sensitive North Atlantic site. Abundant well-defined tephra provide a secure geochronology. The fidelity of the common climate proxies biogenic silica (BSi) and total organic carbon (TOC), was tested by comparing these proxies in three lakes with very different catchment characteristics. Hestvatn (HST, 60 m deep) in southern Iceland receives overflow from a large river originating in the glaciated highlands of central Iceland, whereas the nearby lake Vestra Gislholtsvatn (VGHV, 15 m deep) has a small, low elevation catchment without glaciers. Haukadalsvatn (HAK, 42 m deep), in northwestern Iceland, has a large, high relief catchment. The BSi record from HAK has been shown to reflect April-May temperatures, with BSi highest when spring temperatures are at their maximum. The first- and second-order trends in BSi are similar in all three lakes for most of the Holocene. This supports the contention that BSi reflects primary productivity, and is less influenced by changes in sedimentation rate. In all three lakes, BSi reaches a maximum value shortly after 8 ka, and then declines gradually toward present, reflecting a relatively late Holocene thermal maximum, potentially due to the influence of meltwater from the lingering Laurentide Ice Sheet. A steady reduction in summer insolation determines this first-order trend towards lower BSi through the middle and late Holocene. Large, abrupt departures from the overall decrease in BSi characterize all three records after 8 ka. Following each rapid BSi decrease, BSi usually exhibits a step-function change, re-equilibrating at a lower BSi value. Some of the strongest departures (ca. 6 ka, 4 to 4.5 ka and ca. 3 ka) may be related to Icelandic volcanism, but the lack of a full recovery to pre-existing values after the eruptions

  3. Crustal structure beneath western and eastern Iceland from surface waves and receiver functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, Z.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2002-01-01

    We determine the crustal structures beneath 14 broad-band seismic stations, deployed in western, eastern, central and southern Iceland, using surface wave dispersion curves and receiver functions. We implement a method to invert receiver functions using constraints obtained from genetic algorithm inversion of surface waves. Our final models satisfy both data sets. The thickness of the upper crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 3.7 km s-1, is fairly uniform at ???6.5-9 km beneath the Tertiary intraplate areas of western and eastern Iceland, and unusually thick at 11 km beneath station HOT22 in the far south of Iceland. The depth to the base of the lower crust, as defined by the velocity horizon Vs = 4.1 km s-1 is ???20-26 km in western Iceland and ???27-33 km in eastern Iceland. These results agree with those of explosion profiles that detect a thinner crust beneath western Iceland than beneath eastern Iceland. An earlier report of a substantial low-velocity zone beneath the Middle Volcanic Zone in the lower crust is confirmed by a similar observation beneath an additional station there. As was found in previous receiver function studies, the most reliable feature of the results is the clear division into an upper sequence that is a few kilometres thick where velocity gradients are high, and a lower, thicker sequence where velocity gradients are low. The transition to typical mantle velocities is variable, and may range from being very gradational to being relatively sharp and clear. A clear Moho, by any definition, is rarely seen, and there is thus uncertainty in estimates of the thickness of the crust in many areas. Although a great deal of seismic data are now available constraining the structures of the crust and upper mantle beneath Iceland, their geological nature is not well understood.

  4. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers’ Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience

    PubMed Central

    GILLE, Claudia; KAYSER, Maike; SPILLER, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the “amateurs”, the “experienced” and the “experts”. Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the “amateur” group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside “measureable” qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the “amateur” group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses. PMID:24833979

  5. Target Group Segmentation in the Horse Buyers' Market against the Background of Equestrian Experience.

    PubMed

    Gille, Claudia; Kayser, Maike; Spiller, Achim

    2010-01-01

    Whereas in former times horses were reserved primarily for people involved in agriculture, elite equestrians or the military, nowadays equestrian sport has become an activity for people with a wide variety of backgrounds. However, as more and more people become involved with equestrian sport today, the knowledge concerning animal husbandry in general is diminishing due to an alienation from agricultural themes in modern societies. As a consequence, this development affects both riding ability and the appraisal of horses, especially with respect to the purchase of horses. In order to analyse which factors influence purchase decisions in the horse market in conjunction with equestrian experience, 739 horse riders were surveyed on their purchase behaviour in this study. Using cluster analysis, a typology was generated that provides a differentiated picture of the preferences of the various rider groups. Three clusters were distinguished: the "amateurs", the "experienced" and the "experts". Taking personal horse riding proficiency into account, it could be concluded that especially the "amateur" group required objective criteria for the evaluation of a horse they are considering purchasing. Alongside "measureable" qualities, such as previous showing success or the level of training of the horse, also other attributes such as the simple handling of the horse should be taken into consideration. As particularly the "amateur" group in equestrian sport is increasing in numbers, it is therefore advisable when preparing a horse for sale to align oneself to the needs of this customer segment in order to ensure an effective and targeted marketing of horses.

  6. Research on human genetics in Iceland. Progress report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic Population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characters and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  7. Risk Mitigation of Emerging Zoonoses: Hendra Virus and Non-Vaccinating Horse Owners.

    PubMed

    Manyweathers, J; Field, H; Jordan, D; Longnecker, N; Agho, K; Smith, C; Taylor, M

    2017-12-01

    Hendra virus was identified in horses and humans in 1994, in Queensland, Australia. Flying foxes are the natural host. Horses are thought to acquire infection by direct or indirect contact with infected flying fox urine. Humans are infected from close contact with infected horses. To reduce risk of infection in horses and humans, Australian horse owners are encouraged to vaccinate horses against the virus and adopt property risk mitigation practices that focus on reducing flying fox horse contact and contamination of horses' environment with flying fox bodily fluids. This study investigates uptake of four Hendra virus risk mitigation practices in a sample of non- and partially vaccinating horse owners living close to previous Hendra virus cases. Protection motivation theory was used to develop a conceptual model to investigate risk perception and coping factors associated with uptake of risk mitigation practices. An online survey was administered via Facebook pages of veterinary clinics close to previous Hendra virus cases. Factors associated with uptake of risk mitigation practices were investigated using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. Belief that a risk mitigation practice would be effective in reducing Hendra virus risk was significantly associated with the uptake of that practice. Issues around the practicality of implementing risk mitigation practices were found to be the greatest barrier to uptake. Factors that relate to risk immediacy, such as nearby infection, were identified as more likely to trigger uptake of risk mitigation practices. The role of veterinarians in supporting Hendra risk mitigation was identified as more influential than that of respected others or friends. Findings from this study are being used to assist stakeholders in Australia responsible for promotion of risk mitigation practice in identifying additional pathways and reliable influencing factors that could be utilized for engaging and communicating with horse

  8. Wind-blown volcanic ash off Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    On September 16, 2013 the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite passed over the southern tip of Iceland and captured a remarkable image dust plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers over the Atlantic Ocean. The westernmost plume is dark tan in color and so thick that the blue ocean waters are obscured from view near Iceland's coast. The eastern plume appears broader, thinner and light gray in color. According to the Icelandic Met Office, near the Mýrdalsjökull and Vatnajökull ice-caps there are vast glacial outwash plains which stretch from the glacial margins to the sea. These plains, formed by melt water from glaciers, are known as sandur. Strong northerly winds frequently blow dust from the sandur plains far from the shore. This particular dust plume originates to the east of the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap. The Katla volcano, one of the largest in Iceland, lies under the Mýrdalsjökull glacier and in the general region of the westernmost plume. Katla has a history of large, violent eruptions occurring on an average of every 50-100 years. The volcano has been increasingly restless since 1999, with increased seismicity in recent years. In 2011 a very small eruption was reported, with minimal damage. Because of the increasing restlessness and the dangerous nature of historic eruptions, the volcano is currently carefully monitored. None of the monitoring agencies reported eruption at Katla in mid-September of this year. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    PubMed

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-08

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica.

  10. Effect of rider experience and evaluator expertise on subjective grading of lameness in sound and unsound sports horses under saddle.

    PubMed

    Marqués, Fernando J; Waldner, Cheryl; Reed, Stephen; Autet, Fernando; Corbeil, Louise; Campbell, John

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether rider experience influences the assessment and grading of lameness in horses based on under-saddle gait analysis. Thirteen adult sports horses in active training were included in the study. After a baseline lameness and neurologic examination by the principal investigators, horses were videotaped while being ridden by an experienced and a less experienced rider. A 3-minute video was made for each horse and rider and 26 videos were randomly ordered and compiled on a DVD. Veterinarians with different levels of experience in evaluating lameness and veterinary students viewed the DVD and assigned a lameness score to each horse/rider combination. In a model accounting for the expertise of the evaluator, there was no difference in overall lameness scores between experienced and less experienced riders. This result was consistent for both sound and unsound horses. The overall lameness scores reported by specialists and students, however, differed significantly. The lameness score reported by the study participants while the horse was ridden was significantly associated with the subjective baseline lameness assessment reported by the principal investigators for the same limb when the horse was not under saddle. Additional work is necessary to determine whether riders with even lower skill levels would further alter the balance and motion pattern of the horse and have more influence on subjective grading of lameness.

  11. Effect of rider experience and evaluator expertise on subjective grading of lameness in sound and unsound sports horses under saddle

    PubMed Central

    Marqués, Fernando J.; Waldner, Cheryl; Reed, Stephen; Autet, Fernando; Corbeil, Louise; Campbell, John

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether rider experience influences the assessment and grading of lameness in horses based on under-saddle gait analysis. Thirteen adult sports horses in active training were included in the study. After a baseline lameness and neurologic examination by the principal investigators, horses were videotaped while being ridden by an experienced and a less experienced rider. A 3-minute video was made for each horse and rider and 26 videos were randomly ordered and compiled on a DVD. Veterinarians with different levels of experience in evaluating lameness and veterinary students viewed the DVD and assigned a lameness score to each horse/rider combination. In a model accounting for the expertise of the evaluator, there was no difference in overall lameness scores between experienced and less experienced riders. This result was consistent for both sound and unsound horses. The overall lameness scores reported by specialists and students, however, differed significantly. The lameness score reported by the study participants while the horse was ridden was significantly associated with the subjective baseline lameness assessment reported by the principal investigators for the same limb when the horse was not under saddle. Additional work is necessary to determine whether riders with even lower skill levels would further alter the balance and motion pattern of the horse and have more influence on subjective grading of lameness. PMID:24688169

  12. Genetic diversity of Syrian Arabian horses.

    PubMed

    Almarzook, S; Reissmann, M; Arends, D; Brockmann, G A

    2017-08-01

    Although Arabian horses have been bred in strains for centuries and pedigrees have been recorded in studbooks, to date, little is known about the genetic diversity within and between these strains. In this study, we tested if the three main strains of Syrian Arabian horses descend from three founders as suggested by the studbook. We examined 48 horses representing Saglawi (n = 18), Kahlawi (n = 16) and Hamdani (n = 14) strains using the Equine SNP70K BeadChip. For comparison, an additional 24 Arabian horses from the USA and three Przewalski's horses as an out group were added. Observed heterozygosis (H o ) ranged between 0.30 and 0.32, expected heterozygosity (H e ) between 0.30 and 0.31 and inbreeding coefficients (F is ) between -0.02 and -0.05, indicating high genetic diversity within Syrian strains. Likewise, the genetic differentiation between the three Syrian strains was very low (F st  < 0.05). Hierarchical clustering showed a clear distinction between Arabian and Przewalski's horses. Among Arabian horses, we found three clusters containing either horses from the USA or horses from Syria or horses from Syria and the USA together. Individuals from the same Syrian Arabian horse strain were spread across different sub-clusters. When analyzing Syrian Arabian horses alone, the best population differentiation was found with three distinct clusters. In contrast to expectations from the studbook, these clusters did not coincide with strain affiliation. Although this finding supports the hypothesis of three founders, the genetic information is not consistent with the currently used strain designation system. The information can be used to reconsider the current breeding practice. Beyond that, Syrian Arabian horses are an important reservoir for genetic diversity. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Factors affecting prevalence and abundance of A.perfoliata infections in horses from south-eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Tomczuk, Krzysztof; Grzybek, Maciej; Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Studzińska, Maria; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, Marta; Roczeń-Karczmarz, Monika; Abbass, Zahrai Abdulhammza; Kostro, Krzysztof; Junkuszew, Andrzej

    2017-11-15

    Equine Anoplocephalosis constitute a significant problem in horses worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyse intrinsic (host age and sex) and extrinsic (management type, pasture type and moisture) factors that influence the prevalence and FEC of A. perfoliata infections. Faecal samples were collected from 994 horses managed in studs or individually between 2012 and 2014. The Sedimentation-flotation method was applied for coproscopic analysis, and faecal egg counts were calculated. The overall prevalence was 25.1% (21.4-29.0) with the highest prevalence (36.1% [28.1-44.8]) found in horses 10-20 years old. The individuals kept in studs showed three times higher A. perfoliata prevalence compared to the ones managed individually. The prevalence significantly differed between pasture types, with individuals kept in studs (37.6% [34.3-40.9]) showing four times higher prevalence than horses kept individually (9.2% [4.8-16.5]). More horses kept on watery (42.0% [36.6-47.6]) and semi-watery (35.9% [31.3-40.7]) pastures were infected than those on dry (6.6% [4.6-9.2]) pastures. The overall A. perfoliata FEC in all examined individual was 2.67 and differed within sex, with mares showing 4.3 - times higher FEC of infection than stallions. Horses bred in studs (3.65±0.289) showed higher FEC than these bred individually (1.28±0.198). There was the effect of pasture type on A. perfoliata FEC, with horses kept on joint pastures (4.06±0.29) showing higher FEC than individuals kept individually (0.88±0.23). Pasture moisture significantly affected A. perfoliata FEC with the highest FECs in horses from watery pastures. Horses bred on dry pastures showed 16 times lower FEC than horses bred on watery pastures. Host age also significantly affected A. perfoliata FEC, with the oldest individuals showing the highest mean FEC. The presented analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may help to overcome A. perfoliata infections in horses in different breeding systems

  14. The Iceland Plate Boundary Zone: Propagating Rifts, Migrating Transforms, and Rift-Parallel Strike-Slip Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    Unlike most of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the North America/Eurasia plate boundary in Iceland lies above sea level where magmatic and tectonic processes can be directly investigated in subaerial exposures. Accordingly, geologic processes in Iceland have long been recognized as possible analogs for seafloor spreading in the submerged parts of the mid-ocean ridge system. Combining existing and new data from across Iceland provides an integrated view of this active, mostly subaerial plate boundary. The broad Iceland plate boundary zone includes segmented rift zones linked by transform fault zones. Rift propagation and transform fault migration away from the Iceland hotspot rearrange the plate boundary configuration resulting in widespread deformation of older crust and reactivation of spreading-related structures. Rift propagation results in block rotations that are accommodated by widespread, rift-parallel, strike-slip faulting. The geometry and kinematics of faulting in Iceland may have implications for spreading processes elsewhere on the mid-ocean ridge system where rift propagation and transform migration occur.

  15. Evolution of Icelandic Central Volcanoes: Evidence from the Austurhorn Plutonic and Vestmannaeyjar Volcanic Complexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    felsic magmas into a laterally extensive warm mafic chamber. Experiments with aqueous solutions suggest that buoyant felsic magma will rise as a plume ...crustal influences and processes . It is widely accepted that the Iceland mantle plume , which supplies this region with copious basalt magmas, is...currently located near Kverkfjoll in the center of the country (e.g., Vink, 1984; figure 1.2). Plume material is geochemically distinct from the mantle

  16. Geochemistry of NE Atlantic non-rifting zones, Iceland and Jan Mayen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronnes, R. G.; Waight, T.

    2005-12-01

    The fertile components of the NE Atlantic mantle are sampled preferentially by alkaline basalts in the volcanic flank zones of Iceland and in the Jan Mayen and Vesteris seamount areas. Our data from primitive flank zone lavas from Iceland and Jan Mayen demonstrate a HIMU-affinity with enrichment of HFSE, U/Pb, Th/U and Nb/Th. In PM-normalized spider diagrams the least enriched samples have weakly positive Sr-anomalies, whereas the most enriched samples have negative Sr-anomalies. The entire sample suite shows negative Sr-Nd-isotope correlation, whereas the samples of each volcanic system or flank zone generally lack such a correlation. Our data confirm the anomalously high 87/86Sr of the Orafajokull volcanic system in the eastern flank zone. The results are consistent with existing data for other primitive flank zone basalts from Iceland and Jan Mayen. Common geochemical features linking alkaline flank zone basalts and high-degree tholeiitic melts include high 87/86Sr (and probably 176/177Hf) for a given 143/144Nd, negative delta-207Pb (except for Orafajokull) and positive delta-Nb. Alkaline flank zone basalts have generally higher 87/86Sr, 206/204Pb and 18/16O and lower 143/144Nd, 187/188Os and 3/4He than rift zone tholeiites. The different 18/16O ratios in flank and rift zone basalts are consistent with seafloor hydrothermal alteration of the upper and lower parts of recycled oceanic lithosphere, respectively. Olivine-melt fractionation may contribute to the difference. Indications of lower 187/188Os in alkaline basalts compared to nearby rift zone tholeiites could be caused by subduction zone loss of Re from the upper part of recycled slabs. The partial melting and volcanic sampling of the fertile mantle components under Iceland and the NE Atlantic is governed by the crustal structure and geometry of the Icelandic volcanic zones and the lateral deflection of the upwelling heterogeneous mantle source originating under central Iceland. Based on the pattern of V

  17. Internationally Educated Teachers and Student Teachers in Iceland: Two Qualitative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragnarsdottir, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This article draws upon two qualitative studies with internationally educated teachers and teacher assistants in preschools in Iceland as well as ethnic minority student teachers at the Iceland University of Education. The common research question in both studies is whether the experiences of these teachers reveal barriers to integration within…

  18. Distribution patterns in the native vascular flora of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Wasowicz, Pawel; Pasierbiński, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa Maria; Kristinsson, Hörður

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to reveal biogeographical patterns in the native vascular flora of Iceland and to define ecological factors responsible for these patterns. We analysed dataset of more than 500,000 records containing information on the occurrence of vascular plants. Analysis of ecological factors included climatic (derived from WORLDCLIM data), topographic (calculated from digital elevation model) and geological (bedrock characteristics) variables. Spherical k-means clustering and principal component analysis were used to detect biogeographical patterns and to study the factors responsible for them. We defined 10 biotic elements exhibiting different biogeographical patterns. We showed that climatic (temperature-related) and topographic variables were the most important factors contributing to the spatial patterns within the Icelandic vascular flora and that these patterns are almost completely independent of edaphic factors (bedrock type). Our study is the first one to analyse the biogeographical differentiation of the native vascular flora of Iceland.

  19. Gudmundur Finnbogason, "sympathetic understanding," and early Icelandic psychology.

    PubMed

    Pind, Jörgen L

    2008-05-01

    Gudmundur Finnbogason (1873-1944) was a pioneer of Icelandic psychology. He was educated at the University of Copenhagen where he finished his M.A. in 1901 in philosophy, specializing in psychology. During the years 1901-1905, Finnbogason played a major role in establishing and shaping the future of primary education in Iceland. He defended his doctoral thesis on "sympathetic understanding" at the University of Copenhagen in 1911. This work deals with the psychology of imitation. In it Finnbogason defends the view that imitation is basically perception so that there is a direct link from perception to motor behavior. Through imitation people tend to assume the countenance and demeanor of other people, thus showing, in Finnbogason's terminology, "sympathetic understanding." Finnbogason's theory of imitation in many respects anticipates contemporary approaches to the psychology of imitation. In 1918 Finnbogason became professor of applied psychology at the recently founded University of Iceland. Here he attempted to establish psychology as an independent discipline. In this he was unsuccessful; his chair was abolished in 1924.

  20. Asian horses deepen the MSY phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Felkel, S; Vogl, C; Rigler, D; Jagannathan, V; Leeb, T; Fries, R; Neuditschko, M; Rieder, S; Velie, B; Lindgren, G; Rubin, C-J; Schlötterer, C; Rattei, T; Brem, G; Wallner, B

    2018-02-01

    Humans have shaped the population history of the horse ever since domestication about 5500 years ago. Comparative analyses of the Y chromosome can illuminate the paternal origin of modern horse breeds. This may also reveal different breeding strategies that led to the formation of extant breeds. Recently, a horse Y-chromosomal phylogeny of modern horses based on 1.46 Mb of the male-specific Y (MSY) was generated. We extended this dataset with 52 samples from five European, two American and seven Asian breeds. As in the previous study, almost all modern European horses fall into a crown group, connected via a few autochthonous Northern European lineages to the outgroup, the Przewalski's Horse. In total, we now distinguish 42 MSY haplotypes determined by 158 variants within domestic horses. Asian horses show much higher diversity than previously found in European breeds. The Asian breeds also introduce a deep split to the phylogeny, preliminarily dated to 5527 ± 872 years. We conclude that the deep splitting Asian Y haplotypes are remnants of a far more diverse ancient horse population, whose haplotypes were lost in other lineages. © 2018 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Occurrence of Wounds in Nigerian Horses.

    PubMed

    Agina, Onyinyechukwu A; Ihedioha, John I

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of wounds in Nigerian horses. The study population was 1,621 horses sold at the Obollo Afor horse lairage in Enugu State, Nigeria, during a 6-month period: 3 months of dry season and 3 months of rainy season (February-April and June-August 2012). A total of 207 horses were systematically sampled and subjected to a comprehensive physical examination. Those with wounds were marked, recorded, and clinically examined. Of the 207 horses sampled, 21 (10.1%) had wounds. The body distribution of the wounds was 9.5% head, 9.5% forelimbs, 19.1% hind limbs, 4.8% tail, 14.3% flank, 9.5% loin, 19.1% hip, 9.5% barrel, and 4.8% croup. The occurrence of the wounds was not significantly associated with sex or season, but the occurrence in adults was significantly (p < .05) higher than that in the young and aged horses. It was concluded that the occurrence of wounds is relatively high (10.1%), and mainly the hind limbs, hip, and flank of adult horses are affected. It was recommended that horse guardians and handlers should be properly educated on the care of horses.

  2. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S; Magnusdottir, Ellen; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean W; Dusek, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence=75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Avian influenza virus ecology in Iceland shorebirds: intercontinental reassortment and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Hallgrimsson, Gunnar Thor; Suwannanarn, Kamol; Sreevatsen, Srinand; Ip, Hon S.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Shorebirds are a primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIV). We conducted surveillance studies in Iceland shorebird populations for 3 years, documenting high serological evidence of AIV exposure in shorebirds, primarily in Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres; seroprevalence = 75%). However, little evidence of virus infection was found in these shorebird populations and only two turnstone AIVs (H2N7; H5N1) were able to be phylogenetically examined. These analyses showed that viruses from Iceland shorebirds were primarily derived from Eurasian lineage viruses, yet the H2 hemagglutinin gene segment was from a North American lineage previously detected in a gull from Iceland the previous year. The H5N1 virus was determined to be low pathogenic, however the PB2 gene was closely related to the PB2 from highly pathogenic H5N1 isolates from China. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the turnstones were infected with at least one of these AIV while in Iceland and confirm Iceland as an important location where AIV from different continents interact and reassort, creating new virus genomes. Mounting data warrant continued surveillance for AIV in wild birds in the North Atlantic, including Canada, Greenland, and the northeast USA to determine the risks of new AI viruses and their intercontinental movement in this region.

  4. Clonidine in horses: identification, detection, and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, L; McFadden, E T; Ely, K J; ElkHoly, H; Lehner, A F; Thompson, K

    2006-01-01

    Clonidine is classified as a class 3 performance-enhancing agent by the Association of Racing Commissioners International and thus has the potential to influence the outcome of a race. In this study, the authors developed and validated a sensitive gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer method to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of clonidine in equine plasma samples after IV administration of a single dose (0.025 mg/kg) of clonidine in horses. At this dose, clonidine produced rapid and profound sedation, which cold be quickly reversed with yohimbine. Clonidine was able to produce an analgesic effect but failed to provide maximal analgesia in all horses; the limited analgesic effect persisted for about 60 minutes.

  5. Rutgers Young Horse Teaching and Research Program: sustainability of taking a risk with "at risk" horses.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Sarah L; Molnar, Anne

    2012-12-01

    In 1999, the Young Horse Teaching and Research Program (YHTRP) was initiated at Rutgers University. The unique aspect of the program was using horses generally considered "at risk" and in need of rescue, but of relatively low value. The risks of using horses from pregnant mare urine (PMU) ranches and Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mustangs were high, but, ultimately, unrealized. No students or staff members were seriously injured over the course of the next 12 yr, and the horses were sold annually as highly desirable potential athletes or pleasure horses, usually at a profit. The use of "at risk" horses generated a significant amount of positive media attention and attracted substantial funding in the form of donations and sponsorships, averaging over $60,000 (USD)per year. Despite economic downturns, public and industry support provided sustainability for the program with only basic University infrastructural support. Taking the risk of using "at risk" horses paid off, with positive outcomes for all.

  6. NASA Spacecraft Eyes Iceland Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-09-03

    On the night of Sept. 1, 2014, NASA Earth Observing 1 EO-1 spacecraft observed the ongoing eruption at Holuhraun, Iceland. This false-color image that emphasizes the hottest areas of the vent and resulting lava flows.

  7. Injury Pattern in Icelandic Elite Male Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Rafnsson, Elis Thor; Valdimarsson, Örnólfur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn; Árnason, Árni

    2017-10-10

    To examine the incidence, type, location, and severity of injuries in Icelandic elite male handball players and compare across factors like physical characteristics and playing position. Prospective cohort study. The latter part of the preseason and the competitive season of Icelandic male handball. Eleven handball teams (185 players) from the 2 highest divisions in Iceland participated in the study. Six teams (109 players) completed the study. Injuries were recorded by the players under supervision from their team physiotherapists or coaches. Coaches recorded training exposure, and match exposure was obtained from the Icelandic and European Handball Federations. The players directly recorded potential risk factors, such as age, height, weight, previous injuries, and player position. Injury incidence and injury location and number of injury days. Recorded time-loss injuries were 86, of which 53 (62%) were acute and 33 (38%) were due to overuse. The incidence of acute injuries was 15.0 injuries/1000 hours during games and 1.1 injuries/1000 hours during training sessions. No significant difference was found in injury incidence between teams, but number of injury days did differ between teams (P = 0.0006). Acute injuries were most common in knees (26%), ankles (19%), and feet/toes (17%), but overuse injuries occurred in low back/pelvic region (39%), shoulders (21%), and knees (21%). Previous knee injuries were the only potential risk factor found for knee injury. The results indicate a higher rate of overuse injuries in low back/pelvic region and shoulders than in comparable studies.

  8. Alcohol and labor supply: the case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; McGeary, Kerry Anne

    2009-10-01

    At a time when the government of Iceland is considering privatization of alcohol sales and a reduction of its governmental fees, it is timely to estimate the potential effects of this policy change. Given that the privatization of sales coupled with a tax reduction should lead to a decrease in the unit price of alcohol, one would expect the quantity consumed to increase. While it is of interest to project the impact of the proposed bill on the market for alcohol, another important consideration is the impact that increased alcohol consumption and, more specifically, probable alcohol misuse would have on other markets in Iceland. The only available study on this subject using Icelandic data yields surprising results. Tómasson et al. (Scand J Public Health 32:47-52, 2004) unexpectedly found no effect of probable alcohol abuse on sick leave. A logical next step would be to examine the effect of probable alcohol abuse on other important labor-market outcomes. Nationally representative survey data from 2002 allow for an analysis of probable misuse of alcohol and labor-supply choices. Labor-supply choices are considered with reference to possible effects of policies already in force, as well as proposed changes to current policies. Contrary to intuition, but in agreement with the previously mentioned Icelandic study, the adverse effects of probable misuse of alcohol on employment status or hours worked are not confirmed within this sample. The reasons for the results are unclear, although some suggestions are hypothesized. Currently, data to test those theories convincingly are not available.

  9. Lower Tertiary laterite on the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge and the Thulean land bridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1978-01-01

    CORES of a lower Tertiary lateritic palaeosol resting on basalt were recovered1 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 336 (Leg 38) on the north-east flank of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge (Fig. 1), a major aseismic oceanic ridge that, together with Iceland, forms the Icelandic transverse ridge 2. The transverse ridge extends from the West European continental margin to the East Greenland continental margin, forming the geographic boundary and a partial barrier to flow of water between the Norwegian-Greenland Sea to the north and the northern North Atlantic Ocean to the south. The palaeosol indicates that at least part of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge was above sea level during early Tertiary time3. Palaeogeographic and palaeooceanographic reconstructions suggest that it formed the main part of the Thulean land bridge that connected South-east Greenland and the Faeroe islands during the early Tertiary4. This report summarises the subsidence history of the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge relative to early Tertiary seafloor spreading, basaltic volcanism, and the development of the proposed Thulean land bridge. ?? 1978 Nature Publishing Group.

  10. Spatiotemporal evolution of the completeness magnitude of the Icelandic earthquake catalogue from 1991 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzera, Francesco; Mignan, Arnaud; Vogfjörð, Kristin S.

    2017-07-01

    In 1991, a digital seismic monitoring network was installed in Iceland with a digital seismic system and automatic operation. After 20 years of operation, we explore for the first time its nationwide performance by analysing the spatiotemporal variations of the completeness magnitude. We use the Bayesian magnitude of completeness (BMC) method that combines local completeness magnitude observations with prior information based on the density of seismic stations. Additionally, we test the impact of earthquake location uncertainties on the BMC results, by filtering the catalogue using a multivariate analysis that identifies outliers in the hypocentre error distribution. We find that the entire North-to-South active rift zone shows a relatively low magnitude of completeness Mc in the range 0.5-1.0, highlighting the ability of the Icelandic network to detect small earthquakes. This work also demonstrates the influence of earthquake location uncertainties on the spatiotemporal magnitude of completeness analysis.

  11. Epidemiology of shivering (shivers) in horses.

    PubMed

    Draper, A C E; Bender, J B; Firshman, A M; Baird, J D; Reed, S; Mayhew, I G; Valberg, S J

    2015-03-01

    Investigating the epidemiology of shivering in horses. The purpose of this study was to characterise the signalment, clinical signs and management factors associated with shivering (also known as shivers), a relatively rare, poorly defined movement disorder in horses. Web-based case series survey and case-control study. A Web-based survey was used to obtain information from owners, worldwide, who suspected that their horse had shivering. Survey respondents were asked to answer standardised questions and to provide a video of the horse. Authors reviewed the surveys and videos, and horses were diagnosed with shivering if they displayed normal forward walking, with difficulty during manual lifting of the hoof and backward walking due to hyperflexion or hyperextension of the pelvic limbs. Cases confirmed by video were designated 'confirmed shivering', while those with compatible clinical signs but lacking video confirmation were designated 'suspected shivering'. Owners of confirmed shivering horses were asked to provide information on 2 horses without signs of shivering (control group). Three hundred and five surveys and 70 videos were received; 27 horses were confirmed shivering (50 controls), 67 were suspected shivering and the rest had a variety of other movement disorders. Suspected shivering horses resembled confirmed shivering cases, except that the suspected shivering group contained fewer draught breeds and fewer horses with exercise intolerance. Confirmed shivering signs often began at <5 years of age and progressed in 74% of cases. Owner-reported additional clinical signs in confirmed cases included muscle twitching (85%), muscle atrophy (44%), reduced strength (33%) and exercise intolerance (33%). Shivering horses were significantly taller (confirmed shivering, mean ∼173 cm; control horses, ∼163 cm) with a higher male:female ratio (confirmed shivering, 3.2:1 vs. control, 1.7:1). No potential triggering factors or effective treatments were reported

  12. Diatoms as Proxies for a Fluctuating Ice Cap Margin, Hvitarvatn, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, J. L.; Miller, G. H.; Geirsdottir, A.

    2005-12-01

    There are no complete records of terrestrial environmental change for the Holocene (11,000yrs) in Iceland and the status of Icelandic glaciers in the early Holocene remains unclear. It is not even known whether Iceland's large ice caps disappeared in the early Holocene, and if they did, when they re-grew. Icelandic lakes are particularly well suited to address these uncertainties as: 1) Glacial erosion and soft bedrock result in high lacustrine sedimentation rates, 2) Diagnostic tephras aid the geochronology, 3) Iceland's sensitivity to changes in North Atlantic circulation should produce clear signals in key environmental proxies (diatoms) preserved in lacustrine sequences, and 4) Ice-cap profiles are relatively flat so small changes in the equilibrium line altitude result in large changes in accumulation area. Hence, large changes in ice-sheet margins during the Holocene will impact sedimentation in glacier-dominated lakes and the diatom assemblages at those times. Hvitarvatn is a glacier dominated lake located on the eastern margin of Langjokull Ice Cap in central-western Iceland. The uppermost Hvitarvatn sediments reflect a glacially dominated system with planktonic, silica-demanding diatom taxa that suggest a high dissolved silica and turbid water environment consistent with high fluxes of glacial flour. Below this are Neoglacial sediments deposited when Langjokull was active, but outlet glaciers were not in contact with Hvitarvatn. The diatom assemblage here shows a small increase in abundance, but is still dominated by planktic, silica-demanding taxa. A distinct shift in lake conditions is reflected in the lowermost sediments, composed of predominantly benthic diatoms and deposited in clear water conditions with long growing seasons likely found in an environment with warmer summers than present and with no glacial erosion. Langjokull must have disappeared in the early Holocene for such a diverse, benthic dominated diatom assemblage to flourish.

  13. Do body weight and gender shape the work force? The case of Iceland.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey

    2011-03-01

    Most studies of the relationship between body weight - as well as its corollary, beauty - and labor-market outcomes have indicated that it is a function of a gender bias, the negative relationship between excess weight or obesity and labor-market outcomes being greater for women than for men. Iceland offers an exceptional opportunity to examine this hypothesis, given that it scores relatively well on an index of gender equality comprising economic, political, educational, labor-market, and health-based criteria. Equipped with an advanced level of educational attainment, on average, women are well represented in Iceland's labor force. When it comes to women's presence in the political sphere, Iceland is out of the ordinary as well; that Icelanders were the first in the world to elect a woman to be president may suggest a relatively gender-blind assessment in the labor market. In the current study, survey data collected by Gallup Iceland in 2002 are used to examine the relationship between weight and employment within this political and social setting. Point estimates indicate that, despite apparently lesser gender discrimination in Iceland than elsewhere, the bias against excess weight and obesity remains gender-based, showing a slightly negative relationship between weight and the employment rate of women, whereas a slightly positive relationship was found for men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Icelandic volcanological data node and data service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogfjord, Kristin; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Futurevolc Team

    2013-04-01

    Through funding from the European FP7 programme, the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO), as well as the local Icelandic government and RANNÍS research fund, the establishment of the Icelandic volcano observatory (VO) as a cross-disciplinary, international volcanological data node and data service is starting to materialize. At the core of this entity is the close collaboration between the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO), a natural hazard monitoring and research institution, and researchers at the Earth Science Institute of the University of Iceland, ensuring long-term sustainable access to research quality data and products. Existing Icelandic Earth science monitoring and research infrastructures are being prepared for integration with the European EPOS infrastructure. Because the VO is located at a Met Office, this infrastructure also includes meteorological infrastructures relevant to volcanology. Furthermore, the FP7 supersite project, FUTUREVOLC cuts across disciplines to bring together European researchers from Earth science, atmospheric science, remote sensing and space science focussed on combined processing of the different data sources and results to generate a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. Integration with atmospheric and space science is to meet the need for better estimates of the volcanic eruption source term and dispersion, which depend not only on the magma flow rate and composition, but also on atmosphere-plume interaction and dispersion. This should lead to better estimates of distribution of ash in the atmosphere. FUTUREVOLC will significantly expand the existing Icelandic EPOS infrastructure to an even more multidisciplinary volcanological infrastructure. A central and sustainable part of the project is the establishment of a research-quality data centre at the VO. This data centre will be able to serve as a volcanological data node within EPOS, making multidisciplinary data accessible to

  15. A High-Resolution Lipid Biomarker Perspective on North Iceland Shelf Marine Climate over the Last Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harning, D.; Sepúlveda, J.; Andrews, J. T.; Cabedo-Sanz, P.; Belt, S. T.; Marchitto, T. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Geirsdóttir, Á.; Miller, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Icelandic climate is vulnerable to variations in the dominance of competing Arctic and Atlantic ocean currents. The boundary between these water masses delineates the Polar Front, which today occupies the North Iceland Shelf (NIS). To date, Holocene oceanographic reconstructions along the NIS have employed a variety of proxies including Mg/Ca and δ18O of benthic and planktonic foraminifera, quartz and calcite wt%, the alkenone unsaturation index (Uk'37) and biotic species assemblages. Sea surface temperature (SST) proxies are primarily derived from phytoplankton resulting in a seasonal bias toward spring/summer SST. Furthermore, SST proxies can be influenced by additional confounding variables (e.g. salinity, nutrients, depth habitat of biota) resulting in markedly different Holocene temperature reconstructions between proxy datasets. To evaluate the similarities and discrepancies between various marine proxies, we investigate a high-resolution sediment core collected from the central North Iceland Shelf (B997-316GGC, 658 m depth). Sedimentation covers the last millennium, which captures the transition from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Age control is constrained by 14C dates and paleomagnetic secular variation. To assess marine surface productivity and sea ice conditions, we analyze quartz and calcite wt% via XRD and a series of highly branched isoprenoid biomarkers. Quantitative paleotemperature estimates are derived from a novel combination of Mg/Ca of foraminifera and two lipid biomarker indices, Uk'37 from Prymnesiophyte alkenones and TEX86 from Thaumarchaeota glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs). The latter TEX86 record is the first paleo application in Icelandic waters, which a recent local calibration study suggests may reflect annual or winter sub-surface (0-200 m) temperatures. Our paleotemperature records are bolstered by the analysis of additional sediment core tops, which expand the established Icelandic calibrations

  16. Racing performance of Standardbred trotting horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath and age- and sex-matched control horses.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Johansson, Bengt C; Zetterström, Sandra M; McOnie, Rebecca C

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine factors affecting race speed in Swedish Standardbred horses undergoing surgery of the carpal flexor sheath (CFS), to investigate whether preoperative racing speed was associated with specific intraoperative findings and whether horses returned to racing, and to compare the performance of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS with that of age- and sex-matched control horses. ANIMALS 149 Swedish Standardbred trotters undergoing surgery of the CFS and 274 age- and sex-matched control horses. PROCEDURES Medical records of CFS horses were examined. Racing data for CFS and control horses were retrieved from official online records. Generalizing estimating equations were used to examine overall and presurgery racing speeds and the association of preoperative clinical and intraoperative findings with preoperative and postoperative speeds. Multivariable regression analysis was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to compare career longevity between CFS and control horses. RESULTS CFS horses were significantly faster than control horses. The CFS horses that raced before surgery were slower as they approached the surgery date, but race speed increased after surgery. There were 124 of 137 (90.5%) CFS horses that raced after surgery. No intrathecal pathological findings were significantly associated with preoperative racing speed. Career longevity did not differ between CFS and control horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses undergoing surgery of the CFS had a good prognosis to return to racing after surgery. Racing careers of horses undergoing surgery of the CFS were not significantly different from racing careers of control horses.

  17. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant properties of Icelandic and Hawaiian lichens.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Kehau; Wright, Patrick R; Tabandera, Nicole K; Kelman, Dovi; Backofen, Rolf; Ómarsdóttir, Sesselja; Wright, Anthony D

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidant activity of symbiotic organisms known as lichens is an intriguing field of research because of its strong contribution to their ability to withstand extremes of physical and biological stress (e.g. desiccation, temperature, UV radiation and microbial infection). We present a comparative study on the antioxidant activities of 76 Icelandic and 41 Hawaiian lichen samples assessed employing the DPPH- and FRAP-based antioxidant assays. Utilizing this unprecedented sample size, we show that while highest individual sample activity is present in the Icelandic dataset, the overall antioxidant activity is higher for lichens found in Hawaii. Furthermore, we report that lichens from the genus Peltigera that have been described as strong antioxidant producers in studies on Chinese, Russian and Turkish lichens also show high antioxidant activities in both Icelandic and Hawaiian lichen samples. Finally, we show that opportunistic sampling of lichens in both Iceland and Hawaii will yield high numbers of lichen species that exclusively include green algae as photobiont. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. NASA Satellite Eyes Iceland Volcano Cauldron

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-18

    On Saturday, April 17, 2010, NASA Earth Observing-1 EO-1 spacecraft obtained this pair of images of the continuing eruption of Iceland Eyjafjallajökull volcano. On the left, new black ash deposits are visible on the ground.

  19. Histamine inhalation challenge in normal horses and in horses with small airway disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, M Y; Vrins, A A; Ford-Hutchinson, A W

    1991-01-01

    A histamine inhalation challenge (HIC) procedure was developed to assess hyperreactive states in horses. Following clinical evaluation, percutaneous lung biopsies were performed on nine light breed mares aged 6 to 15 years. Five horses, with normal small airways, were classified as group A and four subjects with small airway disease (SAD) lesions formed group B. Pulmonary mechanics parameters were monitored following an aerosol of 0.9% saline and every 5 min for up to 30 min after HIC with 0.5% w/v of histamine diphosphate, administered through a face mask for 2.5 min. Tidal volume (VT) and airflow (V) values were obtained with a pneumotachograph. Transpulmonary pressure (delta Ppl) was measured by the esophageal balloon catheter method. Dynamic compliance (Cdyn), total pulmonary resistance (RL), end expiratory work of breathing (EEW) and respiratory rate (f) were calculated by a pulmonary mechanics computer. Group A horses had increases in RL, and decreases in Cdyn whereas horses in group B were hyperreactive and showed greater changes in EEW, Cdyn, and delta Ppl but with a relatively lower variation of RL. One horse in clinical remission from SAD, but with a high biopsy score (group B), and one clinically normal horse belonging to group A showed marked hyperreactivity as shown by increases in EEW, maximum change in delta Ppl and RL and decreases in Cdyn. These results suggest that the HIC described can be used as a method to investigate airway hyperreactivity and SAD in horses. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1889039

  20. [Tablets and tablet production - with special reference to Icelandic conditions].

    PubMed

    Skaftason, Jóhannes F; Jóhannesson, Thorkell

    2013-04-01

    Modern tablet compression was instituted in England in 1844 by William Brockedon (1787-1854). The first tablets made according to Brockedon´s procedures contained watersoluble salts and were most likely compressed without expedients. In USA a watershed occurred around 1887 when starch (amylum maydis) was introduced to disperse tablets in aqueous milieu in order to corroborate bioavailability of drugs in the almentary canal. About the same time great advances in tablet production were introduced by the British firm Burroughs Wellcome and Co. In Denmark on the other hand tablet production remained on low scale until after 1920. As Icelandic pharmacies and drug firms modelled themselves mostly upon Danish firms tablet production was first instituted in Iceland around 1930. The first tablet machines in Iceland were hand-driven. More efficent machines came after 1945. Around 1960 three sizeable tablet producers were in Iceland; now there is only one. Numbers of individual tablet species (generic and proprietary) on the market rose from less than 10 in 1913 to 500 in 1965, with wide variations in numbers in between. Tablets have not wiped out other medicinal forms for peroral use but most new peroral drugs have been marketed in the form of tablets during the last decades.

  1. Genetic Structure and Gene Flows within Horses: A Genealogical Study at the French Population Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pirault, Pauline; Danvy, Sophy; Verrier, Etienne; Leroy, Grégoire

    2013-01-01

    Since horse breeds constitute populations submitted to variable and multiple outcrossing events, we analyzed the genetic structure and gene flows considering horses raised in France. We used genealogical data, with a reference population of 547,620 horses born in France between 2002 and 2011, grouped according to 55 breed origins. On average, individuals had 6.3 equivalent generations known. Considering different population levels, fixation index decreased from an overall species FIT of 1.37%, to an average of −0.07% when considering the 55 origins, showing that most horse breeds constitute populations without genetic structure. We illustrate the complexity of gene flows existing among horse breeds, a few populations being closed to foreign influence, most, however, being submitted to various levels of introgression. In particular, Thoroughbred and Arab breeds are largely used as introgression sources, since those two populations explain together 26% of founder origins within the overall horse population. When compared with molecular data, breeds with a small level of coancestry also showed low genetic distance; the gene pool of the breeds was probably impacted by their reproducer exchanges. PMID:23630596

  2. Retrospective analysis of factors associated with outcome of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis in 82 horses including Warmblood and Thoroughbred sport horses and Quarter Horses (1992-2014).

    PubMed

    Herthel, T D; Rick, M C; Judy, C E; Cohen, N D; Herthel, D J

    2016-09-01

    Outcomes associated with arthrodesis of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint in Quarter Horses used for Western performance activities are well documented but little is known regarding outcomes for other types of horses. To identify factors associated with outcomes, including breed and activity, after arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods, Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses. Retrospective case series. Surgical case records of 82 Quarter Horses principally engaged in Western performance and Thoroughbred or Warmblood breeds principally engaged in showing, showjumping and dressage, with arthrodesis of the PIP joint were reviewed. Arthrodesis was performed with either 3 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, a dynamic compression plate (DCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion, or a locking compression plate (LCP) with 2 transarticular cortex bone screws placed in lag fashion. Demographic data, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, surgical technique, post operative treatment and complications were recorded. Long-term follow-up was obtained for all 82 horses. Osteoarthritis of the PIP joint was the most common presenting condition requiring arthrodesis, which was performed with either the 3 screw technique (n = 41), DCP fixation (n = 22), or LCP fixation (n = 19). Post operatively, 23/31 (74%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 44/51 (87%) Quarter Horses achieved successful outcomes. Thirteen of 23 (57%) Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and 24 of 38 (63%) Quarter Horses, used for athletic performance, returned to successful competition. Within this subgroup of horses engaged in high-level activity, regardless of breed type, horses undergoing hindlimb arthrodesis were significantly more likely to return to successful competition (73%; 33/45) than those with forelimb arthrodesis (25%; 4/16, P = 0.002). Arthrodesis of the PIP joint in Warmbloods/Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses results in a favourable outcome for return to

  3. The life of family trees and the Book of Icelanders.

    PubMed

    Pálsson, Gísli

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the tracing of family histories and competing assumptions about identities and relatedness in the era of biotechnology and biopower. Although the fascination with genealogical trees and family histories is common throughout the West, in Iceland this attraction is extreme. A genealogical database for most of the Icelandic population, the so-called Book of Icelanders, is being constructed as part of a larger biogenetic enterprise that seeks to establish the presumed genetic causes of common diseases for the purpose of developing pharmaceutical products. The discussion explores the changing implications of family trees as they become enmeshed in biomedical projects and political debates. Genealogical records, I suggest, are never innocent phenomena; this is because they have a social life of their own, a biography informed by the contours of the cultural landscapes to which they belong.

  4. Iceland as the largest source of natural air pollution in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Meinander, Outi; Olafsson, Haraldur; Arnalds, Olafur

    2017-04-01

    Arctic aerosols are often attributed to the Arctic Haze and long-range transport tracers. There is, however, an important dust source in the Arctic/Sub-arctic region which should receive more attention. The largest desert in the Arctic as well as in the Europe is Iceland with > 40,000 km2 of desert areas. The mean dust suspension frequency was 135 dust days annually in 1949-2012 with decreasing numbers in 2013-2015. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 31-40 million tons yr-1 affecting the area of > 500,000 km2. Satelite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes traveling > 1000 km at times. The physical properties of Icelandic dust showed differences in mineralogy, geochemical compositions, shapes, sizes, and colour, compared to the crustal mineral dust. Icelandic dust is of volcanic origin, dark in colour with sharp-tipped shards and large bubbles. About 80% of the particulate matter is volcanic glass rich in heavy metals, such as iron and titanium. Suspended dust measured at the glacial dust source consisted of such high number of close-to-ultrafine particles as concentrations during active eruptions. Generally, about 50% of the suspended PM10 are submicron particles in Iceland. Contrarily, suspended grains > 2 mm were captured during severe dust storm after the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull eruption when the aeolian transport exceeded 11 t m-1 of materials and placed this storms among the most extreme wind erosion events recorded on Earth. Our reflectance measurements showed that Icelandic dust deposited on snow lowers the snow albedo and reduces the snow density as much as Black Carbon. Icelandic volcanic dust tends to act as a positive climate forcing agent, both directly and indirectly, which is different to what generally concluded for crustal dust in the 2013 IPCC report. The high frequency, severity and year-round activity of volcanic dust emissions suggest that Icelandic dust may contribute to Arctic warming.

  5. Movement asymmetry in working polo horses.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Parkes, R S; Burden, E R; Bell, N; Fairhurst, H; Witte, T H

    2016-07-01

    The high, repetitive demands imposed on polo horses in training and competition may predispose them to musculoskeletal injuries and lameness. To quantify movement symmetry and lameness in a population of polo horses, and to investigate the existence of a relationship with age. Convenience sampled cross-sectional study. Sixty polo horses were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the poll, and between the tubera sacrale. Six movement symmetry measures were calculated for vertical head and pelvic displacement during in-hand trot and compared with values for perfect symmetry, compared between left and right limb lame horses, and compared with published thresholds for lameness. Regression lines were calculated as a function of age of horse. Based on 2 different sets of published asymmetry thresholds 52-53% of the horses were quantified with head movement asymmetry and 27-50% with pelvic movement asymmetry resulting in 60-67% of horses being classified with movement asymmetry outside published guideline values for either the forelimbs, hindlimbs or both. Neither forelimb nor hindlimb asymmetries were preferentially left or right sided, with directional asymmetry values across all horses not different from perfect symmetry and absolute values not different between left and right lame horses (P values >0.6 for all forelimb symmetry measures and >0.2 for all hindlimb symmetry measures). None of the symmetry parameters increased or decreased significantly with age. A large proportion of polo horses show gait asymmetries consistent with previously defined thresholds for lameness. These do not appear to be lateralised or associated with age. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  6. [Prevalence and diversity of emotional abuse and neglect in childhood in Iceland].

    PubMed

    Einarsdottir, Jonina; Gunnlaugsson, Geir

    2015-03-01

    Parenting styles that include abuse can harm the development of the child's brain with a long or short-term impact on his/her health and behaviour. The scope and diversity of abuse are important determinants, and neglect is one of its most serious manifestations. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence and diversity of emotional abuse and neglect reported by adult Icelanders in their childhood, and how such experience had influenced their evaluation of their upbringing. Icelanders 18 years and older were randomly selected from the national population register. They were invited to express their perception of their upbringing, and answer questions regarding their experience of 8 specific forms of emotional abuse in childhood, and neglect. Of 966 interviewees, 663 (69%) had experienced one or more of the 8 forms of emotional abuse. Those younger than 30 years were 2.9 times more likely to have such an experience compared to those who were older (95% CI 1.9 to 4.3). The perception of upbringing as bad or acceptable compared to good was significantly related to the number of forms of emotional abuse applied (p<0.0001) and the scope of its application (p<0.0001). In total 105 (11%) considered that they had experienced neglect in childhood. Significantly more men than women had experienced emotional abuse (p= 0.0020), whereas women reported neglect (p=0.0440). More than 2/3 of adult Icelanders report experience of one or more out of 8 different forms of emotional abuse and 1/10 report neglect. Parenting styles can be changed, e.g. with education, social support, and legislation.

  7. Evaluation of clinical and electrocardiographic changes during the euthanasia of horses.

    PubMed

    Buhl, R; Andersen, L O F; Karlshøj, M; Kanters, J K

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this prospective field study was to investigate whether commonly used criteria for clinical death occurred at the same time as cardiac death, as determined by electrocardiography. Specific ECG changes during euthanasia were also studied. Twenty-nine horses were euthanized with pentobarbital at two different dose rates and 15 of the 29 horses also received detomidine hydrochloride for sedation. ECG was recorded prior to and during euthanasia. Time to collapse, cessation of reflexes, heart sounds and asystole were recorded. ECG recordings were used to calculate RR intervals, PQ duration, QRS duration, distance from QRS complex to end of T wave corrected for HR (QTc interval), duration of T-wave from peak to end (TpeakTend) and amplitudes of T wave (Tpeak) before and during euthanasia. Differences between groups and ECG changes were evaluated using analysis of variance. Clinical determination of death occurred before cardiac death (P<0.05). Sedated horses took longer to collapse than unsedated horses (P<0.0001), but asystole occurred faster in sedated horses (P<0.0001). No significant changes in QRS duration were observed, but RR, PQ, QTc, TpeakTend and Tpeak were influenced by both pentobarbital dose and sedation (P<0.05-<0.0001). In conclusion, sedation prior to euthanasia resulted in a shorter time to asystole and is therefore recommended for the euthanasia of horses. Importantly, the results show that the clinical definition of death occurred significantly earlier than cardiac death (defined as asystole), which indicates that the clinical declaration of death in horses could be premature compared to that used in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Horses: An Introduction to Horses: Racing, Ranching, and Riding for Blind and Physically Handicapped Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cylke, Frank Kurt, Ed.

    This annotated bibliography of materials focuses on horses, racing, ranching, and riding. Two articles are presented in full. They are: "Diary of a Blind Horseman: Confidence Springs from a Horse Named Sun" (Richard Vice and Steve Stone) and "Young Rider: Her Horses Show the Way" (Helen Mason). Each article tells the true story…

  9. Crustal Structure of the Iceland Region from Spectrally Correlated Free-air and Terrain Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leftwich, T. E.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Roman, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic refraction studies have provided critical, but spatially restricted constraints on the structure of the Icelandic crust. To obtain a more comprehensive regional view of this tectonically complicated area, we spectrally correlated free-air gravity anomalies against computed gravity effects of the terrain for a crustal thickness model that also conforms to regional seismic and thermal constraints. Our regional crustal thickness estimates suggest thickened crust extends up to 500 km on either side of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge with the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge crust being less extended and on average 3-5 km thinner than the crust of the Greenland-Iceland Ridge. Crustal thickness estimates for Iceland range from 25-35 km in conformity with seismic predictions of a cooler, thicker crust. However, the deepening of our gravity-inferred Moho relative to seismic estimates at the thermal plume and rift zones of Iceland suggests partial melting. The amount of partial melting may range from about 8% beneath the rift zones to perhaps 20% above the plume core where mantle temperatures may be 200-400 C above normal. Beneath Iceland, areally limited regions of partial melting may also be compositionally and mechanically layered and intruded. The mantle plume appears to be centered at (64.6 deg N, 17.4 deg W) near the Vatnajokull Glacier and the central Icelandic neovolcanic zones.

  10. Whole mitochondrial genome sequencing of domestic horses reveals incorporation of extensive wild horse diversity during domestication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background DNA target enrichment by micro-array capture combined with high throughput sequencing technologies provides the possibility to obtain large amounts of sequence data (e.g. whole mitochondrial DNA genomes) from multiple individuals at relatively low costs. Previously, whole mitochondrial genome data for domestic horses (Equus caballus) were limited to only a few specimens and only short parts of the mtDNA genome (especially the hypervariable region) were investigated for larger sample sets. Results In this study we investigated whole mitochondrial genomes of 59 domestic horses from 44 breeds and a single Przewalski horse (Equus przewalski) using a recently described multiplex micro-array capture approach. We found 473 variable positions within the domestic horses, 292 of which are parsimony-informative, providing a well resolved phylogenetic tree. Our divergence time estimate suggests that the mitochondrial genomes of modern horse breeds shared a common ancestor around 93,000 years ago and no later than 38,000 years ago. A Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) reveals a significant population expansion beginning 6,000-8,000 years ago with an ongoing exponential growth until the present, similar to other domestic animal species. Our data further suggest that a large sample of wild horse diversity was incorporated into the domestic population; specifically, at least 46 of the mtDNA lineages observed in domestic horses (73%) already existed before the beginning of domestication about 5,000 years ago. Conclusions Our study provides a window into the maternal origins of extant domestic horses and confirms that modern domestic breeds present a wide sample of the mtDNA diversity found in ancestral, now extinct, wild horse populations. The data obtained allow us to detect a population expansion event coinciding with the beginning of domestication and to estimate both the minimum number of female horses incorporated into the domestic gene pool and the time depth of the

  11. Polyuria and polydipsia in horses.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Erica C

    2007-12-01

    Polyuria and polydipsia provide a diagnostic challenge for the equine clinician. This article describes the various known causes of polyuria and polydipsia in horses and provides a description of a systematic diagnostic approach for assessing horses with polyuria and polydipsia to delineate the underlying cause. Treatment and management strategies for addressing polyuria and polydipsia in horses are also described.

  12. Episodic expansion of Drangajökull, Vestfirðir, Iceland, over the last 3 ka culminating in its maximum dimension during the Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harning, David J.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; Miller, Gifford H.; Anderson, Leif

    2016-11-01

    Non-linear climate change is often linked to rapid changes in ocean circulation, especially around the North Atlantic. As the Polar Front fluctuated its latitudinal position during the Holocene, Iceland's climate was influenced by both the warm Atlantic currents and cool, sea ice-bearing Arctic currents. Drangajökull is Iceland's fifth largest ice cap. Climate proxies in lake sediment cores, dead vegetation emerging from beneath the ice cap, and moraine segments identified in a new DEM constrain the episodic expansion of the ice cap over the past 3 ka. Collectively, our data show that Drangajökull was advancing at ∼320 BCE, 180 CE, 560 CE, 950 CE and 1400 CE and in a state of recession at ∼450 CE, 1250 CE and after 1850 CE. The Late Holocene maximum extent of Drangajökull occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), occupying 262 km2, almost twice its area in 2011 CE and ∼20% larger than recent estimates of its LIA dimensions. Biological proxies from the sediment fill in a high- and low-elevation lake suggest limited vegetation and soil cover at high elevations proximal to the ice cap, whereas thick soil cover persisted until ∼750 CE at lower elevations near the coast. As Drangajökull expanded into the catchment of the high-elevation lake beginning at ∼950 CE, aquatic productivity diminished, following a trend of regional cooling supported by proxy records elsewhere in Iceland. Correlations between episodes of Drangajökull's advance and the documented occurrence of drift ice on the North Icelandic Shelf suggest export and local production of sea ice influenced the evolution of NW Iceland's Late Holocene climate.

  13. Progress report on research on human genetics in Iceland

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    None

    1980-10-31

    Records of the Icelandic population are being used to investigate the possible inheritance of disabilities and diseases as well as other characteristics and the effect of environment on man. The progress report of research covers the period from 1977 to 1980. The investigation was begun in 1965 by the Genetical Committee of the University of Iceland and the materials used are demographic records from the year 1840 to present and various medical information. The records are being computerized and linked together to make them effective for use in hereditary studies.

  14. Phytoplankton bloom off Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-08-13

    A massive phytoplankton bloom stained the waters of the Atlantic Ocean north of Iceland with brilliant jewel tones in late summer, 2014. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this true-color image on August 2. Huge colonies of the floating, plant-like organisms create swirls of green, teal and turquoise and cover over 80% of the visible ocean off the northeast coast of Iceland. Marine phytoplankton require just the right amount of sunlight, dissolved nutrients and water temperatures which are not too hot, nor too cold to spark explosive reproduction and result in blooms which can cover hundreds of square kilometers. Phytoplankton form the base of the marine food chain, and are a rich food source for zooplankton, fish and other marine species. Some species, however, can deplete the water of oxygen and may become toxic to marine life. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  15. Using the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) to Assess Pain Associated with Acute Laminitis in Horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Stucke, Diana; Dai, Francesca; Minero, Michela; Leach, Matthew C.; Lebelt, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain. This work aimed to investigate whether the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were assessed at the admission and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The authors found that the Horse Grimace Scale is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited higher Obel scores, and veterinarians classified them in a more severe painful state. Abstract Acute laminitis is a common equine disease characterized by intense foot pain, both acutely and chronically. The Obel grading system is the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of laminitis by equine practitioners, however this method requires movement (walk and trot) of the horse, causing further intense pain. The recently developed Horse Grimace Scale (HGS), a facial-expression-based pain coding system, may offer a more effective means of assessing the pain associated with acute laminitis. The aims of this study were: to investigate whether HGS can be usefully applied to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, and to examine if scoring HGS using videos produced similar results as those obtained from still images. Ten horses, referred as acute laminitis cases with no prior treatment, were included in the study. Each horse was assessed using the Obel and HGS (from images and videos) scales: at the admission (before any treatment) and at seven days after the initial evaluation and treatment. The results of this study suggest that HGS is a potentially effective method to assess pain associated with acute laminitis in horses at rest, as horses showing high HGS scores also exhibited

  16. The elimination of echinococcosis from Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Trevor C.

    1973-01-01

    A century ago Iceland had the highest prevalence of human hydatid disease ever recorded anywhere. Since 1864 the disease has been gradually controlled, and today there is less than one new case per decade. The sheep population of about one million, over 95% of which is subject to inspection at slaughter, has yielded only 15 infected animals in the last 20 years. In most districts farm slaughtering still persists, though on a very limited scale, and farm dogs are subjected to very little control. The main credit for the remarkable control of E. granulosus is given to education, but many accidental social and environmental factors, peculiar to Iceland, contributed to the result. Of these, the most notable were the small human population and high rate of literacy; the very high dog mortality from distemper in the 19th century, which coincided with a major export trade in live sheep; the custom of feeding dogs on cooked household scraps, the risk of infection being confined to the short sheep slaughtering season and the rare occasions when a cow or pig is slaughtered; the absence of employed labour on Icelandic farms, all slaughtering being done by the owner, an educated man with middle-class values; the change in animal husbandry since 1920 towards the slaughter of 5-month-old lambs, too young to have viable cysts; and the meat subsidy, which since 1947 has led to the use of abattoirs for all but a handful of uneconomic animals kept for slaughter on the farm. PMID:4544777

  17. [Occurrence of Salmonella spp. and shigatoxin-producing escherichia coli (STEC) in horse faeces and horse meat products].

    PubMed

    Pichner, Rohtraud; Sander, Andrea; Steinrück, Hartmut; Gareis, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relevance of horses as a possible reservoir of Salmonella and Shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), 400 samples of horse faeces and 100 samples of horse meat products were examined by PCR-screening methods. Salmonella enterica was not found in any of the samples. One faeces-sample and one horse meat product were proved to be STEC positive. The STEC-strain from faecal origin belonged to the serotype 0113:H21 and had the stx 2c gene and the enterohemolysin gene. The STEC-strain isolated from a horse meat product had the serotype O87:H16 and the stx 2d gene. The results indicate a very low risk for human to get a Salmonella- or EHEC- infection from horses in Germany.

  18. Use of a 3-D Dispersion Model for Calculation of Distribution of Horse Allergen and Odor around Horse Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Ferm, Martin; Elfman, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The interest in equestrian sports has increased substantially during the last decades, resulting in increased number of horse facilities around urban areas. In Sweden, new guidelines for safe distance have been decided based on the size of the horse facility (e.g., number of horses) and local conditions, such as topography and meteorology. There is therefore an increasing need to estimate dispersion of horse allergens to be used, for example, in the planning processes for new residential areas in the vicinity of horse facilities. The aim of this study was to develop a method for calculating short- and long-term emissions and dispersion of horse allergen and odor around horse facilities. First, a method was developed to estimate horse allergen and odor emissions at hourly resolution based on field measurements. Secondly, these emission factors were used to calculate concentrations of horse allergen and odor by using 3-D dispersion modeling. Results from these calculations showed that horse allergens spread up to about 200 m, after which concentration levels were very low (<2 U/m3). Approximately 10% of a study-group detected the smell of manure at 60m, while the majority—80%–90%—detected smell at 60 m or shorter distance from the manure heap. Modeling enabled horse allergen exposure concentrations to be determined with good time resolution. PMID:24690946

  19. Crustal Structure of the Iceland Region from Spectrally Correlated Free-air and Terrain Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leftwich, T. E.; vonFrese, R. R. R. B.; Potts, L. V.; Roman, D. R.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic refraction studies have provided critical, but spatially restricted constraints on the structure of the Icelandic crust. To obtain a more comprehensive regional view of this tectonically complicated area, we spectrally correlated free-air gravity anomalies against computed gravity effects of the terrain for a crustal thickness model that also conforms to regional seismic and thermal constraints. Our regional crustal thickness estimates suggest thickened crust extends up to 500 km on either side of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge with the Iceland-Faeroe Ridge crust being less extended and on average 3-5 km thinner than the crust of the Greenland-Iceland Ridge. Crustal thickness estimates for Iceland range from 25-35 km in conformity with seismic predictions of a cooler, thicker crust. However, the deepening of our gravity-inferred Moho relative to seismic estimates at the thermal plume and rift zones of Iceland suggests partial melting. The amount of partial melting may range from about 8% beneath the rift zones to perhaps 20% above the plume core where mantle temperatures may be 200-400 C above normal. Beneath Iceland, areally limited regions of partial melting may also be compositionally and mechanically layered

  20. Surging glaciers in Iceland - research status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, Olafur

    2013-04-01

    Twenty six Icelandic outlet glaciers, ranging from 0.5-1.500 km2, are known to surge, with terminal advances ranging from of few tens of meters to about 10 km. The geomorphic signatures of surges vary, from large-scale folded and thrusted end moraine systems, extensive dead-ice fields and drumlinized forefields to drift sheets where fast ice-flow indicators are largely missing. Case studies from the forefields of Brúarjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and Múlajökull surging glaciers will be presented. At Brúarjökull, extremely rapid ice flow during surge was sustained by overpressurized water causing decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. The ice-marginal position of the 1890 surge is marked by a sedimentary wedge formed within five days and a large moraine ridge that formed in about one day ("instantaneous end-moraine"). Three different qualitative and conceptual models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines: a narrow, single-crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport; large lobate end moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting; moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end moraine continuum. A parallel study highlighting the surge history of Eyjabakkajökull over the last 4400 years suggests climate control on surge frequencies. The Múlajökull studies concern an active drumlin field (>100 drumlins) that is being exposed as the glacier retreats. The drumlins form through repeated surges, where each surge causes deposition of till bed onto the drumlin while similtaneously eroding the sides. Finally, a new landsystem model for surging North Iceland cirque glaciers will be introduced. References Benediktsson,I. Ö., Schomacker, A., Lokrantz, H. & Ing

  1. Detection of horse allergen around a stable.

    PubMed

    Elfman, Lena; Brannstrom, Johan; Smedje, Greta

    2008-01-01

    Integrating horse stables with built-up areas may lead to conflicts. Dispersion of horse allergen may become a health risk for allergic people. The aim was to measure the dispersion of horse allergen around a stable, considering wind speed and direction and vegetation. The disturbance of staff at a workplace nearby a stable was investigated. Air sampling was performed around a stable (32 horses) at distances of 50-500 m in all directions. Sampling was done with a pump and an IOM sampler. Samples were collected at 50 points during all seasons. Horse allergen levels were determined using ELISA. Disturbance by horses was studied with a questionnaire handed to the employees in an office near the stable. The median horse allergen level at the stable entrance was 316 U/m(3), in the horse fields 40 U/m(3) and in the whole source area 16 U/m(3), which declined to <2 U/m(3) at about 50 m from the source area. Downwind of the prevailing winds low levels of horse allergen (2-4 U/m(3)) could sometimes be detected at up to 500 m. The staff, including those allergic to horses, managed to tolerate horses close to the workplace. At low winds horse allergen spread in ambient air about 50 m from the stable and horse fields. At higher winds low allergen levels were sometimes found in open areas up to 500 m from the source area. These levels were similar to those found in the office after moving away from the stable area. The employees did not report more symptoms of allergy or asthma while working close to the stable compared to after the move. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Examining antecedents and consequences of gambling passion: the case of gambling on horse races.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling.

  3. Fracture of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia in horses treated by arthroscopic fragment removal (21 horses).

    PubMed

    Rubio-Martínez, L M; Redding, W R; Bladon, B; Wilderjans, H; Payne, R J; Tessier, C; Geffroy, O; Parker, R; Bell, C; Collingwood, F A

    2018-01-01

    Fractures of the medial intercondylar eminence of the tibia (MICET) are scarcely reported in horses. To report the clinical and diagnostic findings, surgical treatment and outcome in a series of horses presented with MICET fracture and treated with arthroscopic fragment removal. Multicentre retrospective case series. Case records of horses diagnosed with MICET fractures that had undergone surgical treatment were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained from re-examination visits and/or owners. Twenty-one cases were identified at 9 equine hospitals between 2004 and 2016. A history of trauma and acute onset of lameness was reported in 12 horses. All cases underwent fracture removal via arthroscopy of the medial femorotibial joint. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in 6 horses and damaged in 15 horses (damage was ≤25% [n = 9], 25-50% [n = 4] or ≥50% [n = 2] of the cross-sectional area). The cranial ligament of the medial meniscus was damaged in 11 horses (≤25% [n = 8], 25-50% [n = 3]). The medial meniscus was damaged in 5 horses and articular cartilage damage was identified in 14 horses (mild [n = 8], moderate [n = 6]). Follow-up information (median 14 months; 4 months-6 years) was available for 20 cases; 2 horses were sound but convalescing; 13 horses were sound and returned to their previous or expected use. Of the 4 horses with the most severe changes to the articular soft tissue structures, 2 remained lame and 2 were subjected to euthanasia because of persistent lameness. The retrospective, multicentre nature of this study and the limited number of horses are the main limitations. Fractures of the MICET are commonly associated with a traumatic event. Prompt diagnosis and early arthroscopic removal of the fracture are recommended. © 2017 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  4. Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and cytokine activation of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses.

    PubMed

    Vanderstock, Johanne M; Lecours, Marie-Pier; Lavoie-Lamoureux, Annouck; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Segura, Mariela; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre; Jean, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate in vitro phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma and control horses and to determine whether circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma have an increase in expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 and a decrease in expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in response to bacteria. ANIMALS 6 horses with severe equine asthma and 6 control horses. PROCEDURES Circulating blood neutrophils were isolated from horses with severe equine asthma and control horses. Phagocytosis was evaluated by use of flow cytometry. Bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils was assessed by use of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus as targets, whereas the cytokine mRNA response was assessed by use of a quantitative PCR assay. RESULTS Circulating blood neutrophils from horses with severe equine asthma had significantly lower bactericidal activity toward S zooepidemicus but not toward S equi, compared with results for control horses. Phagocytosis and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCAL RELEVANCE Impairment of bactericidal activity of circulating blood neutrophils in horses with severe equine asthma could contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

  5. Legalizing altruistic surrogacy in response to evasive travel? An Icelandic proposal.

    PubMed

    Kristinsson, Sigurður

    2016-12-01

    Surrogate motherhood has been prohibited by Icelandic law since 1996, but in recent years, Icelandic couples have sought transnational surrogacy in India and the United States despite uncertainties about legal parental status as they return to Iceland with infants born to surrogate mothers. This reflects global trends of increased reproductive tourism, which forces restrictive regimes not only to make decisions concerning the citizenship and parentage of children born to surrogate mothers abroad, but also to confront difficult moral issues concerning surrogacy, global justice, human rights and exploitation. In March 2015, a legislative proposal permitting altruistic surrogacy, subject to strict regulation and oversight, and prohibiting the solicitation of commercial surrogacy abroad, was presented in the Icelandic Parliament. The proposal aims to protect the interest of the child first, respect the autonomy of the surrogate second, and accommodate the intended parents' wishes third. After a brief overview of the development of the surrogacy issue in Iceland, this article describes the main features of this legislative proposal and evaluates it from an ethical and global justice perspective. It concludes that the proposed legislation is a response to problems generated by cross-border surrogacy in the context of evolving public attitudes toward the issue, and constitutes a valid attempt to reduce the moral hazards of surrogacy consistent with insights from current bioethical literature. Although the proposed legislation arguably represents an improvement over the current ban, however, difficult problems concerning evasive travel and global injustice are likely to persist until effective international coordination is achieved.

  6. Aeolian transport of Icelandic dust: a look from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smejda, Ladislav; Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Hejcman, Michal

    2017-04-01

    Iceland represents a unique type of Arctic environment where glaciers capture the precipitation, consequently forming large deserts on the leeward side. Deserts are subject to strong winds and dust is reported to be suspended at least 135 days a year. Icelandic dust has seven major dust sources in extensive deserts, consisting mainly of volcanic glass. In this paper, we address a new approach to the question of the island's contribution to atmospheric dust transport in the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. We explore the strengths and limitations of satellite imagery for the study of high altitude dust storm phenomenon, and more specifically the potential of freely available set of tools for remote sensing and spatial data analysis, the Earth Engine provided by Google. This cloud-based geospatial processing platform requires only a web browser on the side of a user, and it allows writing powerful and versatile algorithms for scientific analysis of spatial data. We demonstrate how this approach can be applied to mapping of Icelandic dust sources and studying the wind erosion and transport of particles in the atmosphere in high latitudes.

  7. The cadmium status of horses from central Europe depending on breed, sex, age and living area.

    PubMed

    Anke, M; Kośla, T; Groppel, B

    1989-07-01

    The Cd status of animals is best reflected by kidneys and much worse by liver and hair. Breed (heavy- and warm-blooded horses) only took an insignificant effect on the Cd content of kidneys and liver. On the average, however, warm-blooded horses stored more Cd than heavy ones. Geldings from Cd-exposed living areas accumulated insignificantly more Cd in liver, kidneys and hair than mares. The influence of age on the Cd content of kidneys and liver of Cd-exposed horses was significant. The Cd exposure of a living area was very well reflected by kidneys and liver. On the average, horses from two areas with nonferrous metal smelting stored 1000 mg Cd/kg kidney dry matter and 100 to 200 mg Cd/kg liver dry matter. The highest Cd concentration of the kidneys of horses amounted to 2.6 and 2.3 g/kg dry matter, resp.

  8. Two-Dice Horse Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin; Martin, David

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the "two-dice horse race" task often used in lower secondary school, in which two ordinary dice are thrown repeatedly and each time the sum of the scores determines which horse (numbered 1 to 12) moves forwards one space.

  9. The origin of shear wave splitting beneath Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Garrett; Dunn, Robert; Li, Aibing

    2015-06-01

    The origin of shear wave splitting (SWS) in the mantle beneath Iceland is examined using numerical models that simulate 3-D mantle flow and the development of seismic anisotropy due to lattice-preferred orientation (LPO). Using the simulated anisotropy structure, we compute synthetic SKS waveforms, invert them for fast polarization directions and split times, and then compare the predictions with the results from three observational studies of Iceland. Models that simulate a mantle plume interacting with the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in which the shallow-most mantle has a high viscosity due to the extraction of water with partial melting, or in which C-type olivine LPO fabric is present due to high water content in the plume, produce the largest chi-squared misfits to the SWS observations and are thus rejected. Models of a low-viscosity mantle plume with A-type olivine fabric everywhere, or with the added effects of E-type fabric in the plume below the solidus produce lower misfits. The lowest misfits are produced by models that include a rapid (˜50 km Myr-1) northward regional flow (NRF) in the mid-upper mantle, either with or without a plume. NRF was previously indicated by a receiver function study and a regional tomography study, and is shown here to be a major cause of the azimuthal anisotropy beneath Iceland. The smallest misfits for the models with both a plume and NRF are produced when LPO forms above depths of 300-400 km, which, by implication, also mark the depths above which dislocation creep dominates over diffusion creep. This depth of transition between dislocation and diffusion creep is greater than expected beneath normal oceanic seafloor, and is attributed to the unusually rapid strain rates associated with an Iceland plume and the NRF.

  10. Educational Leadership and Market Values: A Study of School Principals in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lárusdóttir, Steinunn Helga

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a larger case study about the impact of values on educational leaders in Iceland. The environment of Icelandic schools has changed considerably in recent years. These changes have affected schools and changed the nature and scope of principals' work. Scholars have argued that these changes are primarily…

  11. Maximizing industrial infrastructure efficiency in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingason, Helgi Thor; Sigfusson, Thorsteinn I.

    2010-08-01

    As a consequence of the increasing aluminum production in Iceland, local processing of aluminum skimmings has become a feasible business opportunity. A recycling plant for this purpose was built in Helguvik on the Reykjanes peninsula in 2003. The case of the recycling plant reflects increased concern regarding environmental aspects of the industry. An interesting characteristic of this plant is the fact that it is run in the same facilities as a large fishmeal production installation. It is operated by the same personnel and uses—partly—the same equipment and infrastructure. This paper reviews the grounds for these decisions and the experience of this merger of a traditional fish melting industry and a more recent aluminum melting industry after 6 years of operation. The paper is written by the original entrepreneurs behind the company, who provide observations on how the aluminum industry in Iceland has evolved since the starting of Alur’s operation and what might be expected in the near future.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of human papilloma virus vaccination in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Oddsson, Kristjan; Johannsson, Jakob; Asgeirsdottir, Tinna Laufey; Gudnason, Thorolfur

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the likely cost-effectiveness of introducing routine HPV vaccination in Iceland. Prospective cost-effectiveness analysis of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination. Population of 12-year-old girls in the Icelandic population. A model was developed, comparing a cohort of all 12-year-old girls alive in year 2006, with or without vaccination. The model was based on the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Iceland and its premalignant stages as well as the costs involved in the treatment of each stage, assuming that the vaccines only prevent infections caused by HPV 16/18 at an efficacy of 95% and participation rate of 90%, no catch-up vaccination, no vaccination of boys and no booster dose needed. All costs were calculated on the basis of the price level of mid-year 2006 with a 3% discount rate. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio calculations were performed and sensitivity analysis was carried out on factors most relevant for cost-effectiveness. Vaccination costs in excess of savings would be about euro313.000/year. Vaccination would reduce the number of women diagnosed with cervical cancer by almost 9, prevent the death of 1.7 women and result in 16.9 quality-adjusted life years gained annually. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated to be about euro18.500/quality-adjusted life year saved. HPV vaccination seems to be cost-effective in Iceland, but this was sensitive to various parameters in the model, mainly the discount rate, the price of the vaccines and the need for a booster dose.

  13. Icelandic geothermal activity and the mercury of the Greenland icecap.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Thorarinsson, F.

    1973-01-01

    Aerometric studies concerning the level of atmospheric mercury were conducted at a number of sites in Iceland during June and July 1972. Samples from widely separated locations yielded Hg concentrations well above the range commonly cited for unpolluted air. Atmospheric mercury may be introduced in part by degassing fluid magmas. However, the release from fine ash could also serve as a vehicle. It is pointed out that from the mid-17th century to the present, Iceland has recorded nearly 50 volcanic eruptions.

  14. Complications of celiotomy incisions in horses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D A; Baker, G J; Boero, M J

    1995-01-01

    Complications of celiotomy incisions were evaluated retrospectively in 274 horses that survived at least 1 month after surgery, or died or were euthanatized within 1 month of surgery, as a direct result of these complications. Horses were divided into four groups; group A, a ventral median celiotomy for intestinal disease; group B, ventral median celiotomy for nonintestinal disease; group C, repair of an umbilical hernia; and group D, celiotomy in a region other than the midline. Specific incisional complications were peri-incisional edema, drainage, incisional abscess, suture sinus, and dehiscence. Incision-related complications occurred in 30% of the horses (group A, 40%; group B 18%; group C, 7%; and group D, 88%). Complications occurred more frequently in group D than group A (P = .009), which were higher than in groups B and C (P < .00001). Incisional hernia occurred in 28 of 256 (11%) horses that survived at least 4 months and were available for follow-up. Hernia formation was more common P < .00001) in horses that had other incisional complications (23 horses) than those without (5 horses). Serous or purulent incisional drainage, were more likely to be associated with hernia formation than was serosanguineous drainage or other incisional complications.

  15. Hoof Comfort for Horses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Aquila Equine Enhancement Products, Inc., of Woburn, Massachusetts, developed magnetic hoof protector pads, called "Power Pads," which support and cushion the impact on a horse's hooves and legs to provide comfort and protection against injuries. The pads were tested by Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing Laboratory for strength and durability. Putting the pads on a horse does not interfere with its natural movement or flexibility and can be compared to a person changing into athletic shoes for a sporting event. The pads are cut to the appropriate size, and then mounted onto a horse's hooves using conventional shoeing methods. Once attached, the pads protect the hard and soft parts of the hoof by cushioning blows against the hard ground. The design also protects the vulnerable "heel" of the hoof. They are a cost-effective way to protect a horse's hooves since they can be reused.

  16. Development of Indigenous Basic Interest Scales: Re-Structuring the Icelandic Interest Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Eyjolfsdottir, Katrin Osk; Rounds, James

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation used an emic approach to develop a set of Icelandic indigenous basic interest scales. An indigenous item pool that is representative of the Icelandic labor market was administered to three samples (N = 1043, 1368, and 2218) of upper secondary and higher education students in two studies. A series of item level cluster and…

  17. Soot on snow in Iceland: First results on black carbon and organic carbon in Iceland 2016 snow and ice samples, including the glacier Solheimajökull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinander, Outi; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Gritsevich, Maria; Aurela, Minna; Arnalds, Olafur; Dragosics, Monika; Virkkula, Aki; Svensson, Jonas; Peltoniemi, Jouni; Kontu, Anna; Kivekäs, Niku; Leppäranta, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Laaksonen, Ari; Lihavainen, Heikki; Arslan, Ali N.; Paatero, Jussi

    2017-04-01

    New results on black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) on snow and ice in Iceland in 2016 will be presented in connection to our earlier results on BC and OC on Arctic seasonal snow surface, and in connection to our 2013 and 2016 experiments on effects of light absorbing impurities, including Icelandic dust, on snow albedo, melt and density. Our sampling included the glacier Solheimajökull in Iceland. The mass balance of this glacier is negative and it has been shrinking during the last 20 years by 900 meters from its southwestern corner. Icelandic snow and ice samples were not expected to contain high concentrations of BC, as power generation with domestic renewable water and geothermal power energy sources cover 80 % of the total energy consumption in Iceland. Our BC results on filters analyzed with a Thermal/Optical Carbon Aerosol Analyzer (OC/EC) confirm this assumption. Other potential soot sources in Iceland include agricultural burning, industry (aluminum and ferroalloy production and fishing industry), open burning, residential heating and transport (shipping, road traffic, aviation). On the contrary to low BC, we have found high concentrations of organic carbon in our Iceland 2016 samples. Some of the possible reasons for those will be discussed in this presentation. Earlier, we have measured and reported unexpectedly low snow albedo values of Arctic seasonally melting snow in Sodankylä, north of Arctic Circle. Our low albedo results of melting snow have been confirmed by three independent data sets. We have explained these low values to be due to: (i) large snow grain sizes up to 3 mm in diameter (seasonally melting snow); (ii) meltwater surrounding the grains and increasing the effective grain size; (iii) absorption caused by impurities in the snow, with concentration of elemental carbon (black carbon) in snow of 87 ppb, and organic carbon 2894 ppb. The high concentrations of carbon were due to air masses originating from the Kola Peninsula, Russia

  18. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  19. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  20. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  1. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  2. 9 CFR 93.325 - Horses from Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Mexico. 93.325 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.325 Horses from Mexico. Horses offered for entry from Mexico shall be inspected as provided in §§ 93.306 and 93.323; shall be accompanied by a...

  3. The Adult Reading History Questionnaire (ARHQ) in Icelandic: Psychometric Properties and Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Halldorsson, Jonas G.; Steinberg, Stacy; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Stefansson, Hreinn; Stefansson, Kari

    2014-01-01

    This article describes psychometric testing of an Icelandic adaptation of the "Adult Reading History Questionnaire" (ARHQ), designed to detect a history of reading difficulties indicative of dyslexia. Tested in a large and diverse sample of 2,187 adults, the Icelandic adaptation demonstrated internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's…

  4. The Temperature of the Icelandic Mantle Plume from Aluminium-in-Olivine Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; Shorttle, O.; Maclennan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature is a key control on the physical properties of the mantle, in particular the extent of melting during upwelling. It is not, however, a unique control on many of the parameters used to estimate mantle temperature. For example igneous crustal thickness which has often been used as a first-order proxy for mantle temperature, is also affected by mantle lithology and plume flux. Alternatives to geophysical indicators of mantle temperature are petrological thermometers. However, these record crystallisation temperatures, therefore a series of assumptions about the coupled melt- solid mantle thermal history must be made when calculating back to mantle potential temperature. In this study we investigate how these assumptions may affect mantle temperature estimates and how crystallisation temperatures may offer insights into the melting and melt transport processes, focussing on a new set of crystallisation temperature estimates we have made on primitive Icelandic basalts.We used the aluminium-in-olivine thermometer of Coogan et al. (2014) to estimate crystallisation temperatures of olivine phenocrysts in a suite of samples from the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland. The data suggest that within a single volcanic system crystallisation temperature depends strongly on the olivine forsterite content, thus the history of melt evolution, and how the eruption samples this, must be considered when extrapolating to mantle temperature. To assess the influence of the assumptions required to obtain mantle temperature we constructed a simple thermal model incorporating varying proportions of lherzolite, pyroxenite and harzburgite undergoing decompression melting. A trade off between increasing mantle temperature and decreasing pyroxenite (or increasing harzburgite) in the source is observed. Using this dataset and our model, calculations reveal a potential temperature of 1470±130 °C for Iceland, and a temperature excess of 150±40 °C relative to ambient mantle

  5. Heritability and factors associated with number of harness race starts in the Spanish Trotter horse population.

    PubMed

    Solé, M; Valera, M; Gómez, M D; Sölkner, J; Molina, A; Mészáros, G

    2017-05-01

    Longevity/durability is a relevant trait in racehorses. Genetic analysis and knowledge of factors that influence number of harness race starts would be advantageous for both horse welfare and the equine industry. To perform a genetic analysis on harness racing using number of races as a measure of longevity/durability and to identify factors associated with career length in Spanish Trotter Horses (STH). Longitudinal study. Performance data (n = 331,970) on the STH population for harness racing at national level between 1990 and 2014 were used. A grouped data model was fitted to assess factors influencing the risk of ending harness racing career and to estimate the heritability and breeding values for total number of harness races starts as an indicator of horses' longevity and durability. The model included sex, age at first race and first start earnings as time-independent effects, and the calendar year, driver, trainer, racetrack category and season of competition as time-dependent effects. Across the whole dataset, the average number of harness races horses achieved in Spain was 54.7 races, and this was associated with the horses' sex, age at first race and first start earnings, calendar year, driver, racetrack category, and season. The heritability estimated (0.17 ± 0.01) for number of harness race starts indicates that a beneficial response to direct genetic selection can be expected. Data on horses' health status were not available. Horses' total number of harness race starts is a promising tool for genetic analysis and the evaluation of racing longevity and durability. The estimated heritability provides evidence to support the application of genetic selection of total career number of races to improve longevity/durability of STH. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  6. Influence of the Iceland mantle plume on North Atlantic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. S.; Isimm Team

    2003-04-01

    Early Tertiary breakup of the North Atlantic was accompanied by widespread magmatism. The histories of the Iceland mantle plume, of rifting and of magmatism are intimately related. The magmatism provides a challenge both to imaging structure, and to modelling the subsidence and development of the continental margins. We report new work which integrates state-of-the-art seismic imaging and new acquisition on the Atlantic volcanic margins with new techniques for modelling their evolution. We discuss the distribution of igneous rocks along the North Atlantic margins and discuss the temporal and spatial variations in the Iceland mantle plume in the early Tertiary, which have largely controlled this pattern of magmatism. Igneous rocks are added to the crust on rifted margins as extrusive lavas, as sills intruded into the sub-surface and as lower crustal intrusions or underplate. Each provide different, but tractable problems to seismic imaging. We show that many of these difficulties can be surmounted by using very long offsets (long streamers or two-ship methods) with a broad-band, low-frequency source, and by using fixed ocean bottom receivers. We report results from surveys on the North Atlantic continental margins using these methods. Imaging results are shown from the recent FLARE project and from the iSIMM project, which recorded new seismic data recorded in summer 2002. The iSIMM project acquired two seismic surveys, using 85 4-component ocean bottom seismometers with long streamers for wide-angle data, and vertical arrays for far-field source signature recording. One survey crosses the Faroes Shelf and adjacent continental margin, and a second the Hatton-Rockall Basin, Hatton Bank and adjacent oceanic crust. The Faroes wide-angle profiles were overshot by WesternGeco's Topaz using three single-sensor, Q-Marine streamers, 12km plus two 4km. We designed deep-towed, broad-band low-frequency sources tuned to enhance the bubble pulses, with peak frequencies at 8

  7. [Scientific articles in the Icelandic Medical Journal 2004-2008: an overview].

    PubMed

    Gudbjartsson, Tómas; Sigurdsson, Engilbert

    2009-10-01

    In the past 5 years the Icelandic Medical Journal has undergone many changes during a period of flourishing research in Iceland. The process of reviewing and editing scientific articles has been revised since the Journal joined the Medline database in 2005 and the proportion of rejected articles has risen. New columns have been launched covering medical history, professionalism, ethics and hobbies of the medical profession. We categorized all scientific articles from the period 2004-2008, that is research articles, review articles, case reports and clinical guidelines, according to types of articles and to which medical speciality or subspeciality the publication should belong. The number of scientific articles rose during the period but the number of research articles remained around 20 most years during the period. The relative proportion of research articles therefore fell whereas the number and proportion of review articles and case reports increased. Clinical guidelines ceased to appear in the Journal. The contribution of individual specialities to the Journal varied widely. Researchers amongst doctors and related professions need be encouraged to submit scientific articles to the Journal. The publication of scientific articles in English in the web-based form of the Journal may prove to be stimulating in this regard for Icelandic doctors abroad as well as for some researchers in Iceland.

  8. Comparison of hair follicle histology between horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction and excessive hair growth and normal aged horses.

    PubMed

    Innerå, Marie; Petersen, Annette D; Desjardins, Danielle R; Steficek, Barbara A; Rosser, Edmund J; Schott, Harold C

    2013-02-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) in older equids is commonly recognized by a long hair coat that fails to shed. The aim of this study was to compare hair follicle stages in PPID-affected horses with excessively long hair coats with the stages of normal aged horses (controls) and to compare hair follicle stages in PPID-affected horses after 6 months of treatment with pergolide mesylate with those of control horses. Eight PPID-affected horses and four normal, age-matched, control horses. Skin biopsies were collected from the neck and rump of PPID-affected and control horses. A diagnosis of PPID was established based on hair coat changes and supportive overnight dexamethasone suppression test results. Skin biopsies were repeated after 6 months of treatment with pergolide. The number of hair follicles in anagen (A) or telogen (T) was counted for each skin biopsy using transverse sections. Pretreatment biopsies had a greater percentage of A follicles (neck 96%, rump 95%) and a lower percentage of T follicles (neck 4%, rump 5%) in PPID-affected horses than in control horses (A, neck 15%, rump 25%; and T, neck 85%, rump 75%). After treatment with pergolide, all PPID-affected horses had improved shedding, and the percentages of A follicles (neck 69%, rump 70%) and T follicles (neck 31%, rump 30%) were not different from untreated control horses (A, neck 68%, rump 82%; and T, neck 32%, rump 18%). These findings document that excessive hair growth (hypertrichosis) in PPID-affected horses is due to persistence of hair follicles in A. Furthermore, treatment with pergolide improved shedding and reduced the percentage of A follicles in PPID-affected horses. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  9. Entomologic evaluation of insect hypersensitivity in horses.

    PubMed

    Greiner, E C

    1995-04-01

    Potential methods of incriminating insects as the cause of insect hypersensitivity are presented. A listing of the biting midges known to attack horses in North America is presented also. An example of how species may be determined to be the cause of the hypersensitivity is given using data from a recent study in Florida. Light trap collections indicated the temporal and geographic distribution of potential contributing species and collections made by vacuuming horses further delineated species by proving they feed on horses and the correct locations on the horses to match lesion distribution. Culicoides hypersensitivity in horses in Florida seems to be caused by a series of species active and feeding on the horses at different times of the year.

  10. Visual evoked potentials in the horse.

    PubMed

    Ström, L; Ekesten, B

    2016-06-21

    Electrical potentials generated in the central nervous system in response to brief visual stimuli, flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs), can be recorded non-invasively over the occipital cortex. FVEPs are used clinically in human medicine and also experimentally in a number of animal species, but the method has not yet been evaluated in the horse. The method would potentially allow the ophthalmologist and equine clinician to evaluate visual impairment caused by disorders affecting post-retinal visual pathways. The aim was to establish a method for recording of FVEPs in horses in a clinical setting and to evaluate the waveform morphology in the normal horse. Ten horses were sedated with a continuous detomidine infusion. Responses were recorded from electrodes placed on the scalp. Several positions were evaluated to determine suitable electrode placement. Flash electroretinograms (FERGs) were recorded simultaneously. To evaluate potential contamination of the FVEP from retinal potentials, a retrobulbar nerve block was performed in two horses and transection of the optic nerve was performed in one horse as a terminal procedure. A series of positive (P) and negative (N) peaks in response to light stimuli was recorded in all horses. Reproducible wavelets with mean times-to-peaks of 26 (N1), 55 (P2), 141 (N2) and 216 ms (P4) were seen in all horses in all recordings. Reproducible results were obtained when the active electrode was placed in the midline rostral to the nuchal crest. Recording at lateral positions gave more variable results, possibly due to ear muscle artifacts. Averaging ≥100 responses reduced the impact of noise and artifacts. FVEPs were reproducible in the same horse during the same recording session and between sessions, but were more variable between horses. Retrobulbar nerve block caused a transient loss of the VEP whereas transection of the optic nerve caused an irreversible loss. We describe the waveform of the equine FVEP and our results show

  11. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Results Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Conclusion Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area. PMID:19903355

  12. Impacts of feral horses on a desert environment.

    PubMed

    Ostermann-Kelm, Stacey D; Atwill, Edward A; Rubin, Esther S; Hendrickson, Larry E; Boyce, Walter M

    2009-11-10

    Free-ranging horses (Equus caballus) in North America are considered to be feral animals since they are descendents of non-native domestic horses introduced to the continent. We conducted a study in a southern California desert to understand how feral horse movements and horse feces impacted this arid ecosystem. We evaluated five parameters susceptible to horse trampling: soil strength, vegetation cover, percent of nonnative vegetation, plant species diversity, and macroinvertebrate abundance. We also tested whether or not plant cover and species diversity were affected by the presence of horse feces. Horse trailing resulted in reduced vegetation cover, compacted soils, and in cases of intermediate intensity disturbance, increased plant species diversity. The presence of horse feces did not affect plant cover, but it did increase native plant diversity. Adverse impacts, such as soil compaction and increased erosion potential, were limited to established horse trails. In contrast, increased native plant diversity near trails and feces could be viewed as positive outcomes. Extensive trailing can result in a surprisingly large impact area: we estimate that < 30 horses used > 25 km2 of trails in our study area.

  13. Superhot Drilling in Iceland, the Experience of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Friðleifsson, G. Ó.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Fowler, A. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project aims to improve geothermal economics by producing supercritical fluids (www.iddp.is). Supercritical wells could yield an order of magnitude more usable energy than that from conventional geothermal wells because of higher enthalpy and enhanced flow properties. In 2009, the IDDP-1 well failed to reach supercritical conditions in the Krafla caldera in NE Iceland, after encountering rhyolite magma at only 2.1 km depth. The completed geothermal well became the world's hottest and produced superheated steam with a wellhead temperature of 452°C and flow sufficient to generate 35 MWe. The IDDP next moved SW to the Reykjanes Peninsula, the landward extension of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where it is possible to study an analog of the roots of a black smoker. Reykjanes is unique among Icelandic geothermal systems in being recharged by seawater, which has a critical point of 406°C at 298 bars. Drilling began by deepening an existing 2.5 km deep production well to 3 km depth, and then angling it towards the main upflow zone of the system, for a total slant depth of 4,659 m. Total circulation losses were encountered below 3 km that could not be cured by lost circulation materials or by multiple cement jobs. Accordingly, drilling continued to total depth without return of drill cuttings. We attempted 13 core runs below 3 km depth, only half of which recovered core. The cores are basalts and dolerites with alteration ranging from lower greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies, suggesting formation temperatures >450°C. After the end of drilling in January 2017, following only six days of heating, supercritical conditions (426°C at 340 bars) were measured in the well at a depth of 4.5 km. The well has not yet been allowed to equilibrate to full in situ temperature. A perforated liner was inserted to 4,570 m, depth to facilitate temperature cycling to enhance permeability at depth through thermal cracking. In 2018 this will be followed by a

  14. Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Pritchard, M.J.; Julian, B.R.; Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2001-01-01

    We report the results of the highest-resolution teleseismic tomography study yet performed of the upper mantle beneath Iceland. The experiment used data gathered by the Iceland Hotspot Project, which operated a 35-station network of continuously recording, digital, broad-band seismometers over all of Iceland 1996-1998. The structure of the upper mantle was determined using the ACH damped least-squares method and involved 42 stations, 3159 P-wave, and 1338 S-wave arrival times, including the phases P, pP, sP, PP, SP, PcP, PKIKP, pPKIKP, S, sS, SS, SKS and Sdiff. Artefacts, both perceptual and parametric, were minimized by well-tested smoothing techniques involving layer thinning and offset-and-averaging. Resolution is good beneath most of Iceland from ??? 60 km depth to a maximum of ??? 450 km depth and beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone and near-shore parts of the Reykjanes ridge. The results reveal a coherent, negative wave-speed anomaly with a diameter of 200-250 km and anomalies in P-wave speed, Vp, as strong as -2.7 per cent and in S-wave speed, Vs, as strong as -4.9 per cent. The anomaly extends from the surface to the limit of good resolution at ??? 450 km depth. In the upper ??? 250 km it is centred beneath the eastern part of the Middle Volcanic Zone, coincident with the centre of the ??? 100 mGal Bouguer gravity low over Iceland, and a lower crustal low-velocity zone identified by receiver functions. This is probably the true centre of the Iceland hotspot. In the upper ??? 200 km, the low-wave-speed body extends along the Reykjanes ridge but is sharply truncated beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone. This suggests that material may flow unimpeded along the Reykjanes ridge from beneath Iceland but is blocked beneath the Tjornes Fracture Zone. The magnitudes of the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs anomalies cannot be explained by elevated temperature alone, but favour a model of maximum temperature anomalies <200 K, along with up to ??? 2 per cent of partial melt in the depth

  15. The paleointensity record of Icelandic subglacial volcanic glasses and recent lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromwell, G.; Tauxe, L.; Halldorsson, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    results from 35 successful sites (0-4 Ma) indicate an average paleointensity of 42.6 ± 15.0 μT with a VADM of 59.5 ± 20.9 ZAm2. The Icelandic data have a higher dipole moment than Antarctica (41.4 ZAm2) with a similar temporal distribution, indicating that the difference in field strength may yet be the result of hemispheric asymmetry or influence from the tangent cylinder. Our average Icelandic VADM is less than the present-day field, 80 ZAm2, and much closer to a lower estimate for long-term dipole field strength of 50 ZAm2 (3). (1) Lawrence, K.P., L. Tauxe, H. Staudigel, C.G. Constable, A. Koppers, W. McIntosh, C.L. Johnson, Paleomagnetic field properties at high southern latitude, Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 10, 2009. (2) Pick, T., L. Tauxe, Holocene paleointensities: Thellier experiments on submarine basaltic glass from the East Pacific Rise, Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, B10, 17949-17964, 1993. (3) Selkin, P.A., L. Tauxe, Long-term variations in palaeointensity, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., 358, 1065-1088, 2000.

  16. Copy Number Variation in the Horse Genome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmila; Qu, Zhipeng; Das, Pranab J.; Fang, Erica; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, E. Gus; McDonell, Sue; Kenney, Daniel G.; Lear, Teri L.; Adelson, David L.; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches. PMID:25340504

  17. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  18. Exploring lay perceptions of the causes of crib-biting/windsucking behaviour in horses.

    PubMed

    Litva, A; Robinson, C S; Archer, D C

    2010-05-01

    Crib-biting/windsucking behaviour has important consequences for equine health and welfare. Lay perceptions of health and illness are of interest to medical sociologists, providing important information to medical practitioners, but have infrequently been applied in veterinary research. To demonstrate how lay epidemiology can be applied within veterinary research by exploring the lay perceptions regarding the causes of crib-biting/windsucking behaviour in horses. Informants were recruited from professional and amateur horse owners who had or had not owned/cared for a horse that exhibited crib-biting/windsucking behaviour. In-depth interviews were used to examine perceptions about the development of this behaviour within each group until a 'saturation' of themes emerged. The main themes that emerged as causes of crib-biting/windsucking behaviour were 'boredom', 'stress' and 'habit/addiction'. In the group of owners/carers who did not have direct experience of this type of behaviour, 'copying' from other horses emerged as a strong theme and they stated that they would not wish to own a crib-biting/windsucking horse. In contrast, those who had direct experience of horses demonstrating this behaviour did not believe copying was a cause based on their own observations and would not be put off purchasing or caring for another horse displaying this behaviour. Perceptions about what causes crib-biting/windsucking was influenced by whether or not informants had personal experience of horses demonstrating this behaviour. The three main themes that emerged have some justification based on current research and highlight the need for further investigation into the underlying pathophysiology of crib-biting/windsucking behaviour. Qualitative approaches to health, disease and behaviour have an important role in the medical field and are applicable to veterinary research.

  19. The epidemiology of horse-related injuries for different horse exposures, activities, and age groups in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jacelle; Sathivelu, Maria; Tetsworth, Kevin; Pollard, Cliff; Harvey, Kathy; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    The dangers associated with horse riding, a popular activity throughout Australia, are well documented; yet, few studies have comprehensively described injuries caused by horses to nonriders. This study aimed to facilitate targeted injury prevention strategies and appropriate trauma management by describing all horse-related injuries, for both riders and nonriders, in Queensland, and identifying those at greatest risk. Horse-related injury data from 2005 to 2009 were extracted from the Queensland Trauma Registry. Descriptive comparisons were undertaken for demographic, injury, and acute care characteristics between riders and nonriders, between pediatric and adult cases, and between sports/leisure and work injuries. The relative risk of surgery by sex and between riders and nonriders was assessed. More than 25% of injuries occurred in people not riding a horse. Nonriders sustained a significantly higher proportion of internal organ injuries, open wounds, as well as facial and pelvic/abdominal injuries. Females accounted for more than 80% of children who were injured while riding a horse. For adults, 25% were injured while working, and more than 66% of injured workers were male. Injuries most commonly occurred in regional areas. Surgery was most common among children, nonriders, and those with Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 1 to 8. The likelihood of surgery was 25% higher for nonriders (95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.38%). Horse-related injuries are most prevalent in identifiable populations, particularly young female riders and adult males injured while working. Injuries inflicted by horses to nonriders contribute more than 27% of all horse-related injuries; however, most previous research has been limited to injured riders. Compared with riders, nonriders more frequently sustain internal, facial, and pelvic injuries; are male; and undergo surgery. The results of this study may be used to tailor prevention strategies and inform trauma management specific to the

  20. Biosamples, genomics, and human rights: context and content of Iceland's Biobanks Act.

    PubMed

    Winickoff, D E

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, human DNA sampling and collection has accelerated without the development of enforceable rules protecting the human rights of donors. The need for regulation of biobanking is especially acute in Iceland, whose parliament has granted a for-profit corporation, deCODE Genetics, an exclusive license to create a centralized database of health records for studies on human genetic variation. Until recently, how deCODE Genetics would get genetic material for its genotypic-phenotypic database remained unclear. However, in May 2000, the Icelandic Parliament passed the Icelandic Biobanks Act, the world's earliest attempt to construct binding rules for the use of biobanks in scientific research. Unfortunately, Iceland has lost an opportunity for bringing clear and ethically sound standards to the use of human biological samples in deCODE's database and in other projects: the Biobanks Act has extended a notion of "presumed consent" from the use of medical records to the use of patients' biological samples; worse, the act has made it possible--perhaps likely--that a donor's wish to withdraw his/her sample will be ignored. Inadequacies in the Act's legislative process help account for these deficiencies in the protection of donor autonomy.

  1. Horses for courses: a DNA-based test for race distance aptitude in thoroughbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Hill, Emmeline W; Ryan, Donal P; MacHugh, David E

    2012-12-01

    Variation at the myostatin (MSTN) gene locus has been shown to influence racing phenotypes in Thoroughbred horses, and in particular, early skeletal muscle development and the aptitude for racing at short distances. Specifically, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the first intron of MSTN (g.66493737C/T) is highly predictive of best race distance among Flat racing Thoroughbreds: homozygous C/C horses are best suited to short distance races, heterozygous C/T horses are best suited to middle distance races, and homozygous T/T horses are best suited to longer distance races. Patent applications for this gene marker association, and other linked markers, have been filed. The information contained within the patent applications is exclusively licensed to the commercial biotechnology company Equinome Ltd, which provides a DNA-based test to the international Thoroughbred horse racing and breeding industry. The application of this information in the industry enables informed decision making in breeding and racing and can be used to assist selection to accelerate the rate of change of genetic types among distinct populations (Case Study 1) and within individual breeding operations (Case Study 2).

  2. Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Gambling Passion: The Case of Gambling on Horse Races

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Back, Ki-Joon; Hodgins, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the antecedents and consequences of gambling passion using structural equation modeling to examine relationships among gambling motivation, passion, emotion, and behavioral intentions in the horse racing industry. Methods An onsite survey was conducted with 447 patrons at a horseracing park in South Korea. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the Gambling Passion Scale was valid and reliable, resulting in two sub-scales: obsessive passion (OP) and harmonious passion (HP). Results Study results indicated that extrinsic motivation influenced OP whereas intrinsic motivation significantly affected HP. Furthermore, OP was correlated with negative emotion, whereas HP was related to positive emotion. Gamblers' satisfaction was found to be influenced positively by positive emotion and negatively by negative emotion. Finally, satisfaction appeared to affect gamblers' behavioral intentions. Conclusion Study results echoed the notion of distinct and separate gambling motivations and passions among horse racing gamblers. Furthermore, results identified specific areas to which horse racing operators or policy makers should pay special attention in developing effective marketing strategies to promote responsible gambling. PMID:24474985

  3. Volatiles in melt inclusions from Icelandic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, A. R.; Wysoczanski, R. J.; Carroll, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    Melt inclusions hosted in olivine crystals from the glassy rims of subglacially erupted pillow basalts on Iceland have been analysed for volatiles, major elements and trace elements. Volatile measurements were undertaken using Fourier-Transform InfraRed spectroscopy utilising a novel technique which enables unexposed and much smaller inclusions than were previously possible to be analysed. Major elements were measured using electron microprobe and trace elements by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Comparison between initial results from the inclusions and the compositions of the bulk glasses show that the inclusions are less evolved and contain more H2O at the same MgO content. In addition many of the inclusions have higher H2O/K2O than their bulk glasses and some even contain CO2 (up to 629 ppm), which is below detection limits in the bulk glasses. This indicates that these inclusions are less affected by degassing. Two inclusions have extreme H2O/K2O (> 10), possibly suggesting that they have assimilated hydrous crustal material. The volatile and major element compositions of the bulk glasses have been used to suggest that the Iceland mantle plume is wet. However, trace element measurements show that enriched Iceland magmas have lower H2O/Ce than the adjacent Reykjanes Ridge. This could reflect syn-eruptive degassing or mixing between undegassed and recycled degassed magmas. Alternatively Iceland magmas could be derived from the EM (enriched mantle) component, which is believed to represent recycled oceanic crust. It is suggested that this material is efficiently dehydrated during the subduction process, so even though it has an enriched character, H2O is relatively depleted. As a result, EM melts have higher absolute H2O contents than mid- ocean ridge basalts (MORB), but lower H2O/Ce (or other H2O-incompatible element ratios), which has led to EM plumes being termed `dampspots'. The inclusion data will be presented in this context

  4. Horses

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard Poultry Ferrets Fish Horses Reptiles ... and Her Guinea Pig Busy Ferrets Take Commitment Dogs and Boys Build Character Together Rescued Bears Get ...

  5. Deglacial and Holocene sea-ice variability north of Iceland and response to ocean circulation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xiaotong; Zhao, Meixun; Knudsen, Karen Luise; Sha, Longbin; Eiríksson, Jón; Gudmundsdóttir, Esther; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-08-01

    Sea-ice conditions on the North Icelandic shelf constitute a key component for the study of the climatic gradients between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans at the Polar Front between the cold East Icelandic Current delivering Polar surface water and the relatively warm Irminger Current derived from the North Atlantic Current. The variability of sea ice contributes to heat reduction (albedo) and gas exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and further affects the deep-water formation. However, lack of long-term and high-resolution sea-ice records in the region hinders the understanding of palaeoceanographic change mechanisms during the last glacial-interglacial cycle. Here, we present a sea-ice record back to 15 ka (cal. ka BP) based on the sea-ice biomarker IP25, phytoplankton biomarker brassicasterol and terrestrial biomarker long-chain n-alkanols in piston core MD99-2272 from the North Icelandic shelf. During the Bølling/Allerød (14.7-12.9 ka), the North Icelandic shelf was characterized by extensive spring sea-ice cover linked to reduced flow of warm Atlantic Water and dominant Polar water influence, as well as strong meltwater input in the area. This pattern showed an anti-phase relationship with the ice-free/less ice conditions in marginal areas of the eastern Nordic Seas, where the Atlantic Water inflow was strong, and contributed to an enhanced deep-water formation. Prolonged sea-ice cover with occasional occurrence of seasonal sea ice prevailed during the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.7 ka) interrupted by a brief interval of enhanced Irminger Current and deposition of the Vedde Ash, as opposed to abruptly increased sea-ice conditions in the eastern Nordic Seas. The seasonal sea ice decreased gradually from the Younger Dryas to the onset of the Holocene corresponding to increasing insolation. Ice-free conditions and sea surface warming were observed for the Early Holocene, followed by expansion of sea ice during the Mid-Holocene.

  6. The legacy of Columbus in American horse populations assessed by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Cortés, O; Dunner, S; Gama, L T; Martínez, A M; Delgado, J V; Ginja, C; Jiménez, L M; Jordana, J; Luis, C; Oom, M M; Sponenberg, D P; Zaragoza, P; Vega-Pla, J L

    2017-08-01

    Criollo horse populations descend from horses brought from the Iberian Peninsula over the period of colonization (15th to 17th century). They are spread throughout the Americas and have potentially undergone genetic hybridization with other breeds in the recent past. In this study, 25 autosomal microsatellites were genotyped in 50 horse breeds representing Criollo populations from 12 American countries (27 breeds), breeds from the Iberian Peninsula (19), one breed each from France and Morocco and two cosmopolitan horse breeds (Thoroughbred and Arabian). The genetic relationships among breeds identified five clusters: Celtic; Iberian; North American with Thoroughbred influence; most Colombian breeds; and nearly all other Criollo breeds. The group of "all other Criollo breeds" had the closest genetic relationship with breeds originating from the Iberian Peninsula, specifically with the Celtic group. For the whole set of Criollo breeds analysed, the estimated genetic contribution from other breeds was approximately 50%, 30% and 20% for the Celtic, Iberian and Arab-Thoroughbred groups, respectively. The spatial distribution of genetic diversity indicates that hotspots of genetic diversity are observed in populations from Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil, Paraguay and western United States, possibly indicating points of arrival and dispersion of Criollo horses in the American continent. These results indicate that Criollo breeds share a common ancestry, but that each breed has its own identity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. High Proportions of Sub-micron Particulate Matter in Icelandic Dust Storms in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagsson Waldhauserova, Pavla; Arnalds, Olafur; Olafsson, Haraldur; Magnusdottir, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Iceland is extremely active dust region and desert areas of over 44,000 km2 acknowledge Iceland as the largest Arctic and European desert. Frequent dust events, up to 135 dust days annually, transport dust particles far distances towards the Arctic and Europe. Satellite MODIS pictures have revealed dust plumes exceeding 1,000 km. The annual dust deposition was calculated as 40.1 million tons yr-1. Two dust storms were measured in transverse horizontal profile about 90 km far from different dust sources in southwestern Iceland in the summer of 2015. Aerosol monitor DustTrak DRX 8533EP was used to measure PM mass concentrations corresponding to PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM10 and the total PM15 at several places within the dust plume. Images from camera network operated by the Icelandic Road and Coastal Administration were used to estimate the visibility and spatial extent of measured dust events. A numerical simulation of surface winds was carried out with the numerical model HIRLAM with horizontal resolution of 5 km and used to calculate the total dust flux from the sources. The in situ measurements inside the dust plumes showed that aeolian dust can be very fine. The study highlights that suspended volcanic dust in Iceland causes air pollution with extremely high PM1 concentrations comparable to the polluted urban stations in Europe or Asia rather than reported dust event observations from around the world. The PM1/PM2.5 ratios are generally low during dust storms outside of Iceland, much lower than > 0.9 and PM1/PM10 ratios of 0.34-0.63 found in our study. It shows that Icelandic volcanic dust consists of higher proportion of submicron particles compared to crustal dust. The submicron particles are predicted to travel long distances. Moreover, such submicron particles pose considerable health risk because of high potential for entering the lungs. Icelandic volcanic glass has often fine pipe-vesicular structures known from asbestos and high content of heavy metals. Previous

  8. Clinical evaluation of laryngeal sensation in horses.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, E M; Hackett, R P; Ducharme, N G; Rakestraw, P C

    1990-01-01

    Sensory innervation of the larynx was examined by tactile stimulation with a blunt biopsy forceps passed through a flexible videoendoscope. Twenty horses with no evidence of laryngeal motor deficit were stimulated on 10 sites by touch with the forceps. Unilateral neurectomies of the internal branch of the left cranial laryngeal nerve were performed on 5 other horses. These horses were stimulated by touch on the same sites preoperatively and up to 1 week postoperatively. In all 25 horses the motor response of the larynx was recorded on videotape and evaluated by 2 observers blind as to treatment and time of evaluation. Normal horses responded to touch by adduction of both arytenoid cartilages, swallowing or both. This response was not altered by sedation with xylazine hydrochloride. Left cranial laryngeal neurectomized horses failed to respond to tactile stimulation of the left side, while adduction of both cartilages, swallowing or both was observed following stimulation on the right side. Laryngeal stimulation by touch with a biopsy forceps was accurate in identifying horses with complete deficits of the internal branch of the cranial laryngeal nerve.

  9. Testing or Transforming Practice: Probing an Icelandic National Initiative to Improve Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigþórsson, Rúnar

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of a White Paper on Education Reform, published in 2014 by the Icelandic Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the minister launched a national initiative to improve literacy education in Icelandic compulsory schools. The White Paper and the national initiative came as a reaction to the disappointing performance of 15-year-olds…

  10. [Cost- effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal vaccination in Iceland].

    PubMed

    Björnsdóttir, Margrét

    2010-09-01

    Pneumococcus is a common cause of disease among children and the elderly. With the emergence of resistant serotypes, antibiotic treatment is getting limited. Many countries have therefore introduced a vaccination program among children against the most common serotypes. The aim of this study was to analyse cost-effectiveness of adding a vaccination program against pneumococcus in Iceland. A cost-effectiveness analysis was carried out from a societal perspective where the cost-effectiveness ratio ICER was estimated from the cost of each additional life and life year saved. The analyse was based on the year 2008 and all cost were calculated accordingly. The rate of 3% was used for net present-value calculation. Annual societal cost due to pneumococcus in Iceland was estimated to be 718.146.252 ISK if children would be vaccinated but 565.026.552 ISK if they would not be vaccinated. The additional cost due to the vaccination program was therefore 153.119.700 ISK . The vaccination program could save 0,669 lives among children aged 0-4 years old and 21.11 life years. The cost was 228.878.476 ISK for each additional life saved and 7.253.420 ISK for each additional life year saved. Given initial assumptions the results indicate that a vaccination programme against pneumococcal disease in Iceland would be cost effective.

  11. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, E.; Medica, P.; Cravana, C.; Ferlazzo, and A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B), bad (Group D), and minimal handling (Group C) conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport. PMID:27651674

  12. Growth characteristics of fibroblasts isolated from the trunk and distal aspect of the limb of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Miller, C B; Wilson, D A; Keegan, K G; Kreeger, J M; Adelstein, E H; Ganjam, V K

    2000-01-01

    To determine if there is a difference in in vitro growth of fibroblasts isolated from the trunk and distal aspect of the limb of horses and ponies. To determine the effects of a corticosteroid and monokine on in vitro growth of fibroblasts isolated from the trunk and distal aspect of the limb of horses and ponies. Growth of fibroblasts from tissues harvested from the trunk and limb were compared from horse and pony samples grown in control media and control media with triamcinolone or monokine added. Dermal and subcutaneous tissue from 22 horses and 17 ponies of various ages and breeds. Fibroblast growth was assessed by tritiated thymidine uptake using standard cell culture techniques. The effect of a monokine or triamcinolone plus control media were compared with control media for fibroblast growth. Fibroblast growth from tissues isolated from the horse limb was significantly less than growth from the horse trunk and the limb and trunk of ponies. Monokine was more effective than triamcinolone in suppressing fibroblast growth from tissues isolated from the trunk and limb in both horses and ponies. There are growth differences in fibroblasts isolated from the limb of horses compared with those isolated from the trunk and from the limb and trunk of ponies. The difference in fibroblast growth from tissues isolated from the trunk and limb of horses and ponies may provide evidence for the difference reported in the healing characteristics of limb wounds in horses and ponies. Influencing fibroblast growth may provide a key to controlling the development of exuberant granulation tissue in horses and ponies.

  13. A daily Azores-Iceland North Atlantic Oscillation index back to 1850.

    PubMed

    Cropper, Thomas; Hanna, Edward; Valente, Maria Antónia; Jónsson, Trausti

    2015-07-01

    We present the construction of a continuous, daily (09:00 UTC), station-based (Azores-Iceland) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Index back to 1871 which is extended back to 1850 with additional daily mean data. The constructed index more than doubles the length of previously existing, widely available, daily NAO time series. The index is created using entirely observational sea-level pressure (SLP) data from Iceland and 73.5% of observational SLP data from the Azores - the remainder being filled in via reanalysis (Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project and European Mean Sea Level Pressure) SLP data. Icelandic data are taken from the Southwest Iceland pressure series. We construct and document a new Ponta Delgada SLP time series based on recently digitized and newly available data that extend back to 1872. The Ponta Delgada time series is created by splicing together several fractured records (from Ponta Delgada, Lajes, and Santa Maria) and filling in the major gaps (pre-1872, 1888-1905, and 1940-1941) and occasional days (145) with reanalysis data. Further homogeneity corrections are applied to the Azores record, and the daily (09:00 UTC) NAO index is then calculated. The resulting index, with its extended temporal length and daily resolution, is the first reconstruction of daily NAO back into the 19th Century and therefore is useful for researchers across multiple disciplines.

  14. Microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in horses and donkeys in Algeria: detection of a novel Cryptosporidium hominis subtype family (Ik) in a horse.

    PubMed

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Xiao, Lihua; Rost, Michael; McEvoy, John; Saadi, Ahmed Rachid; Aissi, Meriem; Kváč, Martin

    2015-03-15

    A total of 219 and 124 individual fecal samples of horses and donkeys, respectively, were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Encephalitozoon spp., and Enterocytozoon bieneusi DNA by genus-specific nested PCR. Isolates were genotyped by sequence analysis of SSU rRNA, GP60, TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci in Cryptosporidium, and the ITS region in microsporidia. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected on 3/18 horse farms and 1/15 farms where donkeys were kept. Overall, five (2.3%) horse and two (1.6%) donkey specimens were PCR positive for Cryptosporidium. Genotyping at SSU and GP60 loci revealed that three isolates from horses and donkeys were C. parvum subtype family IIaA16G1R1, one isolate from a horse was, C. muris RN66, and one isolate from a donkey was C. muris TS03. An isolate from a horse shared 99.4% and 99.3% similarity with Cryptosporidium hominis and C. cuniculus, respectively, at the SSU locus. This isolate shared 100% identity with C. hominis at the TRAP-C1, COWP, and HSP70 loci, and it was from the novel gp60 subtype family IkA15G1. Microsporidia were found on 6/18 horse and 2/15 donkey farms. E. bieneusi was identified in 6.8% (15/219) and 1.6% (2/124), and Encephalitozoon cuniculi was identified in 1.8% (4/219) and 1.6% (2/124), of horses and donkeys, respectively. Three genotypes of E. cuniculi (I, II and III) were detected in horses, and E. cuniculi genotype II was detected in donkeys. Four genotypes of E. bieneusi (horse1, horse 2, CZ3, D) were described in horses. An additional five horses and two donkeys were positive for E. bieneusi, but the isolated were not genotyped. Neither Cryptosporidium nor microsporidia prevalence were affected by sex, age, type of breeding, or whether the host was a horse or a donkey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same. ...

  16. Impact of dust deposition on the albedo of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, Monika; Dorothea Groot Zwaaftink, Christine; Steffensen Schmidt, Louise; Guðmundsson, Sverrir; Pálsson, Finnur; Arnalds, Olafur; Björnsson, Helgi; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Stohl, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Deposition of small amounts of airborne dust on glaciers causes positive radiative forcing and enhanced melting due to the reduction of surface albedo. To study the effects of dust deposition on the mass balance of Brúarjökull, an outlet glacier of the largest ice cap in Iceland, Vatnajökull, a study of dust deposition events in the year 2012 was carried out. The dust-mobilisation module FLEXDUST was used to calculate spatio-temporally resolved dust emissions from Iceland and the dispersion model FLEXPART was used to simulate atmospheric dust dispersion and deposition. We used albedo measurements at two automatic weather stations on Brúarjökull to evaluate the dust impacts. Both stations are situated in the accumulation area of the glacier, but the lower station is close to the equilibrium line. For this site ( ˜ 1210 m a.s.l.), the dispersion model produced 10 major dust deposition events and a total annual deposition of 20.5 g m-2. At the station located higher on the glacier ( ˜ 1525 m a.s.l.), the model produced nine dust events, with one single event causing ˜ 5 g m-2 of dust deposition and a total deposition of ˜ 10 g m-2 yr-1. The main dust source was found to be the Dyngjusandur floodplain north of Vatnajökull; northerly winds prevailed 80 % of the time at the lower station when dust events occurred. In all of the simulated dust events, a corresponding albedo drop was observed at the weather stations. The influence of the dust on the albedo was estimated using the regional climate model HIRHAM5 to simulate the albedo of a clean glacier surface without dust. By comparing the measured albedo to the modelled albedo, we determine the influence of dust events on the snow albedo and the surface energy balance. We estimate that the dust deposition caused an additional 1.1 m w.e. (water equivalent) of snowmelt (or 42 % of the 2.8 m w.e. total melt) compared to a hypothetical clean glacier surface at the lower station, and 0.6 m w.e. more melt (or 38 % of

  17. Evaluating the impact of domestication and captivity on the horse gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Song, Se Jin; Morton, James T; Weiss, Sophie; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Joly, Frédéric; Feh, Claudia; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Amir, Amnon; Willerslev, Eske; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-11-14

    The mammal gut microbiome, which includes host microbes and their respective genes, is now recognized as an essential second genome that provides critical functions to the host. In humans, studies have revealed that lifestyle strongly influences the composition and diversity of the gastrointestinal microbiome. We hypothesized that these trends in humans may be paralleled in mammals subjected to anthropogenic forces such as domestication and captivity, in which diets and natural life histories are often greatly modified. We investigated fecal microbiomes of Przewalski's horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii), the only horses alive today not successfully domesticated by humans, and herded, domestic horse (E. f. caballus) living in adjacent natural grasslands. We discovered PH fecal microbiomes hosted a distinct and more diverse community of bacteria compared to domestic horses, which is likely partly explained by different plant diets as revealed by trnL maker data. Within the PH population, four individuals were born in captivity in European zoos and hosted a strikingly low diversity of fecal microbiota compared to individuals born in natural reserves in France and Mongolia. These results suggest that anthropogenic forces can dramatically reshape equid gastrointestinal microbiomes, which has broader implications for the conservation management of endangered mammals.

  18. Holland in Iceland Revisited: An Emic Approach to Evaluating U.S. Vocational Interest Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-01-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdottir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data…

  19. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  20. Chronic lead poisoning in horses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dollahite, J.W.; Younger, R.L.; Crookshank, H.R.

    1978-06-01

    Lead Acetate was fed to 4 groups of 2 horses each to study chronic lead intoxication. A 5th group of 3 horses was maintained as controls. The lead was fed in capsules, with the minimum dosage of 6.25 mg/kg/day of lead as lead acetate (group I). The dose was increased from group I through group IV in an approximate geometric series, with each group being given about 125% of the dose given the previous group. These doses were given for 105 days, a period designated as phase 1. Since clinical signs were not observed after 105 days, the doses weremore » increased and fed for an additional 190 days (days 106 to 295). This period was designated phase 2. The smallest daily dose in phase 2 was set at about 125% of the largest daily dose in phase 1. The doses in each group was increased by about 125% of that of the previous group, as was done in phase 1. Seven horses died or were euthanatized after 18 to 190 days of phase 2 (123 to 295 days after the 1st dose). One horse in group I did not develop any clinical signs of intoxication. Dose-related responses were unnoticed with doses larger than 15.3 mg/kg/day. All horses given lead had increased blood lead and serum iron concentrations. During phase 2, the hematocrit and hemoglobin contents were depressed. The lead concentration in kidney, liver, spleen, pancreas, brain, bone, and heart was increased in the treated horses. The dose level required to produce lead intoxication was greater than that reported for cattle and that estimated in epizootiologic studies of horses.« less

  1. The prevalence, abundance and distribution of cyathostomins (small stongyles) in horses from Western Romania.

    PubMed

    Morariu, Sorin; Mederle, Narcisa; Badea, Corina; Dărăbuş, Gheorghe; Ferrari, Nicola; Genchi, Claudio

    2016-06-15

    Forty seven working horses from Romania were post-mortem examined for small strongyles (Cyathostominae) infections. All horses were found infected. The overall cyathostomins intensity ranged from 390 to 13,010 and horses were infected by 8-24 species. The intensity was higher in ventral colon (1531) and dorsal colon (824), the lowest in the caecum (524). Twenty four species were identified. Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus insigne, and C. Nassatus had 100% of prevalence. Over 50% of horses were infected by Coronocyclus coronatus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, C. goldi, and C. longibursatus. Other prevalent species (34%-45%) were Cyathostomum tetracanthum, Cylicostephanus minutus and Gyalocephalus capitatus. Coronocyclus labiatus, Parapoteriostomum mettami, Poteriostomum imparidentatum and P. ratzii had the lowest prevalence. Most species showed high organ preference with a niche breadth value between 1 and 1.96 while only 7 species (Coronocyclus labiatus, Cyathostomum tetracanthum, C. brevicapsulatus, Cylicocyclus elongatus, C. insigne, C. leptostomum and C. radiatus) showed a more generalist selection. The niche breadth of 10 species was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by itself intensity (Coronocyclus labratus, Cyathostomum pateratum, C. tetracanthum, Cylicocyclus elongatus, C. radiatus, C. ultrajectinus, C. leptostomum, Cylicodontophorus euproctus, Poteriostomum imparidentatum, P. ratzii). The niche breadth of Cylicocyclus nassatus was positively (p<0.05) influenced by the summed intensity of the other species while that of Cylicocyclus elongatus was negatively (p<0.05) influenced by the intensity of the other species. The cluster analysis of the Cyathostominae community composition showed a major cluster composed by the three dominant species, followed by a cluster composed by Coronocyclus coronatus, while all the other species presented a tree like structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gitari, Anderson; Nguhiu, James; Varma, Vijay; Mogoa, Eddy

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9.8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic. Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement colic. Flunixin meglumine as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was used as the only pain management treatment in 85.3% of the cases, flunixin meglumine and butorphanol as NSAID-OPIOD combination in 6.4% of the cases, while buscopan as an antispasmodic was recorded in 5.9% of the cases mainly in spasmodic colic. Univariate analysis revealed simple association between various factors and the type of colic a horse was having. There was an association between the type of colic and the decision-making on the pain management protocol to use, whether single analgesic protocol (χ2=22.5, p<0.001) or use of analgesic combinations (χ2=18.3, p<0.001). The type of colic strongly influenced the decision for performing nasogastric intubation (χ2=265, p<0.001), but performing nasogastric intubation was weakly (χ2=4.9, p=0.03) associated with horse recovery from colic. Type of colic also strongly influenced the need for the use of metabolic stimulants, particularly vitamin B-complex (χ2=99.3, p<0.001). Recovery or death of the horse from colic was strongly associated

  3. General practitioners' perceptions of the current status and pharmacists' contribution to primary care in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Anna Bryndis; Jonsson, Jon Steinar; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark; Almarsdottir, Anna Birna

    2017-08-01

    Background For the past several years pharmacists' responsibilities have expanded globally from traditional tasks of dispensing medications to collaborating with other health care professionals in patient care. Similar developments have not occurred in outpatient settings in Iceland. Objective The aim of this study was to explore Icelandic general practitioners' views on the current status of primary care, their perceptions of pharmacists as a health care profession, and their attitudes towards future GP-pharmacist collaboration in primary care in Iceland. Setting Twelve primary care clinics in Iceland. Methods Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with general practitioners from different primary care clinics in Iceland. A purposive and snowball sampling technique was used to select participants. All interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were categorized by themes and then analyzed using conventional content analysis. Main outcome measure General practitioners' attitudes towards pharmacists. Results Twenty general practitioners from twelve different primary care clinics in Iceland were interviewed. There are several unmet needs regarding medicines and patient monitoring in the Icelandic health care system. General practitioners suggested ways in which these gaps may be addressed and pharmacist-led clinical service was one of the suggestions. Currently, their communication with pharmacists in the primary sector solely surrounds practical non-clinical issues. Due to increasing polypharmacy and multimorbidity, they suggested that pharmacists should be more involved in patient care. Conclusions General practitioners believe that pharmacist-led clinical service can increase the quality of patient therapy. To improve communication between these health care providers, pharmacists must also re-professionalize (strengthening the profession´s status through new responsibilities and tasks), not having a conflict of interest and

  4. Serum levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Icelanders, Japanese, Koreans, and Americans - A descriptive epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Sekikawa, Akira; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Shin, Chol; Curb, J. David; Evans, Rhobert W.; Hauksdottir, Alda M.; Kadota, Aya; Choo, Jina; Masaki, Kamal; Thorsson, Bolli; Launer, Lenore J.; Garcia, Melisa E.; Maegawa, Hiroshi; Willcox, Bradley J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Harris, Tamara B.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Gudnason, Vilmundur

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the 1990’s Iceland and Japan were known as countries with high fish consumption whereas coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in Iceland was high and that in Japan was low among developed countries. We described recent data fish consumption and CHD mortality from publicly available data. We also measured CHD risk factors and serum levels of marine-derived n-3 and other fatty acids from population-based samples of 1,324 men in Iceland, Japan, South Korea, and the US. CHD mortality in men in Iceland was almost 3 times as high as that in Japan and South Korea. Generally a profile of CHD risk factors in Icelanders compared to Japanese was more favorable. Serum marine-derived n-3 fatty acids in Iceland were significantly lower than in Japan and South Korea but significantly higher than in the US. PMID:22658580

  5. Clinical aspects of fluorosis in horses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shupe, J.L.; Olson, A.E.

    1971-01-15

    Horses grazing in areas where cattle and sheep had developed severe fluorosis were examined clinically. Of those examined, 12 horses of different ages and with various degrees of fluorosis were selected for necropsy. Selected tissues were examined grossly, histologically, and radiographically. Major fluorotic lesions occurred only when the horses ingested excessive amounts of fluorine during the period of tooth formation. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  6. Coordination Dynamics of the Horse~Rider System

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, J.; Peham, C.; Licka, T.; Kelso, J. A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the interaction between rider and horse by measuring their ensemble motions in a trot sequence, comparing 1 expert and 1 novice rider. Whereas the novice’s movements displayed transient departures from phase synchrony, the expert’s motions were continuously phase-matched with those of the horse. The tight ensemble synchrony between the expert and the horse was accompanied by an increase in the temporal regularity of the oscillations of the trunk of the horse. Observed differences between expert and novice riders indicated that phase synchronization is by no means perfect but requires extended practice. Points of contact between horse and rider may haptically convey effective communication between them. PMID:16280312

  7. Deep neural network features for horses identity recognition using multiview horses' face pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarraya, Islem; Ouarda, Wael; Alimi, Adel M.

    2017-03-01

    To control the state of horses in the born, breeders needs a monitoring system with a surveillance camera that can identify and distinguish between horses. We proposed in [5] a method of horse's identification at a distance using the frontal facial biometric modality. Due to the change of views, the face recognition becomes more difficult. In this paper, the number of images used in our THoDBRL'2015 database (Tunisian Horses DataBase of Regim Lab) is augmented by adding other images of other views. Thus, we used front, right and left profile face's view. Moreover, we suggested an approach for multiview face recognition. First, we proposed to use the Gabor filter for face characterization. Next, due to the augmentation of the number of images, and the large number of Gabor features, we proposed to test the Deep Neural Network with the auto-encoder to obtain the more pertinent features and to reduce the size of features vector. Finally, we performed the proposed approach on our THoDBRL'2015 database and we used the linear SVM for classification.

  8. Meteorological buoy measurements in the Iceland Sea, 2007-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nína Petersen, Guðrún

    2017-10-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) conducted meteorological buoy measurements in the central Iceland Sea in the time period 2007-2009, specifically in the northern Dreki area on the southern segment of the Jan Mayen Ridge. Due to difficulties in deployment and operations, in situ measurements in this region are sparse. Here the buoy, deployment and measurements are described with the aim of giving a future user of the data set information that is as comprehensive as possible. The data set has been quality-checked, suspect data removed and the data set made publicly available from PANGAEA Data Publisher (https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.876206).

  9. An exploration of the influence of diagonal dissociation and moderate changes in speed on locomotor parameters in trotting horses.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Sarah Jane; Bertram, John E A; Clayton, Hilary M

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although the trot is described as a diagonal gait, contacts of the diagonal pairs of hooves are not usually perfectly synchronized. Although subtle, the timing dissociation between contacts of each diagonal pair could have consequences on gait dynamics and provide insight into the functional strategies employed. This study explores the mechanical effects of different diagonal dissociation patterns when speed was matched between individuals and how these effects link to moderate, natural changes in trotting speed. We anticipate that hind-first diagonal dissociation at contact increases with speed, diagonal dissociation at contact can reduce collision-based energy losses and predominant dissociation patterns will be evident within individuals. Methods. The study was performed in two parts: in the first 17 horses performed speed-matched trotting trials and in the second, five horses each performed 10 trotting trials that represented a range of individually preferred speeds. Standard motion capture provided kinematic data that were synchronized with ground reaction force (GRF) data from a series of force plates. The data were analyzed further to determine temporal, speed, GRF, postural, mass distribution, moment, and collision dynamics parameters. Results. Fore-first, synchronous, and hind-first dissociations were found in horses trotting at (3.3 m/s ± 10%). In these speed-matched trials, mean centre of pressure (COP) cranio-caudal location differed significantly between the three dissociation categories. The COP moved systematically and significantly (P = .001) from being more caudally located in hind-first dissociation (mean location = 0.41 ± 0.04) through synchronous (0.36 ± 0.02) to a more cranial location in fore-first dissociation (0.32 ± 0.02). Dissociation patterns were found to influence function, posture, and balance parameters. Over a moderate speed range, peak vertical forelimb GRF had a strong relationship with dissociation time (R = .594

  10. Esperanto and Icelandic: Two Contrasting Lexical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmans, Theodore

    1972-01-01

    The article comprises a table listing Esperanto words conveying international concepts, accompained by equivalents in English, French, German, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew and Icelandic, representing various language groups. The comparison shows that although the world language would opt for international terms, a language making no claims on…

  11. Exploring the virome of diseased horses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Giannitti, Federico; Low, Jason; Keyes, Casey; Ullmann, Leila S.; Deng, Xutao; Aleman, Monica; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Pusterla, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics was used to characterize viral genomes in clinical specimens of horses with various organ-specific diseases of unknown aetiology. A novel parvovirus as well as a previously described hepacivirus closely related to human hepatitis C virus and equid herpesvirus 2 were identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of horses with neurological signs. Four co-infecting picobirnaviruses, including an unusual genome with fused RNA segments, and a divergent anellovirus were found in the plasma of two febrile horses. A novel cyclovirus genome was characterized from the nasal secretion of another febrile animal. Lastly, a small circular DNA genome with a Rep gene, from a virus we called kirkovirus, was identified in the liver and spleen of a horse with fatal idiopathic hepatopathy. This study expands the number of viruses found in horses, and characterizes their genomes to assist future epidemiological studies of their transmission and potential association with various equine diseases. PMID:26044792

  12. Visual outcomes of phacoemulsification cataract surgery in horses: 1990-2013.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Dennis E; Plummer, Caryn E; Carastro, Susan M; Utter, Mary E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the long-term visual outcome of phacoemulsification lens extraction surgery in foals and horses and identify any unique postoperative complications that affect the visual outcome. This is a retrospective medical records study of phacoemulsification cataract surgery in 95 foals and horses from 1990 to 2013. Cataracts were removed by phacoemulsification from 111 eyes of 95 horses ranging in age from 22 days to 26 years (average 8.0 ± 5.7 years). Forty-four of the 95 animals were foals (46.3%). Sixteen horses or foals had surgery bilaterally. One hundred and two eyes were blind preoperatively with 97 eyes (95.1%) having evidence of vision immediately postoperatively. Ninety of the 95 horses (94.7%) regained vision in the immediate postoperative period. Five horses did not recover vision postoperatively. Twenty-four horses had cataracts associated with equine recurrent uveitis (ERU). Trauma was noted as the cause of cataract in 10 horses, and no specific cause for the cataract identified in 61 horses. The combined visual outcome data from horses with all types of cataracts (n = 95) found 83 (87.3%) horses to be visual ≤1 month postoperatively, 47 (49.4%) horses visual for >1-6 months postoperatively, 33 (34.7%) horses visual from >6 to 12 months postoperatively, and 25 horses (26.3%) visual >24 months postoperatively. The results of phacoemulsification cataract surgery in horses indicate at least 26.3% of horses are still visual and able to continue their natural activity for 2 years or more postoperatively. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  13. Demographics of Australian horses: results from an internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Smyth, G B; Dagley, K

    2016-03-01

    To obtain information on the types of Australian horses, how they are kept and their activities. An invitation to participate in an opt-in, internet-based survey was sent to 7000 people who had registered an email address to receive information from the Australian Horse Industry Council Inc. There were 3377 (48%) useable responses from owners of 26,548 horses. Most horses were kept on small properties (usually 2-8 ha) in paddocks in rural areas of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Most horses were female or geldings and the most common of 54 different activities was breeding. Owners reported 19,291 horses were used in different activities and 6037 (23%) horses were not kept for any stated purpose or activity. Owners used an average of 1.95 horses in 2.9 different types of activities. The most common of the 43 breeds were Thoroughbred, Australian Stock Horse and Australian Quarter Horse. Only 1% of the total numbers of Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds in this survey were used in horse racing, indicating there is a demand for these breeds in non-racing activities. Microchip was the most favoured method of horse identification and 36% favoured compulsory registration of horses. Most respondents reported owning some other animal species. There is a wide variation in horse breeds used in different activities by Australian horse owners. There are regional differences in various management systems. There needs to be considerable improvement in the collection and recording of information to improve the validity and reliability of horse industry data. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur - the Sagas of Icelanders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Carron, P.; Kenna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Íslendinga sögur - or Sagas of Icelanders - constitute a collection of medieval literature set in Iceland around the late 9th to early 11th centuries, the so-called Saga Age. They purport to describe events during the period around the settlement of Iceland and the generations immediately following and constitute an important element of world literature thanks to their unique narrative style. Although their historicity is a matter of scholarly debate, the narratives contain interwoven and overlapping plots involving thousands of characters and interactions between them. Here we perform a network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur in an attempt to gather quantitative information on interrelationships between characters and to compare saga society to other social networks.

  15. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  16. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  17. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  18. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  19. 9 CFR 93.307 - Articles accompanying horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying horses. 93.307 Section 93.307 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.307 Articles accompanying horses. No...

  20. 9 CFR 93.322 - Declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.322 Declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two...

  1. Assessing δ18O heterogeneity in Icelandic olivine crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar Rasmussen, M.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Martin, W.; Gibson, S. A.; Hilton, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    δ18O systematics of Icelandic basalts are notably distinct from MORB-sourced basalts. This difference has previously been attributed to interaction with low δ18O meteoric water in the crust or slight heterogeneity within the Icelandic mantle [1]. Studies addressing this issue have mostly involved batch mineral laser-fluorination analysis which cannot resolve any intra-mineral δ18O variability that might be present due to shallow-level processes, e.g. crustal contamination [2]. We present a study of olivine crystals found in basalts covering the neovolcanic rift and flank zones as well as older Tertiary crust, in which we couple in-situ δ18O-measurements with major and trace elements using SIMS, high-precision EMP and LA ICP-MS. Most samples have previously been analysed for 3He/4He which ranges from 6.7 to 47.8 RA, the largest span reported for any oceanic island [3]. Our analysed olivine grains, range in Fo# between 79.9 to 91.8 with limited intra-grain variability. Independent of Fo#, we observe a variation in δ18O(Ol) of >3 ‰ across Iceland, with most crystals plotting below the expected depleted mantle-value ( 5.1 ± 0.2‰ [4]). The lowest δ18O(Ol) of +2.77 ‰, is found in crystals with Fo# 86 from central Iceland, closest to the inferred plume head [3]. Trace element ratios for these olivine grains (e.g. Zn/Fe) strongly indicate a peridotitic mantle source, which implies a shallow (likely crustal) origin of low δ18O(Ol) for this region. In contrast, olivine crystals from the South Iceland Volcanic Zone (a region of active rift propagation and transitional to alkalic volcanism) display trace element ratios that are indicative of a greater amount of pyroxenite in their melt source region. The δ18O(Ol) of these samples vary significantly (from +3.45 to +4.98 ‰) which, together with their elevated 3He/4He values, implies entrainment of a lower δ18O mantle-source by a less-degassed mantle plume source. Further modelling will be performed to evaluate

  2. Clinical and clinicopathological factors associated with survival in 44 horses with equine neorickettsiosis (Potomac horse Fever).

    PubMed

    Bertin, F R; Reising, A; Slovis, N M; Constable, P D; Taylor, S D

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of equine neorickettsiosis (EN) has been extensively studied but limited clinical and clinicopathological data are available concerning naturally infected horses. Factors predictive of survival will be identified in horses diagnosed with EN. Convenience sample of 44 horses with EN admitted to 2 referral institutions. A retrospective study was performed. A diagnosis of EN was based on the presence of positive blood or fecal PCR. The most common clinical signs included diarrhea (66%), fever (50%), anorexia (45%), depression (39%), colic (39%), and lameness (18%). The median duration of hospitalization was 6 days and 73% of horses survived to discharge. Laminitis was present in 36% of horses, 88% of which were affected in all 4 feet. Serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations, as well as RBC count, blood hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, band neutrophils, serum AST activity, serum CK activity, and anion gap, were significantly (P < .05) higher in nonsurvivors. Serum chloride and sodium, concentrations as well as duration of hospitalization were significantly lower in nonsurvivors. The results of forward stepwise logistic regression indicated that blood hemoglobin concentration on admission and antimicrobial treatment with oxytetracycline were independent factors associated with survival. Severity of colitis as reflected by electrolyte loss, hemoconcentration, and prerenal azotemia were predictors of survival in horses diagnosed with EN. Treatment with oxytetracycline was associated with increased survival. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Analysis of horse race videos to identify intra-race risk factors for fatal distal limb fracture.

    PubMed

    Parkin, T D H; Clegg, P D; French, N P; Proudman, C J; Riggs, C M; Singer, E R; Webbon, P M; Morgan, K L

    2006-04-17

    The objective of this study was to identify risk factors, during racing, associated with imminent fatal distal limb fracture in Thoroughbreds. One hundred and nine cases of fatal distal limb fracture were identified from all 59 UK racecourses over a 2-year period (February 1999-January 2001). Three uninjured control horses were randomly selected from the same race as the case horse. Videos of races in which fractures occurred were viewed using a defined protocol. Fractures in flat races occurred at any time during the race, whereas 74% (45/61) of cases in national hunt type races occurred in the second half of races. More than 75% (79/103) of cases were spontaneous, i.e. there was no obvious external influence such as a fall at a fence or collision with another horse. Sixty-six percent (44/67) of horses, sustaining a forelimb fracture, fractured the forelimb they were using as lead leg at the time of fracture. When case and control horses were compared, horses that were: (a) making good progress through the race, (b) reluctant to start and (c) received encouragement in the final 10s before the time of fracture, were more likely to sustain a fracture.

  4. Development of the Horse Grimace Scale (HGS) as a Pain Assessment Tool in Horses Undergoing Routine Castration

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Costa, Emanuela; Minero, Michela; Lebelt, Dirk; Stucke, Diana; Canali, Elisabetta; Leach, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The assessment of pain is critical for the welfare of horses, in particular when pain is induced by common management procedures such as castration. Existing pain assessment methods have several limitations, which reduce the applicability in everyday life. Assessment of facial expression changes, as a novel means of pain scoring, may offer numerous advantages and overcome some of these limitations. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a standardised pain scale based on facial expressions in horses (Horse Grimace Scale [HGS]). Methodology/Principal Findings Forty stallions were assigned to one of two treatments and all animals underwent routine surgical castration under general anaesthesia. Group A (n = 19) received a single injection of Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia. Group B (n = 21) received Flunixin immediately before anaesthesia and then again, as an oral administration, six hours after the surgery. In addition, six horses were used as anaesthesia controls (C). These animals underwent non-invasive, indolent procedures, received the same treatment as group A, but did not undergo surgical procedures that could be accompanied with surgical pain. Changes in behaviour, composite pain scale (CPS) scores and horse grimace scale (HGS) scores were assessed before and 8-hours post-procedure. Only horses undergoing castration (Groups A and B) showed significantly greater HGS and CPS scores at 8-hours post compared to pre operatively. Further, maintenance behaviours such as explorative behaviour and alertness were also reduced. No difference was observed between the two analgesic treatment groups. Conclusions The Horse Grimace Scale potentially offers an effective and reliable method of assessing pain following routine castration in horses. However, auxiliary studies are required to evaluate different painful conditions and analgesic schedules. PMID:24647606

  5. The Management of Horses during Fireworks in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Gronqvist, Gabriella; Rogers, Chris; Gee, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The negative effects of fireworks on companion animals have been reported, but little has been documented on the impact on horses. Horse anxiety was commonly associated with fireworks, and 26% of owners reported horse injuries as a result of fireworks. Many management strategies were seen as ineffective. The majority of horse owners were in favour of a ban on the sale of fireworks for private use. Abstract Within popular press there has been much coverage of the negative effects associated with firework and horses. The effect of fireworks has been documented in companion animals, yet no studies have investigated the negative effects, or otherwise, of fireworks on horses. This study aims to document horse responses and current management strategies to fireworks via an online survey. Of the total number of horses, 39% (1987/4765) were rated as “anxious”, 40% (1816/4765) “very anxious” and only 21% (965/4765) rated as “not anxious” around fireworks. Running (82%, 912/1107) was the most common behaviour reported, with no difference between property type (p > 0.05) or location (p > 0.05). Possibly as a consequence of the high frequency of running, 35% (384/1107) of respondents reported having horses break through fences in response to fireworks and a quarter (26%, 289/1099) reported that their horse(s) had received injuries associated with fireworks. The most common management strategy was moving their horse(s) to a paddock away from the fireworks (77%) and to stable/yard them (55%). However, approximately 30% reported these management strategies to be ineffective. Of the survey participants, 90% (996/1104) were against the sale of fireworks for private use. PMID:27005667

  6. Retinal detachment in horses: 40 cases (1998-2005).

    PubMed

    Strobel, Brian W; Wilkie, David A; Gilger, Brian C

    2007-01-01

    To determine clinical features, ophthalmic examination findings, etiology, treatment, and outcome of horses diagnosed with retinal detachment (RD). Forty horses, presented to the North Carolina State University and The Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospitals from 1998 to 2005 that were diagnosed with RD. PROCEDURE(S): Horses with documented RD, confirmed either on ophthalmic examination or by ultrasonography, and with a complete medical record were included. Information retrieved from the medical records included signalment, presenting complaint, duration of clinical signs, ophthalmologic examination findings, diagnostics performed, identified cause of the retinal detachment, treatment given, and outcome. Forty horses (46 eyes) were diagnosed with RD. Mean +/- SD duration of clinical signs of ocular disease was 10.5 +/- 14.7 months. Thirty-four horses presented with unilateral involvement, 6 with bilateral, 14 with partial and 32 with complete RD. Ultrasonography was used to make the diagnosis in 26 eyes, while RD was diagnosed on routine ocular examination in 20 eyes. Bullous RD was the only type of RD observed, although small vitreal traction bands were considered secondary to the underlying inflammation or trauma. RD caused by equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) was diagnosed in 27 of 40 (67.5%) horses. Trauma-induced RD involved 10 of the 40 horses (25%). Presenting problems included known ERU (n = 16), acute or progressive vision loss (n = 9), known ocular trauma (n = 6), cataract (n = 6), and a cloudy cornea (n = 3). No horses regained vision after RD despite therapy. Many eyes were enucleated or eviscerated, or the horses were euthanized. Seven eyes with complete RD were noted to be unchanged and comfortable with medical therapy. The visual prognosis of RD in horses is grave; however, horses with nontraumatic RD (most commonly ERU) may be able to maintain a comfortable but blind globe with anti-inflammatory medical therapy.

  7. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-01-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses. PMID:8315368

  8. Generalization of a tactile stimulus in horses.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, D M; Lewis, P

    1993-05-01

    Using horses, we investigated the control of operant behavior by a tactile stimulus (the training stimulus) and the generalization of behavior to six other similar test stimuli. In a stall, the experimenters mounted a response panel in the doorway. Located on this panel were a response lever and a grain dispenser. The experimenters secured a tactile-stimulus belt to the horse's back. The stimulus belt was constructed by mounting seven solenoids along a piece of burlap in a manner that allowed each to provide the delivery of a tactile stimulus, a repetitive light tapping, at different locations (spaced 10.0 cm apart) along the horse's back. Two preliminary steps were necessary before generalization testing: training a measurable response (lip pressing) and training on several reinforcement schedules in the presence of a training stimulus (tapping by one of the solenoids). We then gave each horse two generalization test sessions. Results indicated that the horses' behavior was effectively controlled by the training stimulus. Horses made the greatest number of responses to the training stimulus, and the tendency to respond to the other test stimuli diminished as the stimuli became farther away from the training stimulus. These findings are discussed in the context of behavioral principles and their relevance to the training of horses.

  9. Experimental inoculation of equine coronavirus into Japanese draft horses.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Oue, Yasuhiro; Morita, Yoshinori; Kanno, Toru; Kinoshita, Yuta; Niwa, Hidekazu; Ueno, Takanori; Katayama, Yoshinari; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Recently, outbreaks associated with equine coronavirus (ECoV) have occurred in Japan and the United States. While ECoV is likely to be pathogenic to horses, it has not been shown that experimental inoculation of horses with ECoV produces clinical signs of disease. In this study, we inoculated three Japanese draft horses with an ECoV-positive diarrheic fecal sample to confirm infection after inoculation and to investigate the clinical course and virus shedding patterns of ECoV. Virus neutralization tests showed that all three horses became infected with ECoV. Two of the three horses developed clinical signs similar to those observed during ECoV outbreaks, including fever, anorexia, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. All horses excreted a large amount of virus into their feces for more than 9 days after inoculation regardless of the presence or absence of clinical signs, which suggests that feces are an important source of ECoV infection. ECoV was also detected in nasal swabs from all horses, suggesting that respiratory transmission of ECoV may occur. Both symptomatic horses developed viremia, while the asymptomatic horse did not. White blood cell counts and serum amyloid A concentrations changed relative to the clinical condition of the inoculated horses; these may be useful markers for monitoring the clinical status of horses infected with ECoV. This is the first report of induction of clinical signs of ECoV infection in horses by experimental inoculation. These clinical and virological findings should aid further investigation of the pathogenesis of ECoV.

  10. Phytoplankton bloom off western Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image captured 06/24/2010 at 14 :30 UTC Phytoplankton bloom off western Iceland Satellite: Aqua NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team To learn more about MODIS go to: rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/?latest NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  11. Psychometric testing of the Iceland Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire among school nurses.

    PubMed

    Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun; Looman, Wendy; Tryggvadottir, Gudny Bergthora; Garwick, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Beliefs have been found to have an effect on how people deal with illness. Therefore, knowing healthcare practitioners' beliefs about specific high frequency illnesses are vital when caring for vulnerable populations such as school-age children with chronic illnesses or disorders. To psychometrically test the Iceland Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire for healthcare professionals who are working with families of school-age children with asthma and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The Iceland Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire is a 7-item Likert-type instrument with four additional open-ended questions that was developed from the Iceland Family Illness Belief Questionnaire. The questionnaire is designed to measure a provider's beliefs about their understanding of the meaning of the illness situation for families. The questionnaire was administered to 162 school nurses in Iceland and the state of Minnesota. Two condition-specific versions of the Iceland Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire were developed in this study: one to measure beliefs about families of children with asthma and one to measure beliefs about families of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Higher scores on the questionnaire indicate that healthcare professionals are more confident in their illness beliefs. After initial development, the questionnaire was translated into English. Participants completed the questionnaire using an online survey platform and parallel study procedures in both countries. Based on exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis, the Iceland Health Care Practitioner Illness Beliefs Questionnaire was found to have a one-factor solution with good construct validity (Cronbach's α = 0.91). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = 0.91). This instrument is a promising tool for measuring illness beliefs among healthcare practitioners

  12. Ash plume from Eyjafjallajokull Volcano, Iceland May 6th View

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-06

    NASA satellite image acquired May 6, 2010 at 11 :55 UTC To view a detail of this image go to: www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/4583711511/ NASA Satellite Sees a Darker Ash Plume From Iceland Volcano NASA's Terra satellite flew over the Eyjafjallajokull Volcano, Iceland, on May 6 at 11:55 UTC (7:55 a.m. EDT). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument known as MODIS that flies onboard Terra, captured a visible image of the ash plume. The plume was blowing east then southeast over the Northern Atlantic. The satellite image shows that the plume is at a lower level in the atmosphere than the clouds that lie to its east, as the brown plume appears to slide underneath the white clouds. Satellite: Terra NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team To learn more about MODIS go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/iceland-volcano-plume.... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  13. Porosity evolution in Icelandic hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thien, B.; Kosakowski, G.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced hydrothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems, grant number CRSII2_141843/1) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. These are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. These shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. Field observations suggest that active and fossil Icelandic hydrothermal systems are built from a superposition of completely altered and completely unaltered layers. With help of 1D and 2D reactive transport models (OpenGeoSys-GEM code), we investigate the reasons for this finding, by studying the mineralogical evolution of protoliths with different initial porosities at different temperatures and pressures, different leaching water composition and gas content, and different porosity geometries (i.e. porous medium versus fractured medium). From this study, we believe that the initial porosity of protoliths and volume changes due to their transformation into secondary minerals are key factors to explain the different alteration extents observed in field studies. We also discuss how precipitation and dissolution kinetics can influence the alteration time scales.

  14. Children's Outdoor Environment in Icelandic Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norðdahl, Kristín; Jóhannesson, Ingólfur Ásgeir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate what characterizes the discourse on the role of the outdoor environment in young children's learning in educational policy documents in Iceland. Policy documents, laws and regulations, national curriculum guides for pre- and compulsory school levels, and documents from municipalities were analyzed. A…

  15. The Sulfur Dioxide Plume from the February 26, 2000 Eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The February 2000 fissure eruption of Mt. Hekla, Iceland was captured in sulfur dioxide data from the Earth Probe TOMS. A special algorithm is used to discriminate sulfur dioxide from ozone. The eruption began at 18:19 GMT on February 26, 2000 and was first viewed by TOMS at 09:55 GMT on February 27. The volcanic cloud at that time appeared as a very long and narrow arc extending west from the volcano in southern Iceland, then north across Greenland, and finally east towards Norway. The cloud altitude was reported from aircraft sightings and data to be above 10 km. The circulation of a ridge located north of Iceland produced the large arc shaped cloud. As the eruption is non-explosive the high altitude cloud contains little ash. Almost all the ash from the eruption fell out locally across Iceland. By February 29, the sulfur dioxide cloud had drifted eastward in a band along the Barents Sea coast of Norway and Russia. The analysis includes an assessment of the initial sulfur dioxide content and its rate of conversion to sulfate.

  16. The fishery for Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica) in the Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena Guijarro

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the history and management of the Iceland scallop fishery in Iceland, Greenland and Norway (including the Svalbard archipelago and the islands of Bjørnøya and Jan Mayen), with information on research into each stock. The start of the fishery in all these regions followed the discovery of virgin scallop beds made up of old, large specimens in very high densities. Despite the apparent similarity of original conditions, the fishery has followed very different trends in each region, with drastic declines in Iceland, Svalbard and Jan Mayen. The general biology of the Iceland scallop is summarised and compared with the biology of other North Atlantic species of pectinids. The Icelandic fishery dates from 1969. There was a steady decrease in catch from 1985, when >16,000 tonnes were caught. By 2004 the stock had declined to 35% of its average size during the period 1993-2000 and a zero quota was advised. This decline is thought to have resulted from overexploitation, combined with a protozoan infestation and increasing sea bottom temperature. Scallop dredging commenced in west Greenland in 1983. The stock is not very large, but fishing was driven by social factors. Catches ranged from 400 to 1,900 tonnes during the period 1988-1992 and from 1,200 to 2,600 tonnes since 1995. There are indications that each scallop bed is extensively dredged before the fleet moves on to new areas, but nevertheless catches have been rather stable over the past decade. The scallop stocks in Svalbard, Bjørnøya and Jan Mayen were depleted in three fishing seasons between 1985-1987, when up to 45,000 tonnes of scallops were dredged in a single season. Following a survey carried out in 1991, Bjørnøya was open to the fishery with a maximum quota of 2,000 tonnes, but the stock off Svalbard was found to be not large enough to sustain a fishery.

  17. Body position and direction preferences in horses during road transport.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Jones, J H; Carlson, G P; Pascoe, J R

    1994-09-01

    It has been hypothesised that horses have a preference for facing backward in a trailer during road transport in order to minimise shifts of body weight due to accelerations and decelerations. To determine if horses have preferences for facing forward vs. backward in a horse trailer, the authors analysed the percentages of time horses spent in different body positions and directions while standing in a moving or parked horse trailer. Body positions and directions of 8 Thoroughbred geldings were videotaped while horses were transported singly and untethered in a 4-horse stock trailer over a 32 km route of country roads; or while the same horses were untethered in the same trailer stationary in a parking lot. Analysis of the logit-transformed percentages of time horses spent in different directions indicated that they spent significantly more time facing backward when the trailer was in motion, but not when it was parked. Several horses displayed strong individual preferences for the directions they faced during road transport.

  18. Distortion effects in Trojan Horse applications

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pizzone, R. G.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.

    2012-11-20

    Deuteron induced quasi-free scattering and reactions have been extensively investigated in the past few decades. This was done not only for nuclear structure and processes study but also for the important astrophysical implication (Trojan Horse Method, THM). In particular the width of the neutron momentum distribution in deuteron will be studied as a function of the transferred momentum. The same will be done for other nuclides of possible use as Trojan Horse particles. Trojan horse method applications will also be discussed because the momentum distribution of the spectator particle inside the Trojan horse nucleus is a necessary input for thismore » method. The impact of the width (FWHM) variation on the extraction of the astrophysical S(E)-factor is discussed.« less

  19. Severe polysaccharide storage myopathy in Belgian and Percheron draught horses.

    PubMed

    Valentine, B A; Credille, K M; Lavoie, J P; Fatone, S; Guard, C; Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J

    1997-05-01

    A severe myopathy leading to death or euthanasia was identified in 4 Belgian and 4 Percheron draught horses age 2-21 years. Clinical signs ranged from overt weakness and muscle atrophy in 2 horses age 2 and 3 years, to recumbency with inability to rise in 6 horses age 4-21 years. In 5 horses there was mild to severe increases in muscle enzyme levels. Clinical diagnoses included equine motor neuron disease (2 horses), post anaesthetic myopathy (2 horses), exertional myopathy (2 horses), myopathy due to unknown (one horse), and equine protozoal myelitis (one horse). Characteristic histopathology of muscle from affected horses was the presence of excessive complex polysaccharide and/or glycogen, revealed by periodic acid-Schiff staining in all cases and by electron microscopy in one case. Evaluation of frozen section histochemistry performed on 2 cases indicated that affected fibres were Type 2 glycolytic fibres. Subsarcolemmal and intracytoplasmic vacuoles were most prominent in 3 horses age 2-4 years, and excessive glycogen, with little or no complex polysaccharide, was the primary compound stored in affected muscle in these young horses. Myopathic changes, including fibre size variation, fibre hypertrophy, internal nuclei, and interstitial fat infiltration, were most prominent in 5 horses age 6-21 years, and the accumulation of complex polysaccharide appeared to increase with age. Mild to moderate segmental myofibre necrosis was present in all cases.

  20. A health system in economic crises: a case study from Iceland.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Anna Elisabet; Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2013-03-01

    There has been a lack of systematic inquiry into how governments respond during times of crises, how well these responses comply with good governance, and how they affect health systems. The aim of this study was to analyse the reactions of the Icelandic health system during the first 7 months of the economic crisis in 2008. The grounded theory approach was used in data sampling, collection, and data analysis. Secondary data were collected from parliamentary documents, news, and health discussions in two of the largest newspapers in Iceland. Primary data were collected through interviews with key stakeholders in the health sector. Atlas.ti. 5.2 was used to analyse the data. The health sector's first response to the crisis was to close and merge wards on hospitals as well as making structural changes to reduce the overhead costs in healthcare institutions. The Minister of Health attempted to introduce radical changes but because of failures in good governance practices, such as a lack of transparency and fair participation together with a lack of supporting documents, the proposed changes were not executed. Economic crises are a critical test of health systems' resilience. The manner in which governance practices, together with strong stewardship, influence the ability of the health system to adapt to changes and reorganise without causing stress, confusion, or anger and without changing its basic structure and function are important, and open to robust evaluation.

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Frances MD; Lamas, Luis; Knezevic, Sabina; Jeffcott, Leo B

    2007-01-01

    Background Injury to the supraspinous ligament (SSL) is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. The ultrasonographic appearance of the supraspinous ligament has been well described, but there are few studies that correlate ultrasonographic findings with clinical pain and/or pathology. This preliminary study aims to test the hypothesis that unridden horses (n = 13) have a significantly reduced frequency of occurrence of ultrasonographic changes of the SSL consistent with a diagnosis of desmitis when compared to ridden horses (n = 13) and those with clinical signs of back pain (n = 13). Results The supraspinous ligament of all horses was imaged between T(thoracic)6-T18 and ultrasonographic appearance. There was an average of 2.08 abnormal images per horse from the whole group. The average number of abnormalities in unridden horses was 4.92, in ridden horses 2.92 and in horses with clinical back pain 4.69. No lesions were found between T6 and T10 and 68% of lesions were found between T14 and T17. No significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between the three groups in the number or location of abnormal images. Conclusion The main conclusion was that every horse in this study (n = 39) had at least one site of SSL desmitis (range 2 to 11). It was clear that ultrasonographically diagnosed SSL desmitis cannot be considered as prima facie evidence of clinically significant disease and further evidence is required for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:17331234

  2. Hydatid disease in a horse.

    PubMed

    Binhazim, A A; Harmon, B G; Roberson, E L; Boerner, M

    1992-04-01

    During routine necropsy of a 28-year-old horse with intestinal volvulus, numerous hydatid cysts were discovered in the liver. Viable protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus were obtained from the cyst. As a 4-year-old, this horse had been imported from an area that is enzootic for equine hydatidosis.

  3. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  4. Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clotten, Caroline; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; De Schepper, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50-3.00 Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer sea surface temperatures. As evidenced from brassicasterol and dinosterol, primary productivity was low between 3.50 and 3.00 Ma and the site experienced generally oligotrophic conditions. The East Greenland Current (and East Icelandic Current) may have transported sea ice into the Iceland Sea and/or brought cooler and fresher waters favoring local sea ice formation. Between 3.00 and 2.40 Ma, the Iceland Sea is mainly sea ice-free, but seasonal sea ice occurred between 2.81 and 2.74 Ma. Sea ice extending into the Iceland Sea at this time may have acted as a positive feedback for the build-up of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which underwent a major expansion ∼2.75 Ma. Thereafter, most likely a stable sea ice edge developed close to Greenland, possibly changing together with the expansion and retreat of the GIS and affecting the productivity in the Iceland Sea.

  5. COTHERM: Modelling fluid-rock interactions in Icelandic geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thien, Bruno; Kosakowski, Georg; Kulik, Dmitrii

    2014-05-01

    Mineralogical alteration of reservoir rocks, driven by fluid circulation in natural or enhanced geothermal systems, is likely to influence the long-term performance of geothermal power generation. A key factor is the change of porosity due to dissolution of primary minerals and precipitation of secondary phases. Porosity changes will affect fluid circulation and solute transport, which, in turn, influence mineralogical alteration. This study is part of the Sinergia COTHERM project (COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geotTHERMal systems) that is an integrative research project aimed at improving our understanding of the sub-surface processes in magmatically-driven natural geothermal systems. We model the mineralogical and porosity evolution of Icelandic geothermal systems with 1D and 2D reactive transport models. These geothermal systems are typically high enthalphy systems where a magmatic pluton is located at a few kilometers depth. The shallow plutons increase the geothermal gradient and trigger the circulation of hydrothermal waters with a steam cap forming at shallow depth. We investigate two contrasting geothermal systems: Krafla, for which the water recharge consists of meteoritic water; and Reykjanes, for which the water recharge mainly consists of seawater. The initial rock composition is a fresh basalt. We use the GEM-Selektor geochemical modeling package [1] for calculation of kinetically controlled mineral equilibria between the rock and the ingression water. We consider basalt minerals dissolution kinetics according to Palandri & Kharaka [2]. Reactive surface areas are assumed to be geometric surface areas, and are corrected using a spherical-particle surface/mass relationship. For secondary minerals, we consider the partial equilibrium assuming that the primary mineral dissolution is slow, and the secondary mineral precipitation is fast. Comparison of our modeling results with the mineralogical assemblages observed in the

  6. Floating like a cork: The importance of glacial isostasy in the deglaciation progress in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norddahl, H.; Ingolfsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Being positioned on top of a hotspot and between two spreading ocean plates explains rheological structure of Iceland and the properties of a 30-35 km thick lithosphere, possibly with high proportion of partial melt, on top of a low viscous asthenosphere below Iceland, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Rapid variations in glacier loading on the Iceland crust have been proved to generate more or less an instantaneous depression or uplift of the crust and, thus, uphold both temporal and spacial glacio-isostatic equilibrium. Formation of a shoreline requires at least temporal equilibrium between glacial isostasy and eustasy. Eminent raised shorelines - found throughout Iceland - were formed during two separate but consecutive culmination of climatically induced glacier re-advance and consequent transgression of relative sea-level in Younger Dryas and Preboreal times (12.0 and 11.3 kcal BP). A Marine Limit shoreline in W Iceland was formed at 14.7 kcal BP, subsequent to a collapse-like retreat of the marine based part of the Icelandic Ice Sheet (IIS) and just prior to the onset of the Bølling warming, i.e. during a period of anticipated rapid isostatic uplift. A temporary glacio-isostatic equilibrium at that time is best explained by changes in the mode of deglaciation generating dynamic changes within the Ice Sheet itself, changes that resulted in reduced rates of mass-loss and glacio-isostatic uplift to such a degree that a temporal quasi-equilibrium between eustatic rise and isostatic uplift was established. Formation of well-developed raised shoreline is generally regarded as a deglaciation proxy signaling large ice volume changes. Formation of the ML shoreline in W Iceland during the rapid climatic improvement at the beginning of the Bølling/Allerød Interstadial underlines the importance of, beside the geological data, also to take into consideration physical properties of both the lithosphere and asthenosphere in each location.

  7. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rater agreement of visual lameness assessment in horses during lungeing.

    PubMed

    Hammarberg, M; Egenvall, A; Pfau, T; Rhodin, M

    2016-01-01

    Lungeing is an important part of lameness examinations as the circular path may accentuate low-grade lameness. Movement asymmetries related to the circular path, to compensatory movements and to pain make the lameness evaluation complex. Scientific studies have shown high inter-rater variation when assessing lameness during straight line movement. The aim was to estimate inter- and intra-rater agreement of equine veterinarians evaluating lameness from videos of sound and lame horses during lungeing and to investigate the influence of veterinarians' experience and the objective degree of movement asymmetry on rater agreement. Cross-sectional observational study. Video recordings and quantitative gait analysis with inertial sensors were performed in 23 riding horses of various breeds. The horses were examined at trot on a straight line and during lungeing on soft or hard surfaces in both directions. One video sequence was recorded per condition and the horses were classified as forelimb lame, hindlimb lame or sound from objective straight line symmetry measurements. Equine veterinarians (n = 86), including 43 with >5 years of orthopaedic experience, participated in a web-based survey and were asked to identify the lamest limb on 60 videos, including 10 repeats. The agreements between (inter-rater) and within (intra-rater) veterinarians were analysed with κ statistics (Fleiss, Cohen). Inter-rater agreement κ was 0.31 (0.38/0.25 for experienced/less experienced) and higher for forelimb (0.33) than for hindlimb lameness (0.11) or soundness (0.08) evaluation. Median intra-rater agreement κ was 0.57. Inter-rater agreement was poor for less experienced raters, and for all raters when evaluating hindlimb lameness. Since identification of the lame limb/limbs is a prerequisite for successful diagnosis, treatment and recovery, the high inter-rater variation when evaluating lameness on the lunge is likely to influence the accuracy and repeatability of lameness examinations

  9. Rater agreement of visual lameness assessment in horses during lungeing

    PubMed Central

    Hammarberg, M.; Egenvall, A.; Pfau, T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Reasons for performing study Lungeing is an important part of lameness examinations as the circular path may accentuate low‐grade lameness. Movement asymmetries related to the circular path, to compensatory movements and to pain make the lameness evaluation complex. Scientific studies have shown high inter‐rater variation when assessing lameness during straight line movement. Objectives The aim was to estimate inter‐ and intra‐rater agreement of equine veterinarians evaluating lameness from videos of sound and lame horses during lungeing and to investigate the influence of veterinarians’ experience and the objective degree of movement asymmetry on rater agreement. Study design Cross‐sectional observational study. Methods Video recordings and quantitative gait analysis with inertial sensors were performed in 23 riding horses of various breeds. The horses were examined at trot on a straight line and during lungeing on soft or hard surfaces in both directions. One video sequence was recorded per condition and the horses were classified as forelimb lame, hindlimb lame or sound from objective straight line symmetry measurements. Equine veterinarians (n = 86), including 43 with >5 years of orthopaedic experience, participated in a web‐based survey and were asked to identify the lamest limb on 60 videos, including 10 repeats. The agreements between (inter‐rater) and within (intra‐rater) veterinarians were analysed with κ statistics (Fleiss, Cohen). Results Inter‐rater agreement κ was 0.31 (0.38/0.25 for experienced/less experienced) and higher for forelimb (0.33) than for hindlimb lameness (0.11) or soundness (0.08) evaluation. Median intra‐rater agreement κ was 0.57. Conclusions Inter‐rater agreement was poor for less experienced raters, and for all raters when evaluating hindlimb lameness. Since identification of the lame limb/limbs is a prerequisite for successful diagnosis, treatment and recovery, the high inter‐rater variation

  10. Genetic analysis of the Venezuelan Criollo horse.

    PubMed

    Cothran, E G; Canelon, J L; Luis, C; Conant, E; Juras, R

    2011-10-07

    Various horse populations in the Americas have an origin in Spain; they are remnants of the first livestock introduced to the continent early in the colonial period (16th and 17th centuries). We evaluated genetic variability within the Venezuelan Criollo horse and its relationship with other horse breeds. We observed high levels of genetic diversity within the Criollo breed. Significant population differentiation was observed between all South American breeds. The Venezuelan Criollo horse showed high levels of genetic diversity, and from a conservation standpoint, there is no immediate danger of losing variation unless there is a large drop in population size.

  11. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to influenza vaccination in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) horses.

    PubMed

    Elzinga, Sarah; Reedy, Stephanie; Barker, Virginia D; Chambers, Thomas M; Adams, Amanda A

    2018-05-01

    > 0.05) humoral immune responses as measured by HI titers or IgG antibody isotypes to influenza vaccination. There was an effect of metabolic status on CMI responses, with influenza vaccinated EMS horses having lower gene expression of IFN-γ (P = 0.02) and IL-2 (P = 0.01) compared to vaccinated non-EMS control horses. Given these results, it appears that while metabolic status does not influence humoral responses to an inactivated influenza vaccine in horses, horses with EMS appear to have a reduced CMI response to vaccination compared to metabolically normal, non-EMS control horses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Leisure riding horses: research topics versus the needs of stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela

    2017-07-01

    Horses intended for leisure riding do not undergo any selection and most often retired sports horses or defective horses are chosen, as a low selling price determines their purchase by a leisure riding center. Unfortunately, horses bought at low prices usually have low utility value, are difficult to handle, require a special or individual approach and do not provide satisfaction in riding. However, neither modern horse breeding nor scientific research address the need to breed horses for leisure activities. There is no clear definition of a model leisure horse and criteria or information for its selection are not readily available in scientific publications. A wide spectrum of research methods may be used to evaluate various performance traits in horses intended for leisure activities. The fact that the population of recreational horses and their riders outnumber sporting horses should attract the special attention of scientific research. Their utility traits need to be determined with modern technology and methods in the same way they are for sporting horses. Such a system of evaluation would be very helpful for riders. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. 76 FR 30864 - Horse Protection Act; Requiring Horse Industry Organizations To Assess and Enforce Minimum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... when walking, trotting, or otherwise moving. (The Act excludes therapeutic treatment by or under the... known as ``the big lick.'' Soring is primarily used in the training of Tennessee Walking Horses, racking... shipping, transporting, moving, delivering, or receiving of any horse which is sore with reason to believe...

  14. Using Psychological Constructs from the Music Model of Motivation to Predict Students' Science Identification and Career Goals: Results from the U.S. and Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Brett D.; Sahbaz, Sumeyra; Schram, Asta B.; Chittum, Jessica R.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated students' perceptions related to psychological constructs in their science classes and the influence of these perceptions on their science identification and science career goals. Participants included 575 middle school students from two countries (334 students in the U.S. and 241 students in Iceland). Students completed a…

  15. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses.

    PubMed

    Gaunitz, Charleen; Fages, Antoine; Hanghøj, Kristian; Albrechtsen, Anders; Khan, Naveed; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Owens, Ivy J; Felkel, Sabine; Bignon-Lau, Olivier; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Mittnik, Alissa; Mohaseb, Azadeh F; Davoudi, Hossein; Alquraishi, Saleh; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Crubézy, Eric; Benecke, Norbert; Olsen, Sandra; Brown, Dorcas; Anthony, David; Massy, Ken; Pitulko, Vladimir; Kasparov, Aleksei; Brem, Gottfried; Hofreiter, Michael; Mukhtarova, Gulmira; Baimukhanov, Nurbol; Lõugas, Lembi; Onar, Vedat; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Krause, Johannes; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Undrakhbold, Sainbileg; Erdenebaatar, Diimaajav; Lepetz, Sébastien; Mashkour, Marjan; Ludwig, Arne; Wallner, Barbara; Merz, Victor; Merz, Ilja; Zaibert, Viktor; Willerslev, Eske; Librado, Pablo; Outram, Alan K; Orlando, Ludovic

    2018-04-06

    The Eneolithic Botai culture of the Central Asian steppes provides the earliest archaeological evidence for horse husbandry, ~5500 years ago, but the exact nature of early horse domestication remains controversial. We generated 42 ancient-horse genomes, including 20 from Botai. Compared to 46 published ancient- and modern-horse genomes, our data indicate that Przewalski's horses are the feral descendants of horses herded at Botai and not truly wild horses. All domestic horses dated from ~4000 years ago to present only show ~2.7% of Botai-related ancestry. This indicates that a massive genomic turnover underpins the expansion of the horse stock that gave rise to modern domesticates, which coincides with large-scale human population expansions during the Early Bronze Age. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Cloud-Free View of Iceland

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-04-16

    This nearly cloud-free image of Iceland was captured by the MODIS instrument on board the Terra spacecraft on 04/15/2015 at 13:00 UTC. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Rochais, C; Henry, S; Fureix, C; Hausberger, M

    2016-03-01

    Some captive/domestic animals respond to confinement by becoming inactive and unresponsive to external stimuli. Human inactivity is one of the behavioural markers of clinical depression, a mental disorder diagnosed by the co-occurrence of symptoms including deficit in selective attention. Some riding horses display 'withdrawn' states of inactivity and low responsiveness to stimuli that resemble the reduced engagement with their environment of some depressed patients. We hypothesized that 'withdrawn' horses experience a depressive-like state and evaluated their level of attention by confronting them with auditory stimuli. Five novel auditory stimuli were broadcasted to 27 horses, including 12 'withdrawn' horses, for 5 days. The horses' reactions and durations of attention were recorded. Non-withdrawn horses reacted more and their attention lasted longer than that of withdrawn horses on the first day, but their durations of attention decreased over days, but those of withdrawn horses remained stable. These results suggest that the withdrawn horses' selective attention is altered, adding to already evidenced common features between this horses' state and human depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Final Environmental Assessment Horse Creek Bridge Replacement 78th Civil Engineer Group...Final Environmental Assessment Horse Creek Bridge Replacement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT (FONSI)/ FINDING OF NO PRACTICABLE ALTERNATIVE (FONP A) HORSE

  19. [The prevalence of sexual abuse and sexual assault against icelandic adolescents].

    PubMed

    Arnarsson, Arsaell Mar; Gisladottir, Kristin Heba; Jonsson, Stefan Hrafn

    2016-06-01

    Sexual abuse and sexual assaults against children and adolescents is one of the most significant threats to their health. The aim of the current study was to investigate its prevalence and effects on Icelandic teenagers in the 10th grade. The study is based on data collected for the Icelandic part of the HBSC-project (Health and behaviour of school- aged children). Standardized questionnaires were sent to all students in 10th grade in Iceland of which 3,618 participated. The students experience of sexual abuse or assaults was assessed by asking them how often they had been against their will a) touched in a sexual way, b) made to touch someone else in a sexual way, c) the subject of an attempted rape or d) subjected to rape. The results showed that 14.6% (527) participants had experienced sexual abuse or assault. Of these, 4.5% (162) had one such experience but 10.1% had either suffered certain type of abuse or assault more than once, or had experienced more than one kind. About 1% of participants (35) said that they had suffered many times from many forms of abuse and assaults. The prevalence of poor mental well-being and risk behaviour was much higher amongst those that had experienced sexual abuse or assault. Although the results show that the prevalence of sexual abuse and assault against Icelandic adolescents is similar to other Western countries, we find it to be higher than a previous study a decade ago. Sexual abuse, sexual assault, adolescents. Correspondence: Arsaell Mar Arnarsson, aarnarsson@unak.is.

  20. The influence of body mass and thoracic dimensions on arterial oxygenation in anaesthetized horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Mansel, Juliet C; Clutton, R Eddie

    2008-09-01

    To examine the relationship between body mass and thoracic dimensions on arterial oxygen tensions (PaO(2)) in anaesthetized horses and ponies positioned in dorsal recumbency. Prospective clinical study. Thirty six client-owned horses and ponies, mean [+/-SD (range)] age 8.1 +/- 4.8 (1.5-20) years and mean body mass 467 +/- 115 (203-656) kg. Before general anaesthesia, food and water were withheld for 12 and 1 hours respectively. Body mass (kg), height at the withers (H), thoracic circumference (C), thoracic depth (length between dorsal spinous process and sternum; D), thoracic width (between point of shoulders; W), and thoracic diagonal length (point of shoulder to last rib; L) were measured. Pre-anaesthetic medication was with intravenous (IV) romifidine (0.1 mg kg(-1)). Anaesthesia was induced with an IV ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1)) and diazepam (0.05 mg kg(-1)) combination and maintained with halothane in 1:1 oxygen:nitrous oxide (N(2)O) mixture. Animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency and allowed to breathe spontaneously. Nitrous oxide was discontinued after 10 minutes, and arterial blood samples obtained and analysed for gas tensions at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after connection to the anaesthetic breathing circuit. Data were analysed using anova and Pearson's correlation co-efficient. The height per unit body mass (H kg(-1)) and thoracic circumference per unit body mass (C kg(-1)) correlated strongly (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 and r = 0.82, p < 0.001 respectively) with arterial oxygen tensions (PaO(2)) at 15 minutes. There is a strong positive correlation between H kg(-1) and C kg(-1) and PaO(2) after 15 minutes of anaesthesia in halothane-anaesthetized horses positioned in dorsal recumbency. Readily obtained linear measurements (height and thoracic circumference) and body mass may be used to predict the ability of horses to oxygenate during anaesthesia.

  1. Postglacial eruptive history of the Western Volcanic Zone, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinton, John; GröNvold, Karl; SæMundsson, KristjáN.

    2005-12-01

    New field observations, age constraints, and extensive chemical analyses define the complete postglacial eruptive history of the 170-km-long Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) of Iceland, the ultraslow-spreading western boundary of the south Iceland microplate. We have identified 44 separate eruptive units, 10 of which are small-volume eruptions associated with the flanking Grímsnes system. Overall chemical variations are consistent with very simplified models of melting of a source approximating primitive mantle composition. The 17 eruptions in the first 3000 years of postglacial time account for about 64% of the total postglacial production and are incompatible-element depleted compared to younger units, consistent with enhanced melting as a consequence of rebound immediately following deglaciation. Steadily declining eruption rates for the last 9000 years also correlate with changes in average incompatible element ratios that appear to reflect continued decline in melting extents to the present day. This result is not restricted to the WVZ, however, and may herald a decline in melting throughout all of western Iceland during later postglacial time. Lavas from the northern part of the WVZ are depleted in incompatible elements relative to those farther south at all times, indicating either a long-wavelength gradient in mantle source composition or variations in the melting process along axis. We find no evidence in the postglacial volcanic record for current failure of the WVZ, despite evidence for continued propagation of the eastern margin of the microplate. The dominance of lava shields in the eruptive history of the WVZ contrasts with the higher number of fissure eruptions in other Icelandic volcanic zones. WVZ shields represent long-duration, low-effusion rate eruptions fed by recharge magma arising out of the mantle. Average effusion rate is the key variable distinguishing shield and fissure eruptions, both within the WVZ and between different volcanic zones. High

  2. Professional Learning outside the Classroom: Expedition Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Julie; Bull, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A bunch of intrepid teachers spent a week in Iceland in a quest to learn more about the country's challenging landscape, by engaging in a unique and inspiring professional development opportunity to learn about innovative ways to teach science and mathematics outside of a classroom setting. A 2008 Ofsted report highlighted the benefits of learning…

  3. Polish Complementary Schools in Iceland and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zielinska, Malgorzata; Kowzan, Piotr; Ragnarsdóttir, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the opening of labour markets has spurred a considerable number of Poles to emigrate e.g. to Iceland and England. Families with school age children have had the challenge of adapting to foreign environments and school systems. Polish complementary schools have played an important, albeit ambivalent, role in this process. Through focus…

  4. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G

    2015-01-01

    Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland's glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a 3 year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S), we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo-, and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae) support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers.

  5. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Stefanie; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Edwards, Arwyn; Benning, Liane G.

    2015-01-01

    Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland's glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a 3 year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S), we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo-, and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae) support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers. PMID:25941518

  6. Use of locking compression plates in ulnar fractures of 18 horses.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Carrie C; Levine, David G; Richardson, Dean W

    2017-02-01

    To describe the outcome, clinical findings, and complications associated with the use of the locking compression plate (LCP) for various types of ulnar fractures in horses. Retrospective case series. Client owned horses (n = 18). Medical records, radiographs, and follow-up for horses having an ulnar fracture repaired using at least 1 LCP were reviewed. Fifteen of 18 horses had fractures of the ulna only, and 3 horses had fractures of the ulna and proximal radius. All 18 horses were discharged from the hospital. Complications occurred in 5 horses; incisional infection (n = 4, 22%), implant-associated infection (n = 2, 11%), and colic (n = 1, 6%). Follow-up was available for all horses at a range of 13-120 months and 15 horses (83%) were sound for their intended purpose and 3 horses (17%) were euthanatized. One horse was euthanatized for complications associated with original injury and surgery. The LCP is a viable method of internal fixation for various types of ulnar fractures, with most horses in this series returning to soundness. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  7. Economic crisis and smoking behaviour: prospective cohort study in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Christopher Bruce; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland and smoking behaviour at the national and individual levels. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study based on a mail survey (Health and Wellbeing in Iceland) assessed in 2007 and 2009. Setting National mail survey. Participants Representative cohort (n=3755) of Icelandic adults. Main outcome measure Smoking status. Results A significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking was observed from 2007 (pre-economic collapse) to 2009 (postcollapse) in both males (17.4–14.8%; p 0.01) and females (20.0–17.5%; p 0.01) in the cohort (n=3755). At the individual level of analysis, male former smokers experiencing a reduction in income during the same period were less likely to relapse (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.85). Female smokers were less likely to quit over time compared to males (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93). Among male former smokers who experienced an increase in income between 2007 and 2009, we observed an elevated risk of smoking relapse (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.15 to 14.00). Conclusions The national prevalence of smoking in Iceland declined following the 2008 economic crisis. This could be due to the procyclical relationship between macro-economic conditions and smoking behaviour (ie, hard times lead to less smoking because of lower affordability), or it may simply reflect a continuation of trends already in place prior to the crisis. In individual-level analysis, we find that former smokers who experienced a decline in income were less likely to relapse; and conversely, an increase in income raises the risk. However, caution is warranted since these findings are based on small numbers. PMID:23048059

  8. Meteorological Situations Favouring the Development of Dust Plumes over Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, K.; Szodry, K.

    2017-12-01

    The knowledge on mineral dust emitted at high latitudes is limited, but its impact on the polar environments is divers. Within a warming climate, dust emitted from regions in cold climates is expected to increase due to the retreat of the ice sheet and increasing melting rates. Therefore, and for its extensive impacts on different aspects of the climate system, a better understanding of the atmospheric dust life-cycle at high latitudes/cold climates in general, and the spatio-temporal distribution of dust sources in particular, are essential. At high-latitudes, glacio-fluvial sediments as found on river flood plains e.g. supplied by glaciers are prone to wind erosion when dry and bare. In case of the occurrence of strong winds, sediments are blown out and dust plumes develop. As dust uplift is controlled by soil surface characteristics, the availability of suitable sediments, and atmospheric conditions, an interannual variability in dust source activity is expected. We investigated atmospheric circulation patterns that favour the development of dust plumes over Iceland, which presents a well-known dust source at high latitudes. Using the atmosphere model COSMO (COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling), we analysed the wind speed distribution over the Iceland region for identified and documented dust cases. As one outcome of the study, the position of the Icelandic low, the anticyclones located over Northern Europe, and the resulting pressure gradients are of particular relevance. The interaction of the synoptic-scale winds with the Icelandic orography may locally enhance the wind speeds and thus foster local dust emission. Results from this study suggest that the atmospheric circulation determined by the pressure pattern is of particular relevance for the formation of dust plumes entering the North Atlantic.

  9. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  10. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  11. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  12. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  13. 29 CFR 780.122 - Activities relating to race horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Activities relating to race horses. 780.122 Section 780.122... Activities relating to race horses. Employees engaged in the breeding, raising, and training of horses on... racetrack is not a farm. Where a farmer is engaged in both the raising and commercial racing of race horses...

  14. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Megan M.; Davis, Elizabeth G.; KuKanich, Butch

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was obtained at predetermined intervals for the determination of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 hours for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 hr*μg/mL for horses and 17.253 hr*μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 minutes of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. PMID:21492187

  15. Staggers in horses grazing paspalum infected with Claviceps paspali.

    PubMed

    Cawdell-Smith, A J; Scrivener, C J; Bryden, W L

    2010-10-01

    Invasion of the flowering heads of grasses by Claviceps spp. can produce sclerotia (ergots) containing several toxins. Ingestion of these toxins, through the consumption of paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum), can induce a range of clinical symptoms, including staggers. Cattle are the most commonly affected species, but although sheep and horses have been reported affected there are no published descriptions of paspalum staggers in horses. We describe two occurrences of paspalum staggers, the first in three Australian Stockhorse foals and the second in mature Standardbred horses. All three foals presented with ataxia in all limbs after consuming infected paspalum. One foal died from misadventure and the other two recovered within 1 week of removal from the infected paddock. In the second case, two of eight mares and geldings grazing in an irrigation channel developed hindquarter paresis. After removal of all horses from the area, one of the affected horses continued to deteriorate. Both horses were treated with antibiotics. The more severely affected horse was also treated with fluids and electrolytes, but had to be euthanased. The second affected horse recovered after 2 days. Paspalum pastures should inspected for Claviceps paspali infection before the introduction of horses. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2010 Australian Veterinary Association.

  16. Physiological and behavioral responses of horses during police training.

    PubMed

    Munsters, C C B M; Visser, E K; van den Broek, J; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2013-05-01

    Mounted police horses have to cope with challenging, unpredictable situations when on duty and it is essential to gain insight into how these horses handle stress to warrant their welfare. The aim of the study was to evaluate physiological and behavioral responses of 12 (six experienced and six inexperienced) police horses during police training. Horses were evaluated during four test settings at three time points over a 7-week period: outdoor track test, street track test, indoor arena test and smoke machine test. Heart rate (HR; beats/min), HR variability (HRV; root means square of successive differences; ms), behavior score (BS; scores 0 to 5) and standard police performance score (PPS; scores 1 to 0) were obtained per test. All data were statistically evaluated using a linear mixed model (Akaike's Information criterium; t > 2.00) or logistic regression (P < 0.05). HR of horses was increased at indoor arena test (98 ± 26) and smoke machine test (107 ± 25) compared with outdoor track (80 ± 12, t = 2.83 and t = 3.91, respectively) and street track tests (81 ± 14, t = 2.48 and t = 3.52, respectively). HRV of horses at the indoor arena test (42.4 ± 50.2) was significantly lower compared with street track test (85.7 ± 94.3 and t = 2.78). BS did not show significant differences between tests and HR of horses was not always correlated with the observed moderate behavioral responses. HR, HRV, PPS and BS did not differ between repetition of tests and there were no significant differences in any of the four tests between experienced and inexperienced horses. No habituation occurred during the test weeks, and experience as a police horse does not seem to be a key factor in how these horses handle stress. All horses showed only modest behavioral responses, and HR may provide complimentary information for individual evaluation and welfare assessment of these horses. Overall, little evidence of stress was observed during these police training tests. As three of these

  17. Combined keratectomy, strontium-90 irradiation and permanent bulbar conjunctival grafts for corneolimbal squamous cell carcinomas in horses (1990-2002): 38 horses.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C E; Smith, S; Andrew, S E; Lassaline, M E; Gelatt, K N; Brooks, D E; Kallberg, M E; Ollivier, F J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative beta-irradiation with strontium-90 as an adjunctive treatment to superficial keratectomy and permanent bulbar conjunctival graft for removal of equine corneolimbal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), in decreasing recurrence rate. The retrospective case study included 38 horses diagnosed and treated for SCC of the eye that involved the limbus and/or cornea. The patients were treated between 1990 and 2002, with strontium-90 irradiation immediately after corneal and conjunctival graft surgery. Recurrence was defined as the postoperative and postirradiation regrowth of SCC in the same site and globe that was previously treated. The Appaloosa was the most commonly represented breed and horses that had more than one base coat color represented the majority of the cases (53%). The coat colors of white, chestnut/sorrel and gray were the most commonly represented colors of the horses treated. Eight horses (21%) could not be assessed for tumor recurrence due to lack of two or more post-treatment examinations, and another horse was enucleated 6 days postoperatively due to progressive corneal ulceration. Twenty-four horses (63% of the entire study population; 83% of the followed cases) had a mean +/- SD of 1754 +/- 1319 days without tumor recurrence, ranging from 14 days to 5110 days. Five horses (13% of the entire study population; 17% of the assessed horses) had tumor recurrence at a mean +/- SD of 449 +/- 339 days with a range of 29 days to 900 days. For the five recurrences, treatment included local excision (n = 1), enucleation (n = 2), and additional strontium-90 therapy (n = 3). The combination of superficial keratectomy, beta-irradiation and permanent bulbar conjunctival grafts for limbal, corneal or corneolimbal SCC in horses is effective in at least 83% of the horses. Recurrence occurred in about 17% of the horses. Multiple biannual re-examinations are recommended to observe for tumor recurrence.

  18. Association of deficiency in antibody response to vaccine and heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii strains with Potomac horse fever vaccine failure in horses.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Vemulapalli, R; Biswas, B

    1998-02-01

    Ehrlichia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), which continues to be an important disease of horses. Commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccines are regularly used for immunization of horses against the disease. However, PHF is occurring in large numbers of horses in spite of vaccination. In a limited study, 43 confirmed cases of PHF occurred between the 1994 and 1996 seasons; of these, 38 (89%) were in horses that had been vaccinated for the respective season, thereby clearly indicating vaccine failure. A field study of horses vaccinated with two PHF vaccines indicated a poor antibody response, as determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) titers. In a majority of horses, the final antibody titer ranged between 40 and 1,280, in spite of repeated vaccinations. None of the vaccinated horses developed in vitro neutralizing antibody in their sera. Similarly, one horse experimentally vaccinated three times with one of the vaccines showed a poor antibody response, with final IFA titers between 80 and 160. The horse did not develop in vitro neutralizing antibody or antibody against the 50/85-kDa strain-specific antigen (SSA), which is the protective antigen of the original strain, 25-D, and the variant strain of our laboratory, strain 90-12. Upon challenge infection with the 90-12 strain, the horse showed clinical signs of the disease. The horse developed neutralizing antibody and antibody to the 50/85-kDa SSA following the infection. Studies of the new E. risticii isolates from the field cases indicated that they were heterogeneous among themselves and showed differences from the 25-D and 90-12 strains as determined by IFA reactivity pattern, DNA amplification finger printing profile, and in vitro neutralization activity. Most importantly, the molecular sizes of the SSA of these isolates varied, ranging from 48 to 85 kDa. These studies suggest that the deficiency in the antibody response to the PHF vaccines and the heterogeneity of E. risticii

  19. Association of Deficiency in Antibody Response to Vaccine and Heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii Strains with Potomac Horse Fever Vaccine Failure in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sukanta K.; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Biswas, Biswajit

    1998-01-01

    Ehrlichia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), which continues to be an important disease of horses. Commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccines are regularly used for immunization of horses against the disease. However, PHF is occurring in large numbers of horses in spite of vaccination. In a limited study, 43 confirmed cases of PHF occurred between the 1994 and 1996 seasons; of these, 38 (89%) were in horses that had been vaccinated for the respective season, thereby clearly indicating vaccine failure. A field study of horses vaccinated with two PHF vaccines indicated a poor antibody response, as determined by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) titers. In a majority of horses, the final antibody titer ranged between 40 and 1,280, in spite of repeated vaccinations. None of the vaccinated horses developed in vitro neutralizing antibody in their sera. Similarly, one horse experimentally vaccinated three times with one of the vaccines showed a poor antibody response, with final IFA titers between 80 and 160. The horse did not develop in vitro neutralizing antibody or antibody against the 50/85-kDa strain-specific antigen (SSA), which is the protective antigen of the original strain, 25-D, and the variant strain of our laboratory, strain 90-12. Upon challenge infection with the 90-12 strain, the horse showed clinical signs of the disease. The horse developed neutralizing antibody and antibody to the 50/85-kDa SSA following the infection. Studies of the new E. risticii isolates from the field cases indicated that they were heterogeneous among themselves and showed differences from the 25-D and 90-12 strains as determined by IFA reactivity pattern, DNA amplification finger printing profile, and in vitro neutralization activity. Most importantly, the molecular sizes of the SSA of these isolates varied, ranging from 48 to 85 kDa. These studies suggest that the deficiency in the antibody response to the PHF vaccines and the heterogeneity of E. risticii

  20. Seasonal abundance of horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) from two locations in eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Krcmar, Stjepan

    2005-12-01

    A total of 10,539 tabanid horse flies from 22 species and five genera was collected in the Tikves forest within the Kopacki rit Nature Park in eastern Croatia. Seasonal abundance was analyzed for the six most abundant species. Tabanus maculicornis, Tabanus tergestinus, and Haematopota pluvialis reached their highest peak abundance in the fourth week of June. Atylotus loewianus and Tabanus bromius reached their highest peak of abundance in the first week of August, whereas Tabanus sudeticus reached its maximum abundance in the third week of July. Horse flies also were collected once a week on the pasture at Petrijevci from mid-May to mid-September during 1993. Paired collections were made from a Malaise trap and from a horse by using a sweep net. A total of 2,867 tabanids belonging to 26 species was collected. The number of tabanids collected on horses was much higher than the total captured with Malaise traps. On their natural host (horse), 2.6 times more tabanids were collected than in the traps. Seasonal abundance was analyzed only for the eight most abundant species. Chrysops paralellogrammus, Tabanus autumnalis, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus tergestinus, Haematopota pluvialis, and Haematopota subcylindrica all reached their highest peak of abundance in the second week of July, whereas Tabanus maculicornis reached the maximal peak of abundance in the third week of June. Seasonal meteorological variability that occurs periodically from one year to another has a significant influence on the maximal peaks of tabanid abundance.

  1. Idiopathic gastroesophageal reflux disease in an adult horse.

    PubMed

    Baker, Shannon J; Johnson, Philip J; David, Andrew; Cook, Cristi Reeves

    2004-06-15

    Chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a 22-year-old female Tennessee Walking Horse that had signs of bruxism and ptyalism. Esophageal ulceration was detected via endoscopy. Compared with the damage to the proximal portions of the esophagus, the severity of the ulceration increased toward the gastroesophageal junction. Esophageal ulceration attributable to chronic gastric acid reflux is usually secondary to pyloric outflow obstruction in horses. In the horse of this report, there was no evidence of either a chronic pyloric or duodenal obstruction that could have resulted in esophageal ulceration. Esophageal ulceration in this horse was attributed to gastroesophageal reflux disease, a common condition in humans in which the underlying abnormality is functional incompetence of the gastroesophageal junction. Treatment is directed at decreasing gastric acidity and protecting the ulcerated mucosa. In the horse of this report, treatment was unsuccessful and the horse was euthanatized; a physical cause of gastroesophageal reflux disease was not identified during an extensive postmortem examination.

  2. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  3. Comparison of the social systems of primates and feral horses: data from a newly established horse research site on Serra D'Arga, northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ringhofer, Monamie; Inoue, Sota; Mendonça, Renata S; Pereira, Carlos; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Shinya

    2017-10-01

    Horses are phylogenetically distant from primates, but considerable behavioral links exist between the two. The sociality of horses, characterized by group stability, is similar to that of primates, but different from that of many other ungulates. Although horses and primates are good models for exploring the evolution of societies in human and non-human animals, fewer studies have been conducted on the social system of horses than primates. Here, we investigated the social system of feral horses, particularly the determinant factors of single-male/multi-male group dichotomy, in light of hypotheses derived from studies of primate societies. Socioecological data from 26 groups comprising 208 feral horses on Serra D'Arga, northern Portugal suggest that these primate-based hypotheses cannot adequately explain the social system of horses. In view of the sympatric existence of multi- and single-male groups, and the frequent intergroup transfers and promiscuous mating of females with males of different groups, male-female relationships of horses appear to differ from those of polygynous primates.

  4. The eruption in Holuhraun, NE Iceland 2014-2015: Real-time monitoring and influence of landscape on lava flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Thordarson, Thor; Bartolini, Stefania; Becerril, Laura; Marti Molist, Joan; Þorvaldsson, Skúli; Björnsson, Daði; Höskuldsson, Friðrik

    2016-04-01

    The largest eruption in Iceland since the Laki 1783-84 event began in Holuhraun, NE Iceland, on 31 August 2014, producing a lava flow field which, by the end of the eruption on February 27th 2015, covered 84,5 km2 with volume of 1,44 km3. Throughout the event, various satellite images (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS, SUOMI NPP VIIRS, ASTER, LANDSAT7&8, EO-1 ALI & HYPERION, RADARSAT-2, SENTINEL-1, COSMO SKYMED, TERRASAR X) were analysed to monitor the development of activity, identify active flow fronts and channels, and map the lava extent in close collaboration with the on-site field group. Aerial photographs and radar images from the Icelandic Coast Guard Dash 8 aircraft supported this effort. By the end of 2015, Loftmyndir ehf had produced a detailed 3D model of the lava using aerial photographs from 2013 and 2015. The importance of carrying out real-time monitoring of a volcanic eruption is: i) to locate sites of elevated temperature that may be registering new areas of activity within the lava or opening of vents or fissures. ii) To establish and verify timing of events at the vents and within the lava. iii) To identify potential volcanic hazard that can be caused by lava movements, eruption-induced flash flooding, tephra fallout or gas pollution. iv) to provide up-to-date regional information to field groups concerning safety as well as to locate sites for sampling lava, tephra and polluted water. v) to produce quantitative information on magma discharge and lava flow advance, map the lava extent, document the flow morphology and plume/tephra dispersal. During the eruption, these efforts supported mapping of the extent of the lava every 3-4 days on average underpinning the time series of magma discharge calculations. Digitial elevation models from before and after the event, combined with the real-time data series, supports detailed analysis of how landscape affects lava flow in a flat terrain (<0,4°), and provides important input to further developing lava flow models

  5. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla-SVR sequencing.

    PubMed

    Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.

  6. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  7. Contamination of the environment by strongylid (Nematoda: Strongylidae) infective larvae at horse farms of various types in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of the influence of horse-keeping conditions by contamination of the environment (pastures, paddocks, and stalls) by the strongylid infective larvae (L(3)) was carried out at various types of horse farms, hippodromes, and riding clubs in Ukraine. A total of 1,237 horses from three types of horse-keeping conditions were examined. Epidemiological studies of stall and grazing area (pasture and paddocks) contamination by L(3) were performed at hippodrome (stalled horse-keeping) and horse farms with stall/paddock-keeping and stall/pasture-keeping conditions. Grass and stall litter samples were examined by the Baermann procedure. It was found that horses of stall-keeping conditions had the lowest level of strongylid infection (prevalence 46.4-77.8%, average infection 25.6-92.9 eggs per gram of feces (EPG)) and lowest proportion of large strongyle L(3) in coprocultures (1.6-11.3%). Horses of stall/pasture-keeping conditions were the most infected (prevalence 95.1-100%, average infection 198.2-453.7 EPG), and the proportion of large strongyle L(3) was 17.3-24.7%. Strongyle L(3) were found in litter of all parts of individual stalls; areas at the stall center, "toilet", and entrance were the most contaminated. The highest L(3) number in stall litter was registered in summer. Contamination of permanent pasture grass by L(3) was notably lower than grass in paddocks (86.3-161.4 L(3)/kg compared with 305.9-409.1 L(3)/kg). The highest level of pasture grass contamination was observed in the middle of summer (July)--up 970.7 L(3)/kg. The results obtained confirmed importance of environmental contamination in epidemiology of horse strongylidosis at various types of horse-keeping conditions.

  8. Antibody response to Ehrlichia risticii and antibody reactivity to the component antigens in horses with induced Potomac horse fever.

    PubMed

    Dutta, S K; Mattingly, B L; Shankarappa, B

    1989-10-01

    The antibody response and the antibody reactivity to component antigens of Ehrlichia risticii were studied in horses with induced Potomac horse fever. These horses had no detectable antibodies to E. risticii in their preinoculation (PrI) sera by indirect fluorescent-antibody assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All the horses exhibited typical disease features following experimental infection and responded with specific antibodies, as measured by ELISA and indirect fluorescent-antibody assay. A primary antibody response was detected in 70% of the horses, while a secondary-type antibody response was detected in 30% of the horses by ELISA. In the primary antibody response, a distinct titer was observed at 2 weeks postinoculation (PI), when the immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG ratio was 2 to 5, and the overall antibody titer peaked at 6 to 8 weeks PI. The secondary-type antibody response exhibited a characteristic titer at 1 week PI, the IgM and IgG titers were about equal at 2 weeks PI, and the overall antibody titer peaked at 6 weeks PI. A transient depression in the IgG response at 4 weeks PI was observed in both response types. The antibody was maintained at a high titer for over a year in all horses. Western immunoblot reactivity showed that the antisera collected from these infected horses at 4 to 5 weeks PI recognized some or all of the six major E. risticii component antigens (70, 55, 51, 44, 33, and 28 kilodaltons), all of which were apparent surface components. The 6- to 8-week PI antisera recognized up to 16 component antigens, including 9 major antigens (110, 86, 70, 55, 51, 49, 44, 33, and 28 kilodaltons). However, the PrI sera of these horses showed reactivity at various intensities with one to seven of the component antigens. There was no apparent correlation between this reactivity pattern and the subsequent antibody response types.

  9. The temperature of the Icelandic mantle from olivine-spinel aluminum exchange thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; Shorttle, O.; Maclennan, J.

    2016-11-01

    New crystallization temperatures for four eruptions from the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland are determined using olivine-spinel aluminum exchange thermometry. Differences in the olivine crystallization temperatures between these eruptions are consistent with variable extents of cooling during fractional crystallization. However, the crystallization temperatures for Iceland are systematically offset to higher temperatures than equivalent olivine-spinel aluminum exchange crystallization temperatures published for MORB, an effect that cannot be explained by fractional crystallization. The highest observed crystallization temperature in Iceland is 1399 ± 20°C. In order to convert crystallization temperatures to mantle potential temperature, we developed a model of multilithology mantle melting that tracks the thermal evolution of the mantle during isentropic decompression melting. With this model, we explore the controls on the temperature at which primary melts begin to crystallize, as a function of source composition and the depth from which the magmas are derived. Large differences (200°C) in crystallization temperature can be generated by variations in mantle lithology, a magma's inferred depth of origin, and its thermal history. Combining this model with independent constraints on the magma volume flux and the effect of lithological heterogeneity on melt production, restricted regions of potential temperature-lithology space can be identified as consistent with the observed crystallization temperatures. Mantle potential temperature is constrained to be 1480-30+37 °C for Iceland and 1318-32+44 °C for MORB.

  10. Holland in Iceland revisited: an emic approach to evaluating U.S. vocational interest models.

    PubMed

    Einarsdóttir, Sif; Rounds, James; Su, Rong

    2010-07-01

    An emic approach was used to test the structural validity and applicability of Holland's (1997) RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) model in Iceland. Archival data from the development of the Icelandic Interest Inventory (Einarsdóttir & Rounds, 2007) were used in the present investigation. The data included an indigenous pool of occupations and work-task items representing Iceland's world of work that had been administered to a sample of 597 upper secondary school students. Multidimensional scaling analysis and property vector fitting using Prediger's (1981) work-task dimensions were applied to the item responses to test if the RIASEC model could be identified. The results indicated that a 4-dimensional solution better explains the interest space in Iceland than Holland's 2-dimensional RIASEC representation. The work-task dimension of People-Things and the Sex-Type and Prestige dimensions were located in the 1st and 2nd dimensions of the multidimensional scaling solution, but Data-Ideas, a dimension critical to the RIASEC model, was not. The 3rd and 4th dimensions did not correspond to any dimensions previously detected in structural studies in the United States and seem to be related to specific ecological, cultural, and political forces in Iceland. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting representative indigenous occupations and work tasks when evaluating the RIASEC model. The present study is an example of the next step in a comprehensive cross-cultural research program on vocational interests, an emic investigation. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Integrating volcanic gas monitoring with other geophysical networks in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Melissa A.

    2017-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office/Icelandic Volcano Observatory is rapidly developing and improving the use of gas measurements as a tool for pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring within Iceland. Observations of deformation, seismicity, hydrological properties, and gas emissions, united within an integrated approach, can provide improved understanding of subsurface magma movements. This is critical to evaluate signals prior to and during volcanic eruptions, issue timely eruption warnings, forecast eruption behavior, and assess volcanic hazards. Gas measurements in Iceland need to be processed to account for the high degree of gas composition alteration due to interaction with external water and rocks. Deeply-sourced magmatic gases undergo reactions and modifications as they move to the surface that exercise a strong control on the composition of surface emissions. These modifications are particularly strong at ice-capped volcanoes where most surface gases are dissolved in glacial meltwater. Models are used to project backwards from surface gas measurements to what the magmatic gas composition was prior to upward migration. After the pristine magma gas composition has been determined, it is used together with fluid compositions measured in mineral hosted melt inclusions to calculate magmatic properties to understand magma storage and migration and to discern if there have been changes in the volcanic system. The properties derived from surface gas measurements can be used as input to models interpreting deformation and seismic observations, and can be used as an additional, independent observation when interpreting hydrological and seismic changes. An integrated approach aids with determining whether observed hydro/geological changes can be due to the presence of shallow magma. Constraints on parameters such as magma gas content, viscosity and compressibility can be provided by the approach described above, which can be utilized syn-eruptively to help explain

  12. Horse-Mounted Troops in Low Intensity Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    agency. HORSE -MOUNTED TROOPS IN LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT BY Lieutenant Colonel Peter W. J. Onoszko, IN Senior Service College Fellow Tufts University...COMPLETING FORM i. REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Horse ...Mounted Troops in Low Intensity Conflict Individual Study Project An argument for the development of a horse -mounted_ capability within United States

  13. A demographic survey of unwanted horses in Ireland 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Irish Horse Industry expanded during the Celtic Tiger boom years, then contracted in the current economic recession. High value horses were traditionally controlled through sale at public auction, private sales and sales to dealers; these are now also being reduced by decreases in production (> 40%), and increases in retirement, re-homing, euthanasia and disposal through Category 2 plants and abattoirs. The absence or banning of horse abattoirs has been shown to have very significant welfare social and economic consequences in the USA. This study described the currently available data on the demographics of unwanted horses in Ireland from 2005 to 2010. Results The majority of horses euthanised by practicing veterinarians are destroyed on medical grounds but the number euthanised at the request of welfare groups and the state, as well as welfare related calls and the number of horses involved in these calls and subsequent visits is increasing reflecting the increasing involvement of the veterinary profession in equine welfare. Welfare groups have limited resources and do not have a tradition of recording data, but they too have reported increasing calls, visits and numbers of horses per visit. Welfare groups provide significant service to equine welfare and the community. Local Authorities report similar trends. Over 300 horses were found dead or required immediate or subsequent euthanasia following welfare group and local authority visits in 2010, which is of national concern. The majority of local authority interfaces with unwanted horses are with urban (60%) rather than rural (40%) horses. Mortality figures are poor indicators of non-fatal neglect. More horses were admitted into the care of local authorities than welfare groups, reflecting significant state and taxpayer investment in the control of low value horses. Category 2 plants and abattoirs represent a significant state investment in licensing and control in the national interest. Abattoirs

  14. Formation and Cultural Use of Wetland Areas in Vatnsfjörður, Northwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Rebecca; Simpson, Ian; Tisdall, Eileen

    2013-04-01

    Because of their development in-situ over extended time periods, Histosols are an important record of the intimate relationship between societal and environmental change. In this paper we offer new insights into land management adaptations as Norse settlers arrived and colonised the previously pristine landscapes of Iceland. Our Histosol record from Vatnsfjörður, NW Iceland is chronologically constrained through a combination of tephrochronology and radiocarbon measurement, and is associated with a tenth century long house and subsequent settlement into the medieval period as the locality emerged as one of the richest by the late Icelandic middle ages. Integration of field survey, thin section micromorphology and pollen analyses of histosols together with documentary records indicates the first evidence of artificially created wet meadows in Iceland, developed to give sustained fodder production for over-wintering livestock in an environment that inherently had a short growing season and lacked soil fertility. The findings have wider implications for understanding the emergence of resilient and sustainable communities in agriculturally marginal environments.

  15. Tail docking in horses: a review of the issues.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, D; Lips, D; Odberg, F O; Giffroy, J M

    2007-09-01

    Routinely performed painful procedures are of increasing interest and, in 2001 (Royal Order, May 17), Belgium prohibited docking in several vertebrates including horses. In 2004, opponents to this decision submitted a Bill (Doc51 0969/001) to Parliament, intending to obtain derogation for Belgian draught horses, which were traditionally docked. The Animal Welfare Council of Belgium, an official body advising the Minister of Public Health, was asked to evaluate this complex question, including biological, ethical and socio-economic aspects, on the basis of the available peer-reviewed studies. In this context, this study reviews legal aspects (overview of the European legislation), zootechnic aspects (uses of the Belgian draught horse) and biological aspects (pain potentially related to docking; horses' welfare linked to insect harassment and hygiene, communication and reproduction) of tail docking in draught horses. We conclude that (1) there is no benefit for horses in tail docking, including Belgian draught horses, (2) potential advantages of docking are essentially in favour of humans and these advantages could be scrupulously re-evaluated, taking into account practices of other countries. Therefore, there is no need to dock any horse other than for veterinary reasons.

  16. Seismic unrest at Katla Volcano- southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jeddi, zeinab; Tryggvason, Ari; Gudmundsson, Olafur; Bödvarsson, Reynir; SIL Seismology Group

    2014-05-01

    Katla volcano is located on the propagating Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ) in South Iceland. It is located beneath Mýrdalsjökull ice-cap which covers an area of almost 600 km2, comprising the summit caldera and the eruption vents. 20 eruptions between 930 and 1918 with intervals of 13-95 years are documented at Katla which is one of the most active subglacial volcanoes in Iceland. Eruptions at Katla are mainly explosive due to the subglacial mode of extrusion and produce high eruption columns and catastrophic melt water floods (jökulhlaups). The present long Volcanic repose (almost 96 years) at Katla, the general unrest since 1955, and the 2010 eruption of the neighbouring Eyjafjallajökull volcano has prompted concerns among geoscientists about an imminent eruption. Thus, the volcano has been densely monitored by seismologists and volcanologists. The seismology group of Uppsala University as a partner in the Volcano Anatomy (VA) project in collaboration with the University of Iceland and the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) installed 9 temporary seismic stations on and around the Mýrdalsjökull glacier in 2011. Another 10 permanent seismic stations are operated by IMO around Katla. The project's data collection is now finished and temporary stations were pulled down in August 2013. According to seismicity maps of the whole recording period, thousands of microearthquakes have occurred within the caldera region. At least three different source areas are active in Katla: the caldera region, the western Godaland region and a small cluster at the southern rim of Mýrdalsjökull near the glacial stream of Hafursarjökull. Seismicity in the southern flank has basically started after June 2011. The caldera events are mainly volcano-tectonic, while western and southern events are mostly long period (lp) and can be related to glacial or magmatic movement. One motivation of the VA Katla project is to better understand the physical mechanism of these lp events. Changes

  17. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Immunopathology of pineal glands from horses with uveitis.

    PubMed

    Kalsow, C M; Dubielzig, R R; Dwyer, A E

    1999-06-01

    Pinealitis accompanying uveitis is well established in laboratory models of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. In naturally occurring uveitis, pinealitis has been demonstrated in the pineal gland from a mare with active uveitis and is suspected in some human uveitides. We have evaluated pineal glands from horses with various stages of uveitis for signs of immunopathology accompanying spontaneous uveitis. Pineal glands from 10 horses with uveitis and from 13 horses without uveitis were evaluated for histochemical (H&E, collagen) and immunohistochemical (MHC class II antigen expression, infiltration of T and B lymphocytes, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin upregulation) evidence of inflammation. Septal areas of pineal glands from horses with uveitis had clusters of MHC class II antigen-expressing cells, T lymphocytes, and enhanced collagen deposition. These changes were not as readily observed in pineal glands from horses without uveitis. B lymphocytes were detected only in the pineal gland from the one mare with active uveitis in which T and B lymphocytes were organized into follicles. No differences in GFAP or vimentin immunoreactivity were noted in pineal glands from horses with or without uveitis. These pineal gland changes suggest that the pinealitis associated with equine uveitis is transient just as the uveitis of these horses is recurrent. Study of pineal glands from horses with clinically documented uveitis allows demonstration of subtle pineal changes associated with natural uveitis. Similar changes would be difficult to document in human patient populations.

  19. Solar radiation in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur; Cataldi, Maxime; Zehouf, Hafsa; Pálmason, Bolli

    2014-05-01

    Short wave radiation has been observed at several locations in Iceland in recent years. The observations reveal that there is large spatial variability in the incoming radiation. There are indications of a coast-to-inland gradient and there is much greater radiation at central-inland locations than further west as well in the far east. The results are in line with Markús Á. Einarsson's reports where estimation of radiation was based on manned cloud observations shortly after the middle of the 20th century. Values of radiation retrieved from the operational simulations of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) compare in general well with the observations.

  20. Characterization of equine vitamin D-binding protein, development of an assay, and assessment of plasma concentrations of the protein in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Tina H; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Dorthe T; Højrup, Peter; Grosche, Astrid; Freeman, David E; Andersen, Pia H; Houen, Gunnar

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To purify and characterize equine vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) from equine serum and to evaluate plasma concentrations of VDBP in healthy horses and horses with gastrointestinal injury or disease. ANIMALS 13 healthy laboratory animals (8 mice and 5 rabbits), 61 healthy horses, 12 horses with experimentally induced intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), and 59 horses with acute gastrointestinal diseases. PROCEDURES VDBP was purified from serum of 2 healthy horses, and recombinant equine VDBP was obtained through a commercial service. Equine VDBP was characterized by mass spectrometry. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were raised against equine VDBP, and a rocket immunoelectrophoresis assay for equine VDBP was established. Plasma samples from 61 healthy horses were used to establish working VDBP reference values for study purposes. Plasma VDBP concentrations were assessed at predetermined time points in horses with IR and in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases. RESULTS The working reference range for plasma VDBP concentration in healthy horses was 531 to 1,382 mg/L. Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased after 1 hour of ischemia in horses with IR, compared with values prior to induction of ischemia, and were significantly lower in horses with naturally occurring gastrointestinal diseases with a colic duration of < 12 hours than in healthy horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma VDBP concentrations were significantly decreased in horses with acute gastrointestinal injury or disease. Further studies and the development of a clinically relevant assay are needed to establish the reliability of VDBP as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in horses.

  1. Horse Chestnut

    MedlinePlus

    ... chestnut Latin Name: Aesculus hippocastanum Background Horse chestnut trees are native to the Balkan Peninsula (which includes ... and swelling after surgery. Preparations made from the tree’s bark are applied to skin sores. Usable parts ...

  2. Corneal cross-linking in 9 horses with ulcerative keratitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Corneal ulcers are one of the most common eye problems in the horse and can cause varying degrees of visual impairment. Secondary infection and protease activity causing melting of the corneal stroma are always concerns in patients with corneal ulcers. Corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL), induced by illumination of the corneal stroma with ultraviolet light (UVA) after instillation of riboflavin (vitamin B2) eye drops, introduces crosslinks which stabilize melting corneas, and has been used to successfully treat infectious ulcerative keratitis in human patients. Therefore we decided to study if CXL can be performed in sedated, standing horses with ulcerative keratitis with or without stromal melting. Results Nine horses, aged 1 month to 16 years (median 5 years) were treated with a combination of CXL and medical therapy. Two horses were diagnosed with mycotic, 5 with bacterial and 2 with aseptic ulcerative keratitis. A modified Dresden-protocol for CXL could readily be performed in all 9 horses after sedation. Stromal melting, diagnosed in 4 horses, stopped within 24 h. Eight of nine eyes became fluorescein negative in 13.5 days (median time; range 4–26 days) days after CXL. One horse developed a bacterial conjunctivitis the day after CXL, which was successfully treated with topical antibiotics. One horse with fungal ulcerative keratitis and severe uveitis was enucleated 4 days after treatment due to panophthalmitis. Conclusions CXL can be performed in standing, sedated horses. We did not observe any deleterious effects attributed to riboflavin or UVA irradiation per se during the follow-up, neither in horses with infectious nor aseptic ulcerative keratitis. These data support that CXL can be performed in the standing horse, but further studies are required to compare CXL to conventional medical treatment in equine keratitis and to optimize the CXL protocol in this species. PMID:23803176

  3. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lungeing on hard and soft surfaces: Movement symmetry of trotting horses considered sound by their owners.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Jennings, C; Mitchell, H; Olsen, E; Walker, A; Egenvall, A; Tröster, S; Weller, R; Rhodin, M

    2016-01-01

    Lungeing is often part of the clinical lameness examination. The difference in movement symmetry, which is a commonly employed lameness measure, has not been quantified between surfaces. To compare head and pelvic movement symmetry between surfaces and reins during lungeing. Quantitative gait analysis in 23 horses considered sound by their owners. Twenty-three horses were assessed in-hand and on the lunge on both reins on hard and soft surfaces with inertial sensors. Seven movement symmetry parameters were quantified and used to establish 2 groups, namely symmetrical (n = 9) and forelimb-lame horses (n = 14), based on values from straight-line assessment. Movement symmetry values for left rein measurements were side corrected to allow comparison of the amount of movement symmetry between reins. A mixed model (P<0.05) was used to study effects on movement symmetry of surface (hard/soft) and rein (inside/outside with respect to movement symmetry on the straight). In forelimb-lame horses, surface and rein were identified as significantly affecting all head movement symmetry measures (rein, all P<0.0001; surface, all P<0.042). In the symmetrical group, no significant influence of surface or rein was identified for head movement symmetry (rein, all P>0.245; surface, all P>0.073). No significant influence of surface or rein was identified for any of the pelvic movement symmetry measures in either group. While more symmetrical horses showed a consistent amount of movement symmetry across surfaces/reins, horses objectively quantified as lame on the straight showed decreased movement symmetry during lungeing, in particular with the lame limb on the inside of a hard circle. The variation within group questions straight-line movement symmetry as a sole measure of lameness without quantification of movement symmetry on the lunge, ideally on hard and soft surfaces to evaluate differences between reins and surfaces. In future, thresholds for lungeing need to be determined using

  5. Training methods for horses: habituation to a frightening stimulus.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J W; Rundgren, M; Olsson, K

    2006-09-01

    Responses of horses in frightening situations are important for both equine and human safety. Considerable scientific interest has been shown in development of reactivity tests, but little effort has been dedicated to the development of appropriate training methods for reducing fearfulness. To investigate which of 3 different training methods (habituation, desensitisation and counter-conditioning) was most effective in teaching horses to react calmly in a potentially frightening situation. 1) Horses are able to generalise about the test stimulus such that, once familiar with the test stimulus in one situation, it appears less frightening and elicits a reduced response even when the stimulus intensity is increased or the stimulus is presented differently; and 2) alternative methods such as desensitisation and counter-conditioning would be more efficient than a classic habituation approach. Twenty-seven naive 2-year-old Danish Warmblood stallions were trained according to 3 different methods, based on classical learning theory: 1) horses (n = 9) were exposed to the full stimulus (a moving, white nylon bag, 1.2 x 0.75 m) in 5 daily training sessions until they met a predefined habituation criterion (habituation); 2) horses (n = 9) were introduced gradually to the stimulus and habituated to each step before the full stimulus was applied (desensitisation); 3) horses (n = 9) were trained to associate the stimulus with a positive reward before being exposed to the full stimulus (counter-conditioning). Each horse received 5 training sessions of 3 min per day. Heart rate and behavioural responses were recorded. Horses trained with the desensitisation method showed fewer flight responses in total and needed fewer training sessions to learn to react calmly to test stimuli. Variations in heart rate persisted even when behavioural responses had ceased. In addition, all horses on the desensitisation method eventually habituated to the test stimulus whereas some horses on the

  6. Identification of copy number variants in horses.

    PubMed

    Doan, Ryan; Cohen, Noah; Harrington, Jessica; Veazey, Kylee; Veazy, Kylee; Juras, Rytis; Cothran, Gus; McCue, Molly E; Skow, Loren; Dindot, Scott V

    2012-05-01

    Copy number variants (CNVs) represent a substantial source of genetic variation in mammals. However, the occurrence of CNVs in horses and their subsequent impact on phenotypic variation is unknown. We performed a study to identify CNVs in 16 horses representing 15 distinct breeds (Equus caballus) and an individual gray donkey (Equus asinus) using a whole-exome tiling array and the array comparative genomic hybridization methodology. We identified 2368 CNVs ranging in size from 197 bp to 3.5 Mb. Merging identical CNVs from each animal yielded 775 CNV regions (CNVRs), involving 1707 protein- and RNA-coding genes. The number of CNVs per animal ranged from 55 to 347, with median and mean sizes of CNVs of 5.3 kb and 99.4 kb, respectively. Approximately 6% of the genes investigated were affected by a CNV. Biological process enrichment analysis indicated CNVs primarily affected genes involved in sensory perception, signal transduction, and metabolism. CNVs also were identified in genes regulating blood group antigens, coat color, fecundity, lactation, keratin formation, neuronal homeostasis, and height in other species. Collectively, these data are the first report of copy number variation in horses and suggest that CNVs are common in the horse genome and may modulate biological processes underlying different traits observed among horses and horse breeds.

  7. The impact of economic factors on migration considerations among Icelandic specialist doctors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Solberg, Ingunn Bjarnadóttir; Tómasson, Kristinn; Aasland, Olaf; Tyssen, Reidar

    2013-12-18

    Globalization has facilitated the employability of doctors almost anywhere in the world. In recent years, the migration of doctors seems to have increased. However, we lack studies on doctors' migration from developed countries. Because the economic recession experienced by many countries might have affected the migration of doctors, research on this topic is important for the retention of doctors. Iceland was hit hard by the economic recession in 2008. Therefore, we want to explore how many specialist doctors in Iceland have considered migrating and whether economic factors at work and in private life, such as extensive cost-containment initiatives at work and worries about personal finances, are related to doctors' migration considerations. In 2010, all doctors in Iceland registered with the Icelandic Medical Association were sent an electronic cross-sectional survey by email. The 467 specialists who participated in this study represent 55% of all specialist doctors working in Iceland. Information on doctors' contemplation of migration was available from responses to the question: "Have you considered moving and working abroad?" The predictor variables in our logistic regression model are perceived cost-containment initiatives at work, stress related to personal finances, experience of working abroad during vacations, job dissatisfaction, job position, age, and gender. Sixty-three per cent of Iceland's specialist doctors had considered relocation abroad, 4% were moving in the next year or two, and 33% had not considered relocating. Logistic regression analysis shows that, controlling for age, gender, job position, job satisfaction, and experience of working abroad during vacations, doctors' migration considerations were significantly affected by their experiences of cost-containment initiatives at work (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, p < 0.01) and being stressed about personal finances (OR = 1.6, p < 0.001). Age, job satisfaction, and working abroad

  8. Neutrophil and macrophage apoptosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases including tumors, neurodegenerative and autoimmine diseases, as well as allergic asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in humans. Although it has a different pathophysiology, delayed apoptosis of various inflammatory cells may play a pivotal role in the development of recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Reduction of inflammatory cell apoptosis or a dysregulation of this process could lead to chronic inflammation and tissue injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the rate of apoptosis and necrosis of neutrophils and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from seven horses suffering from RAO (study group) and seven control horses. Results We demonstrated that neutrophil/macrophage apoptosis is altered in RAO-affected horses compared with the control group in the BAL fluid. We found a significant difference between the median percentage of early and late apoptosis of neutrophils between the study and control group of horses. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the rate of apoptosis and the median percentage of macrophages in RAO-affected horses. Conclusion The findings suggest that apoptosis dysregulation may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of RAO. However, further studies are needed to clarify the role of altered apoptosis in the course of equine recurrent airway obstruction. PMID:24460911

  9. [Comparative study of three feeding methods for draught horses of the Swiss army].

    PubMed

    Riond, J L; Leoni, S; Wanner, M

    2000-10-01

    Three feeding methods were compared in 36 4- to 6-year-old Franche-Montagne horses during the military school of St-Luzisteig (GR) of Spring 1992. The horses were separated into 3 groups: a group with the traditional oats-hay ration (OH), a group with a pelleted feed and hay ration (PFH), and a group with the complete diet (CD). Feed analyses were performed and food consumption, eating behavior and digestibility were studied. The horses received their daily amount of feed in 3 portions covering the requirements for a medium work: OH = 8 kg hay and 3 kg oats, PFH = 8 kg hay and 3 kg pelleted feed and CD = 10 kg of the complete diet. For the 3 rations, the amount of digestible crude protein for horses was higher than the reference value for the requirement of a 600 kg horse with a medium work. In the 3 diets, the calcium content was higher than the required 32 g per day (g/d). Not enough sodium (OH: 1.2 g/d; PFH: 7.3 g/d; CD: 9.6 g/d) and too much potassium (OH: 140.3 g/d; PFH 153.0 g/d; CD: 167.5 g/d) were present in the diets, both without consequences for the blood parameters. In 3 meals of 60 minutes, the horses of the group OH, PFH and CD ingested 82%, 89% and 92%, respectively, of the daily ration. The complete diet was ingested more quickly than the hay. The number of mastications per minute was smaller for the complete diet than for the hay. Ingestion times were similar for oats and pelleted feed. However, the number of mastications per minute was smaller for the pelleted feed. The digestibility of nutrients was not influenced by the method of feeding. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the 3 types of ration studied here are adequate for the swiss army horses if sodium is added to the diet. However, despite the fact that both PFH and CD correct excessive supply or deficiencies of nutrients and despite the fact that these two feeding methods offer nutrients in amounts that are closer to the requirements of the horse, the method PFH was introduced in

  10. [Views of Icelandic women towards genetic counseling - and testing of BRCA2 mutations].

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Thordis; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Lund, Sigrun Helga; Thordardottir, Marianna; Magnusson, Magnus Karl; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of Icelandic women towards existing genetic information, genetic counseling and genetic testing for BRCA mutations which dramatically increase risk for aggressive cancers. Materials and methods Women attending the cancer prevention clinic in Reykjavik, capital of Iceland, from October 12th until November 20th 2015 received an invitation to participate. Participation involved answering a short online questionnaire about background, family history of cancer as well as attitudes towards genetic counseling, BRCA testing and preventive use of such information. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were used to describe differences in attitudes towards those questions between subgroups of women. Results 1129 women (69% response rate) answered the questionnaire. Mean age was 47 years (span 21-76 years). Around half (47%) had heard fairly much about the mutations. Independent of family history of cancer, the majority of women were positive towards receiving genetic counseling (79%) and to undergo genetic testing (83%) for BRCA mutation with younger women being more interested than older women. On the other hand, only 4% of the women had already received genetic counseling and 7% undergone genetic testing. Women with family history of cancer were more knowledgeable about BRCA mutations (p<0.0001) and were less afraid of the consequence of being a mutation carrier (p<0.0001) compared to those with little or no family history. Regardless of family history, half (49%) worried that results from genetic testing could influence their health insurance. Almost all, or 97% of the women, were positive or very positive toward using existing genetic information obtained through scientific work, to inform affected indi-viduals of their mutation status. Conclusion Icelandic women are positive towards genetic counseling and testing for BRCA mutations although half of them worry that a positive result might affect their

  11. The triggering factors of the Móafellshyrna debris slide in northern Iceland: intense precipitation, earthquake activity and thawing of mountain permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Morino, Costanza; Kristinn Helgason, Jón; Conway, Susan J.; Pétursson, Halldór G.

    2017-04-01

    On the 20th of September in 2012, a large debris slide occurred in the Móafellshyrna Mountain in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, central north Iceland. Three factors are likely to have contributed to the failure of the slope: intense precipitation, earthquake activity and thawing of ground ice. The weather conditions prior the slide were somewhat unusual, with a warm and dry summer. From the 20th of August to the 20th of September, about 440 mm of precipitation fell in the area, where the mean annual precipitation at the nearest station is around 670 mm. The slide initiated after this thirty day period of intense precipitation, followed by a seismic sequence in the Eyjafjarðaráll graben, located about 60 km NNE of Móafellshyrna Mountain, a sequence that started on the 19th of September. The slide originated at elevation of 870 m a.s.l. on the NW-slope of the mountain. The total volume of the debris slide is estimated around 500,000 m3 and that its primary cause was intense precipitation. We cannot exclude the influence of the seismic sequence as a secondary contributing factor. The presence of ice-cemented blocks of talus immediately after the debris slide shows that thawing of ground ice could also have played an important role as a triggering factor. Ice-cemented blocks of talus have been observed in the deposits of two other recent landslides in northern Iceland, in the Torfufell Mountain and the Árnesfjall Mountain. The source areas for both the Móafellshyrna and the Torfufell slides are within the lower elevation limit of mountain permafrost in northern Iceland but the source area of the Árnesfjall slide is at much lower elevation, around 350 m a.s.l. The fact that there are now three documented landslides which are linked to ground ice-melting suggests that discontinuous permafrost is degrading in Iceland, consistent with the decadal trend of increasing atmospheric temperature in Iceland due to climate change. This study highlights that ground ice thaw

  12. Differences in extracellular matrix proteins between Friesian horses with aortic rupture, unaffected Friesians and Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Ploeg, M; Gröne, A; van de Lest, C H A; Saey, V; Duchateau, L; Wolsein, P; Chiers, K; Ducatelle, R; van Weeren, P R; de Bruijn, M; Delesalle, C

    2017-09-01

    Unlike in Warmblood horses, aortic rupture is quite common in Friesian horses, in which a hereditary trait is suspected. The aortic connective tissue in affected Friesians shows histological changes such as medial necrosis, elastic fibre fragmentation, mucoid material accumulation and fibrosis with aberrant collagen morphology. However, ultrastructural examination of the collagen fibres of the mid-thoracic aorta has been inconclusive in further elucidating the pathogenesis of the disease. To assess several extracellular matrix (ECM) components biochemically in order to explore a possible underlying breed-related systemic ECM defect in Friesians with aortic rupture. Cadaver study. Tissues from affected Friesians (n = 18), unaffected Friesians (n = 10) and Warmblood horses (n = 30) were compared. Samples were taken from the thoracic aorta at the level of the rupture site, from two locations caudal to the rupture and from the deep digital flexor tendon. Total collagen content, post-translational modifications of collagen formation including lysine hydroxylation, and hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), lysylpyridinoline (LP) and pyrrole cross-links were analysed. Additionally, elastin cross-links, glycosaminoglycan content and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were assessed. Significantly increased MMP activity and increased LP and HP cross-linking, lysine hydroxylation and elastin cross-linking were found at the site of rupture in affected Friesians. These changes may reflect processes involved in healing and aneurysm formation. Unaffected Friesians had less lysine hydroxylation and pyrrole cross-linking within the tendons compared with Warmblood horses. No differences in the matrix of the aorta were found between normal Warmbloods and Friesian horses. Small sample size. The differences in collagen parameters in tendon tissue may reflect differences in connective tissue metabolism between Friesians and Warmblood horses. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  14. Local food in Iceland: identifying behavioral barriers to increased production and consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ósk Halldórsdóttir, Þórhildur; Nicholas, Kimberly A.

    2016-11-01

    Increased production and consumption of local food may reduce the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of industrialized and globalized food production. Here we examined potential barriers to increasing production and consumption of food produced in Iceland. First, we developed a new framework to address the behaviors of production and consumption simultaneously, to comprehensively analyze their potential barriers. We examined structural barriers by estimating the food production capacity of Iceland, and cultural and personal barriers through survey data on cultural norms and purchasing behavior from Matís, a research and development company. We found no structural barriers preventing Iceland from increasing production of local cereals, which would compliment current local production of meat and dairy and reduce reliance on imports, currently at 50% of the daily caloric intake. However, if food production became entirely local without changing the current mix of crops grown, there would be a 50% reduction in diversity (from 50 to 25 items in eight out of ten food categories). We did not identify any cultural barriers, as survey results demonstrated that consumers hold generally positive worldviews towards local food, with 88% satisfied with local food they had purchased. More than two-thirds of consumers regarded supporting the local farmer and considerations such as environmentally friendly production, fewer food miles, lower carbon footprint as important. However, they rated the local food they have access to as lower in meeting sustainability criteria, showing that they make justifications for not choosing local food in practice. This is a personal barrier to increased consumption of local food, and implies that marketing strategies and general knowledge connected to local food in Iceland might be improved. Although the results apply to the case of Iceland, the method of identifying behavioral barriers to change is applicable to other countries

  15. Ash plume from Eyjafjallajokull Volcano, Iceland May 6th View [Detail

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA satellite image acquired May 6, 2010 at 11 :55 UTC To view the full view go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/iceland-volcano-plume.... NASA Satellite Sees a Darker Ash Plume From Iceland Volcano NASA's Terra satellite flew over the Eyjafjallajokull Volcano, Iceland, on May 6 at 11:55 UTC (7:55 a.m. EDT). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument known as MODIS that flies onboard Terra, captured a visible image of the ash plume. The plume was blowing east then southeast over the Northern Atlantic. The satellite image shows that the plume is at a lower level in the atmosphere than the clouds that lie to its east, as the brown plume appears to slide underneath the white clouds. Satellite: Terra NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team To learn more about MODIS go to: rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/?latest NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  16. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  17. Multigenerational information: the example of the Icelandic Genealogy Database.

    PubMed

    Tulinius, Hrafn

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the chapter describes the Icelandic Genealogical Database, how it was created, what it contains, and how it operates. In the second part, an overview of research accomplished with material from the database is given.

  18. Lyme neuroborreliosis in 2 horses.

    PubMed

    Imai, D M; Barr, B C; Daft, B; Bertone, J J; Feng, S; Hodzic, E; Johnston, J M; Olsen, K J; Barthold, S W

    2011-11-01

    Lyme neuroborreliosis--characterized as chronic, necrosuppurative to nonsuppurative, perivascular to diffuse meningoradiculoneuritis--was diagnosed in 2 horses with progressive neurologic disease. In 1 horse, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of B burgdorferi sensu stricto-specific gene targets (ospA, ospC, flaB, dbpA, arp). Highest spirochetal burdens were in tissues with inflammation, including spinal cord, muscle, and joint capsule. Sequence analysis of ospA, ospC, and flaB revealed 99.9% sequence identity to the respective genes in B burgdorferi strain 297, an isolate from a human case of neuroborreliosis. In both horses, spirochetes were visualized in affected tissues with Steiner silver impregnation and by immunohistochemistry, predominantly within the dense collagenous tissue of the dura mater and leptomeninges.

  19. Enterocin M and its Beneficial Effects in Horses-a Pilot Experiment.

    PubMed

    Lauková, Andrea; Styková, Eva; Kubašová, Ivana; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Plachá, Iveta; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Kandričáková, Anna; Miltko, Renata; Belzecki, Grzegorz; Valocký, Igor; Strompfová, Viola

    2018-02-07

    Probiotic bacteria or their antimicrobial proteinaceous substances called bacteriocins (enterocins) hold promising prophylactic potential for animal breeding. This study present the results achieved after application of Enterocin M in horses. Enterocin M has never been applied to horses before. Clinically healthy horses (10) were involved in this pilot experiment. They were placed in the stables of the University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy, Košice, Slovakia, with the approval of the University Ethics Committee. The animals were fed twice a day with hay and oats, or alternatively grazed with access to water ad libitum. The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Sampling was performed at the start of the experiment, at day 0-1, at day 21 (3 weeks of Enterocin M application), and at day 42 (3 weeks of cessation). Feces were sampled directly from the rectum and blood from the vena jugularis; the samples were immediately treated and/or stored for analyses. Each horse itself represented a control animal (compared to its status at the start of the experiment, day 0-1). After initial sampling, the horses were administered 100 μl of Ent M (precipitate, 12,800 AU/ml) in a small feed bolus to ensure it was consumed; Ent M was applied for 3 weeks (21 days). Fecal samples were treated using the standard microbial dilution method; phagocytic activity was assessed with standard and flow cytometry; biochemistry and metabolic profiles were tested using commercial kits and standard methods. Administration of Ent M led to mathematical reduction of coliforms, campylobacters ( ab P < 0.05), and significant reduction of Clostridium spp. ( ab P < 0.001, bc P < 0.001); increase of PA values was noted (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001); no negative influence on hydrolytic enzyme profile or biochemical blood parameters was noted.

  20. The Hypersensitivity of Horses to Culicoides Bites in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gail S.; Belton, Peter; Kleider, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Culicoides hypersensitivity is a chronic, recurrent, seasonal dermatitis of horses that has a worldwide distribution, but has only recently been reported in Canada. It is characterized by intense pruritus resulting in lesions associated with self-induced trauma. A survey of veterinarians and horse-owners in British Columbia showed no differences in susceptibility due to the sex, color, breed, or height of the horses. The prevalence of the disease in the 209 horses surveyed was 26%. Horses sharing the same pasture could be unaffected. The disease was reported primarily from southwestern British Columbia; it occurred between April and October and usually affected the ventral midline, mane, and tail. Horses were generally less than nine years old when the clinical signs first appeared ([unk]=5.9 yr). Culicoides hypersensitivity was common in the lineage of several affected horses, possibly indicating a genetic susceptibility. Most cases were severe enough to require veterinary attention and some horses were euthanized. PMID:17423117

  1. [Prevalence of food allergy in Icelandic infants during first year of life].

    PubMed

    Kristinsdóttir, Harpa; Clausen, Michael; Ragnarsdóttir, Hildur S; Halldórsdóttir, Ingibjörg H; McBride, Doreen; Beyer, Kristen; Sigurdardóttir, Sigurveig Th

    2011-01-01

    This study is a part of EuroPrevall, an EU-funded European food allergy project. The aim was to evaluate the prevalence of food allergy in Icelandic infants during their first year of life. Infants (n=1,341) were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age. Questionnaires were obtained at birth and 12 months. Children with symptoms of possible food allergy were assessed with a skin-prick test (SPT) and specific IgE. Food allergy was confirmed with a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC). Out of 170 symptomatic children 44 infants (3.27%) had either positive SPT (n=21; 1.57%) or specific IgE (n=40; 2.98%). Food allergy was confirmed in 25 (1.86%); egg allergy 1.42%, milk 0.52%, fish 0.22%, wheat 0.15%, peanuts 0.15%, and soy 0.07%. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 7.90% (n=106) and according to questionnaires 8.80% had asthma (n=118). Positive family history was the strongest risk factor for asthma (OR=2.12; p<0.001) and atopic dermatitis (OR=1.90; p=0.004). Family history influenced the relationship between predisposing factors and allergy symptoms. Our results show lower prevalence of food allergy than previously reported in a study of Icelandic children at two years of age. The prevalence was also lower than reported in some other European countries and could be explained by different genetic and environmental factors.

  2. Ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in six horses.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Nicole M; Lassaline, Mary; Engiles, Julie

    2017-11-07

    To determine the characteristics of and prognosis for ocular and periocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Six horses treated for ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. A retrospective review of medical records from 2007 to 2015 was performed to identify horses with a histologic diagnosis of ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma. Signalment (age, sex, breed), duration of clinical signs, prior treatment, tumor size and location, medical and surgical treatment including postoperative chemotherapy, follow-up time, and outcome were obtained from medical records. Histopathology was reviewed by a board-certified pathologist. In six horses diagnosed with ocular or periocular hemangiosarcoma, no breed, age, or sex was overrepresented. Sites included the temporal limbus (3), third eyelid (2), and uvea (1). With the exception of one horse with uveal hemangiosarcoma, 5/6 horses had lightly pigmented periocular haircoat. Histologic features of ocular hemangiosarcoma in 6/6 cases included high cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and inflammation with a mitotic index ranging from 0 to 8 mitoses per 10 consecutive 400× fields. Five of six tumors displayed solar elastosis, indicating ultraviolet light-induced damage to sub-epithelial collagen. Treatment included surgical excision in all cases and was not associated with recurrence in 4/6. Three cases that received ancillary treatment with topical mitomycin C had no postoperative recurrence. Two cases with postexcisional recurrence had histologic evidence of incomplete excision. Complete surgical excision may be associated with resolution of periocular and ocular hemangiosarcoma in horses. Etiopathogenesis may include exposure to ultraviolet light. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Modified technique for common carotid artery transposition in standing horses.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Heidi; Argüelles, David; Gracia-Calvo, Luis A; Raekallio, Marja

    2017-01-01

    To describe a modified technique for permanent translocation of the common carotid artery (CCA) to a subcutaneous position in standing horses. Experimental study. Healthy adult Standardbred and Warmblood horses (n = 8). Surgery was performed with the horses standing under sedation and with local anesthesia. A combination of previously described techniques was used modifying the approach and closure of the incision. The right CCA was approached through a linear skin incision dorsal and parallel to the jugular vein and through the brachiocephalicus and omohyoideus muscles. The artery was dissected free of its sheath and elevated to the skin incision with Penrose drains. The brachiocephalicus muscle was sutured in two layers underneath the artery leaving it in a subcutaneous position. The horses were allowed to heal for 3 weeks prior to catheterization of the artery. The transposed CCA was successfully used for repeated catheterization in six of eight horses for a period of 10 weeks. None of the horses had intraoperative complications. Two horses developed mild peri-incisional edema that resolved spontaneously. Right-sided laryngeal hemiplegia was observed endoscopically in two horses postoperatively. Two horses developed complications (surgical site infection and excessive periarterial fibrosis) that compromised the patency of the CCA and precluded catheterization. Permanent translocation of the CCA in standing horses was successful in six out of eight horses. Upper airway endoscopy postoperatively may be warranted as laryngeal hemiplegia may ensue. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. Functional Locomotor Consequences of Uneven Forefeet for Trot Symmetry in Individual Riding Horses

    PubMed Central

    Wiggers, Nathan; Nauwelaerts, Sandra L. P.; Hobbs, Sarah Jane; Bool, Sophie; Wolschrijn, Claudia F.; Back, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Left-right symmetrical distal limb conformation can be an important prerequisite for a successful performance, and it is often hypothesized that asymmetric or uneven feet are important enhancing factors for the development of lameness. On a population level, it has been demonstrated that uneven footed horses are retiring earlier from elite level competition, but the biomechanical consequences are not yet known. The objectives of this study were to compare the functional locomotor asymmetries of horses with uneven to those with even feet. Hoof kinetics and distal limb kinematics were collected from horses (n = 34) at trot. Dorsal hoof wall angle was used to classify horses as even or uneven (<1.5 and >1.5° difference between forefeet respectively) and individual feet as flat (<50°), medium (between 50° and 55°) or upright (>55°). Functional kinetic parameters were compared between even and uneven forefeet using MANOVA followed by ANOVA. The relative influences of differences in hoof angle between the forefeet and of absolute hoof angle on functional parameters were analysed using multiple regression analysis (P<0.05). In horses with uneven feet, the side with the flatter foot showed a significantly larger maximal horizontal braking and vertical ground reaction force, a larger vertical fetlock displacement and a suppler fetlock spring. The foot with a steeper hoof angle was linearly correlated with an earlier braking-propulsion transition. The conformational differences between both forefeet were more important for loading characteristics than the individual foot conformation of each individual horse. The differences in vertical force and braking force between uneven forefeet could imply either an asymmetrical loading pattern without a pathological component or a subclinical lameness as a result of a pathological development in the steeper foot. PMID:25646752

  5. A chironomid-based reconstruction of summer temperatures in NW Iceland since AD 1650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, P. G.; Caseldine, C. J.; Croudace, I. W.; Jarvis, S.; Wastegård, S.; Crowford, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Few studies currently exist that aim to validate a proxy chironomid-temperature reconstruction with instrumental temperature measurements. We used a reconstruction from a chironomid percentage abundance data set to produce quantitative summer temperature estimates since AD 1650 for NW Iceland through a transfer function approach, and validated the record against instrumental temperature measurements from Stykkishólmur in western Iceland. The core was dated through Pb-210, Cs-137 and tephra analyses (Hekla 1693) which produced a well-constrained dating model across the whole study period. Little catchment disturbance, as shown through geochemical (Itrax) and loss-on-ignition data, throughout the period further reinforce the premise that the chironomids were responding to temperature and not other catchment or within-lake variables. Particularly cold phases were identified between AD 1683-1710, AD 1765-1780 and AD 1890-1917, with relative drops in summer temperatures in the order of 1.5-2°C. The timing of these cold phases agree well with other evidence of cooler temperatures, notably increased extent of Little Ice Age (LIA) glaciers. Our evidence suggests that the magnitude of summer temperature cooling (1.5-2°C) was enough to force LIA Icelandic glaciers into their maximum Holocene extent, which is in accordance with previous modelling experiments for an Icelandic ice cap (Langjökull).

  6. Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides in horses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poisoning by Indigofera lespedezioides is reported in horses in the state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The main clinical signs are anorexia, sleepiness, unsteady gait, severe ataxia, weakness, stumbling, and progressive weight loss. To induce the disease experimentally, a 7-year-old horse was introd...

  7. Influence of track surface on the equine superficial digital flexor tendon loading in two horses at high speed trot.

    PubMed

    Crevier-Denoix, N; Pourcelot, P; Ravary, B; Robin, D; Falala, S; Uzel, S; Grison, A C; Valette, J P; Denoix, J M; Chateau, H

    2009-03-01

    Although track surfaces are a risk factor of tendon injuries, their effects on tendon loading at high speed are unknown. Using a noninvasive ultrasonic technique, it is now possible to evaluate the forces in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) in exercise conditions. To compare the effects of an all-weather waxed track (W) vs. a crushed sand track (S), on the SDFT loading in the trotter horse at high speed. Two trotter horses were equipped with the ultrasonic device (1 MHz ultrasonic probe, fixed on the palmar metacarpal area of the right forelimb). For each trial, data acquisition was made at 400 Hz and 10 consecutive strides were analysed. In each session, the 2 track surfaces were tested in a straight line. The speed was imposed at 10 m/s and recorded. The right forelimb was also equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe and skin markers. The horse was filmed with a high-speed camera (600 Hz); all recordings were synchronised. Statistical differences were tested using the GLM procedure (SAS; P < 0.05). Maximal tendon force was significantly lower on W compared with S. In addition to maximal force peaks around mid-stance, earlier peaks were observed, more pronounced on S than on W, at about 13% (horse 2) and 30% (both horses) of the stance phase. Comparison with kinematic data revealed that these early peaks were accompanied by plateaux in the fetlock angle-time chart. For high tendon forces, the tendon maximal loading rate was significantly lower on W than on S. CONCLUSIONS AND POTENTIAL CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The all-weather waxed track appears to induce a lesser and more gradual SDFT loading than crushed sand. The SDFT loading pattern at high speed trot suggests proximal interphalangeal joint movements during limb loading.

  8. Duration of serum antibody response to rabies vaccination in horses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison M; Watson, Johanna L; Brault, Stephanie A; Edman, Judy M; Moore, Susan M; Kass, Philip H; Wilson, W David

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the impact of age and inferred prior vaccination history on the persistence of vaccine-induced antibody against rabies in horses. DESIGN Serologic response evaluation. ANIMALS 48 horses with an undocumented vaccination history. PROCEDURES Horses were vaccinated against rabies once. Blood samples were collected prior to vaccination, 3 to 7 weeks after vaccination, and at 6-month intervals for 2 to 3 years. Serum rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (RVNA) values were measured. An RVNA value of ≥ 0.5 U/mL was used to define a predicted protective immune response on the basis of World Health Organization recommendations for humans. Values were compared between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age and between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and those inferred to be immunologically naïve. RESULTS A protective RVNA value (≥ 0.5 U/mL) was maintained for 2 to 3 years in horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated on the basis of prevaccination RVNA values. No significant difference was evident in response to rabies vaccination or duration of protective RVNA values between horses < 20 and ≥ 20 years of age. Seven horses were poor responders to vaccination. Significant differences were identified between horses inferred to have been previously vaccinated and horses inferred to be naïve prior to the study. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE A rabies vaccination interval > 1 year may be appropriate for previously vaccinated horses but not for horses vaccinated only once. Additional research is required to confirm this finding and characterize the optimal primary dose series for rabies vaccination.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland: Early introductions, transmission dynamics and recent outbreaks among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Malik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Baldvinsdóttir, Guðrún; Indriðason, Hlynur; Björnsdóttir, Thora Björg; Widell, Anders; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Löve, Arthur; Medstrand, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Iceland has not been described so far. Detailed analyses of the dynamics of HIV-1 can give insights for prevention of virus spread. The objective of the current study was to characterize the genetic diversity and transmission dynamics of HIV-1 in Iceland. Partial HIV-1 pol (1020bp) sequences were generated from 230 Icelandic samples, representing 77% of all HIV-1 infected individuals reported in the country 1985-2012. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were reconstructed for subtype/CRF assignment and determination of transmission clusters. Timing and demographic growth patterns were determined in BEAST. HIV-1 infection in Iceland was dominated by subtype B (63%, n=145) followed by subtype C (10%, n=23), CRF01_AE (10%, n=22), sub-subtype A1 (7%, n=15) and CRF02_AG (7%, n=15). Trend analysis showed an increase in non-B subtypes/CRFs in Iceland over the study period (p=0.003). The highest proportion of phylogenetic clustering was found among injection drug users (IDUs; 89%), followed by heterosexuals (70%) and men who have sex with men (35%). The time to the most recent common ancestor of the oldest subtype B cluster dated back to 1978 (median estimate, 95% highest posterior density interval: 1974-1981) suggesting an early introduction of HIV-1 into Iceland. A previously reported increase in HIV-1 incidence among IDUs 2009-2011 was revealed to be due to two separate outbreaks. Our study showed that a variety of HIV-1 subtypes and CRFs were prevalent in Iceland 1985-2012, with subtype B being the dominant form both in terms of prevalence and domestic spread. The rapid increase of HIV-1 infections among IDUs following a major economic crisis in Iceland raises questions about casual associations between economic factors, drug use and public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technique-associated outcomes in horses following large colon resection.

    PubMed

    Pezzanite, Lynn M; Hackett, Eileen S

    2017-11-01

    To compare survival and complications in horses undergoing large colon resection with either sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses. Retrospective cohort study. Twenty-six client-owned horses with gastrointestinal disease. Retrospective data were retrieved from the medical records of 26 horses undergoing colectomy, including 14 horses with sutured end-to-end and 12 horses with stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses, between 2003 and 2016. Records were evaluated for signalment, medical and surgical treatments, and survival to hospital discharge. Long-term follow-up was obtained through owner contact. Continuous variables were compared with Mann-Whitney tests. Fisher's exact testing was used to compare survival to hospital discharge. Survival time was compared by constructing Kaplan-Meier survival curves and performing log-rank curve comparison testing. Mean age of horses undergoing colectomy was 13 years. Reason for colectomy was prophylaxis (12) or salvage (14). Mean surgical time was 169 minutes. Mean hospitalization time was 9 days, which did not differ with anastomosis type (P = .62). Nine of 12 horses undergoing stapled functional end-to-end anastomosis and 12 of 14 horses undergoing sutured end-to-end anastomosis survived to hospital discharge (P = .63). Survival time did not differ with anastomosis technique (P = .35). Short- and long-term survival outcomes are not different between sutured end-to-end or stapled functional end-to-end anastomoses in horses undergoing colectomy. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. 9 CFR 93.315 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.315 Section 93.315 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.315 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from Canada, the importer or his or her agent...

  12. 9 CFR 93.319 - Import permit and declaration for horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... horses. 93.319 Section 93.319 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.319 Import permit and declaration for horses. For all horses offered for importation from regions of...

  13. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  14. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.311 - Milk from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined horses. 93.311... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.311 Milk from quarantined horses. Milk or... restrictions as he or she may consider necessary to each instance. No milk or cream shall be removed from the...

  18. Ultrasonographically visible hepatic location in clinically normal horses.

    PubMed

    Johns, I C; Miles, A

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound is widely used for evaluating horses with suspected liver dysfunction. Although a change in size is considered suggestive of pathology, no clear guidelines exist to define the hepatic ultrasonographically visible locations (HUVL) in horses. The aim of the study was to describe the HUVL in normal horses and determine whether this is altered by signalment, height, weight and body condition score (BCS). Prospective observational study. Bilateral ultrasonographic evaluation was performed in 58 clinically normal horses with no history of hepatic disease. The most cranial/caudal intercostal spaces (ICS), total number of ICS in which the liver was visualised and the ventral extent of the liver were recorded. Liver was visualised on the right in 56/58 horses (97%), the left in 41/58 (71%) and on both sides in 39/58 (67%). The most cranial ICS was 5 (right) or 4 (left) and the most caudal was 16 (right) or 11 (left). Liver was visualised in ICS 0-11 (right) and ICS 0-5 (left). Liver was not visualised ventral to the costochondral junction. There was no significant effect of sex, breed, height, weight or BCS on HUVL. Liver was visible in significantly fewer ICS on the right in horses aged 24 years and older (median ICS 3.5) compared with younger horses (median ICS 7; P = 0.016). These findings suggest that the liver should be consistently visualised on the right side, but absence of ultrasonographically visible liver on the left is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Liver dimensions may be decreased in older horses. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Piloting Technological Understanding and Reasoning in Icelandic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsteinsson, Gisli; Olafsson, Brynjar

    2016-01-01

    A pilot research was undertaken in Icelandic schools during the 2013-2014 school year, in order to explore students' technological understanding and reasoning at the ages of 11 and 13. The survey included a questionnaire regarding mechanical movement, power and thermodynamics, while the project considered the congruity between students'…

  20. Social Cognition and Social Anxiety among Icelandic Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kr.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to examine relationships among social cognition, social anxiety, and social skills with friends and strangers in children. Ninety-two children (age 10-14 years) in Iceland completed questionnaires on social anxiety, social skills, assertiveness, self-efficacy, and outcome expectancy in social situations with…

  1. Unwanted horses: The role of nonprofit equine rescue and sanctuary organizations.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, K E; Stull, C L; Kass, P H

    2010-12-01

    Closure of US equine slaughter facilities in 2007 along with the concomitant economic recession have contributed to a sharp increase in the number of unwanted horses throughout the United States, with estimates totaling 100,000 horses per year. The objective of the study was to obtain comprehensive data regarding nonprofit organizations caring for unwanted horses, along with the characteristics and outcome of horses relinquished to these organizations. Nonprofit organizations that accept relinquished equines were contacted to participate in a 90-question survey. Responding organizations (144 of 326 eligible) in 37 states provided information on 280 cases representative of the 7,990 horses relinquished between 2007 and 2009. Data collected characterized these organizations as being in existence for 6 yr, financially supported through donations and personal funds, dedicated to the care of only 10 to 20 horses on a property of just over 30 acres, and reliant on volunteers for help. Funding was the greatest challenge to continued operation of nonprofit equine organizations, with maintenance costs for the care of a relinquished horse averaging $3,648 per year. Financial hardship, physical inability, or lack of time to care for the horses by owners were the most common reasons for relinquishment, followed by seizure through law enforcement agencies for alleged neglect or abuse. Relinquished horses consisted of mostly light horse breeds (79.3%), with Thoroughbreds and Quarter Horses as the most represented breeds. The age of relinquished horses ranged from 3 d to 42 yr old (12.4 ± 0.5 yr). About one-half of the horses entered in the survey were considered unhealthy due to illness, injury, lameness, or poor body condition. For every 4 horses relinquished to a nonprofit organization, only 3 horses were adopted or sold between 2006 and 2009, and many organizations had refused to accept additional horses for lack of resources. The estimated maximum capacity for the 326

  2. Analysis of relationships between German heavy horse breeds based on pedigree information.

    PubMed

    Aberle, Kerstin; Wrede, Jörn; Distl, Ottmar

    2004-01-01

    We analysed the relationship coefficients (R) between the four German heavy horse breeds South German Coldblood, Rhenish German Draught Horse, Schleswig Draught Horse and Black Forest Draught Horse. The relationship coefficient makes it possible to ascertain crossbreeding between the breeds over time, or autonomous developments of the breeds, respectively. The investigation revealed that the relationship coefficients between the German draught horse breeds were very low. The mean relationship coefficients between the four German heavy horse breeds were largest between the South German Coldblood and Schleswig Draught Horse (0.103%), whereas mean relationship coefficients were lowest between the Rhenish German and Black Forest Draught Horse (0.001%). The Rhenish German Draught Horse showed largest relationship coefficients with the Schleswig Draught Horse (0.09%), while the Black Forest Draught Horse was mostly related to the South German Coldblood (0.06%). The results reveal the presence of very few common progenitors of the breeds. The gene flow between the breeds is primarily due to crossbreeding of stallions and, especially, in the Rhenish German Draught Horse population breeding with a few mares from other German draught horse breeds.

  3. Purpura haemorrhagica in 53 horses.

    PubMed

    Pusterla, N; Watson, J L; Affolter, V K; Magdesian, K G; Wilson, W D; Carlson, G P

    2003-07-26

    The medical records of 53 horses with purpura haemorrhagica were reviewed. Seventeen of them had been exposed to or infected with Streptococcus equi, nine had been infected with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, five had been vaccinated with S. equi M protein, five had had a respiratory infection of unknown aetiology, and two had open wounds; the other 15 cases had no history of recent viral or bacterial infection. The horses were between six months and 19 years of age (mean 8.4 years). The predominant clinical signs were well demarcated subcutaneous oedema of all four limbs and haemorrhages on the visible mucous membranes; other signs included depression, anorexia, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, reluctance to move, drainage from lymph nodes, exudation of serum from the skin, colic, epistaxis and weight loss. Haematological and biochemical abnormalities commonly detected were anaemia, neutrophilia, hyperproteinaemia, hyperfibrinogenaemia, hyperglobulinaemia and high activities of muscle enzymes. All of the horses were treated with corticosteroids; 42 also received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 26 received antimicrobial drugs. Selected cases received special nursing care, including hydrotherapy and bandaging of the limbs. Most of the horses were treated for more than seven days and none of them relapsed. Forty-nine of the horses survived, one died and three were euthanased, either because their severe clinical disease failed to respond to treatment or because they developed secondary complications. Two of the four non-survivors had been vaccinated against S. equi with a product containing the M protein, one had a S. equi infection and the other had a respiratory infection of undetermined aetiology.

  4. Changes in movement symmetry over the stages of the shoeing process in military working horses.

    PubMed

    Pfau, T; Daly, K; Davison, J; Bould, A; Housby, N; Weller, R

    2016-08-20

    Military working horses perform a high proportion of work on road surfaces and are shod frequently to deal with high attrition rates. The authors investigate the influence of shoeing on movement symmetry as an indirect indicator of mechanical differences affecting force production between contralateral limbs. In this quantitative observational study, inertial sensor gait analysis was performed in 23 Irish sport type horses (4-21 years, 1.58-1.85 m) in full ceremonial work at the King's Troop, Royal Horse Artillery. Changes in two movement symmetry measures (SI: symmetry index; MinDiff: difference between displacement minima) for head and pelvic movement were assessed at four stages of routine shoeing: 'old shoes', 'shoes removed', 'trimmed', 'reshod'. Horses were assessed applying shoes to the front limbs (N=10), to the hindlimbs (N=10) or both (N=3). Changes in head movement symmetry between conditions were small and inconsistent. Changes in pelvic movement symmetry were small and showed significant differences between shoeing stages (SI: P=0.013, MinDiff: P=0.04) with most symmetrical pelvic movement after trimming. In military working horses with high frequency shoeing small changes in movement symmetry were measured. All significant changes involved trimming, which indicates that future studies should in particular assess changes before/after trimming and investigate longer shoeing intervals. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Oblique rift opening revealed by reoccurring magma injection in central Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Joël; Wang, Teng; Xu, Wenbin; Hensch, Martin; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2016-08-05

    Extension deficit builds up over centuries at divergent plate boundaries and is recurrently removed during rifting events, accompanied by magma intrusions and transient metre-scale deformation. However, information on transient near-field deformation has rarely been captured, hindering progress in understanding rifting mechanisms and evolution. Here we show new evidence of oblique rift opening during a rifting event influenced by pre-existing fractures and two centuries of extension deficit accumulation. This event originated from the Bárðarbunga caldera and led to the largest basaltic eruption in Iceland in >200 years. The results show that the opening was initially accompanied by left-lateral shear that ceased with increasing opening. Our results imply that pre-existing fractures play a key role in controlling oblique rift opening at divergent plate boundaries.

  6. Horses--Haulers, Racers, and Healers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2014-01-01

    Providing healing support for everyone from an autistic child to a wounded veteran is just the latest addition to the horse's 5,000-year-old résumé. No animal has played a greater role in human history. Horses have carried us into war, pulled our loads, plowed our fields, and transported us over all kinds of terrain. Freed of such drudgery by…

  7. My Kingdom for a Horse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The "Heavenly Horse" is a work of art revered for its spirit, strength, and beauty. It is a symbol of military might and political power. The size of the object suggests that it was made for an important person. Impressive as he is, this horse was not created as an art object. He was found in the tomb of an influential person. Scholars do not know…

  8. Cardiac findings in Quarter Horses with heritable equine regional dermal asthenia.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Erin L; Weed, Benjamin C; Patnaik, Sourav S; Brazile, Bryn L; Centini, Ryan M; Wills, Robert W; Olivier, Bari; Sledge, Dodd G; Cooley, Jim; Liao, Jun; Rashmir-Raven, Ann M

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare biomechanical and histologic features of heart valves and echocardiographic findings between Quarter Horses with and without heritable equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA). DESIGN Prospective case-control study. ANIMALS 41 Quarter Horses. PROCEDURES Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of aortic and mitral valve leaflets was assessed by biomechanical testing in 5 horses with HERDA and 5 horses without HERDA (controls). Histologic evaluation of aortic and mitral valves was performed for 6 HERDA-affected and 3 control horses. Echocardiography was performed in 14 HERDA-affected and 11 control horses. Biomechanical data and echocardiographic variables of interest were compared between groups by statistical analyses, RESULTS Mean values for mean and maximum UTS of heart valves were significantly lower in HERDA-affected horses than in controls. Blood vessels were identified in aortic valve leaflets of HERDA-affected but not control horses. Most echocardiographic data did not differ between groups. When the statistical model for echocardiographic measures was controlled for body weight, mean and maximum height and width of the aorta at the valve annulus in short-axis images were significantly associated with HERDA status and were smaller for affected horses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Lower UTS of heart valves in HERDA-affected horses, compared with those of control horses, supported that tissues other than skin with high fibrillar collagen content are abnormal in horses with HERDA. Lack of significant differences in most echocardiographic variables between affected and control horses suggested that echocardiography may not be useful to detect a substantial loss of heart valve tensile strength. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. Studies in horses with HERDA may provide insight into cardiac abnormalities in people with collagen disorders.

  9. Analysis of competition performance in dressage and show jumping of Dutch Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Rovere, G; Ducro, B J; van Arendonk, J A M; Norberg, E; Madsen, P

    2016-12-01

    Most Warmblood horse studbooks aim to improve the performance in dressage and show jumping. The Dutch Royal Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) includes the highest score achieved in competition by a horse to evaluate its genetic ability of performance. However, the records collected during competition are associated with some aspects that might affect the quality of the genetic evaluation based on these records. These aspects include the influence of rider, censoring and preselection of the data. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of rider effect, censoring and preselection on the genetic analysis of competition data of dressage and show jumping of KWPN. Different models including rider effect were evaluated. To assess the impact of censoring, genetic parameters were estimated in data sets that differed in the degree of censoring. The effect of preselection on variance components was analysed by defining a binary trait (sport-status) depending on whether the horse has a competition record or not. This trait was included in a bivariate model with the competition trait and used all horses registered by KWPN since 1984. Results showed that performance in competition for dressage and show jumping is a heritable trait (h 2 ~ 0.11-0.13) and that it is important to account for the effect of rider in the genetic analysis. Censoring had a small effect on the genetic parameter for highest performance achieved by the horse. A moderate heritability obtained for sport-status indicates that preselection has a genetic basis, but the effect on genetic parameters was relatively small. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port of...

  11. Trichinella nativa in Iceland: an example of Trichinella dispersion in a frigid zone.

    PubMed

    Skírnisson, K; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2010-06-01

    In most Arctic and subarctic regions, Trichinella nativa is a common zoonotic pathogen circulating among wild carnivores. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is one of the most important reservoirs for T. nativa in frigid zones. In Iceland, Trichinella infection has never been detected in the local wildlife, despite the presence of one of the host species, the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus). In 2008, one of two polar bears that had swum to Iceland's coast was found to have been infected with Trichinella sp. (8.5 larvae/g in the tongue, 6.8 larvae/g in the masseter and 4.4 larvae/g in the diaphragm); the larvae were identified as T. nativa. This is the second report of Trichinella infection in polar bears that reached the Icelandic coast. In the present work, we describe this case of infection and discuss the epidemiological features that have allowed T. nativa to spread in Arctic regions.

  12. Comparison of limb kinematics between collected and lengthened (medium/extended) trot in two groups of dressage horses on two different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Walker, V A; Tranquille, C A; Newton, J R; Dyson, S J; Brandham, J; Northrop, A J; Murray, R C

    2017-09-01

    Dressage horses are often asked to work in lengthened paces during training and competition, but to date there is limited information about the biomechanics of dressage-specific paces. Preliminary work has shown increased fetlock extension in extended compared with collected paces, but further investigation of the kinematic differences between collected, medium and extended trot in dressage horses is warranted. Investigation of the effect of collected vs. medium/extended trot on limb kinematics of dressage horses. Prospective kinematic evaluation. Twenty clinically sound horses in active dressage training were used. Group 1: Ten young horses (≤6 years) were assessed at collected and medium trot and Group 2: Ten mature horses (≥9 years) were assessed at collected and extended trot. All horses were evaluated on two different surfaces. High speed motion capture (240 Hz) was used to determine kinematic variables. Fore- and hindlimb angles were measured at mid-stance. Descriptive statistics and mixed effect multilevel regression analyses were performed. Speed and stride length were reduced and stride duration increased at collected compared with medium/extended trot. Lengthened trot (medium/extended trot) was associated with increased fetlock extension in both the fore- and hindlimbs in both groups of horses. Changes were greater in mature horses compared with young horses. Shoulder and carpus angles were associated with forelimb fetlock angle. Hock angle was not significantly influenced by pace. Surface had no effect on fetlock or hock angles. Only 2D motion analysis was carried out. Results may have differed in horses with more extreme gait characteristics. Medium/extended trot increases extension of the fore- and hindlimb fetlock joints compared with collected trot in both young and mature dressage horses, respectively. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Trends in physical activity and participation in sports clubs among Icelandic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Eithsdóttir, Sigríthur Th; Kristjánsson, Alfgeir L; Sigfúsdóttir, Inga D; Allegrante, John P

    2008-06-01

    Physical activity among adolescents and its implications for health status is of increasing concern. We examined trends in physical activity and participation in sports clubs among Icelandic adolescents. Cross-sectional survey data were used to determine levels of vigorous physical activity and participation in sports clubs (defined as engaging in moderately intensive activity four times or more a week) for cohorts of Icelandic adolescents in 1992, 1997, 2000 and 2006. There was a 6% increase in the rate of vigorous physical activity and a 15% increase in active sports club participation among 14- and 15-year old Icelandic adolescents from 1992 to 2006. The trends were consistent across genders; however, only 53% of boys actually achieved the recommended criterion for vigorous physical activity, with the percentage of girls averaging 16% lower than that for boys. Additionally, there was an overall increase in the proportion of inactive adolescents, with girls consistently reporting higher levels of inactivity than boys even though the net increase in inactivity was higher for boys. Although our results show an overall increase in vigorous physical activity and participation in sports clubs over the past decade among both genders, our data also indicate that over half of all Icelandic adolescents are not achieving the recommended level of participation in physical activity. Furthermore, less than one third of the population studied is achieving the recommended level of activity through organized clubs. Initiatives to increase physical activity among the least active of adolescents should receive high priority in public health.

  14. 36 CFR 222.23 - Removal of other horses and burros.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of other horses and... AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Management of Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros § 222.23 Removal of other horses and burros. Horses and burros not within the definition in § 222.20(b)(13) which are introduced...

  15. Five 'Supercool' Icelandic Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsen, O.; Roberts, M. J.; Roberts, M. J.; Tweed, F. S.; Russell, A. J.; Lawson, D. E.; Larson, G. J.; Evenson, E. B.; Bjornsson, H.

    2001-12-01

    Sediment entrainment by glaciohydraulic supercooling has recently been demonstrated as an effective process at Matanuska glacier, Alaska. Although subfreezing meltwater temperatures have been recorded at several Alaskan glaciers, the link between supercooling and sediment accretion remains confined to Matanuska. This study presents evidence of glaciohydraulic supercooling and associated basal ice formation from five Icelandic glaciers: Skeidarárjökull, Skaftafellsjökull, Kvíárjökull, Flaájökull, and Hoffellsjökull. These observations provide the best example to-date of glaciohydraulic supercooling and related sediment accretion outside Alaska. Fieldwork undertaken in March, July and August 2001 confirmed that giant terraces of frazil ice, diagnostic of the presence of supercooled water, are forming around subglacial artesian vents. Frazil flocs retrieved from these vents contained localised sandy nodules at ice crystal boundaries. During periods of high discharge, sediment-laden frazil flocs adhere to the inner walls of vents, and continue to trap suspended sediment. Bands of debris-rich frazil ice, representing former vents, are texturally similar to basal ice exposures at the glacier margins, implying a process-form relationship between glaciohydraulic freeze-on and basal ice formation. It is hypothesised that glaciohydraulic supercooling is generating thick sequences of basal ice. Observations also confirm that in situ melting of basal ice creates thick sedimentary sequences, as sediment structures present in the basal ice can be clearly traced into ice-marginal ridges. Glaciohydraulic supercooling is an effective sediment entrainment mechanism at Icelandic glaciers. Supercooling has the capacity to generate thick sequences of basal ice and the sediments present in basal ice can be preserved. These findings are incompatible with established theories of intraglacial sediment entrainment and basal ice formation; instead, they concur with, and extend, the

  16. An online survey of horse-owners in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Contingency planning for potential equine infectious disease outbreaks relies on accurate information on horse location and movements to estimate the risk of dissemination of disease(s). An online questionnaire was used to obtain unique information linking owner and horse location to characteristics of horse movements within and outwith Great Britain (GB). Results This online survey yielded a strong response, providing more than four times the target number of respondents (1000 target respondents) living in all parts of GB. Key demographic findings of this study indicated that horses which were kept on livery yards and riding schools were likely to be found in urban environments, some distance away from the owner’s home and vaccinated against influenza and herpes virus. Survey respondents were likely to travel greater than 10 miles to attend activities such as eventing or endurance but were also likely to travel and return home within a single day (58.6%, 2063/3522). This may affect the geographical extent and speed of disease spread, if large numbers of people from disparate parts of the country are attending the same event and the disease agent is highly infectious or virulent. The greatest risk for disease introduction and spread may be represented by a small proportion of people who import or travel internationally with their horses. These respondents were likely to have foreign horse passports, which were not necessarily recorded in the National Equine Database (NED), making the location of these horses untraceable. Conclusions These results illustrate the difficulties which exist with national GB horse traceability despite the existence of the NED and the horse passport system. This study also demonstrates that an online approach could be adopted to obtain important demographic data on GB horse owners on a more routine and frequent basis to inform decisions or policy pertaining to equine disease control. This represents a reasonable alternative

  17. Micro-Doppler classification of riders and riderless horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David

    2014-05-01

    Micro-range Micro-Doppler can be used to isolate particular parts of the radar signature, and in this case we demonstrate the differences in the signature between a walking horse versus a walking horse with a rider. Using micro-range micro-Doppler, we can distinguish the radar returns from the rider as separate from the radar returns of the horse.

  18. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. Project RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1969-09-01

    It 0,Il 1IC1I lll Examination of C’urrentI,,,,,,,,[ I prations IIR / IE IP𔃻 0 R IT - PROJECT RED HORSE 1 SEPTEMBER 1969 HQ PACAF Directorate...3 CHAPTER II RED HORSE ORGANIZATIONS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA .................. 5 Introduction...RED HORSE Combat Defense Teams....................... ...... 59 III. 555th CES (HR) Projects...................................... 62 IV. 820th CES

  19. [Dermatitis in cats and humans caused by Cheyletiella mites reported in Iceland.].

    PubMed

    Skirnisson, K; Olafsson, J H; Finnsdottir, H

    1997-01-01

    Cheyletiella mites (Acarina) are ectoparasites that infest cats, dogs and rabbits in many countries of the world. Upon contact with infested animals the mites may temporarily produce grouped, erythematous macules on the skin of humans which rapidly develop a central, vesicular papule. These signs are most often found on the arms and the trunk. Recently these typical signs were observed on the skin of the members of two different Icelandic families which both kept a Persian cat. An examination for ectoparasites on the cats revealed that both were infested by Cheyletiellaparasitovorax. It is unknown how and when the parasite was transmitted to Iceland.

  20. Sarcocystis fayeri in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Monica; Shapiro, Karen; Sisó, Silvia; Williams, Diane C; Rejmanek, Daniel; Aguilar, Beatriz; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports of Sarcocystis fayeri-induced toxicity in people consuming horse meat warrant investigation on the prevalence and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis spp. infection in horses. Sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses have been commonly regarded as an incidental finding. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of sarcocysts in skeletal muscle of horses with neuromuscular disease. Our findings indicated that S. fayeri infection was common in young mature horses with neuromuscular disease and could be associated with myopathic and neurogenic processes. The number of infected muscles and number of sarcocysts per muscle were significantly higher in diseased than in control horses. S. fayeri was predominantly found in low oxidative highly glycolytic myofibers. This pathogen had a high glycolytic metabolism. Common clinical signs of disease included muscle atrophy, weakness with or without apparent muscle pain, gait deficits, and dysphagia in horses with involvement of the tongue and esophagus. Horses with myositis were lethargic, apparently painful, stiff, and reluctant to move. Similar to humans, sarcocystosis and cardiomyopathy can occur in horses. This study did not establish causality but supported a possible association (8.9% of cases) with disease. The assumption of Sarcocysts spp. being an incidental finding in every case might be inaccurate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of horse transportation in Australia: issues and practices.

    PubMed

    Padalino, B; Raidal, S L; Hall, E; Knight, P; Celi, P; Jeffcott, L; Muscatello, G

    2016-10-01

    To survey amateur and professional participants on equine transportation management, practices and outcomes in Australia. An online survey targeting people who organised horse movements at least monthly was made available to a broad cross-section of amateur and professional equine associations. Respondents were invited to provide demographic details and information relating to their routine transportation management practices and their experiences of issues relating to the transportation of horses. Of 797 usable responses involving approximately 17,000 horses and 313,000 individual horse transport events, transport-related behavioural problems were reported by 38% of respondents, particularly at loading. Transport-related health problems had been experienced during or after transportation by horses in the care of 67% of respondents. The most common problems reported were traumatic injuries (45.0%), diarrhoea (20.0%), muscular problems (13.0%), respiratory problems (12.3%), overheating (10.5%) and colic (10.3%). In the 2 years reviewed in the survey, 9.4% of participants reported at least one case of transport-associated pneumonia and 35 horses had died, most commonly from fractures, colic or pneumonia. Although respondents identifying as amateurs transported horses less frequently and over shorter distances, the incidence of transport-related problems was similar between amateurs and professionals. Respondents reported specific precautions before, during and after transportation, although management was often not compliant with the Australian Code of horse transportation. Responses indicated that there remains a substantial risk of adverse welfare and health outcomes for horses transported in Australia and management practices reported may not be compliant with current recommendations for transportation. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Isotope systematics of Icelandic thermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Hilton, David R.; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Árný E.; Torssander, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Barnes, Jaime D.; Ono, Shuhei; Halldórsson, Sæmundur Ari; Fiebig, Jens; Arnórsson, Stefán

    2017-05-01

    Thermal fluids in Iceland range in temperature from < 10 °C to > 440 °C and are dominated by water (> 97 mol%) with a chloride concentration from < 10 ppm to > 20,000 ppm. The isotope systematics of the fluids reveal many important features of the source(s) and transport properties of volatiles at this divergent plate boundary. Studies spanning over four decades have revealed a large range of values for δD (- 131 to + 3.3‰), tritium (- 0.4 to + 13.8 TU), δ18O (- 20.8 to + 2.3‰), 3He/4He (3.1 to 30.4 RA), δ11B (- 6.7 to + 25.0‰), δ13C∑ CO2 (- 27.4 to + 4.6‰), 14C∑ CO2 (+ 0.6 to + 118 pMC), δ13CCH4 (- 52.3 to - 17.8‰), δ15N (- 10.5 to + 3.0‰), δ34S∑ S- II (- 10.9 to + 3.4‰), δ34SSO4 (- 2.0 to + 21.2‰) and δ37Cl (- 1.0 to + 2.1‰) in both liquid and vapor phases. Based on this isotopic dataset, the thermal waters originate from meteoric inputs and/or seawater. For other volatiles, degassing of mantle-derived melts contributes to He, CO2 and possibly also to Cl in the fluids. Water-basalt interaction also contributes to CO2 and is the major source of H2S, SO4, Cl and B in the fluids. Redox reactions additionally influence the composition of the fluids, for example, oxidation of H2S to SO4 and reduction of CO2 to CH4. Air-water interaction mainly controls N2, Ar and Ne concentrations. The large range of many non-reactive volatile isotope ratios, such as δ37Cl and 3He/4He, indicate heterogeneity of the mantle and mantle-derived melts beneath Iceland. In contrast, the large range of many reactive isotopes, such as δ13C∑ CO2 and δ34S∑ S- II, are heavily affected by processes occurring within the geothermal systems, including fluid-rock interaction, depressurization boiling, and isotopic fractionation between secondary minerals and the aqueous and vapor species. Variations due to these geothermal processes may exceed differences observed among various crust and mantle sources, highlighting the importance and effects of chemical

  3. Structural Evolution of Transform Fault Zones in Thick Oceanic Crust of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karson, J. A.; Brandsdottir, B.; Horst, A. J.; Farrell, J.

    2017-12-01

    Spreading centers in Iceland are offset from the regional trend of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge by the Tjörnes Fracture Zone (TFZ) in the north and the South Iceland Seismic Zone (SISZ) in the south. Rift propagation away from the center of the Iceland hotspot, has resulted in migration of these transform faults to the N and S, respectively. As they migrate, new transform faults develop in older crust between offset spreading centers. Active transform faults, and abandoned transform structures left in their wakes, show features that reflect different amounts (and durations) of slip that can be viewed as a series of snapshots of different stages of transform fault evolution in thick, oceanic crust. This crust has a highly anisotropic, spreading fabric with pervasive zones of weakness created by spreading-related normal faults, fissures and dike margins oriented parallel to the spreading centers where they formed. These structures have a strong influence on the mechanical properties of the crust. By integrating available data, we suggest a series of stages of transform development: 1) Formation of an oblique rift (or leaky transform) with magmatic centers, linked by bookshelf fault zones (antithetic strike-slip faults at a high angle to the spreading direction) (Grimsey Fault Zone, youngest part of the TFZ); 2) broad zone of conjugate faulting (tens of km) (Hreppar Block N of the SISZ); 3) narrower ( 20 km) zone of bookshelf faulting aligned with the spreading direction (SISZ); 4) mature, narrow ( 1 km) through-going transform fault zone bounded by deformation (bookshelf faulting and block rotations) distributed over 10 km to either side (Húsavík-Flatey Fault Zone in the TFZ). With progressive slip, the transform zone becomes progressively narrower and more closely aligned with the spreading direction. The transform and non-transform (beyond spreading centers) domains may be truncated by renewed propagation and separated by subsequent spreading. This perspective

  4. Structure and kinematics of segment-scale crustal accretion processes in Iceland and implications for analogous mid-ocean ridge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siler, Drew Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    The sub-surface geologic structure of the crust is controlled by the magmatic and tectonic processes that construct the crust during plate spreading. As a result, geologic structure provides constraints on the processes that occur during plate spreading. The crust of the Skagi region of northern Iceland, where this study was focused, was accreted by magmatic construction to Iceland ˜7-10 Ma and subsequently glacially eroded, exhuming ˜1-3 km of structural relief. Continuous spreading-parallel and spreading-orthogonal mountain ranges expose the crust accreted at discrete spreading segments, the fundamental intervals upon which plate spreading and crustal accretion occur. As a result, Skagi is an ideal location to employ geologic structure analysis to study magmatic rifting processes. Within spreading segments structural patterns vary significantly between segment centers and distal fissure swarms. While segment centers are characterized by focused magmatic construction and km-scale sub-volcanic subsidence, fissure swarms are characterized by limited magmatic construction, minor sub-axial subsidence and lateral dike injection. Such along-strike variation indicates that both magma in the upper crust and gabbroic material in the lower crust must be redistributed along-strike within spreading segments during plate spreading. Material flow is directed from beneath segment centers towards distal fissure swarms. At the regional scale, each spreading segment is a structurally discrete interval of Iceland's Neovolcanic Zone. As a result of west-northwestward movement of Iceland relative to the Iceland hotspot, the rift zone axis has progressively relocated to the east-southeast with time, leaving a series of abandoned rift zones throughout western Iceland. A compilation of published K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age data and geologic data from across northern Iceland shows that rift relocation occurs via frequent (2-3 Ma), small-scale (˜20 km) rift propagations rather than rare, 100

  5. Environmental mapping and monitoring of Iceland by remote sensing (EMMIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Vilmundardóttir, Olga K.; Falco, Nicola; Sigurmundsson, Friðþór S.; Rustowicz, Rose; Belart, Joaquin M.-C.; Gísladóttir, Gudrun; Benediktsson, Jón A.

    2016-04-01

    Iceland is exposed to rapid and dynamic landscape changes caused by natural processes and man-made activities, which impact and challenge the country. Fast and reliable mapping and monitoring techniques are needed on a big spatial scale. However, currently there is lack of operational advanced information processing techniques, which are needed for end-users to incorporate remote sensing (RS) data from multiple data sources. Hence, the full potential of the recent RS data explosion is not being fully exploited. The project Environmental Mapping and Monitoring of Iceland by Remote Sensing (EMMIRS) bridges the gap between advanced information processing capabilities and end-user mapping of the Icelandic environment. This is done by a multidisciplinary assessment of two selected remote sensing super sites, Hekla and Öræfajökull, which encompass many of the rapid natural and man-made landscape changes that Iceland is exposed to. An open-access benchmark