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Sample records for icy grain analog

  1. Measurements of Polyatomic Molecule Formation on an Icy Grain Analog Using Fast Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, A.; Madsunkov, S.; Shortt, B. J.; MacAskill, J. A.; Darrach, M. R.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide has been produced from the impact of a monoenergetic O(P-3) beam upon a surface cooled to 4.8 K and covered with a CO ice. Using temperature-programmed desorption and mass spectrometer detection, we have detected increasing amounts of CO2 formation with O(P-3) energies of 2, 5, 10, and 14 eV. This is the first measurement of polyatomic molecule formation on a surface with superthermal atoms. The goal of this work is to detect other polyatomic species, such as CH3OH, which can be formed under conditions that simulate the grain temperature, surface coverage, and superthermal atoms present in shock-heated circumstellar and interstellar regions.

  2. Building Small Icy Bodies: the Process of Icy Grain Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Helen Jane; Hill, Catherine Rachel; Blum, Jurgen; Heisselmann, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The material remaining in proto-planetary disks provides the ingredients from which planetessimals, and eventually comets, asteroids and planets (including their ring and moon systems) evolve. Aggregation processes are thought to proceed much more rapidly beyond snow-lines in such disks, aided by icy mantles on dust grains, but we do not know nano- and micron-scale dust combines to kilometer-sizes. Recent ALMA observations have proven the existence of snow lines in other proto-planetary systems (Qi et al Science (2013)), so it is by studying icy collisions in the laboratory that we can begin to understand the assembly of the icy bodies in our Solar System.Icy particles (between 4.7 and 10.8 mm in diameter) were collided at relative collision velocities of 0.27 - 0.51 m s-1, at 131 - 160 K, under microgravity conditions using a purpose-built experiment (Salter et al Rev Sci Inst (2010)). Bouncing was observed in the majority of collisions, across a full range of normalized impact parameters (b/R = 0.0-1.0). Coefficients of restitution were evenly spread between 0.08 and 0.65 with an average value of 0.36, leading to a minimum of 58% of translational energy being lost in the collision. The range of coefficients of restitution was attributed to the surface roughness of the particles. Analysis of particle rotation showed that up to 17% of the energy of the particles before the collision was converted into rotational energy. Temperature did not affect the coefficients of restitution over the range studied (Hill et all A&A (2015a)). The effects of chemical composition on the collisional outcomes were also studied, at relative particle impact velocities between 0.01 and 0.19 ms-1, temperatures between 131 and 160 K and a pressure of around 10-5 mbar. Overall the collisional properties of the icy particles were unchanged (Hill et al A&A (2015b)).The implications of these experimental results will be discussed in terms of our understanding of the formation and evolution of

  3. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  4. Vaporization in comets - The icy grain halo of Comet West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Cowan, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The variation with heliocentric distance of the production rates of various species in Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) is explained with a cometary model consisting of a CO2 dominated nucleus plus a halo of icy grains of H2O or clathrate hydrate. It is concluded that the parents of CN and C3 are released primarily from the nucleus but that the parent of C2 is released primarily from the halo of icy grains.

  5. Formation of ions and radicals from icy grains in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Two theoretical models for the formation of radicals from ice grains are examined to determine if this can explain the jets in comets. It is shown that the production rates for these radicals by the photolysis of molecules in the icy grains are not high enough to explain the jets. A new mechanism is proposed involving the release of cations and anions in the gas phase as the icy mantle surrounding the grains is evaporated. Solar visible radiation can then form radicals by photodetachment of the electrons from these anions. The production rate of radicals formed in this manner is in accord with the production rates of the observed radicals.

  6. Explosive desorption of icy grain mantles in dense clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, W. A.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The cycling of the condensible material in dense clouds between the gas phase and the icy grain mantles is investigated. In the model studied, desorption of the ice occurs due to grain mantle explosions when photochemically stored energy is released after transient heating by a cosmic ray particle. It is shown that, depending on the grain size distribution in dense clouds, explosive desorption can maintain up to about eight percent of the carbon in the form of CO in the gas phase at typical cloud densities.

  7. EVOLUTION OF SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF ICY GRAINS BY SUBLIMATION AND CONDENSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroiwa, Takuto; Sirono, Sin-iti

    2011-09-20

    In the outer part of a protoplanetary disk, dust grains consist of silicate core covered by an ice mantle. A temporal heating event in the disk results in sublimation of the ice mantle. After the end of the heating event, as the temperature decreases, H{sub 2}O molecules recondense on the surface of the dust grain. Ultimately, the dust grain is covered by an ice mantle. Because the equilibrium vapor pressure on the grain surface decreases with the grain size, a large grain grows faster than a small grain. As a result, the size of an icy dust grain changes as a result of the heating event. The change in size also affects the mechanical properties of the dust aggregates formed by the icy grains. In this paper, we investigated the evolution of the size distribution of icy dust grains during sublimation and condensation. We found that the size evolution of icy grains can be divided into two stages. In the first stage, the icy grains grow through condensation of H{sub 2}O molecules. In the second stage, the size of grains changes further as H{sub 2}O molecules are transferred between icy grains while the surrounding gas condenses. The size distribution of the icy dust grains becomes bimodal, with a small number of relatively large grains and many small grains without an icy mantle. Possible effects of the size change on the evolution of icy dust aggregates are discussed.

  8. Formation of ions and radicals from icy grains in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Gerth, Christopher; Hendricks, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Ion and radical formation in comets are thought to occur primarily by photodissociation of gas phase molecules. Experimental evidence and theoretical calculations are presented that show that some of the radical and ions can come directly from ice grains. The experimental evidence suggest that if the frozen molecules on the surface of grains undergo direct dissociation then they may be able to release radicals directly in the gas phase. If the molecules undergo predissociation it is unlikely that they will release radicals in the gas phase since they should be quenched. Calculations of this direct photodissociation mechanism further indicate that even if the parent molecule undergoes direct dissociation, the yield will not be high enough to explain the rays structure in comets unless the radicals are stored in the grains and then released when the grain evaporates. Calculations were also performed to determine the maximum number of ions that can be stored in an icy grain's radius. This number is compared with the ratio of the ion to neutral molecular density. The comparison suggests that some of the ions observed near the nucleus of the comet could have originally been present in the cometary nucleus. It is also pointed out that the presence of these ions in icy grains could lead to radical formation via electron recombination. Finally, an avalanche process was evaluated as another means of producing ions in comets.

  9. Does Grain Growth Stop Convection in the Icy Galilean Satellites?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, A. C.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2005-08-01

    The composite Newtonian/non-Newtonian rheology of ice I implies that the conditions required to trigger convection in an initially conductive ice I shell depend on the ice grain size (d) [Barr and Pappalardo, JGR in press, 2005]. For the icy Galilean satellites, volume diffusion accommodates initial plume growth if d<0.5 mm. Non-Newtonian GBS dominates for d>0.5 mm for sufficient thermal perturbations. The critical ice shell thickness for convection exceeds the depth to the ice I - III phase transition if d>2 cm. Vigorous convection can only occur if the grain size is small and deformation is accommodated by volume diffusion [McKinnon, Icarus in press, 2005]. If the ice grain size is sufficient for convection by GBS, convection is sluggish at best. If the grains in the shells grow to values greater than 2 cm, convection will cease. What is the likelihood that the grain size in the ice shells remains small enough to permit convection over geological time scales? We estimate ice grain sizes in a convecting shell using the empirical observation from polar ice sheets that d ˜ A σ -1, where A is a thermal activation term, and σ is shear stress [De La Chappelle et al., JGR 103, 1998], due to a balance between dynamic recrystallization and dislocation generation during flow by GBS. We use a composite volume diffusion/GBS rheology for ice I in the convection model Citcom [Barr et al., JGR, 109, 2004] to determine convective strain rates and grain sizes expected in the shells. When GBS accommodates convective strain, we find good agreement between input and predicted steady state grain sizes. Therefore, a balance between grain growth and recrystallization during flow by GBS may allow sluggish convection to persist in ice I shells with a relatively large grain size.

  10. Laboratory permittivity measurements of icy planetary analogs in the millimeter and submillimeter domains, in relation with JUICE mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Jacob, K.; Murk, A.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) spacecraft is planned for launch in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030. It will observe the planet Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. One instrument on the JUICE spacecraft is the Sub-millimeter Wave Instrument (SWI), which will measure brightness temperatures from Jupiter's stratosphere and troposphere, and from subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons. In the baseline configuration SWI consists of two tunable sub-millimeter wave receivers operating from 530 to 625 GHz. As an alternative one of the receivers could cover the range of 1080 and 1275 GHz. Inversion models are strongly dependent on the knowledge of the complex relative permittivity (hereafter permittivity) of the target material to retrieve the physical properties of the subsurface (e.g. [1][2]). We set up a laboratory experiment allowing us to perform reproducible measurements of the complex scattering parameters S11 and S21 in the ranges of 70 to 110 GHz, of 100 to 160 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz, of 140 to 220 GHz and of 510 to 715 GHz. These scattering parameters can be used to retrieve the permittivity of icy analogs of the surfaces and subsurfaces of Jupiter's icy moons in order to prepare the data interpretation of SWI [3]. The measurements are performed under laboratory conditions with a quasi-optical bench (Institute of Applied Physics, University of Bern). The icy analogs that we prepare in the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy, Physics Institute, University of Bern), include two different porous water ice samples composed of fine-grained ice particles with a size range of 4 to 6 microns and ice particles with a size range of 50 to 100 microns [4][5]; and possibly CO2 ice. We will present the general experimental set-up and the first results in the context to prepare the data interpretation of SWI. [1] Ulaby, F. T., Long, D. G., 2014. Microwave radar and radiometric remote

  11. Convection in large icy satellites with self-consistent grain-size evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, A. C.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    The viscosity of ice I is grain-size dependent for temperature and stress conditions appropriate for ice I shells of midsized and large icy satellites. Satellite thermal evolution, heat flux, critical shell thickness for convection, brittle/ductile transition depth, and potential surface deformation are grain size-dependent. We estimate grain sizes in a convecting shell using the empirical observation from polar ice sheets that d ~ A σ-1, where A is a thermal activation term, and σ is shear stress [De La Chappelle et al., JGR 103, 1998] due to dynamic recrystallization. We use a composite volume diffusion/GBS rheology for ice I in the convection model Citcom [Barr et al., JGR, 2004] to self-consistently model strain rates and grain sizes in convecting shells. Estimates of grain size are reasonable if the grain-growth time scale is less than the convective overturn time scale (~ 105 - 107 yr for large icy satellites), and the shell is free of impurities that limit grain growth. For large icy satellites, the composite rheology and uniform grain size predict sluggish convection unless the grain size is small (<1 mm). Convection can only occur if d < 2 cm [Barr and Pappalardo, JGR, in press, 2005], and then only for d < 2-4 mm if initial thermal perturbations are small [McKinnon, Icarus, in press]. Dynamic recrystallization predicts, for example, d ~ 1 mm in the convecting interior and d ~ 10 cm in the stagnant lid for an ice shell 50 km thick. Compared with models with a similar but uniform grain size in the convective region, heat fluxes are larger, and shallower brittle/ductile transition depths.

  12. Sublimating icy planetesimals as the source of nucleation seeds for grain condensation in classical novae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matese, John J.; Whitmire, D. P.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of grain nucleation during novae outbursts is a major obstacle to our understanding of dust formation in these systems. How nucleation seeds can form in the hostile post-outburst environment remains an unresolved matter. It is suggested that the material for seeding the condensation of ejecta outflow is stored in a primordial disk of icy planetesimals surrounding the system. Evidence is presented that the requisite number of nucleation seeds can be released by sublimation of the planetesimals during outbursts.

  13. Evidence for chemical processing of precometary icy grains in circumstellar environments of pre-main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C. B.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166/cm in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud cource Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166/cm absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C triple bonded to N containing compound (called X(C triple bonded to N)) that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components. We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C triple bonded to N) and frozen CO components in nonpolar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C triple bonded to N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H2O are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C triple bonded to N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main-sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  14. Evidence for Chemical Processing of Precometary Icy Grains In Circumstellar Environments of Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teglier, Stephen C.; Weintraub, David A.; Rettig, Terrence W.; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Whittet, Douglas C.; Kulesa, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of a broad absorption feature near 2166 cm-1 in the spectrum of the Taurus cloud source Elias 18. This pre-main-sequence source is the second in Taurus, the third in our survey, and the fifth known in the sky to show the broad 2166 cm-1 absorption feature. Of equal importance, this feature is not seen toward several other embedded sources in our survey, nor is it seen toward the source Elias 16, located behind the Taurus cloud. Laboratory experiments with interstellar ice analogs show that such a feature is associated with a complex C=-N containing compound [called X(C=-N)] that results from high-energy processing (ultraviolet irradiation or ion bombardment) of simple ice components into more complex, organic components, We find a nonlinear anticorrelation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in non- polar lattices. We find no correlation between the abundance of X(C=-N) and frozen CO in polar lattices. Because the abundances of frozen CO and H20 are strongly correlated with each other and with visual extinction toward sources embedded in and located behind the Taurus molecular cloud, these ice components usually are associated with intracloud material. Our results indicate that X(C=-N) molecules result from chemical processing of dust grains dominated by nonpolar icy mantles in the local environments of pre-main- sequence stars. Such processing of icy grains in the early solar system may be an important source of organic compounds observed in minor solar system bodies. The delivery of these organic compounds to the surface of the primitive Earth through comet impacts may have provided the raw materials for prebiotic chemistry.

  15. Formation of CO_2 and OCS after cosmic ion irradiation of icy grain mantles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, M. E.; Baratta, G.; Fulvio, D.; Garozzo, M.; Ioppolo, S.; Kanuchova, Z.; Leto, G.; Sangiorgio, I.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-05-01

    Molecules in the solid phase have been detected in the line of sight of quiescent molecular clouds and star forming regions as icy mantles on dust grains. Water (H_2O), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO_2), methanol (CH_3OH), carbonyl sulfide (OCS), methane (CH_4), ammonia (NH_3) and sulfur dioxide (SO_2) are the most abundant observed species (e.g. Gibb et al. 2004). It is generally accepted that some of these species (such as CO) freeze out from the gas phase while others (such as water and methanol) are formed on grains after surface reactions (Ioppolo et al. 2008). CO_2 and OCS are not expected to freeze out from the gas phase and grain surface models do not account for their observed abundance (Ruffle & Herbst 2001; Garrod et al. 2007). It has been suggested that these molecules are formed after energetic processing (i.e. cosmic ion and UV irradiation) of icy grain mantles (d'Hendecourt et al. 1986; Moore et al. 1991; Palumbo & Strazzulla 1993; Ioppolo et al. 2009; Garozzo et al. 2010 ). Here we will present the results of laboratory experiments which show the formation of CO_2 and OCS after ion irradiation of relevant ice mixture at low temperature (10-20 K). We will also present the comparison between the profile of bands in laboratory spectra with those observed in space. We will show that laboratory spectra well reproduce the interstellar features and that the amount of carbon dioxide and carbonyl sulfide formed after ion irradiation can account for the observed amount towards molecular clouds.

  16. Evidence of Icy Grains in Comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) at 3.52 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Hideyo; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Takato, Naruhisa; Sasaki, Sho; Sasaki, Takanori

    2004-02-01

    We present evidence of icy grains in the coma of comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) at 3.52 AU from the Sun. This comet will approach the Sun in the spring of 2004, and it is expected to be very bright near its perihelion passage. The comet was observed using the Subaru Telescope with the Cooled Infrared Spectrograph and Camera for OHS (CISCO) on 2003 September 14.6 (UT). The near-infrared (J, H, K) spectrum was extracted from the near-nucleus region (1250 km × 1250 km at the comet), and it showed clear absorption features at 1.5 and 2.05 μm that originated from water ice grains. The calculated reflectance spectrum, based on the intimate mixture model for water ice grains and astronomical silicate grains (the diameters are 5 and 0.5 μm, respectively), can reproduce the observed reflectance spectrum of the comet up to 2.1 μm. The poor fit for the wavelength region longer than 2.1 μm is probably indicative of other grain species to be included in the model. Furthermore, the absence of the 1.65 μm feature of crystalline water ice may indicate that the water ice was in an amorphous state during the observation.

  17. Herschel-Resolved Outer Belts of Two-Belt Debris Disks--Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Werner, Michael W.; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-12-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 57 main sequence stars (42 A-type and 15 solar-type) with previously known warm dust (Twarm ~200K) detected and characterized by Spitzer. About half of the star-disk systems in our sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures that mirror that of the asteroid-Kuiper belt geometry of our own solar system. The Herschel observations at 70 and/or 100 micron spatially resolve the cold/outer dust component for 18 two-belt debris systems (15 for the first time; 10 are also resolved at 160 micron), finding evidence of planetesimals at >100 AU, i.e. larger size than assumed from a simple blackbody fit to the SED. By breaking the degeneracy between the grain properties and the dust's radial location, the resolved images help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust's composition for each system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+MIPS (5 to 70 micron), the Herschel/PACS (70 and/or 100 and 160 micron) dataset, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that the majority of resolved cold/outer belts of star+disk systems are well fit with a mixed ice/rock composition, rather than pure rocky grains. In the absence of spectral features for ice, we find that the behavior of the continuum can help constrain the composition of the grains well (of icy nature and not pure rocky material) given the Herschel-resolved locations of the cold/outer dust belts. We have also begin to identify the presence of candidate companions via Keck direct imaging, which may be interacting with the observed dust.

  18. Formation of interstellar solid CO{_2} after energetic processing of icy grain mantles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioppolo, S.; Palumbo, M. E.; Baratta, G. A.; Mennella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Space infrared observations with ISO-SWS and Spitzer telescopes have clearly shown that solid carbon dioxide (CO{2}) is ubiquitous and abundant along the line of sight to quiescent clouds and star forming regions. Due to the CO2 low gas-phase abundance, it is suggested that CO{2} is synthesized on grains after energetic processing of icy mantles and/or surface reactions. Aims: We study quantitatively the abundance of carbon dioxide synthesized from ice mixtures of astrophysical relevance induced by ion irradiation at low temperature. We compare the CO{2} stretching and bending-mode band profiles observed towards some young stellar objects (YSOs) for which infrared spectra exist. Methods: Using a high vacuum experimental setup, the effects induced by fast ions (30-200 keV) on several ice mixtures of astrophysical interest are investigated. Chemical and structural modifications of the ice samples that form new molecular species are analyzed using infrared spectroscopy. The formation cross section of solid CO{2} is estimated from the increase in column density as a function of the dose fitting of experimental data with an exponential curve. Results: Our laboratory experiments showed that carbon dioxide is formed after irradiation of ice mixtures containing C- and O-bearing molecules. Furthermore, when the same amount of energy is released into the icy sample, a larger amount of CO{2} is formed in H{2}O-rich mixtures in agreement with previous studies. We also found that the CO2 stretching and bending mode band profiles depend on the mixture and temperature of the ice sample. We found that the amount of carbon dioxide formed after ion irradiation can account for the observed carbon dioxide towards YSOs. Furthermore, we discovered that laboratory spectra are a good spectroscopic analogue of the interstellar features. Conclusions: Even if the comparison between laboratory and observed spectra presented here cannot be considered unique and complete, our results

  19. Prebiotic chemistry in icy grain mantles in space. An experimental and observational approach.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Caro, Guillermo M; Dartois, Emmanuel

    2013-03-07

    A compendium of different solid carbonaceous materials detected in space is presented, focussing on the search for organic matter of prebiotic interest. This journey takes us from the carbon grains likely formed in the atmospheres of evolved stars to organic grain mantles made from ice processing thought to be present in dense interstellar clouds and circumstellar regions, making a stop in solar system objects that could have delivered organic species to the early Earth. The most abundant carbon materials detected to date in space appear to be of little biological relevance. On the other hand, organic refractory residues, made in the laboratory from UV-photoprocessing followed by warm-up of interstellar ice analogs, are a hydrocarbon material rich in O and N containing chemical compounds that could act as initiators of prebiotic chemistry. A similar material might be present in dust grains inside dense clouds or circumstellar regions, some comets, and as a minor component in carbonaceous chondrites. We use infrared spectroscopy as a tool to spot organic refractory matter in various space environments. The delivery of organic materials via comets, (micro-) meteorites, and interplanetary dust particles to the primitive Earth might have contributed as a starting material for prebiotic chemistry. To test this hypothesis, it is first essential to characterize the composition of exogenous organic matter.

  20. THE UPTAKE OF INTERSTELLAR GASEOUS CO INTO ICY GRAIN MANTLES IN A QUIESCENT DARK CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Whittet, D. C. B.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2010-09-01

    Data from the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory CO Mapping Survey of the Taurus molecular cloud are combined with extinction data for a sample of 292 background field stars to investigate the uptake of CO from the gas to icy grain mantles on dust within the cloud. On the assumption that the reservoir of CO in the ices is represented well by the combined abundances of solid CO and solid CO{sub 2} (which forms by oxidation of CO on the dust), we find that the total column density (gas + solid) correlates tightly with visual extinction (A{sub V}) over the range 5 mag < A{sub V} < 30 mag, i.e., up to the highest extinctions covered by our sample. The mean depletion of gas-phase CO, expressed as {delta}(CO) = N(CO){sub ice}/N(CO){sub total}, increases monotonically from negligible levels for A{sub V} {approx}< 5 to {approx} 0.3 at A{sub V} = 10 and {approx} 0.6 at A{sub V} = 30. As these results refer to line-of-sight averages, they must be considered lower limits to the actual depletion at loci deep within the cloud, which may approach unity. We show that it is plausible for such high levels of depletion to be reached in dense cores on timescales {approx}0.6 Myr, comparable with their expected lifetimes. Dispersal of cores during star formation may be effective in maintaining observable levels of gaseous CO on the longer timescales estimated for the age of the cloud.

  1. Photometry and bulk physical properties of Solar System surfaces icy analogs: The Planetary Ice Laboratory at University of Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Affolter, M.; Portyankina, G.; Jost, B.; Seiferlin, K.; Aye, K.-M.

    2011-10-01

    We have designed and constructed an original facility to characterize the VIS-NIR Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and some complementary bulk physical properties of planetary analog samples containing water ice. The central part of the facility is a highly accurate gonio-radiometer (PHIRE-2) operating in the VIS-NIR spectral range (400-1100 nm) installed in a large laboratory freezer. Its development was based on the experience gained on the gonio-radiometer PHIRE-1 (Gunderson et al., 2006). The PHIRE-1 design was modified to permit operations at sub-zero temperatures and to optimize the performance of the instrument. The photometric measurements are complemented by a detailed simultaneous characterization of the physical state and possible temporal evolution of the samples using a combination of macro- and micro-imaging, thermal, electrical and sample mass measurements. The modified design will support the interpretation of current and future remote sensing and in-situ datasets on icy planetary objects with a special emphasis on cometary nuclei, Martian polar regions and Jovian satellites.

  2. Grain sizes, surface areas, and porosities of vapor-deposited H2O ices used to simulate planetary icy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Boxe, C S; Bodsgard, B R; Smythe, W; Leu, M T

    2007-05-15

    Mean grain sizes and specific surface areas (SSAs) of ice substrates formed by vapor deposition at low temperatures are of importance in simulating external surfaces of icy satellites in the solar system. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used to obtain granule sizes and to observe the phase of ice granules prepared on borosilicate, silicon, and metallic plates. Ices prepared at a temperature lower than 140 K appear to be amorphous, and their granule sizes are typically submicrometer. At slightly warmer temperatures, near 180-200 K, ice films are composed of either hexagonal or cubic granules with sizes up to a few micrometers. When briefly annealed to even warmer temperatures, ice granule sizes approach approximately 10 microm. SSAs of ice substrates were determined from BET (Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller) analysis of gas adsorption isotherms in the temperature range from 83.5 to 261 K. SSAs decrease drastically from 102 m2/g at 83.5 K to 0.87 m2/g at 150 K and further decrease slowly to 0.22 m2/g at 261 K, suggesting that the transition from amorphous to crystalline forms occurs at approximately 150 K. The overall decrease in SSAs is primarily due to metamorphism and sintering. These results are comparable to recent field and laboratory measurements. Possible implications for theoretical models of icy satellites of outer planets using remote sensing techniques are also discussed.

  3. Ion-Ice Astrochemistry: Barrierless Low-Energy Deposition Pathways to HCOOH, CH3OH, and CO2 on Icy Grain Mantles from Precursor Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woon, David E.

    2011-01-01

    A new family of very favorable reaction pathways is explored involving the deposition of ions on icy grain mantles with very low energies. Quantum chemical cluster calculations at the MP2/6-31+G** level in 4H2O clusters and at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level in 17H2O clusters indicate that HCO+ and CH3 + are able to react spontaneously with one of the water molecules in the cluster to form protonated formic acid (HCOOH2 +) and protonated methanol (CH3OH2 +), respectively. It is furthermore found that these initial adducts spontaneously transfer their excess protons to the cluster to form neutral formic acid and methanol, plus solvated hydronium, H3O+. In the final case, if a CO molecule is bound to the surface of the cluster, OH+ may react with it to form protonated carbon dioxide (HCO2 +), which then loses its proton to yield CO2 and H3O+. In the present model, all of these processes were found to occur with no barriers. Discussion includes the analogous gas phase processes, which have been considered in previous studies, as well as the competitive abstraction pathway for HCO(+) + H2O.

  4. The Effects of Cracking on the Surface Potential of Icy Grains in Saturn’s E-Ring: Laboratory Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Caixia; Bahr, David A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Baragiola, Raúl A.

    2016-07-01

    Within Saturn's E-ring, dust grains are coated by water vapor co-released with ice grains from the geyser-like eruptions of Enceladus. These ice-coated grains have intrinsic surface potential and interact synergistically with the ions and electrons of Saturn's magnetospheric plasmas. We perform laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of water-ice growth on the surface potential, using amorphous solid water (ASW) films. We estimate the growth of the surface potential to be ˜-2.5 mV (Earth) yr-1 and -112 mV yr-1 for E-ring grains at ˜4.5R s and 3.95R s outside Enceladus’s plume, respectively. In addition, our measurements show that the linear relationship between the surface potential and the film thickness, as described in previous studies, has an upper limit, where the film spontaneously cracks above a porosity-dependent critical thickness. Heating of the cracked films with (and without) deposited charge shows that significant positive (and negative) surface potentials are retained at temperatures above 110 K, contrary to the minimal values (roughly zero) for thin, transparent ASW films. The significant surface potentials observed on micron-scale cracked ice films after thermal cycling, -(5-20) V, are consistent with Cassini measurements, which indicate a negative charge of up to -5 V for E-ring dust particles at ˜5R s. Therefore, the native grain surface potential resulting from water-vapor coating must be included in modeling studies of interactions between E-ring icy surfaces and Saturn's magnetospheric plasma.

  5. Sublimation and reformation of icy grains in the primitive solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Engel, Steffi; Rizk, Bashar; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1991-01-01

    The quantity of water ice that sublimates during the free fall of grains into the solar nebula from a surrounding interstellar cloud varies from over 90 percent of the grain mass as 30 AU from the nebular center to less than 10 percent at more than 100 AU. Virtually all the water that is sublimated ultimately recondenses, since the cold nebular gas lying beyond 10 AU is unable to hold more than a small portion as vapor. The return of most of the gas to solid phase near the nebular ambient temperature, of about 50 K, may result in at least two grain populations consisting, in one case, of unaltered interstellar grains which did not undergo sublimation, and in the other of water ice which cocondensed with more volatile gases at nebular ambient temperatures to yield volatile-rich amorphous phases.

  6. FORMATION OF FORMALDEHYDE AND CARBON DIOXIDE ON AN ICY GRAIN ANALOG USING FAST HYDROGEN ATOMS

    SciTech Connect

    Madzunkov, S. M.; MacAskill, J. A.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Vidali, G.; Shortt, B. J.

    2009-05-20

    Formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were produced in collisions of a superthermal, 3 eV beam of H({sup 2}S) atoms with CO molecules adsorbed on a gold surface at 4.8 K. The reaction-generated products were detected and analyzed using the techniques of temperature programmed desorption (TPD), quadrupole mass spectrometry, and a novel application of the Metropolis algorithm, random-walk procedure to identify the unique fractionation patterns of H{sub 2}CO and CO{sub 2} from the patterns of other species such as N{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O embedded in the CO blanket and devolved in the TPD/mass spectrometry process. Reaction sequences are given to account for the formation of H{sub 2}CO and CO{sub 2}.

  7. Consequence of Electron Mobility in Icy Grains on Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudipati, Murthy; Allamandola, L. J.; Cooper, J. F.; Sturner, S.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    Solar system ices have been shown to contain organic molecules, whether in the ice on Mars, comets such as Tempel-1 or on the surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Sub-surface oceans containing ionic salts have been proposed to interpret the induced components of the local magnetic fields at these Galilean moons. Recent laboratory studies have shown that radiation processing of water-rich ices containing aromatic organic impurities readily ionizes organic molecules imbedded in an ice matrix. As a result, transient charge separation is produced more efficiently in ices containing organic impurities. This charge separation is partially stabilized by electron trapping. This could have important consequences since the icy moons of the giant planets are imbedded in both the magnetic field and trapped particle radiation environments of the planetary magnetospheres. Here we present new experimental results and theoretical modelling that deals with mobility of electrons produced by photoionization of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in an ice matrix. We find that a small portion of the electrons (about 5% of the originally generated) are weakly trapped in the impurity-containing ices and can be made mobile at temperatures between 50 K and 125 K. Current flow of these mobile electrons could affect electrical conductivity of the irradiated surfaces and contribute to induced magnetic fields. This solid-state micro-ionospheric environment, comparable to a thin metallic conducting shell, may then need to be taken into account, along with the above-surface ionosphere, in modelling background variations affecting detection of induced magnetic fields from the sub-surface oceans. References: 1. M. S. Gudipati, L. J. Allamandola, J. F. Cooper, S. Sturner, R. E. Johnson (in preparation) 2. J. F. Cooper, R. E. Johnson, B. H. Mauk, H. B. Garrett, N. Gehrels, Icarus 149, 133 (2001). 3. M. S. Gudipati, L. J. Allamandola, Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110, 9020 (2006).

  8. Herschel-resolved Outer Belts of Two-belt Debris Disks—Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust (T warm ˜ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer. Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μm), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid-Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μm) and Herschel/PACS (70-to-160 μm) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout (f MB = a min/a BOS ˜ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel-unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, with important participation from NASA.

  9. Consequence of Electron Mobility in Icy Grains on Solar System Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudipati, M. S.; Allamandola, L. J.; Cooper, J. F.; Sturner, S. J.; Johnson, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    Solar system ices have been shown to contain organic molecules, whether in the ice on Mars, comets such as Tempel-1 (from the Deep Impact mission) or on the surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Sub-surface oceans containing ionic salts have been proposed to interpret the induced components of the local magnetic fields at these Galilean moons. Presence of liquid water is thought to be a requirement for potential astrobiological habilitability, particularly on Europa where the putative subsurface ocean is likely closest to the outer surface. Recent laboratory studies have shown that radiation processing of water-rich ices containing aromatic organic impurities readily ionizes organic molecules imbedded in an ice matrix. As a result, transient charge separation is produced more efficiently in ices containing organic impurities. This charge separation is partially stabilized by electron trapping. This could have important consequences since the icy moons of the giant planets are imbedded in both the magnetic field and trapped particle radiation environments of the planetary magnetospheres. Internal discharges of accumulated free charges (i.e. ice lightning) could significantly affect molecular chemistry of the irradiated outer layer beyond the direct effects of irradiation. Here we present new experimental results and theoretical modelling that deals with mobility of electrons produced by photoionization of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in an ice matrix. We find that a small portion of the electrons (about 5% of the originally generated) are weakly trapped in the impurity-containing ices and can be made mobile at temperatures between 50 K and 125 K. Current flow of these mobile electrons could affect electrical conductivity of the irradiated surfaces and contribute to induced magnetic fields. This solid-state micro-ionospheric environment, comparable to a thin metallic conducting shell, may then need to be taken into account, along with the above

  10. Mineralogy of Rock Flour in Glaciated Volcanic Terrains: An Analog for a Cold and Icy Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Scudder, N.; Smith, R. J.; Rutledge, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Geomorphological and mineralogical data from early Martian surfaces indicate liquid water was present on ancient Mars. The relative surface temperatures, however, remain a subject of debate. Was early Mars warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of warmth and ice melt? By characterizing the mineralogy and geochemistry of modern icy mafic terrains on Earth, we can search for these characteristics in early Martian terrains to better constrain the early Martian climate. Here, we describe the mineralogy of glacial flour in a modern glaciated volcanic terrain in Oregon, USA. We are particularly interested in secondary phases that form in these environments, and we hypothesize that poorly crystalline phases may preferentially form in these terrains because of the low temperatures and the seasonality of melt water production. A description of the mineralogy of the moraines, the composition of the amorphous materials, and the geochemistry of the glacial melt waters are presented elsewhere. Glacial flour is made up of silt- and clay-sized particles that form from the physical weathering of rock underlying a wet-based glacier as the glacier slides over it. Flour is usually transported from underneath a glacier by melt water streams. The geochemistry of glacial melt water streams has been studied extensively and has been used to infer weathering reactions within glacial systems. However, the mineralogy of these environments, especially on mafic volcanic terrains, is not well studied. Rock flour is a ubiquitous physical weathering product in glaciated terrains and, therefore, affects microbial habitats, stream and lake chemistry, and chemical weathering processes. and by studying the mineralogy of glacial flour, we can better understand geochemical and microbiological processes in subglacial and proglacial terrains.

  11. The influence of temperature on the synthesis of molecules on icy grain mantles in dense molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garozzo, M.; La Rosa, L.; Kanuchova, Z.; Ioppolo, S.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Infrared observations show the presence of icy mantles along the line of sight toward young stellar objects (YSOs), where a temperature gradient is expected and indirectly observed. In this environment, icy mantles are affected by ion and UV irradiation. Laboratory experiments show that molecules are formed after irradiation of icy mixtures. However, most of the experiments done so far have been performed in the temperatures range of 10-20 K. Aims: To extend previous work we irradiated some icy mixtures, namely H2O:CO=10:1, H2O:CH4=4:1, and H2O:CO2=3:1 at two different temperatures (12 K and 40 or 60 K) to study the effects of temperature on the synthesis of molecules and the decrease in their parent species after ion irradiation. Methods: The experiments were performed in a high-vacuum chamber (P < 10-7 mbar), where icy samples were irradiated with 30 keV He+ ions and analyzed by a FTIR spectrophotometer. Infrared spectra of the samples were recorded after various steps of irradiation. Results: We found that the temperature affects the behavior of the volatile species (i.e., CO and CH4) during irradiation. As a consequence, the production of molecular species is generally more prevalent at 12 K than at either 40 or 60 K, while the decrease in their parent volatile species is faster at high temperature. Conclusions: We conclude that the behavior of each species depends on the value of its sublimation temperature with respect to the temperature of the sample. If this latter is higher than the sublimation temperature of a given species, then the effects of thermal desorption compete with those due to irradiation.

  12. Laboratory Annealing Experiments Of Refractory Silicate Grain Analogs Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Yuki; Nuth, Joseph A., III; Tsukamota, Katsuo; Kaito, Chihiro

    2010-01-01

    Exothermic reactions during the annealing of laboratory synthesized amorphous magnesium-bearing silicate particles used as grain analogs of cosmic dust were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in air. With infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we show that cosmic dust could possibly undergo fusion to larger particles, with oxidation of magnesium silicide and crystallization of forsterite as exothermic reactions in the early solar system. The reactions begin at approximately 425, approximately 625, and approximately 1000 K, respectively, and the reaction energies (enthalpies) are at least 727, 4151, and 160.22 J per gram, respectively. During the crystallization of forsterite particles, the spectral evolution of the 10 micrometer feature from amorphous to crystalline was observed to begin at lower temperature than the crystallization temperature of 1003 K. During spectral evolution at lower temperature, nucleation and/or the formation of nanocrystallites of forsterite at the surface of the grain analogs was observed.

  13. Water production rate of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) throughout the 2011-2012 apparition: Evidence for an icy grain halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, M. R.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Fougere, N.

    2013-07-01

    The all-sky hydrogen Lyman-alpha camera, SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies), on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite made observations of the hydrogen coma of Comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd) throughout its apparition from August 15, 2011 through April 6, 2012. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by the comet is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge atomic hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily full-sky SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 117 images over 8 months of the apparition yielding about 1 observation every 2 days on the average. The activity during much of the pre-perihelion leg was much larger than the post-perihelion leg and varied rather irregularly, not following the more typical steadily increasing trend with decreasing heliocentric distance. It varied generally between 1 and 3 × 1029 s-1, with a peak value of 4 × 1029 s-1 on November 3, 2011, 50 days before perihelion. The elevated production rate from the very large SWAN field-of-view compared with smaller aperture observations could be consistent with water production from icy particles rather than from gas sublimated directly from the nucleus. Scenarios for the nature and production of the icy grain source are explored. During the post-perihelion leg the water production rate decreased more uniformly and typically from 2 × 1029 s-1 at perihelion, approximately as r-3.2, where r is the heliocentric distance. This is consistent with water sublimation from a reasonably constant total surface area.

  14. Olivine in terminal particles of Stardust aerogel tracks and analogous grains in chondrite matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Le, Loan

    2014-10-01

    The dearth of both major and minor element analyses of anhydrous silicate phases in chondrite matrix has thus far hindered their comparison to the Wild 2 samples. We present 68 analyses of olivine (Fa0-97) in the coarse-grained terminal particles of Stardust aerogel tracks and a comprehensive dataset (>103 analyses) of analogous olivine grains (5-30 μm) isolated in CI, CM, CR, CH, CO, CV3-oxidized, CV3-reduced, C3-ungrouped (Acfer 094 and Ningqiang), L/LL 3.0-4, EH3, and Kakangari chondrite matrix. These compositions reveal that Wild 2 likely accreted a diverse assortment of material that was radially transported from various carbonaceous and ordinary chondrite-forming regions. The Wild 2 olivine includes amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), refractory forsterite, type I and type II chondrule fragments and/or microchondrules, and rare relict grain compositions. In addition, we have identified one terminal particle that has no known compositional analog in the meteorite record and may be a signature of low-temperature, aqueous processing in the Kuiper Belt. The generally low Cr content of FeO-rich olivine in the Stardust samples indicates that they underwent mild thermal metamorphism, akin to a petrologic grade of 3.05-3.15.

  15. The Structure of Ice Nanoclusters and Thin-films of Water Ice: Implications for Icy Grains in Cold Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance; Blake, David; Uffindell, Christine; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The cubic to hexagonal phase transformation in water ice (I(sub c) yields I(sub h)) is used to measure the extent to which surface structure and impurities control bulk properties. In pure crystalline (I(sub c)) water ice nanoclusters and in thin-films of impure water ice, I(sub c) yields I(sub h) occurs at lower temperatures than in thin-films of pure water ice. The disordered surface of the 20 nm diameter nanoclusters promotes transformations or reactions which would otherwise be kinetically hindered. Likewise, impurities such as methanol introduce defects into the ice network, thereby allowing sluggish structural transitions to proceed. Such surface-related phenomena play an important role in promoting chemical reactions on interstellar ice grains within cold molecular clouds, where the first organic compounds are formed.

  16. Interstellar silicate analogs for grain-surface reaction experiments: Gas-phase condensation and characterization of the silicate dust grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sabri, T.; Jäger, C.; Gavilan, L.; Lemaire, J. L.; Vidali, G.; Henning, T.

    2014-01-10

    Amorphous, astrophysically relevant silicates were prepared by laser ablation of siliceous targets and subsequent quenching of the evaporated atoms and clusters in a helium/oxygen gas atmosphere. The described gas-phase condensation method can be used to synthesize homogeneous and astrophysically relevant silicates with different compositions ranging from nonstoichiometric magnesium iron silicates to pyroxene- and olivine-type stoichiometry. Analytical tools have been used to characterize the morphology, composition, and spectral properties of the condensates. The nanometer-sized silicate condensates represent a new family of cosmic dust analogs that can generally be used for laboratory studies of cosmic processes related to condensation, processing, and destruction of cosmic dust in different astrophysical environments. The well-characterized silicates comprising amorphous Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, as well as the corresponding crystalline silicates forsterite and fayalite, produced by thermal annealing of the amorphous condensates, have been used as real grain surfaces for H{sub 2} formation experiments. A specifically developed ultra-high vacuum apparatus has been used for the investigation of molecule formation experiments. The results of these molecular formation experiments on differently structured Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} described in this paper will be the topic of the next paper of this series.

  17. Survival of refractory presolar grain analogs during Stardust-like impact into Al foils: Implications for Wild 2 presolar grain abundances and study of the cometary fine fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. K.; Floss, C.; Haas, B. A.; Burchell, M. J.; Kearsley, A. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present results of FIB-TEM studies of 12 Stardust analog Al foil craters which were created by firing refractory Si and Ti carbide and nitride grains into Al foils at 6.05 km s-1 with a light-gas gun to simulate capture of cometary grains by the Stardust mission. These foils were prepared primarily to understand the low presolar grain abundances (both SiC and silicates) measured by SIMS in Stardust Al foil samples. Our results demonstrate the intact survival of submicron SiC, TiC, TiN, and less-refractory Si3N4 grains. In small (<2 μm) craters that are formed by single grain impacts, the entire impacting crystalline grain is often preserved intact with minimal modification. While they also survive in crystalline form, grains at the bottom of larger craters (>5 μm) are typically fragmented and are somewhat flattened in the direction of impact due to partial melting and/or plastic deformation. The low presolar grain abundance estimates derived from SIMS measurements of large craters (mostly >50 μm) likely result from greater modification of these impactors (i.e., melting and isotopic dilution), due to higher peak temperatures/pressures in these crater impacts. The better survivability of grains in smaller craters suggests that more accurate presolar grain estimates may be achievable through measurement of such craters. It also suggests small craters can provide a complementary method of study of the Wild 2 fine fraction, especially for refractory CAI-like minerals.

  18. Icy Satellites: Perpetual Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Moore, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The ice-rich moons of the outer solar system are worlds of perpetual permafrost. By analogy to the terrestrial roles of silicates and water ice, surface materials of these worlds commonly consist of components that are respectively refractory and volatile at local environmental conditions. We consider the physical properties, volatile components, and geomorphological characteristics of outer planet satellite surfaces and shallow regoliths as analogs to permafrost environments. Near-surface temperatures of ~40 to 165 K preclude melting of water-ice, except where endogenic activity has increased surface temperatures locally. However, water and/or more volatile ices can be transported in the vapor phase, and can liquefy in the deeper subsurface. In the water-ice-poor regolith of Io, SO2 and possibly H2S are volatile ices that can be transported in the vapor phase and can liquefy at depth, resulting in degradation and local collapse of the ground surface. Sublimation degradation is especially evident in images of Callisto, where slow diffusive loss of CO2 is the likely erosive agent. On Neptune's large moon Triton, nitrogen plays the role of a permafrost volatile, near its melting temperature in a regolith of more refractory ices. Most large icy satellites probably have water-rich subsurface oceans, and it has been proposed that Europa's subsurface ocean might sustain life. Frigid surface temperatures and severe charged particle radiation preclude near-surface metabolism, but organisms could potentially survive within deeper regions and local upwelling plumes that approach the ice melting temperature.

  19. Impact Features on Europa: Rheological and Thermal States of the Icy Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mevel, L.; Grasset, O.; Mercier, E.

    2001-03-01

    Rheological and thermal characteristics of Europa icy crust are studied in the two impact features Tyre and Callanish. The importance of grain size, composition, and deformation rates, on the rheological structure of the icy crust are investigated.

  20. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in grain rotation and alignment has not been achieved. As there appears to be no experimental data available on this subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron size nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 Angstroms, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low frequency (approximately 0-100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in the light of the current theories of alignment.

  1. Photoelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. a.; Camata, R. P.

    2006-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much different from the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approx. 0.09-5 micrometer radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with ultraviolet radiation at 120-160 nm wavelengths. The measured yields are found to be substantially higher than the bulk values given in the literature and indicate a size dependence with larger particles having order-of-magnitude higher values than for submicron-size grains.

  2. Laboratory Experiments on Rotation and Alignment of the Analogs of Interstellar Dust Grains by Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; Gallagher, D. L.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Witherow, W. K.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2004-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains have been of great interest in astrophysics ever since the surprising discovery of the polarization of starlight more than half a century ago. Numerous theories, detailed mathematical models, and numerical studies of grain rotation and alignment with respect to the Galactic magnetic field have been presented in the literature. In particular, the subject of grain rotation and alignment by radiative torques has been shown to be of particular interest in recent years. However, despite many investigations, a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the processes involved in subject, we have carried out some unique experiments to illuminate the processes involved in the rotation of dust grains in the interstellar medium. In this paper we present the results of some preliminary laboratory experiments on the rotation of individual micron/submicron-sized, nonspherical dust grains levitated in an electrodynamic balance evacuated to pressures of approximately 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) torr. The particles are illuminated by laser light at 5320 A, and the grain rotation rates are obtained by analyzing the low-frequency (approximately 0 - 100 kHz) signal of the scattered light detected by a photodiode detector. The rotation rates are compared with simple theoretical models to retrieve some basic rotational parameters. The results are examined in light of the current theories of alignment.

  3. Phototelectric Emission Measurements on the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.; Weingartner, J. C.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Nuth, J. A.; Camata, R. P.; Gerakines, P. A.

    2005-01-01

    The photoelectric emission process is considered to be the dominant mechanism for charging of cosmic dust grains in many astrophysical environments. The grain charge and the equilibrium potentials play an important role in the dynamical and physical processes that include heating of the neutral gas in the interstellar medium, coagulation processes in the dust clouds, and levitation and dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium and planetary surfaces and rings. An accurate evaluation of photoelectric emission processes requires knowledge of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of astrophysical composition as opposed to the values obtained from measurements on flat surfaces of bulk materials, as it is generally assumed on theoretical considerations that the yields for the small grains are much higher than the bulk values. We present laboratory measurements of the photoelectric yields of individual dust grains of silica, olivine, and graphite of approximately 0.09 to 8 microns radii levitated in an electrodynamic balance and illuminated with W radiation at 120 to 160 nm wavelengths. The measured values and the size dependence of the yields are found to be substantially different from the bulk values given in the literature.

  4. Laboratory Investigations of the Physical and Optical Properties of the Analogs of Individual Cosmic Dust Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.; Tankosic, D.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Microdsub-micron size cosmic dust grains play an important role in the physical and dynamical process in the galaxy, the interstellar medium, and the interplanetary and planetary environments. The dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged by a variety of mechanisms that include collisional process with electrons and ions, and photoelectric emissions with UV radiation. The photoelectric emission process is believed to be the dominant process in many astrophysical environments with nearby UV sources, such as the interstellar medium, diffuse clouds, the outer regions of the dense molecular clouds, interplanetary medium, dust in planetary environments and rings, cometary tails, etc. Also, the processes and mechanisms involved in the rotation and alignment of interstellar dust grains are of great interest in view of the polarization of observed starlight as a probe for evaluation of the galactic magnetic field.

  5. Reflectance Spectra of Regolith Analogs in the middle-IR: Influence of Grain Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bras, A.

    1999-09-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy of asteroids permits to infer the mineral composition of their surface. Since spectral mineral features are sensitive to surface parameters such as grain size, regolith compactness, temperature, maturity,... the interpretation of remote-sensing asteroids spectra is not easy nor unique. Asteroids family members show a continuous dispersion of their spectral characteristics (Doressoudiram et al., 1997) which seems to be due first to a compositional variation but also to some space weathering processes. Space weathering may contribute to the spectral dispersion of the smallest S-type asteroids too. New laboratory spectra are required in order to understand the influence of surface parameters and space weathering effects, and to interpret the recent high-spectral resolution observations from ISO. We started an experimental program at Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale (Orsay, France), using the 2.5-120 microns interferometer spectrometer, to study the influence of surface parameters on mineral features. First, we study grain size effects with two types of terrestrial rocks: anorthosite (bright) and basalt (dark) in the 2-40 microns range. In a second part, we will extend our experiments to other samples (meteorites and asteroid-like mixtures), and to the visible and NIR range. We present the experimental setup and the preliminary results obtained for 6 different grain size ranges with basalt and anorthosite.

  6. Will Organic Synthesis Within Icy Grains or on Dust Surfaces in the Primitive Solar Nebula Completely Erase the Effects of Photochemical Self Shielding?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    There are at least 3 separate photochemical self-shielding models with different degrees of commonality. All of these models rely on the selective absorption of (12))C(16)O dissociative photons as the radiation source penetrates through the gas allowing the production of reactive O-17 and O-18 atoms within a specific volume. Each model also assumes that the undissociated C(16)O is stable and does not participate in the chemistry of nebular dust grains. In what follows we will argue that this last, very important assumption is simply not true despite the very high energy of the CO molecular bond.

  7. PCS-ICIS Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  8. Masking water ice on small icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetto, R.

    2011-10-01

    Additional clues on the surface composition of small icy bodies come from the laboratory study of cometary grains, such as some interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere. These studies indicate the presence of refractory carbonaceous units that are usually sub-micron in size, i.e. smaller than the wavelength commonly used in remote sensing spectral observations of icy bodies. Based on this evidence, it has been suggested [2] that reddening of small icy bodies may be caused by submicron particles of organic material of pre-solar origin trapped in ice. According to this model, the amount of reddening varies with the concentration of organics to ice. To extend these results, we are developing a space weathering spectral model for small icy bodies that is compatible with laboratory measurements of collected cometary particles [3], and that takes into account the surface processing by solar and cosmic ions. Following the approach of Grundy [2], our model makes use of the Hapke scattering theory and of the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory to approximate the effect of carbon subwavelength inclusions. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed in view of their application to icy body surfaces. The conditions for the NIR spectral detection of water ice will be estimated. We will show that up to ~50% of water ice can be spectroscopically masked at 10% detection sensitivity due to the strong absorption of the sub-micron carbonaceous component, similarly to what previously found in the case of carbon-enriched crusts [4].

  9. VIS-NIR Spectrophotometric Study of the Saturnian icy Satellites by Cassini-VIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Tosi, F.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Adriani, A.; McCord, T. B.; Baines, K. H.; Bellucci, G.; Brown, R. H.; Bibring, J.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Combes, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Formisano, V.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y. G.; Matson, D. L.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R. M.; Nicholson, P. D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.

    2007-12-01

    After the first three years of the nominal mission aboard the Cassini probe the VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) experiment has collected more than one thousand useful full-disk observations of both regular (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus, Phoebe) and minor (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso) icy moons of Saturn. These data, acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage, are analyzed by using several spectroscopic indicators (I/F continuum level, slopes, bands strengths) in order to identify analogies and differences in the compositional units of satellites and derive the phase curves at different longitudes; many observations acquired close to zero phase angle allow us to measure the opposition surge effect on several satellites. Concerning the composition we have derived the distribution of the water ice abundance and grain size from the almost pure icy surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. We report about the differences observed in the CO2 band position which is shifted at shorter wavelengths on Hyperion respect to Phoebe and Iapetus; this effect is probably related to a different distribution of clathrates on these icy surfaces. This research was completed thanks to the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  10. Icy Collisions - Planet Building beyond the snowline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, Sabrina; Hill, Catherine; Heisselmann, Daniel; Blum, Juergen; Fraser, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Collisions of small icy and dust particles beyond the “snow-line” are a key step in planet formation. Whilst the physical forces that underpin the aggregation of the smallest grains (van der Waals) and the largest planetessimals (gravity) are well understood, the processes involving mm - cm sized particles remain a mystery.In a unique set of experiments, we investigated low velocity collisions of dust and icy particles in this size range under microgravity conditions - utilizing parabolic flight (e.g. Salter 2009, Hill 2015 (a) & (b)). Experiments were performed at cryogenic temperatures (below 140 K) for icy aggregates and ambient as well as cryogenic temperatures (80 - 220 K) for dust aggregates.The kinetic analysis of the observed collisions of different aggregate types in different shapes and sizes revealed astonishing results - as the collisional properties of all investigated particles differ strongly from the usual assumptions in models of planet formation.Here, we present a summary of the results on the collisions of icy particles as well as first results on the collisions of dust aggregates. Focus will be on the coefficient of restitution, which measures the loss of translational energy in bouncing collisions and is a key parameter in models of planet formation.

  11. Modeling of light scattering by icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, L.; Mackowski, D.; Pitman, K.; Verbiscer, A.; Buratti, B.; Momary, T.

    2014-07-01

    As a result of ground-based, space-based, and in-situ spacecraft mission observations, a great amount of photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic data of icy bodies (satellites of giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, comet nuclei, and icy particles in cometary comae and rings) has been accumulated. These data have revealed fascinating light-scattering phenomena, such as the opposition surge resulting from coherent backscattering and shadow hiding and the negative polarization associated with them. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of these bodies are especially informative as the depth, width, and shape of the absorption bands of ice are sensitive not only to the ice abundance but also to the size of icy grains. Numerous NIR spectra obtained by Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have been used to map the microcharacteristics of the icy satellites [1] and rings of Saturn [2]. VIMS data have also permitted a study of the opposition surge for icy satellites of Saturn [3], showing that coherent backscattering affects not only brightness and polarization of icy bodies but also their spectra [4]. To study all of the light-scattering phenomena that affect the photopolarimetric and spectroscopic characteristics of icy bodies, including coherent backscattering, requires computer modeling that rigorously considers light scattering by a large number of densely packed small particles that form either layers (in the case of regolith) or big clusters (ring and comet particles) . Such opportunity has appeared recently with a development of a new version MSTM4 of the Multi-Sphere T-Matrix code [5]. Simulations of reflectance and absorbance spectra of a ''target'' (particle layer or cluster) require that the dimensions of the target be significantly larger than the wavelength, sphere radius, and layer thickness. For wavelength-sized spheres and packing fractions typical of regolith, targets can contain dozens of thousands of spheres that, with the original MSTM

  12. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  13. Interstellar grain chemistry and organic molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of prominant infrared absorption bands at 3250, 2170, 2138, 1670 and 1470 cm(-1) (3.08, 4.61, 4.677, 5.99 and 6.80 micron m) associated with molecular clouds show that mixed molecular (icy) grain mantles are an important component of the interstellar dust in the dense interstellar medium. These ices, which contain many organic molecules, may also be the production site of the more complex organic grain mantles detected in the diffuse interstellar medium. Theoretical calculations employing gas phase as well as grain surface reactions predict that the ices should be dominated only by the simple molecules H2O, H2CO, N2, CO, O2, NH3, CH4, possibly CH3OH, and their deuterated counterparts. However, spectroscopic observations in the 2500 to 1250 cm(-1)(4 to 8 micron m) range show substantial variation from source reactions alone. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory-produced analogs of interstellar ices, one can determine the composition and abundance of the materials frozen on the grains in dense clouds. Experiments are described in which the chemical evolution of an interstellar ice analog is determined during irradiation and subsequent warm-up. Particular attention is paid to the types of moderately complex organic materials produced during these experiments which are likely to be present in interstellar grains and cometary ices.

  14. ICIS Enforcement Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  15. ICIS Contacts Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  16. ICIS Activity Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  17. Spectral properties of icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Katrin; Jaumann, Ralf; Wagner, Roland; Clark, Roger; Cruikshank, Dale; Brown, Robert; Roatsch, Thomas; Buratti, Bonnie; Matson, Dennis; Dalle Ore, Cristina; Filacchione, Gianrico; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Nicholson, Phil; Baines, Kevin; Sotin, Christoph

    2015-08-01

    Since 2004 Cassini is orbiting the Saturnian system with its instruments investigating the chemical and physical properties of Saturn ‘s atmosphere, its magnetosphere, its numerous satellites and rings. The VIMS instrument onboard Cassini enables not only to identify the Saturn satellites’ compositional units but also to map their distribution across the surfaces, to relate their location and extension to specific geological and/or geomorphological surface features and to characterize surface alterations induced by the space environment. Although, the VIMS spectra of the Saturnian satellites’ surfaces are dominated by H2O-ice, its distribution and physical characteristics differ distinctly from one satellite to the other. Global hemispherical differences are mostly related to the satellite’s orbital position within the Saturnian system, i.e. the distance to Saturn and its E ring, with particles originating from Saturn’s magnetosphere and/or the ice grains coming from the E ring impacting their surfaces. Often, these hemispherical differences are characterized by a dark non-icy contaminant more concentrated on their trailing hemispheres, while the more water ice-rich leading hemispheres appear covered by fresh material ejected by an impact event and/or by impacting E-ring particles. Tethys, however, situated closer to Enceladus and the E ring and deeper within Saturn’s magnetosphere, shows a more complex pattern. Compositional changes on a regional and local scale could be identified and related to the geological processes, i.e. impact cratering, tectonics, and erosion. Particularly, young impact craters and tectonic features reveal clean H2O ice of relatively large grain size while the “fresh” (unaltered) surface material offers a unique view into the crustal properties and evolution of its satellite. Whereas, prominent graben systems on Dione and Rhea are characterized by a pronounced ice signature - Ithaca Chasma on Tethys is barely recognizable

  18. Large Impact Features on Icy Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Schenk, P. M.; Korycansky, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Impact crater morphology can be a very useful tool for probing planetary interiors, but nowhere in the solar system is a greater variety of crater morphologies observed (Fig. 1) than on the large icy Galilean satellites Ganymede and Callisto [e.g., 1- 3]. As on the rocky terrestrial planets, impact crater morphology becomes more complex with increasing size on these satellites. With increasing size, however, these same craters become less like their counterparts on the rocky planets. Several impact landforms and structures (multiring furrows, palimpsests, and central domes, for example), have no obvious analogs on any other planets. Further, several studies [e.g., 4-6] have drawn attention to impact landforms on Europa which are unusual, even by Galilean satellite standards. These radical differences in morphology suggest that impact into icy lithospheres that are mechanically distinct from silicate lithospheres may be responsible. As such, large impact structures may be important probes of the interiors of these bodies over time [e.g., 7]. The first goal of this work is to integrate and correlate the detailed morphologic and morphometric measurements and observations of craters on icy Galilean satellites [e.g., 4, 8-12] with new detailed mapping of these structures from Galileo high-resolution images. As a result, we put forward a revised crater taxonomy for Ganymede and Callisto in order to simplify the nonuniform impact crater nomenclature cluttering the literature. We develop and present an integrated model for the development of these unusual crater morphologies and their implications for the thermal evolution of these bodies.

  19. Scattering properties of natural snow and frost - Comparison with icy satellite photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Veverka, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The Hapke (1986) equation is presently fit to ascertain the single-scattering albedo of the icy satellites of Uranus and Neptune and the one-term Henyey-Greenstein particle-phase function g for each of the Middleton and Mungall (1952) goniophotometric data samples. There emerge both very high single-scattering albedos and strongly forward-scattering particle phase functions; while these are in keeping with Mie theory-based theoretical considerations, they contrast with the observed backscattering behavior of icy satellites. It is suggested the icy satellite frost grains are aggregated into particles of complex texture, which produce the unusual backscattering behavior.

  20. High energy electron sintering of icy regoliths: Formation of the PacMan thermal anomalies on the icy Saturnian moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, M. J.; Johnson, R. E.; Zhigilei, L. V.; Piqueux, S.

    2017-03-01

    The so-called 'PacMan' features on the leading hemispheres of the icy Saturnian moons of Mimas, Tethys and Dione were initially identified as anomalous optical discolorations and subsequently shown to have greater thermal inertia than the surrounding regions. The shape of these regions matches calculated deposition contours of high energy plasma electrons moving opposite to the moon's orbital direction, thus suggesting that electron interactions with the grains produce the observed anomalies. Here, descriptions of radiation-induced diffusion processes are given, and various sintering models are considered to calculate the rate of increase in the contact volume between grains in an icy regolith. Estimates of the characteristic sintering timescale, i.e. the time necessary for the thermal inertia to increase from that measured outside the anomalous regions to that within, are given for each of the moons. Since interplanetary dust particle (IDP) impact gardening and E-ring grain infall would be expected to mix the regolith and obscure the effects of high energy electrons, sintering rates are compared to rough estimates of the impact-induced resurfacing rates. Estimates of the sintering timescale determined by extrapolating laboratory measurements are below ∼0.03 Myr, while the regolith renewal timescales are larger than ∼0.1 Myr, thus indicating that irradiation by the high energy electrons should be sufficient to form stable thermal anomalies. More detailed models developed for sintering of spherical grains are able to account for the radiation-induced anomalies on Mimas and Tethys only if the regoliths on those bodies are relatively compact and composed of small (≲ 5 μm) grains or grain aggregates, and/or the grains are highly non-spherical with surface defect densities in the inter-grain contact regions that are much higher than expected for crystalline water ice grains at thermal equilibrium. These results are consistent with regolith thermal conductivity

  1. Environmental Change in Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong evidence that subsurface oceans could exist within several of the outer solar system's ice-rich moons, at Jupiter (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), Saturn (Enceladus and Titan), and Neptune (Triton). If liquid water is indeed available in these subsurface environments, then the availability of chemical energy becomes the greatest limitation on whether icy worlds could harbor life. Of these moons, the largest (Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan) are expected to harbor oceans deep within, and high-pressure H2O ice phases are expected farther beneath those deep oceans. In contrast, the oceans of smaller icy worlds—Europa, Enceladus, and Triton—are plausibly in direct contact with rock below. Given that serpentinization or other water-rock geochemical activity could supply reductants directly to their oceans, these icy worlds have the greatest chance to support present-day microbial life. Each of these three icy worlds displays spectacular resurfaced terrains that are very young (crater retention ages ~10s Myr and younger), with their internal activity linked to extremes in tidal heating today and/or in the geologically recent past. However, the degree of their tidal heating may have changed greatly over time. Europa is believed to experience cyclical tidal heating and activity; Enceladus may have experienced cyclical activity or a geologically recent pulse of activity; Triton may have experienced extreme tidal heating upon its capture and orbital circularization. Such dynamic pasts would pose challenges for any life within. We consider the possible effects of severe swings in the activity level of icy worlds, specifically the implications for delivery of chemical energy to their subsurface oceans.

  2. Evolution of Interstellar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Lou J.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    During the past two decades observations combined with laboratory simulations, have revolutionized our understanding of interstellar ice and dust, the raw materials from which planets, comets and stars form. Most interstellar material is concentrated in large molecular clouds where simple molecules are formed by dust-grain and gas-phase reactions. Gaseous species striking the cold (10K) dust stick, forming an icy grain mantle. This accretion, coupled with UV photolysis, produces a complex chemical mixture containing volatile, non-volatile, and isotopically fractionated species. Ices in molecular clouds contain the very simple molecules H2O, CH3OH, CO, CO2, H2, and perhaps some NH3 and H2CO, as well as more complex species. The evidence for these compounds, as well as carbon-rich materials, will be reviewed and the possible connections with comets and meteorites will be presented in the first part of the talk . The second part of the presentation will focus on interstellar/precometary ice photochemical evolution and the species likely to be found in comets. The chemical composition and photochemical evolution of realistic interstellar/pre-cometary ice analogs will be discussed. Ultraviolet photolysis of these ices produces H2, H2CO, CO2, CO, CH4, HCO, and more complex molecules. When ices representative of interstellar grains and comets are exposed to UV radiation at low temperature a series of moderately complex organic molecules are formed in the ice including: CH3CH2OH (ethanol), HC(=O)NH2 (formamide), CH3C(=O)NH2 (acetamide), and R-C=N (nitriles). Several of these are already known to be in the interstellar medium, and their presence indicates the importance of grain processing. After warming to room temperature an organic residue remains. This is composed primarily of hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C6H12N4), with lesser amounts of polyoxymethylene-related species (POMs), amides, and ketones. This is in sharp contrast to the organic residues produced by

  3. Antarctic analogs for Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, A. E.; Andersen, D. T.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Enceladus is a new world for Astrobiology. The Cassini discovery of the icy plume emanating from the South Polar region indicates an active world, where detection of water, organics, sodium, and nano-particle silica in the plume strongly suggests that the source is a subsurface salty ocean reservoir. Recent gravity data from Cassini confirms the presence of a regional sea extending north to 50°S. An ocean habitat under a thick ice cover is perhaps a recurring theme in the Outer Solar System, but what makes Enceladus unique is that the plume jetting out into space is carrying samples of this ocean. Therefore, through the study of Enceladus' plumes we can gain new insights not only of a possible habitable world in the Solar Systems, but also about the formation and evolution of other icy-satellites. Cassini has been able to fly through this plume - effectively sampling the ocean. It is time to plan for future missions that do more detailed analyses, possibly return samples back to Earth and search for evidence of life. To help prepare for such missions, the need for earth-based analog environments is essential for logistical, methodological (life detection) and theoretical development. We have undertaken studies of two terrestrial environments that are close analogs to Enceladus' ocean: Lake Vida and Lake Untersee - two ice-sealed Antarctic lakes that represent physical, chemical and possibly biological analogs for Enceladus. By studying the diverse biology and physical and chemical constraints to life in these two unique lakes we will begin to understand the potential habitability of Enceladus and other icy moons, including possible sources of nutrients and energy, which together with liquid water are the key ingredients for life. Analog research such as this will also enable us to develop and test new strategies to search for evidence of life on Enceladus.

  4. Failure strength of icy lithospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    1987-01-01

    Lithospheric strengths derived from friction on pre-existing fractures and ductile flow laws show that the tensile strength of intact ice under applicable conditions is actually an order of magnitude stronger than widely assumed. It is demonstrated that this strength is everywhere greater than that required to initiate frictional sliding on pre-existing fractures and faults. Because the tensile strength of intact ice increases markedly with confining pressure, it actually exceeds the frictional strength at all depths. Thus, icy lithospheres will fail by frictional slip along pre-existing fractures at yeild stresses greater than previously assumed rather than opening tensile cracks in intact ice.

  5. Can Large Icy Moons Accrete Undifferentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choblet, G.; Monteux, J.; Tobie, G.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2012-12-01

    To explain the dichotomy in the degree of differentiation that seems to exist among various icy satellites of the Solar System, we characterize the early thermal evolution of an icy moon growing by km-size impacts. For each impact, we account for the topographic deformation, the deep impact heating and the ejecta heating. For that purpose, we have modified the 3D convection code Oedipus and we monitor the temperature and melt fraction evolution within the growing icy satellite. By exploring the accretionary parameter space, we determine the degree of differentiation of a growing icy moon.

  6. Can Large Icy Moons Accrete Undifferentiated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, J.; Choblet, G.; Tobie, G.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2012-09-01

    To explain the dichotomy in the degree of differentiation that seems to exist among various icy satellites of the Solar System, we characterize the early thermal evolution of an icy moon growing by km-size impacts. For each impact, we account for the topographic deformation, the deep impact heating and the ejecta heating. For that purpose, we have modified the 3D convection code Oedipus and we monitor the temperature and melt fraction evolution within the growing icy satellite. By exploring the accretionary parameter space, we determine the degree of differentiation of a growing icy moon.

  7. Cryogenic Property Measurements on Icy Compositions with Application to Solar System Ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, C.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Barmatz, M.; Mitchell, K.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction and Science Motivation:We present the motivations, objectives, and preliminary experimental results for a new experimental cryo-ices initiative launched at JPL. The main motivation for this work is to fully appreciate the discoveries made by the Cassini-Huygens and Galileo missions, to prepare for the Dawn and New Horizons missions, and to look forward to potential missions to Europa, Enceladus, and Titan. This work is a joint effort among experimentalists and theorists at JPL, in collaboration with specialists in icy material properties the world over. Experimental Approach: A range of experiments are being devised which will improve our ability to model ice-rock body internal evolution and geological processes using modern synthesis and characterization techniques under cryogenic conditions. Initial experiments will involve pure water, methanol-water, ammonia-water, and ammoniawater- methanol mixtures, relevant to a range of icy satellites and processes. Ammonia is considered to play an important role in Titan cryovolcanism, whereas methanol is chosen as an experimental analog due to its ease-of-use in the laboratory. Where beneficial, we will determine basic thermophysical properties and phase diagrams using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter. Solids.We plan to analyze samples from terrestrial glaciers, which are relevant to both the terrestrial and planetary geology and geophysical communities. Terrestrial glaciers appear as realistic analogs for modeling processes taking place in the outer icy shells of icy satellites. These results will better enable us to predict the long-term evolution of terrestrial glaciers and ice shelves. Also, we will synthesize specimens with controlled microstructures by using equilibrium and non-equilibrium synthesis methods. Equilibrium methods, e.g., conventional (slow) freezing in a mold, will provide microstructural length scales in the range 0.2 to 1 mm (with and without preferred orientation, e.g., columnar

  8. ICI optical data storage tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, Robert A.; Duffy, Joseph F.

    1991-01-01

    Optical data storage tape is now a commercial reality. The world's first successful development of a digital optical tape system is complete. This is based on the Creo 1003 optical tape recorder with ICI 1012 write-once optical tape media. Several other optical tape drive development programs are underway, including one using the IBM 3480 style cartridge at LaserTape Systems. In order to understand the significance and potential of this step change in recording technology, it is useful to review the historical progress of optical storage. This has been slow to encroach on magnetic storage, and has not made any serious dent on the world's mountains of paper and microfilm. Some of the reasons for this are the long time needed for applications developers, systems integrators, and end users to take advantage of the potential storage capacity; access time and data transfer rate have traditionally been too slow for high-performance applications; and optical disk media has been expensive compared with magnetic tape. ICI's strategy in response to these concerns was to concentrate its efforts on flexible optical media; in particular optical tape. The manufacturing achievements, media characteristics, and media lifetime of optical media are discussed.

  9. The SCITEAS experiment: Optical characterizations of sublimating icy planetary analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Vuitel, B.; Thomas, N.

    2015-05-01

    We have designed and built a laboratory facility to investigate the spectro-photometric and morphologic properties of different types of ice-bearing planetary surface analogs and follow their evolution upon exposure to a low pressure and low temperature environment. The results obtained with this experiment are used to verify and improve our interpretations of current optical remote-sensing datasets. They also provide valuable information for the development and operation of future optical instruments. The Simulation Chamber for Imaging the Temporal Evolution of Analogue Samples (SCITEAS) is a small thermal vacuum chamber equipped with a variety of ports and feedthroughs that permit both in-situ and remote characterizations as well as interacting with the sample. A large quartz window located directly above the sample is used to observe its surface from outside with a set of visible and near-infrared cameras. The sample holder can be easily and quickly inserted and removed from the chamber and is compatible with the other measurement facilities of the Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials (LOSSy) at the University of Bern. We report here on the results of two of the first experiments performed in the SCITEAS chamber. In the first experiment, fine-grained water ice mixed with dark organic and mineral matter was left to sublime in vacuum and at low temperature, simulating the evolution of the surface of a comet nucleus approaching the Sun. We observed and characterized the formation and evolution of a crust of refractory organic and mineral matter at the surface of the sample and linked the evolution of its structure and texture to its spectro-photometric properties. In the second experiment, a frozen soil was prepared by freezing a mixture of smectite mineral and water. The sample was then left to sublime for 6 h to simulate the loss of volatiles from icy soil at high latitudes on Mars. Colour images were produced using the definitions of the

  10. Electron irradiation effects in icy regoliths: The PacMan anomalies at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaible, Micah; Johnson, Robert E.; Zhigilei, Leo

    2016-10-01

    The anomalous regions identified on the leading hemispheres of the icy Saturnian moons, colloquially known as the 'PacMan' features, were found to have larger thermal inertia than the surrounding regions. The locations of the anomalies were shown to closely match the expected deposition profile of high energy (~ MeV) electrons moving counter rotational to the moons, suggesting an energetic source to drive their formation. Here we consider the mechanisms by which electron radiation can produce changes in the thermal conductivity of an icy regolith and compare estimates obtained from theoretical and experimental results with the measured thermal inertia and grain impact resurfacing rates on the icy moons.Electron interactions with the grains can both create and anneal defects in the crystalline lattice, and deposited energy drives molecular diffusion. Mobilized molecules accumulate in the contact region between grains due to the surface energy minimum, thus increasing the contact volume or 'sintering' the grains. Previously developed sintering rate equations and measured electron energy distributions near the icy moons were used to estimate the timescale for the energetic electrons to increase the contact volume sufficiently to produce the enhanced thermal conductivity of the anomalous regions. In order to properly constrain the sintering calculations, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of electron interactions in water ice were carried out to determine the number and diffusion length of excited molecules. Water molecules were artificially excited both in a water ice bulk and near a grain surface, and several ice polymorphs relevant to ice grain formation in outer solar system conditions were considered. Comparing the estimated sintering timescales to micrometeorite resurfacing rates indicates that grains must be small (~5um) and/or irregularly shaped with a high defect density in the contact regions. Since there is some disagreement in these grains sizes and

  11. Frozen Volatiles in the Icy Satellites and KBO Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leliwa-Kopystynski, Jacek

    The first physical assumption of this work is that the volatiles were transported to the growing icy/mineral objects of the Outer Solar System by means of accretion. The relative amounts of different volatiles in the accreting matter depends on the local temperature of that matter therefore roughly on the solar distance. The second assumption concerns degassing of the volatiles: gases instantaneously escape from the growing body if temperature of accreting matter in the moment of an impact is enough high. Discussion of the conditions related to presence of pristine-originated solidified volatiles inside of the icy satellites and the KBO objects is based (i) on the calculation of the impact-originated increase of temperature of the volatile-bearing grains of accreting material and (ii) on the thermodynamic properties of the volatiles under consideration. It is found that the highly volatile materials are accumulated in the deep interiors and the less volatile are expected to survive everywhere including the outer layers. The particular calculations are performed for Saturnian and Uranian icy satellites (from Epimetheus to Titania with radii 65 780 km) as well as for some of KBO objects. Considered volatiles are H20 CO2 CO NH3 CH4 N2 and C2H6.

  12. Frozen volatiles in the icy satellites and KBO objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leliwa-Kopystynski, Jacek

    The first physical assumption of this work is that the volatiles were transported to the growing icy/mineral objects of the Outer Solar System by means of accretion. The relative amounts of different volatiles in the accreting matter depends on the local temperature of that matter therefore roughly on the solar distance. The second assumption concerns degassing of the volatiles: gases instantaneously escape from the growing body if temperature of accreting matter in the moment of an impact is enough high. Discussion of the conditions related to presence of pristine-originated solidified volatiles inside of the icy satellites and the KBO objects is based (i) on the calculation of the impact-originated increase of temperature of the volatile-bearing grains of accreting material and (ii) on the thermodynamic properties of the volatiles under consideration. It is found that the highly volatile materials are accumulated in the deep interiors and the less volatile are expected to survive everywhere including the outer layers. The particular calculations are performed for Saturnian and Uranian icy satellites (from Epimetheus to Titania with radii 65 780 km) as well as for some of KBO objects. Considered volatiles are H20 CO2 CO NH3 CH4 N2 and C2H6.

  13. THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy of Complex Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioppolo, Sergio; McGuire, Brett A.; Allodi, Marco A.; de Vries, Xander; Finneran, Ian; Carroll, Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    It is generally accepted that complex organic molecules (COMs) form on the icy surface of interstellar grains. Our ability to identify interstellar complex species in the ices is affected by the limited number of laboratory analogs that can be compared to the huge amount of observational data currently coming from international astronomical facilities, such as the Herschel Space Observatory, SOFIA, and ALMA. We have recently constructed a new THz time-domain spectroscopy system to investigate the spectra of interstellar ice analogs in a range that fully covers the spectral bandwidth of the aforementioned facilities (0.3 - 7.5 THz). The system is coupled to a FT-IR spectrometer to monitor the ices in the mid-IR (4000 - 500 cm-1). This talk focuses on the laboratory investigation of the composition and structure of the bulk phases of interstellar ice analogs (i.e., H2O, CO2, CO, CH3OH, NH3, and CH4) compared to more complex molecules (e.g., HCOOH, CH3COOH, CH3CHO, (CH3)2CO, HCOOCH3, and HCOOC2H5). The ultimate goal of this research project is to provide the scientific community with an extensive THz ice database, which will allow quantitative studies of the ISM, and potentially guide future astronomical observations of species in the solid phase.

  14. Photometric study of cometary analogs in the LOSSy laboratory at the University of Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Poch, O.

    2014-07-01

    We have set up the LOSSy laboratory (Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials) to study the spectro-photometric properties of various analogs of planetary-object surfaces, with a special emphasis on icy samples and their evolution under simulated space conditions. This laboratory is currently equipped with two facilities: the PHIRE-2 radio-goniometer, designed to measure the bidirectional visible reflectance of samples under a wide range of geometries and the SCITEAS simulation chamber, designed to follow the evolution of icy samples subliming under low temperature and low pressure conditions by means of VIS-NIR hyperspectral imaging. We will report on the characterization of cometary analogs using both facilities. We produce these analogs by mixing in various proportions fine-grained ice, mineral and organic matter. Various preparation protocols have been defined to produce different textures of sample. Using the PHIRE-2 radio-goniometer, we are building a catalog of bidirectional reflectance data for various cometary analogs, varying by steps the different parameters susceptible to affect the reflectance phase function. In particular, we have recently upgraded the instrument to be able to characterize in detail the opposition effect by allowing measurements of the reflectance at very low phase angle. This laboratory dataset is intended to be used for the analysis of the data acquired by the OSIRIS imager onboard Rosetta. Using the SCITEAS simulation chamber, we have followed for 30 hours the evolution of a cometary analog placed under secondary vacuum (<10^{-6} mbar) and maintained at low temperature (170-200 K) for more than 30 hours. We analyzed the temporal evolution of the morphology and the photometry of the surface of the sample to identify which processes affect the surfaces of cometary nuclei during sublimation and how they affect their visible and near-infrared surface properties.

  15. THE SINTERING REGION OF ICY DUST AGGREGATES IN A PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Sirono, Sin-iti

    2011-07-10

    Icy grain aggregates are formed in the outer region of a protoplanetary nebula. The infall of these aggregates to the central star is due to gas drag, and their temperature increases as the infall proceeds. The icy molecules on the grain move to the neck where the grains get connected through sublimation and condensation of the molecules. This process is called sintering. As the sintering proceeds, the mechanical strength of the neck changes considerably, strongly affecting the collisional evolution of the aggregates. The timescale required for sintering is determined in this study, based on which the region where the sintering proceeds within a prescribed timescale is obtained. It is found that the region covers a substantial fraction of the protoplanetary nebula, and the location of the region depends on the temperature distribution inside the nebula. If the aggregate is stirred up and the temperature of the aggregate increases temporally, the sintering region spreads to the whole nebula.

  16. ICIS Enforcement Conclusion Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  17. ICIS Perm Feature Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  18. ICIS Facility Interest Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  19. List of Independent Commercial Importers (ICIs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is a list of Independent Commercial Importers (ICIs) who currently hold a valid certificate of conformity from EPA allowing importation of certain nonconforming vehicles into the United States. (EPA publication # EPA-420-F-13-036)

  20. ICIS Perm Storm Water Subject Area Model

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a web-based system that provides information for the federal enforcement and compliance (FE&C) and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) programs.

  1. Exchange processes from the deep interior to the surface of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.

    present dynamics of icy surfaces: erosion, tectonics and cryovolcanism. This second topic is devoted to the description of the surface features. A synthesis of what has been seen in the jovian system and a presentation of what is now discovered in the saturnian system might be useful. 3) Internal processes: dynamics of icy mantles. Many works have been done specifically for icy moons (rheology of icy mantles, heating modes, effect of ice composition, internal activity of small moons, internal oceans,. . . ). Icy mantles present so many different convective processes, depending on parameters such as the ice composition, the heating mode, . . . , that a full review of the recent progress on the subject is required. 4) Physics and chemistry of ices: experimental constraints on hydrates, clathrates and organics. Nothing can be done without experimental data. Thermodynamical constraints, phase diagrams, but also mechanical properties of icy materials are required for constraining all models. Many progress have been made these last five years, especially for clathrate structures so important in the case of Titan. A review of these progresses is required. 5) Earth analogs: a tool for understanding surface/ internal features. Tectonic and volcanic features on icy moons are sometimes confronted to Earth structures. This procedure is very interesting. While materials are different (on Earth the melt is lighter than the rock, but on icy moons it is the contrary), tectonic and volcanic features can be very similar. Our good understanding of the Earth can be very useful for describing the processes responsible of tectonic/volcanic features on the moons. Discussing around the five themes described above may provide some constraints on open questions such as the characteristics of liquid layers within icy moons, the cryovolcanism on Titan, the resurfacing of Europa, the composition of Titan's surface, and the activity on Enceladus. 2

  2. Interstellar and Planetary Analogs in the Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the unique capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation (UV, charged particles) with molecular species (neutral molecules, radicals and ions) and carbonaceous grains in the Solar System and in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). COSmIC stands for Cosmic Simulation Chamber, a laboratory chamber where interstellar and planetary analogs are generated, processed and analyzed. It is composed of a pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a free jet supersonic expansion in a plasma cavity coupled to two ultrahigh-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for photonic detection and a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection. This setup allows the study of molecules, ions and solids under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate some interstellar, circumstellar and planetary physical environments providing new fundamental insights on the molecular level into the processes that are critical to the chemistry in the ISM, circumstellar and planet forming regions, and on icy objects in the Solar System. Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be discussed, in particular the progress that have been achieved in monitoring in the laboratory the formation of solid particles from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflow and planetary atmospheres.

  3. Cryovolcanism on the icy satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kargel, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence of past cryovolcanism is widespread and extremely varied on the icy satellites. Some cryovolcanic landscapes, notably on Triton, are similar to many silicate volcanic terrains, including what appear to be volcanic rifts, calderas and solidified lava lakes, flow fields, breached cinder cones or stratovolcanoes, viscous lava domes, and sinuous rilles. Most other satellites have terrains that are different in the important respect that no obvious volcanoes are present. The preserved record of cryovolcanism generally is believed to have formed by eruptions of aqueous solutions and slurries. Even Triton's volcanic crust, which is covered by nitrogen-rich frost, is probably dominated by water ice. Nonpolar and weakly polar molecular liquids (mainly N2, CH4, CO, CO2, and Ar), may originate by decomposition of gas-clathrate hydrates and may have been erupted on some icy satellites, but without water these substances do not form rigid solids that are stable against sublimation or melting over geologic time. Triton's plumes, active at the time of Voyager 2's flyby, may consist of multicomponent nonpolar gas mixtures. The plumes may be volcanogenic fumaroles or geyserlike emissions powered by deep internal heating, and, thus, the plumes may be indicating an interior that is still cryomagmatically active; or Triton's plumes may be powered by solar heating of translucent ices very near the surface. The Uranian and Neptunian satellites Miranda, Ariel, and Triton have flow deposits that are hundreds to thousands of meters thick (implying highly viscous lavas); by contrast, the Jovian and Saturnian satellites generally have plains-forming deposits composed of relatively thin flows whose thicknesses have not been resolved in Voyager images (thus implying relatively low-viscosity lavas). One possible explanation for this inferred rheological distinction involves a difference in volatile composition of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites on one hand and of the Jovian and

  4. Outer planets and icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.

    1991-01-01

    The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and

  5. Outer planets and icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.

    The resources offered by the outer bodies in the Solar System, starting with the main belt asteroids and Jovian System, are not only larger and more diverse but may even be easier to reach than, say, those of Mars. The use of their material, including water and organic matter, depends exclusively on the general strategy of exploration of the Solar System. Of major interest in this respect are the large ice satellites - Titan, Ganymede, and Callisto. Motion through the planetary magnetospheres excites in their ice envelopes megampere currents which, in the presence of rocky, etc., inclusions with electronic conduction should lead to the bulk electrolysis of ice and accumulation in it of 2H2 + O2 in the form of a solid solution. With the concentration of 2H2 + O2 reaching about 15 wt. percent, the solution becomes capable of detonation by a strong meteoritic impact. An explosion of Ganymede's ice envelope about 0.5 By ago could account for the formation of the Trojans and irregular satellites, all known differences between Ganymede and Callisto, and many other things. The explosion of a small icy planet with M approx less than 0.5 Moon created the asteroid belt. Two to three explosions occurred on Io, and two on Europa. The specific features of the longperiod comets close to Saturn's orbit permit dating Titan's envelope explosion as 10,000 yr ago, which produced its thick atmosphere, young Saturn's rings, as well as a reservoir of ice fragments saturated by 2H2 + O2, i.e., cometary nuclei between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. Thus these nuclei should contain, besides organic matter, also 2H2 + O2, which could be used for their transportation as well as for fuel for spaceships. Ices of such composition can reside deep inside Deimos, the Trojans, C-asteroids, etc. The danger of a future explosion of Callisto's electrolyzed ices, which would result in a catastrophic bombardment of the Earth by comets, may be high enough to warrant a revision of the priorities and

  6. A Possible Icy Kuiper Belt around HD 181327

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Christine H.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Smith, Paul S.

    2008-12-01

    We have obtained a Gemini South T-ReCS Qa-band (18.3 μm) image and a Spitzer MIPS SED-mode observation of HD 181327, an F5/F6 V member of the ~12 Myr old β Pictoris moving group. We resolve the disk in thermal emission for the first time and find that the northern arm of the disk is 1.4 times brighter than the southern arm. In addition, we detect a broad peak in the combined Spitzer IRS and MIPS spectra at 60-75 μm that may be produced by emission from crystalline water ice. We model the IRS and MIPS data using a size distribution of amorphous olivine and water ice grains (dn/da propto a-2.25, with amin consistent with the minimum blowout size and amax = 20 μm) located at a distance of 86.3 AU from the central star, as observed in previously published scattered-light images. Since the photodesorption lifetime for the icy particles is ~1400 yr, significantly less than the estimated ~12 Myr age of the system, we hypothesize that we have detected debris that may be steadily replenished by collisions among icy Kuiper Belt object-like parent bodies in a newly forming planetary system.

  7. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ICIS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). When complete, ICIS will provide a database that will contain integrated enforcement and compliance information across most of EPA's programs. The vision for ICIS is to replace EPA's independent databases that contain enforcement data with a single repository for that information. Currently, ICIS contains all Federal Administrative and Judicial enforcement actions and a subset of the Permit Compliance System (PCS), which supports the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). ICIS exchanges non-sensitive enforcement/compliance activities, non-sensitive formal enforcement actions and NPDES information with FRS. This web feature service contains the enforcement/compliance activities and formal enforcement action related facilities; the NPDES facilities are contained in the PCS_NPDES web feature service. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on f

  8. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  9. OASIS: Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, S. A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M.; Zheng, Y.; Balvin, M.; Southard, A. E.; Ferrance, J.; Malespin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a well established laboratory technique for detecting and analyzing organic molecules. This approach has been especially fruitful in the analysis of nucleobases, amino acids, and establishing chirol ratios [1 -3]. We are developing OASIS, Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces, for future in situ landed missions to astrochemically important icy bodies, such as asteroids, comets, and icy moons. The OASIS design employs a microfabricated, on-chip analytical column to chromatographically separate liquid ana1ytes using known LC stationary phase chemistries. The elution products are then interfaced through electrospray ionization (ESI) and analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). A particular advantage of this design is its suitability for microgravity environments, such as for a primitive small body.

  10. Europa--Jupiter's Icy Ocean Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowes, L.

    1999-01-01

    Europa is a puzzle. The sixth largest moon in our solar system, Europa confounds and intrigues scientists. Few bodies in the solar system have attracted as much scientific attention as this moon of Jupiter because of its possible subsurface ocean of water. The more we learn about this icy moon, the more questions we have.

  11. Icy: an open bioimage informatics platform for extended reproducible research.

    PubMed

    de Chaumont, Fabrice; Dallongeville, Stéphane; Chenouard, Nicolas; Hervé, Nicolas; Pop, Sorin; Provoost, Thomas; Meas-Yedid, Vannary; Pankajakshan, Praveen; Lecomte, Timothée; Le Montagner, Yoann; Lagache, Thibault; Dufour, Alexandre; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe

    2012-06-28

    Current research in biology uses evermore complex computational and imaging tools. Here we describe Icy, a collaborative bioimage informatics platform that combines a community website for contributing and sharing tools and material, and software with a high-end visual programming framework for seamless development of sophisticated imaging workflows. Icy extends the reproducible research principles, by encouraging and facilitating the reusability, modularity, standardization and management of algorithms and protocols. Icy is free, open-source and available at http://icy.bioimageanalysis.org/.

  12. Low thermal inertias of icy planetary surfaces. Evidence for amorphous ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Lucas, A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Thermal inertias of atmosphereless icy planetary bodies happen to be very low. Aims: We relate the thermal inertia to the regolith properties such as porosity, grain size, ice form and heat transfer processes to understand why it is low. We interpret the dichotomy in thermal inertia of the surface of Mimas in terms of changes in regolith properties. We predict how the thermal inertia of these bodies may vary with heliocentric distance depending on these properties. Methods: We combine available models of conductivity by contact or radiation to understand what heat transfer process is predominant. Results: The magnitude of the thermal inertia of a porous icy regolith is mainly governed by the crystalline or amorphous ice forms, and the quality of contacts between grains. Beyond the orbit of Jupiter, thermal inertias as low as a few tens J/m2/ K/s1/2 are difficult to reproduce with plausible porosity and grains sizes made of crystalline ice unless contacts are loose. This is, on the contrary, straightforward for regoliths of sub-cm-sized grains made of amorphous water ice. This study points out the importance of including the temperature dependence of thermophysical properties of water ice forms and the radiative conduction in thermal models of these bodies. The relatively high thermal inertia of the leading face of Mimas can be explained by a regolith of crystalline ice grains in tight contacts, which are eventually sintered by the bombardment of high energy electrons. The low thermal inertia of its trailing face is easily reproduced by a regolith of moderate porosity with sub-mm-sized grains of amorphous ice. The characteristic decrease of thermal inertia with heliocentric distance of icy atmosphereless surfaces and the very low thermal inertia of relevant trans-Neptunian objects are easily explained if amorphous ice is present at cm depths below a thin layer of crystalline ice.

  13. The rheology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammis, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    High-temperature creep in orthoenstatite under conditions of controlled oxygen fugacity was studied. It was found that creep was conttrolled by the extremely thin layer of SiO2 which wetted the grain boundaries. Slight reduction of the (Mg, Fe)SiO3 enstatite during hot pressing produced microscopic particles of Fe and the thin film of intergranular SiO2. This result highlights another complication in determining the flow properties of iron bearing silicates which constitute the bulk of terrestrial planets and moons. The Phenomenon may be important in the ductile formation of any extraterrestrial body which is formed in a reducing environment. The rheology of dirty ice was studied. This involves micromechanical modeling of hardening phenomena due to contamination by a cosmic distribution of silicate particles. The larger particles are modeled by suspension theory. In order to handle the distribution of particles sizes, the hardening is readed as a critical phenomenon, and real space renormalization group techniques are used. Smaller particles interact directly with the dislocations. The particulate hardening effect was studied in metals. The magnitude of such hardening in ice and the defect chemistry of ice are studied to assess the effects of chemical contamination by methane, ammonia, or other likely contaminants.

  14. Investigating Saturn's Icy Moons using HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Noll, K. S.; Spencer, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The inner moons of Saturn - Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione and Rhea - exhibit remarkable large-scale albedo and color variations. These trends can be linked to a combination of the unique exogenic processes occurring the Saturn system, including E-ring grain bombardment and charged particle bombardment. One of the fascinating characteristics of the Saturn system is that the icy satellites, though their surface compositions are dominated by water ice, are spectrally red - they are absorbing in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength region (wavelengths <~550 nm) - a spectral feature not typical of pure water ice. In fact, the existing data show that in the UV, absorptions appear to be present superimposed on the overall red slope. Thus, though Cassini instruments have learned much about the surfaces of the icy moons, a basic question that remains is: What is their surface composition and what are the species or processes that cause these UV absorptions? Cassini's spectral coverage is lacking in precisely the near-UV wavelength regime in which the satellites appear to absorb most strongly. To resolve this issue and determine some understanding of the surface species present, we have obtained data using HST/STIS (Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph). We have utilized the STIS G230L detector to obtain high SNR spectra in the 180-320 nm region along with short G430L exposures to obtain spectra in the 320-570 nm range, to completely fill in the Cassini gap in spectral coverage. Full-disk measurements have been made of the trailing and leading hemispheres of Mimas, Dione and Rhea; a spectrum of Enceladus was also obtained. We report on the results. In particular, we discuss implications for the presence of ammonia, ozone and organics.

  15. Convection in Icy Satellites: Implications for Habitability and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Solid-state convection and endogenic resurfacing in the outer ice shells of the icy Galilean satellites (especially Europa) may contribute to the habitability of their internal oceans and to the detectability of any biospheres by spacecraft. If convection occurs in an ice I layer, fluid motions are confined beneath a thick stagnant lid of cold, immobile ice that is too stiff to participate in convection. The thickness of the stagnant lid varies from 30 to 50% of the total thickness of the ice shell, depending on the grain size of ice. Upward convective motions deliver approximately 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 13) kg yr(sup -1) of ice to the base of the stagnant lid, where resurfacing events driven by compositional or tidal effects (such as the formation of domes or ridges on Europa, or formation of grooved terrain on Ganymede) may deliver materials from the stagnant lid onto the surface. Conversely, downward convective motions deliver the same mass of ice from the base of the stagnant lid to the bottom of the satellites ice shells. Materials from the satellites surfaces may be delivered to their oceans by downward convective motions if material from the surface can reach the base of the stagnant lid during resurfacing events. Triggering convection from an initially conductive ice shell requires modest amplitude (a few to tens of kelvins) temperature anomalies to soften the ice to permit convection, which may require tidal heating. Therefore, tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection in combination may be required to permit mass transport between the surfaces and oceans of icy satellites. Callisto and probably Ganymede have thick stagnant lids with geologically inactive surfaces today, so forward contamination of their surfaces is not a significant issue. Active convection and breaching of the stagnant lid is a possibility on Europa today, so is of relevance to planetary protection policy.

  16. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter reference trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.; Lam, Try

    2006-01-01

    The proposed NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission would have used a single spacecraft to orbit Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa in succession. The enormous Delta-Velocity required for this mission (nearly [25 km/s]) would necessitate the use of very high efficiency electric propulsion. The trajectory created for the proposed baseline JIMO mission may be the most complex trajectory ever designed. This paper describes the current reference trajectory in detail and describes the processes that were used to construct it.

  17. Space Environmental Erosion of Polar Icy Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, William M.; Killen, R. M.; Vondrak, R. R.; Hurley, D. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Zimmerman, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    While regions at the floors of permanently shadowed polar craters are isolated from direct sunlight, these regions are still exposed to the harsh space environment, including the interplanetary Lyman-a background, meteoric impacts, and obstacle-affected solar wind. We demonstrate that each of these processes can act to erode the polar icy regolith located at or near the surface along the crater floor. The Lyman-a background can remove/erode the icy-regolith via photon stimulated desorption [1], meteoric impacts can vaporize the regolith [2], and redirected solar wind ions can sputter the ice-regolith mix [3]. As an example we shall examine in detail the inflow of solar wind ions and electrons into polar craters, One might expect such ions to flow horizontally over the crater top (see Figure). However, we find that plasma ambipolar processes act to deflect passing ions into the craters [3]. We examine this plasma process and determine the ion flux as a function of position across a notional crater floor. We demonstrate that inflowing solar wind ions can indeed create sputtering along the crater floor, effectively eroding the surface. Erosion time scales rrom sputtering will be presented. We shall also consider the effect of impact vaporization on buried icy-regolith regions. There will also be a discussion of solar wind electrons that enter into the PSR, demonstrating that these also have the ability rree surface-bound atoms via electron stimulated desorption processes [l].

  18. Ion irradiation of icy mixtures: synthesis of molecules relevant to astrochemistry and astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strazzulla, G.; Baratta, G. A.; Brucato, J. R.; Ioppolo, S.; Palumbo, M. E.; Spinella, F.

    2007-08-01

    In the last years many experimental results have been obtained by our as well as other groups on the chemical and physical changes induced by ion irradiation and UV photolysis of frozen mixtures of simple molecules with a view to their astrophysical relevance. The presence in space of complex organic molecules of astrochemical and even astrobiological relevance is revealed by mm and sub-mm observations. Many of those molecules are however thought to be formed by energetic processing of icy mantles on interstellar grains that occasionally (e.g. in the circumstellar region of a new-born star) warm-up and release molecules in the gas phase. Here we present some recent results concerning: • The formation of formamide, a molecule particularly relevant to astrobiology, produced by ion irradiation of frozen mixtures containing water, methane and nitrogen. • The formation of sub-oxides after irradiation of CO-rich icy mixtures.

  19. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  20. Discovering New Compounds on Icy Moon Surfaces with Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, C. L.; Wray, J. J.; Hand, K. P.; Poston, M.; Carlson, R. W.; Clark, R. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Jennings, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Spectroscopy of icy satellite surfaces can aid us in understanding sources and sinks of material in the outer solar system. The spectral complexity of the Saturnian satellite system as seen in reflected sunlight suggests additional complexity may be present at mid-infrared wavelengths from which unique compositional information can be gleaned [1]. Yet to date, Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) surface compositional studies have received little attention. We are investigating the value of mid-infrared spectroscopy for identifying non-H2O constituents of icy moon surfaces. On Iapetus' dark terrain, we find an emissivity feature at ~855 cm-1 and a possible doublet at 660 and 690 cm-1 that do not correspond to any known instrument artifacts [2]. We attribute the 855 cm-1feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths [3]. Silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn's icy moons have been suspected for decades, but there have been no definitive detections until now. Because peaks can shift depending on temperature, pressure, and grain size, measurements at Iapetus-like conditions are necessary for more positive feature identifications [e.g., 4]. We measured the vacuum (P<3x10-8 torr) and low temperature (125 K) mid-infrared spectra of various fine-grained powdered silicates. We find that some of these materials do have emissivity features near 855 cm-1and match the doublet. Identifying a specific silicate would provide clues into the origin and implications of the dark material in the Saturnian system. We also report on our ongoing exploration of the CIRS icy moon dataset and plans for additional future measurements in JPL's Icy Worlds Simulation Lab. [1] Flasar, F. M., et al. (2004), Space Sci Rev, 115, 169. [2] Young, C.L., et al. (in review), ApJ Lett. [3] Christensen, P. R., et al. (2004), Sci, 306, 1733. [4] Wray, J. J., et al. (2014), DPS 46th Meeting, Vol. 46.

  1. Identifying new surface constituents of icy moons using mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Cindy L.; Wray, James J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger N.; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2015-11-01

    Spectroscopic compositional studies of the icy satellites can help us to better understand the formation and evolution of material in the outer solar system. The spectral complexity of the Saturnian satellite system as seen in reflected visible light suggests additional complexity may be present at mid-infrared wavelengths from which unique compositional information can be gleaned [1]. In addition, the mid-infrared is the region of the stronger fundamental diagnostic vibrational modes of many compounds. However, Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) surface compositional studies have received little attention to date.We are exploring the suitability of mid-infrared spectroscopy for discovering non-H2O compounds on icy moon surfaces. On the dark terrain of Iapetus, we find an emissivity feature at ~855 cm-1 and a potential doublet at 660 and 690 cm-1 that do not correspond to any known instrument artifacts [2]. We attribute the 855 cm-1 feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths [3]. Although silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn’s icy moons have been suspected for decades, there have been no definitive prior detections. Serpentines measured at ambient conditions have features near 855 cm-1 and 660 cm-1 [4]. However, peaks can shift depending on temperature, pressure, and grain size, so measurements at Iapetus-like conditions are necessary for more positive identifications [e.g., 5].We measured the vacuum, low temperature (125 K) spectra of various fine-grained powdered silicates. We find that some of these materials do have emissivity features near 855 cm-1 and match the doublet. Identifying a specific silicate would provide clues into the sources and sinks of the dark material in the Saturnian system. We report on our ongoing exploration of the CIRS icy moon dataset and plans for future measurements in JPL’s Icy Worlds Simulation Lab.[1] Flasar, F

  2. Geophysical Consequences of Icy Satellite Rigidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, Francis

    2006-09-01

    The interior structures of icy satellites are typically deduced by measuring J2 from flybys, and then using the hydrostatic assumption (i.e. zero rigidity) to deduce the polar moment of inertia. While this technique works well for the Earth, it fails dismally for Mars and the Moon. The recent detection of regional gravity anomalies on Ganymede [1] suggests loads supported by elastic stresses. Thus, the use of the hydrostatic assumption to derive structures for cold, icy bodies like Callisto [2] or Mimas should be treated with great caution [3]. The rigidity of icy satellites is important for at least three other reasons. Firstly, it controls (via the Love number k2) the degree of tidal heating experienced. For equal Love numbers, Enceladus and Europa would experience very similar diurnal tidal amplitudes. However, because Enceladus has a smaller radius it is likely to behave in a more rigid fashion than Europa, resulting in less tidal heating. Conventional (diurnal) tidal generation of the observed heat flux at Enceladus' south pole [4] requires Q/k2 of order 100, implying a relatively soft interior. Secondly, satellite rigidity controls both the magnitude of loads which are potentially capable of causing satellite reorientation, and the size of the opposing fossil bulge [5]. Finally, the near-surface rigidity (elastic thickness) influences, and may be deduced from, observations of the scale and morphology of surface tectonic features [6]. [1] Palguta et al. Icarus 180, 428-441, 2006 [2] Anderson et al. Icarus 153, 157-161, 2001 [3] McKinnon Icarus 130, 540-543, 1997 [4] Spencer et al., Science 311, 1401-1405, 2006 [5] Nimmo and Pappalardo, Nature 441, 614-616, 2006 [6] Nimmo and Schenk, J. Struct. Geol. in press.

  3. Icy Schwedeneck field may provide reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    Situated in an icy region of the Baltic Sea, Germany's first offshore field may provide the nation with the reference needed to encroach the arctic market. Production began last winter from one platform in the Schwedeneck-See field, located about three miles off the Baltic Coast. Total reserves have been estimated at more than 18 million bbl. Yearly production by the end of 1986 has been estimated at 294,000 bbl. The first two production platforms were installed in late 1983 in water depths ranging from 50 to 80 ft. Because of the ice hazards inherent in the Baltic, the platforms are concrete designed with steel decks.

  4. Survivability of bacteria ejected from icy surfaces after hypervelocity impact.

    PubMed

    Burchell, Mark J; Galloway, James A; Bunch, Alan W; Brandão, Pedro F B

    2003-02-01

    Both the Saturnian and Jovian systems contain satellites with icy surfaces. If life exists on any of these icy bodies (in putative subsurface oceans for example) then the possibility exists for transfer of life from icy body to icy body. This is an application of the idea of Panspermia, wherein life migrates naturally through space. A possible mechanism would be that life, here taken as bacteria, could become frozen in the icy surface of one body. If a high-speed impact occurred on that surface, ejecta containing the bacteria could be thrown into space. It could then migrate around the local region of space until it arrived at a second icy body in another high-speed impact. In this paper we consider some of the necessary steps for such a process to occur, concentrating on the ejection of ice bearing bacteria in the initial impact, and on what happens when bacteria laden projectiles hit an icy surface. Laboratory experiments using high-speed impacts with a light gas gun show that obtaining icy ejecta with viable bacterial loads is straightforward. In addition to demonstrating the viability of the bacteria carried on the ejecta, we have also measured the angular and size distribution of the ejecta produced in hypervelocity impacts on ice. We have however been unsuccessful at transferring viable bacteria to icy surfaces from bacteria laden projectiles impacting at hypervelocities.

  5. Convection in ice I with non-Newtonian rheology: Application to the icy Galilean satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Amy Courtright

    2004-12-01

    Observations from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the Jovian icy satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto have liquid water oceans beneath their icy surfaces. The outer ice I shells of the satellites represent a barrier between their surfaces and their oceans and serve to decouple fluid motions in their deep interiors from their surfaces. Understanding heat and mass transport by convection within the outer ice I shells of the satellites is crucial to understanding their geophysical and astrobiological evolution. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that deformation in ice I is accommodated by several different creep mechanisms. Newtonian deformation creep accommodates strain in warm ice with small grain sizes. However, deformation in ice with larger grain sizes is controlled by grain-size-sensitive and dislocation creep, which are non-Newtonian. Previous studies of convection have not considered this complex rheological behavior. This thesis revisits basic geophysical questions regarding heat and mass transport in the ice I shells of the satellites using a composite Newtonian/ non-Newtonian rheology for ice I. The composite rheology is implemented in a numerical convection model developed for Earth's mantle to study the behavior of an ice I shell during the onset of convection and in the stagnant lid convection regime. The conditions required to trigger convection in a conductive ice I shell depend on the grain size of the ice, and the amplitude and wavelength of temperature perturbation issued to the ice shell. If convection occurs, the efficiency of heat and mass transport is dependent on the ice grain size as well. If convection occurs, fluid motions in the ice shells enhance the nutrient flux delivered to their oceans, and coupled with resurfacing events, may provide a sustainable biogeochemical cycle. The results of this thesis suggest that evolution of ice grain size in the satellites and the details of how tidal dissipation perturbs the ice shell to

  6. Relaxation of impact basins on icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Paul J.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of relaxation of very large impact craters on icy satellites is addressed and the extent to which such studies can help place constraints on the nature of such satellite interiors is investigated. Very general calculations aimed at understanding the nature of relaxation of large impact structures, including the directions, relaxation velocities, and stress levels, are presented. The dependence of relaxation on such factors as silicate core size and viscosity gradients in the ice is examined. The general results are used to address whether comparing the current morphology of impact basins to estimates of their original shape will yield an understanding of the thermal and mechanical structure of the interiors of the icy satellites. It is found that the relaxation rates derived from models of satellite interiors can provide constraints on viscous layer thicknesses. High thermal gradients can permit substantial relaxation even in thin viscous layers. Finally, the constraints on the internal structure of Tethys arising from the extremely relaxed state of the Odysseus basin and the existence of Ithaca Chasma are discussed.

  7. Porosity and the ecology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, Steven K.

    1993-01-01

    The case for a significant role for porosity in the structure and evolution of icy bodies in the Solar System has been difficult to establish. We present a relevant new data set and a series of structure models including a mechanical compression, not thermal creep, model for porosity that accounts satisfactorily for observed densities, moments of inertia, geologic activity, and sizes of tectonic features on icy satellites. Several types of observational data sets have been used to infer significant porosity, but until recently, alternative explanations have been preferred. Our first area of concern is the occurrence of cryovolcanism as a function of satellite radius; simple radiogenic heating models of icy satellites suggest minimum radii for melting and surface cryovolcanism to be 400 to 500 km, yet inferred melt deposits are seen on satellites half that size. One possible explanation is a deep, low conductivity regolith which lowers conductivity and raises internal temperatures, but other possibilities include tidal heating or crustal compositions of low conductivity. Our second area of concern is the occurrence and magnitude of tectonic strain; tectonic structures have been seen on icy satellites as small as Mimas and Proteus. The structures are almost exclusively extensional, with only a few possible compression Al features, and inferred global strains are on the order of 1 percent expansion. Expansions of this order in small bodies like Mimas and prevention of late compressional tectonics due to formation of ice mantles in larger bodies like Rhea are attained only in structure models including low-conductivity, and thus possibly high porosity, crusts. Thirdly, inferred moments of inertia less than 0.4 in Mimas and Tethys can be explained by high-porosity crusts, but also by differentiation of a high density core. Finally, the relatively low densities of smaller satellites like Mimas and Miranda relative to larger neighbors can be explained by deep porosity

  8. Semi-brittle behavior of a multi-phase crust and its influence on the tectonics of icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Christine; Cooper, Reid F.

    2010-05-01

    Our ability to observe and interpret reasonably the tectonics of icy satellites hinges on our understanding of the viscoelastic and plastic rheologies and microstructural evolution of the material comprising their icy outer shells. The morphological diversity observed on the surfaces of the satellites may be due in part to the rheological influence of the various cryominerals that are present in addition to water ice on many of these icy bodies. Our experimental investigation explores the affects of secondary minerals on the phase behavior and physical properties (both plastic and anelastic) of ice at conditions approaching those of the icy satellites. Using uniaxial compression creep experiments (T = 230-250K; P = 0.1 and 50 MPa), we characterize the transient and steady-state deformation behaviors of eutectic aggregates (made via crystallization of liquid solution) of ice-I and MgSO4•11H2O ("MS11"; meridianiite) and compare them to the deformation behaviors of pure polycrystalline ice-I tested at the same conditions on the same apparatus. The ice/hydrate aggregates display a higher sensitivity to stress than does pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions. One significant role that the second phase plays in ductile deformation is to pin grain growth, keeping grain sizes small and deformation within the grain/colony size sensitive creep regime. The mechanical and microstructural observations from this study indicate that the hydrate phase, which is distinctly stronger than pure ice, additionally offers a framework of support that resists ductile deformation at low stresses; the aggregates display at least an order of magnitude higher effective viscosity than do samples of pure polycrystalline ice at the same conditions up to 6MPa. At higher stresses, however, the hydrate phase promotes semi-brittle flow and cavitation, both of which are forms of strain weakening. Semi-brittle flow in the icy shell of a planetary body would decrease the depth to the brittle

  9. The Fatigue of Water Ice: Insight into the Tectonic Resurfacing of Tidally Deformed Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, N. P.; Barr, A. C.; Hirth, G.; Cooper, R. F.

    2015-12-01

    Fatigue is a process that causes materials to weaken during cyclic loading and experience brittle failure at much lower applied stresses. We perform laboratory experiments to study the fatigue behavior of water ice at conditions relevant to the surfaces of icy satellites, to test the hypothesis that the lithospheres of some icy satellites are weakened by fatigue. Many icy moons of the outer solar system, such as Europa and Enceladus, experience cyclic stresses driven by tidal forces from their parent planet. Stresses generated by tides and other physical processes, such as solid-state convection of the ice shell, are weak compared to laboratory derived yield stress values of ice. The surface geology on many icy moons, however, suggests that these processes are capable of deforming the surface, suggesting that their surfaces may have been weakened. During fatigue, microcracks slowly grow under the action of cyclic loads. Cracks grow until the stress intensity reaches a critical value and the sample fractures. The rate of microcrack growth varies with material, temperature, and loading frequency, but under most conditions the growth rate can be characterized by Paris' Law. We use a servo-hydraulic loading machine to perform cyclic 4-point bending tests on polycrystalline ice samples to measure the rate of fatigue crack growth. Ice samples are formed using the standard ice method in a sample mold with dimensions of 10x4x2 cm with an average grain size of 1.2 mm. An initial flaw is cut into the sample and loaded such that the flaw experiences the maximum tensile stress in the sample. Our initial experiments were performed at T=223 K, loading frequencies of 0.5 Hz, and stress intensities ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 of the plane-strain fracture toughness. Sample compliance is used to estimate crack length according to analytical solutions [1]. Experiments show an increase in compliance with time, consistent with substantial subcritical crack growth. Future experiments will

  10. IPPF Co-operative Information Service (ICIS). May 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    The pooling of documentation service resources has resulted in the creation of an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) integrated bibliographic information system. Thus, the former Library Bulletin has become IPPF Cooperative Information Service (ICIS). This is the first such publication. Entries in ICIS are classified according to…

  11. IPPF Co-operative Information Service (ICIS). November 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This ICIS bulletin replaces the formal Library Bulletin of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). It represents the integration of a bibliographic information network. Entries in ICIS are classified according to the following nine categories: (0) General Reference; (1) IPPF; (2) Family Planning and Health Care; (3) Biomedical…

  12. IPPF Co-operative Information Service (ICIS). August 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    The pooling of documentation service resources has resulted in the creation of an International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) integrated bibliographic information system. The former Library Bulletin has become IPPF Cooperative Information Service (ICIS). Entries in ICIS are classified according to the following nine categories: (0) General…

  13. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  14. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  15. Radical formation in the coma from photodissociation of ice grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, William M.; Gerth, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Long ago visual observations of comets suggested that there are jets in comets but it has only been recently that A'Hearn et al. have proven that some of these jets are due to emission from the CN radical. Recent studies in the lab have shown that CN radicals can be ejected directly into the gas phase from the photolysis of frozen vapors if the parent molecular has been excited to repulsive excited state. This later observation suggests that the jets that have been observed may be due to photodissociation of icy grains in the coma. A theory of radical formation from icy grains is presented. It is shown that direct formation of free radicals in the coma is an effective way to produce radicals from icy grains in the coma. The model predicts that icy grains could produce from 6 to 800,000 OH radicals/s per grain depending upon whether the radius of the grain is 0.3 to 100 micron.

  16. Heliosheath Space Environment Interactions with Icy Bodies in the Outermost Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Hill, Matthew E.; Richardson, John D.; Sturner, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring the space environment of the outermost solar system at the same time that earth-based astronomy continues to discover new icy bodies, one larger than Pluto, in the transitional region outward from the Classical Kuiper Belt to the Inner Oort Cloud. Some of the Scattered Disk Objects in this region periodically pass through the heliosheath, entered by Voyager 1 in Dec. 2004 and later expected to be reached by Voyager 2, and out even beyond the heliopause into the Very Local Interstellar Medium. The less energetic heliosheath ions, important for implantation and sputtering processes, are abundant near and beyond the termination shock inner boundary, but the source region of the more penetrating anomalous cosmic ray component has not yet been found. Advantageous for modeling of icy body interactions, the measured heliosheath flux spectra are relatively more stable within this new regime of isotropic compressional magnetic turbulence than in the upstream heliospheric environment. The deepest interactions and resultant radiation-induced chemistry arise from the inwardly diffusing component of the galactic cosmic ray ions with significant intensity modulation also arising in the heliosheath beyond Voyager 1. Surface gardening by high-velocity impacts of smaller bodies (e.g., fragments of previous KBO collisions) and dust is a further space weathering process setting the time scales for long term exposure of different regolith layers to the ion irradiation. Sputtering and ionization of impact ejecta grains may provide a substantial feedback of pickup ions for multiple cycles of heliosheath acceleration and icy body interaction. Thus the space weathering interactions are potentially of interest not only for effects on sensible surface composition of the icy bodies but also for evolution of the heliosheath plasma energetic ion, and neutral emission environment.

  17. Flow and fracture of ices, with application to icy satellites (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, W. B.; Stern, L. A.; Pathare, A.; Golding, N.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration of the outer planets and their satellites by spacecraft over the past 4 decades has revealed that the prevailing low temperatures in the outer solar system have not produced "dead" cryoworlds of generic appearance. Rather, there is an extraordinary diversity in average densities, presence/absence and compositions of atmospheres and planetary rings, average albedos and their seasonal changes, near-surface compositions, and surface records of impact cratering and endogenic tectonic and igneous processes. One reason for this diversity is that the icy minerals present in abundance on many of these worlds are now or once were at significant fractions of their melting temperatures. Hence, a host of thermally activated processes related to endogenic activity (such as crystal defect migration, mass diffusion, surface transport, solid-solid changes of state, and partial melting) may occur that can enable inelastic flow on the surfaces and in the interiors of these bodies. Planetary manifestations include viscous crater relaxation in ice-rich terrain, cryovolcanism, the presence of a stable subsurface ocean, and the effects of solid-ice convection in deep interiors. We make the connection between theoretical mechanisms of deformation and planetary geology through laboratory experiment. Specifically, we develop quantitative constitutive flow laws (strain rate vs. stress) that describe the effects of relevant environmental variables (hydrostatic pressure, temperature, phase composition, chemical impurities). Our findings speak to topics including (1) the behavior of an outer ice I layer, its thickness, the depth to which a stagnant lid might extend, and possibility of wholesale overturn; (2) softening effects of dissolved species such as ammonia and perchlorate; (3) hardening effects of enclathration and of rock dust; and (4) effects of grain size on strength and factors affecting grain size. Other applications of lab data include dynamics of the deep interiors of

  18. Reorientation of icy satellites by impact basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Matsuyama, I.

    2007-10-01

    Large impact basins are present on many of the icy satellites of the outer solar system. Assuming that their present-day topography is uncompensated, such basins can cause significant poleward reorientations for slow-rotating satellites. This reorientation may have been accompanied by transient large-amplitude wobble. The largest basins on Tethys, Rhea and Titania are predicted to have caused reorientations of roughly 4°, 7° and 12°, respectively, resulting in global tectonic stresses up to ~0.5 MPa. The potential anomalies associated with the basins can be up to one-third of those expected for a hydrostatic, tidally- and rotationally-deformed body, and may complicate interpretation of the satellite interior structure. Pluto and Charon, because of their slow rotation, are also likely to have undergone reorientation of 10-20° if they possess impact basins of comparable sizes to those of the Saturnian satellites.

  19. Mass-radius relationships in icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Using published laboratory data for H2O ice, a modeling technique was developed by which the bulk density, density and temperature profile, rotational moment of inertia, central pressure, and location of the rock-ice interface can all be obtained as a function of the radius, the heliocentric distance, and the silicate composition. Models of the interiors of Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, Rhea, and Titan are given, consistent with present mass and radius data. The radius and mass of spheres of ice under self-gravitation for two different temperature classes are given (103 and 77 deg K). Measurements of mass, radius and I/MR2 by spacecraft can be interpreted by this model to yield substantial information about the internal structure and the ice/rock ratio of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

  20. Processing of icy mantles in protostellar envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Gerakines, P. A.; Whittet, D. C.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Tielens, A. G.; Adamson, A. J.; Boogert, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained CO absorption profiles of several young stellar objects (YSOs), spanning a range of mass and luminosity, in order to investigate their ice mantle composition. We present the first detection of CO toward the class I YSO L1489 IRS in the Taurus dark cloud. In general, the CO profiles for YSOs show evidence for both processed and pristine ices in the same line of sight, strong indirect evidence for CO, is suggested in R CrA IRS 7, L1489 IRS, Elias 18, and GL 961E. Toward other sources (R CrA IRS 1, IRS 2, W33A, NGC 7538 IRS 9, Mon R2 IRS 2) CO is present in (nearly) pure form. We propose an evolutionary scenario to explain the chemical diversity of the icy mantles toward these objects.

  1. The Icy Cold Heart of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    2015-11-01

    The locations of large deposits of frozen volatiles on planetary surfaces are largely coincident with areas receiving the minimum annual influx of solar energy; familiar examples include the polar caps of Earth and Mars. For planets tilted by more than 45 degrees, however, the poles actually receive more energy than some other latitudes. Pluto, with its current obliquity of 119 degrees, has minima in its average annual insolation at +/- 27 degrees latitude, with ~1.5% more energy flux going to the equator and ~15% more to the poles. Remarkably, the fraction of annual solar energy incident on different latitudes depends only on the obliquity of the planet and not on any of its orbital parameters.Over millions of years, Pluto's obliquity varies sinusoidally from 102-126 degrees, significantly affecting the latitudinal profile of solar energy deposition. Roughly 1Myr ago, the poles received 15% more energy that today while the equator received 13% less. The energy flux to latitudes between 25-35 degrees is far more stable, remaining low over the presumably billions of years since Pluto acquired its current spin properties. Like the poles at Earth, these mid latitudes on Pluto should be favored for the long-term deposition of volatile ices. This is, indeed, the location of the bright icy heart of Pluto, Sputnik Planum.Reflected light and emitted thermal radiation from Charon increases annual insolation to one side of Pluto by of order 0.02%. Although small, the bulk of the energy is delivered at night to Pluto's cold equatorial regions. Furthermore, Charon's thermal infrared radiation is easily absorbed by icy deposits on Pluto, slowing deposition and facilitating sublimation of volatiles. We argue that the slight but persistent preference for ices to form and survive in the anti-Charon Pluto's heart.

  2. Low Force Penetration of Icy Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Galloway, G. M.; Zacny, K.

    2016-01-01

    A percussive cone penetrometer measures the strength of granular material by using percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the material. A percussive cone penetrometer was used in this study to penetrate a regolith ice mixture by breaking up ice and decompacting the regolith. As compared to a static cone penetrometer, percussion allows low reaction forces to push a penetrometer probe tip more easily into dry regolith in a low gravity environment from a planetary surface rover or a landed spacecraft. A percussive cone penetrates icy regolith at ice concentrations that a static cone cannot penetrate. In this study, the percussive penetrator was able to penetrate material under 65 N of down-force which could not be penetrated using a static cone under full body weight. This paper discusses using a percussive cone penetrometer to discern changes in the concentration of water-ice in a mixture of lunar regolith simulant and ice to a depth of one meter. The rate of penetration was found to be a function of the ice content and was not significantly affected by the down-force. The test results demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in a reduced gravity environment. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy regolith, and there is some risk of the probe tip becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted. It is also shown that a percussive cone penetrometer could be used to prospect for water ice in regolith at concentrations as high as 8 by weight.

  3. Habitability potential of icy moons: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Bampasidis, Georgios; Wagner, Frank; Raulin, François; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-05-01

    Looking for habitable conditions in the outer solar system our research focuses on the natural satellites rather than the planets themselves. Indeed, the habitable zone as traditionally defined may be larger than originally con-ceived. The strong gravitational pull caused by the giant planets may produce enough energy to sufficiently heat the interiors of orbiting icy moons. The outer solar system satellites then provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the ground but also by the Voyager, Galileo and the Cassini spacecrafts revealed the potential of these satellites in this context, and our understanding of habitability in the solar system and beyond can be greatly enhanced by investigating several of these bodies together [1]. Their environments seem to satisfy many of the "classical" criteria for habitability (liquid water, energy sources to sustain metabolism and chemical compounds that can be used as nutrients over a period of time long enough to allow the development of life). Indeed, several of the moons show promising conditions for habitability and the de-velopment and/or maintenance of life. Europa, Callisto and Ganymede may be hiding, under their icy crust, putative undersurface liquid water oceans [3] which, in the case of Europa [2], may be in direct contact with a silicate mantle floor and kept warm by tidally generated heat [4]. Titan and Enceladus, Saturn's satellites, were found by the Cassini-Huygens mission to possess active organic chemistries with seasonal variations, unique geological features and possibly internal liquid water oceans. Titan's rigid crust and the probable existence of a subsurface ocean create an analogy with terrestrial-type plate tectonics, at least surficial [5], while Enceladus' plumes find an analogue in gey-sers. As revealed by Cassini the liquid hydrocarbon lakes [6] distributed mainly at polar latitudes on Titan are ideal isolated

  4. Triptycene analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy (Inventor); Perchellet, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention provides analogs of triptycene which are useful as anticancer drugs, as well as for other uses. The potency of these compounds is in a similar magnitude as daunomycin, a currently used anticancer drug. Each compound of the invention produces one or more desired effects (blocking nucleoside transport, inhibiting nucleic acid or protein syntheses, decreasing the proliferation and viability of cancer cells, inducing DNA fragmentation or retaining their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant tumor cells).

  5. Cyber Analogies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    including the time for reviewing instructions , searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing... CONTENTS 1 Introduction Emily O. Goldman & John Arquilla 7 The Cyber Pearl Harbor James J. Wirtz 15 Applying the Historical Lessons of Surprise Attack...As H.G. Wells put it, “History is a race between education and catastrophe.” SURPRISE ATTACK The primarily history- based analogies contained herein

  6. Cratering at the Icy Satellites: Experimental Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck Syal, M.; Schultz, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering processes play a central role in shaping the evolution of icy satellites and in guiding interpretations of various geologic features at these bodies. Accurate reconstruction of icy satellite histories depends in large part upon observed impact crater size-frequency distributions. Determining the extent of impact-induced thermal processing and the retention rates for impact-delivered materials of interest, e.g. organics, at these outer solar system moons is of fundamental importance for assessing their habitability and explaining differing geophysical histories. Hence, knowledge of how the impact process operates in ices or ice-rich materials is critically important. Recent progress in the development of water equations of state, coupled with increasingly efficient 3-D hydrocode calculations, has been used to construct careful numerical studies of melt and vapor generation for water ice targets. Complementary to this approach is experimental work to constrain the effects of differing ice target conditions, including porosity, rock mass fraction, and impact angle. Here we report on results from hypervelocity impact experiments (v~5.5 km/s) into water ice targets, performed at the NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR). The setup at the AVGR allows for the use of particulate targets, which is useful for examining the effects of target porosity. Photometry and geophysical modeling both suggest that regolith porosity at the icy satellites is significant. We use a combination of half-space and quarter-space geometries, enabling analysis of the impact-generated vapor plume (half-space geometry), along with shock wave and transient crater growth tracking in a cross-sectional view (quarter-space geometry). Evaluating the impact-generated vapor from porous (φ = 0.5) and non-porous water ice targets provides an extension to previously published vapor production results for dolomite and CO2 ice targets. For the case of a 90 degree impact into porous ice, we

  7. The Diversity of Icy Ocean Worlds (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    The idea that several of the outer planet satellites might contain subsurface water oceans was first proposed by Lewis (1971) and others in the early seventies. Since the late nineties, evidence for the presence of those liquid layers was provided by the Galileo mission for Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto and by Cassini data for Saturn’s moon Enceladus. Modelling suggests that furthermore Saturn’s moon Titan, Neptune’s Triton, and other large icy objects in the outer solar system can contain liquid water layers in their interiors. Thus, subsurface water oceans in icy moons and presumably in Kuiper-belt binaries might provide habitable environments in the outer solar system. Long-term stability of the oceans requires energy sources that provide sufficient heat to maintain liquid layers on geologic time-scales. On the other hand the rate of heat transport has to be sufficiently small to prevent the oceans from freezing. Both competing factors depend on the physical properties (e.g., rock content, interior structure, temperature) of the satellite and —in some cases— on the interaction with other planetary bodies (e.g., tidal interaction with the primary and resonances with other satellites). Furthermore, the presence of oceans depends on chemical properties (e.g., volatile content) of the liquid phase and is thus closely linked to the conditions in the respective sub-nebula during accretion. The resulting conditions for a putative ocean may vary considerably for the individual satellites. As a consequence expected ocean worlds will be very diverse in the outer solar system. Here we discuss the conditions under which liquid water layers can be maintained on long time-scales. Energy sources and processes that play a key role, i.e. radioactive decay, tidal heating, energy due to accretion and differentiation will be estimated in application to the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. In case of tidal heating, the resulting heat balance equation can

  8. Low Force Icy Regolith Penetration Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, P. T.; Galloway, G. M.; Mantovani, J. G.; Zacny, K.; Zacny, Kris; Craft, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Recent data from the Moon, including LCROSS data, indicate large quantities of water ice and other volatiles frozen into the soil in the permanently shadowed craters near the poles. If verified and exploited, these volatiles will revolutionize spaceflight as an inexpensive source of propellants and other consumables outside Earth's gravity well. This report discusses a preliminary investigation of a method to insert a sensor through such a soiVice mixture to verify the presence, nature, and concentration of the ice. It uses percussion to deliver mechanical energy into the frozen mixture, breaking up the ice and decompacting the soil so that only low reaction forces are required from a rover or spacecraft to push the sensor downward. The tests demonstrate that this method may be ideal for a small platform in lunar gravity. However, there are some cases where the system may not be able to penetrate the icy soil, and there is some risk ofthe sensor becoming stuck so that it cannot be retracted, so further work is needed. A companion project (ISDS for Water Detection on the Lunar Surface) has performed preliminary investigation of a dielectric/thermal sensor for use with this system.

  9. Convection-Driven Resurfacing on Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Amy

    2015-04-01

    Ridge and trough terrain, characterized by kilometer-scale sub-parallel ridges and troughs, is found in a variety of settings on the icy satellites of the solar system. Examples include Ganymede's grooved terrain [1], Europa's bands [2,3], Miranda's coronae [4,5], and swaths of ridges and troughs in the northern plains of Enceladus [6]. The fault spacing implies a shallow brittle/ductile depth and thus, a high thermal gradient at the time of formation [e.g., 7]. I will show that similar rheological parameters can give rise to the heat flows and deformation rates inferred for the formation of many examples of ridge and trough terrain. These results suggest that convection in ice mantles with weak surfaces can explain the formation of these terrains, just as convection in Earth's mantle, beneath a weakened crust, can drive surface deformation. References: [1] Pappalardo, R. T. et al., 2004. in Jupiter, Cambridge Univ. Press, pp.363. [2] Prockter, L. M. et al., 2002. JGR 107, 5028. [3] Stempel, M. M. et al., 2005. Icarus 177, 297. [4] Pappalardo, R. T. et al., 1997. JGR 102, 13369. [5] Hammond, N. P. and A. C. Barr, 2014. Geology 42, 931-934. [6] Bland, M. et al., 2007. Icarus 192, 92. [7] Nimmo, F. et al., 2002. GRL 29 62-1.

  10. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  11. Why Icy Cliffs are Stressed Out and Falling to Pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Sori, M. M.; Russell, P.; Pathare, A.; Becerra, P.; Molaro, J.; Sutton, S.; Mellon, M. T.; HiRISE Team

    2016-09-01

    Steep, icy, north polar cliffs are actively retreating through fracturing and blockfalls and additionally are scoured clean of dust by avalanches each spring. We explain this activity through modeling of thermoelastic stresses.

  12. Studies of Icy Bodies: Uranian Satellites and Cometary Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. W.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution and structure of icy bodies of the solar system are summarized. The effect of tidal evolution, eccentricities, and decay time on Titania, Oberon, Miranda, Umbriel and Ariel is discussed. Observational measurements of the masses and radii of these satellites have recently become sufficiently reliable to use in investigation. Also considered is the problem of the sub-surface temperature distribution and heat transfer of icy comet nuclei.

  13. Laboratory Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify New Compounds on Icy Moon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wray, James J.; Young, Cindy L.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael J.; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger N.; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2014-11-01

    We are exploring the value of mid-infrared spectroscopy for identifying non-H2O constituents of icy moon surfaces. Recently we reported evidence for a new emissivity feature identified on Iapetus using Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer [1]. This 11.7 μm feature is consistent with emissivity minima (transparency features) of very fine-grained silicates. Its position and shape may be diagnostic of silicate type, but most lab data at these wavelengths have been acquired using coarser grains and/or at Earth surface pressures and temperatures. Infrared spectra can change substantially under low-temperature, vacuum conditions [e.g., 2,3].We prepared sieved (<0.4 mm) and very fine-grained (few μm) powders of six different silicates and measured their VNIR (0.35-2.5 μm) reflectance spectra under ambient air, and mid-IR (1.2-20 μm) spectra in a purged N2 glovebox. All silicates exhibited mid-IR transparency features (and loss of other features) in micronized form that were not observed for the coarser grain sizes. Muscovite, a phyllosilicate mineral possibly similar to those tentatively identified on Europa [4], provided the closest match to Iapetus in the mid-IR--although clear VNIR features of muscovite have not been identified on Iapetus [5]--and therefore we measured muscovite across the same wavelength range under Iapetus-like conditions (T=125 K, P<3x10^-8 torr). We will report on our ongoing analysis and plans for additional future measurements in JPL’s Icy Worlds Simulation Lab. [1] Young, C.L., et al. (2014), Workshop on the Habitability of Icy Worlds, Abstract #4038.[2] Logan, L.M., et al. (1973), J. Geophys. Res., 78(23), 4983-5003.[3] Donaldson Hanna, K.L., et al. (2012), J. Geophys. Res., 117, E00H05.[4] Shirley, J.H., et al. (2013), AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract #P54A-07.[5] Clark, R.N., et al. (2012), Icarus, 218, 831-860.

  14. Mid-infrared spectroscopy to better characterize icy moon surface compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Cindy L.; Wray, James J.; Hand, Kevin P.; Poston, Michael; Carlson, Robert W.; Clark, Roger Nelson; Spencer, John R.; Jennings, Donald

    2016-10-01

    Previous spectroscopy work on icy moons has focused primarily on the visible and near-IR portion of the spectrum due to challenges presented by a low signal to noise ratio at the longer wavelengths. However, the mid-IR is the region of the strongest fundamental vibrations of many important types of molecules (e.g., organics) and has the potential to reveal unique compositional information [1]. We use the wealth of data that is now available from Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) to average spectra over similar regions to improve the signal to noise, helping to reveal spectral features never before observed.Our initial work has already led to the detection and tentative laboratory identification of the first spectral features observed for any icy moon in the mid-IR [2]. On Iapetus' dark terrain, we found an emissivity feature at ~855 cm-1 and a possible doublet at 660 and 690 cm-1 that does not correspond to any known instrument artifacts. We attributed the 855 cm-1 feature to fine-grained silicates, similar to those found in dust on Mars and in meteorites, which are nearly featureless at shorter wavelengths [e.g., 3, 4]. Silicates on the dark terrains of Saturn's icy moons have been suspected for decades, but there have been no definitive detections until this work.We measured the vacuum, low temperature mid-IR spectra of various fine-grained powdered silicates, including Mg-rich serpentines, often present in meteorites. Some of these materials do have emissivity features near 855 cm-1 and exhibit a doublet. Presently, we are continuing to comb the CIRS icy moon database for spectral features (particularly focusing on the warmer surfaces in the Saturn system) and are performing further vacuum chamber measurements to experiment with more sample types and ice/sample mixtures to determine the impacts of changing conditions in the chamber on features. We are also working to understand how surface porosity and mixing with various darkening agents may

  15. Accretion, Early Thermal State and Differentiation of Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteux, J.; Tobie, G.; Choblet, G.; Le Feuvre, M.

    2011-10-01

    For a better understanding of the thermal evolution of a growing icy satellite and of the conditions under which melting may occur, we developed a three-dimensional numerical model based on the Oedipus code, initially developed to solve the equations of thermal convection in a spherical geometry [11]. This numerical model characterizes the thermal evolution of an icy satellite during its accretion from a variety of plausible impactor population. For each impact, we consider the thermal effects due to the dissipation of the impactor's kinetic energy: After an impact, temperature locally increases deep in the impacted growing object and within the shallow ejecta blanket. As the icy moon grows, gravitational forces increase and impacts become more and more energetic. As the temperature increases below the impact site is proportional to the impact velocity, melting events areexpected tooccur at the end of the accretion once the icy moon reaches a critical size. In order to constrain this critical size, we simulate the growth and thermal evolution of icy bodies from a kilometer-size initial undifferentiated body to a size of order 2500 km from various populations of undifferentiated icy impactors and by assuming different orbital configurations for the growing body and different accretion rates. Preliminary results will be presented.

  16. Geologic Landforms and Processes on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    During the first reconaissence of the satellites of the outer solar system conducted by the Voyager missions (1979-1989), a surprising diversity of unusual geologic landforms were observed, in some cases with bewildering complexity (e.g., Triton). Impact features were certainly expected but the variety of volcanic, diapiric, tectonic, impact, and erosional landforms was only remotely suggested by some early theoretical works. These diagnostic features are manifestations of the internal composition, thermal history, and dynamical evolution of these bodies. It is the job of the geologist to interpret the morphology, stratigraphy, and composition of these deposits and structures to ascertain what materials were mobilized in the interior, in what amount, and the mechanism and cause of their mobilization. In this chapter, we review what is know about these features and what constraints can be placed on composition and thermal history. Particular emphasis is placed on volcanic features, as these are most directly related to satellite composition and thermal history. The surface spectra, high albedos, and low bulk densities of the satellites of the outer solar system indicate that water and other ices are abundant on these bodies, particularly on their surfaces. Ices, particularly water ice, are less dense than silicates and will tend to float and form crusts during differentiation or partial melting of the interior. Ices therefore take the place of silicates as 'crust-forming' minerals and dominate geologic processes on icy satellites. Melted ices form magma bodies, and sometimes are extruded as lavas, an unusual but still valid perspective for terrestrial geologists. The unusual properties of some ices, including their low melting temperatures, and low strengths (as well as the decrease in density on the freezing of water ice), will ultimately be very important in interpreting this record.

  17. The Cold and Icy Heart of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The locations of large deposits of frozen volatiles on planetary surfaces are largely coincident with areas receiving the minimum annual influx of solar energy. Thus we have the familiar polar caps of Earth and Mars, but cold equatorial regions for planets with obliquities between 54 and 126 degrees. Furthermore, for tilts between 45-66 degrees and 114-135 degrees the minimum incident energy occurs neither at the pole nor the equator. We find that the annual average insolation is always symmetric about Pluto's equator and is fully independent of the relative locations of the planet's pericenter and equinoxes. Remarkably, this symmetry holds for arbitrary orbital eccentricities and obliquities, and so we provide a short proof in the margin of this abstract. The current obliquity of Pluto is 119 degrees, giving it minima in average annual insolation at +/- 27 degrees latitude, with ~1.5% more flux to the equator and ~15% more to the poles. But the obliquity of Pluto also varies sinusoidally from 102-126 degrees and so, over the past million years, Pluto's annual equatorial and polar fluxes have changed by +15% and -13%, respectively. Interestingly, the energy flux received by latitudes between 25-35 degrees remains nearly constant over the presumably billions of years since Pluto acquired its current orbit and spin properties. Thus these latitudes are continuously cold and should be favored for the long-term deposition of volatile ices; the bright heart of Pluto, Sputnik Planum, extends not coincidentally across these latitudes. Reflected light and emitted thermal radiation from Charon increases annual insolation to one side of Pluto by of order 0.02%. Although small, the bulk of the energy is delivered at night to Pluto's cold equatorial regions. Furthermore, Charon's thermal IR is delivered very efficiently to icy deposits. Over billions of years, ices have preferentially formed and survived in the anti-Charon hemisphere.

  18. Geologic Evolution of Saturn's Icy Moon Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Roland; Stephan, K.; Schmedemann, N.; Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Neukum, G.; Porco, C. C.

    2013-10-01

    Tethys, 1072 km in diameter, is a mid-sized icy moon of Saturn imaged for the first time in two Voyager flybys [1][2][3]. Since July 2004, its surface has been imaged by the Cassini ISS cameras at resolutions between 200 and 500 m/pxl. We present results from our ongoing work to define and map geologic units in camera images obtained preferentially during Cassini’s Equinox and Solstice mission phases. In the majority of Tethys’ surface area a densely cratered plains unit [1][2][3][this work] is abundant. The prominent graben system of Ithaca Chasma is mapped as fractured cratered plains. Impact crater and basin materials can be subdivided into three degradational classes. Odysseus is a fresh large impact basin younger than Ithaca Chasma according to crater counts [4]. Heavily degraded craters and basins occur in the densely cratered plains unit. A smooth, less densely cratered plains unit in the trailing hemisphere was previously identified by [2] but mapping of its boundaries is difficult due to varying viewing geometries of ISS images. To the south of Odysseus, we identified a cratered plains unit not seen in Voyager data, characterized by remnants of highly degraded large craters superimposed by younger fresher craters with a lower crater density compared to the densely cratered plains unit. Its distinct linear northern contact with the densely cratered plains suggests a tectonic origin. Sets of minor fractures can be distinguished in the densely cratered plains, and locally, features of mass wasting can be observed. References: [1] Smith B. A. et al. (1981), Science 212, 163-191. [2] Smith B. A. et al. (1982), Science 215, 504-537. [3] Moore J. M. and Ahern J. L. (1983), JGR 88 (suppl.), A577-A584. [4] Giese B. et al. (2007), GRL 34, doi:10.1029/2007GL031467.

  19. Characterization of the permittivity of controlled porous water ice-dust mixtures to support the radar exploration of icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouet, Y.; Neves, L.; Sabouroux, P.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Poch, O.; Encrenaz, P.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.

    2016-12-01

    The internal properties of porous and icy bodies in the solar system can be investigated by ground-penetrating radars (GPRs), like the COmet Nucleus Sounding Experiment by Radiowave Transmission instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft which has sounded the interior of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Accurate constraints on the permittivity of icy media are needed for the interpretation of the data. We report novel permittivity measurements performed on water ice samples and icy mixtures with porosities in the 31-91% range. The measurements have been performed between 50 MHz and 2 GHz with a coaxial cell on a total of 38 samples with a good reproducibility. We used controlled procedures to produce fine-grained and coarse-grained ice samples with a mean diameter of 4.5 μm and 67 μm, respectively, and to prepare icy mixtures. The JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant was used as the dust component in the mixtures. The results are focused on the real-part ɛ' of the permittivity, which constrains the phase velocity of the radio waves in low-loss media. The values of ɛ' show a nondispersive behavior and are within the range of 1.1 to 2.7. They decrease with the increasing porosity Φ according to E(1 - Φ), with E equal to about 3.13 for pure water ice, and in the 3.8-7.5 range for ice-dust mixtures with a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, respectively. These measurements are also relevant for radiometers operating in the millimeter-submillimeter domains, as suggested by the nondispersive behavior of the mixtures and of the pure components.

  20. Origin and thermal evolution of icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradini, Angioletta; Federico, Costanzo; Forni, Olivier; Magni, Gianfranco

    1995-07-01

    The paper reviews the problem of formation and evolution of the so-called “regular satellites “ of the giant planets, and it consists of two parts: the first describes the possible origin of the satellites, the second studies their evolution, attempting to stress the relations of the present status of the satellites with their evolutionary history. The formation of regular satellite systems around giant planets is probably related to the formation of the central planet. Some characteristics of regular satellite systems are quite similar, and suggest a common origin in a disk present around the central body. This disk can originate through different mechanisms which we will describe, paying attention to the so-called “accretion disk” model, in which the satellite-forming material is captured. The disk phase links the formation of the primary body with the formation of satellites. The subsequent stages of the disk's evolution can lead first to the formation of intermediate size bodies, and through the collisional evolution of these bodies, to the birth of satellite “embryos” able to gravitationally capture smaller bodies. Given the scenario in which icy satellites may be formed by homogeneous accretion of planetesimals made of a mixtures of ice and silicates, if no melting occurs during accretion, the satellites have a homogeneous ice-rock composition. For the smaller satellites this homogeneous structure should not be substantially modified; only sporadic local events, such as large impacts, can modify the surface structure of the smaller satellites. For the larger satellites, if some degree of melting appears during accretion, a differentiation of the silicate part occurs, the amount of differentiation and hence the core size depending on the fraction of gravitational potential energy retained during the accumulation process. Melting and differentiation soon after the accretion, for the larger satellites, could also depend on the convective evolution in

  1. Biosignature detection at an Arctic analog to Europa.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Damhnait F; Pappalardo, R T; Anderson, M S; Grasby, S E; Mielke, R E; Wright, K E; Templeton, A S

    2012-02-01

    The compelling evidence for an ocean beneath the ice shell of Europa makes it a high priority for astrobiological investigations. Future missions to the icy surface of this moon will query the plausibly sulfur-rich materials for potential indications of the presence of life carried to the surface by mobile ice or partial melt. However, the potential for generation and preservation of biosignatures under cold, sulfur-rich conditions has not previously been investigated, as there have not been suitable environments on Earth to study. Here, we describe the characterization of a range of biosignatures within potentially analogous sulfur deposits from the surface of an Arctic glacier at Borup Fiord Pass to evaluate whether evidence for microbial activities is produced and preserved within these deposits. Optical and electron microscopy revealed microorganisms and extracellular materials. Elemental sulfur (S⁰), the dominant mineralogy within field samples, is present as rhombic and needle-shaped mineral grains and spherical mineral aggregates, commonly observed in association with extracellular polymeric substances. Orthorhombic α-sulfur represents the stable form of S⁰, whereas the monoclinic (needle-shaped) γ-sulfur form rosickyite is metastable and has previously been associated with sulfide-oxidizing microbial communities. Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed mineral deposition on cellular and extracellular materials in the form of submicron-sized, needle-shaped crystals. X-ray diffraction measurements supply supporting evidence for the presence of a minor component of rosickyite. Infrared spectroscopy revealed parts-per-million level organics in the Borup sulfur deposits and organic functional groups diagnostic of biomolecules such as proteins and fatty acids. Organic components are below the detection limit for Raman spectra, which were dominated by sulfur peaks. These combined investigations indicate that sulfur mineral deposits may contain

  2. A novel sputtering technique: Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, D. A. L.; Ehiasarian, A. P.

    2012-09-01

    Sputtering magnetic materials with magnetron based systems has the disadvantage of field quenching and variation of alloy composition with target erosion. The advantage of eliminating magnetic fields in the chamber is that this enables sputtered particles to move along the electric field more uniformly. Inductively coupled impulse sputtering (ICIS) is a form of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) without a magnetic field where a high density plasma is produced by a high power radio frequency (RF) coil in order to sputter the target and ionise the metal vapour. In this emerging technology, the effects of power and pressure on the ionisation and deposition process are not known. The setup comprises of a 13.56 MHz pulsed RF coil pulsed with a duty cycle of 25 %. A pulsed DC voltage of 1900 V was applied to the cathode to attract Argon ions and initiate sputtering. Optical emission spectra (OES) for Cu and Ti neutrals and ions at constant pressure show a linear intensity increase for peak RF powers of 500 W - 3400 W and a steep drop of intensity for a power of 4500 W. Argon neutrals show a linear increase for powers of 500 W - 2300 W and a saturation of intensity between 2300 W - 4500 W. The influence of pressure on the process was studied at a constant peak RF power of 2300 W. With increasing pressure the ionisation degree increased. The microstructure of the coatings shows globular growth at 2.95×10-2 mbar and large-grain columnar growth at 1.2×10-1 mbar. Bottom coverage of unbiased vias with a width of 0.360 μm and aspect ratio of 2.5:1 increased from 15 % to 20 % for this pressure range. The current work has shown that the concept of combining a RF powered coil with a magnet-free high voltage pulsed DC powered cathode is feasible and produces very stable plasma. The experiments have shown a significant influence of power and pressure on the plasma and coating microstructure.

  3. An Overview of Cassini UVIS Icy Satellite Results So Far

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Hansen, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    The icy satellites of the Saturn system exhibit a remarkable amount of variability. From dark, battered Phoebe orbiting at 200 R(sub S) to black-and-white Iapetus, the wispy streaks of Dione, heavily cratered Tethys and Mimas, to potentially geologically active Enceladus, the extent of geological phenomena exhibited by these bodies is tremendous. Phoebe, Iapetus and Hyperion all orbit outside Saturn s magnetosphere, while Mimas, Enceladus, Dione Tethys and Rhea all orbit within the magnetosphere. Furthermore, Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys and Dione all orbit within the E-ring so the extent of exogenic effects on these icy satellites is wide-ranging. After 9 months in orbit around Saturn, we present UV results so far from Phoebe, Tethys, Dione, Iapetus, Mimas, Enceladus and Rhea. We expect that the UV signatures of these icy satellites are strongly influenced not only by their composition, but by external effects and magnetospheric environments.

  4. Contributions of icy planetesimals to the Earth's early atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Owen, T C; Bar-Nun, A

    2001-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the trapping of gases by ice forming at low temperatures implicate comets as major carriers of the heavy noble gases to the inner planets. These icy planetesimals may also have brought the nitrogen compounds that ultimately produced atmospheric N2. However, if the sample of three comets analyzed so far is typical, the Earth's oceans cannot have been produced by comets alone, they require an additional source of water with low D/H. The highly fractionated neon in the Earth's atmosphere may also indicate the importance of non-icy carriers of volatiles. The most important additional carrier is probably the rocky material comprising the bulk of the mass of these planets. Venus may require a contribution from icy planetesimals formed at the low temperatures characteristic of the Kuiper Belt.

  5. Potential Biospheres of the icy world in our solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Baqué, Mickael

    2016-04-01

    The challenge in astrobiology and planetary research in the near future is to realize space missions to study the habitability of Mars and the icy moons of the Jovian and Saturnian systems. Mars is an interesting object to search for habitable environments and for fossilized (and potentially present) life because of its past water driven wet history. On the other hand the Jovian moon Europa and the Saturnian moon Enceladus are promising candidates, where liquid water oceans beneath the surface are expected. These oceans can be habitable environments and the next challenge is to search there for present life. Some examples on potential biospheres and their biosignatures in Mars-like environments and in environmental conditions with reference to the icy moons will be given, which might exist in such kind of icy environments.

  6. The Saturn System's Icy Satellites: New Results from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes-Gautier, Rosaly M.; Buratti, Bonnie; Hendrix, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Cassini-Huygens is a multidisciplinary, international planetary mission consisting of an orbiting spacecraft and a probe. The Huygens probe successfully landed on Titan's surface on January 14, 2005, while the orbiter has performed observations of Saturn, its rings, satellites, and magnetosphere since it entered orbit around Saturn on July 1, 2004. The Cassini mission has been prolific in its scientific discoveries about the Saturn system. In this special section, we present new mission results with a focus on the 'icy satellites,' which we define as all Saturn's moons with the exception of Titan. The results included in this section have come out of the Cassini SOST--Satellites Orbiter Science Team--a multi-instrument and multidiscipline group that works together to better understand the icy satellites and their interactions with Saturn and its rings. Other papers included in this issue present ground-based observations and interior modeling of these icy moons.

  7. Morphology and Scaling of Ejecta Deposits on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; Ridolfi, Francis J.; Bredekamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Continuous ejecta deposits on Ganymede consist of two major units, or facies: a thick inner hummocky pedestal facies, and a relatively thin outer radially scoured facies defined also by the inner limit of the secondary crater field. Both ejecta facies have a well-defined power-law relationship to crater diameter for craters ranging from 15 to approx. 600 km across. This relationship can be used to estimate the nominal crater diameter for impact features on icy satellites (such as palimpsests and multiring basins) for which the crater rim is no longer recognizable. Ejecta deposits have also been mapped on 4 other icy satellites. Although morphologically similar to eject deposits on the Moon, ejecta deposits for smaller craters are generally significantly broader in extent on the icy satellites, in apparent defiance of predictions of self-similarity. A greater degree of rim collapse and enlargement on the Moon may explain the observed difference.

  8. Surface-bounded Exospheres of the Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.; Johnson, R. E.; Cooper, J. F.; Wong, M. C.

    2004-05-01

    Sputtering and radiolysis of the icy satellite surfaces are important sources of neutrals in the Jovian and Saturnian systems [1,2]. We have presented collisional Monte Carlo models of surface-bounded exospheres of the icy satellites in which the sublimation and sputtering sources of H2O molecules and their molecular fragments are accounted for as well as the physical and chemical exchange at the atmosphere-icy surface interface. Products of radiolytic interactions by more penetrating electrons and ions in the volume ice are incorporated into the sublimation source of escaping volatiles. The very tenuous hydrogen and oxygen exospheres originate from a balance between sources from irradiation of the icy satellite surface by solar UV photons and magnetospheric plasma and losses from pick-up ionization and ejection following dissociation or collisions with the low energy plasma ions. The surface-bounded exospheres of the icy satellites are characterized by the hot coronas formed due to atmospheric sputtering, by suprathermal radicals entering the regolith that can drive radiolytic chemistry, and by a supply of pick-up ions and neutrals into the surrounding planetary magnetosphere. This general picture of the surface-bounded exosphere formation is illustrated with calculations of the near-surface oxygen atmosphere of Europa and the supply rate of neutrals to the Europa's near-orbit torus[3]. The surface-bounded exosphere and neutral gas torus provide an extended region for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter detection of neutrals and ions originating from Europa. [1] Johnson, R. E. 2002. Surface boundary layer atmospheres. In Atmospheres in the Solar System: Comparative Aeronomy (M. Mendillo, A. Nagy, J. H. Waite, Eds.) pp. 203-219. Geophys. Monograph, AGU. [2] Cooper, J.F., R.E. Johnson, B.H. Mauk, H.B. Garrett, and N. Gehrels 2001. Icarus 149(1), 133-159. [3] Shematovich, V.I., R.E. Johnson, J.F. Cooper, and M.C. Wong 2004, (submitted to Icarus).

  9. Fingering phenomena during grain-grain displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Nathália M. P.; Paiva, Humberto A.; Combe, G.; Atman, A. P. F.

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous formation of fingered patterns during the displacement of dense granular assemblies was experimentally reported few years ago, in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Here, by means of discrete element simulations, we have recovered the experimental findings and extended the original study to explore the control parameters space. In particular, using assemblies of grains with different geometries (monodisperse, bidisperse, or polydisperse), we measured the macroscopic stress tensor in the samples in order to confirm some conjectures proposed in analogy with Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering phenomena for immiscible fluids. Considering an axial setup which allows to control the discharge of grains and to follow the trajectory and the pressure gradient along the displacing interface, we have applied the Darcy law for laminar flow in fluids in order to measure an "effective viscosity" for each assembly combination, in an attempt to mimic variation of the viscosity ratio between the injected/displaced fluids in the Saffman-Taylor experiment. The results corroborate the analogy with the viscous fluids displacement, with the bidisperse assembly corresponding to the less viscous geometry. But, differently to fluid case, granular fingers only develop for a specific combination of displaced/injected geometries, and we have demonstrated that it is always related with the formation of a force chain network along the finger direction.

  10. Rifting and Faulting on icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.

    2003-12-01

    Two kinds of rifting have been identified on the icy Galilean satellites [1,2]. Europa possesses ˜10~km wide extensional bands, characterized by very high degrees of local extension, internal deformation on a lengthscale of ˜~100~m, and a general resemblance to mid-ocean ridges on Earth [3]. Ganymede has ˜100~km wide areas of grooved terrain, characterized by km-scale tilted fault blocks [4,5], lower degrees of local extension (stretching factor <1.6 [5]) and a general resemblance to continental rifts on Earth [1]. The characteristic spacing of faults on Europa and Ganymede has been used to infer the depth to the brittle-ductile transition (BDT), which depends on the strain rate and the shell thickness [4,6]. Here I present another constraint on these quantities, obtained by considering the circumstances under which narrow (Europa-style) or wide (Ganymede-style) rifts may form. The model is based on an analysis of terrestrial continent rifting [7]. When an ice shell is extended, the thermal gradient increases and it becomes weaker, favouring further extension. The extension also gives rise to lateral shell thickness variations, which oppose further extension. However, these lateral thickness variations may be removed if the base of the ice shell can flow rapidly. If lateral flow is rapid, narrow zones of extension and high stretching factors are generated. If lateral flow is slow, wider rifts and lower stretching factors are favoured. Thick ice shells or high strain rates favour narrow rifts; thin ice shells or low strain rates favour wide rifts. The existence of wide rifts on Ganymede is consistent with a conductive shell thickness of 4-8~km at the time of rifting, and agrees with previous estimates of strain rates [8]. To produce narrow rifting and the inferred BDT depth on Europa requires a larger shell thickness (8-20~km) and a strain rate >= 10-15~s-1. Based on the likely shell thicknesses, the inferred strain rates for Europa and Ganymede can be explained

  11. Organic Synthesis in Simulated Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Deamer, David W.; Elsila, Jamie; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Comets and carbonaceous micrometeorites may have been significant sources of organic compounds on the early Earth. Ices on grains in interstellar dense molecular clouds contain a variety of simple molecules as well as aromatic molecules of various sizes. While in these clouds the icy grains are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic radiation which produces more complex organic molecules. ID We have run laboratory simulations to identify the types of molecules which could have been generated photolytically in pre-cometary ices. Experiments were conducted by forming various realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ices with and without polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at approx. 10 K under high vacuum irradiated with LTV light from a hydrogen plasma lamp: The residue that remained after warming to room temperature was analyzed by HPLC, and by laser desorption mass spectrometry. The residue contains several classes of compounds which may be of prebiotic significance.

  12. Organic Synthesis in Simulated Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dworkin, Jason P.; Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Deamer, David W.; Elsila, Jamie; Zare, Richard N.

    2001-01-01

    Comets and carbonaceous micrometeorites may have been significant sources of organic compounds on the early Earth. Ices on grains in interstellar dense molecular clouds contain a variety of simple molecules as well as aromatic molecules of various sizes. While in these clouds the icy grains are processed by ultraviolet light and cosmic radiation which produces more complex organic molecules. We have run laboratory simulations to identify the types of molecules which could have been generated photolytically in pre-cometary ices. Experiments were conducted by forming various realistic interstellar mixed-molecular ices with and without polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at approx. 10 K under high vacuum irradiated with UV light from a hydrogen plasma lamp. The residue that remained after warming to room temperature was analyzed by HPLC, and by laser desorption mass spectrometry. The residue contains several classes of compounds which may be of prebiotic significance.

  13. Asteroid Icy Regolith Excavation and Volatile Capture Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeitlin, Nancy; Mantovani, James; Swanger, Adam; Townsend, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Icy regolith simulants will be produced in a relevant vacuum environment using various minerals, including hydrated minerals, that are found in C-type meteorites and in other types of planetary regolith. This will allow us to characterize the mechanical strength of the icy regolith as a function of ice content using penetration, excavation, and sample capture devices. The results of this study will benefit engineers in designing efficient regolith excavators and ISRU processing systems for future exploration missions to asteroids and other planetary bodies.

  14. ICI and Penspen in Nigerian and Qatari methanol deals

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-03-11

    The U.K. consulting and engineering company Penspen Ltd. (London) has signed a second joint venture agreement in Qatar and has selected the ICI (London) methanol process. The technology will also be used in a world-scale methanol plant in Nigeria that Penspen is helping to set up. Under the first agreement, signed on January 1 with Qatar General Petroleum Corp. (QGPC), a 50/50 venture is being formed to build a $370-million, 2,000-m.t./day methanol plant at Umm Said. ICI will provide its low-pressure technology and help market 75% of the output. Completion is due late 1994.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of peptides after high-energy impact on the icy matrix: Preliminary step for further UV-induced formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontareva, Natalia B.; Kuzicheva, Evgenia A.; Shelegedin, Vladimir N.

    2009-04-01

    In the interstellar medium, the most probable source of organic molecules could be non-equilibrium processes driven by photons, cosmic rays, shock waves and solid bodies' collisions. The dense cold phase of ISM host icy dust grains - important chemical catalyst during its life cycle. Such particles consist of mineral core composed by silicate or olivine admixed with metal sulfides and oxides, with the water-icy envelope containing organic molecules. Organic molecules in the ISM evolve and become later incorporated in solar system material (comets and meteorites). The formation of polypeptides from single amino acids was traced in simulation experiments representing the inner structure of icy dust grains. Experimental chamber was irradiated at subzero temperatures at the dosage of 2.54 kRad/min. Solid frozen solutions of Gly and Phe were taken as the experimental samples inserted into the metal tube kept at subzero temperatures in the presence of liquid nitrogen. Formation of di- and tri-peptides was demonstrated after applying mass-spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Having polypeptides within the icy matrix, dust grains with ice mantles are transported to warm, dense and active protostellar regions, where ultraviolet irradiation may become important and alter the grain composition. Furthermore UVC radiation may contribute to the formation of additional amounts of polypeptides, since short-wave photons are totally adsorbed by a thin outer layer. This presumption coincides with our previous investigations concerning UV impact on prebiotic formation of the main biological molecules. Combination of two irradiation types in different stages of interstellar flight could compensate the effects of low reagents concentration and temperature. Since the primordial Earth had no atmosphere, the natural carriers could get freely onto its surface and thus raise the concentration of organic molecules.

  16. Large Icy Diapirs and Small Icy Satellites: Reorientation of Mini-Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Nimmo, F.; Moore, J. M.

    2005-12-01

    A class of icy satellites ~400 - 500 km in diameter are large enough that they can experience significant tidal heating (Miranda and Enceladus), while small enough that rising diapirs could significantly perturb the bodies' moments of inertia. If these "mini-moons" are heated sufficiently for differentiation and/or internal convection, the resultant low-density plumes may affect inertia moments enough to trigger satellite reorientation relative to the primary planet. Here we emphasize the case of Miranda and its three large coronae, which are inferred to have formed above large-scale diapiric upwellings [1]. Their locations on the greatest inertia axis (near the south pole) and the intermediate inertia axis (along the leading-trailing axis) suggest that coronae are negative density anomalies that have led to satellite reorientation [2]. The Miranda reorientation hypothesis is further supported by fresh crater distributions [3] and structural evidence [4]. True polar wander of the Earth, promoted by convection and associated continental drift, depends on the perturbation timescale relative to the timescale of viscous relaxation [e.g. 5]. Applying similar arguments to a warm and hydrostatic Miranda, we find that a corona-scale (60° width) icy diapir 100 kg/m3 less dense than its surroundings could induce significant (tens of degrees) reorientation, if the ratio of the diapir lifetime τconv to the ice shell relaxation time τR exceeds 103. For Enceladus, large reorientations can occur even more readily, if τconv / τR exceeds 102. In contrast, a cold mini-moon with a frozen-in hydrostatic figure (Mimas and Proteus) would not easily reorient, as a density anomaly would need to overcome the large difference in principal moments [6]. We find that this latter scenario is consistent with the 130 km crater Herschel not having reoriented Mimas. Mini-moon reorientation allows for some interesting possibilities: a large density anomaly could reorient a warm moon while the

  17. Novel in situ chemical sensing technologies for icy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadham, Jemma; Mowlem, Matthew; Beaton, Alex; Bagshaw, Elizabeth; Lamarche-Gagnon, Guillaume; Telling, Jon; Hawkings, Jon; Tranter, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    A dramatic development in subglacial science in recent decades has been the considerable international effort aimed at improving understanding of the hidden subglacial aquatic environments beneath ice sheets. These include a diverse range of lakes, rivers, shallow and deep sediments. Technology challenges associated with the exploration of these and other icy environments are substantial because of their remote nature, extreme conditions and the requirement for sterile/clean access and sampling. In situ sensors provide an alternative to sample recovery and return for monitoring in situ conditions and are available for many analytes, but they are frequently unsuitable for deployment in icy environments. Low temperatures, freeze-thaw cycles, remote locations, low concentration and low ionic strength meltwaters challenge technologies designed for non cryospheric systems. The UK NERC- funded DELVE programme (DeEveLopment and Validation of in situ chemical sensors for icy Ecosystems) was launched with the goal of developing and testing the first suite of geochemical sensors for icy ecosystems, with a focus on redox sensitive species and dissolved nutrients. All sensors were subject to testing at low temperatures, including freeze-thaw cycling, and the response to low concentration and low ionic strength was quantified. Here we report high resolution, continuous data derived from a suite of biogeochemical sensors which were deployed to a large proglacial river draining the Greenland Ice Sheet during the 2015 melt season. These data show that these sensors have strong potential for more challenging deployment to the basal regions of ice sheets.

  18. IPPF Co-operative Information Service (ICIS). February 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This publication is a catalogue of document descriptions that may be of use to national family planning/population organizations. The International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Cooperative Information Service (ICIS) has developed this quarterly series as a service to population documentation centers so that these centers can acquire the…

  19. Workshop on Europa's Icy Shell: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the workshop on Europa's Icy Shell: Past, Present, and Future, February 6-8,2004, Houston, Texas. Administration and publications support for this meeting were provided by the staff of the Publications and Program Services Department at the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

  20. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  1. Neutral atmosphere near the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shematovich, V. I.

    2016-07-01

    The paper discusses the formation and dynamics of the rarefied gas envelope near the icy surface of Jupiter's moon Ganymede. Being the most massive icy moon, Ganymede can form a rarefied exosphere with a relatively dense near-surface layer. The main parent component of the gas shell is water vapor, which enters the atmosphere due to thermal degassing, nonthermal radiolysis, and other active processes and phenomena on the moon's icy surface. A numerical kinetic simulation is performed to investigate, at the molecular level, the formation, chemical evolution, and dynamics of the mainly H2O- and O2-dominant rarefied gas envelopes. The ionization processes in these rarefied gas envelopes are due to exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun and the magnetospheric plasma. The chemical diversity of the icy moon's gas envelope is attributed to the primary action of ultraviolet solar photons and plasma electrons on the rarefied gas in the H2O- or O2-dominant atmosphere. The model is used to calculate the formation and development of the chemical diversity in the relatively dense near-surface envelope of Ganymede, where an important contribution comes from collisions between parent molecules and the products of their photolysis and radiolysis.

  2. Animal studies of the anaesthetic activity of ICI 35 868.

    PubMed

    Glen, J B

    1980-08-01

    The activity of a new i.v. anesthetic agent ICI 35 868, a compound unrelated to currently used barbiturate, eugenol or steroid agents, has been examined in a range of animal species. Some of the properties of ICI 35 868 resemble those of thiopentone in that it is a rapidly acting agent which produces anaesthesia of short duration and without excitatory side-effects. Both agents have a similar therapeutic index and produce equivalent cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In the mouse ICI 35 868 is 1.8 times more potent than thiopentone as a hypnotic. However, the anaesthetic profile of ICI 35 868 differs from that of thiopentone in that recovery is rapid following repeated administration, no tissue damage is produced by perivascular or intra-arterial injection and greater reflex depression and more profound e.e.g. changes are produced at equipotent doses. This new agent has been shown to be compatible with a wide range of drugs used for preanaesthetic medication, inhalation anaesthetics, and neuromuscular blocking drugs.

  3. Investigation of the properties of icy lunar polar regolith simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcher, Craig; Kömle, Norbert; Leibniz, Otto; Morales-Calderon, Odalys; Gao, Yang; Richter, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    As icy regolith is believed to exist in the subsurface of permanently shadowed areas near the lunar south pole, there is a growing interest in obtaining samples from these polar regions. To qualify for spaceflight, sampling instruments must demonstrate their ability to operate in the expected environment. However, there is currently no quantitative data detailing the extent and distribution of ice in polar regolith. While work has been done to determine the effects of water ice content in simulants such as JSC-1A, to date there has been no investigation into the properties of icy simulants of the regolith believed to be found at lunar polar regions. A series of experiments has therefore been conducted to determine the properties of icy NU-LHT-2M lunar highland simulant, an approximation of lunar polar regolith, at varying degrees of saturation. A number of procedures for preparing the simulant were tested, with the aim of defining a standardised technique for the creation of icy simulants with controlled water contents. Saturation of the highland simulant was found to occur at a water mass content between 13% and 17%, while cone penetration tests demonstrated that a significant increase in penetration resistance occurs at 5 ± 1%. Uniaxial compression tests showed an increase in regolith strength with water mass and density, which slows down as the saturation level is reached. The results presented here demonstrate the first characterisation of the properties of icy lunar polar regolith simulants, which can be expanded upon to further the understanding of its properties for use in future instrumentation testing.

  4. Studies of solid carbon dioxide in interstellar ice analogs subject to thermal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Douglas W.

    2010-09-01

    Solid CO2 has been detected in many lines of sight in the interstellar medium from infrared observatories. Spectral profiles from space-based observatories have suggested that CO2 on icy grain mantles is mixed with other common molecules such as H2O and CH 3OH in interstellar regions and that thermal annealing has occurred. The vibrational mode at 658 cm-1 (15.2 mum) is suspected to be a powerful diagnostic tool as to the composition of species on icy grain mantles as well as thermal histories. However, previous studies have not systematically investigated ice composition and temperature. Laboratory spectra of interstellar ice analogs have been created in this study order to better understand the physical properties of solid CO2 in these interstellar environments. Existing databases of ice composition studies and effects of ice thermal history were updated in this study to include a more systematic approach. The 658 cm-1 (15.2 mum) bending mode feature of CO2 is examined here and the subsequent astrophysical implications stated. In the first set of experiments, 47 mixtures of H2O,CH3OH, andCO2 were slowly warmed and mid-infrared absorption spectra were recorded at 5K intervals. The second set of experiments involved examining the CO2 bending mode feature of 10 different CO2-containing ice mixtures at different temperatures where ice segregation was suspected. In these experiments, the ice mixtures were slowly heated to the desired temperature for increasing time intervals before cooling down and recording mid-IR absorption spectra. These studies may be used to analyze IR data from space-based observatories such as the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph as well other future IR observations of the interstellar medium. Finally, mass spectroscopy measurements were taken from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments performed on several binary mixtures of H2O + CO2 and CH 3OH + CO2. Physical properties such as desorption energy of CO2 can be

  5. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Tomoaki; Durham, William B; Stern, Laura A; Kirby, Stephen H

    2006-03-03

    Rheological experiments on fine-grained water ice II at low strain rates reveal a creep mechanism that dominates at conditions of low stress. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we observed that a change in stress exponent from 5 to 2.5 correlates strongly with a decrease in grain size from about 40 to 6 micrometers. The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system.

  6. Grain size-sensitive creep in ice II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubo, T.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    Rheological experiments on fine-grained water ice II at low strain rates reveal a creep mechanism that dominates at conditions of low stress. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, we observed that a change in stress exponent from 5 to 2.5 correlates strongly with a decrease in grain size from about 40 to 6 micrometers. The grain size-sensitive creep of ice II demonstrated here plausibly dominates plastic strain at the low-stress conditions in the interior of medium- to large-sized icy moons of the outer solar system.

  7. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  8. Photometric properties of Mars soils analogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Jost, B.; Beck, P.; Okubo, C.; McEwen, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the bidirectional reflectance of analogs of dry, wet, and frozen Martian soils over a wide range of phase angles in the visible spectral range. All samples were produced from two geologic samples: the standard JSC Mars-1 soil simulant and Hawaiian basaltic sand. In a first step, experiments were conducted with the dry samples to investigate the effects of surface texture. Comparisons with results independently obtained by different teams with similar samples showed a satisfying reproducibility of the photometric measurements as well as a noticeable influence of surface textures resulting from different sample preparation procedures. In a second step, water was introduced to produce wet and frozen samples and their photometry investigated. Optical microscope images of the samples provided information about their microtexture. Liquid water, even in relatively low amount, resulted in the disappearance of the backscattering peak and the appearance of a forward-scattering peak whose intensity increases with the amount of water. Specular reflections only appeared when water was present in an amount large enough to allow water to form a film at the surface of the sample. Icy samples showed a wide variability of photometric properties depending on the physical properties of the water ice. We discuss the implications of these measurements in terms of the expected photometric behavior of the Martian surface, from equatorial to circum-polar regions. In particular, we propose some simple photometric criteria to improve the identification of wet and/or icy soils from multiple observations under different geometries.

  9. Compositions of Oceans on Icy Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features [1] suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2] implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction [3]. Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters [3] are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in

  10. Interstellar chemical differentiation across grain sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J. X.; He, J. H.; Li, Aigen

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the effects of ion accretion and size-dependent dust temperatures on the abundances of both gas-phase and grain-surface species. While past work has assumed a constant areal density for icy species, we show that this assumption is invalid and the chemical differentiation over grain sizes is significant. We use a gas-grain chemical code to demonstrate this numerically for two typical interstellar conditions: a dark cloud (DC) and a cold neutral medium (CNM). It is shown that, although the grain-size distribution variation (but with the total grain surface area unchanged) has little effect on the gas-phase abundances, it can alter the abundances of some surface species by up to ∼2-4 orders of magnitude. The areal densities of ice species are larger on smaller grains in the DC model as a consequence of ion accretion. However, the surface areal density evolution tracks are more complex in the CNM model due to the combined effects of ion accretion and dust temperature variation. The surface areal density differences between the smallest ( ∼ 0.01 μm) and the biggest ( ∼ 0.2 μm) grains can reach ∼1 and ∼5 orders of magnitude in the DC and CNM models, respectively.

  11. Certification of ICI 1012 optical data storage tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    ICI has developed a unique and novel method of certifying a Terabyte optical tape. The tape quality is guaranteed as a statistical upper limit on the probability of uncorrectable errors. This is called the Corrected Byte Error Rate or CBER. We developed this probabilistic method because of two reasons why error rate cannot be measured directly. Firstly, written data is indelible, so one cannot employ write/read tests such as used for magnetic tape. Secondly, the anticipated error rates need impractically large samples to measure accurately. For example, a rate of 1E-12 implies only one byte in error per tape. The archivability of ICI 1012 Data Storage Tape in general is well characterized and understood. Nevertheless, customers expect performance guarantees to be supported by test results on individual tapes. In particular, they need assurance that data is retrievable after decades in archive. This paper describes the mathematical basis, measurement apparatus and applicability of the certification method.

  12. Crustal failure on icy Moons from a strong tidal encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, Alice C.; Giannella, David; Shaw, John G.; Ebinger, Cynthia

    2016-09-01

    Close tidal encounters among large planetesimals and Moons should have been more common than grazing or normal impacts. Using a mass spring model within an N-body simulation, we simulate the deformation of the surface of an elastic spherical body caused by a close parabolic tidal encounter with a body that has similar mass as that of the primary body. Such an encounter can induce sufficient stress on the surface to cause brittle failure of an icy crust and simulated fractures can extend a large fraction of the radius of body. Strong tidal encounters may be responsible for the formation of long graben complexes and chasmata in ancient terrain of icy Moons such as Dione, Tethys, Ariel and Charon.

  13. Laboratory Simulations of Ammonia-Rich Oceans in Icy Worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vance, S. D.; Brown, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Improved equations of state for ammonia-water solutions are important for properly understanding the interiors of large icy satellites hosting deep interior oceans. Titan is the primary example of such a world, but water-rich dwarf planets Measurements of solution density are now possible at relevant pressures (above approx. 250 megapascals) using the Simulator for Icy World Interiors. Analysis of sound velocity measurements in aqueous magnesium sulfate obtained in our laboratory, shows a correction on the order of 5% to 700 megapascals (7 kilobar) from -20 to 100 C and to 3 m (approx. 30 percentage by weight) concentration. Accurate prediction of density as a function of pressure, temperature, and ammonia concentration are needed for interpretation of remote observations to address questions of interior liquid layer depth, composition, and fluid dynamics.

  14. High Latitude Scintillations during the ICI-4 Rocket Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, S.; Moen, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first results from the Norwegian ICI-4 sounding rocket campaign in February 2015. The ICI-4 was launched into F-region auroral blobs from the Andøya Space Center. The multi needle langmuir probe (m-NLP) on board the rocket sampled the ionospheric density structures at a sub-meter spatial resolution. A multi-phase screen model has been developed to estimate the scintillations from the density measurements acquired on-board spacecrafts. The phase screen model is validated and the comparison of the estimated values with scintillations measured by ground receivers during the campaign will be presented. A combination of scintillation receivers in Svalbard and surrounding areas as well as all sky imagers at Ny Ålesund, Longyerbyen, and Skibotn are used to improve the performance of the model.

  15. EVAPORATION OF ICY PLANETESIMALS DUE TO BOW SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Kyoko K.; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Miura, Hitoshi; Nagasawa, Makiko; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2013-02-20

    We present the novel concept of evaporation of planetesimals as a result of bow shocks associated with planetesimals orbiting with supersonic velocities relative to the gas in a protoplanetary disk. We evaluate the evaporation rates of the planetesimals based on a simple model describing planetesimal heating and evaporation by the bow shock. We find that icy planetesimals with radius {approx}>100 km evaporate efficiently even outside the snow line in the stage of planetary oligarchic growth, where strong bow shocks are produced by gravitational perturbations from protoplanets. The obtained results suggest that the formation of gas giant planets is suppressed owing to insufficient accretion of icy planetesimals onto the protoplanet within the {approx}<5 AU disk region.

  16. Icy Soil Acquisition Device for the 2007 Phoenix Mars Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Davis, Kiel; Shiraishi, Lori; Burke, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The Icy Soil Acquisition Device is a first of its kind mechanism that is designed to acquire ice-bearing soil from the surface of the Martian polar region and transfer the samples to analytical instruments, playing a critical role in the potential discovery of existing water on Mars. The device incorporates a number of novel features that further the state of the art in spacecraft design for harsh environments, sample acquisition and handling, and high-speed low torque mechanism design.

  17. Space Weathering on Icy Satellites in the Outer Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.; Perlman, Z.; Pearson, N.; Cruikshank, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering produces well-known optical effects in silicate minerals in the inner Solar System, for example, on the Moon. Space weathering from solar wind and UV (ultraviolet radiation) is expected to be significantly weaker in the outer Solar System simply because intensities are low. However, cosmic rays and micrometeoroid bombardment would be similar to first order. That, combined with the much higher volatility of icy surfaces means there is the potential for space weathering on icy outer Solar System surfaces to show optical effects. The Cassini spacecraft orbiting Saturn is providing evidence for space weathering on icy bodies. The Cassini Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) instrument has spatially mapped satellite surfaces and the rings from 0.35-5 microns and the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) instrument from 0.1 to 0.2 microns. These data have sampled a complex mixing space between H2O ice and non-ice components and they show some common spectral properties. Similarly, spectra of the icy Galilean satellites and satellites in the Uranian system have some commonality in spectral properties with those in the Saturn system. The UV absorber is spectrally similar on many surfaces. VIMS has identified CO2, H2 and trace organics in varying abundances on Saturn's satellites. We postulate that through the spatial relationships of some of these compounds that they are created and destroyed through space weathering effects. For example, the trapped H2 and CO2 observed by VIMS in regions with high concentrations of dark material may in part be space weathering products from the destruction of H2O and organic molecules. The dark material, particularly on Iapetus which has the highest concentration in the Saturn system, is well matched by space-weathered silicates in the .4 to 2.6 micron range, and the spectral shapes closely match those of the most mature lunar soils, another indicator of space weathered material.

  18. Steady State Convection within Medium-size Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leliwa-Kopystynski, J.; Czechowski, L.

    2000-10-01

    We consider the satellites of the size range from Mimas or Protheus (radii 200 km) to Titania (790 km). The lower limit is that of the smallest sphere-like bodies. The upper limit is determined by requirement that no phase transitions occurs inside the body or these transitions are only of marginal significance. Therefore, the considered bodies could be 6 satellites of Saturn, 5 of Uranus, Protheus, and Charon. Since Miranda is probably a re-accretion product and density of Protheus is unknown therefore our class of satellites contains 11 globes in total. Their densities are known and therefore the mass ratio rock/total and radioactive heat production can be estimated quite well. Two extreme models of the satellites are considered: non-differentiated (homogeneous) and fully differentiated with rocky core and icy mantle. For the first model there is a uniform distributions of radioactive sources and the convection can develop within the whole globe. For the second case, the radioactivity determines the heat flux through the boundary between rocky core and icy mantle; in this case the possibilities of convection are discussed within the icy mantle. Axially symmetric convection is considered. The model is based on the equations: Navier-Stokes, thermal conductivity, mass continuity, and on the equation of state. They involved a large set of parameters of which the viscosity is the least known and it is strongly dependent on temperature. Written in dimensionless form for constant viscosity the equations have only one parameter, the Rayleigh number Ra. Set of solutions, for different Ra, and for constant viscosity or for temperature dependent viscosity are presented. The solutions, when converted into dimensional form, are applied for interpretation of particular tectonic features on the icy satellites (e.g. Samarkand Sulci on Enceladus and Ithaca Chasma on Tethys). Correlation between tectonic features and far-near sides orientation is expected.

  19. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  20. Experimental constraints on the chemical evolution of icy satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, H P; Williams, Q; Ryerson, F J

    2000-01-18

    The inferred internal structure of large icy satellites hinges on the degree to which their rock component has been hydrated: this is due to the low density of hydrated silicates relative to anhydrous silicates. Accordingly, interior models of icy satellites have varied greatly in their estimates of ice thickness due to uncertainties in the density of the underlying rock. Furthermore, as both H{sub 2}O (potentially liquid) and organic materials are likely to be present, icy moons have been postulated to be possible hosts for extraterrestrial life; therefore, the stability of organic material under relevant hydrothermal conditions is an important issue. For example, Ganymede, Titan, and Triton are similar in that high pressure hydrothermal processing of silicates has likely been important in their chemical evolution. With mean densities between 1.8 and 2.1 g/cm{sup 3}, compositional models of these bodies incorporate approximately 50--80% silicate minerals by weight, with ices constituting the remaining mass. Moment of inertia constraints on the internal structure of Ganymede demonstrate that differentiation between rock and ice has occurred: such differentiation has also likely occurred in Titan and Triton. During accretion and differentiation (which could be ongoing), the silicate fraction of their interiors would have interacted with aqueous fluids at moderate to high temperatures and pressures. Indeed, a strong magnetic field appears to be generated by Ganymede implying that interior temperatures are high enough (in excess of 1,000 K) to maintain a liquid iron alloy in this satellite. High temperature/pressure hydrothermal processing at rock-water interfaces would profoundly influence the bulk mineralogy and internal structure of these bodies: the degree of hydration of the rocky fraction of these bodies has been a source of ongoing uncertainty. Surprisingly few phase equilibria data exist for compositions of relevance to hydrothermal interactions on icy

  1. Icy Dwarf Planets: Colored popsicles in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi

    2015-08-01

    In 1992 the discovery of 1992 QB1 was the starting signal of a race to characterize the trans-Neptunian belt. The detection of icy “asteroids”, similar to Pluto, in the outer Solar System had been largely hypothesized but it had also being an elusive goal. This belt was considered by the planetary scientists as the icy promised land, the largest reservoir of primordial ices in the Solar System.From 1992 to 2005 about 1000 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs had been discovered and a lot of “first ever” science had been published: 1996 TO66, first ever detection of the water ice bands in a TNO's spectrum; 1998 WW31, first detection of a binary; first estimation of size and albedo from thermal and visible observations, Varuna; discovery of Sedna, at that moment “the coldest most distant place known in the Solar System”2005 was the year of the discovery of three large TNOs: (136108) Haumea, (136472) Makemake and (136199) Eris (a.k.a 2003 EL61, 2005 FY9 and 2003 UB313). These three big guys entered the schoolyard showing off as colored popsicles and making a clear statement: “We are special”, and sure they are!The discovery of these large TNOs resulted in 2006 in the adoption by the IAU of a new definition of planet and in the introduction of a new category of minor bodies: the “dwarf planets”. With only three members at this moment (although this can change anytime) the exclusive club of the icy dwarf planets is formed by the TNOs at the higher end of the size distribution. By virtue of their size and low surface temperatures, these bodies can retain most of their original inventory of ices. As a consequence, their visible and near-infrared spectra show evidences of water ice, nitrogen, methane and longer chains of hydrocarbons. Moreover, they have high geometric albedo in the visible. Also the accretional and radiogenic heating for these bodies was likely more than sufficient to have caused their internal differentiation.In this talk we will

  2. Measurements of the organic composition of cometary grains with the COSIMA TOF-SIMS instrument onboard the ROSETTA spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottin, H.; Le Roy, L.; Briani, G.; Bardyn, A.; Briois, C.; Fray, N.; Thirkell, L.; Engrand, C.; Hilchenbach, M.

    2013-12-01

    , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, amino acids...) has been prepared on ground instruments similar to the space COSIMA instrument. We also tested the analytical capabilities of COSIMA on laboratory analogs of cometary organic matter synthesized from heating and/or photolysis of icy mixtures (inspired from the classical Greenberg yellow stuff experiments), as well as on natural proxy such as insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites (Murchison & Orgueil) and kerogen. This talk will show the hopes and limitations in term of analytical capabilities of the COSIMA instrument, and the expected science return for our understanding of the origin of comets and their astrobiological relevance.

  3. Investigation of Celestial Solid Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Our far infrared studies of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic aerogel grains have demonstrated that the mm and sub-mm wave absorption produced by the fundamental two level systems (TLS) mechanism represents a more significant contribution for these open grain structures than for bulk amorphous silicate grains. We found that the region with the anomalous temperature dependence of the spectral index due to the TLS excitations can extend in a fluffy material up to 80 per cm, which is well beyond its typical upper limit for bulk glasses. Currently there is no theoretical explanation for this surprising result. The effects of reduced dimensionality on the optical properties of carbonaceous grains have been studied with a systematic investigation of carbon aerogels. This spectroscopic approach has permitted a more reliable determination of the single grain mass normalized absorption coefficient based on the experimentally determined characteristics of the fluffy material rather than on first principles calculations involving the bulk properties of the substance. Our finding is that the electrical connectivity of the material is the main factor affecting its far infrared absorption coefficient. Another one of the main constituents of the interstellar dust, amorphous ice, has been investigated in the mm-wave region both in the high (HDA) and low (LDA) density amorphous phases and as a function of impurities. We found that doping either phase with ionic (LiCl) or molecular (methanol) impurities decreases the difference in the mm-wave absorption coefficient between the HDA and LDA ice phases so that the HDA spectrum can be used as an analog for impure ice absorption in the far infrared spectral region.

  4. Thermal Conductive Heat Transfer and Partial Melting of Volatiles in Icy Moons, Asteroids, and Kuiper Belt Objects (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.

    2013-12-01

    these processes result in transient thermal states and hence rapid evolution of icy body interiors. Interesting heat-flow phenomena (approximated as steady-state thermal states) have been modeled in volatile-rich main belt asteroids, Io, Europa, Enceladus, Titan, Pluto, and Makemake (2005 FY9). Thermal conditions can activate geologic processes, but the occurrence of geologic activity can fundamentally alter the thermal conductivity and elasticity of icy objects, which then further affects the distribution and type of subsequent geologic activity. For example, cryoclastic volcanism on Enceladus can increase solid-state greenhouse heating of the upper crust, reduce thermal conductivity, and increase retention of heat and spur further cryovolcanism. Sulfur extrusion on Io can produce low-thermal-conductivity flows, high thermal gradients, basal melting of the flows, and lateral extrusion and spreading of the flows or formation of solid-crusted lava lakes. Impact formation of regoliths and fine-grained dust deposits on large asteroids may generate local variations in thermal gradients. Interior heating and geologic activity can either (1) emplace low-conductivity materials on the surface and cause further interior heating, or (2) drive metamorphism, sintering, and volatile loss, and increase thermal conductivity and cool the object. Thus, the type and distribution of present-day geologic activity on icy worlds is dependent on geologic history. Geology begets geology.

  5. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  6. The Analogical Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Keith J.; Thagard, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The use of analogy in human thinking is examined from the perspective of a multiconstraint theory that postulates similarity, structure, and purpose as three kinds of constraints. The theory has been implemented in computational simulations of the analogical human mind using the Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction (ACME) model. (SLD)

  7. Modeling Spectra of Icy Satellites and Cometary Icy Particles Using Multi-Sphere T-Matrix Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Mackowski, Daniel; Pitman, Karly M.; Joseph, Emily C. S.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Protopapa, Silvia; Kelley, Michael S.

    2016-10-01

    The Multi-Sphere T-matrix code (MSTM) allows rigorous computations of characteristics of the light scattered by a cluster of spherical particles. It was introduced to the scientific community in 1996 (Mackowski & Mishchenko, 1996, JOSA A, 13, 2266). Later it was put online and became one of the most popular codes to study photopolarimetric properties of aggregated particles. Later versions of this code, especially its parallelized version MSTM3 (Mackowski & Mishchenko, 2011, JQSRT, 112, 2182), were used to compute angular and wavelength dependence of the intensity and polarization of light scattered by aggregates of up to 4000 constituent particles (Kolokolova & Mackowski, 2012, JQSRT, 113, 2567). The version MSTM4 considers large thick slabs of spheres (Mackowski, 2014, Proc. of the Workshop ``Scattering by aggregates``, Bremen, Germany, March 2014, Th. Wriedt & Yu. Eremin, Eds., 6) and is significantly different from the earlier versions. It adopts a Discrete Fourier Convolution, implemented using a Fast Fourier Transform, for evaluation of the exciting field. MSTM4 is able to treat dozens of thousands of spheres and is about 100 times faster than the MSTM3 code. This allows us not only to compute the light scattering properties of a large number of electromagnetically interacting constituent particles, but also to perform multi-wavelength and multi-angular computations using computer resources with rather reasonable CPU and computer memory. We used MSTM4 to model near-infrared spectra of icy satellites of Saturn (Rhea, Dione, and Tethys data from Cassini VIMS), and of icy particles observed in the coma of comet 103P/Hartley 2 (data from EPOXI/DI HRII). Results of our modeling show that in the case of icy satellites the best fit to the observed spectra is provided by regolith made of spheres of radius ~1 micron with a porosity in the range 85% - 95%, which slightly varies for the different satellites. Fitting the spectra of the cometary icy particles requires icy

  8. Physical Properties of the Icy Soil at the Phoenix Landing Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Goetz, W.; Mellon, M. T.; El Maarry, M.; Madsen, M. B.; Smith, P.; Pike, W.; Zent, A.; Hecht, M. H.; Ming, D.; Staufer, U.

    2008-12-01

    The geomorphological setting of the subpolar terrain at the landing site is characterized by polygonal structures. These structures are generated by long term and periodic cycles of contraction and expansion of the subsurface icy soil. The physical properties of the covering soil layer effectively control the details of this process that has its counterpart on earth in (sub) polar regions including the Siberian tundra and in Antartica. One of the prime science goals of the Phoenix mission is to investigate the physical properties of the icy soil, how these processes are influenced by water vapour diffusion in the regolith and exchange of the water vapour with the atmosphere. It is important to understand these processes on diurnal, seasonal, and climatic time scales. Phoenix landed in the middle of one of the polygons. Its retro rockets cleared the ice table of the polygon underneath the jet assemblies from ca. 5 to 10 cm of loose cloddy regolith. Soil was piled up in the centre. The fact that the soil looked still cloddy similar to that in undisturbed areas suggests strong cohesiveness of the matrix material. The clumps were not destroyed by the blast. Excavated regolith material imaged in the scoop was made up of agglomerates of grains smaller than the best resolution of the Robotic Arm Camera (20 micron). Higher resolution images (4 micron) of the microscope corroborate that the soil is predominantly composed of agglomerates of very small particles with a mean size comparable to those observed in the Martian atmosphere. The Atomic Force Microscope reveals micron sized particles and smaller, partly of plate-like shape, indicating clay like particles. The matrix material of the soil is of reddish colour probably due to iron oxideadmixture. Only about 10% by volume of the soil are most often rounded grains between 40 to 100 micrometers of diameter. Some are glassy resembling micro tektites, and most of these are magnetic. The cohesiveness of the clumps and clods of

  9. Modeling Radar Scatter from Icy and Young Rough Lunar Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Thomas (Tommy); Ustinov, Eugene; Spudis, Paul; Fessler, Brian

    2012-01-01

    For lunar orbital synthetic aperture radars, such as the Chandrayaan Mini-RF operating at S- band (13-cm) wavelength and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mini-RF operating at S- band and X-band (3-cm) wavelengths, it is important to understand the radar backscattering characteristics of the icy and young, rough craters. Assuming a mixing model consisting of diffuse and quasi-specular scattering components, we have modeled the opposite-sense circular (OC) and same-sense circular (SC) backscattering characteristics. The specular component, consisting of only OC echoes, represents the echoes from the surface and subsurface layers that are oriented perpendicular to the radar's line-of-sight. The diffuse component, consisting of both SC and OC echoes, represents the echoes associated with either rocks or ice. Also, diffuse echoes have backscatter that is proportional to the cosine of the incidence angle. We modeled how these two (specular and diffuse) radar scattering components could be modulated by factors such as surface roughness associated with young craters. We also modeled how ice radar scattering components could be modulated by a thin regolith covering, and/or by the situation where ice occupies small patches within a larger radar pixel. We tested this modeling by examining 4 nonpolar craters and 12 polar craters using LRO Mini-RF data. Results indicate that icy and young rough craters can be distinguished based upon their SC enhancements (Alpha) and OC enhancements (Gamma). In addition, we also examined the craters that have unusual circular polarization ratios (CPRs) that likely result from a double bounce mode of scattering. Blocky fresh craters, icy craters, and craters exhibiting double bounce scattering can be separated based on the values of Alpha, Gamma, the ratio of Alpha/Gamma and the weighted sum of Alpha and Gamma.

  10. Surface Penetrating Radar Simulations for Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markus, Thorsten; Gogineni, S. P.; Green, J. L.; Reinisch, B. W.; Song, P.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Cooper, F.

    2003-01-01

    The icy moons of Jupiter (Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede) are of similar overall composition but show different surface features as a result of different sub-surface processes. Furthermore, each of these moons could have a liquid ocean of water buried underneath the icy crust, but their depth can only be speculated. For Europa, estimates put the thickness of the ice shell anywhere between 2-30 km, with'a few models predicting up to 100 km. Much of the uncertainties are due to the largely unknown temperature gradients and levels of water impurities across different surface layers. One of the most important geological processes is the possible transportation of heat by ice convection. If the ice is convecting, then an upper limit of about 20 km is set for the depth of the ocean underneath. Convection leads to a sharp increase in temperature followed by a thick region of nearly constant temperature. If ice is not convecting, then an exponentially increasing temperature profile is expected. The crust is thought to be a mixture of ice and rock, and although the exact percentage of rock is not known, it is expected to be low. Additionally, the ice crust could contain salt, similar to sea ice on Earth. The exact amount of salt and how that amount changes with depth is also unknown. In preparation for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, we performed simulations for a surface-penetrating radar investigating signatures for different possible surface and sub-surface structures of these moons in order to estimate the applicability of using radar with a frequency range between 1 and 50 MHz. This includes simulations of power requirements, attenuation losses, layer resolutions for scenarios with and without the presence of a liquid ocean underneath the ice, cases of convecting and non-convecting ice, different impurities within the ice, and different surface roughnesses.

  11. Evolution of topography on comets. II - Icy craters and trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Jakosky, B. M.; Sandor, B. J.; Stern, S. A.

    1990-05-01

    The determination of the effects of topography on the sublimation rates of comets and other icy bodies is presently approached via a model of ice heating and sublimation from topographical features. The energy balance equation is solved for cylindrical trenches and spherical craters; the model encompasses shadowing, solar heating, the trapping of thermal radiation and sublimed gas molecules, and reflection of sunlight within the cavity. Generally, an enhancement is found in the net sublimation rate for trenches and craters farther from the sun than some critical distance which depends on the albedo.

  12. Tidal Evolution and Hydrothermal Activity in IcyWorlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Hussmann, H.

    2008-09-01

    The tidal heating that sustains a subsurface ocean in Europa likely varied in intensity through the moons history due to the exchange of orbital angular momentum with the innermost Galilean satellite, Io [1]. Tidal interactions elsewhere in the solar system — e.g. in Neptunes moon Triton, and in Kuiper belt systems such as Pluto-Charon and the 2003 EL61 system (Santa-Rudolph-Blitzen) — highlight the potential for vigorously heated subsurface oceans and thus the existence of hydrothermal systems in icy worlds. Understanding the extent and nature of hydrothermal activity in such systems is important for assessing the availability of essential elements and organic compounds necessary sustain and, possibly, originate life [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. During periods of low tidal heating in such systems, hydrothermalism driven by serpentinization (reaction of water with ultramafic rock) may be extensive, with implications for seafloor production of hydrogen, methane and other potential nutrients, and elements necessary to originate and support life in icy world oceans. For Enceladus, an anomalously dense satellite for its size, radiogenic heating and overburden pressure in the mantle are sufficiently low to permit fracturing of the entirety of the moons rocky interior on long time scales [8]. Estimates of methane production from serpentinization of Enceladus interior, based on measured fluxes from the Lost City Hydrothermal Field [9], are an order of magnitude greater than fluxes observed at Enceladuss south polar plume by the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer [10]. For the largest icy worlds in the Solar System — Titan, Ganymede and Callisto—pressures at and below the H2Orock interface are likely too high to permit the formation of microfractures, so an alternative explanation is required if methane is endogenous. Aqueous alteration may be augmented from the above estimates if altered crust is rejuvenated during periods of increased tidal dissipation. Crustal

  13. Evolution of topography on comets. II. Icy craters and trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, J.E.; Jakosky, B.M.; Sandor, B.J.; Stern, S.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The determination of the effects of topography on the sublimation rates of comets and other icy bodies is presently approached via a model of ice heating and sublimation from topographical features. The energy balance equation is solved for cylindrical trenches and spherical craters; the model encompasses shadowing, solar heating, the trapping of thermal radiation and sublimed gas molecules, and reflection of sunlight within the cavity. Generally, an enhancement is found in the net sublimation rate for trenches and craters farther from the sun than some critical distance which depends on the albedo. 15 refs.

  14. A Power Conversion Concept for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is a bold new mission under development by the Office of Space Science at NASA Headquarters. ITMO is examining the potential of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) technology to efficiently deliver scientific payloads to three Jovian moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. A critical element of the NEP vehicle is the reactor power system, consisting of the nuclear reactor, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD). The emphasis of this paper is on the non-nuclear elements of the reactor power system.

  15. Radio Science Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Castillo, J. C.; Folkner, W. M.; Konopliv, A. S.; Marouf, E. A.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schubert, G.; Spilker, T. R.; Tyler, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    Radio Science experiments have been conducted on most deep space missions leading to numerous scientific discoveries. A set of concepts and approaches are proposed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) to apply Radio Science tools to investigate the interior structures of the Galilean Satellites and address key questions on their thermal and dynamical evolution. Measurements are identified that utilize the spacecraft's telecommunication system. Additional instruments can augment these measurements in order to leverage observational synergies. Experiments are also offered for the purpose of investigating the atmospheres and surfaces of the satellites.

  16. Presolar Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, E. K.

    2003-12-01

    Traditionally, astronomers have studied the stars by using, with rare exception, electromagnetic radiation received by telescopes on and above the Earth. Since the mid-1980s, an additional observational window has been opened in the form of microscopic presolar grains found in primitive meteorites. These grains had apparently formed in stellar outflows of late-type stars and in the ejecta of stellar explosions and had survived the formation of the solar system. They can be located in and extracted from their parent meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. Their stellar origin is recognized by their isotopic compositions, which are completely different from those of the solar system and, for some elements, cover extremely wide ranges, leaving little doubt that the grains are ancient stardust.By the 1950s it had been conclusively established that the elements from carbon on up are produced by nuclear reactions in stars and the classic papers by Burbidge et al. (1957) and Cameron (1957) provided a theoretical framework for stellar nucleosynthesis. According to these authors, nuclear processes produce elements with very different isotopic compositions, depending on the specific stellar source. The newly produced elements are injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds or as supernova (SN) ejecta, enriching the galaxy in "metals" (all elements heavier than helium) and after a long galactic history the solar system is believed to have formed from a mix of this material. In fact, the original work by Burbidge et al. and Cameron was stimulated by the observation of regularities in the abundance of the nuclides in the solar system as obtained by the study of meteorites (Suess and Urey, 1956). Although providing only a grand average of many stellar sources, the solar system abundances of the elements and isotopes ( Anders and Grevesse, 1989; Grevesse et al., 1996; see Chapter 1.03; Lodders, 2003) remained an important test for nucleosynthesis

  17. Grain Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

  18. Benzene Formation on Interstellar Icy Mantles Containing Propargyl Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Mukherjee, R.; Subramanian, K. P.; Banerjee, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Propargyl alcohol (CHCCH2OH) is a known stable isomer of the propenal (CH2CHCHO) molecule that was reported to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM). At astrochemical conditions in the laboratory, icy layers of propargyl alcohol grown at 85 K were irradiated by 2 keV electrons and probed by a Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer in the mid-infrared (IR) region, 4000-500 cm-1. Propargyl alcohol ice under astrochemical conditions was studied for the first time; therefore, IR spectra of reported amorphous (85 K) and crystalline (180 K) propargyl alcohol ices can be used to detect its presence in the ISM. Moreover, our experiments clearly show benzene (C6H6) formation to be the major product from propargyl alcohol irradiation, confirming the role of propargyl radicals (C3H3) formed from propargyl alcohol dissociation that was long expected based on theoretical modeling to effectively synthesize C6H6 in the interstellar icy mantles.

  19. BENZENE FORMATION ON INTERSTELLAR ICY MANTLES CONTAINING PROPARGYL ALCOHOL

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B.; Mukherjee, R.; Subramanian, K. P.; Banerjee, S. B.

    2015-01-10

    Propargyl alcohol (CHCCH{sub 2}OH) is a known stable isomer of the propenal (CH{sub 2}CHCHO) molecule that was reported to be present in the interstellar medium (ISM). At astrochemical conditions in the laboratory, icy layers of propargyl alcohol grown at 85 K were irradiated by 2 keV electrons and probed by a Fourier Transform InfraRed spectrometer in the mid-infrared (IR) region, 4000-500 cm{sup –1}. Propargyl alcohol ice under astrochemical conditions was studied for the first time; therefore, IR spectra of reported amorphous (85 K) and crystalline (180 K) propargyl alcohol ices can be used to detect its presence in the ISM. Moreover, our experiments clearly show benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) formation to be the major product from propargyl alcohol irradiation, confirming the role of propargyl radicals (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) formed from propargyl alcohol dissociation that was long expected based on theoretical modeling to effectively synthesize C{sub 6}H{sub 6} in the interstellar icy mantles.

  20. Search for volatiles in the surface of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    It is proposed to measure the reflectance spectra of the icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus in the spectral region 1.8 to 2.4 micrometers. These observations use the new Cooled Grating Array Spectrometer using a 32-element InSb photodiode array detector and produce spectra of higher resolution and precision than any data yet obtained; the ultimate scientific objective is to search for the signatures of methane clathrate, ammonium hydroxide or carbon monoxide clathrate (compounds predicted to exist on icy surfaces in the outer solar system by several theories of formation of these bodies) in the region of the spectrum where water ice has a relative maximum in reflectance. At the very least, these data will allow upper limits to be placed on the amount of these chemical species that can be present. The specific targets is Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus, Ariel and Titania, bodies that have the highest probability of having some or all of these volatiles on their surface according to current formation models.

  1. Oceans and Internal Structures of the Large Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J.; Choukroun, M.; Sotin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We predict water ice freezing and constrain geothermal gradients in the interiors of the large icy satellites Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan using thermodynamic and phase-boundary data for MgSO4 and ammonia solutions, including new results for ammonia. Accounting for available measurements of gravitational moments of inertia leads to estimates of the depths to silicate boundaries. In the case of Ganymede we also compute the size of an iron-bearing core. The new equations of state allow us to assess the influence of ocean salinity on the thickness of layers of ice I-III-V-VI in the interiors of these objects, and on associated ocean dynamics. Ocean compositions with salt and ammonia have less high-pressure ice, and can exist in the presence of ice III. In some model oceans high-pressure ice phases become buoyant relative to surrounding fluids, implying frazil-like upward snows, interlayered liquids and ices, and fluids in direct contact with rock. We discuss the relative roles of dissolved constituents in the large icy satellites, the consequences for their habitability, and prospects of future missions for testing these predictions. Schematic of interior structure for Ganymede showing dense fluids under high pressure ices and directly in contact with rock. We use available thermodynamic properties for relevant fluids and solids materials us to calculate self-consistent depths for the various layers (approximate values shown here).

  2. Complex prebiotic chemistry within a simple impacting icy mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Nir

    2013-06-01

    We present results of prebiotic molecule synthesis in shock compressed mixtures of simple ices from quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Given the likelihood of a CO2-rich primitive atmosphere, it is possible that impact processes of comets or other icy bodies were partially responsible for the creation of prebiotic chemical compounds on early Earth. We have conducted simulations of the chemical reactivity within an oxidized astrophysical icy mixture to close to equilibrium using a density functional tight binding (DFTB) approach. We observe that moderate shock pressures and temperatures (35 GPa and 2800 K) produce a number of functionalized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which remain intact upon expansion and cooling to lower conditions. At higher shock pressures and temperatures (48-62 GPa, 3700-4700 K), we observe the synthesis of a variety of short-lived, exotic C--C and C--N bonded oligomers which decompose upon expansion and cooling to form precursors to amino acids and other prebiotic compounds, such as long chain alkanes, HCN, CH4 and formaldehyde. Our results provide a mechanism for shock synthesis of prebiotic molecules at realistic impact conditions that is independent of external features such as the presence of a catalyst, illuminating UV radiation, or pre-existing conditions on a planet. This work was performed at LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and was funded by the NASA Astrobiology program.

  3. Interplanetary Dust Particles as Samples of Icy Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Brunetto, R.; Demeo, F. E.; Djouadi, Z.; Dumas, C.; Merouane, S.; Mousis, O.; Zanda, B.

    2015-06-01

    Meteorites have long been considered as reflections of the compositional diversity of main belt asteroids and consequently they have been used to decipher their origin, formation, and evolution. However, while some meteorites are known to sample the surfaces of metallic, rocky and hydrated asteroids (about one-third of the mass of the belt), the low-density icy asteroids (C-, P-, and D-types), representing the rest of the main belt, appear to be unsampled in our meteorite collections. Here we provide conclusive evidence that the surface compositions of these icy bodies are compatible with those of the most common extraterrestrial materials (by mass), namely anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Given that these particles are quite different from known meteorites, it follows that the composition of the asteroid belt consists largely of more friable material not well represented by the cohesive meteorites in our collections. In the light of our current understanding of the early dynamical evolution of the solar system, meteorites likely sample bodies formed in the inner region of the solar system (0.5-4 AU) whereas chondritic porous IDPs sample bodies that formed in the outer region (>5 AU).

  4. Interplanetary Dust Particles As Samples of Icy Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernazza, Pierre; Marsset, Michael; Beck, Pierre; Binzel, Richard; Birlan, Mirel; Brunetto, Rosario; DeMeo, Francesca; Djouadi, Zahia; Dumas, Christophe; Merouane, Sihane; Mousis, Olivier; Zanda, Brigitte

    2015-11-01

    Meteorites have long been considered as reflections of the compositional diversity of main belt asteroids and consequently they have been used to decipher their origin, formation, and evolution. However, while some meteorites are known to sample the surfaces of metallic, rocky and hydrated asteroids (about one-third of the mass of the belt), the low-density icy asteroids (C-, P-, and D-types), representing the rest of the main belt, appear to be unsampled in our meteorite collections. Here we provide conclusive evidence that the surface compositions of these icy bodies are compatible with those of the most common extraterrestrial materials (by mass), namely anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Given that these particles are quite different from known meteorites, it follows that the composition of the asteroid belt consists largely of more friable material not well represented by the cohesive meteorites in our collections. In the light of our current understanding of the early dynamical evolution of the solar system, meteorites likely sample bodies formed in the inner region of the solar system (0.5-4 AU) whereas chondritic porous IDPs sample bodies that formed in the outer region (>5 AU).

  5. The icy Jovian satellites after the Galileo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, Richard

    2010-03-01

    The icy satellites of Jupiter, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa and Amalthea have diverse and remarkable characteristics. Their initial compositions were determined by conditions in the circum-Jovian nebula, just as the planets' initial properties were governed by their formation within the circumsolar nebula. The satellites subsequently evolved under the complex interplay of orbital and geophysical processes, especially the effects of orbital resonances, tides, internal differentiation and heat. The history and character of the satellites can be inferred from consideration of the formation of planets and the satellites, from studies of their plausible orbital evolution, from measurements of geophysical properties, especially gravitational and magnetic fields, from observations of the compositions and geological structure of their surfaces and from theoretical modeling of the processes that connect these lines of evidence. The three large icy satellites probably contain significant liquid water: Europa has a deep liquid water ocean under a thin surface layer of ice; Ganymede and Callisto likely have relatively thin liquid water layers deep below their surfaces. Models of formation are challenged by the surprising properties of the outermost and innermost of the group: Callisto is partially differentiated, with rock and ice mixed through much of its interior; and tiny Amalthea also appears to be largely composed of ice. Each of the four moons is fascinating in its own right, and the ensemble provides a powerful set of constraints on the processes that led to their formation and evolution.

  6. Very High Resolution Image of Icy Cliffs on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image, taken by the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft, is a very high resolution view of the Conamara Chaos region on Jupiter's moon Europa. It shows an area where icy plates have been broken apart and moved around laterally. The top of this image is dominated by corrugated plateaus ending in icy cliffs over a hundred meters (a few hundred feet) high. Debris piled at the base of the cliffs can be resolved down to blocks the size of a house. A fracture that runs horizontally across and just below the center of the Europa image is about the width of a freeway.

    North is to the top right of the image, and the sun illuminates the surface from the east. The image is centered at approximately 9 degrees north latitude and 274 degrees west longitude. The image covers an area approximately 1.7 kilometers by 4 kilometers (1 mile by 2.5 miles). The resolution is 9 meters (30 feet) per picture element. This image was taken on December 16, 1997 at a range of 900 kilometers (540 miles) by Galileo's solid state imaging system.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  7. Comparative relief-forming potential of rocky terrestrial planets and icy saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    Comparative relief-forming potential of rocky terrestrial planets and icy saturnian satellites. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru The wave planetology [1-3 & others] states that "orbits make structures". Its third theorem ("Celestial bodies are granular") is to say that sizes of tectonic granules are inversely proportional to orbital frequencies: higher frequency - smaller granule, and vice versa, lower frequency - larger granule. Thus, Mercury is very fine-grained, Venus fine-grained, Earth medium-grained, Mars coarse-grained. The following row of granule sizes confirms it: Mercury πR/16, Venus πR/6, Earth πR/4, Mars πR/2 (R-a planet radius). A geometrical model of this presents a circle with inscribed in it standing waves: for Mercury 16 waves, for Venus 6 waves, for Earth 4 waves (a cross!), for Mars 2 waves [4]. This geometrization is rather descriptive as it shows how waves amplitudes increase with the Solar distance and oscillations around a circle (wave heights) can be measured [5]. These heights are as follows: Mercury 2πR/64.08, Venus 2πR/24.34, Earth 2πR/16.44, Mars 2πR/8.8. These heights reduced to the Earth's one (taken as 1) are as follows: Mercury 0.256, Venus 0.675, Earth 1.0, Mars 1.868. Now we are looking at the real relief ranges (spans). They are as follows in km: Mercury ~5 (a bit less than 5 km according to one laser altimetry profile by Messenger spacecraft in 2007), Venus ~14, Earth ~20, Mars ~30. This last figure may be increased by heights of collapsed cones of huge marcian volcanoes having calderas radii 40-50 km and presumed slope angle 5-6 degrees that gives additional 4-5 km for the martian relief range making it ~35 km. Taking the Earth range as 1, one gets the following row of relative heights: Mercury 0.25, Venus 0.7, Earth 1.0, Mars 1.75. Comparing two rows of relative heights (theoretic and real) one sees that they are rather similar: Mercury 0.256 (0.25), Venus 0

  8. Dielectric properties of Jovian satellite ice analogs for subsurface radar exploration: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettinelli, Elena; Cosciotti, Barbara; Di Paolo, Federico; Lauro, Sebastian Emanuel; Mattei, Elisabetta; Orosei, Roberto; Vannaroni, Giuliano

    2015-09-01

    The first European mission dedicated to the exploration of Jupiter and its icy moons (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer—JUICE) will be launched in 2022 and will reach its final destination in 2030. The main goals of this mission are to understand the internal structure of the icy crusts of three Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) and, ultimately, to detect Europa's subsurface ocean, which is believed to be the closest to the surface among those hypothesized to exist on these moons. JUICE will be equipped with the 9 MHz subsurface-penetrating radar RIME (Radar for Icy Moon Exploration), which is designed to image the ice down to a depth of 9 km. Moreover, a parallel mission to Europa, which will host onboard REASON (Radar for Europa Assessment and Sounding: Ocean to Near-surface) equipped with 9MHz and 60MHz antennas, has been recently approved by NASA. The success of these experiments strongly relies on the accurate prediction of the radar performance and on the optimal processing and interpretation of radar echoes that, in turn, depend on the dielectric properties of the materials composing the icy satellite crusts. In the present review we report a complete range of potential ice types that may occur on these icy satellites to understand how they may affect the results of the proposed missions. First, we discuss the experimental results on pure and doped water ice in the framework of the Jaccard theory, highlighting the critical aspects in terms of a lack of standard laboratory procedures and inconsistency in data interpretation. We then describe the dielectric behavior of extraterrestrial ice analogs like hydrates and icy mixtures, carbon dioxide ice and ammonia ice. Building on this review, we have selected the most suitable data to compute dielectric attenuation, velocity, vertical resolution, and reflection coefficients for such icy moon environments, with the final goal being to estimate the potential capabilities of the radar missions as a

  9. Interpretation of spectrophotometric surface properties of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by laboratory simulations of cometary analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Bernhard; Pommerol, Antoine; Poch, Olivier; Carrasco, Nathalie; Szopa, Cyril; Thomas, Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    The OSIRIS imaging system [1] onboard European Space Agency’s Rosetta mission has been orbiting the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) since August 2014. It provides an enormous quantity of high resolution images of the nucleus in the visible spectral range. 67P revealed an unexpected diversity of complex surface structures and spectral properties have also been measured [2].To better interpret this data, a profound knowledge of laboratory analogs of cometary surfaces is essential. For this reason we have set up the LOSSy laboratory (Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials) to study the spectrophotometric properties of ice-bearing cometary nucleus analogs. The main focus lies on the characterization of the surface evolution under simulated space conditions. The laboratory is equipped with two facilities: the PHIRE-2 radio-goniometer [3], designed to measure the bidirectional visible reflectance of samples under a wide range of geometries and the SCITEAS simulation chamber [4], designed to study the evolution of icy samples subliming under low pressure/temperature conditions by hyperspectral imaging in the VIS-NIR range. Different microscopes complement the two facilities.We present laboratory data of different types of fine grained ice particles mixed with non-volatile components (complex organic matter and minerals). As the ice sublimes, a deposition lag of non-volatile constituents is built-up on top of the ice, possibly mimic a cometary surface. The bidirectional reflectance of the samples have been characterized before and after the sublimation process.A comparison of our laboratory findings with recent OSIRIS data [5] will be presented.[1] Keller, H. U., et al., 2007, Space Sci. Rev., 128, 26[2] Thomas, N. , 2015, Science, 347, Issue 6220, aaa0440[3] Jost, B., submitted, Icarus[4] Pommerol, A., et al., 2015. Planet Space Sci 109:106-122.[5] Fornasier, S., et al., in press. Icarus, arXiv:1505.06888

  10. To melt is not enough: Retention of volatile species through internal processing in icy bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, G.; Stewart-Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-07-01

    The outer Solar System hosts a vast population of small icy bodies, considered to be primitive remnants from the planet-formation epoch. Early thermal and collisional processes affected such planetesimals to varying degrees depending on the time scale and dynamics of early planet growth. Recent observations have revealed that many large (>˜1000 km in diameter) transneptunian objects (TNOs) exhibit features of crystalline water ice in their surface spectra [1], as well as spectral features of more volatile ices, such as methane or hydrated ammonia [2]. These telltale observations should be accounted for when considering the alteration history and bulk processing of dwarf planets and their icy progeny. We will discuss preliminary calculations of early evolution scenarios for small icy-rocky bodies formed beyond the water-ice snow line. Such objects should also contain non-negligible fractions of pre-organic volatile compounds. The volatile composition and interior structure of these objects may change considerably due to internal heating and/or collisional modification prior to settling in their current (relatively quiescent) dynamical niches. Our initial model for the objects in question is that of a porous aggregate of various volatile compounds (as ices or trapped gases) and refractory silicate-metal solid grains, comprising the bulk matrix [3]. Chemical compositions for these objects are taken from existing simulations of chemical and dynamical evolution of disk material [4]. The key volatile species (e.g., H_2O, CO, CO_2, NH_3, CH_4, and CH_3OH) are also the most commonly observed in comets [5], which are remnants of such an early planetesimal population. Thermal and chemical internal evolution is examined self-consistently, as the abundances and locations of all species evolve, and we record mass ratios, temperatures, pressures, and porosity variations. The presence of volatile species in the interior can affect the overall heat balance and accompanied phase

  11. Emergence of Habitable Environments in Icy World Interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Finding habitable worlds is a key driver of solar system exploration. Many solar system missions seek environments providing liquid water, energy, and nutrients, the three ingredients necessary to sustain life [1]. Such environments include hydrothermal systems, spatially confined systems where hot aqueous fluid circulates through rock by convection. Hydrothermal activity may be widespread in the solar system. Most solar system worlds larger than 200 km in radius are icy moons and dwarf planets, likely composed of an icy, cometary mantle surrounding a rocky, chondritic core [2]. By improving an icy world evolution code [3] to include the effects of core fracturing and hydrothermal circulation, I show that several icy moons and dwarf planets likely have undergone extensive water-rock interaction [4,5]. This supports observations of aqueous products on their surfaces [6,7]. I simulated the alteration of chondritic rock [8] by pure water or fluid of cometary composition [9] to show that aqueous alteration feeds back on geophysical evolution: it modifies the fluid antifreeze content, affecting its persistence over geological timescales; and the distribution of radionuclides, whose decay is a chief heat source on dwarf planets [10]. Hydrothermal circulation also efficiently transports heat from the core into the ocean, thereby increasing ocean persistence [4]. Thus, these coupled geophysical-geochemical models provide a comprehensive picture of icy world evolution and the emergence of liquid environments in chemical disequilibrium with underlying rock in their interiors. Habitable settings also require a suitable supply of bioessential elements; but what constitutes "suitable"? I sought to quantify the bulk elemental composition of hydrothermal microbial communities, collected in hot spring sediments and mats at Yellowstone National Park, USA. To do so, one must minimize the contribution of non-biological material to the samples analyzed. This was achieved using a

  12. Analog without fear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagrange, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Analog circuitry, also referred to as Linear, has been nearly run over by the digital/computer bandwagon. This is unfortunate because tremendous advances are being made in the field of analog integrated circuitry. Each year's progress raises the state-of-the-art, bringing achievements not possible even the year before. Many of the traditional prejudices against analog circuitry are no longer valid. This report attempts to summarize what is available now and what can (and can't) be done with analog integrated circuitry.

  13. Analog synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations.

  14. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  15. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  16. An Icy Kuiper Belt Around the Young Solar-type Star HD 181327

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thi, W.-F.; Roberge, A.; Donaldson, J; Schneider, G.; Maddison, S. T.; Menard, F.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Matthews, G. S.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Dent, W. R. F.; Barrado, D.; Duchene, G.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Grady C. A.; Meeus,G.; Pantin, E.; Williams, J. P.; Woitke, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. HD 181327 is a young main sequence F5/F6 V star belonging to the Beta Pictoris moving group (age approx.. 12 Myr). It harbors an optically thin belt of circumstellar material at radius approx.. 90 AU, presumed to result from collisions in a population of unseen planetesimals. Aims. We aim to study the dust properties in the belt in details, and to constrain the gas-to-dust ratio. Methods. We obtained far-infrared photometric observations of HD 181327 with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory, complemented by new 3.2 mm observations carried with the ATCA array. The geometry of the belt is constrained with newly reduced HST/NICMOS scattered light images that allow the degeneracy between the disk geometry and the dust properties to be broken. We then use the radiative transfer code GRaTeR to compute a large grid of models, and we identify the grain models that best reproduce the spectral energy distribution (SED) through a Bayesian analysis. We attempt to detect the oxygen and ionized carbon fine-structure lines with Herschel/PACS spectroscopy, providing observables to our photochemical code ProDiMo. Results. The HST observations confirm that the dust is confined in a narrow belt. The continuum is detected with Herschel/PACS completing nicely the SED in the far-infrared. The disk is marginally resolved with both PACS and ATCA. A medium integration of the gas spectral lines only provides upper limits on the [OI] and [CII] line fluxes.We show that the HD 181327 dust disk consists of micron-sized grains of porous amorphous silicates and carbonaceous material surrounded by an important layer of ice, for a total dust mass of approx.. 0.05 Solar Mass (in grains up to 1 mm). We discuss evidences that the grains consists of fluffy aggregates. The upper limits on the gas atomic lines do not provide unambiguous constraints: only if the PAH abundance is high, the gas mass must be lower than approx. 17 Solar Mass. Conclusions. Despite the weak

  17. Sputtering processes - Erosion and chemical change. [magnetospheric ion bombardment of planetary atmospheric ice grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. E.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Brown, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory data and models of sputter-induced erosion and chemical alterations in ice films are reviewed and the results are applied to icy grains and satellites exposed to magnetospheric ion bombardment. It is shown that the source of the plasma in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn is likely to be the sputter erosion of the icy objects in this region and the sputter erosion and possible stabilization of the E-ring are considered. Ion-induced polymerization is discussed as a source of the darkened rings of Uranus.

  18. Direct labelling of beta 2-adrenoceptors. Comparison of binding potency of 3H-ICI 118,551 and blocking potency of ICI 118,551.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, H; Ehle, B; Kaumann, A J

    1985-10-01

    A radioligand that selectively labels beta 2-adrenoceptors, 3H-ICI 118,551 (3H-ICI), is introduced. Experiments were performed on guinea-pig tissues. The binding characteristics of 3H-ICI on lung membrane particles are compared with the blocking characteristics of ICI 118,551 against the tracheo-relaxant effects of (-)-noradrenaline, (-)-adrenaline and (+/-)-fenoterol. Binding to both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors were also performed with 3H-(-)-bupranolol on lung and ventricular myocardium. The binding inhibition characteristics of unlabelled ICI 118,551 on ventricle were compared with its characteristics as antagonist of the positive chronotropic effects of (-)-noradrenaline, (-)-adrenaline and (+/-)-fenoterol in spontaneously beating right atria. 1. ICI 118,551 blocked more the relaxant effects of (+/-)-fenoterol and (-)-adrenaline than those of (-)-noradrenaline on trachea. The positive chronotropic effects of (+/-)-fenoterol on sinoatrial node were blocked more than those of both (-)-adrenaline and (-)-noradrenaline. A non-linear regression analysis of blocking data with ICI 118,551 according to the model of Lemoine and Kaumann (1983) revelas that both beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors contribute to the tracheo-relaxant and positive chronotropic effects of agonists. The estimated equilibrium dissociation constants pKB (-log KB = pKB; mol/l) were 7.1 and 9.6 for beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors, respectively. Tracheal beta 2-adrenoceptors contribute 99%, 97% and 7%, sinoatrial beta 2-adrenoceptors contribute 76%, 3% and 0% to the fractional stimuli induced by (+/-)-fenoterol, (-)-adrenaline and (-)-noradrenaline, respectively. 2. 3H-ICI associated to beta 2-adrenoceptors of lung membranes with a kon of 0.521 X nmol-1 X min-1 and dissociated with a koff of 0.19 min-1. 3H-ICI bound to lung beta 2-adrenoceptors with an equilibrium dissociation constant pKL* of 9.2. Unlabelled ICI 118,551, (-)-bupranolol, (+)-bupranolol, (-)-adrenaline, (-)-noradrenaline and

  19. THz and mid-IR spectroscopy of interstellar ice analogs: methyl and carboxylic acid groups.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, S; McGuire, B A; Allodi, M A; Blake, G A

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental problem in astrochemistry concerns the synthesis and survival of complex organic molecules (COMs) throughout the process of star and planet formation. While it is generally accepted that most complex molecules and prebiotic species form in the solid phase on icy grain particles, a complete understanding of the formation pathways is still largely lacking. To take full advantage of the enormous number of available THz observations (e.g., Herschel Space Observatory, SOFIA, and ALMA), laboratory analogs must be studied systematically. Here, we present the THz (0.3-7.5 THz; 10-250 cm(-1)) and mid-IR (400-4000 cm(-1)) spectra of astrophysically-relevant species that share the same functional groups, including formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH), and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and acetone ((CH3)2CO), compared to more abundant interstellar molecules such as water (H2O), methanol (CH3OH), and carbon monoxide (CO). A suite of pure and mixed binary ices are discussed. The effects on the spectra due to the composition and the structure of the ice at different temperatures are shown. Our results demonstrate that THz spectra are sensitive to reversible and irreversible transformations within the ice caused by thermal processing, suggesting that THz spectra can be used to study the composition, structure, and thermal history of interstellar ices. Moreover, the THz spectrum of an individual species depends on the functional group(s) within that molecule. Thus, future THz studies of different functional groups will help in characterizing the chemistry and physics of the interstellar medium (ISM).

  20. Saturn's icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R.N.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P.D.; McCord, T.B.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R.M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.

    2010-01-01

    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper (Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/F continua at 0.55 ??m, 1.822 ??m and 3.547 ??m, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric

  1. Cost-Effective Icy Bodies Exploration using Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Jonas; Mauro, David; Stupl, Jan; Nayak, Michael; Aziz, Jonathan; Cohen, Aaron; Colaprete, Anthony; Dono-Perez, Andres; Frost, Chad; Klamm, Benjamin; McCafferty, Julian; McKay, Chris; Sears, Derek; Soulage, Michael; Swenson, Jason; Weston, Sasha; Yang Yang, Fan

    2015-01-01

    It has long been known that Saturn's moon Enceladus is expelling water-rich plumes into space, providing passing spacecraft with a window into what is hidden underneath its frozen crust. Recent discoveries indicate that similar events could also occur on other bodies in the solar system, such as Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres in the asteroid belt. These plumes provide a possible giant leap forward in the search for organics and assessing habitability beyond Earth, stepping stones toward the long-term goal of finding extraterrestrial life. The United States Congress recently requested mission designs to Europa, to fit within a cost cap of $1B, much less than previous mission designs' estimates. Here, innovative cost-effective small spacecraft designs for the deep-space exploration of these icy worlds, using new and emerging enabling technologies, and how to explore the outer solar system on a budget below the cost horizon of a flagship mission, are investigated. Science requirements, instruments selection, rendezvous trajectories, and spacecraft designs are some topics detailed. The mission concepts revolve around a comparably small-sized and low-cost Plume Chaser spacecraft, instrumented to characterize the vapor constituents encountered on its trajectory. In the event that a plume is not encountered, an ejecta plume can be artificially created by a companion spacecraft, the Plume Maker, on the target body at a location timed with the passage of the Plume Chaser spacecraft. Especially in the case of Ceres, such a mission could be a great complimentary mission to Dawn, as well as a possible future Europa Clipper mission. The comparably small volume of the spacecraft enables a launch to GTO as a secondary payload, providing multiple launch opportunities per year. Plume Maker's design is nearly identical to the Plume Chaser, and fits within the constraints for a secondary payload launch. The cost-effectiveness of small spacecraft missions enables the

  2. Stagnant lid convection in the outer shell of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Chloe; Deschamps, Frédéric; Tackley, Paul; Lowman, Julian; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, from both theoretical studies and spacecraft missions measurements, the internal structure of large icy moons including a subsurface ocean has gained an increasing support. The exact thickness of subsurface ocean, if present, depends on the detailed thermal evolution of each moon, and on its primordial composition. A crucial process is the heat transfer through the outer ice I layer, which controls the cooling of the satelitte interior. Convection is the most likely and efficient way to transfer heat through this layer, but the regime of convection (and therefore the heat transfer) depends on the rheology of the fluid. The viscosity of ice is strongly temperature dependent and thermal convection in the outer ice shell follows a stagnant lid regime : it means that a conductive stagnant lid forms at the top of the system, and convection is confined in a sublayer. Previous numerical studies including strongly temperature-dependent viscosities have already been performed in 2D Cartesian geometry allowing the determination of scaling laws relating the mean temperature and heat flux to the vigor of convection (described by the Rayleigh number) and the ratio of the top to the bottom viscosity, but 3D spherical geometry may provide a more accurate description of convection within the outer ice layer of icy moons. In this work, we model the heat transfer in spherical shells for a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity fluid heated from below. We use StagYY to run simulations for different ratios of the inner to outer radii of the ice layer (f), Rayleigh number (Ra), and thermal viscosity contrast (Δη). The inversion of the results of more than 30 numerical experiments allows the determination of scaling laws for the temperature of the well-mixed interior and surface heat flux. In particular, we find that depending on the curvature, the stagnant lid regime does not appear for the same values of the Rayleigh number and the viscosity contrast. These

  3. High-Pressure Hydrothermal Processing in Large Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, H. P.; Hemley, R. J.; Ryerson, F. J.; Williams, Q.

    2002-12-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments designed to simulate chemical processes within large icy satellites. Few phase equilibria data exist which are relevant to the chemical evolution of moons such as Jupiter's Europa and Ganymede, Saturn's Titan and Neptune's Triton; however, models of their interiors are critically dependent on their internal chemistry and density. An internally generated magnetic field has been observed for Ganymede which implies the existence of a liquid metallic core, and accordingly an interior temperature exceeding 1000ṡC. This observation, coupled with the known abundance of water ice on Ganymede, suggests that rock - water interactions at high temperatures and pressures (prospectively in the past) would control the interior mineralogy of these satellites. Additionally, organic material has been observed on the surface of Ganymede, and in conjunction with the large complement of water ice, it has been suggested that icy satellites possess the prerequisites for life to originate; however, the stability of organic material under high-pressure hydrothermal processing is unclear. We used a piston-cylinder press to react material of carbonaceous chondrite chemistry with H2O at a range of temperatures and oxidation states at a pressure of 1.5 GPa, and make the following observations: 1) At temperatures below ~850ṡC the density of the rock interior will be largely that of hydrated ferromagnesian silicates (serpentine - chlorite - talc depending on temperature and oxidation state), 2) Iron and sulfur alloy readily under these conditions, forming the mineral pyrrhotite -- a metallic core of this chemistry is therefore likely, and 3) Hydrothermal processing of organic species of carbon at temperatures above 450ṡC produces carbonate minerals -- the prerequisite materials for life are not preserved deep within icy satellites. To further investigate the high-pressure hydrothermal processing of organic material we are conducting experiments

  4. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, Olivier; Witasse, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Brandt, Pontus; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Bunce, Emma; Cecconi, Baptiste; Cavalié, Thibault; Cimo, Giuseppe; Coustenis, Athena; Cremonese, Gabriele; Dougherty, Michele; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Gladstone, Randy; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hoffmann, Holger; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kaspi, Yohai; Krupp, Norbert; Langevin, Yves; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Plaut, Jeffrey; Poulet, Francois; Roatsch, Thomas; Retherford, Kurt D.; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Stevenson, David J.; Tosi, Federico; Van Hoolst, Tim; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Wurz, Peter; Altobelli, Nicolas; Accomazzo, A.; Boutonnet, Arnaud; Erd, Christian; Vallat, Claire

    2016-10-01

    JUICE - JUpiter ICy moons Explorer - is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision programme [1]. The implementation phase started in July 2015. JUICE will arrive at Jupiter in October 2029, and will spend 3 years characterizing the Jovian system, the planet itself, its giant magnetosphere, and the giant icy moons: Ganymede, Callisto and Europa. JUICE will then orbit Ganymede.The first goal of JUICE is to explore the habitable zone around Jupiter [2]. Ganymede is a high-priority target because it provides a unique laboratory for analyzing the nature, evolution and habitability of icy worlds, including the characteristics of subsurface oceans, and because it possesses unique magnetic fields and plasma interactions with the environment. On Europa, the focus will be on recently active zones, where the composition, surface and subsurface features (including putative water reservoirs) will be characterized. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early Solar System.JUICE will also explore the Jupiter system as an archetype of gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere and ionosphere. JUICE will investigate the 3D properties of the magnetodisc, and study the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. The mission also focuses on characterizing the processes that influence surface and space environments of the moons.The payload consists of 10 instruments plus a ground-based experiment (PRIDE) to better constrain the S/C position. A remote sensing package includes imaging (JANUS) and spectral-imaging capabilities from UV to sub-mm wavelengths (UVS, MAJIS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres and to determine the gravity fields. The in situ package comprises a suite to study plasma and

  5. Challenges in Using Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-01-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features. One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same…

  6. Analogies for Avogadro's Number.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poskozim, Paul S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews analogies used to try to capture the concept of the magnitude of Avogadro's number, including analogies related to small/tiny objects, counting, people, water, and money. Also presents several new ones which are based on modern computers and printers. (JN)

  7. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding. According to Iding, analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning…

  8. Analog pulse processor

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Kemper, Dale A.

    2003-06-03

    A very low power analog pulse processing system implemented as an ASIC useful for processing signals from radiation detectors, among other things. The system incorporates the functions of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaping amplifier, a peak sample and hold circuit, and, optionally, an analog to digital converter and associated drivers.

  9. Mobility of icy sand packs, with application to Martian permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durham, W.B.; Pathare, A.V.; Stern, L.A.; Lenferink, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    [1] The physical state of water on Mars has fundamental ramifications for both climatology and astrobiology. The widespread presence of "softened" Martian landforms (such as impact craters) can be attributed to viscous creep of subsurface ground ice. We present laboratory experiments designed to determine the minimum amount of ice necessary to mobilize topography within Martian permafrost. Our results show that the jammed-to-mobile transition of icy sand packs neither occurs at fixed ice content nor is dependent on temperature or stress, but instead correlates strongly with the maximum dry packing density of the sand component. Viscosity also changes rapidly near the mobility transition. The results suggest a potentially lower minimum volatile inventory for the impact-pulverized megaregolith of Mars. Furthermore, the long-term preservation of partially relaxed craters implies that the ice content of Martian permafrost has remained close to that at the mobility transition throughout Martian history. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Compositional Remote Sensing of Icy Planets and Satellites Beyond Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.

    2002-01-01

    The peak of the solar energy distribution occurs at visual wavelengths and falls off rapidly in the infrared. This fact, improvements in infrared detector technology, and the low surface temperatures for most icy objects in the outer solar system have resulted in the bulk of telescopic and spacecraft observations being performed at visual and near-infrared wavelengths. Such observations, begun in the early 1970's and continuing to present, have provided compositional information regarding the surfaces of the satellites of Saturn and Uranus, Neptune's moon Triton, Pluto, Pluto's moon Charon, Centaur objects, and Kuiper belt objects. Because the incident sunlight penetrates the surface and interacts with the materials present there, the measured reflected sunlight contains information regarding the surface materials, and the ratio of the reflected to incident sunlight provides a mechanism of identifying the materials that are present.

  11. Thermo-Chemical Convection in Europa's Icy Shell with Salinity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, L.; Showman, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Europa's icy surface displays numerous pits, uplifts, and chaos terrains that have been suggested to result from solid-state thermal convection in the ice shell, perhaps aided by partial melting. However, numerical simulations of thermal convection show that plumes have insufficient buoyancy to produce surface deformation. Here we present numerical simulations of thermochemical convection to test the hypothesis that convection with salinity can produce Europa's pits and domes. Our simulations show that domes (200-300 m) and pits (300-400 m) comparable to the observations can be produced in an ice shell of 15 km thick with 5-10% compositional density variation if the maximum viscosity is less than 10(exp 18) Pa sec. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  12. The long-period librations of large synchronous icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yseboodt, Marie; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2014-11-01

    A moon in synchronous rotation has longitudinal librations because of its non-spherical mass distribution and its elliptical orbit around the planet. We study the long-period librations of the Galilean satellites and Titan and include deformation effects and the existence of a subsurface ocean. We take into account the fact that the orbit is not keplerian and has other periodicities than the main period of orbital motion around Jupiter or Saturn due to perturbations by the Sun, other planets and moons. An orbital theory is used to compute the orbital perturbations due to these other bodies. For Titan we also take into account the large atmospheric torque at the semi-annual period of Saturn around the Sun.We numerically evaluate the amplitude and phase of the long-period librations for many interior structure models of the icy moons constrained by the mass, radius and gravity field.

  13. A Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microorganisms on Icy Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindensmith, C. A.; Nadeau, J. L.; Deming, J. W.; Showalter, G. M.; Rider, S.; Bedrossian, M.

    2015-12-01

    Holography is a well-established imaging technique that uses the interference of light to record and reproduce three-dimensional images of objects. Its use began in the 1960s with the invention of the laser. Digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has several advantages over ordinary imaging microscopy which make it ideal for field and astrobiology use, including no need for focus or scanning so that instruments are readily made autonomous. DHM can produce simultaneous bright-field and quantitative phase-contrast images of the same field, providing additional information about transparent objects, e.g., refractive index and/or thickness; thus it inherently supports effective label-free imaging. We have built a fieldable DHM for detection of microorganisms in bodies of water and in brines collected from sea ice. Ice that appears solid to the eye contains interconnected brine-filled microscopic pores and veins which are occupied by populations of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The presence of life in "solid" ice has important implications for exploration of icy worlds, where it is unlikely that the first missions will be able to access the subsurface oceans. Using this new instrument, we examined several dozen samples from three different sites around Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, mixed populations of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms were observed. Many of the organisms were motile immediately upon extraction from sea ice, and others became motile after warming or addition of sugars and/or amino acids. Meaningful motility was readily distinguished from turbulence or fluid flow. The spatial resolution of the instrument was better than 1 μm, leading to unambiguous recognition of subcellular structures in eukaryotes, including nuclei and chloroplasts. We present mission scenrios for both orbiters and landers in which DHM may be used as a valuable complement to chemical-based life detection techniques for discovery of cellular life on icy worlds.

  14. Saturn's icy satellites and rings investigated by Cassini-VIMS: III - Radial compositional variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Ciarniello, M.; Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Nicholson, P. D.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Hedman, M. M.; Buratti, B. J.; Lunine, J. I.; Soderblom, L. A.; Tosi, F.; Cerroni, P.; Brown, R. H.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.; Baines, K. H.; Flamini, E.

    2012-08-01

    In the last few years Cassini-VIMS, the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, returned to us a comprehensive view of the Saturn's icy satellites and rings. After having analyzed the satellites' spectral properties (Filacchione, G., Capaccioni, F., McCord, T.B., Coradini, A., Cerroni, P., Bellucci, G., Tosi, F., D'Aversa, E., Formisano, V., Brown, R.H., Baines, K.H., Bibring, J.P., Buratti, B.J., Clark, R.N., Combes, M., Cruikshank, D.P., Drossart, P., Jaumann, R., Langevin, Y., Matson, D.L., Mennella, V., Nelson, R.M., Nicholson, P.D., Sicardy, B., Sotin, C., Hansen, G., Hibbitts, K., Showalter, M., Newman, S. [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, paper I) and their distribution across the satellites' hemispheres (Filacchione, G., Capaccioni, F., Clark, R.N., Cuzzi, J.N., Cruikshank, D.P., Coradini, A., Cerroni, P., Nicholson, P.D., McCord, T.B., Brown, R.H., Buratti, B.J., Tosi, F., Nelson, R.M., Jaumann, R., Stephan, K. [2010]. Icarus 206, 507-523, paper II), we proceed in this paper to investigate the radial variability of icy satellites (principal and minor) and main rings average spectral properties. This analysis is done by using 2264 disk-integrated observations of the satellites and a 12 × 700 pixels-wide rings radial mosaic acquired with a spatial resolution of about 125 km/pixel. Using different VIS and IR spectral indicators, e.g. spectral slopes and band depths, we perform a comparative analysis of these data aimed to measure the distribution of water ice and red contaminant materials across Saturn's system. The average surface regolith grain sizes are estimated with different indicators through comparison with laboratory and synthetic spectra. These measurements highlight very striking differences in the population here analyzed, which vary from the almost uncontaminated and water ice-rich surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the metal/organic-rich and red surfaces of Iapetus' leading hemisphere and Phoebe. Rings spectra appear more red than the icy

  15. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  16. An Icy Kuiper-Belt Around the Young Solar-Type Star HD 181327

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Thi, W.-F.; Roberge, A.; Donaldson, J.; Schneider, G.; Maddison, S. T.; Menard, F.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Mathews, G. S.; Kamp, I.; Pinte, C.; Dent, W. R. F.; Barrado, D.; Duchene, G.; Gonzalez, J.-F.; Grady, C. A.; Meeus, G.; Pantin, E.; Williams, J. P.; Woitke, P.

    2011-01-01

    HD 181327 is a young Main Sequence F5/F6 V star belonging to the Beta Pictoris moving group (age approx 12 Myr). It harbors an optically thin belt of circumstellar material at approx90 AU, presumed to result from collisions in a populat.ion of unseen planetesimals. Aims. We aim to study the dust properties in the belt in great details, and to constrain the gas-to-dust ratio. Methods. We obtained far-IR photometric observations of HD 181327 with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Observatory, complemented by new 3.2 nun observations carried with the ATCA array. The geometry of the belt is constrained with newly reduced HST /NICMOS scattered light images that break the degeneracy between the disk geometry and the dust properties. We then use the radiative transfer code GRaTer to compute a large grid of dust models, and we apply a Bayesian inference method to identify the grain models that best reproduce the SED. We attempt to detect the oxygen and ionized carbon fine-structure lines with Herschel/PACS spectroscopy, providing observables to our photochemical code ProDiMo. Results. The HST observations confirm that the dust is confined in a narrow belt. The continuum is detected with Herschel/PACS completing nicely the SED in the far-infrared. The disk is marginally resolved with both PACS and ATCA. A medium integration of the gas spectral lines only provides upper limits on the [OI] and [CII] line fluxes. We show that the HD 181327 dust disk consists of micron-sized grains of porous amorphous silicates and carbonaceous material surrounded by an import.ant layer of ice for a total dust mass of approx 0.05 stellar Mass. We discuss evidences that the grains consists of fluffy aggregates. The upper limits on the gas atomic lines do not provide unambiguous constraints: only if the PAH abundance is high, the gas mass must be lower than approx 17 Stellar Mass Conclusions. Despite the weak constraints on the gas disk, the age of HD 181327 and the properties of the

  17. Analogs from LEO: Mapping Earth Observations to Planetary Science & Astrobiology. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K. P.; Painter, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    If, as Charles Lyell articulated ‘the present is the key to the past’ for terrestrial geology, then perhaps by extension the Earth, our planet, is the key to understanding other planets. This is the basic premise behind planetary analogs. Many planetary science missions, however, utilize orbiters and are therefore constrained to remote sensing. This is the reverse of how we developed our understanding of Earth’s environments; remote sensing is a relatively new tool for understanding environments and processes on Earth. Here we present several cases and comparisons between Earth’s cryosphere and icy worlds of the outer Solar System (e.g. Europa, Titan, and Enceladus), where much of our knowledge is limited to remote observations (the sole exception being the Huygens probe to Titan). Three regions are considered: glaciers in the Sierra Nevada, the permafrost lakes of Alaska’s North Slope, and spreading centers of the ocean floor. Two key issues are examined: 1) successes and limitations for understanding processes that shape icy worlds, and 2) successes and limitations for assessing the habitability of icy worlds from orbit. Finally, technological considerations for future orbiting mission to icy worlds are presented.

  18. Sublimating grains model of cometary coma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Tozzi, G. P.; Brucato, J. R.

    Billion years of space weathering produces a crust of organic matter (see e.g. Kanuchova et al. 2012) that will be released when a comet enter for the first time in the inner Solar System. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of ice organic matter close to the surface. When a comet approach to the Sun, its activity is driven by the sublimation of these nucleus ices: if the heliocentric distances, R_H , is greater than 3 AU the sublimation of CO and CO_2 ices is the main source of comet activity, otherwise at shorter distances, the sublimation of water become the most important mechanism of activity. These gases, escaping from the nucleus, drag in the coma grains that can be refractory dust (silicates, carbon), water ice and/or organic ices. Oort comets at their first passage in the inner Solar System, should produce an halo of organic or water icy particles. Our group has been monitoring new, inbound, bright Oort comets (C/2011 F1, C/2012 S1, C/2012 K1, C/2013 V5, C/2012 F3, C/2013 US10, C/2013 X1) to search for these icy grains. The method consists in detecting the cloud of sublimating grains in the inner coma by using the Sigma Af function (Tozzi et al. 2007) directly from images. However this over-population of grains, beside the sublimation, can be also due to short time activity (outburst) or too big grains expanding at very slow velocity, as it has been found in comet 67P/C-G (Tozzi eta al, 2011, A&A, 531, 54). To disentangle between the phenomena it is necessary to monitor the comet both at short timescale, for the outbursts (by repeating the observations after few nights), and at long term (weeks-months). If the cloud does not expand with the decreasing of the heliocentric distance there is high probability that we are in presence of organic and/or water ice grains. We can disentangle

  19. Phloem Transport of Arsenic Species from Flag Leaf to Grain During Grain Filling

    SciTech Connect

    A Carey; G Norton; C Deacon; K Scheckel; E Lombi; T Punshon; M Guerinot; A Lanzirotti; M Newville; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  20. Phloem transport of arsenic species from flag leaf to grain during grain filling

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, Anne-Marie; Norton, Gareth J.; Deacon, Claire; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Lombi, Enzo; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matt; Choi, Yongseong; Price, Adam H.; Meharg, Andrew A.

    2011-09-20

    Strategies to reduce arsenic (As) in rice grain, below concentrations that represent a serious human health concern, require that the mechanisms of As accumulation within grain be established. Therefore, retranslocation of As species from flag leaves into filling rice grain was investigated. Arsenic species were delivered through cut flag leaves during grain fill. Spatial unloading within grains was investigated using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microtomography. Additionally, the effect of germanic acid (a silicic acid analog) on grain As accumulation in arsenite-treated panicles was examined. Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) were extremely efficiently retranslocated from flag leaves to rice grain; arsenate was poorly retranslocated, and was rapidly reduced to arsenite within flag leaves; arsenite displayed no retranslocation. Within grains, DMA rapidly dispersed while MMA and inorganic As remained close to the entry point. Germanic acid addition did not affect grain As in arsenite-treated panicles. Three-dimensional SXRF microtomography gave further information on arsenite localization in the ovular vascular trace (OVT) of rice grains. These results demonstrate that inorganic As is poorly remobilized, while organic species are readily remobilized, from leaves to grain. Stem translocation of inorganic As may not rely solely on silicic acid transporters.

  1. Grain growth and experimental deformation of fine-grained ice aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diebold, Sabrina; de Bresser, Hans; Spiers, Chris; Durham, William B.; Stern, Laura

    2010-05-01

    Ice is one of the most abundant materials in our solar system. It is the principal constituent of most of the moons of the outer solar system. Thus, the flow behavior of ice is of great interest when studying geodynamic processes on icy moons. Grain growth is an elementary process that is assumed to be important in the ice sheet layering of planetary moons, where temperatures 100-273 K exist. We concentrate on the questions to what extent grain growth may influence the evolution of strength of deforming ice and if the grain growth process is independent or dependent of deformation. The answers to these questions will help us to quantitatively test the hypothesis that the progressive evolution of the grain (crystal) size distribution of deforming and recrystallizing ice directly affects its rheological behaviour in terms of composite grain-size-sensitive (GSS) and grain-size-insensitive (GSI) creep, and that this might, after time, result in a steady state balance between mechanisms of GSS and GSI creep. We performed static grain growth experiments at different temperatures and a pressure (P) of 1 atm, and deformation experiments at P = 30-100 MPa starting in the GSS-creep field. The starting material ice Ih has a grain size < 2 μm and was generated by a special pressure-release technique described by Stern et al. (1997) resulting in dense ice aggregates. The ice grains of the polycrystalline starting samples were randomly oriented and the material has a porosity of < 0.5%. For the grain growth tests a Hart Scientific temperature bath was filled with d-Limonene as cooling medium. The ice specimens were put into sealed alumina cylinders. For the grain growth tests, temperatures (T) between 213 K and 268 K were chosen. The durations of these tests varied between one day and two weeks. For the deformation experiments, temperatures of > 170 K and strain rates between 10-8 s-1 and 10-4 s-1 were chosen. Grain sizes, grain size distributions and grain topologies were

  2. GRAIN SORTING IN COMETARY DUST FROM THE OUTER SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Price, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Most young stars are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. Close to the hot stars, amorphous dust grains from the parent molecular cloud are reprocessed into crystals that are then distributed throughout the accretion disk. In some disks, there is a reduction in crystalline grain size with heliocentric distance from the star. We investigated crystalline grain size distributions in chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) believed to be from small, icy bodies that accreted in outer regions of the solar nebula. The grains are Mg-rich silicates and Fe-rich sulfides, the two most abundant minerals in CP IDPs. We find that they are predominantly <0.25 {mu}m in radius with a mean grain size that varies from one CP IDP to another. We report a size-density relationship between the silicates and sulfides. A similar size-density relationship between much larger silicate and sulfide grains in meteorites from the asteroid belt is ascribed to aerodynamic sorting. Since the silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs are theoretically too small for aerodynamic sorting, their size-density relationship may be due to another process capable of sorting small grains.

  3. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Jun; Kitadai, Norio

    2015-06-01

    The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons--Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto--may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life.

  4. Polymerization of Building Blocks of Life on Europa and Other Icy Moons

    PubMed Central

    Kitadai, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The outer Solar System may provide a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life. Remote sensing data from the Galileo spacecraft suggest that the jovian icy moons—Europa, Ganymede, and possibly Callisto—may harbor liquid water oceans underneath their icy crusts. Although compositional information required for the discussion of habitability is limited because of significantly restricted observation data, organic molecules are ubiquitous in the Universe. Recently, in situ spacecraft measurements and experiments suggest that amino acids can be formed abiotically on interstellar ices and comets. These amino acids could be continuously delivered by meteorite or comet impacts to icy moons. Here, we show that polymerization of organic monomers, in particular amino acids and nucleotides, could proceed spontaneously in the cold environment of icy moons, in particular the jovian icy moon Europa as a typical example, based on thermodynamic calculations, though kinetics of formation are not addressed. Observed surface temperature on Europa is 120 and 80 K in the equatorial region and polar region, respectively. At such low temperatures, Gibbs energies of polymerization become negative, and the estimated thermal structure of the icy crust should contain a shallow region (i.e., at a depth of only a few kilometers) favorable for polymerization. Investigation of the possibility of organic monomer polymerization on icy moons could provide good constraints on the origin and early evolution of extraterrestrial life. Key Words: Planetary science—Europa—Planetary habitability and biosignatures—Extraterrestrial life—Extraterrestrial organic compounds. Astrobiology 15, 430–441. PMID:26060981

  5. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  6. Challenges in Using Analogies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

    2011-11-01

    Learning physics requires understanding the applicability of fundamental principles in a variety of contexts that share deep features.1-7 One way to help students learn physics is via analogical reasoning. Students can be taught to make an analogy between situations that are more familiar or easier to understand and another situation where the same physics principle is involved but that is more difficult to handle. Here, we examine introductory physics students' ability to use analogies in solving problems involving Newton's second law. Students enrolled in an algebra-based introductory physics course were given a solved problem involving tension in a rope and were then asked to solve another problem for which the physics is very similar but involved a frictional force. They were asked to point out the similarities between the two problems and then use the analogy to solve the friction problem.

  7. FGF growth factor analogs

    DOEpatents

    Zamora, Paul O [Gaithersburg, MD; Pena, Louis A [Poquott, NY; Lin, Xinhua [Plainview, NY; Takahashi, Kazuyuki [Germantown, MD

    2012-07-24

    The present invention provides a fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the formula: ##STR00001## where R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, X, Y and Z are as defined, pharmaceutical compositions, coating compositions and medical devices including the fibroblast growth factor heparin-binding analog of the foregoing formula, and methods and uses thereof.

  8. Reorientation of the rotation axis of triaxial viscoelastic icy moons: Europa and Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara Orue, H. M.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2011-10-01

    We provide an analysis of the rotational response of triaxial viscoelastic icy moons, focusing on the free rotational behavior of Europa and Titan. In a similar way as for terrestrial planets, the rotational behavior of icy moons is dominated by a secular shift of the pole and the periodic Chandler wobble. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the Chandler wobble of icy moons is associated with the viscoelastic response of the layers located below the ocean. The fast relaxation of low-viscous ice layers induces additional wobble frequencies. However, these wobbles are generally weak compared to the strength of the main Chandler wobble.

  9. Electrical Circuits and Water Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frederick A.; Wilson, Jerry D.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes water analogies for electrical circuits and presents plans for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate these analogies. Demonstrations include series circuits, parallel circuits, and capacitors. (GS)

  10. Ganymede Europa Neutral Imaging Experiment at the Jupiter's icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Plainaki, C.; DeAngelis, E.; Argan, A.; Fierro, D.; Vertolli, N.; Danduras, I.; Selci, S.; Leoni, R.; Sheer, J.

    2012-04-01

    GENIE (Ganymede Europa Neutral Imaging Experiment) (energy range 10 eV - 10 keV) is a high-angular-resolution detector, based on the ToF technique. Its objective is to map the origin sites of the most energetic neutral particles of the icy moons' exospheres, in order to investigate the interaction between the surface and the environment. The investigation of plasma interaction with the Jupiter's moons and the processes responsible for surface space weathering is one of the coolest topics of the proposed Cosmic Vision mission JUICE since it directly relates to energy exchange within the Jupiter's system, to the moon evolution and finally to the habitability in the harsh radiative environment. Icy surfaces of the Jupiter's moons are continuously irradiated by intense ion fluxes of H+, O+ and S+ in the energy range from keV to MeV. These ions are expected to impact the moon icy surface producing relevant and observable effects such as particles release and chemical and structural modifications of the surface. In particular, the plasma impacting onto the surface causes, via ion-sputtering, radiolysis and backscattering processes, release of neutrals that constitute the exospheres. The energy spectrum of this particle population peaks in the eV range with a non-negligible tail up to hundred eVs. The knowledge of the effectiveness of these processes in this environment is important in order to understand the evolution of the moons and their interactions within the Jupiter's system. The detection of neutral atoms above few 10 eVs (LENA) is a way to univocally relate the exosphere to surface features and to monitor instantaneously the effect of plasma precipitation onto the surface. Thus, GENIE is fully complementary to INM spectrometer, devoted to infer exospheric composition and density. Coupled measurements of LENA and gas composition will improve our knowledge in surface release mechanisms. The observation of LENA at different latitudes and longitudes, resulting in a 2

  11. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer: mission status after the Definition Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Sarri, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), the ESA first large-class mission within the Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025, was adopted in November 2014. The mission will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the

  12. Comparative study of icy patches on comet nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, Nilda; Pommerol, Antoine; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Sunshine, Jessica; Sierks, Holger; Pajola, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    Cometary missions Deep Impact, EPOXI and Rosetta investigated the nuclei of comets 9P/Tempel 1, 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko respectively. Bright patches were observed on the surfaces of each of these three comets [1-5]. Of these, the surface of 67P is mapped at the highest spatial resolution via narrow angle camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS, [6]) on board the Rosetta spacecraft. OSIRIS NAC is equipped with twelve filters covering the wavelength range of 250 nm to 1000 nm. Various filters combinations are used during surface mapping. With high spatial resolution data of comet 67P, three types of bright features were detected on the comet surface: Clustered, isolated and bright boulders [2]. In the visible spectral range, clustered bright features on comet 67P display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface [2, 4] while isolated bright features on comet 67P have flat spectra [4]. Icy patches observed on the surface of comets 9P and 103P display bluer spectral slopes than the average surface [1, 5]. Clustered and isolated bright features are blue in the RGB composites generated by using the images taken in NIR, visible and NUV wavelengths [2, 4]. This is valid for the icy patches observed on comets 9P and 103P [1, 5]. Spectroscopic observations of bright patches on comets 9P and 103P confirmed the existence of water [1, 5]. There were more than a hundred of bright features detected on the northern hemisphere of comet 67P [2]. Analysis of those features from both multispectral data and spectroscopic data is an ongoing work. Water ice is detected in eight of the bright features so far [7]. Additionally, spectroscopic observations of two clustered bright features on the surface of comet 67P revealed the existence of water ice [3]. The spectral properties of one of the icy patches were studied by [4] using OSIRIS NAC images and compared with the spectral properties of the active regions observed

  13. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Electrical Systems Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trapp, Scott J.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission will send a spacecraft to explore three of Jupiter s moons (Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa), all of which show evidence of containing vast subterranean oceans beneath their icy surfaces. The evidence of these oceans was discovered by Galileo, and the moons are believed to have the three essential ingredients for life: water, energy, and the necessary chemical elements. Galileo has shown that melted water on Europa has been in contact with the surface of the moon in geologically recent times, and may still lie relatively close to the surface. This project will also introduce a revolutionary new form of electric propulsion powered by a nuclear fission reactor. This electric propulsion is called ion propulsion. It was used on a previous mission called Deep Space 1, proving that ion propulsion works for interplanetary travel. Since JIMO will be traveling farther from the sun, solar power will be difficult to supply the electric energy demanded by the mission. Therefore a nuclear reactor and a thermo-electric converter system will be necessary. Besides making the trip to three of Jupiter's moons - one after the other - a realistic possibility, this new form of power and propulsion opens up the rest of the outer solar system for future exploration. JIMO will fulfill its goals by exploring Europa first, with subsequent trips to the moons Callisto and Ganymede in order to provide comparisons key to understanding the evolution of all three. In order to ensure the stability and proper preparation of the electrical system on JIMO, the High Power AC Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Test Bed is being developed. The testing on.this AC PMAD will consist of electrical performance verification of candidate power system components. Examples of these components are: high power AC switchgear, high power ACDC converters, AC power distribution units, DC power distribution units, etc. Throughout the course of the summer the over

  14. Planetary protection for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershman, R.; Kohlhase, C.; Koukol, R.

    NASA is developing plans for an ambitious mission to orbit three planet-sized moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede and Europa -- which may harbor vast oceans beneath their icy surfaces. The mission, called the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO), would orbit each of these moons for extensive investigations of their makeup, their history and their potential for sustaining life. JIMO has been identified as the first space science mission to potentially incorporate the revolutionary nuclear power and propulsion capability being developed by NASA's Project Prometheus. Planetary protection (PP) requirements for JIMO are expected to be based on a recommendation by the Space Studies Board (SSB) of the U.S. National Research Council that in any one mission the probability of contaminating a Europan ocean with a viable Earth organism should be less than 10-4. The SSB stated that calculation of this probability should, as a minimum, take into account the following: bioburden at launch, cruise survival of the organisms, organism survival in the radiation environment adjacent to Europa, probability of landing at a geologically active site on Europa, the mechanisms of transfer of the organisms to the Europan subsurface, and organism survival and proliferation before, during, and after subsurface transfer. This presentation reports on preliminary assessment of these factors by the JIMO Project and on work in progress aimed at finding a design capable of meeting planetary protection goals for Europa with the lowest cost and risk impacts for the project. This design will potentially include: credit for sterilizing effects of in-flight radiation, pre-launch sterilization with isolation from recontamination for spacecraft elements protected from the radiation environment, identification of quarantine orbits within the Jovian system providing long term stability, providing high system reliability against failure modes that could lead to surface impact, and assuring separation of the

  15. The alteration of icy samples during sample acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mungas, G.; Bearman, G.; Beegle, L. W.; Hecht, M.; Peters, G. H.; Glucoft, J.; Strothers, K.

    2006-12-01

    Valid in situ scientific studies require both that samples be analyzed in as pristine condition as possible and that any modification from the pristine to the sampled state be well understood. While samples with low to high ice concentration are critical for the study of astrobiology and geology, they pose problems with respect to the sample acquisition, preparation and distribution systems (SPAD) upon which the analytical instruments depend. Most significant of the processes that occur during SPAD is sublimation or melting caused by thermal loading from drilling, coring, etc. as well as exposure to a dry low pressure ambient environment. These processes can alter the sample, as well as generating, meta-stable liquid water that can refreeze in the sample transfer mechanisms, interfering with proper operation and creating cross-contamination. We have investigated and quantified loss of volatiles such as H2O, CO, CO2, and organics contained within icy and powdered samples when acquired, processed and transferred. During development of the MSL rock crusher, for example, ice was observed to pressure-fuse and stick to the side even at -70C. We have investigated sublimation from sample acquisition at Martian temperature and pressure for a samples ranging from 10 to 100 water/dirt ratios. Using the RASP that will be on Phoenix, we have measured sublimation of ice during excavation at Martian pressure and find that the sublimation losses can range from 10 to 50 percent water. It is the thermal conductivity of the soil that determines local heat transport, and how much of the sample acquisition energy is wicked away into the soil and how much goes into the sample. Modeling of sample acquisition methods requires measurement of these parameters. There is a two phase model for thermal conductivity as a function of dirt/ice ratio but it needed to be validated. We used an ASTM method for measuring thermal conductivity and implemented it in the laboratory. The major conclusion is

  16. Radiation Synthesis of New Molecules on Jupiter's Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. H.; Hudson, R. L.; Carlson, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Spectra of Jupiter's icy satellites reveal surfaces dominated by water-ice, minor amounts of SO2 and CO2, and (for Europa) H2O2 along with hydrated materials. Jovian magnetospheric ions (protons, sulfur, and oxygen) and electrons significantly modify the chemical composition of these moons' surfaces in times ranging from a few years for Europa to thousands of years for Callisto at micrometer depths. Appropriate laboratory studies examining relevant volatile and non-volatile materials under low-temperature radiation conditions can provide information on likely radiation chemical mechanisms, on the stability and evolution of species, and on new species awaiting detection. Although the molecules detected on the icy moons are relatively simple, predicting their responses to radiation in space remains difficult. One problem is that there is a dearth of fundamental data examining solid-phase reactions. Our laboratory experiments have focused on infrared studies (2.5 to 25 microns) of a few simple irradiated ices. We have measured the spectra of proton-irradiated H2O ice containing SO2, H2S, and/or CO2. Ices with H2O/SO2 or H2O/H2S ratios of 3 and 30 have been irradiated at 86 K, 110 K, and 132 K. In irradiated H2O + SO2 ices new ions have been identified: SO4(-2), HSO4(-) and H3O(+). After warming to 260 K the residual spectrum is similar to that of H2SO4. Ices with H2O + H2S form SO2. After warming to 175 K, the residual sample matches the spectrum of hydrated H2SO4. H2O + CO2 ice forms carbonic acid, H2CO3 which is stable to temperatures near 230 K. In addition, OCS has been detected in irradiated ices containing H2O + SO2 + CO2. The radiation half-life of SO2 and H2S in H2O has been calculated. Our results give compelling evidence for the presence of new species awaiting detection. Future experiments will examine the signatures of these ices and hydrated materials in the 1 to 5 micron region, where possible weaker overtone bands may occur. In addition, absolute

  17. Icy Satellite Science Today and in Cassini's Final Three Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Cassini Mission has turned our view of Saturn's icy moons from scientific sketches to fully realized worlds. Among the major discoveries are: Activity on Enceladus and associated plumes that originate in small hot spots on its south pole and that appear to be modulated by tidal forces; a liquid subsurface water ocean on Enceladus that is a habitable environment; several new moons; debris rings associated with moons; a unique equatorial ridge on Iapetus; the identity of new constituents on the moons including carbon dioxide ice on most of them and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)on Iapetus; differentiated or partially differentiated interiors; nano-iron on the surfaces of the moons and in the rings; volatile segregation on Iapetus and Hyperion; and a bewildering array of geologic processes on the small moons. But our new view of these icy worlds has spawned new questions. Among these unanswered questions are: How variable are the plumes? Have any other moons had activity similar to that on Enceladus and did it continue up to the recent past? How much dust do the moons contribute to the region around Saturn? What caused the ridge on Iapetus? What are the interiors of the moons like? How differentiated and compensated are they? Five additional targeted flybys, two of Dione and three of Enceladus, have been designed to answer these questions and will be implemented during the remainder of the Solstice Mission. The Dione flybys both include gravity passes to determine its state of differentiation. One of the flybys is optimized to measure the fields and particle environment around Dione. One of the two remote-sensing flybys of Enceladus will scrutinize the south polar region to further understand the size, temperature, and variability of the emitting areas, while the other will observe the north pole to determine why it is so different from the south. The third Enceladus flyby involves an unprecedented pass less than 50 km above the surface into the midst of

  18. Cassini CIRS characterization of icy moon surface composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Cindy L.; Wray, J. J.; Spencer, J. R.; Clark, R. N.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-10-01

    Compositional studies of Saturn’s icy moons were one of the original science goals for Cassini’s Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) [1], but to date they have received less attention than measurements of atmospheres, surface temperatures and thermophysical properties across the Saturn system. Recent Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) data have shown tantalizing evidence of possible organic molecules and metals on several Saturnian moon surfaces [e.g., 2,3], but the stronger fundamental absorptions in the mid-IR would allow confirmation of these constituents and more specific identifications. The spectral region covered by CIRS focal planes 3 and 4 is rich in emissivity features due to both simple and complex molecules [4], but the study of emissivity variations in this region is often challenged by low signal to noise ratios for individual spectra. We present an approach to average CIRS spectra from the full icy moon dataset on the Planetary Data System to increase signal-to-noise and use emissivity spectra to constrain surface compositions. A first look at CIRS spectra averaged over the dark terrain of Iapetus is presented. Preliminary results show that averaging greatly reduces noise in radiance and emissivity spectra, revealing a potential spectral feature that does not correspond to any known instrument artifact. We are working to identify it as a possible non-ice contribution to Iapetus’ surface composition. [1] Flasar, F.M., et al. (2004), Exploring the Saturn system in the thermal infrared: The Composite Infrared Spectrometer, Space Sci. Rev., 115, 169-297. [2] Brown, R.H., et al. (2006), Composition and physical properties of Enceladus’ surface, Science, 311, 1425-1428. [3] Clark, R.N., et al. (2012), The surface composition of Iapetus: Mapping results from Cassini VIMS, Icarus, 218, 831-860. [4] Hand, K.P., Chyba, C.F., Priscu, J.C., Carlson, R.W. & K.H. Nealson (2009), Astrobiology and the Potential for Life on Europa. In

  19. Synthesis of novel ICIE16/BSG and ICIE16/BSG-NITRI bioglasses and description of ionic release kinetics upon immersion in SBF fluid: Effect of nitridation

    PubMed Central

    Orgaz, Felipe; Amat, Daniel; Szycht, Olga; Dzika, Aleksandra; Barba, Flora; Becerra, José; Santos-Ruiz, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    A novel bioactive glass scaffold ICIE16/BSG has been prepared from a mixture of two different melt-derived glasses: a silicate bioglass (ICIE16) and a borosilicate bioglass (BSG). Combined processing techniques (gel casting and foam replication) were used to form three-dimensional, interconnected porous monolith scaffolds (Orgaz et al., 2016) [1]. They were then nitrided with a hot ammonia flow as described in (Aleixandre et al., 1973) [3] and (Nieto, 1984) [4] to synthesize the ICIE16/BSG-NITRI bioglass (Orgaz et al., 2016) [1]. Herein we present a flow chart summarizing the forming process, plus images of the resulting scaffold after sintering and drying. Bioactivity was characterized in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to seven days. Data of ionic release kinetics upon SBF immersion are presented. PMID:26858981

  20. Synthesis of novel ICIE16/BSG and ICIE16/BSG-NITRI bioglasses and description of ionic release kinetics upon immersion in SBF fluid: Effect of nitridation.

    PubMed

    Orgaz, Felipe; Amat, Daniel; Szycht, Olga; Dzika, Aleksandra; Barba, Flora; Becerra, José; Santos-Ruiz, Leonor

    2016-03-01

    A novel bioactive glass scaffold ICIE16/BSG has been prepared from a mixture of two different melt-derived glasses: a silicate bioglass (ICIE16) and a borosilicate bioglass (BSG). Combined processing techniques (gel casting and foam replication) were used to form three-dimensional, interconnected porous monolith scaffolds (Orgaz et al., 2016) [1]. They were then nitrided with a hot ammonia flow as described in (Aleixandre et al., 1973) [3] and (Nieto, 1984) [4] to synthesize the ICIE16/BSG-NITRI bioglass (Orgaz et al., 2016) [1]. Herein we present a flow chart summarizing the forming process, plus images of the resulting scaffold after sintering and drying. Bioactivity was characterized in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for up to seven days. Data of ionic release kinetics upon SBF immersion are presented.

  1. Technological methods in research for icy meteorites on cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, F.

    2008-09-01

    Amongst the less known cosmic origin matters, which are showering our planet Earth are these of icy meteorites, which due to their height temperature on impact largely and completely melt in any zonal temperatures, exception being the two polar zones hence their findings and gathering is only possible these in Antarctica these cosmic sending in bedded in the frozen ice rivers, glaciers are however there and detectable. It is imperative to use an up to date technology for the detection, finding and investigation of these objects as being found preserved in their state of arrivals and embedded in the glaciers. The radioactive isotope content of these so called dirty ice balls and their possible content of organic chemicals could in some way enrich and modify of our concept from the formation of environment of our planet Earth. The same technology could also be used for the mapping of crevices of the two polar regions of the Moon. Our observations obtained from the Hungaria One and Two small planets, shows that there surface beehive as if they were two hinge sizes of ice meteorites.

  2. Methane and Nitrogen Abundances on the Icy Dwarf Planet Makemake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Grundy, William M.; Dillingham, Randy; Fish, Derek; Hendler, Nathan; Sufflebeam, Terry

    2014-11-01

    We present an optical spectrum of the icy dwarf planet Makemake from the MMT 6.5 meter telescope and Red Channel Spectrograph (6250 - 9800 angstroms; 3.5 angstroms per pixel; exposure time 7h 30m) on Mt. Hopkins, AZ. In addition, we present laboratory transmission spectra over similar wavelengths of methane-nitrogen ice mixtures from the Astrophysical Ice Laboratory in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Northern Arizona University. By anchoring our analysis with the methane-nitrogen phase diagram of Prokhvatilov and Yantsevich (1983, Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys., 9, 94), and comparing methane bands in our Makemake spectrum and methane bands in our laboratory spectra, we are able to make the first quantitative estimate of Makemake's methane and nitrogen abundances. We compare Makemake’s abundances with our previously derived abundances for Triton, Pluto, and Eris (see Tegler et al., 2012, ApJ, 751, 76). We gratefully acknowledge support from the NASA Solar Systems Observations and Solar System Workings programs. We thank Steward Observatory for the consistent allocation of telescope time.

  3. Plume Collection Strategies for Icy World Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neveu, M.; Glavin, D. P.; Tsou, P.; Anbar, A. D.; Williams, P.

    2015-01-01

    Three icy worlds in the solar system display evidence of pluming activity. Water vapor and ice particles emanate from cracks near the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus. The plume gas contains simple hydrocarbons that could be fragments of larger, more complex organics. More recently, observations using the Hubble and Herschel space telescopes have hinted at transient water vapor plumes at Jupiter's moon Europa and the dwarf planet Ceres. Plume materials may be ejected directly from possible sub-surface oceans, at least on Enceladus. In such oceans, liquid water, organics, and energy may co-exist, making these environments habitable. The venting of habitable ocean material into space provides a unique opportunity to capture this material during a relatively simple flyby mission and return it to Earth. Plume collection strategies should enable investigations of evidence for life in the returned samples via laboratory analyses of the structure, distribution, isotopic composition, and chirality of the chemical components (including biomolecules) of plume materials. Here, we discuss approaches for the collection of dust and volatiles during flybys through Enceladus' plume, based on Cassini results and lessons learned from the Stardust comet sample return mission. We also highlight areas where sample collector and containment technology development and testing may be needed for future plume sample return missions.

  4. A Power Conversion Concept for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission is currently under study by the Office of Space Science under the Project Prometheus Program. JIMO is examining the use of Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) to carry scientific payloads to three Jovian moons. A potential power system concept includes dual 100 kWe Brayton converters, a deployable pumped loop heat rejection subsystem, and a 400 Vac Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) bus. Many trades were performed in aniving at this candidate power system concept. System-level studies examined design and off-design operating modes, determined startup requirements, evaluated subsystem redundancy options, and quantified the mass and radiator area of reactor power systems from 20 to 200 kWe. In the Brayton converter subsystem, studies were performed to investigate converter packaging options, and assess the induced torque effects on spacecraft dynamics due to rotating machinery. In the heat rejection subsystem, design trades were conducted on heat transport approaches, material and fluid options, and deployed radiator geometries. In the PMAD subsystem, the overall electrical architecture was defined and trade studies examined distribution approaches, voltage levels, and cabling options.

  5. 10 years of mapping the icy saturnian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Thomas; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Porco, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini spacecraft started its tour through the Saturnian system in July 2004. The Imaging Science Subsystem onboard the orbiter con-sists of a high-resolution Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with a focal length of 2000 mm and a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with a focal length of 200 mm [1]. One of the main objectives of the Cassini mission is to investigate the icy Saturnian satellites. These satellites were imaged in many flybys during the no-minal mission between 2004 and 2008. The imaging campaign continued during the first extended mission (''Equinox mission'') between 2008 and 2010 and continues during the current second extended mission (''Solstice mission''). It is now possible to image also the Northern parts of the Icy satellites which were not illuminated during the nominal mission. Mosaicking: The image data processing chain con-sists of the same steps as described in [2]: radiometric calibration, geometric correction, map projection, and mosaicking. Spacecraft position and camera pointing data are available in the form of SPICE kernels (http://naif.jpl.nasa.gov). While the orbit information is sufficiently accurate to be used directly for mapping purposes, the pointing information must be corrected using limb fits (semi-controlled mosaics) or by photo-grammetric bundle adjustment (controlled mosaics). The coordinate system adopted by the Cassini mis-sion for satellite mapping is the IAU ''planetographic'' system, consisting of planetographic latitude and posi-tive West longitude. The surface position of the prime meridian as defined by the IAU cartography working group [3] is defined by small craters. New values for the rotational parameter W0 which defines the location of the prime meridian at January 1, 2000 were calcula-ted based on the high-resolution mosaics to be consis-tent with this definition [4] and approved by the IAU [3]. Cartographic maps: Three different quadrangle schemes were used for the generation of the maps and the atlases [5]: • A

  6. Digital and analog communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanmugam, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The book presents an introductory treatment of digital and analog communication systems with emphasis on digital systems. Attention is given to the following topics: systems and signal analysis, random signal theory, information and channel capacity, baseband data transmission, analog signal transmission, noise in analog communication systems, digital carrier modulation schemes, error control coding, and the digital transmission of analog signals.

  7. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  8. Electrical analogous in viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ala, Guido; Di Paola, Mario; Francomano, Elisa; Li, Yan; Pinnola, Francesco P.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, electrical analogous models of fractional hereditary materials are introduced. Based on recent works by the authors, mechanical models of materials viscoelasticity behavior are firstly approached by using fractional mathematical operators. Viscoelastic models have elastic and viscous components which are obtained by combining springs and dashpots. Various arrangements of these elements can be used, and all of these viscoelastic models can be equivalently modeled as electrical circuits, where the spring and dashpot are analogous to the capacitance and resistance, respectively. The proposed models are validated by using modal analysis. Moreover, a comparison with numerical experiments based on finite difference time domain method shows that, for long time simulations, the correct time behavior can be obtained only with modal analysis. The use of electrical analogous in viscoelasticity can better reveal the real behavior of fractional hereditary materials.

  9. Enantiomeric excesses induced in amino acids by ultraviolet circularly polarized light irradiation of extraterrestrial ice analogs: A possible source of asymmetry for prebiotic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Modica, Paola; De Marcellus, Pierre; D'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meinert, Cornelia; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Nahon, Laurent E-mail: ldh@ias.u-psud.fr

    2014-06-10

    The discovery of meteoritic amino acids with enantiomeric excesses of the L-form (ee {sub L}) has suggested that extraterrestrial organic materials may have contributed to prebiotic chemistry and directed the initial occurrence of the ee {sub L} that further led to homochirality of amino acids on Earth. A proposed mechanism for the origin of ee {sub L} in meteorites involves an asymmetric photochemistry of extraterrestrial ices by UV circularly polarized light (CPL). We have performed the asymmetric synthesis of amino acids on achiral extraterrestrial ice analogs by VUV CPL, investigating the chiral asymmetry transfer at two different evolutionary stages at which the analogs were irradiated (regular ices and/or organic residues) and at two different photon energies (6.6 and 10.2 eV). We identify 16 distinct amino acids and precisely measure the L-enantiomeric excesses using the enantioselective GC × GC-TOFMS technique in five of them: α-alanine, 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, 2-aminobutyric acid, valine, and norvaline, with values ranging from ee {sub L} = –0.20% ± 0.14% to ee {sub L} = –2.54% ± 0.28%. The sign of the induced ee {sub L} depends on the helicity and the energy of CPL, but not on the evolutionary stage of the samples, and is the same for all five considered amino acids. Our results support an astrophysical scenario in which the solar system was formed in a high-mass star-forming region where icy grains were irradiated during the protoplanetary phase by an external source of CPL of a given helicity and a dominant energy, inducing a stereo-specific photochemistry.

  10. Search for Evidence of Life in Icy Bodies - Enceladus Sample Return Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanik, Isik

    2016-07-01

    Beyond Earth, are there modern habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with necessary conditions, organic matter, water, energy, and nutrients to sustain life, and do organisms live there now? Water dominates the composition of Icy Worlds. Since life follows water on Earth, life might exist in Icy Worlds. Enceladus, as an icy world, appears to satisfy the necessary conditions for life, based on detailed examination by the Cassini spacecraft. Careful chemical characterization of plume materials is the most direct way to determine if this habitable environment is inhabited, and, if not, why not. This characterization requires laboratory analysis of returned samples. Finding and confirming new found life require comprehensive sample analyses collected from icy bodies such as Enceladus. In this presentation, we argue that sample return is necessary because the search for biomarkers is too complex and too "path dependent" to be conducted in situ. The habitability of Icy worlds such as Enceladus and Europa the accessibility of samples in the plume make this types of missions a high priority for astrobiology. Our mission concept, called "LIFE", will follow up on recent discoveries by conducting a more detailed in situ investigation of the organics in the plume and by returning samples to Earth for a search for biomarkers as evidence of life - or perhaps only prebiotic evolution. Sample return missions from icy world can be very costly; however, given the existence of a plume (as for Enceladus), the cost of returning samples can be substantially reduced by a flyby sample return.

  11. ICIS and Aurora B coregulate the microtubule depolymerase Kif2a.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Anne L; Vorozhko, Valeriya V; Lan, Weijie; Gorbsky, Gary J; Stukenberg, P Todd

    2009-05-12

    Kinesins in the mitotic spindle play major roles in determining spindle shape, size, and bipolarity, although specific regulation of these kinesins at distinct locations on the spindle is poorly understood. So that the forces that are required for spindle bipolarity are balanced, microtubule-depolymerizing kinesins are tightly regulated. Aurora B kinase phosphorylates the neck regions of the kinesin-13 family microtubule depolymerases Kif2a and mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) and inhibits their depolymerase activities. How they are reactivated and how this is controlled independently on different kinetochore fibers is unknown. We show that inner centromere Kin-I stimulator (ICIS), which stimulates the related depolymerase MCAK, can reactivate Kif2a after Aurora B inhibition. When antibodies that block the ability of ICIS to activate Kif2a are injected into cells, monopolar spindles are generated. This phenotype is rescued by coinjection of anti-Nuf2 antibodies. We have performed a structure-function analysis of the ICIS protein and find that the N terminus of ICIS binds Aurora B and its regulators INCENP and TD60, whereas a central region binds MCAK, Kif2a, and microtubules, suggesting a scaffold function for ICIS. These data argue that ICIS and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) regulate Kif2a depolymerase activity.

  12. Analog Optical Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Charles H., III

    2004-05-01

    Unlike books that focus on the devices used in links, such as lasers and photodiodes, among others, this text focuses on the next level. It covers the collection of devices that form a link, how the individual device performance affects the link performance, or the reverse. Analog links are used for the distribution of cable TV signals, and in conveying the signals to and from antennas (so called antenna remoting). The design of analog links differs significantly from digital links which are primarily used in telecommunications.

  13. Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Frozen Chloride Salts on Icy Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paul; Thomas, Elena C.; Hodyss, Robert; Vu, Tuan; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Currently, our understanding of the chemical composition of Europa's surface is our best means of inferring constraints on the subsurface ocean composition and its subsequent habitability. The bulk of our knowledge of Europa surface chemistry can be traced to near infrared spectra recorded by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo spacecraft. However, the usefulness of this and other remote sensing data is limited by the availability of spectral libraries of candidate materials under relevant conditions (temperature, thermal/radiation history, etc.). Chloride salts are expected to exist on the surface of Europa, and other icy bodies, based on geochemical predictions of the ocean composition. In order to help improve our understanding of Europa's surface composition, we have conducted a study of frozen chloride-salt brines prepared under simulated Europa surface conditions (vacuum, temperature, and UV irradiation) using both near IR and Raman spectroscopies. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the hydration states of various chloride salts as a function of temperature. Near IR spectroscopy of identically prepared samples was used to provide reference reflectance spectra of the identified hydrated salts. Our results indicate that at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 233 K, hydrohalite is formed from the freezing of NaCl brines, while the freezing of KCl solutions does not form KCl hydrates. In addition, the freezing of MgCl2 solutions forms a stable hexahydrate, and the freezing of CaCl2 solutions forms a hexahydrate, a tetrahydrate, and a dihydrate. Dehydration of the salts was observed as temperatures were increased, leading to a succession of hydration states in the case of CaCl2.

  14. New Approach to Icy Satellite Tidal Response Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    2009-09-01

    Based on the experimental determination of ice anelasticity over a wide frequency range, as well as previous studies of ice primary creep, Castillo-Rogez et al. (2009) inferred that, in most situations, the response of planetary ices to tidal stress is anelastic. As a result, tidal models assuming a viscoelastic, Maxwellian response can lead to erroneous estimates of tidal dissipation by several orders of magnitude. Numerous measurements show that the transient response of rock and ice during primary creep can be fitted with the Andrade model. Measurements of the response of ice to cyclic stress also demonstrate that the Andrade model can accurately match the ice attenuation behavior observed for a wide range of frequencies encompassing satellites tides. Input to the Andrade model can be inferred from the frequency-dependence of the attenuation observed in the transient regime. It also requires a good understanding of the nature and properties of the microstructural features involved in the internal friction. Fortunately, numerous laboratory measurements have been reported in the literature for a variety of deformation regimes. Thus it is possible to make an educated guess about the ice attenuation behavior expected as a function of context. I will introduce a preliminary version of a new dissipation model applicable to icy satellites and present the measurement roadmap undertaken in the JPL Planetary Tides Simulation Facility to establish empirical forms of the Andrade model as a function of temperature, stress, composition, microstructure and its evolution with time, over a frequency range that encompasses the anelastic and viscoelastic regimes of a variety of ices. Acknowledgement: This work has been conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech under a contract with NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged. JPL Research and Technology Development program acknowledged.

  15. Arterial Pressure Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heusner, A. A.; Tracy, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a simple hydraulic analog which allows students to explore some physical aspects of the cardiovascular system and provides them with a means to visualize and conceptualize these basic principles. Simulates the behavior of arterial pressure in response to changes in heart rate, stroke volume, arterial compliance, and peripheral…

  16. Reasoning through Instructional Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapon, Shulamit; diSessa, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to account for students' assessments of the plausibility and applicability of analogical explanations, and individual differences in these assessments, by analyzing properties of students' underlying knowledge systems. We developed a model of explanation and change in explanation focusing on knowledge elements that provide a…

  17. An Interesting Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Jose M.; Fernandez, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this note is to give some insight into the formal unity of a very applicable area of mathematics by showing an interesting analogy between the weak part of the Rouche-Frobenius theorem and the existence result for the initial value problem for the general first-order linear two-dimensional PDE.

  18. Analogy, explanation, and proof.

    PubMed

    Hummel, John E; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence.

  19. Quantum Analog Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1998-01-01

    Quantum analog computing is based upon similarity between mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics and phenomena to be computed. It exploits a dynamical convergence of several competing phenomena to an attractor which can represent an externum of a function, an image, a solution to a system of ODE, or a stochastic process.

  20. Are Scientific Analogies Metaphors?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    psychospiritual processes. A more modern example of unclarified analogy is Freud’s (1973; reprinted from 1955) discussion of anal- eroticism , in which...299-304. Freud, S. On transformations of instinct as exemplified in anal eroticism . In J. Strachey (Ed.), The standard 37 edition of the complete

  1. Analogy, explanation, and proof

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, John E.; Licato, John; Bringsjord, Selmer

    2014-01-01

    People are habitual explanation generators. At its most mundane, our propensity to explain allows us to infer that we should not drink milk that smells sour; at the other extreme, it allows us to establish facts (e.g., theorems in mathematical logic) whose truth was not even known prior to the existence of the explanation (proof). What do the cognitive operations underlying the inference that the milk is sour have in common with the proof that, say, the square root of two is irrational? Our ability to generate explanations bears striking similarities to our ability to make analogies. Both reflect a capacity to generate inferences and generalizations that go beyond the featural similarities between a novel problem and familiar problems in terms of which the novel problem may be understood. However, a notable difference between analogy-making and explanation-generation is that the former is a process in which a single source situation is used to reason about a single target, whereas the latter often requires the reasoner to integrate multiple sources of knowledge. This seemingly small difference poses a challenge to the task of marshaling our understanding of analogical reasoning to understanding explanation. We describe a model of explanation, derived from a model of analogy, adapted to permit systematic violations of this one-to-one mapping constraint. Simulation results demonstrate that the resulting model can generate explanations for novel explananda and that, like the explanations generated by human reasoners, these explanations vary in their coherence. PMID:25414655

  2. Interpretation of surface properties of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using bidirectional reflectance studies of laboratory cometary analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, Bernhard; Pommerol, Antoine; Poch, Olivier; Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro Henrique; Feller, Clément; Carrasco, Nathalie; Szopa, Cyril; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-10-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission has been orbiting the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) for more than 2 years. An enormous quantity of surface data at variable spatial resolution and over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum has been acquired by a series of complementary instruments during this period. The long accompany time allowed characterization and comparison of spectrophotometric properties in the pre- and post-perihelion phase.A profound knowledge of laboratory analogues of cometary surfaces is essential for interpreting remote sensing data. The LOSSy laboratory (Laboratory for Outflow Studies of Sublimating Materials) at the University of Bern was set up to study the spectrophotometric properties of ice-bearing cometary nucleus analogs. The laboratory is equipped with two instruments: the PHIRE-2 radio-goniometer [2], designed to measure the bidirectional visible reflectance of samples under a wide range of geometries and the SCITEAS simulation chamber [3], designed to study the evolution of icy samples subliming under low pressure/temperature conditions by hyperspectral imaging in the VIS-NIR range.We present reflectance data of various well characterized and reproducible mixtures of fine grained ice particles, tholins, and carbonaceous compounds that we systematically compare to the phase curves, albedo, spectrum and phase reddening observed by Rosetta at 67P [4].Our results allow us setting a lower limit of a few micrometers on the dust particle size and demonstrate that meter-sized bright patches have to be relatively dust free at small scale. Further we show that the most porous samples (p≈80%) best match the phase curve of 67P.[1] Keller, H. U., et al., 2007, Space Sci. Rev. 128, 26[2] Jost, B., et al., 2016. Icarus 264, 109-131.[3] Pommerol, A., et al., 2015. Planet Space Sci 109, 106-122.[4] Fornasier, S., et al., 2015. A&A 583, A30.

  3. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  4. Between ice and gas: CO2 on the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbitts, C.

    2010-12-01

    CO2 exists in the surfaces of the icy Galilean and Saturnian satellites [1-6], yet despite its discovery over a decade ago on Ganymede, and five years ago on the Saturnian satellites, its nature is still debated [7]. On the Galilean satellites Callisto and Ganymede, the CO2 that is detected is bound to, or trapped within, the non-ice materials that prevent it from sublimating or otherwise escaping from the surface. On Europa, it resides within both the ice and nonice materials [8,9]. While greater abundances of CO2 may exist in the interiors of these moons, or small amounts may be continually created through particle bombardment of the surface, the observed CO2 is only a trace material, with a few hundred molecules responsible for the deepest absorption features and an estimated molar abundance of 0.1% [2; 10-12]. Yet its presence may provide essential clues to processes that shape the surfaces of the moon [13] and potentially key to understanding the composition of potential oceans in the subsurfaces. We continue measurements of the infrared properties associated with CO2 adsorbed onto nonice materials under pressures and at temperatures relevant to these icy satellites using bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy from ~ 1.5 to 5.5 μm. Previous measurements, using transmission spectroscopy, demonstrated both a compositional and a temperature dependence on the spectral signature of adsorbed CO2 [14]. Bidirectional spectroscopy enables detection of lower concentrations of adsorbate on fine-grained materials such as clays due to their large surface area to volume ratios and thus large surface areas that may be covered by adsorbate [15]. The effectiveness of transmission spectroscopy was also limited by the strong absorption of light within the pressed sample and its impermeability, which limited the coverage by adsorbate to the pellet’s outer surface. All measurements demonstrate that CO2 adsorbs onto montmorillonite clays, possibly due to its quadrupole moment

  5. Time-dependent evaporation of icy mantles in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viti, Serena; Williams, David A.

    1999-05-01

    Hot cores are rich in saturated molecules that are believed to arise from the evaporation of molecular ices on dust grains. It is usually assumed that the ices are evaporated instantaneously when a nearby star is switched on. We have developed a new model in which the grain temperature rises over a time-scale determined by the switch-on time of the star. This time-scale is likely to be comparable to the lifetime of the hot cores. In consequence, evaporation of different species occurs at different epochs, leading to chemical differentiation in time and space within the hot core. By computing qualitative models of hot cores, we show that observations of hot cores may be able to constrain the rise time of hot stars to the main sequence.

  6. A numerical study on collisions of icy bodies using SPH method combined with GRAPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, M.; Genda, H.; Ida, S.

    2009-12-01

    We have worked on the collisions of icy bodies using Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics (SPH) method combined with Gravity PipE (GRAPE) in order to understand the basic behavior of icy bodies during impacts. Collisions of Mars-size rocky bodies have been investigated well, because those collisions are related to the origin of the moon and the formation of the terrestrial planets. On the other hand, collisions of icy bodies have not been studied yet, although these collisions would frequently occur in the solar and extra-solar systems, such as the formation of icy exoplanets. Through our research, we figure out the effect of ice during impact in detail. Our SPH code has two special features. First, GRAvity PipE computer (GRAPE) is used, which calculates the gravitational force of each particle up to 100 times faster than usual computers. Second, SESAME equation of state database is used to build a realistic model, taking into account the effect of phase change. In this research, we focused on differences and similarities between collisions of icy bodies and those of rocky ones, such as a merging criterion. Agnor & Asphaug (2004) have shown that a collision of rocky Mars-size protoplanets leads to an inelastic collision when its relative velocities are smaller than 1.4-1.5v, 1.1-1.2v, 1.1-1.2v when its impact angles are 30, 45, and 60 degrees, respectively. Here, v means escape velocity. The same calculations for icy bodies are performed in our numerical code. They have shown that the merging criterion of icy bodies is the same as that of rocky bodies. In addition to the merging criterion, we also clarify the relationship between impact parameters and the change of solid, liquid/vapor mass ratio due to impacts.

  7. Analogy Construction versus Analogy Solution, and Their Influence on Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpaz-Itay, Yifat; Kaniel, Shlomo; Ben-Amram, Einat

    2006-01-01

    This study compares transfer performed by subjects trained to solve verbal analogies, with transfer by subjects trained to construct them. The first group (n = 57) received instruction in a strategy to solve verbal analogies and the second group (n = 66) was trained in strategies for constructing such analogies. Before and after intervention, all…

  8. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  9. Lunar magnetism, space weathering, and icy satellite interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, Douglas

    An enduring mystery since Apollo is that, in spite of the Moon's lack of a global magnetic field, the surface is nevertheless dotted with regional magnetic fields strong enough to be detected from orbit. Did the Moon once have an intrinsic global field that magnetized parts of the crust but has since decayed away? This is a question of fundamental importance to understanding the formation and evolution of solid planetary bodies, and yet it remains unanswered due in part to limitations in our knowledge of these crustal magnetic anomalies. Adding to the puzzle, many of these magnetic anomalies are accompanied by enigmatic optical features, known as swirls, which may hold the key to understanding "space weathering"---a process by which airless bodies change color over time due to exposure to solar wind and micrometeoroids. Here we show both that swirl morphology provides information about the structure of the underlying magnetic sources, and that the color of the lunar surface varies systematically with latitude in a way that allows us to distinguish between the effects of solar wind ion and micrometeoroid bombardment, addressing a decades-old problem in remote sensing, and aiding in the interpretation of the spectra of airless bodies throughout the solar system. The remarkable diversity of the outer solar system's satellites provides important clues about the formation and evolution of the solar system. Many of the satellites have surprisingly young surfaces, owing in some cases to on-going geologic activity. Moreover, the existence of subsurface oceans within some of the satellites raises the intriguing possibility of extant habitable environments in the outer solar system. Determining the properties of their ice shells and the structures of their deep interiors places fundamental constraints on how the icy satellites formed and evolved, and on what governs their behavior today. Using gravity and topography data from Cassini, we develop analytical models showing

  10. The Origins and Evolution of Molecules in Icy Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomical observations of the past few decades have revealed the existence of a variety of molecules in extraterrestrial ices. These molecules include H2O, CO, and CO2, and organics such as CH4, CH30H, and C2H6. Some ices are dominated by polar molecules, while non-polar species appear to dominate others. Observations, mainly in the radio and IR regions, have allowed the inference of other solid-phase molecules whose formation remains difficult to explain by gas-phase chemistry alone. Several laboratory research groups have reported on extensive experiments on the solid-phase reaction chemistry of icy materials, generally as initiated by either ionizing radiation or vacuum-UV photons. These experiments not only permit molecular identifications to be made from astronomical observations, but also allow predictions of yet unidentified molecules. This laboratory approach has evolved over more than 30 years with much of the earliest work focusing on complex mixtures thought to represent either cometary or interstellar ices. Although those early experiments documented a rich solid-state photo- and radiation chemistry, they revealed few details of reactions for particular molecules, partly due to the multi-component nature of the samples. Since then, model systems have been examined that allow the chemistry of individual species and specific reactions to be probed. Reactions involving most of the smaller astronomical molecules have now been studied and specific processes identified. Current laboratory work suggests that a variety of reactions occur in extraterrestrial ices, including acid-base processes, radical dimerizations, proton transfers, oxidations, reductions, and isomerizations. This workshop presentation will focus on chemical reactions relevant to solar system and interstellar ices. While most of the work will be drawn from that to which the speaker has contributed, results from other laboratories also will be included. Suggestions for future studies will be

  11. Iceless Icy Moons: Is the Nice Model In Trouble?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dones, Henry C. Luke; Levison, H. F.

    2012-05-01

    Nimmo and Korycansky (2012; henceforth NK12) stated that if the outer Solar System underwent a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) in the Nice model, the mass striking the icy satellites at speeds up to tens of km/s would have vaporized so much ice that moons such as Mimas, Enceladus, and Miranda would have been devolatilized. NK12's possible explanations of this apparent discrepancy with observations include (1) the mass influx was a factor of 10 less than that in the Nice model; (2) the mass distribution of the impactors was top-heavy, so that luck might have saved some of the moons from suffering large, vapor-removing impacts; or (3) the inner moons formed after the LHB. NK12 calculated the mass influx onto the satellites from the lunar impact rate estimated by Gomes et al. (2005) and scaling factors calculated by Zahnle et al. (1998, 2003; also see Barr and Canup 2010). Production of vapor in hypervelocity impacts is calculated from Kraus et al. (2011). Our preliminary results show that there is about an order-of-magnitude uncertainty in the mass striking the satellites during the LHB, with NK12's estimate at the upper end of the range. We will discuss how the mass influx depends on the velocity and mass distributions of the impactors. The Nice model lives. We thank the NASA Lunar Science Institute (http://lunarscience.nasa.gov/) for support. Barr, A.C., Canup, R.M., Nature Geoscience 3, 164-167 (2010). Gomes, R., Levison, H.F., Tsiganis, K., Morbidelli, A., Nature 435, 466-469 (2005). Kraus, R.G., Senft, L.E., Stewart, S.T., Icarus 214, 724-738 (2011). Nimmo, F., Korycansky, D.G., Icarus, in press, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103512000310 (2012). Zahnle, K., Dones, L., Levison, H.F., Icarus 136, 202-222 (1998). Zahnle, K., Schenk, P., Levison, H.F., Dones, L., Icarus 163, 263-289 (2003).

  12. Studying the Surfaces of the Icy Galilean Satellites With JIMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L.; Schenk, P.; Pappalardo, R.

    2003-12-01

    The Geology subgroup of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Science Definition Team (SDT) has been working with colleagues within the planetary science community to determine the key outstanding science goals that could be met by the JIMO mission. Geological studies of the Galilean satellites will benefit from the spacecraft's long orbital periods around each satellite, lasting from one to several months. This mission plan allows us to select the optimal viewing conditions to complete global compositional and morphologic mapping at high resolution, and to target geologic features of key scientific interest at very high resolution. Community input to this planning process suggests two major science objectives, along with corresponding measurements proposed to meet them. Objective 1: Determine the origins of surface features and their implications for geological history and evolution. This encompasses investigations of magmatism (intrusion, extrusion, and diapirism), tectonism (isostatic compensation, and styles of faulting, flexure and folding), impact cratering (morphology and distribution), and gradation (erosion and deposition) processes (impact gardening, sputtering, mass wasting and frosts). Suggested measurements to meet this goal include (1) two dimensional global topographic mapping sufficient to discriminate features at a spatial scale of 10 m, and with better than or equal to 1 m relative vertical accuracy, (2) nested images of selected target areas at a range of resolutions down to the submeter pixel scale, (3) global (albedo) mapping at better than or equal to 10 m/pixel, and (4) multispectral global mapping in at least 3 colors at better than or equal to 100 m/pixel, with some subsets at better than 30 m/pixel. Objective 2. Identify and characterize potential landing sites for future missions. A primary component to the success of future landed missions is full characterization of potential sites in terms of their relative age, geological interest, and

  13. Cryovolcanic Conduit Evolution and Eruption on Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    In silicate volcanism, such as on Earth or Io, eruptions typically result from fracture formation caused by interaction of tectonic stresses with inflating, pressurized magma sources, leading to transport of melt through an evolving conduit. On icy satellites the paradigm may be similar, resulting from some combination of tidal stresses and expansion of freezing water within, or near the base of, an ice shell. Such a fracture will result in eruption if mass continuity can be established, with buoyancy aided by exsolution and expansion of dissolved volatiles. After onset, conduit shape evolves due to: (1) shear-stresses or frictional erosional; (2) wallrock "bursting" due to massive wall stresses; (3) wall melting or condensation of particles due to heat transfer; or (4) changes in applied stresses. Preliminary thermodynamic and fluid mechanical analysis suggests some initial cooling during ascent resulting from exsolution and expansion of volatiles, thermally buffered by freezing, Conduit contraction may occur, and so evolution towards a deep, gas-filled plume chamber is difficult to accommodate without evoking a co-incidental process. Conduit flaring occurs near the surface where velocities are greatest, enhancing erosion. Here, viscous dissipative heating exceeds adiabatic cooling, and so some boiling (a few wt%) may occur. In contrast with silicate volcanism, decompression to below the triple point will occur within conduit, vent or jet, resulting in rapid freezing and boiling of the remaining water at a 6.8:1 ratio. Subsequent isentropic or adiabatic expansion within erupting jets may result in a few percent net of condensation or sublimation. These effects combined lead to ~4:1-7:1 solid:vapor ratios in the jet for most eruption conditions. These figures are consistent with the ~6:1 inferred in Enceladus' jets, supporting the hypothesis that the Enceladus plume draws from a subsurface body of liquids through a conduit. Similar results are anticipated if

  14. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments.

    PubMed

    Lindensmith, Christian A; Rider, Stephanie; Bedrossian, Manuel; Wallace, J Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Showalter, G Max; Deming, Jody W; Nadeau, Jay L

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology's near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM) that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages.

  15. A Submersible, Off-Axis Holographic Microscope for Detection of Microbial Motility and Morphology in Aqueous and Icy Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lindensmith, Christian A.; Rider, Stephanie; Bedrossian, Manuel; Wallace, J. Kent; Serabyn, Eugene; Showalter, G. Max; Deming, Jody W.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Sea ice is an analog environment for several of astrobiology’s near-term targets: Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and perhaps other Jovian or Saturnian moons. Microorganisms, both eukaryotic and prokaryotic, remain active within brine channels inside the ice, making it unnecessary to penetrate through to liquid water below in order to detect life. We have developed a submersible digital holographic microscope (DHM) that is capable of resolving individual bacterial cells, and demonstrated its utility for immediately imaging samples taken directly from sea ice at several locations near Nuuk, Greenland. In all samples, the appearance and motility of eukaryotes were conclusive signs of life. The appearance of prokaryotic cells alone was not sufficient to confirm life, but when prokaryotic motility occurred, it was rapid and conclusive. Warming the samples to above-freezing temperatures or supplementing with serine increased the number of motile cells and the speed of motility; supplementing with serine also stimulated chemotaxis. These results show that DHM is a useful technique for detection of active organisms in extreme environments, and that motility may be used as a biosignature in the liquid brines that persist in ice. These findings have important implications for the design of missions to icy environments and suggest ways in which DHM imaging may be integrated with chemical life-detection suites in order to create more conclusive life detection packages. PMID:26812683

  16. Properties of filamentary sublimation residues from dispersions of clay in ice. [on Martian poles, comet nuclei, and icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. S.; Parker, T. J.; Stephens, J. B.; Fanale, F. P.; Sutton, S.

    1986-01-01

    Results are reported from experimental studies of the formation of ice mixed with mineral particles in an effort to simulate similar processes on natural surfaces such as at the Martian poles, on comet nuclei and on icy satellites. The study consisted of low-pressure, low-temperature sublimations of water ice from dilutions of water-clay (montmorillonite and Cabosil) dispersions of various component ratios. Liquid dispersions were sprayed into liquid nitrogen to form droplets at about -50 C. Both clay-water dispersions left a filamentary residue on the bottom of the Dewar after the water ice had sublimated off. The residue was studied with optical and SEM microscopy, the latter method revealing a high electrical conductivity in the residue. The results suggest that the sublimation of the water ice can leave a surface crust, which may be analogous to processes at the Martian poles and on comet nuclei. The process could proceed by the attachment of water molecules to salt crystals during the hottest part of the Martian year. The residue remaining was found to remain stable up to 370 C, be porous, and remain resilient, which could allow it to insulate ice bodies such as comets in space.

  17. VIIP Bedrest Analog Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villarreal, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to define successive bed rest campaigns leading to a potential VIIP (Vision Impairment and Intracranial Pressure) countermeasure. To determine if the analog is successful, changes need to occur in the following outcome measures (dependent variables): Intracranial pressure; Retinal nerve fiber layer; Choroidal engorgement; Globe flattening; Axial biometry; Optic nerve sheath diameter distention; Cycloplegic refraction; Visual acuity. Study parameters (independent variables) to include: CO2; Sodium; Exercise (resistive & aerobic); Strict tilt angle.

  18. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J. T.; Larsen, R. S.; Shapiro, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks.

  19. Analog storage integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Walker, J.T.; Larsen, R.S.; Shapiro, S.L.

    1989-03-07

    A high speed data storage array is defined utilizing a unique cell design for high speed sampling of a rapidly changing signal. Each cell of the array includes two input gates between the signal input and a storage capacitor. The gates are controlled by a high speed row clock and low speed column clock so that the instantaneous analog value of the signal is only sampled and stored by each cell on coincidence of the two clocks. 6 figs.

  20. Salt partitioning between water and high-pressure ices. Implication for the dynamics and habitability of icy moons and water-rich planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Journaux, Baptiste; Daniel, Isabelle; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Cardon, Hervé; Perrillat, Jean-Philippe; Caracas, Razvan; Mezouar, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Water-rich planetary bodies including large icy moons and ocean exoplanets may host a deep liquid water ocean underlying a high-pressure icy mantle. The latter is often considered as a limitation to the habitability of the uppermost ocean because it would limit the availability of nutrients resulting from the hydrothermal alteration of the silicate mantle located beneath the deep ice layer. To assess the effects of salts on the physical properties of high-pressure ices and therefore the possible chemical exchanges and habitability inside H2O-rich planetary bodies, we measured partitioning coefficients and densities in the H2O-RbI system up to 450 K and 4 GPa; RbI standing as an experimentally amenable analog of NaCl in the H2O-salt solutions. We measured the partitioning coefficient of RbI between the aqueous fluid and ices VI and VII, using in-situ Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). With in-situ X-ray diffraction, we measured the unit-cell parameters and the densities of the high-pressure ice phases in equilibrium with the aqueous fluid, at pressures and temperatures relevant to the interior of planetary bodies. We conclude that RbI is strongly incompatible towards ice VI with a partitioning coefficient Kd(VI-L) = 5.0 (± 2.1) ṡ10-3 and moderately incompatible towards ice VII, Kd(VII-L) = 0.12 (± 0.05). RbI significantly increases the unit-cell volume of ice VI and VII by ca. 1%. This implies that RbI-poor ice VI is buoyant compared to H2O ice VI while RbI-enriched ice VII is denser than H2O ice VII. These new experimental results might profoundly impact the internal dynamics of water-rich planetary bodies. For instance, an icy mantle at moderate conditions of pressure and temperature will consist of buoyant ice VI with low concentration of salt, and would likely induce an upwelling current of solutes towards the above liquid ocean. In contrast, a deep and/or thick icy mantle of ice VII will be enriched in salt and hence would form a stable chemical boundary

  1. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, D. M.; Torres, G.; Henze, C.; Teachey, A.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E.; Marcy, G. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Chen, J.; Bryson, S. T.; Sandford, E.

    2016-04-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of (0.91+/- 0.02) {R}{{J}}, a low orbital eccentricity ({0.06}-0.04+0.10), and an equilibrium temperature of (131+/- 3) K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric coverage, we are able to uniquely and precisely measure the orbital period of this post snow-line planet (1071.2323 ± 0.0006d), paving the way for follow-up of this K = 11.8 mag target.

  2. Modelling Ocean Dissipation in Icy Satellites: A Comparison of Linear and Quadratic Friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, H.; Matsuyama, I.

    2015-12-01

    Although subsurface oceans are confirmed in Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, and strongly suspected in Enceladus and Titan, the exact mechanism required to heat and maintain these liquid reservoirs over Solar System history remains a mystery. Radiogenic heating can supply enough energy for large satellites whereas tidal dissipation provides the best explanation for the presence of oceans in small icy satellites. The amount of thermal energy actually contributed to the interiors of these icy satellites through oceanic tidal dissipation is largely unquantified. Presented here is a numerical model that builds upon previous work for quantifying tidally dissipated energy in the subsurface oceans of the icy satellites. Recent semi-analytical models (Tyler, 2008 and Matsuyama, 2014) have solved the Laplace Tidal Equations to estimate the time averaged energy flux over an orbital period in icy satellite oceans, neglecting the presence of a solid icy shell. These models are only able to consider linear Rayleigh friction. The numerical model presented here is compared to one of these semi-analytical models, finding excellent agreement between velocity and displacement solutions for all three terms to the tidal potential. Time averaged energy flux is within 2-6% of the analytical values. Quadratic (bottom) friction is then incorporated into the model, replacing linear friction. This approach is commonly applied to terrestrial ocean dissipation studies where dissipation scales nonlinearly with velocity. A suite of simulations are also run for the quadratic friction case which are then compared to and analysed against recent scaling laws developed by Chen and Nimmo (2013).

  3. Surfaces and exospheres of the icy Galilean moons - an integral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, André; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Tulej, Marek; Pommerol, Antoine; Scheer, Jürgen; Thomas, Nicolas; Mousis, Olivier; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Lammer, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) will investigate Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Europa and Callisto flybys will allow for a comparative picture of the icy Galilean moons. As part of the scientific preparation work for JUICE, we examine the requirements and expected science results related to the Neutral gas and Ion Mass spectrometer (NIM), which belongs to the Particle Environment Package on board JUICE. Models of the exosphere profiles at Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto allow us to optimize the design of NIM, but the reliability of the models is limited because the properties of icy surfaces, in particular sputtering and sublimation parameters for icy regolith mixed with carbonates or salts, are not well known. We therefore have started a series of lab experiments with icy regolith subjected to ion and UV irradiation in a cold vacuum. Currently, we perform irradiation experiments of pure water ice with H+ and O+ ions. In the coming years, we will expand the experiments to more complex cases (including UV-radiation, temperature cycles and chemical impurities such as O2, C, S, CO2, SO2, and Na) relevant for Galilean moons. The results will constrain exosphere models and will enable the scientific community to better link exosphere measurements with processes in the ice and observed surface features.

  4. Impact fracture experiments simulating interstellar grain-grain collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Friedemann; Chang, Sherwood; Dickinson, J. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Oxide and silicate grains condensing during the early phases of the formation of the solar system or in the outflow of stars are exposed to high partial pressures of the low-z elements H, C, N and O and their simple gaseous compounds. Though refractory minerals are nominally anhydrous and non-carbonate, if they crystallize in the presence of H2O, N2 and CO or CO2 gases, they dissolve traces of the gaseous components. The question arises: How does the presence of dissolved gases or gas components manifest itself when grain-grain collisions occur. What are the gases emitted when grains are shattered during a collision event. Researchers report on fracture experiments in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV, approximately less than 10 to the -8th power mbar) designed to measure (by means of a quadrupole mass spectrometer, QMS, with microns to ms time resolution) the emission of gases and vapors during and after impact (up to 1.5 sec). Two terrestrial materials were chosen which represent structural and compositional extremes: olivine (San Carlos, AZ), a densely packed Mg-Fe(2+) silicate from the upper mantle, available as 6 to 12 mm single crystals, and obsidian (Oregon), a structurally open, alkaline-SiO2-rich volcanic glass. In the olivine crystals OH- groups have been identified spectroscopically, as well as H2 molecules. Obsidian is a water-rich glass containing OH- besides H2O molecules. Olivine from the mantle often contains CO2, either as CO2-rich fluid in fluid inclusions or structurally dissolved or both. By analogy to synthetic glasses CO2 in the obsidian may be present in form of CO2 molecules in voids of molecular dimensions, or as carbonate anions, CO3(2-). No organic molecules have been detected spectroscopically in either material. Results indicate that refractory oxide/silicates which contain dissolved traces of the H2O and CO/CO2 components but no spectroscopically detectable traces of organics may release complex H-C-O (possibly H-C-N-O) molecules upon fracture

  5. Sodium discovered in Icy E ring Particles - Indicator for an Ocean Below Enceladus' Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Kempf, S.; Briliantov, N.; Schmidt, J.; Buck, U.; Srama, R.

    2008-09-01

    The Cassini dust detector CDA has recorded insitu thousands of mass spectra predominantly of submicron sized grains populating Saturn's E ring. In general the spectra exhibit a variety of different compositions, which can be classified into different dust-families. The compositional analysis of E ring particles is of special interest since the ice-volcanoes of the moon Enceladus are the major source replenishing the faint ring. They provide - otherwise inaccessible - information about dynamic and geochemical processes below the moon's icy surface. Here we report on the discovery of a sodium-rich water ice population in the E ring. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is identified as the major Na bearing compound. This finding has strong geological implications since NaCl is expected to be the major component dissolved if liquid water is interacting with the rocky moon-core (Zolotov, Icarus, 2007). The particles' composition inferred from the Na-rich spectra implies that the reservoir which feeds the plumes is or was in contact with Enceladus' rocky core. Besides the Na-rich E ring population, which amounts to about 5% of the detections, most of the other E ring spectra also exhibit traces of Na. They hint at a sodium content several orders of magnitude lower than the Na-rich ice species. This result implies that two populations, Na-rich and Na-poor, reflect different mechanisms of particle creation below Enceladus' surface. The Na content as well as the Na/K ratio identified in Na-rich ice particles is in very good agreement with the predictions for an Enceladus Ocean (Zolotov, Icarus, 2007). Our calculations show that the water vapour above such a liquid phase is depleted in sodium by a factor of about 10-6. The main E ring population likely is created by condensation of plume vapour within the vent channels of the ice crust (Schmidt et al, Nature, 2008). We suggest that the Na-poor particles condense from water vapour that evaporated from water with an ocean like salt

  6. IMPULSIVE SPOT HEATING AND THERMAL EXPLOSION OF INTERSTELLAR GRAINS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, A. V.; Röcker, T. B.; Vasyunin, A.; Caselli, P.

    2015-05-20

    The problem of the impulsive heating of dust grains in cold, dense interstellar clouds is revisited theoretically with the aim of better understanding the leading mechanisms of the explosive desorption of icy mantles. We rigorously show that if the heating of a reactive medium occurs within a sufficiently localized spot (e.g., the heating of mantles by cosmic rays (CRs)), then the subsequent thermal evolution is characterized by a single dimensionless number λ. This number identifies a bifurcation between two distinct regimes: when λ exceeds a critical value (threshold), the heat equation exhibits the explosive solution, i.e., the thermal (chemical) explosion is triggered. Otherwise, thermal diffusion causes the deposited heat to spread over the entire grain—this regime is commonly known as whole-grain heating. The theory allows us to find a critical combination of physical parameters that govern the explosion of icy mantles due to impulsive spot heating. In particular, our calculations suggest that heavy CR species (e.g., iron ions) colliding with dust are able to trigger the explosion. Based on recently calculated local CR spectra, we estimate the expected rate of explosive desorption. The efficiency of the desorption, which in principle affects all solid species independent of their binding energy, is shown to be comparable to other CR desorption mechanisms typically considered in the literature. Also, the theory allows us to estimate the maximum abundances of reactive species that may be stored in the mantles, which provides important constraints on the available astrochemical models.

  7. Extension of volcanic forcing data back to 100 BC using the Analog method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Sebastian; Zorita, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Present reconstructions of volcanic forcing to be used for climate simulations so far extend back until 500 AD for stratospheric aerosol sulphate injection (Gao et al., 2008), and back until 800 AD for aerosol optical depth and effective radius (Crowley et al. 2012; ICI5 data set). Here, we aim to extent the volcanic data set of Crowley et al. (2012) back to 100 BC. This data sets originally starts in 800 AD, for aerosol optical depth and effective radius. The method we apply is the Analog method, using information in the already existing reconstruction and extending it back in time by using information of long volcanic sulphate contained in Greenland and Antarctic Ice cores published in previous studies. The reconstruction of the volcanic forcing in first millennium is based on the search of analogs in the second millennium. The pool of analogs includes the ICI5 data set for the period 800-2000 AD. The basic philosophy is to find volcanic events with the same or similar magnitude in terms of volcanic sulphate deposition in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores. For the Northern Hemisphere the estimated maximum total stratospheric sulphate loading from Zielinski (1995) is used. For the Southern Hemisphere the Plummer et al. (2012) data set and the Ferris et al. (2011) data set are used in terms of sulphate deposition. To ensure that the volcanic event was large enough in magnitude, a certain threshold is applied to the analog selection. The extension, i.e. the analog search, is carried out separately for the four different latitudinal bands of the ICI5 data set. The method can be applied when better records than the Zielinski et al. (1995), record for the Northern Hemisphere become available. The analogs are selected based on the comparison between the information contained in the ice cores in the pre-800 AD period and post-800 AD period. For each event in the pre-800 AD period (the target), the most similar event (the analog) in the post-800 AD pool in terms of ice

  8. Kidnapping small icy asteroids in Earth near encounter to harbour life and to deflect trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    The inter-planetary flight for human being is under danger because of unscreened and lethal solar flare radioactive showers. The screening of the astronauts by huge superconducting magnetic fields is unrealistic by many reasons. On the contrary the ability to reach nearby icy asteroids, to harbour there a complete undergound room where ecological life systems are first set, this goal may offer a later natural and safe currier for future human stations and enterprise. The need to deflect such a small size (a few thousands tons objects) maybe achieved by micro nuclear engines able to dig the asteroid icy skin, to heat and propel the soil by a synchronous jet engine array, bending and driving it to any desired trajectories. The need for such a wide collection of icy asteroid stations, often in a robotic ibernated state, it will offer the safe help station, raft in the wide space sea, where to collect material or energy in long human planetary travels.

  9. A Passive Probe for Subsurface Oceans and Liquid Water in Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Vance, Steve; Maiwald, Frank; Ries, Paul; Liewer, Kurt

    2014-11-01

    We present a method for passive detection of subsurface oceans and liquid water in Jovian icy moons using Jupiter's decametric radio emission (DAM). The DAM flux density exceeds 3,000 times the galactic background in the neighborhood of the Jovian icy moons, providing a signal that could be used for passive radio sounding. An instrument located between the icy moon and Jupiter could sample the DAM emission along with its echoes reflected in the ice layer of the target moon. Cross-correlating the direct emission with the echoes would provide a measurement of the subsurface ocean depth along with the dielectric properties of the ice shell. The technique is complementary to ice penetrating radar measurements in that it works best where interference due to Jupiter's strong decametric emission is the strongest.

  10. A Passive Probe for Subsurface Oceans and Liquid Water in Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Wolf, A.; Vance, S.; Maiwald, F.; Ries, P. A.; Liewer, K.

    2014-12-01

    We present a method for passive detection of subsurface oceans and liquid water in Jovian icy moons using Jupiter's decametric radio emission (DAM). The DAM flux density exceeds 3,000 times the galactic background in the neighborhood of the Jovian icy moons, providing a signal that could be used for passive radio sounding. An instrument located between the icy moon and Jupiter could sample the DAM emission along with its echoes reflected in the ice layer of the target moon. Cross-correlating the direct emission with the echoes would provide a measurement of the subsurface ocean depth along with the dielectric properties of the ice shell. The technique is complementary to ice penetrating radar measurements in that it works best where interference due to Jupiter's strong decametric emission is the strongest.

  11. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eshleman, Von R.

    1986-01-01

    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as 'the glory', the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes.

  12. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshleman, Von R.

    1986-10-01

    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as 'the glory', the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes.

  13. The tidal response of super-Earths and large icy worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobie, G.; Grasset, O.; Behounkova, M.; Besserer, J.; Cadek, O.; Choblet, G.; Mocquet, A.

    2012-12-01

    The amount of detected super-Earths increases drastically. Most of the super-Earth candidates orbit at close distances from their central star, and therefore subjected to large tidal forcing. Low mass planets (2 - 10 Earth's mass) with short orbital periods (< 10 - 20 days) seem especially abundant around M-dwarf stars. Owing to strong tidal interaction, these planets are tidally locked, which has many important consequences for their thermal state and putative habitability. Tidal friction in the interior of such planets, both during the primordial despinning and once the planet is locked on an eccentric orbit, should significantly contribute to the internal heat budget. In the present study, we model the interior structure of super-Earths and large icy worlds, we compute their viscoelastic response to tidal forcing, and finally we evaluate the impact of tidal dissipation on the thermal evolution. Preliminary results indicate that for similar mass and orbital configuration, planets containing 50 wt% water ice are 25 to 50 times more dissipative than Earth-like planets, because of the thick and dissipative icy mantle. Even for moderate eccentricities (1%), the total power dissipated in icy planets varies from 100 TW to 300 TW for planet masses ranging from 1 to 10 x Earth's mass, respectively. Such large heat production rates (5 to 15 times larger than the Earth's radiogenic heating) are expected to strongly affect the dynamics of the icy mantle and to favor the presence of liquid water, not only at the surface but also potentially throughout the whole icy mantle, with important consequences for the exobiological potential of icy worlds.

  14. Migration of Icy Bodies to the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergei, I. I.; Mather, J. C.; Marov, M. Y.

    2006-05-01

    In our opinion [1-2], some trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and planetesimals in the feeding zone of the giant planets with diameters up to 1000 km could be formed directly by the compression of large rarefied dust condensations, but not by the accretion of smaller solid planetesimals. Migration processes of small bodies from the outer regions of the solar system, including the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, could be responsible for the delivery of the original matter (mainly volatiles) to the terrestrial planets and thus to give rise to the life origin. As migration of TNOs to Jupiter's orbit was studied by several authors, we integrated the orbital evolution of 30,000 Jupiter-crossing objects under the gravitational influence of planets [3]. A few considered objects got Earth-crossing orbits with aphelion distances Q<4.2 AU and moved in such orbits for more than 1 Myr (up to tens or even hundreds of Myrs). Collisions of cometary objects with the terrestrial planets from the Encke- type orbits with aphelia located inside the orbit of Jupiter are assumed to play a greater role than direct impacts from the Jupiter-crossing orbits. It may be possible that the fraction of 1-km former TNOs among near- Earth objects (NEOs) can exceed several tens of percents or most of former TNOs that had got NEO orbits disintegrated into mini-comets and dust during a smaller part of their dynamical lifetimes if these lifetimes are not small. Our estimates show that the amount of icy planetesimals impacted on the Earth during formation of the giant planets is of the order of mass of water in the Earth oceans if the total mass of these planetesimals was about 100 Earth masses. Mars acquired more water per unit of mass of a planet than Earth. During the following 4 Gyr the effectiveness of transport was much less. We integrated [4-5] the orbital evolution of 12,000 dust particles. Probabilites of collisions of particles started from Jupiter-family comets were maximum at diameter d about 100

  15. Unveiling the evolution and formation of icy giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Andrea; Bocanegra, Tatiana; Bracken, Colm; Costa, Marc; Dirkx, Dominic; Gerth, Ingo; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; Labrianidis, Christos; Laneuville, Matthieu; Luntzer, Armin; MacArthur, Jane; Morschhauser, Achim; Nordheim, Tom; Sallantin, Renaud; Tlustos, Reinhard

    2013-04-01

    The planet Uranus is one of two ice giants in the solar system, both of which have only been visited only once by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Therefore, a dedicated mission to an ice giant is crucial to deepen our knowledge of the formation, evolution and current characteristics of such a planet and its system. We present the science objectives, architecture rationale and system design for a mission to the Uranian system. We conducted a detailed study on how to best fulfill the primary science goal, namely: To investigate Uranus and its system as an archetype for ice giants. To this end, we formulated specific science questions leading to measurement requirements and, finally, instrument requirements and suitable instruments. The primary science questions relate to investigating Uranus' deep interior and outer layers as these are directly related to the primary science goal. Additionally, investigations of the moons, rings and the magnetosphere will provide complementary observations of the Uranian system specifically and icy giants in general. A trade-off between several mission architectures was performed, such as an orbiter with an atmospheric entry probe and a flyby mission. In this process, the relative importance of the science questions, the capabilities of each concept to carry a certain payload and its capability to answer the science questions in the given architecture were traded off. Similarly, the feasibility of each concept from an engineering point-of-view was assessed, taking into account matters such as complexity, cost and risk. The results are presented as a function of relative engineering and science score weights, providing an envelope of optimal mission selections over a range of mission scenarios. We conclude that a Uranus orbiter with a single entry probe and an extended moon tour fulfills the primary science goal in an optimal manner. The mission scenario is based on a launch date in 2026 on an Ariane 5 ECA launcher and arrival at Uranus in

  16. The ICI-WARM Non-Proprietary Regional Frequency Analysis Tool Using the Method Of L-Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannettone, J. P.; Wright, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICI-WaRM) is currently developing a non-proprietary Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) tool to be used to answer the following questions: "How rare is the current drought?", "How likely is it that the drought will end in X months?", "How large a drought should we plan for?", and "How rare is the drought of record?". The method of L-moments is used, which is analogous to using regular moments except they are calculated using equations that represent linear combinations of the sample data elements. The advantages are increased robustness with respect to outliers, the ability to characterize a wider range of frequency distributions, and less bias. Sites are first lumped into homogeneous regions. Regional L-moments and rainfall frequency distributions are estimated. Individual site statistics can then be obtained by multiplying the regional growth curve by the site's average annual rainfall. This method allows the inclusion of sites with short record lengths, few rain gage stations, missing data, and/or higher variability due to topography. An example is given in Fig. 1, which shows an attempt to fit a GEV distribution to an individual site's growth curve (Fig. 1a) compared to an improved fit of the GEV to the growth curve of the corresponding homogeneous region (Fig. 1b), particularly within the portion of the curve that represents extreme events. The location of the 100-year event is shown on each graph for reference purposes. In addition to GEV, the software can attempt to fit 13 other frequency distributions. The end products of the ICI-WaRM Regional Frequency Analysis tool include estimates of the intensity of rainfall events for individual sites and rainfall intensity probably maps for a particular region for any rain event frequency, duration, and starting month. Current and future applications of this software include an attempt to construct a continental drought atlas of South America (a

  17. Neural Analog Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht-Nielsen, Robert

    1982-07-01

    Neural Analog Information Processing (NAIP) is an effort to develop general purpose pattern classification architectures based upon biological information processing principles. This paper gives an overview of NAIP and its relationship to the previous work in neural modeling from which its fundamental principles are derived. It also presents a theorem concerning the stability of response of a slab (a two dimensional array of identical simple processing units) to time-invariant (spatial) patterns. An experiment (via computer emulation) demonstrating classification of a spatial pattern by a simple, but complete NAIP architecture is described. A concept for hardware implementation of NAIP architectures is briefly discussed.

  18. Analogical Processes in Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-15

    CLASSICATMN OF ThIS PA5UrSfie Dule gIt.,.d ANALOGICAL PROCESSES IN LEARNING David E . Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman Program in Cognitive Science Center...for Human Information Processing University of California, San Diego La Jolla, California 92093 Copyright Q) 1980 David E . Rumelhart & Donald A. Norman...4) SEARS 7 E Ilamnp C5P Tota $.600 Aprovd.L. Figure 1. Stimuli for the two conditions of D’Andrade’s reasoning * experiment. The left panel shows the

  19. Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO): An Element of the Prometheus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    The Prometheus Program s Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Project is developing a revolutionary nuclear electric propulsion space system that would return scientific data from the icy Galilean satellites, Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. This space system could also be used for future solar system exploration missions. Several major achievements occurred during Fiscal Year 2004 (FY 04). These include the addition of Department of Energy Naval Reactors (DOENR) and Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST) to the JIMO team, completion of the Science Definition Team s final report, generation of the Government and industry team trade studies and conceptual designs, and numerous technology demonstrations. The sections that follow detail these accomplishments.

  20. An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

  1. Oxidant Loading of Icy Surfaces via Re-deposition of Sputtered Molecular Fragments: Laboratory Simulations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, P. D.; Do, N.; Ammann, L. M.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), molecular oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) on icy satellite surfaces is widely accepted to be a result of the molecular dissociations that occurs from incident energetic radiation impacting the surface ice. New laboratory measurements show that an additional, and previously unrecognized mechanism, may contribute to the oxidant loading of the icy surfaces. This mechanism involves the re-condensation of reactive molecular fragments and subsequent reactions of these on the surface to produce oxidants. Modelling is needed to determine the amount that this process may contribute to the oxidant concentrations and the timescales involved.

  2. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  3. Antarctic Space Analog Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary aim of this project was to examine group dynamics and individual performance in extreme, isolated environments and identify human factors requirements for long-duration space missions using data collected in an analog environment. Specifically, we wished to determine: 1) the characteristics of social relations in small groups of individuals living and working together in extreme, isolated environments, and 2) the environmental, social and psychological determinants of performance effectiveness in such groups. These two issues were examined in six interrelated studies using data collected in small, isolated research stations in Antarctica from 1963 to the present. Results from these six studies indicated that behavior and performance on long-duration space flights is likely to be seasonal or cyclical, situational, social, and salutogenic in nature. The project responded to two NASA program emphases for FY 1997 as described in the NRA: 1) the primary emphasis of the Behavior and Performance Program on determining long-term individual and group performance responses to space, identifying critical factors affecting those responses and understanding underlying mechanisms involved in behavior and performance, and developing and using ground-based models and analogs for studying space-related behavior and performance; and 2) the emphasis of the Data Analysis Program on extended data analysis. Results from the study were used to develop recommendations for the design and development of pre-flight crew training and in-flight psychological countermeasures for long-duration manned space missions.

  4. A Study of the Construct Validity of the Interactive Computer Interview System (ICIS) Using Student Evaluations as the Outcome Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robby Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the individual teacher interview scores from the Interactive Computer Interview System (ICIS) with their students' responses to "The Steps to Excellence Student Questionnaire". Specifically, the study examined the correlation among the teacher interviews across four themes of the ICIS ("Knowledge…

  5. Saturn’s icy satellites investigated by Cassini-VIMS. II. Results at the end of nominal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filacchione, G.; Capaccioni, F.; Clark, R. N.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Coradini, A.; Cerroni, P.; Nicholson, P. D.; McCord, T. B.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Tosi, F.; Nelson, R. M.; Jaumann, R.; Stephan, K.

    2010-04-01

    We report the detailed analysis of the spectrophotometric properties of Saturn's icy satellites as derived by full-disk observations obtained by visual and infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) experiment aboard Cassini. In this paper, we have extended the coverage until the end of the Cassini's nominal mission (June 1st 2008), while a previous paper ( Filacchione, G., and 28 colleagues [2007]. Icarus 186, 259-290, hereby referred to as Paper I) reported the preliminary results of this study. During the four years of nominal mission, VIMS has observed the entire population of Saturn's icy satellites allowing us to make a comparative analysis of the VIS-NIR spectral properties of the major satellites (Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea, Hyperion, Iapetus) and irregular moons (Atlas, Prometheus, Pandora, Janus, Epimetheus, Telesto, Calypso, Phoebe). The results we discuss here are derived from the entire dataset available at June 2008 which consists of 1417 full-disk observations acquired from a variety of distances and inclinations from the equatorial plane, with different phase angles and hemispheric coverage. The most important spectrophotometric indicators (as defined in Paper I: I/ F continua at 0.55 μm, 1.822 μm and 3.547 μm, visible spectral slopes, water and carbon dioxide bands depths and positions) are calculated for each observation in order to investigate the disk-integrated composition of the satellites, the distribution of water ice respect to "contaminants" abundances and typical regolith grain properties. These quantities vary from the almost pure water ice surfaces of Enceladus and Calypso to the organic and carbon dioxide rich Hyperion, Iapetus and Phoebe. Janus visible colors are intermediate between these two classes having a slightly positive spectral slope. These results could help to decipher the origins and evolutionary history of the minor moons of the Saturn's system. We introduce a polar representation of the spectrophotometric

  6. A passive low frequency instrument for radio wave sounding the subsurface oceans of the Jovian icy moons: An instrument concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartogh, P.; Ilyushin, Ya. A.

    2016-10-01

    Exploration of subsurface oceans on Jovian icy moons is a key issue of the icy moons' geology. Electromagnetic wave propagation is the only way to probe their icy mantles from the orbit. In the present paper, a principal concept of a passive interferometric instrument for deep sounding of the icy moons' crust is proposed. Its working principle is measuring and correlating Jupiter's radio wave emissions with reflections from the deep sub-surface of the icy moons. A number of the functional aspects of the proposed experiment are studied, in particular, impact of the wave scattering on the surface terrain on the instrument performance and digital sampling of the noisy signal. Results of the test of the laboratory prototype of the instrument are also presented in the paper.

  7. It's Far, It's Small, It's Cool: It's an Icy Exoplanet!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    Using a network of telescopes scattered across the globe, including the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla (Chile), astronomers [1] discovered a new extrasolar planet significantly more Earth-like than any other planet found so far. The planet, which is only about 5 times as massive as the Earth, circles its parent star in about 10 years. It is the least massive exoplanet around an ordinary star detected so far and also the coolest [2]. The planet most certainly has a rocky/icy surface. Its discovery marks a groundbreaking result in the search for planets that support life. ESO PR Photo 03a/06 ESO PR Photo 03a/06 Artist's Impression of the Newly Found Exoplanet The new planet, designated by the unglamorous identifier of OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb, orbits a red star five times less massive than the Sun and located at a distance of about 20,000 light years, not far from the centre of our Milky Way galaxy. Its relatively cool parent star and large orbit implies that the likely surface temperature of the planet is 220 degrees Centigrade below zero, too cold for liquid water. It is likely to have a thin atmosphere, like the Earth, but its rocky surface is probably deeply buried beneath frozen oceans. It may therefore more closely resemble a more massive version of Pluto, rather than the rocky inner planets like Earth and Venus. "This planet is actually the first and only planet that has been discovered so far that is in agreement with the theories for how our Solar System formed ", said Uffe Gråe Jørgensen (Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark), member of the team. The favoured theoretical explanation for the formation of planetary systems proposes that solid 'planetesimals' accumulate to build up planetary cores, which then accrete nebular gas - to form giant planets - if they are sufficiently massive. Around red dwarfs, the most common stars of our Galaxy, this model favours the formation of Earth- to Neptune-mass planets being between 1 and 10 times the Earth

  8. ICI 182,780 penetrates brain and hypothalamic tissue and has functional effects in the brain after systemic dosing.

    PubMed

    Alfinito, Peter D; Chen, Xiaohong; Atherton, James; Cosmi, Scott; Deecher, Darlene C

    2008-10-01

    Previous reports suggest the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) does not cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. In the present study, we tested whether ICI crosses the BBB, penetrates into brain and hypothalamic tissues, and affects known neuroendocrine functions in ovariectomized rats. Using HPLC with mass spectrometry, ICI (1.0 mg/kg.d, 3 d) was detected in plasma and brain and hypothalamic tissues for up to 24 h with maximum concentrations of 43.1 ng/ml, and 31.6 and 38.8 ng/g, respectively. To evaluate antiestrogenic effects of ICI in the brain after systemic dosing, we tested its ability to block the effect of 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE) (0.3 mg/kg, 8 d) on tail-skin temperature abatement in the morphine-dependent model of hot flush and on body weight change. In the morphine-dependent model, EE abated 64% of the naloxone-induced tail-skin temperature increase. ICI pretreatment (1.0, 3.0 mg/kg.d) dose dependently inhibited this effect. ICI (3.0 mg/kg.d) alone showed estrogenic-like actions, abating 30% the naloxone-induced flush. In body weight studies, EE-treated rats weighed 58.5 g less than vehicle-treated rats after 8 d dosing. This effect was partially blocked by ICI (3.0 mg/kg.d) pretreatment. Similar to EE treatment, rats receiving 1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg.d ICI alone showed little weight gain compared with vehicle-treated controls. Thus, ICI crosses the BBB, penetrates into brain and hypothalamic tissues, and has both antiestrogenic and estrogenic-like actions on neuroendocrine-related functions.

  9. 76 FR 21330 - Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ...The Lynn Canal/Icy Straits Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Juneau, Alaska, April 25, 2011. The purpose of this meeting is to orient the new appointees as to the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act of 2008, provide operational guidelines, discuss and adopt specific bylaws for the RAC, and elect a RAC...

  10. 77 FR 55452 - Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Forest Service Lynn Canal-Icy Strait Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the Title II of the Act. The...), implementing stewardship objectives that enhance forested ecosystems, and/or restoring and improving...

  11. Inverse theory resolution analysis in planning radio science gravity investigations of icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganse, A.; Vance, S.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of an icy satellite's interior relates fundamentally to its composition, thermal structure, formation and evolution history, and prospects for supporting life. Gravity measurements via radio Doppler information during spacecraft flybys constitute an important tool to infer gross interior structure. Liquid water and ice layers have previously been inferred for the interiors of Jupiter's icy satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto on the basis of magnetic field measurements by the Galileo probe. On Europa and Callisto induced magnetic field signatures measured by the Galileo probe provided strong evidence for an ionic aqueous ocean. Among the chief goals of the proposed Europa Clipper mission in returning to Europa is characterizing the structure of the moon's icy shell. A geophysical inverse theory resolution analysis can be calculated at the pre-measurement mission planning stage, contributing planning considerations from the point of view of the search for mass anomalies in the ice shell (meteorites or diapiric upwellings) or near the H2O/rock interface (seamounts). The analysis allows us to assess the location-varying resolution of an icy moon's interior density anomaly distribution that can be estimated from radio Doppler measurements. It considers the tradeoff between the resolution of the estimated density anomaly distribution and its estimation uncertainty, and investigates issues in distinguishing between ocean anomalies (e.g., seamounts) and mass anomalies within or near the surface of the ice layer. We apply the resolution analysis to proposed Europa Clipper trajectories and past Galileo spacecraft trajectories about Europa and Ganymede.

  12. Astrobiological and Geological Implications of Convective Transport in Icy Outer Planet Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Zhong, Shi-Jie; Barr, Amy

    2005-01-01

    The oceans of large icy outer planet satellites are prime targets in the search for extraterrestrial life in our solar system. The goal of our project has been to develop models of ice convection in order to understand convection as an astrobiologically relevant transport mechanism within icy satellites, especially Europa. These models provide valuable constraints on modes of surface deformation and thus the implications of satellite surface geology for astrobiology, and for planetary protection. Over the term of this project, significant progress has been made in three areas: (1) the initiation of convection in large icy satellites, which we find probably requires tidal heating; (2) the relationship of surface features on Europa to internal ice convection, including the likely role of low-melting-temperature impurities; and (3) the effectiveness of convection as an agent of icy satellite surface-ocean material exchange, which seems most plausible if tidal heating, compositional buoyancy, and solid-state convection work in combination. Descriptions of associated publications include: 3 published papers (including contributions to 1 review chapter), 1 manuscript in revision, 1 manuscript in preparation (currently being completed under separate funding), and 1 published popular article. A myriad of conference abstracts have also been published, and only those from the past year are listed.

  13. Large Impact Features on Saturn's Middle-sized Icy Satellites: Global Image Mosaics and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2003-03-01

    New topographic maps of Saturn's middle-sized icy satellites derived from stereo imaging and 2D photoclinometry provide a sneak peak at the surprises in store when Cassini arrives at Saturn. We reexamine the morphology of large impact craters and describe their relaxation state.

  14. Hypothetical Inverted Critical Zones for Subsurface Biospheres on Desert Planets and Icy Ocean Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Earth as a model for cave habitable real-estate does not encompass other possibilities including desert planets like Mars, or icy ocean worlds viewed as planetary-scale water-filled caves in water ice bedrock which will have inverted Critical Zones.

  15. Technology for a Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, J. W.; Harpole, G.; Zamel, J.; Sen, B.; Lee, G.; Ross, F.; Retherford, K.

    2016-10-01

    This poster introduces a thermo-chemical ice penetrator for Ocean Worlds. It employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic with an icy surface. This technology builds on successful classified 1980's era program for the US Navy.

  16. An Examination of Teaching a Networking Strategy to Job Seekers. ICI Tools for Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandolfo, Cecilia; Graham, Audrey

    This issue brief describes the outcomes of a study conducted by the Institute for Community Inclusion (ICI) that investigated the effectiveness of a training workshop on using a networking approach to job development for people with disabilities. The two-day workshop focused on teaching how to identify and use connections such as family members,…

  17. Concurrent Validity of the "Working with Others Scale" of the ICIS Employment Interview System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Martha W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the Working with Others Scale from the American Association of School Personnel Administrators (AASPA) Interactive Computer Interview System (ICIS) was a valid predictor of practicing teachers' interpersonal skills and abilities to work well with colleagues. Participants in the study were all employed…

  18. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design.

  19. Female analogies to perversion.

    PubMed

    Beier, K M

    2000-01-01

    Unlike the intrapsychic mechanism for self-esteem regulation in males as a basic component of perversion--extrapsychically (compensationally) culminating in an output of sexual impulses--a functional stabilization of the female self-concept seems more likely if conflict drives were to be focused on reproductional aspects and not on sexuality. It therefore seems more suitable to use a new expression in linguistic analogy to perversion: "reproversion." The case history gives an example of a clinical manifestation of "reproverse" symptom formation. The general survey describes the main points of view in regard to clinically oriented differentiation, i.e., intensity, ego-proximity in the personality structure, and one's own self-acceptance within "reproverse" symptom formation. Underlying personality disturbances are also discussed. The significance of reproversion is relevant to many different specialized medical fields. This is explained in conclusion, using the examples of denied pregnancy and infanticide at birth based on initial empirical results.

  20. Inhibition of immediate hypersensitivity reactions in laboratory animals by a phenanthroline salt (ICI 74,917).

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D P; Thomson, D S

    1975-01-01

    1. The activity of a new anti-allergic compound, I.C.I. 74,917, has been studied in the rat, mouse and guinea-pig. 2. Following intravenous administration, I.C.I. 74,917 inhibits in a dose-dependent manner passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced in rats and mice by heat-labile homocytotropic antibody. In rats, its potency is approximately 300 times that of disodium cromoglycate. 3. To achieve maximal inhibition, it is necessary to administer I.C.I. 74,917 at the same time as antigenic challenge; dosing before or after challenge has much less effect. 4. Liberation of histamine, provoked by the antigenic challenge of mast cells passively sensitized in vitro by IgE-like antibody, is reduced in the presence of I.C.I. 74,917. 5. Intravenous administration of the compound has no significant effect upon local blueing reactions provoked in the rat by intradermal injection of histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine or Compound 48/80. It has only a slight effect at high doses upon passive cutaneous anaphylaxis induced in the rat by heat-stable homocytotropic or heterologous (guinea-pig) antibodies. 6. Although not a bronchodilator in the guinea-pig, I.C.I. 74,917 partially inhibits systemic anaphylaxis. A consistent reduction in the severity of antigen-induced bronchospasm was demonstrated in the Konzett-Rossler preparation at doses comparable to those inhibiting passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the rat. However, there was only slight inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in the guinea-pig. 7. I.C.I. 74,917 itself induces bronchospasm when administered to anaesthetized guinea-pigs or to a guinea-pig isolated lung preparation. This effect is reversed by salbutamol, but is not prevented by the prior administration of mepyramine, atropine or methysergide. 8. These results indicate that in the rat, mouse and guinea-pig, I.C.I. 74,917 is a potent inhibitor of certain types of immediate hypersensitivity reactions. PMID:48393

  1. The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) on the JUICE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzone, L.; Plaut, J.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bovolo, F.; Campbell, B. A.; Castelletti, D.; Gim, Y.; Ilisei, A. M.; Kofman, W. W.; Komatsu, G.; McKinnon, W. B.; Mitri, G.; Moussessian, A.; Notarnicola, C.; Orosei, R.; Patterson, G. W.; Pettinelli, E.; Plettemeier, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Radar for Icy Moon Exploration (RIME) is one of the main instruments included in the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) ESA mission. It is a radar sounder designed for studying the subsurface geology and geophysics of Galilean icy moons (i.e., Ganymede, Europa and Callisto) and for detecting possible subsurface water. RIME is designed for penetration of the icy moons up to a depth of 9 km. Two main operation scenarios are foreseen for RIME: i) flyby observations of Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (from a distance of 1000 km to the closest approach of about 400 km); and ii) circular orbital observations around Ganymede at 500 km of altitude. According to these scenarios, RIME is designed to explore the icy shell of the Galilean icy satellites by characterizing the wide range of compositional, thermal, and structural variation found in the subsurface of these moons. RIME observations will profile the ice shells of the Galilean icy satellites with specific focus on Ganymede given the circular orbital phase. The acquired measures will provide geological context on hemispheric (thousands of km), regional (hundreds of km with multiple overlaps), and targeted (tens of km) scales appropriate for a variety of hypothesis tests. RIME will operate in a single frequency band, centred at 9 MHz. The frequency was selected as the result of extensive study of penetration capabilities, surface roughness of the moons, Jovian radio noise, antenna accommodation, and system design. The 9 MHz frequency provides penetration capabilities and mitigation of surface scattering (which can cause signal loss and clutter issues), at the expense of mapping coverage, as it is likely to obtain high SNR observations only on the anti-Jovian side of the target moons. The RIME antenna is a 16 m dipole. The chirp pulse bandwidth is up to 3 MHz, which provides vertical resolution of about 50 m in ice after side lobe weighting. RIME will also operate with 1 MHz bandwidth to reduce data volume when

  2. A Raman study of ion irradiated icy mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratta, G. A.; Ferini, G.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2003-04-01

    We present a Raman study of pure CH_4, H_2O:CH_4:N_2 and CH_3OH:N_2 frozen films before and after ion irradiation at low (12 K) and high (100 K or 300 K) temperature. By means of Raman spectroscopy, we monitor the structural evolution of each film, whose optical properties are deeply modified by the interaction with the ion beam. Raman spectra show that the sample is partially converted into a refractory residue, which under further irradiation evolves towards an amorphous carbon with a band near 1560 cm-1 (G line) and a shoulder at about 1360 cm-1 (D line). The specific parameters of this 'double-peaked' feature (peaks position, widths and relative intensities) can be used as diagnostic to classify different carbonaceous materials and infer information about their degree of order. We have compared these parameters for our samples (ion irradiated frozen films and residues), for different kinds of hydrogenated carbon grains and for some IDPs. We have found that IDPs have in general a narrower G line, which peaks at higher wavenumbers, than most of the laboratory samples here discussed. This implies that IDPs have a structure with a higher degree of order than that of our samples. Here we present the experimenal results and discuss their relevance to the study of the origin and evolution of IDPs.

  3. Mathematical problem solving by analogy.

    PubMed

    Novick, L R; Holyoak, K J

    1991-05-01

    We report the results of 2 experiments and a verbal protocol study examining the component processes of solving mathematical word problems by analogy. College students first studied a problem and its solution, which provided a potential source for analogical transfer. Then they attempted to solve several analogous problems. For some problems, subjects received one of a variety of hints designed to reduce or eliminate the difficulty of some of the major processes hypothesized to be involved in analogical transfer. Our studies yielded 4 major findings. First, the process of mapping the features of the source and target problems and the process of adapting the source solution procedure for use in solving the target problem were clearly distinguished: (a) Successful mapping was found to be insufficient for successful transfer and (b) adaptation was found to be a major source of transfer difficulty. Second, we obtained direct evidence that schema induction is a natural consequence of analogical transfer. The schema was found to co-exist with the problems from which it was induced, and both the schema and the individual problems facilitated later transfer. Third, for our multiple-solution problems, the relation between analogical transfer and solution accuracy was mediated by the degree of time pressure exerted for the test problems. Finally, mathematical expertise was a significant predictor of analogical transfer, but general analogical reasoning ability was not. The implications of the results for models of analogical transfer and for instruction were considered.

  4. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A.; Owen, T. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  5. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of 26Al.

    PubMed

    Prialnik, D; Bar-Nun, A

    1990-05-20

    We study the effect of radiogenic heating due to 26Al on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites. Our object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial 26Al abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of approximately 10(6) yr (comparable with the lifetime of 26Al). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10(9) yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. Our main conclusion is that the initial 26Al abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, approximately 7 x 10(-7) by mass). We find, for example, that an initial 26Al mass fraction of approximately 4 x 10(-8) is sufficient for melting almost completely icy spheres with radii of 800 km, typical of the larger icy planetary satellites. We also find that for any given 26Al abundance, there is a narrow range of radii below which only marginal melting occurs and above which most of the ice melts (and refreezes later). Since extensive melting may have important consequences, such as differentiation, gas release, and volcanic activity, the effect of 26Al should be included in future studies of satellite interiors.

  6. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    PubMed

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  7. Refractory Organic Compounds in Enceladus' Ice Grains and Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Khawaja, N.; Hsu, H. W.; Sekine, Y.; Shibuya, T.

    2015-12-01

    Cassini's Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) generates time-of-flight mass spectra of individual grains impinging on the instruments target-plate. Following the analysis of salt rich ice grains emitted by Enceladus that indicated a salt-water ocean in contact with the moon's rocky core [1,2] a recent CDA analysis of nano-phase silica particles pointed at hydrothermal activity at the moon's rock/water interface [3]. The results imply temperatures above 80 - 90°C and alkaline pH values around 10 reminiscent of alkaline hydrothermal vents on Earth like the Lost City Hydrothermal Field. In this context the compositional analysis of organic components in CDA mass spectra of the ejected ice grains is of particular relevance. A multitude of volatile organic species has already been identified in the gas component of the plume [4]. As expected, we find more complex organic molecules in ice grains than in the gas indicating aromatic species, amines, and carbonyl group species. The composition of organic-bearing ice grains displays a great diversity indicating a variety of different organic species in varying concentrations. Recent spatially resolved CDA in situ measurements inside Enceladus' plume indicate that these organic compounds are especially frequent in 'young' ice grains that have just been ejected by high velocity jets. We investigate the implications of our findings with respect to ice grain formation at the water surface and inside the icy vents. We constrain the generation of organic compounds at the rock/water interface in the light of hydrothermal activity and the potential for the formation of life precursor molecules in Enceladus' ocean. Ref:[1] Postberg et al., Nature 459, 1098-1101 (2009). [2] Postberg et al., Nature 474, 620-622 (2011). [3]. Hsu, Postberg, Sekine et al., Nature, 519, 207-210 (2015). [4] Waite et al., Nature 460, 487-490 (2009).

  8. Carbon dioxide in the Surfaces of the Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibbitts, C. A.; Szanyi, J.; McCord, T. B.

    2004-11-01

    Carbon dioxide has been detected on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites [Carlson et al., 1996; McCord et al., 1998], the Uranian satellite Ariel [Grundy, 2003], the Saturnian satellite Phoebe [NASA Press Release, 2004], and is ubiquitous in comets and the interstellar medium (ISM) [e.g. Vidali et al., 2004]. The physical state and distribution of CO2 on these objects can help us understand its origin and may help us understand the objects' geological histories. For instance, a small amount of CO2 exists in the fine-grained (and thus `recent') ice on the leading hemisphere of Europa. Carlson, [2004] infers an exogenic origin: radiolysis of carbonaceous material. Hibbitts et al., [2000; 2002] infer from spectral characteristics and surface distributions that the CO2 on Ganymede and Callisto is previously outgassed endogenic CO2 now trapped in non-ice material(s). They further argue that distributions of CO2 on Ganymede and Callisto suggest Ganymede's interior is depleted in CO2 relative to Callisto, consistent with its more extensive tectonic past [e.g. Pappalardo et al., 1998]. The CO2 so far identified on all Jovian and Saturnian satellites seems to be molecules bound/trapped to a host material, mostly nonice. IR spectra of the ISM also suggests some CO2 is bound material. Thus, bound CO2 seems to be spectrally, and potentially compositionally, significant on objects' surfaces in the outer solar system and beyond. To explore the physical state and associated mechanisms of CO2 bound to non-ice materials we conducted CO2 adsorption experiments with several candidate outer solar system non-ice materials at relevant temperatures and pressures. We have found that CO2 adsorbs to certain clays and zeolites but not to at least some oxides and oxyhydroxides. The spectral characteristics of adsorbed CO2 are dependent on the exact composition (which cation is present) and there may be temperature dependences.

  9. Natural analog studies: Licensing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the licensing perspective of the term {open_quotes}natural analog studies{close_quotes} as used in CFR Part 60. It describes the misunderstandings related to its definition which has become evident during discussions at the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission meetings and tries to clarify the appropriate applications of natural analog studies to aspects of repository site characterization.

  10. Conjecturing via Reconceived Classical Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2011-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is believed to be an efficient means of problem solving and construction of knowledge during the search for and the analysis of new mathematical objects. However, there is growing concern that despite everyday usage, learners are unable to transfer analogical reasoning to learning situations. This study aims at facilitating…

  11. Drawing Analogies in Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2014-01-01

    Reconsidering the origin, process, and outcomes of analogy-making suggests practices for environmental educators who strive to disengage humans from the isolating illusions of dichotomizing frameworks. We can view analogies as outcomes of developmental processes within which human subjectivity is but an element, threading our sense of self back…

  12. Low-velocity impacts into cryogenic icy regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Josh E.; Dove, Adrienne; Rascon, Allison; Mohammed, Nadia; Cox, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    The first stages of planet formation take place in the protoplanetary disk (PPD), where µm-sized dust grains accrete into km-sized planetesimals. In the current discussion on the processes involved in accretion beyond the cm scale, the size distribution of the particles colliding at low speeds (a few m/s) inside the PPD is thought to play an important role. A few larger bodies that survived bouncing and fragmentation collisions accumulate the fine dust residue of the erosion and fragmentation of other particles that were destroyed in more energetic collisions. A significant component of this dust on bodies farther out in the PPD will be composed of ices.We have carried out a series of experiments to study the ejecta mass-velocity distribution from impacts of cm-scale particles into granular media at speeds below 3 m/s in both microgravity and 1-g conditions in vacuo and room temperature. Aggregate-aggregate collision experiments have shown bouncing and fragmentation at speeds above ~ 1 m/s. However, most planetesimal formation occurred beyond the frost line and at much lower temperatures than our earlier experiments. We have performed impact experiments at 1-g into JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant at low temperatures (<150 K) with water ice particles mixed into the JSC-1 sample. We varied the impact energy and the water ice content of the sample and measured the ejecta mass-velocity distribution as well as the final crater size. Our goal is to determine if the cryogenic temperature and the presence of water ice in the regolith affects the dynamic response to low-velocity impacts and the production of regolith. We will present the results of the cryogenic impacts and compare them to the study performed at room temperature without water ice. The inclusion of water ice into the target sample is a first step towards better understanding the influence of the presence of water ice in the production of ejecta in response to low-velocity impacts. We will discuss the

  13. Origins of GEMS Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  14. Cannabinoid properties of methylfluorophosphonate analogs.

    PubMed

    Martin, B R; Beletskaya, I; Patrick, G; Jefferson, R; Winckler, R; Deutsch, D G; Di Marzo, V; Dasse, O; Mahadevan, A; Razdan, R K

    2000-09-01

    Methylarachidonylfluorophosphonate (MAFP) and related analogs have been shown to inhibit fatty acid amidohydrolase activity (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide. To fully characterize this class of compounds, methylfluorophosphonate compounds with saturated alkyl chains ranging from C8 to C20 along with C20 unsaturated derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to interact with the CB1 receptor, inhibit FAAH, and produce in vivo pharmacological effects. These analogs demonstrated widely varying affinities for the CB1 receptor. Of the saturated compounds, C8:0 was incapable of displacing [(3)H]CP 55,940 binding, whereas C12:0 exhibited high affinity (2.5 nM). The C20:0 saturated analog had low affinity (900 nM), but the introduction of unsaturation into the C20 analogs restored receptor affinity. However, none of the analogs were capable of fully displacing [(3)H]CP 55,940 binding. On the other hand, all compounds were able to completely inhibit FAAH enzyme activity, with the C20:0 analog being the least potent. The most potent FAAH inhibitor was the short-chained saturated C12:0, whereas the other analogs were 15- to 30-fold less potent. In vivo, the C8:0 and C12:0 analogs were highly potent and fully efficacious in producing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-like effects, whereas the other analogs were either inactive or acted as partial agonists. None was capable of attenuating the agonist effects of THC. Conversely, the C20:0 analog potentiated the effects of anandamide but not those of 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and THC. The high in vivo potency of the novel short-chain saturated MAFP derivatives (C8:0 and C12:0) underscores the complexity of manipulating the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  15. Free Translational Oscillations of Icy Bodies with a Subsurface Ocean Using a Variational Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escapa, A.; Fukushima, T.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze the influence of the interior structure of an icy body with an internal ocean on the relative translational motions of its solid constituents. We consider an isolated body differentiated into three homogeneous layers with spherical symmetry: an external ice-I layer, a subsurface ammonia-water ocean, and a rocky inner core. This composition represents icy bodies such as Europa, Titania, Oberon, and Triton, as well as Pluto, Eris, Sedna, and 2004 DW. We construct the equations of motion by assuming that the solid constituents are rigid and that the ocean is an ideal fluid, the internal motion being characterized by the relative translations of the solids and the induced flow in the fluid. Then we determine the dynamics of the icy body using the methods of analytical mechanics, that is, we compute the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy, and obtain the Lagrangian function. The resulting solution of the Lagrange equations shows that the solid layers perform translational oscillations of different amplitudes with respect to the barycenter of the body. We derive the dependence of the frequency of the free oscillations of the system on the characteristics of each layer, expressing the period of the oscillations as a function of the densities and masses of the ocean and the rocky inner core, and the mass of the icy body. We apply these results to previously developed subsurface models and obtain numerical values for the period and the ratio between the amplitudes of the translational oscillations of the solid components. The features obtained are quite different from the cases of Earth and Mercury. Our analytical formulas satisfactorily explain the source of these differences. When models of the same icy body, compatible with the existence of an internal ocean, differ in the thickness of the ice-I layer, their associated periods experience a relative variation of at least 10%. In particular, the different models for Titania and Oberon exhibit a

  16. Laboratory Simulated Impact Shock on Ices relevant to Planetary icy Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nna Mvondo, D.; Khare, B. N.; McKay, C. P.; Ishihara, T.

    2006-12-01

    Several icy satellites of the outer planets show impact cratering features and it is recognised that this process may have played a crucial role in the formation and evolution of icy bodies. The effect of impact by extraterrestrial objects into the surface is commonly related to physical changes. Most of the research applied to impacts on ices has been developed to study and understand the cratering formation process and their physical, geophysical characteristics. Chemical changes and synthesis occurring on icy planetary surfaces are generally explained by the influence of UV photons and high-energy charged particles on ices. Nonetheless, impact process onto ices could be a source of local or global endogenic process and could be especially advantageous as an efficient energy source for driving interesting chemistry. Impacts can ensure that icy surfaces are eventually exposed, for a limited period of time, to aqueous melt in impact craters and ejecta and one can imagine that impurities included in the ice may undergo hydrolysis and other reactions under such conditions. Upon impact, the kinetic energy of the bolide is transferred to the ground liberating a great deal of stress energy which could initiate in situ a diverse series of chemical reactions in the fracture zone beneath the crater (Borucki et al., 2002; Jones and Lewis, 1987). Here we present a new approach testing in laboratory the chemistry conducted by impacts into planetary ices and we report the first experimental results. We have irradiated with a powerful pulsed laser icy mixtures of pure water ices containing CO2, Na2CO3, CH3OH and CH3OH / (NH4)2SO4 at 77K. GC-MS and FTIR analyses show that hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide and methanol are formed in irradiated H2O / CO2 ices. Ice containing sodium carbonate generates under simulated impact CO and CO2 which are also produced in impacted H2O / CH3OH and H2O / CH3OH / (NH4)2SO4 ices. But, in both latter icy mixtures, methane and more complex

  17. FREE TRANSLATIONAL OSCILLATIONS OF ICY BODIES WITH A SUBSURFACE OCEAN USING A VARIATIONAL APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Escapa, A.; Fukushima, T.

    2011-03-15

    We analyze the influence of the interior structure of an icy body with an internal ocean on the relative translational motions of its solid constituents. We consider an isolated body differentiated into three homogeneous layers with spherical symmetry: an external ice-I layer, a subsurface ammonia-water ocean, and a rocky inner core. This composition represents icy bodies such as Europa, Titania, Oberon, and Triton, as well as Pluto, Eris, Sedna, and 2004 DW. We construct the equations of motion by assuming that the solid constituents are rigid and that the ocean is an ideal fluid, the internal motion being characterized by the relative translations of the solids and the induced flow in the fluid. Then we determine the dynamics of the icy body using the methods of analytical mechanics, that is, we compute the kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy, and obtain the Lagrangian function. The resulting solution of the Lagrange equations shows that the solid layers perform translational oscillations of different amplitudes with respect to the barycenter of the body. We derive the dependence of the frequency of the free oscillations of the system on the characteristics of each layer, expressing the period of the oscillations as a function of the densities and masses of the ocean and the rocky inner core, and the mass of the icy body. We apply these results to previously developed subsurface models and obtain numerical values for the period and the ratio between the amplitudes of the translational oscillations of the solid components. The features obtained are quite different from the cases of Earth and Mercury. Our analytical formulas satisfactorily explain the source of these differences. When models of the same icy body, compatible with the existence of an internal ocean, differ in the thickness of the ice-I layer, their associated periods experience a relative variation of at least 10%. In particular, the different models for Titania and Oberon exhibit a

  18. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on consolidated Soil Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiferlin, K.; Heimberg, M.; Thomas, N.

    2007-08-01

    Heat transport in porous media such as soils and regolith is significantly reduced compared to the properties of compact samples of the same material. The bottle neck for solid state heat transport is the contact area between adjacent grains. For "dry" and unconsolidated materials the contact areas and thus the thermal conductivity are extremely small. Sintering and cementation are two processes that can increase the cross section of interstitial bonds signifcantly. On Mars, cementation can be caused by condensation of water or carbon dioxide ice from the vapor phase, or from salts and minerals that fall out from aqueous solutions. We produced several artificially cemented samples, using small glass beads of uniform size as soil analog. The cementation is achieved by initially molten wax that is mixed with the glass beads while liqiud. The wax freezes preferably at the contact points between grains, thus minimizing surface energy, and consolidates the samples. The thermal conductivity of these samples is then measured in vacuum. We present the results of these measurements and compare them with theoretical models. The observed range of thermal conductivity values can explain some, but not all of the variations in thermal intertia that can be seen in TES remote sensing data.

  19. More shock recovery experiments on mesosiderite analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. R.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    Mesosiderites, a small but unique group of stony-iron meteorites with affinities to howardites, eucrites, and pallasites, remain enigmatic in terms of their petrogenesis. They are composed of approximately equal weight proportions of Fe-Ni metal plus troilite and gabbroic, basaltic, and orthopyroxenitic materials. The metal and silicates, which display variable grain sizes and shapes, are delicately intermingled, forming irregular grain boundaries that have been attributed to a wide range of origins from subsolidus metamorphism to supersolidus igneous processes. Perhaps the most relevant question regarding the petrogenesis of mesosiderites is: what is the source and duration of heating that could produce the unequilibrated textures and chemistry of these meteorites? A leading candidate appears to be impacts of metallic core fragments with a differentiated asteroidal surface. This provides not only a suitable source of heat, but also the metal component uniquely required by mesosiderites. A series of shock recovery experiments on mesosiderite analogs has been continued. Textural and chemical similarities have been found that support an impact-derived origin for these unusual meteorites.

  20. Compositional Impact of Io Volcanic Emissions on Jupiter's Magnetosphere and the Icy Galilean Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John; Fegley, Bruce; Lipatov, Alexander; Richardson, John; Sittler, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The magnetospheric ion population of Jupiter is dominated by the 1000 kg/s of iogenic material constantly ejected by IO volcanism as neutral gas (approx. 1 kg/s goes out as high speed dust grains), subsequent atmospheric losses to the IO torus, and radial transport of torus ions throughout the magnetosphere. As that magnetosphere is greatly distended in radial size by the iogenic plasma loading, so are surfaces of the other Galilean moons also significantly, and perhaps even dominantly, affected by iogenic plasma bombardment, e.g. at the level up to 0.2 kg/s heavy ions (mostly O and S) onto Europa as per local plasma ion measurements. In comparison, cometary impacts onto IO deliver about 0.02 kg/s of impact ejecta to Europa via ballistic transfer through the Jupiter system. The magnetosphere of this system operates as a powerful engine to produce and transport ions from the IO source to the surfaces of these other moons, and any future orbiter missions to these moons must account for surface distributions of the iogenic material and its chemical effects before real assessments can be made of sensible chemical materials otherwise arising from primordial formation and subsequent evolution of these moons. This is a fundamental problem of space weathering that must be addressed for all planetary bodies with thin atmospheres and direct surface exposure to their space plasma environments. Long-standing debates from Galileo Orbiter measurements about the origins of hydrate sulfates at Europa present examples of this problem, as to whether the sulfates arise from oceanic minerals or from iogenic sulfur chemistry. Any orbiter or landed mission to Europa for astrobiological investigations would further need to separate the potential chemical biosignatures of life or its precursors from the highly abundant background of iogenic material. Although no single ion carries a tag identifying it as of iogenic or other origin, the elemental abundance distributions of ions to be

  1. Sulfur- and Oyxgen(?)-Rich Cores of Large Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnon, W. B.

    2008-12-01

    The internal structures of Jupiter's large moons, Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, and Titan once Cassini data is sufficiently analyzed, can be usefully compared with those of the terrestrial planets. With sufficient heating we expect not only separation of rock from ice, but also metal from rock. The internally generated dipole magnetic field of Ganymede is perhaps the strongest evidence for this separation, but the gravity field of Io also implies a metallic core. Nevertheless, the evolutionary paths to differentiation taken (or avoided in the case of Callisto) by these worlds are quite different from those presumed to have the governed differentiation of the terrestrial planets, major asteroids, and iron meteorite parent bodies. Several aspects stand out. Slow accretion in gas-starved protosatellite nebulae implies that neither giant, magma-forming impacts were likely, nor were short-lived radiogenic nuclei in sufficient abundance to drive prompt differentiation. Rather, differentiation would have relied on quotidian long-lived radionuclide heating and/or in the cases of Io, Europa, and possibly Ganymede, tidal heating in mean-motion resonances. The best a priori estimate for the composition of the "rock" component near Jupiter and Saturn is solar, and it is this material that is fed into the accretion disks around Jupiter and Saturn, across the gaps the planets likely created in the solar nebula. Solar composition rock implies a sulfur abundance close to the Fe-FeS eutectic (at appropriate pressures). The rocky component of these worlds was likely highly oxidized as well, based on carbonaceous meteorite analogues, implying relatively low Mg#s (by terrestrial standards), lower amounts of Fe metal available for core formation, or even oxidized Fe3O4 as a potential core component. The latter may be important, as an Fe-S-O melt wets silicate grains readily, and thus can easily percolate downward, Elsasser style, to form a core. Nevertheless, the amount of Fe

  2. Distributed Episodic and Analogical Reasoning (DEAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    ends analysis Carbonell 1983 Modeling of Analogy Making Structure Mapping Theory (SMT) Gentner 1984 Agent based approach to analogy making...Mapping Engine (SME) Forbus 1990 Learning by analogy with larger domains Prodigy/Analogy Veloso and Carbonell 1991 Analogical Retrieval Engine MAC/FAC

  3. Ion processing of ices and the origin of SO2 and O3 on the icy surfaces of the icy jovian satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boduch, P.; Brunetto, R.; Ding, J. J.; Domaracka, A.; Kaňuchová, Z.; Palumbo, M. E.; Rothard, H.; Strazzulla, G.

    2016-10-01

    We present new experimental results relative to 144 keV S9+ or Ar9+ ion implantation in targets made of oxygen rich frozen gases (O2, CO2) and mixtures with water ice. Spectra in the UV (200-400 nm) range have been obtained before and after implantation. The targets have been selected because they can be representative of the parent molecules from which SO2 and O3, observed to be present on the surfaces of Jupiter's icy Moons, could be formed due to radiolysis induced by the abundant magnetospheric ions. The results indicate that sulfur dioxide is not detectable after sulfur implantation in oxygen bearing species. Ozone is formed after argon and sulfur ion implantation. Sulfur implantation in O2 and CO2 targets also induces the formation of a band centered at about 255 nm (that we tentatively attribute to SO3- radicals). In the mixtures with water the band appears initially at the same wavelength and shifts to about 247 nm at higher ion fluences possibly indicating the formation of sulfite (HSO3-) ions. An absorption band observed on Ganymede is well fitted by using three components: ozone, sulfite ions and a not identified component having an absorption band centered at 298 nm. In all of the studied cases ion implantation produces a spectral reddening over the investigated spectral range (200-400 nm) that well mimics the observed spectral slopes of Jupiter's icy satellites.

  4. Distinct Aqueous and Hydrocarbon Cryovolcanism on Titan and Other Icy Satellites (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Furfaro, R.; Candelaria, P.

    2010-12-01

    Almost as soon as low-temperature solar nebula condensation sequences were first computed, it was realized that icy satellites have an internal heat source in long-lived radioactivities and could undergo differentiation; furthermore, freezing-point depressants, such as ammonia, and apolar gases, such as methane, could enable icy satellites to undergo aqueous cryovolcanism. The subsequent recognition of tidal and gravitational potential energy sources increased expectations for cryovolcanism. Voyager imaging and discovery of apparent cryovolcanic landforms—best exhibited by Triton, more ambiguous elsewhere-- motivated studies of the phase relations, phase densities and other thermodynamic properties, solid- and liquid-state rheologies, and possible cryovolcanic eruptive behaviors and landform characteristics. Ironically, the closer we examined Jovian icy moons with Galileo, the rarer cryovolcanic landforms appeared to be, with only a few compelling and very well characterized cases found mainly on Europa. Compelling examples of effusive cryovolcanism mainly occupied local topographic lows, whereas cases not in low spots tended to exhibit signs of explosive emplacement. Spectacular evidence of explosive cryovolcanism or geyser-like behavior was found by Cassini on Enceladus, but most other icy Saturnian moons did not reveal any compelling indicators of eruptions. Titan has so far been a mixed case, where some indicators of cryovolcanism have been reported, but there is scant compelling evidence for the process. We think that the sparseness of compelling effusive cryovolcanic features on icy satellites is because free, unreacted ammonia is less common than previously thought, and the main aqueous liquids are salt-water solutions denser than ice I; hence, they tend not to erupt, or they erupt only if driven by gas exsolution; even then, a thin ice shell and high heat flow is needed to allow aqueous liquids near enough to the surface to erupt. On satellites with thick

  5. Testing of Icy-Soil Sample Delivery in Simulated Martian Conditions (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie clip shows testing under simulated Mars conditions on Earth in preparation for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander using its robotic arm for delivering a sample to the doors of a laboratory oven.

    The icy soil used in the testing flowed easily from the scoop during all tests at Martian temperatures. On Mars, icy soil has stuck to the scoop, a surprise that may be related to composition of the soil at the landing site.

    This testing was done at Honeybee Robotics Spacecraft Mechanisms Corp., New York, which supplied the Phoenix scoop.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASAaE(TM)s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. A Low Frequency Radio and Radar Instrument to Explore Jupiter's Icy Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Plaut, J.; Bolton, S. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Zarka, P.; Lecacheux, A.; Bale, S. D.

    2003-01-01

    The addition of a comprehensive wave investigation to the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) science payload will provide a broad range of information on the icy moons of Jupiter including the detection of subsurface liquid oceans; mapping of their ionospheres; their interaction with the magnetospheric environment; and on the Jovian magnetosphere. These measurements are obtained through the use of both passive and active (sounding) means over broad frequency ranges. The frequency range of interest extends from less than 1 Hz to 40 MHz for passive measurements, from approximately 1 kHz to a few MHz for magnetospheric and ionospheric sounding, and between 1 and approximately 10 MHz for subsurface radar sounding. An instrument to detect subsurface radar sounding, magnetospheric interactions, and ionospheric sounding is discussed.

  7. Detection of insects in grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detecting insects hidden inside kernels of grain is important to grain buyers because internal infestations can result in insect fragments in products made from the grain, or, if the grain is stored before use, the insect population can increase and damage the grain further. In a study in the Unite...

  8. Impact of coastal processes on resource development with an example from Icy Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    1978-01-01

    The coastline of Alaska is dynamic and continually readjusting to changes in the many processes that operate in the coastal zone. Because of this dynamic nature, special consideration must be made in planning for development, and. caution must be exercised in site selection for facilities to be emplaced in the coastal zone. All types of coastal processes from continuously active normal processes to the low frequency-high intensity rare event must be considered. Site-specific evaluation-s considering the broad range of possible processes must precede initiation of development. An example of the relation between coastal processes and a proposed resource treatment facility is presented for Icy Bay, Alaska. Icy Bay is the only sheltered bay near many of the offshore tracts leased for petroleum exploration in the 1976 northern Gulf of Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) lease sale. Consequently, it has been selected as a primary onshore staging site for the support of offshore exploration and development. The environment of Icy Bay has many potentially hazardous features, including a submarine moraine at the bay mouth and actively calving glaciers at the bay's head which produce many icebergs. But most significant from the point of view of locating onshore facilities and pipeline corridors are the high rates of shoreline erosion and sediment deposition. If pipelines or any onshore staging facilities are to be placed in the coastal areas of Icy Bay, then the dynamic changes in shoreline position must be considered so that man-made structures will not be eroded away or be silted in before the completion of development.

  9. Power-Conversion Concept Designed for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2004-01-01

    The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) is a bold new mission being developed by NASA's Office of Space Science under Project Prometheus. JIMO is examining the potential of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) technology to efficiently deliver scientific payloads to three of Jupiter's moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa. A critical element of the NEP spacecraft is the space reactor power system (SRPS), consisting of the nuclear reactor, power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD).

  10. Efficacy of a rubber outsole with a hybrid surface pattern for preventing slips on icy surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Hsu, Jennifer; Li, Yue; Maki, Brian E

    2015-11-01

    Conventional winter-safety footwear devices, such as crampons, can be effective in preventing slips on icy surfaces but the protruding studs can lead to other problems such as trips. A new hybrid (rough and smooth) rubber outsole was designed to provide high slip resistance without use of protruding studs or asperities. In the present study, we examined the slip resistance of the hybrid rubber outsole on both dry (-10 °C) and wet (0 °C) icy surfaces, in comparison to three conventional strap-on winter anti-slip devices: 1) metal coils ("Yaktrax Walker"), 2) gritted (sandpaper-like) straps ("Rough Grip"), and 3) crampons ("Altagrips-Lite"). Drag tests were performed to measure static (SCOF) and dynamic (DCOF) coefficients of friction, and gait trials were conducted on both level and sloped ice surfaces (16 participants). The drag-test results showed relatively high SCOF (≧0.37) and DCOF (≧0.31) values for the hybrid rubber sole, at both temperatures. The other three footwear types exhibited lower DCOF values (0.06-0.20) when compared with the hybrid rubber sole at 0 °C (p < 0.01). Slips were more frequent when wearing the metal coils, in comparison to the other footwear types, when descending a slope at -10 °C (6% of trials vs 0%; p < 0.05). There were no other significant footwear-related differences in slip frequency, distance or velocity. These results indicate that the slip-resistance of the hybrid rubber sole on icy surfaces was comparable to conventional anti-slip footwear devices. Given the likely advantages of the hybrid rubber sole (less susceptibility to tripping, better slip resistance on non-icy surfaces), this type of sole should contribute to a decrease in fall accidents; however, further research is needed to confirm its effectiveness under a wider range of test conditions.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium amycolatum Strain ICIS 53 Isolated from a Female Urogenital Tract.

    PubMed

    Gladysheva, Irina V; Cherkasov, Sergey V; Khlopko, Yuriy A; Plotnikov, Andrey O; Gogoleva, Natalya E

    2016-11-10

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium amycolatum strain ICIS 53, isolated from the reproductive tract of a healthy woman. The size of the genome was 2,460,257 bp (58.98% G+C content). Annotation revealed 2,173 coding sequences, including 2,076 proteins, 7 rRNA genes, and 53 tRNA genes.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium amycolatum Strain ICIS 53 Isolated from a Female Urogenital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cherkasov, Sergey V.; Khlopko, Yuriy A.; Plotnikov, Andrey O.; Gogoleva, Natalya E.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium amycolatum strain ICIS 53, isolated from the reproductive tract of a healthy woman. The size of the genome was 2,460,257 bp (58.98% G+C content). Annotation revealed 2,173 coding sequences, including 2,076 proteins, 7 rRNA genes, and 53 tRNA genes. PMID:27834713

  13. Thickness Constraints on the Icy Shells of the Galilean Satellites from a Comparison of Crater Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    2002-01-01

    A thin outer ice shell on Jupiter's large moon Europa would imply easy exchange between the surface and any organic or biotic material in its putative subsurface ocean. The thickness of the outer ice shell is poorly constrained, however, with model-dependent estimates ranging from a few kilometers of depths of impact craters on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto that reveal two anomalous transitions in crater shape with diameter. The first transition is probably related to temperature-dependent ductility of the crust at shallow depths (7-8 km on Europa). The second transition is attributed to the influence of subsurface oceans on all three satellites, which constrains Europa's icy shell to be at least 19 km thick. The icy lithospheres of Ganymede and Callisto are equally ice-rich, but Europa's icy shell has a thermal structure about 0.25-0.5 times the thickness of Ganymede's or Callisto's shells, depending on epoch. The appearances of the craters on Europa are inconsistent with thin-ice-shell models and indicate that exchange of oceanic and surface material could be difficult.

  14. Preliminary Design of ICI-based Multimedia for Reconceptualizing Electric Conceptions at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsudin, A.; Suhandi, A.; Rusdiana, D.; Kaniawati, I.

    2016-08-01

    Interactive Conceptual Instruction (ICI) based Multimedia has been developed to represent the electric concepts turn into more real and meaningful learning. The initial design of ICI based multimedia is a multimedia computer that allows users to explore the entire electric concepts in terms of the existing conceptual and practical. Pre-service physics teachers should be provided with the learning that could optimize the conceptions held by re-conceptualizing concepts in Basic Physics II, especially the concepts about electricity. To collect and to analyze the data genuinely and comprehensively, researchers utilized a developing method of ADDIE which has comprehensive steps: analyzing, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The ADDIE developing steps has been utilized to describe comprehensively from the phase of analysis program up until the evaluation program. Based on data analysis, it can be concluded that ICI-based multimedia could effectively increase the pre-service physics teachers’ understanding on electric conceptions for re-conceptualizing electric conceptions at Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia.

  15. JUICE: A European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The recently selected European Space Agency mission JUICE (JUipter ICy moon Explorer), is planned for launch in 2022. Details of the mission will be described, including the payload, planned orbits and the resulting science. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. The mission will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales. Focused studies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. JUICE spacecraft at Ganymede (courtesy Mike Carroll)

  16. Identification of ICIS-1, a new protein involved in cilia stability.

    PubMed

    Ponsard, Cecile; Skowron-Zwarg, Marie; Seltzer, Virginie; Perret, Eric; Gallinger, Julia; Fisch, Cathy; Dupuis-Williams, Pascale; Caruso, Nathalie; Middendorp, Sandrine; Tournier, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    Cilia are specialized organelles that exert critical functions in numerous organisms, including that of cell motility, fluid transport and protozoan locomotion. Ciliary architecture and function strictly depend on basal body formation, migration and axoneme elongation. Numerous ultrastructural studies have been undertaken in different species to elucidate the process of ciliogenesis. Recent analyses have led to identification of genes specifically expressed in ciliated organisms, but most proteins involved in ciliogenesis remain uncharacterized. Using human nasal epithelial cells capable of ciliary differentiation in vitro, differential display was carried out to identify new proteins associated with ciliogenesis. We isolated a new gene, ICIS-1 (Involved in CIlia Stability-1), upregulated during mucociliary differentiation. This gene is localized within the TGF-beta1 promoter and is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. Functional analyses of gene expression inhibition by RNA interference in Paramecium tetraurelia indicated that the ICIS-1 homologue interfered with cilia stability or formation. These findings demonstrate that ICIS-1 is a new protein associated with ciliated cells and potentially related to cilia stability.

  17. Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from a comparison of crater shapes.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Paul M

    2002-05-23

    A thin outer ice shell on Jupiter's large moon Europa would imply easy exchange between the surface and any organic or biotic material in its putative subsurface ocean. The thickness of the outer ice shell is poorly constrained, however, with model-dependent estimates ranging from a few kilometres to ten or more kilometres. Here I present measurements of depths of impact craters on Europa, Ganymede and Callisto that reveal two anomalous transitions in crater shape with diameter. The first transition is probably related to temperature-dependent ductility of the crust at shallow depths (7 8 km on Europa). The second transition is attributed to the influence of subsurface oceans on all three satellites, which constrains Europa's icy shell to be at least 19 km thick. The icy lithospheres of Ganymede and Callisto are equally ice-rich, but Europa's icy shell has a thermal structure about 0.25 0.5 times the thicknesses of Ganymede's or Callisto's shells, depending on epoch. The appearances of the craters on Europa are inconsistent with thin-ice-shell models and indicate that exchange of oceanic and surface material could be difficult.

  18. A passive probe for subsurface oceans and liquid water in Jupiter's icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Wolf, Andrew; Vance, Steve; Maiwald, Frank; Heggy, Essam; Ries, Paul; Liewer, Kurt

    2015-03-01

    We describe an interferometric reflectometer method for passive detection of subsurface oceans and liquid water in jovian icy moons using Jupiter's decametric radio emission (DAM). The DAM flux density exceeds 3000 times the galactic background in the neighborhood of the jovian icy moons, providing a signal that could be used for passive radio sounding. An instrument located between the icy moon and Jupiter could sample the DAM emission along with its echoes reflected in the ice layer of the target moon. Cross-correlating the direct emission with the echoes would provide a measurement of the ice shell thickness along with its dielectric properties. The interferometric reflectometer provides a simple solution to sub-jovian radio sounding of ice shells that is complementary to ice penetrating radar measurements better suited to measurements in the anti-jovian hemisphere that shadows Jupiter's strong decametric emission. The passive nature of this technique also serves as risk reduction in case of radar transmitter failure. The interferometric reflectometer could operate with electrically short antennas, thus extending ice depth measurements to lower frequencies, and potentially providing a deeper view into the ice shells of jovian moons.

  19. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26. The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass).

  20. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prialnik, Dina; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    1990-05-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26. The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass).

  1. Heating and melting of small icy satellites by the decay of Al-26

    SciTech Connect

    Prialnik, D.; Bar-Nun, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The effect of radiogenic heating due to Al-26 on the thermal evolution of small icy satellites is studied. The object is to find the extent of internal melting as a function of the satellite radius and of the initial Al-26 abundance. The implicit assumption, based on observations of young stars, is that planet and satellite accretion occurred on a time scale of about 10 to the 6th yr (comparable with the lifetime of Al-26). The icy satellites are modeled as spheres of initially amorphous ice, with chondritic abundances of K-40, Th-232, U-235, and U-238, corresponding to an ice/dust mass ratio of 1. Evolutionary calculations are carried out, spanning 4.5 x 10 to the 9th yr, for different combinations of the two free parameters. Heat transfer by subsolidus convection is neglected for these small satellites. The main conclusion is that the initial Al-26 abundance capable of melting icy bodies of satellite size to a significant extent is more than 10 times lower than that prevailing in the interstellar medium (or that inferred from the Ca-Al rich inclusions of the Allende meteorite, about 7 x 10 to the -7th by mass). 34 refs.

  2. Brine Pockets in the Icy Shell on Europa: Distribution, Chemistry, and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolotov, M. Yu; Shock, E. L.; Barr, A. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    On Earth, sea ice is rich in brine, salt, and gas inclusions that form through capturing of seawater during ice formation. Cooling of the ice over time leads to sequential freezing of captured sea-water, precipitation of salts, exsolution of gases, and formation of brine channels and pockets. Distribution and composition of brines in sea ice depend on the rate of ice formation, vertical temperature gradient, and the age of the ice. With aging, the abundance of brine pockets decreases through downward migration. De- spite low temperatures and elevated salinities, brines in sea ice provide a habitat for photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organisms. On Europa, brine pockets and channels could exist in the icy shell that may be from a few km to a few tens of km thick and is probably underlain by a water ocean. If the icy shell is relatively thick, convection could develop, affecting the temperature pattern in the ice. To predict the distribution and chemistry of brine pockets in the icy shell we have combined numerical models of the temperature distribution within a convecting shell, a model for oceanic chemistry, and a model for freezing of Europan oceanic water. Possible effects of brine and gas inclusions on ice rheology and tectonics are discussed.

  3. Convection in grain refining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between fluid flow phenomena, nucleation, and grain refinement in solidifying metals both in the presence and in the absence of a gravitational field was investigated. The reduction of grain size in hard-to-process melts; the effects of undercooling on structure in solidification processes, including rapid solidification processing; and control of this undercooling to improve structures of solidified melts are considered. Grain refining and supercooling thermal modeling of the solidification process, and heat and fluid flow phenomena in the levitated metal droplets are described.

  4. Solving a problem by analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Don

    1999-03-01

    This note is a description of a student solution to a problem. I found the solution exciting because it exemplifies the kind of solution by analogy that Feynman describes in The Feynman Lectures on Physics.

  5. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  6. Analog actuator-piston memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sable, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    Simple analog control system of digitally controlled acuator uses 'stopped' position of actuator as 'memory' and potentiometer as sensing element during power failure to reload drive circuit to value equal to its last position preceding power loss.

  7. Analog device simulates physiological waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, D. M.

    1964-01-01

    An analog physiological simulator generates representative waveforms for a wide range of physiological conditions. Direct comparison of these waveforms with those from telemetric inputs permits quick detection of signal parameter degradation.

  8. Introduction to Analog Field Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA tests systems and operational concepts in analog environments, which include locations underwater, in the arctic, on terrestrial impact craters, in the desert, and on the International Space S...

  9. Crater formation and modification on the icy satellites of Uranus and Saturn: Depth/diameter and central peak occurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Schenk, P.M. )

    1989-04-10

    Depth/diameters (d/D) for fresh craters on the intermediate-sized icy satellites of Uranus and Saturn have been determined using photoclinometry and shadow lengths, and are compared with similar measurements on the terrestrial planets. Simple bowl-shaped craters on icy satellites, including those on Miranda for which the highest resolution data are available, are systematically 20-40% shallower than on the terrestrial planets. This pronounced difference between crater depths on icy and rocky surfaces indicates that differences in impact velocity or surface gravity are not as important as the differences in mechanical properties between ice and rock in controlling simple crater morphology. Experimental impact studies indicate that differences in material properties such as angle of internal friction can control crater depth. Complex craters on the icy satellites become significantly deeper with increasing crater diameters, unlike complex craters on terrestrial planets, which are nearly constant in depth. Central peaks, and hence floor rebound, are also volumetrically and morphologically more prominent than wall slumping (rim collapse) on the icy satellites. The transition diameter from simple to complex morphology is inversely correlated with gravity, as it is on the terrestrial planets, but at significantly smaller diameters than would be expected from a simple extrapolation of the terrestrial trend. The distinct, systematic differences between crater morphology on icy and rocky worlds indicate that gross material property differences between rock and ices play a key role in crater formation and modification, but gravity is still the primary driving force.

  10. All About the Grains Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Grains Group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is ... bulgur (cracked wheat), oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice. Refined grains have been milled, a process that ...

  11. The Robustness of Acoustic Analogies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, J. B.; Lele, S. K.; Wei, M.

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic analogies for the prediction of flow noise are exact rearrangements of the flow equations N(right arrow q) = 0 into a nominal sound source S(right arrow q) and sound propagation operator L such that L(right arrow q) = S(right arrow q). In practice, the sound source is typically modeled and the propagation operator inverted to make predictions. Since the rearrangement is exact, any sufficiently accurate model of the source will yield the correct sound, so other factors must determine the merits of any particular formulation. Using data from a two-dimensional mixing layer direct numerical simulation (DNS), we evaluate the robustness of two analogy formulations to different errors intentionally introduced into the source. The motivation is that since S can not be perfectly modeled, analogies that are less sensitive to errors in S are preferable. Our assessment is made within the framework of Goldstein's generalized acoustic analogy, in which different choices of a base flow used in constructing L give different sources S and thus different analogies. A uniform base flow yields a Lighthill-like analogy, which we evaluate against a formulation in which the base flow is the actual mean flow of the DNS. The more complex mean flow formulation is found to be significantly more robust to errors in the energetic turbulent fluctuations, but its advantage is less pronounced when errors are made in the smaller scales.

  12. Current Status of Japanese Participation to Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer "JUICE"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Sasaki, S.; Kimura, J.; Tohara, K.; Fujimoto, M.; Sekine, Y.

    2015-12-01

    JUICE is an ESA's L-class mission to Explore Jupiter Icy Moons. The science objectives of JUICE is to understand (1) emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants and (2) Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. JUICE was mission adopted in November 2014. JUICE will be launched by Arian-5. After 7.5 years of interplanetary transfer and Earth-Venus-Earth-Earth gravity assists JUICE will be inserted into an orbit around Jupiter in January 2030. JUICE will make observation of all the three Jupiter icy Moons that potentially have subsurface ocean under the icy crust. After inserted into Ganymede orbit in 2032, JUICE will make detailed observation of the largest Icy Moon in the solar system. Three Japanese groups were selected to provide part of the three science instruments RPWI, GALA, and PEP/JNA. Two Japanese groups were also selected as science Co-I of two instrument groups JANUS and J-MAG. JUICE is the first mission for ISAS/JAXA to participate to foreign large science mission as a junior partner who will provide part of the science instruments. Taking into account all the data to be obtained by 5 instruments that JUICE-JAPAN will participate, Japanese team will be able to contribute to most of the major science objectives relating with planet Jupiter (JANUS), Jupiter magnetosphere (PEP/JNA, RPWI, and J-MAG), and Icy Moons (GALA, J-MAG, and JANUS). JUICE-JAPAN Working Group (WG) was established in September 2013. JUICE-JAPAN WG submitted a proposal for ISAS/JAXA small project in February 2014. JUICE-JAPAN WG passed the MDR in September 2014. JUICE-JAPAN passed the ISAS SRR that was held in April 2015 and also passed the ISAS project preparation review that was held in May 2015. Currently JUICE-JAPAN is an ISAS pre-project. In the future, SDR is scheduled in the end of 2015, PDR is scheduled in 2016 and CDR is scheduled in 2017. JUICE is a long-term mission that will be completed about 20 years from now. It is quite important to take place a necessary change

  13. Fractal analysis on Enceladus: a global ocean underneath the icy crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Mazzarini, Francesco; Cremonese, Gabriele; Simioni, Emanuele; Massironi, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Plumes of water have been observed erupting from Enceladus' south polar terrain providing direct evidence of a reservoir of liquid below the surface, that could be considered global or just a small body of water concentrated at its south pole. Gravity data collected during the spacecraft's several close flyby over the south polar region determined that the icy shell above the liquid ocean must be 30-40 km thick extending from the south pole up to 50°S (Iess et al. 2014). The hypothesis of a global ocean beneath the icy crust has been raised even in a recent paper of Thomas et al. (2015) thanks to the measurements of the very slight wobble that Enceladus displays as it orbits Saturn. In this work we support the hypothesis of the presence of an ocean layer using the fractal percolation theory. This method allowed us to estimate the icy shell thickness values in different regions of Enceladus from the south polar terrain up to the north pole. The spatial distribution of fractures on Enceladus has been analyzed in terms of their self-similar clustering and a two-point correlation method was used to measure the fractal dimension of the fractures population (Mazzarini, 2004, 2010). A self-similar clustering of fractures is characterized by a correlation coefficient with a size range defined by a lower and upper cut-off, that represent a mechanical discontinuity and the thickness of the fractured icy crust, thus connected to the liquid reservoir. We mapped the fractures on Enceladus surface based on April 2010 global mosaic from Cassini mission and applied the fractal method firstly to the south polar terrain finding indeed a fractal correlation of fractures and providing an ice shell thickness of ~40 km. Then, we analyzed fractures of four different regions around the equator and around the north pole inferring an overall ice shell thickness ranging from 35 to 45 km. Our results are in agreement with the gravity observations (Iess et al., 2014) and the mechanical models

  14. Whole Grains and Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oct 11,2016 Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, corn, or another cereal is a grain ... wheat, oats/oatmeal, rye, barley, corn, popcorn, brown rice, wild rice, buckwheat, triticale, bulgur (cracked wheat), millet, ...

  15. The (impossible?) formation of acetaldehyde on the grain surfaces: insights from quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrique-Romero, J.; Rimola, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Balucani, N.

    2016-06-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, it is not clear whether their synthesis occurs on the icy surfaces of interstellar grains or via a series of gas-phase reactions. As a test case of the COMs synthesis in the ISM, we present new quantum chemical calculations on the formation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) from the coupling of the HCO and CH3 radicals, both in gas phase and on water ice surfaces. The binding energies of HCO and CH3 on the amorphous water ice were also computed (2333 and 734 K, respectively). Results indicate that, in gas phase, the products could be either CH3CHO, CH4 + CO, or CH3OCH, depending on the relative orientation of the two radicals. However, on the amorphous water ice, only the CH4 + CO product is possible due to the geometrical constraints imposed by the water ice surface. Therefore, acetaldehyde cannot be synthesized by the CH3 + HCO coupling on the icy grains. We discuss the implications of these results and other cases, such as ethylene glycol and dimethyl ether, in which similar situations can occur, suggesting that formation of these molecules on the grain surfaces might be unlikely.

  16. Phase behavior and thermodynamic modeling of ices - implications for the geophysics of icy satellites. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukroun, M.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-based observations and space missions to the outer Solar System (Voyager, Galileo, Cassini-Huygens) have evidenced recent geologic activity on many satellites of the giant planets. The diversity in surface expression of these icy moons’ activity is striking: from a scarred and young surface on Europa,1 with hydrated salts that may originate from a liquid layer buried at depth,2 to the South Polar plumes of Enceladus,3 where water ice particles are expelled along with a myriad of more complex molecules,4 to Titan, largest satellite of Saturn, with a dense atmosphere and a hydrocarbon cycle similar to the hydrological cycle on Earth.5 Large icy moons, i.e. with a radius greater than 500 km, share two particularities: a high content in water (on the order of a 30-70% bulk composition), and an interior segregated between a water-dominated mantle and a silicate-dominated core. The many forms water may have beneath the surface (ice polymorphs, liquid, hydrated compounds) bear a crucial role in the detected or alleged activity, and in the potential for astrobiological relevance. Indeed, any endogenic activity can only be approached through geophysical modelling of the internal structure and the thermal evolution. Current internal structure models for the icy moonse.g.,6 rely mainly on the contribution of each internal layer to the moment of inertia, generating non-unique solutions due to the large variability in density of H2O-bearing phases. Thermal evolution models,e.g.,7 can help constrain further the internal structure and geophysical activity, by starting with a given initial composition and state and investigating the thickening of icy layers through time. However, such models require both observational datasets and a precise description, as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition, of the thermophysical properties of the individual layers. Over the past century, experimental studies have provided a comprehensive view of the phase diagram of

  17. Analog approach to mixed analog-digital circuit simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrodzki, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Logic simulation of digital circuits is a well explored research area. Most up-to-date CAD tools for digital circuits simulation use an event driven, selective trace algorithm and Hardware Description Languages (HDL), e.g. the VHDL. This techniques enable simulation of mixed circuits, as well, where an analog part is connected to the digital one through D/A and A/D converters. The event-driven mixed simulation applies a unified, digital-circuits dedicated method to both digital and analog subsystems. In recent years HDL techniques have been also applied to mixed domains, as e.g. in the VHDL-AMS. This paper presents an approach dual to the event-driven one, where an analog part together with a digital one and with converters is treated as the analog subsystem and is simulated by means of circuit simulation techniques. In our problem an analog solver used yields some numerical problems caused by nonlinearities of digital elements. Efficient methods for overriding these difficulties have been proposed.

  18. Analysis of EBSD Grain Size Measurements Using Microstructure Simulations and a Customizable Pattern Matching Library for Grain Perimeter Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutinho, Y. A.; Rooney, S. C. K.; Payton, E. J.

    2017-03-01

    Grain size data from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) maps are often reported as the mean of the circle equivalent diameters of the measured grain areas. Circle equivalent diameters are not directly comparable to the lineal intercept measurements more historically common for grain size characterization in analog optical microscopy. While the value of mean lineal intercept is the same in 2D and 3D for a given probe direction, the mean 2D circle equivalent section diameter is not directly related to any 3D property. Estimation of mean lineal intercept from circle equivalent diameter is usually carried out by again assuming feature circularity, despite the obvious corners that are inherent to grains from the requirements of space filling. A direct conversion between section areas and lineal intercepts can be performed if the grain perimeters are known. In the present work, a novel pattern matching library approach is investigated for measurement of grain perimeters using simulated 2D EBSD maps. The results are compared to alternative approaches for perimeter measurement and assessed with respect to spatial resolution, grain size distribution parameters, and relevant ASTM and ISO measurement standards. The benefits and drawbacks of each approach are discussed. Empirical estimators for conversion between lineal intercept, circle equivalent diameter, and ASTM grain size number are presented.

  19. Testing Grain Surface Chemistry in Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, Jacqueline; Boogert, Adwin

    2008-03-01

    The key chemical reactions that produce the first generation ice mantles in dense molecular clouds are still poorly known. Within cold, dense clouds, species formed in the gas and on the grain surfaces will stick to the grains and form icy mantles. However, during star-formation, materials in the general cloud medium are subjected to numerous chemical and physical processes that are driven mostly by thermal and energetic radiation. The comparison between background stars and protostars is a proven excellent tool for this purpose. By comparing observed interstellar solid state abundances with models of grain surface chemistry it is possible to elucidate the efficiency and hence relevancy of a number of chemical reactions, in particular the CO_2 formation pathways. In part because of Spitzer, significant progress has been made towards understanding the various effects of these radiation processes on the ices around a large sample of high- and low-mass protostars. First results suggest that two different CO2 formation pathways play a role in these harsh environments. Though which reaction initially dominated the chemistry is unknown due to the numerous physical processes. Unfortunately, only a small sample of background field stars have been observed, most notably Taurus. In Taurus, only one reaction pathway appears to be efficient in quiescent regions, but this result is sample limited. We propose to take low resolution spectra from 5 to 22 microns along the line of sight toward 31 field stars behind the LDN 673 molecular cloud. Differences in near-IR ice chemistry have already been observed and we will use these mid-infrared data to provide more stringent constraints on chemical models of grain surface chemistry. With this sample it is possible to address fundamental questions in astrochemistry: what are the dominant grain surface chemistry pathways? What is the composition of the first generation ice mantles in molecular clouds?

  20. Grain Surface Chemistry and the Composition of Interstellar Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Submicron sized dust grains are an important component of the interstellar medium. In particular they provide surface where active chemistry can take place. At the low temperatures (-10 K) of the interstellar medium, colliding gas phase species will stick, diffuse, react, and form an icy mantle on these dust grains. This talk will review the principles of grain surface chemistry and delineate important grain surface routes, focusing on reactions involving H, D, and O among each other and with molecules such as CO. Interstellar ice mantles can be studied through the fundamental vibrations of molecular species in the mid-infrared spectra of sources embedded in or located behind dense molecular clouds. Analysis of this type of data has provided a complex view of the composition of these ices and the processes involved. Specifically, besides grain surface chemistry, the composition of interstellar ices is also affected by thermal processing due to nearby newly formed stars. This leads to segregation between different ice components as well as outgassing. The latter results in the formation of a so-called Hot Core region with a gas phase composition dominated by evaporated mantle species. Studies of such regions provide thus a different view on the ice composition and the chemical processes involved. Interstellar ices can also be processed by FUV photons and high energy cosmic ray ions. Cosmic ray processing likely dominates the return of accreted species to the gas phase where further gas phase reactions can take place. These different chemical routes towards molecular complexity in molecular clouds and particularly regions of star formation will be discussed.

  1. Habitability of the giant icy moons: current knowledge and future insights from the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Fletcher, L.; van Hoolst, T.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Wielders, A.

    2012-09-01

    Large satellites of gas giants, at orbits beyond the snow-line, such as Jupiter or Saturn, can contain a large amount of water (almost 45% in mass). Hydrospheres are extremely thick, ~600 km for Ganymede and Callisto, and may possess liquid layers below the icy crust. Thus, the Galilean satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft revealed the potential of these satellites in this context. The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will greatly enhance our understanding of their potential habitability. It is known, even at Earth where life mostly depends on solar energy, that habitats exist deep in the oceans in eternal darkness feeding on chemical energy. Aqueous layers are suspected below the icy crusts of the moons, which possess similar physical characteristics than Earth's deep oceans. Since they are certainly very stable through time, and because complex chemistry and energy sources may be available, life may have originated within such subsurface habitats despite the hostile surface conditions. Liquid water reservoirs have been proposed on Ganymede, Europa and Callisto from geophysical models, based on Galileo observations. These oceans that are covered by ice shells exist independently of the input of stellar energy, and are located well outside the conventional habitable zone of the Sun. Considering the pressure range encountered within the icy moons, four different scenarios can be defined. These result from varying thicknesses of the water ice layers and the liquid ocean with respect to the silicate floor (Figure 1). Case 2 in Figure 1 is highly probable for the largest moons (Ganymede and Callisto), while case 3 is more probable for Europa and smaller icy moons if they host liquid reservoirs such as has been discovered at Enceladus. Europa's ocean is unique because it may be in contact with the rock layer. This substrate may be

  2. Film grain synthesis and its application to re-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallauer, Peter; Mörzinger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Digital film restoration and special effects compositing require more and more automatic procedures for movie regraining. Missing or inhomogeneous grain decreases perceived quality. For the purpose of grain synthesis an existing texture synthesis algorithm has been evaluated and optimized. We show that this algorithm can produce synthetic grain which is perceptually similar to a given grain template, which has high spatial and temporal variation and which can be applied to multi-spectral images. Furthermore a re-grain application framework is proposed, which synthesises based on an input grain template artificial grain and composites this together with the original image content. Due to its modular approach this framework supports manual as well as automatic re-graining applications. Two example applications are presented, one for re-graining an entire movie and one for fully automatic re-graining of image regions produced by restoration algorithms. Low computational cost of the proposed algorithms allows application in industrial grade software.

  3. All-optical analog comparator.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-23

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical '1' or '0' by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  4. All-optical analog comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-08-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function.

  5. All-optical analog comparator

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pu; Yi, Xiaogang; Liu, Xianglian; Zhao, Dongliang; Zhao, Yongpeng; Wang, Yuncai

    2016-01-01

    An analog comparator is one of the core units in all-optical analog-to-digital conversion (AO-ADC) systems, which digitizes different amplitude levels into two levels of logical ‘1’ or ‘0’ by comparing with a defined decision threshold. Although various outstanding photonic ADC approaches have been reported, almost all of them necessitate an electrical comparator to carry out this binarization. The use of an electrical comparator is in contradiction to the aim of developing all-optical devices. In this work, we propose a new concept of an all-optical analog comparator and numerically demonstrate an implementation based on a quarter-wavelength-shifted distributed feedback laser diode (QWS DFB-LD) with multiple quantum well (MQW) structures. Our results show that the all-optical comparator is very well suited for true AO-ADCs, enabling the whole digital conversion from an analog optical signal (continuous-time signal or discrete pulse signal) to a binary representation totally in the optical domain. In particular, this all-optical analog comparator possesses a low threshold power (several mW), high extinction ratio (up to 40 dB), fast operation rate (of the order of tens of Gb/s) and a step-like transfer function. PMID:27550874

  6. Teaching Scientific Analogies: A Proposed Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Hassan Hussein

    Cognitive psychologists have recently alluded to the role analogies might play in learning unfamiliar topics. However, since the use of analogies in science teaching has not been adequately addressed, analogies mean different things to different people. Therefore, a model for the teaching of scientific analogies is proposed. A theoretical…

  7. Analogies in Science and Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Simon; Salter, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Analogies are often used in science, but students may not appreciate their significance, and so the analogies can be misunderstood or discounted. For this reason, educationalists often express concern about the use of analogies in teaching. Given the important place of analogies in the discourse of science, it is necessary that students are…

  8. Natural analogs for Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-11-01

    High-level radioactive waste in the US, spent fuels from commercial reactors and nuclear materials generated by defense activities, will remain potentially hazardous for thousands of years. Demonstrable long-term stability of certain geologic and geochemical systems motivates and sustains the concept that high-level waste can be safely isolated in geologic repositories for requisite periods of time. Each geologic repository is unique in its properties and performance with reguard to isolation of nuclear wastes. Studies of processes analogous to waste-form alteration and radioelement transport in environments analogous to Yucca Mountain are being conducted at two sites, described in this article to illustrate uses of natural analog data: the Nopal I uranium deposit in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Mexico, and the Akrotiri archaeological site on the island of Santorini, Greece.

  9. Grain fever syndrome induced by inhalation of airborne grain dust.

    PubMed

    doPico, G A; Flaherty, D; Bhansali, P; Chavaje, N

    1982-05-01

    To study the clinical and physiologic manifestations of the grain fever syndrome and the potentially pathogenic role of complement activation, 12 subjects (six grain workers and six healthy non-grain workers) underwent inhalation provocations with airborne grain dust. The clinical response was characterized by facial warmth, headache, malaise, myalgias, feverish sensation, chilliness, throat and tracheal burning sensation, chest tightness, dyspnea, cough, and expectoration. Fever developed in four grain workers and two controls. Leukocytosis, ranging between 11,700 and 24,300 leukocytes/mm3 with left shift, developed in five grain workers and five controls. There was no evidence of complement activation by the classical or alternate pathway. None of the subjects had serum precipitins to grain dust. The pulmonary response was characterized by a decrease in FEV1, FVC, MMF, Vmax50, and Vmax75, with significant rise in pulmonary resistance and consistent change in dynamic compliance but without changes in static compliance or diffusing capacity. Hence, grain dust inhalation induced diffuse airways obstruction without detectable parenchymal reaction. The airways response to high concentrations of grain dust inhalation were unrelated to the presence of immediate skin hypersensitivity. Although we cannot exclude the etiopathogenetic role of an immunologic reaction to grain dust, our data do not support the hypothesis that the grain fever syndrome is a precipitin-mediated allergic pneumonitis. More likely, the manifestations of grain fever probably reflect the host reaction to grain dust bacterial endotoxins and/or nonallergic mediator release by grain or grain dust constituents.

  10. Negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size: analytical formulation and experimental confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmasry, M.; Liu, F.; Jiang, Y.; Mao, Z. N.; Liu, Y.; Wang, J. T.

    2017-01-01

    The catalyzing effect on nucleation of recrystallization from pre-existing grains is analyzed, analogy to the foreign nucleus size effect in heterogeneous nucleation. Analytical formulation of the effective nucleation site for recrystallization leads to a negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size. Non-isochronal annealing, where annealing time is set just enough for the completion of recrystallization at different temperature, is conducted on pure copper after severe plastic deformation. More homogeneous and smaller grains are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The good fitting between analytical and experimental results unveils the intrinsic feature of this negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size.

  11. Analog circuits for relaxation networks.

    PubMed

    Card, H

    1993-12-01

    Selected examples are presented of recent advances, primarily from the U.S. and Canada, in analog circuits for relaxation networks. Relaxation networks having feedback connections exhibit potentially greater computational power per neuron than feedforward networks. They are also more poorly understood especially with respect to learning algorithms. Examples are described of analog circuits for (i) supervised learning in deterministic Boltzmann machines, (ii) unsupervised competitive learning and feature maps and (iii) networks with resistive grids for vision and audition tasks. We also discuss recent progress on in-circuit learning and synaptic weight storage mechanisms.

  12. Relative astrobiological potential of irradiated icy bodies in the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    A common factor uniting icy moons with either putative subsurface oceans or evident cryo-volcanic activity is that these reside in the magnetospheres of the giant planets. Interestingly, the two known active moons, Enceladus and Triton, are not in the giant planet magnetosphere with the most extreme radiation, that of Jupiter. Either such radiation has little connection to activity, or else it might have an inhibiting effect at extreme levels such as at Europa. The astrobiological potential of Europa is generally thought to be the highest of the three Galilean icy moons, mainly since the putative global ocean would be closest to the surface, and yet there is little evidence for any significant abundance of organics at the surface. In contrast, ac-tive Enceladus clearly does have easily detectable abundances of simple hydrocarbons and may also have subsurface liquid water. The relatively shorter lifetimes with respect to radilolytic destruction might explain absence of surface organics on Europa, but the lack of gas-driven activity there also suggests absence of redox chemistry important to life as we know it. In the context of a model for gas produced by oxidation processes from radiolytic oxidants, Cooper et al. (Plan. Sp. Sci., 2009) earlier suggested that Europa, enveloped in a surface-bound oxygen atmosphere not detectably present at Enceladus, could be in an extreme state of oxidation to the limit that organics could not survive anywhere in the outer ice crust or underlying ocean. Could that mean that astrobiological potential is higher on Enceladus and even on Triton than on Europa? It is also noted that bright large Kuiper Belt Objects such as Eris may have icy surfaces continually replenished by cryovolcanism and hence might also have potentially significant astrobiological potential.

  13. A 1-D evolutionary model for icy satellites, applied to Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamud, Uri; Prialnik, Dina

    2016-04-01

    We develop a long-term 1-D evolution model for icy satellites that couples multiple processes: water migration and differentiation, geochemical reactions and silicate phase transitions, compaction by self-gravity, and ablation. The model further considers the following energy sources and sinks: tidal heating, radiogenic heating, geochemical energy released by serpentinization or absorbed by mineral dehydration, gravitational energy and insolation, and heat transport by conduction, convection, and advection. We apply the model to Enceladus, by guessing the initial conditions that would render a structure compatible with present-day observations, assuming the initial structure to have been homogeneous. Assuming the satellite has been losing water continually along its evolution, we postulate that it was formed as a more massive, more icy and more porous satellite, and gradually transformed into its present day state due to sustained long-term tidal heating. We consider several initial compositions and evolution scenarios and follow the evolution for the age of the Solar System, testing the present day model results against the available observational constraints. Our model shows the present configuration to be differentiated into a pure icy mantle, several tens of km thick, overlying a rocky core, composed of dehydrated rock at the center and hydrated rock in the outer part. For Enceladus, it predicts a higher rock/ice mass ratio than previously assumed and a thinner ice mantle, compatible with recent estimates based on gravity field measurements. Although, obviously, the model cannot be used to explain local phenomena, it sheds light on the internal structure invoked in explanations of localized features and activities.

  14. Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM): Exploration Of The Jovian System And Its Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, Olivier; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R.; Blanc, M.; Dougherty, M.; Bunce, E.; Lebreton, J.; Prockter, L.; Senske, D.; EJSM Joint Science Definition Team

    2009-09-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) Determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and (2) Characterize the processes that are operating within the Jupiter system. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede, and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA (future contributions by JAXA and Russia are also possible). The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. EJSM would directly address themes concerning the origin and evolution of satellite systems and water-rich environments in icy satellites. The potential habitability of the ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede would be investigated, by characterizing the geophysical, compositional, geological, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also investigate Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites would be better known. Most important, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM architecture provides opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft would conduct both synergistic dual-spacecraft investigations and "stand-alone” measurements.

  15. Grain quality inspection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

  16. Composite circumstellar dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ranjan; Vaidya, Dipak B.; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-10-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5-25 μm. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18 μm. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-type and asymptotic giant branch stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes, shape, composition and dust temperature.

  17. Terrestrial analogs for space exploration habitation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Paul D.; Brown, Jeri W.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) can use early earth-based analogs to simulate many aspects of space flight missions and system operation. These analogs can thus provide information supporting future missions to the moon and to Mars. A study was performed to investigate the potential of terrestrial analogs in simulating human space exploration missions. The study resulted in preliminary requirements and concepts for analog habitation systems, and further study in this area is necessary for SEI terrestrial analog development.

  18. Electric Propulsion Technology Development for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During 2004, the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter project, a part of NASA's Project Prometheus, continued efforts to develop electric propulsion technologies. These technologies addressed the challenges of propelling a spacecraft to several moons of Jupiter. Specific challenges include high power, high specific impulse, long lived ion thrusters, high power/high voltage power processors, accurate feed systems, and large propellant storage systems. Critical component work included high voltage insulators and isolators as well as ensuring that the thruster materials and components could operate in the substantial Jupiter radiation environment. A review of these developments along with future plans is discussed.

  19. Radio Sounding Techniques for the Galilean Icy Moons and their Jovian Magnetospheric Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James L.; Markus, Thursten; Fung, Shing F.; Benson, Robert F.; Reinich, Bodo W.; Song, Paul; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Cooper, John F.; Taylor, William W. L.; Garcia, Leonard

    2004-01-01

    Radio sounding of the Earth's topside ionosphere and magnetosphere is a proven technique from geospace missions such as the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) and the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE). Application of this technique to Jupiter's icy moons and the surrounding Jovian magnetosphere will provide unique remote sensing observations of the plasma and magnetic field environments and the subsurface conductivities, of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Spatial structures of ionospheric plasma above the surfaces of the moons vary in response to magnetic-field perturbations from (1) magnetospheric plasma flows, (2) ionospheric currents from ionization of sputtered surface material, and (3) induced electric currents in salty subsurface oceans and from the plasma flows and ionospheric currents themselves. Radio sounding from 3 kHz to 10 MHz can provide the global electron densities necessary for the extraction of the oceanic current signals and supplements in-situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. While radio sounding requires high transmitter power for subsurface sounding, little power is needed to probe the electron density and magnetic field intensity near the spacecraft. For subsurface sounding, reflections occur at changes in the dielectric index, e.g., at the interfaces between two different phases of water or between water and soil. Variations in sub-surface conductivity of the icy moons can be investigated by radio sounding in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 50 MHz, allowing the determination of the presence of density and solid-liquid phase boundaries associated with oceans and related structures in overlying ice crusts. The detection of subsurface oceans underneath the icy crusts of the Jovian moons is one of the primary objectives of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission. Preliminary modeling results show that return signals are clearly distinguishable be&een an ice crust with a thickness of

  20. Large Impact Features on Saturn's Middle-sized Icy Satellites: Global Image Mosaics and Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, P. M.; Moore, J. M.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2003-01-01

    With the approach of Cassini to the Saturn system, attention naturally focuses on the planet, its rings and Titan, but the Saturn system is also populated by a number of smaller satellites. The seven middle-sized icy satellites, along with those of Uranus, (between 400 and 1500 km wide) are distinctly different geophysically and geologically from their much larger Galilean-class brethren [e.g., 1]. Topographic mapping of these bodies is a critical part of understanding their geologic evolution. Here we describe our recent efforts to map the topography of these satellites using Voyager data.

  1. Shock vaporization and the accretion of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Okeefe, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The known properties of water and ice over a wide range of pressures and temperatures are applied to describe constraints on the shock vaporization processes for water and ice in the solar system. In particular, the role of impact vaporization acting during the formation of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites is examined in an attempt to explain the observed density in terms of composition of these rock and ice objects. A possible model of accretion of icy satellites is considered which predicts that the amount of ice devolatilization is related to planetary size.

  2. Onset of convection and differentiation in the hydrated cores of icy moons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe; Reynard, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The Galileo mission to Jupiter and the Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn have revealed that the three large Jovian icy moons and Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, are at least partly differentiated. Their normalized moments of inertia are smaller than 2/5, which is the value for undifferentiated moons. We present new simulations of the thermal evolution, dehydration process, differentiation, and onset of convection in the hydrated cores of large icy satellites. The motivation is to investigate whether convection can start before dehydration starts in the cores. Such a process would prevent differentiation. The viscosity of antigorite, the hydrated silicate supposed to compose the hydrated cores, is strongly non-Newtonian and weakly temperature-dependent. The cores are volumetrically heated by natural radioactivity. We have adapted the theory developed for non-Newtonian fluids heated from below [1] to the case of volumetrically heated fluids. A recent review [2] of the physical parameters relevant to the thermal evolution of hydrated cores made of antigorite provides values quite different from those used in previous studies [3,4], which seriously modifies the results of previous simulations including the predicted present interior structure of the large icy satellites. The numerical simulations presented in this study suggest that the inner part of the hydrated core of icy moons would dehydrate for a large range of parameters, the most important of which is the amount of 40K. The outer core would remain hydrated. It is shown that convection could start in the outer core for large values of internal heating. Implications for subsequent thermal evolution are being investigated. [1] Solomatov V.S. (1995) Scaling of temperature and stressdependent viscosity convection; Phys. Fluids 7, 266; doi: 10.1063/1.868624. [2] Reynard B. (2012) Serpentine in active subduction zones. Lithos, doi: 10.1016/j.lithos.2012.10.012 [3] Grinrod P.M., A.D. Fortes, F. Nimmo, D.L. Feltham

  3. Technology for a Thermo-chemical Ice Penetrator for Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenberg, Jonathan; Harpole, George; Zamel, James; Sen, Bashwar; Lee, Greg; Ross, Floyd; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2016-10-01

    The ability to place sensors or to take samples below the ice surface enables a wide variety of potential scientific investigations. Penetrating an ice cap can be accomplished via a mechanical drill, laser drill, kinetic impactor, or heated penetrator. This poster reports on the development of technology for the latter most option, namely a self-heated probe driven by an exothermic chemical reaction: a Thermo-chemical ice penetrator (TChIP). Our penetrator design employs a eutectic mix of alkali metals that produce an exothermic reaction upon contact with an icy surface. This reaction increases once the ice starts melting, so no external power is required. This technology is inspired by a classified Cold-War era program developed at Northrop Grumman for the US Navy. Terrestrial demonstration of this technology took place in the Arctic; however, this device cannot be considered high TRL for application at the icy moons of the solar system due to the environmental differences between Earth's Arctic and the icy moons. These differences demand a TChIP design specific to these cold, low mass, airless worlds. It is expected that this model of TChIP performance will be complex, incorporating all of the forces on the penetrator, gravity, the thermo-chemistry at the interface between penetrator and ice, and multi-phase heat and mass transport, and hydrodynamics. Our initial efforts are aimed at the development of a validated set of tools and simulations to predict the performance of the penetrator for both the environment found on these icy moons and for a terrestrial environment. The purpose of the inclusion of the terrestrial environment is to aid in model validation. Once developed and validated, our models will allow us to design penetrators for a specific scientific application on a specific body. This poster discusses the range of scientific investigations that are enabled by TChIP. We also introduce the development plan to advance TChIP to the point where it can be

  4. Grain-damage hysteresis and plate tectonic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, David; Ricard, Yanick

    2016-04-01

    Shear localization in the lithosphere is an essential ingredient for understanding how and why plate tectonics is generated from mantle convection on terrestrial planets. The theoretical model for grain-damage and pinning in two-phase polycrystalline rocks provides a frame-work for understanding lithospheric shear weakening and plate-generation, and is consistent with laboratory and field observations of mylonites. Grain size evolves through the competition between coarsening, which drives grain-growth, and damage, which drives grain reduction. The interface between crystalline phases controls Zener pinning, which impedes grain growth. Damage to the interface enhances the Zener pinning effect, which then reduces grain-size, forcing the rheology into the grain-size-dependent diffusion creep regime. This process thus allows damage and rheological weakening to co-exist, providing a necessary positive self-weakening feedback. Moreover, because pinning inhibits grain-growth it promotes shear-zone longevity and plate-boundary inheritance. However, the suppression of interface damage at low interface curvature (wherein inter-grain mixing is inefficient and other energy sinks of deformational work are potentially more facile) causes a hysteresis effect, in which three possible equilibrium grain-sizes for a given stress coexist: (1) a stable, large-grain, weakly-deforming state, (2) a stable, small-grain, rapidly-deforming state analogous to ultramylonites, and (3) an unstable, intermediate grain-size state perhaps comparable to protomylonites. A comparison of the model to field data suggests that shear-localized zones of small-grain mylonites and ultra-mylonites exist at a lower stress than the co-existing large-grain porphyroclasts, rather than, as predicted by paleopiezometers or paleowattmeters, at a much higher stress; this interpretation of field data thus allows localization to relieve instead of accumulate stress. The model also predicts that a lithosphere that

  5. X-ray diffraction studies of shocked lunar analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanss, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction experiments on shocked rock and mineral analogs of particular significance to lunar geology are described. Materials naturally shocked by meteorite impact, nuclear-shocked, or artificially shocked in a flat plate accelerator were utilized. Four areas were outlined for investigation: powder diffractometer studies of shocked single crystal silicate minerals (quartz, orthoclase, oligoclase, pyroxene), powder diffractometer studies of shocked polycrystalline monomineralic samples (dunite), Debye-Scherrer studies of single grains of shocked granodiorite, and powder diffractometer studies of shocked whole rock samples. Quantitative interpretation of peak shock pressures experienced by materials found in lunar or terrestrial impact structures is presented.

  6. Grain optical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, Martha

    1988-01-01

    The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

  7. Charging of interplanetary grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

  8. Multiple age components in individual molybdenite grains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Creaser, Robert A.; Lowers, Heather; Magee, Charles W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2012-01-01

    Re–Os geochronology of fractions composed of unsized, coarse, and fine molybdenite from a pod of unusual monazite–xenotime gneiss within a granulite facies paragneiss, Hudson Highlands, NY, yielded dates of 950.5 ± 2.5, 953.8 ± 2.6, and 941.2 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively. These dates are not recorded by co-existing zircon, monazite, or xenotime. SEM–BSE imagery of thin sections and separated grains reveals that most molybdenite grains are composed of core and rim plates that are approximately perpendicular. Rim material invaded cores, forming irregular contacts, probably reflecting dissolution/reprecipitation. EPMA and LA-ICP-MS analyses show that cores and rims have different trace element concentrations (for example, cores are relatively enriched in W). On the basis of inclusions of zircon with metamorphic overgrowths, we conclude that molybdenite cores and rims formed after high-grade regional metamorphism. The discovery of cores and rims in individual molybdenite grains is analogous to multi-component U-Pb geochronometers such as zircon, monazite, and titanite; thus, molybdenite should be carefully examined before dating to ensure that the requirement of age homogeneity is fulfilled.

  9. Yeasts for Global Happiness: report of the 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) held in Awaji Island.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    The 14th International Congress on Yeasts (ICY14) was held at Awaji Yumebutai International Conference Center (Awaji, Hyogo) in Japan from 11 to 15 September 2016. The main slogan of ICY14 was 'Yeasts for Global Happiness', which enabled us to acknowledge the high-potential usefulness of yeasts contributing to the global happiness in terms of food/beverage, health/medicine and energy/environment industries, as well as to basic biosciences. In addition, two more concepts were introduced: 'from Japan to the world' and 'from senior to junior'. As it was the first ICY meeting held in Japan or other Asian countries, ICY14 provided a good opportunity to widely spread the great achievements by Japanese and Asian yeast researchers, such as those by the 2016 Nobel Laureate Dr. Yoshinori Ohsumi, and also, to convey the fun and importance of yeasts to the next generation of researchers from Asia and all over the world. As a result, a total of 426 yeast lovers from 42 countries (225 overseas and 201 domestic participants) with different generations attended ICY14 to share the latest knowledge of a wide range of yeast research fields and to join active and constructive scientific discussions.

  10. An investigation into the cardiac and pulmonary beta-adrenoceptor blocking activity of ICI 66,082 in man.

    PubMed

    Marlin, G E; Kumana, C R; Kaye, C M; Smith, D M; Turner, P

    1975-04-01

    1 Oral ICI 66,082 (200 mg) or water (control treatment) were each administered to six healthy volunteers. 2 The heart rate (HR) and peak flow rate (PFR) were measured at rest and during vigorous exercise before and at intervals up to 24 h after each treatment. 3 ICI 66,082 produced significant reductions in exercise HR at all times compared with the changes after the control treatment (P less than 0.001), whereas with resting HR, corresponding significant reductions only occurred at 2,3 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). 4 Although there was no change in resting PFR, significant reductions in exercise PFR, compared with the changes after the control treatment, occurred at all times excepting at 2 h after ICI 66,082 (P less than 0.025). 5 The findings are consistent with ICI 66,082 possessing partial cardioselectivity. 6 Plasma levels and renal excretion of the drug were determined. Urinary recovery was variable which, together with the plasma concentration/effect relationships obtained, raise the possibility that ICI 66,082 is metabolized in man.

  11. Analogies and "Modeling Analogies" in Teaching: Some Examples in Basic Electricity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, J. J.; Johsua, S.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the effect of modeling analogy on learning of the concepts of electricity in grade 6, 8, and 10. Describes 2 analogies (train analogy and thermal analogy) with diagrams and examples. Discusses the accessibility, transferability, and difficulty of each analogy. Reports treatment effect and some further implications. (YP)

  12. Impact of Self-Explanation and Analogical Comparison Support on Learning Processes, Motivation, Metacognition, and Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, J. Elizabeth

    Research examining analogical comparison and self-explanation has produced a robust set of findings about learning and transfer supported by each instructional technique. However, it is unclear how the types of knowledge generated through each technique differ, which has important implications for cognitive theory as well as instructional practice. I conducted a pair of experiments to directly compare the effects of instructional prompts supporting self-explanation, analogical comparison, and the study of instructional explanations across a number of fine-grained learning process, motivation, metacognition, and transfer measures. Experiment 1 explored these questions using sequence extrapolation problems, and results showed no differences between self-explanation and analogical comparison support conditions on any measure. Experiment 2 explored the same questions in a science domain. I evaluated condition effects on transfer outcomes; self-reported self-explanation, analogical comparison, and metacognitive processes; and achievement goals. I also examined relations between transfer and self-reported processes and goals. Receiving materials with analogical comparison support and reporting greater levels of analogical comparison were both associated with worse transfer performance, while reporting greater levels of self-explanation was associated with better performance. Learners' self-reports of self-explanation and analogical comparison were not related to condition assignment, suggesting that the questionnaires did not measure the same processes promoted by the intervention, or that individual differences in processing are robust even when learners are instructed to engage in self-explanation or analogical comparison.

  13. Understanding & Teaching Genetics Using Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Scott; Himelblau, Ed

    2013-01-01

    We present a collection of analogies that are intended to help students better understand the foreign and often nuanced vocabulary of the genetics curriculum. Why is it called the "wild type"? What is the difference between a locus, a gene, and an allele? What is the functional (versus a rule-based) distinction between dominant and…

  14. Geometrical Analogies in Mathematics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Wolfram

    2007-01-01

    A typical form of thinking to approach problem solutions humanly is thinking in analogous structures. Therefore school, especially mathematical lessons should help to form and to develop corresponding heuristic abilities of the pupils. In the contribution, a summary of possibilities of mathematics lessons regarding this shall particularly be…

  15. Mathematical Analogy and Metaphorical Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicky, Jan

    2010-01-01

    How are we to understand the power of certain literary metaphors? The author argues that the apprehension of good metaphors is importantly similar to the apprehension of fruitful mathematical analogies: both involve a structural realignment of vision. The author then explores consequences of this claim, drawing conceptually significant parallels…

  16. Analogy between Thermodynamics and Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark A.

    1979-01-01

    Establishes and illustrates a formal analogy between the motion of a particle and the "motion" of the equilibrium state of a homogeneous system in a quasistatic process. The purpose is to show that there is a much larger set of natural coordinate transformations in thermodynamics. (GA)

  17. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  18. Bayesian Analogy with Relational Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hongjing; Chen, Dawn; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    How can humans acquire relational representations that enable analogical inference and other forms of high-level reasoning? Using comparative relations as a model domain, we explore the possibility that bottom-up learning mechanisms applied to objects coded as feature vectors can yield representations of relations sufficient to solve analogy…

  19. Analogy of the Cell Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Scope, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this project, students compare the makeup of a cell to an everyday working unit or system. They create a three-dimensional object that represents their analogy. For example, students could create a car motor or manufacturing plant. (Of course, this is totally hand-created by them, so it can be a homemade re-creation of a system, not an actual…

  20. Electrical analog to projectile motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondracek, Mark

    1998-04-01

    This article describes an electrical analog to traditional projectile problems given in high school and introductory college classes. It also discusses the importance of stressing the understanding of physical laws and principles to students, and that the physics behind a problem is more important than being able to memorize and use various equations.

  1. International Alligator Rivers Analog Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bichard, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, the U.K. Department of the Environment, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan are participating under the aegis of the Nuclear Energy Agency in the International Alligator Rivers Analog Project. The project has a duration of 3 yr, starting in 1988. The project has grown out of a research program on uranium ore bodies as analogs of high-level waste (HLW) repositories undertaken by ANSTO supported by the NRC. A primary objective of the project is to develop an approach to radionuclide transport model validation that may be used by the participants to support assessments of the safety of radioactive waste repositories. The approach involves integrating mathematical and physical modeling with hydrological and geochemical field and laboratory investigations of the analog site. The Koongarra uranium ore body has been chosen as the analog site because it has a secondary ore body that has formed over the past million years as a result of leaching by groundwater flowing through fractures in the primary ore body.

  2. Analog Simulation of a Laser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Gary

    1982-01-01

    Presents an analog simulation of laser properties (finding time evolution of the intensity of a ruby laser pulse) which serves as the basis of a three-four hour laboratory experiment. Includes programs for solution to rate equations of a three-level laser and production of a giant pulse in a ruby laser. (Author/SK)

  3. Schema Training in Analogical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Shani; Mayer, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 93, 97, and 86 college students, respectively, learned how to solve 20 verbal analogy problems and took transfer and memory tests. Results are inconsistent with active responding theory and further indicate that schema induction is maximized when the schemas are made salient and the cognitive system is not overloaded. (SLD)

  4. Edible grain legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

  5. Interstellar Grain Mantles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witteborn, F.; Goebel, J.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Dhendecourt, L. B.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for determining the composition of small dust grains in interstellar matter are discussed. The best way to study the composition of interstellar grain mantles is by infrared spectroscopy. The absorption features in a complete infrared spectrum from 2 to 15 microns can be used as fingerprints to identify the absorbing molecule. Ground-based observations around 3 microns confirmed the presence of H2O ice in interstellar grain mantles, through the detection of the 3.08 micron OH stretching vibration. The detection of other molecules, in particular the carbon bearing molecules, is however hampered by atmospheric absorption in the 5-8 micron region and the presence of the strong ice and silicate bands, which dominate the 3 and 10 micron region respectively. Kuiper Airborne Observatory observations of the 5-8 micron region of the spectrum are therefore extremely important to determine the composition of interstellar grain mantles. The 5 to 8 micron spectra of molecular cloud sources was obtained using a 24 detector grating spectrometer. An important characteristic of this spectrometer is that the whole spectrum is obtained simultaneously. It is therefore relatively easy to correct for atmospheric transmission.

  6. Interstellar Grain Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Chemistry on grain surfaces plays an Important role in the formation of interstellar Ices, It can also influence the composition of the gas phase through outgassing near luminous, newly formed stars. This paper reviews the chemical processes taking place on Interstellar grain surfaces with the emphasis on those transforming CO into other hydrocarbons. At low, molecular cloud temperatures (approximately equal to 10K), physisorption processes dominate interstellar grain surface chemistry and GO is largely hydrogenated through reactions with atomic H and oxidized through reactions with atomic O. The former will lead to the formation of H2CO and CH3OH ices, while the latter results in CO2 ice. The observational evidence for these ices in molecular clouds will be discussed. Very close to protostars, the gas and grain temperatures are much higher (approximately equal to 500K) and chemisorption processes, including catalytic surface reactions, becomes important. This will be illustrated based upon our studies of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of CH4 from CO on metallic surfaces. Likely, this process has played an important role in the early solar nebula. Observational consequences will be pointed out.

  7. Preliminary Measurements on the Mechanical Properties of Clathrate Hydrates with Implications for the Internal Dynamics of Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukroun, M.; Barmatz, M. B.; Castillo, J. C.; Sotin, C.

    2008-12-01

    Surface features potentially associated with cryovolcanism have been identified on Titan, and the processes taking place beneath the surface are likely associated with the dissociation of clathrate hydrates and the release of methane. On Enceladus, the South Pole plume discovered by the Cassini-Huygens mission contains a large proportion of volatiles, in amounts consistent with models of clathrate hydrates dissociation at depth (Kieffer et al., Science 314, 1764-1766, 2006). The stability of clathrate hydrates is relatively well constrained in pure and mixed gas systems (e.g., Sloan, Clathrate hydrates of natural gases, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998). Recent measurements of clathrate destabilization in presence of ammonia, a likely component of Titan's interior, led to the development of a new model of cryovolcanism (Choukroun et al., Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., #1837, Houston, 2008). Internal dynamics relies on ice convection at depth on Titan and Enceladus (e.g., Tobie et al., Icarus 175, 496-502, 2005), and on relatively large tidal stresses on Enceladus. Clathrates are expected to destabilize when subject to stress (Durham et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108 (B4), 2182, 2003). Therefore, addressing the mechanical properties of clathrate hydrates in these environments is a necessary step toward better understanding cryovolcanic processes. We have developed a new apparatus for growing clathrate hydrates samples with controlled geometry, composition, and grain size. This system consists of a high-pressure autoclave and a cooling system and supports gas pressures up to 500 bars, and temperatures within the range -50 - 150 °C. We have started the production of clathrate hydrates of CH4, CO2, and N2 with this system, with the purpose to test their mechanical properties using an Instron compression system (Castillo-Rogez et al., submitted to J. Geophys. Res.; Castillo-Rogez et al., this meeting). We will present initial measurements on the creep response and on the

  8. 279 - Xanes Studies on UV-Irradiated Interstellar Ice Analogs: A Comparison to STARDUST Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milam, Stefanie N.; Cody, George D.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Nuevo, Michel; Sandford, Scott A.; Stroud, Rhonda M.; DeGregorio, Bradley T.

    2010-01-01

    We present C-, N-, and O-XANES (X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy) results of organic residues produced in the laboratory from the UV irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs containing H20, CO, CH30H, NH31 in order to mimic processes that may occur in cold icy bodies of the outer Solar System, particularly in comets, Such analyses showed that laboratory-formed organic residues mainly consist of a solid phase and an oily phase. C-XANES analysis of the solid phase suggests a rich distribution of organic functionalities, among which carbonyl groups, C=C bonds, and alcohols are present. Results from N-XANES indicate the possible presence of amide, amine, and nitrile groups, The O-XANES spectra confirmed the a-bearing groups, These results are compared with the XANES spectra obtained from STARDUST cometary samples,

  9. On Organic Material in E Ring Ice Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postberg, F.; Khawaja, N.; Reviol, R.; Nölle, L.; Klenner, F.; Hsu, H. W.; Horanyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Pure water ice dominates the composition of the micron and sub-micron sized dust particles in Saturn's E-ring, a ring constantly replenished by active ice jets of the moon Enceladus [1]. Details about the composition of this tenuous, optically thin ring can only be constrained by in situ measurements. The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard Cassini investigates the composition of these grains by cationic time-of-flight mass spectra of individual ice grains hitting the instruments target surface. From these spectra three compositional types of E ring ice grains have been identified previously [2,3]: Type-1: Almost pure water, Type-2: Enriched in organics, and Type-3: Enriched in salt. Unlike Type-1 and 3, organic-enriched Type-2 spectra have not yet been investigated in depth. Here we report the first detailed compositional analysis of this type. The spectra analysis is supported by a large-scale laboratory ground campaign yielding a library of analogue spectra for organic material embedded in a water ice matrix. In contrast to Type 1 and 3, Type-2 spectra display a great compositional diversity, which indicates varying contributions of several organic species. So far we have identified characteristic fragment patterns of at least three classes of organic compounds: aromatic species, amines, and carbonyl group species. Work is in progress to quantify concentrations of the identified species and to assign yet un-specified organic mass lines in Type 2 spectra. Due to the dynamical evolution of the orbital elements of E ring grains a large fraction collides with the icy moons embedded in the E ring. Therefore, the organic components identified by CDA can accumulate on the surfaces of these bodies over time. Ref: :[1]Kempf et al., Icarus-206, 2010. [2]Postberg et al., Nature-459, 2009. [3]Postberg et al., Icarus-193, 2008.

  10. Pilot-Assisted Adaptive Channel Estimation for Coded MC-CDMA with ICI Cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yui, Tatsunori; Tomeba, Hiromichi; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    One of the promising wireless access techniques for the next generation mobile communications systems is multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA). MC-CDMA can provide good transmission performance owing to the frequency diversity effect in a severe frequency-selective fading channel. However, the bit error rate (BER) performance of coded MC-CDMA is inferior to that of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) due to the residual inter-code interference (ICI) after frequency-domain equalization (FDE). Recently, we proposed a frequency-domain soft interference cancellation (FDSIC) to reduce the residual ICI and confirmed by computer simulation that the MC-CDMA with FDSIC provides better BER performance than OFDM. However, ideal channel estimation was assumed. In this paper, we propose adaptive decision-feedback channel estimation (ADFCE) and evaluate by computer simulation the average BER and throughput performances of turbo-coded MC-CDMA with FDSIC. We show that even if a practical channel estimation is used, MC-CDMA with FDSIC can still provide better performance than OFDM.

  11. Impact jetting of water ice, with application to the accretion of icy planetesimals and Pluto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Jetting can occur during oblique impacts of water-ice bodies at relative velocities as low as 500 m/sec, because of the low Hugoniot elastic limit and high compressibility of ice compared to rock. In jetted ice, incipient melting, complete melting, and incipient vaporization occur, upon release to low pressure, at impact velocities of 1.3, 2.0, and 2.7 km/sec, respectively, much less than the 3.4, 4.4, and 5.3 km/sec, required in head-on collisions. Uncertainties in the shock equation-of-state may allow complete melting during jetting of relative velocities as low as 1.2 km/sec. Because jet speeds exceed impact speeds during the accretion of icy bodies greater than a few 100 km in radius, there may be a significant loss of icy material. Thus, jetting during a Charon-forming collision (and not vaporization) may account for Pluto-Charon's relatively large rock/ice ratio, should the C/O ratio of the solar nebula turn out to be too low to sufficiently raise the rock/ice ratio of outer solar nebula condensates by formation of noncondensable CO.

  12. The ammonia-water system and the chemical differentiation of icy satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hogenboom, D.L.; Kargel, J.S.; Consolmagno, G.J.; Holden, T.C.; Lee, L.; Buyyounouski, M.

    1997-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first high-pressure polymorphs of ammonia hydrates: ammonia monohydrate II and ammonia dihydrate II. The subsolidus transitions and melting curves of these substances are shown by their volume-temperature functions; uncalibrated calorimetry corroborates these phase changes. From 20 to 300 MPa ammonia dihydrate and ice melt at a eutectic to form water-rich liquids; at lower and higher pressures, ammonia dihydrate melts incongruently to ammonia-rich liquids. The new data are consistent with independently known thermodynamic parameters of the ammonia-water system. These results fill in an important region of pressure-temperature space not previously studied; a body of previous data reported by other investigators covers a complementary region (higher pressures), but in the light of the new data those earlier results now appear to have been misinterpreted. We show that a suitable reinterpretation of the previous data supports the identification of at least one high-pressure polymorph of each compound. The behavior of the system H2O-NH3in many ways follows that of MgO-SiO2, and the roles of ammonia-water in icy satellite evolution may parallel those of magnesium silicates in Earth's structure, volcanism, and deep mantle tectonism. Pressure-related effects, including a pressure influence on the ammonia content of cryomagmas, might be significant in determining some potentially observable aspects of cryovolcanic morphologies, surface compositions, and interior structures of icy satellites. ?? 1997 Academic Press.

  13. Laboratory Spectra of CO2 Vibrational Modes in Planetary Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Douglas; Mastrapa, Rachel M.; Sandford, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory spectra have shown that CO2 is a powerful diagnostic tool for analyzing infrared data from remote observations, as it has been detected on icy moons in the outer Solar System as well as dust grain surfaces in the interstellar medium (ISM). IR absorption band profiles of CO2 within ice mixtures containing H2O and CH3OH change with respect to temperature and mixture ratios. In this particular study, the CO2 asymmetric stretching mode near 4.3 m (2350 cm (exp-1)), overtone mode near 1.97 m (5080 cm (exp-1)), and the combination bands near 2.7 m (3700 cm (exp-1)), 2.8 m (3600 cm (exp-1)), and 2.02 m (4960 cm (exp -1)), are systematically observed in different mixtures with H2O and CH3OH in temperature ranges from 15K to 150 K. Additionally, some high-temperature deposits (T greater than 50 K) of H2O, CH3OH, and CO2 ice mixtures were performed. These data may then be used to interpret infrared observational data obtained from icy surfaces in the outer Solar System and beyond.

  14. Impact of Universal Plasma and Energetic Particle Processes on Icy Bodies of the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Richardson, J. D.; Hill, M. E.; Sturner, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Modeling of space plasma and energetic particle interactions with icy bodies of the outer solar system is simplified when there is commonality of the underlying source, acceleration, and transport processes in spatially distinct regions from the supersonic heliosphere through the heliosheath into the local interstellar medium (LISM). Current trends in the Voyager heliosheath measurements suggest strong commonality to processes in the LISM. The Fisk-Gloeckler "universal" spectrum at suprathermal energies apparently plays a strong role in coupling the plasma and high energy particle regimes in the spatial and energetic transitions from the outer heliosphere to the LISM. Dominant processes in consecutive energy regimes project to varying effects versus irradiation depth on exposed upper surfaces of airless small icy bodies and to upper atmospheres of larger bodies such as Titan and Pluto. Relative absence of the universal suprathermal spectrum in the mid-heliospheric region of the classical Kuiper Belt may profoundly affect surface color diversity of icy bodies in this region.

  15. Dielectric characterization of ice/MgSO4ṡ11H2O mixtures as Jovian icy moon crust analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettinelli, Elena; Lauro, Sebastian Emanuel; Cosciotti, Barbara; Mattei, Elisabetta; Di Paolo, Federico; Vannaroni, Giuliano

    2016-04-01

    One of the main objectives of proposed missions to the icy Jovian moons is to prove the existence of the postulated subsurface ocean on Europa using radar sounders. The success of these missions will rely on the ability of the radar signals to penetrate ten kilometers of icy material that could potentially contain various types of impurities. In this work we quantify the impact of magnesium sulfate hydrates on the electrical properties of water ice by performing a series of dielectric measurements on different ice/MgSO4ṡ11H2O mixtures as a function of frequency and at temperatures comparable with those expected on the icy satellite surfaces. Our results indicate that the salt only affects the real part of permittivity of the mixtures, whereas the imaginary part, hence the attenuation, does not significantly differ from that of pure ice. This means that in some regions signal penetration may be better than previously thought.

  16. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-04-01

    The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide

  17. Sub-Surface Oceans on Mid-Sized Icy Satellites and Large TNO's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussmann, H.; Sohl, F.; Spohn, T.

    2005-12-01

    The detection of induced magnetic fields in the vicinity of the Jovian satellites Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto was one of the most surprising findings of the Galileo mission to Jupiter. The observed magnetic signature cannot be generated in solid ice or in silicate rock. It rather suggests the existence of electrically conducting reservoirs of liquid water beneath the satellites' outermost icy shells that may contain even more water than all terrestrial oceans combined. The maintenance of liquid water layers at a depth of several tens of kilometers is closely related to the internal structure, chemical composition, and thermal state of the corresponding satellite interior. Controlling parameters for sub-surface ocean formation are the radiogenic heating rate of the silicate component, additional contributions due to, e.g., the dissipation of tidal energy in case of Europa, and the effectiveness of the heat transfer to the surface. Furthermore, the melting temperature of ice will be significantly reduced by small amounts of salts and/or incorporated volatiles such as methane and ammonia that are highly abundant in the outer solar system. In general, large icy bodies such as, e.g. the icy Galilean satellites, Titan and Triton, are more likely to harbour sub-surface oceans because of the slower cooling rate and the more intense radiogenic heating caused by their larger rock mass fractions, as compared to smaller icy bodies. However, depending on the amount of volatiles incorporated in the icy component during accretion, internal oceans cannot be ruled out for the largest of the medium-sized satellites of Saturn and Uranus and the biggest Transneptunian objects (TNO's), provided they are differentiated into a rock core and a water ice/liquid shell . Based on this assumption and using an equilibrium condition between the heat production rate in the rocky cores and the heat flow through the ice shell, we find that oceans are possible on Rhea, Titania, Oberon, Triton

  18. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrients and health benefits Print Share Why is it important to eat grains, especially whole grains? Eating ... diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods ...

  19. Thermal conductivity of ice VII using the time-domain thermo-reflectance method in the diamond anvil cell: Implications for the icy planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Cahill, D. G.; Bartov, G.; Li, J.

    2008-12-01

    As a planetary body ages, the heat trapped and generated in its interior escapes to the surface. Thermal conductivity is a fundamental parameter that governs the thermal evolution and internal dynamics of the planetary body. Due to exceedingly small sample size under high pressure, measuring the thermal conductivity of compressed solids is challenging. Here we report new experimental data on the thermal conductivity of liquid H2O and ice VII up to 11 GPa and at 300 K, using the time-domain thermo- reflectance technique (TDTR) and the diamond anvil cell. The measurements were carried out at the Material Research Laboratory, University of Illinois. We load ruby balls as the pressure marker and a mica sheet as a thermal insulating layer. A thin film of aluminum (Al) is coated on the mica sheet and served as a transducer (Antonelli et al., 2006). A short optical pump pulse with duration ~ 100 fs and energy ~ 1 nJ is focused to a ~10 micron-diameter spot on the Al film, raising its temperature by several degrees Kelvin, which in turn causes a slight change in reflectivity. Over the next few nanoseconds following the absorption of the pulse, the Al film cools via heat conduction through the film itself, across the interface, and into the sample. From time-dependent measurement of reflectivity, we can extract the value of the thermal conductivity of the sample by modeling one-dimensional heat flow. With increasing pressure, liquid H2O crystallized into multiple grains of tetragonal ice VI. Upon further compression to ~ 3.3 GPa, the grain boundaries disappeared due to the formation of the cubic ice VII. We have determined the effect of pressure on the thermal conductivity of ice VII between 3 and 11 GPa. We will discuss the implications of our data for the thermal evolution of icy planetary bodies where ice VII may be a significant component.

  20. Coarse graining flow of spin foam intertwiners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Schnetter, Erik; Seth, Cameron J.; Steinhaus, Sebastian

    2016-12-01

    Simplicity constraints play a crucial role in the construction of spin foam models, yet their effective behavior on larger scales is scarcely explored. In this article we introduce intertwiner and spin net models for the quantum group SU (2 )k×SU (2 )k, which implement the simplicity constraints analogous to four-dimensional Euclidean spin foam models, namely the Barrett-Crane (BC) and the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine/Freidel-Krasnov (EPRL/FK) model. These models are numerically coarse grained via tensor network renormalization, allowing us to trace the flow of simplicity constraints to larger scales. In order to perform these simulations we have substantially adapted tensor network algorithms, which we discuss in detail as they can be of use in other contexts. The BC and the EPRL/FK model behave very differently under coarse graining: While the unique BC intertwiner model is a fixed point and therefore constitutes a two-dimensional topological phase, BC spin net models flow away from the initial simplicity constraints and converge to several different topological phases. Most of these phases correspond to decoupling spin foam vertices; however we find also a new phase in which this is not the case, and in which a nontrivial version of the simplicity constraints holds. The coarse graining flow of the BC spin net models indicates furthermore that the transitions between these phases are not of second order. The EPRL/FK model by contrast reveals a far more intricate and complex dynamics. We observe an immediate flow away from the original simplicity constraints; however, with the truncation employed here, the models generically do not converge to a fixed point. The results show that the imposition of simplicity constraints can indeed lead to interesting and also very complex dynamics. Thus we need to further develop coarse graining tools to efficiently study the large scale behavior of spin foam models, in particular for the EPRL/FK model.

  1. Organic synthesis via irradiation and warming of ice grains in the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Fred J; Sandford, Scott A

    2012-04-27

    Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments to which they were exposed. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were less than 30 kelvin, experienced ultraviolet irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural by-products of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own.

  2. Organic Synthesis via Irradiation and Warming of Ice Grains in the Solar Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, Fred J.; Sanford, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex organic compounds, including many important to life on Earth, are commonly found in meteoritic and cometary samples, though their origins remain a mystery. We examined whether such molecules could be produced within the solar nebula by tracking the dynamical evolution of ice grains in the nebula and recording the environments they were exposed to. We found that icy grains originating in the outer disk, where temperatures were less than 30 K, experienced UV irradiation exposures and thermal warming similar to that which has been shown to produce complex organics in laboratory experiments. These results imply that organic compounds are natural byproducts of protoplanetary disk evolution and should be important ingredients in the formation of all planetary systems, including our own.

  3. Magnetic Signatures of Charged Dust Grains in the Enceladus Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S.

    2014-12-01

    One of the most striking discoveries of the Cassini mission was the large plume of water vapor and dust, emanating from the south-polar regions of the small icy moon Enceladus. The interaction between this plume and Saturn's magnetospheric plasma generates large-scale perturbations of the ambient magnetospheric field (called the Alfven wing) which have been detected by Cassini during all 20 targeted Enceladus flybys carried out so far. In recent years, it was found that absorption of magnetospheric electrons by negatively charged dust grains within the plume has a tremendous impact on the magnetic draping pattern: due to the lack of "free" magnetospheric electrons, the Hall current is carried almost exclusively by the positive ions, corresponding to a negative sign of the Hall conductance. This effect breaks the symmetry of the magnetic draping pattern between Enceladus' Saturn-facing and Saturn-averted hemispheres and has been identified in all available magnetic field datasets from Cassini. In this presentation, we will review the physical mechanisms that lead to the "magnetic visibility" of the electron-absorbing dust population in the Enceladus plume. We will also discuss how magnetic field data can be applied to constrain e.g., the charging times of the dust grains and the pick-up of negatively charged nanograins from the plume.

  4. Disorientation of Suprathermally Rotating Grains and the Grain Alignment Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarian, A.; Draine, B. T.

    1997-09-01

    We discuss the dynamics of dust grains subjected to torques arising from H2 formation. In particular, we discuss grain dynamics when a grain spins down and goes through a ``crossover'' event. As first pointed out by Spitzer & McGlynn, the grain angular momentum before and after a crossover event are correlated, and the degree of this correlation critically affects the alignment of dust grains by paramagnetic dissipation. We calculate the correlation including the important effects of thermal fluctuations within the grain material. These fluctuations limit the degree to which the grain angular momentum J is coupled with the grain principal axis a1 of maximal inertia. We show that this imperfect coupling of a1 with J plays a critical role during crossovers and can substantially increase the efficiency of paramagnetic alignment for grains larger than 0.1 μm. As a result, we show that for reasonable choices of parameters, the observed alignment of a >~ 0.1 μm grains could be achieved by paramagnetic dissipation in suprathermally rotating grains, if radiative torques caused by starlight were not present. We also show that the efficiency of mechanical alignment in the limit of long alignment times is not altered by the thermal fluctuations in the grain material. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Lyman Spitzer, Jr.

  5. Analog Nonvolatile Computer Memory Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd

    2007-01-01

    In nonvolatile random-access memory (RAM) circuits of a proposed type, digital data would be stored in analog form in ferroelectric field-effect transistors (FFETs). This type of memory circuit would offer advantages over prior volatile and nonvolatile types: In a conventional complementary metal oxide/semiconductor static RAM, six transistors must be used to store one bit, and storage is volatile in that data are lost when power is turned off. In a conventional dynamic RAM, three transistors must be used to store one bit, and the stored bit must be refreshed every few milliseconds. In contrast, in a RAM according to the proposal, data would be retained when power was turned off, each memory cell would contain only two FFETs, and the cell could store multiple bits (the exact number of bits depending on the specific design). Conventional flash memory circuits afford nonvolatile storage, but they operate at reading and writing times of the order of thousands of conventional computer memory reading and writing times and, hence, are suitable for use only as off-line storage devices. In addition, flash memories cease to function after limited numbers of writing cycles. The proposed memory circuits would not be subject to either of these limitations. Prior developmental nonvolatile ferroelectric memories are limited to one bit per cell, whereas, as stated above, the proposed memories would not be so limited. The design of a memory circuit according to the proposal must reflect the fact that FFET storage is only partly nonvolatile, in that the signal stored in an FFET decays gradually over time. (Retention times of some advanced FFETs exceed ten years.) Instead of storing a single bit of data as either a positively or negatively saturated state in a ferroelectric device, each memory cell according to the proposal would store two values. The two FFETs in each cell would be denoted the storage FFET and the control FFET. The storage FFET would store an analog signal value

  6. Battery hydrometer with analog output

    SciTech Connect

    Patis, B.L.

    1982-09-21

    There is disclosed a battery hydrometer for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude related to the specific gravity of a battery electrolyte. The hydrometer includes a source of radiation for providing a detectable beam of radiation and a piston member arranged to be submerged within the electrolyte and to intercept and modulate the beam of radiation in response to the specific gravity of the electrolyte. The piston member is suspended within the electrolyte by a spring which exerts a compressive force upon the piston member against which the electrolyte must act. The hydrometer further includes a radiation detector aligned with the radiation source for providing an analog electrical signal having a magnitude responsive to the modulated beam of radiation.

  7. Synaptic dynamics in analog VLSI.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Chiara; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2007-10-01

    Synapses are crucial elements for computation and information transfer in both real and artificial neural systems. Recent experimental findings and theoretical models of pulse-based neural networks suggest that synaptic dynamics can play a crucial role for learning neural codes and encoding spatiotemporal spike patterns. Within the context of hardware implementations of pulse-based neural networks, several analog VLSI circuits modeling synaptic functionality have been proposed. We present an overview of previously proposed circuits and describe a novel analog VLSI synaptic circuit suitable for integration in large VLSI spike-based neural systems. The circuit proposed is based on a computational model that fits the real postsynaptic currents with exponentials. We present experimental data showing how the circuit exhibits realistic dynamics and show how it can be connected to additional modules for implementing a wide range of synaptic properties.

  8. Classical Analog to Entanglement Reversibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Ben; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2015-08-01

    In this Letter we study the problem of secrecy reversibility. This asks when two honest parties can distill secret bits from some tripartite distribution pX Y Z and transform secret bits back into pX Y Z at equal rates using local operation and public communication. This is the classical analog to the well-studied problem of reversibly concentrating and diluting entanglement in a quantum state. We identify the structure of distributions possessing reversible secrecy when one of the honest parties holds a binary distribution, and it is possible that all reversible distributions have this form. These distributions are more general than what is obtained by simply constructing a classical analog to the family of quantum states known to have reversible entanglement. An indispensable tool used in our analysis is a conditional form of the Gács-Körner common information.

  9. History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

  10. FINE GRAIN NUCLEAR EMULSION

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, A.J.

    1962-04-24

    A method of preparing nuclear track emulsions having mean grain sizes less than 0.1 microns is described. The method comprises adding silver nitrate to potassium bromide at a rate at which there is always a constant, critical excess of silver ions. For minimum size grains, the silver ion concentration is maintained at the critical level of about pAg 2.0 to 5.0 during prectpitation, pAg being defined as the negative logarithm of the silver ion concentration. It is preferred to eliminate the excess silver at the conclusion of the precipitation steps. The emulsion is processed by methods in all other respects generally similar to the methods of the prior art. (AEC)

  11. Superconducting Analog to Digital Converters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    superconductivity, Josephson junctions, and superconducting quantum interference devices ( SQUIDs ) are briefly described. Various techniques to perform analog-to...deployment in the 1990s may require a dynamic range in excess of 90 dB (15- bit precision) [3]. However, at the present time, A/D conversion with 16-bit...Interference Devices ( SQUIDs ). JOSEPHSON EFFECTS AND JUNCTIONS Consider a very thin, non-superconducting region separating two superconductors. In 1962

  12. Stereoselective Syntheses of Soman Analog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-28

    AD-A283 855 AD_ _ _ _ CONTRACT NO: DAMDl7-88-C-8021 0 / TITLE: STEREOSELECTIVE SYNTHESES OF SOMAN ANALOG SUBTITLE: Synthesis of Pentacoordinate...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES SUBTITLE: Synthesis of Pentacoordinate Phosphorus Compounds, "Bait and Switch" Compounds, and Soman Simulants as Hapten. for Production of...simulant. We reporit a detailed study on the synthesis , isolation and characterization of the four pure enantiomners; of [(S or R)-4 -amino-2,2-diniethyl-2

  13. Isotropic Monte Carlo Grain Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.

    2013-04-25

    IMCGG performs Monte Carlo simulations of normal grain growth in metals on a hexagonal grid in two dimensions with periodic boundary conditions. This may be performed with either an isotropic or a misorientation - and incliantion-dependent grain boundary energy.

  14. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    time at elevated temperature for 7475 aluminum alloy 5 2 Optical micrographs of 7075 aluminum alloy after exposure to 5160C (960oF) for times...applied to Al-Zn-Mg-Cu ( 7075 Al) alloy. Subsequent developments by Waldman et al. (refs. 8-11) resulted in the demonstration that 7000 series alloys...a number of aluminum alloys. With such a fine grain structure, high temperature deformation character- istics approaching superplastic behavior

  15. Predictive coarse-graining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöberl, Markus; Zabaras, Nicholas; Koutsourelakis, Phaedon-Stelios

    2017-03-01

    We propose a data-driven, coarse-graining formulation in the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In contrast to existing techniques which are based on a fine-to-coarse map, we adopt the opposite strategy by prescribing a probabilistic coarse-to-fine map. This corresponds to a directed probabilistic model where the coarse variables play the role of latent generators of the fine scale (all-atom) data. From an information-theoretic perspective, the framework proposed provides an improvement upon the relative entropy method [1] and is capable of quantifying the uncertainty due to the information loss that unavoidably takes place during the coarse-graining process. Furthermore, it can be readily extended to a fully Bayesian model where various sources of uncertainties are reflected in the posterior of the model parameters. The latter can be used to produce not only point estimates of fine-scale reconstructions or macroscopic observables, but more importantly, predictive posterior distributions on these quantities. Predictive posterior distributions reflect the confidence of the model as a function of the amount of data and the level of coarse-graining. The issues of model complexity and model selection are seamlessly addressed by employing a hierarchical prior that favors the discovery of sparse solutions, revealing the most prominent features in the coarse-grained model. A flexible and parallelizable Monte Carlo - Expectation-Maximization (MC-EM) scheme is proposed for carrying out inference and learning tasks. A comparative assessment of the proposed methodology is presented for a lattice spin system and the SPC/E water model.

  16. Health as an analogical concept.

    PubMed

    Mordacci, R

    1995-10-01

    This article examines the normative structure of the concept of health and tries to suggest an account of it in a phenomenological-hermeneutic framework. It is argued that the concept of health has a logical priority to illness, though the latter has an experiential priority. The fundamental feature of the concept of health as discussed in the literature is initially recognized in the notion of 'norm', in both the bio-statistical and normative-ideal sense. An analysis of this body of literature reveals some weaknesses in bio-statistical definitions of health as well as in those normative ones which endorse a value-relativity thesis. An approach based on the analogical structure of language is then advanced. In this framework, the notion of biological normativeness proposed by G. Canguilhem is connected with an analysis of the language of health through etymologies. It is argued that health can be characterized as an analogy of 'plenitude', which is the common ideal reference of the various health-concepts. The analogical structuring of language allows the recognition of different levels of meaning, and therefore of different kinds of normativeness (biological, mental, social, moral). Some hints of a theory of health deriving from this framework are then given.

  17. Simple Electronic Analog of a Josephson Junction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, R. W.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that an electronic Josephson junction analog constructed from three integrated circuits plus an external reference oscillator can exhibit many of the circuit phenomena of a real Josephson junction. Includes computer and other applications of the analog. (Author/SK)

  18. Basic Electricity--a Novel Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Uses the analogy of water flow to introduce concepts in basic electricity. Presents a demonstration that uses this analogy to help students grasp the relationship between current, voltage, and resistance. (JRH)

  19. Third order digital-to-analog converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, W. P.

    1972-01-01

    System, consisting of sample and hold digital-to-analog converter, clock circuit, sample delay circuit, initial condition circuit and interpolator circuit, improves accuracy of reconstructed analog signal without increasing sample rates.

  20. Photon-induced electro-chemical processes in airless icy bodies analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchione, Demian; Gudipati, Murthy

    2016-10-01

    Previous laboratory studies have shown that radiation-induced ionization of impurities in water-rich ices drives the formation of ionized species resulting in charge generation and accumulation in ices [1-3]. It is expected that some of these impurity ions are decomposed into smaller volatile species and ejected into the vacuum. These processes are relevant to the chemical composition of the near-surface tenuous (thin) atmosphere of icy bodies such as the Jovian satellites like Europa.Our work aims at investigating photocurrents from organic impurity embedded water ices of several microns thick and understanding how these measurements correlate with the desorption of volatiles during UV and electron irradiation. These experiments are performed in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber around Europa's surface temperature (100 - 150 K) conditions using a low-pressure hydrogen flow-discharge lamp emitting primarily at Lyα (121.6 nm), a 2 keV electron source, and a substrate-less electrode. Photoionization of organic impurities in the water matrix results in charge pair (electron and ion) separation within the ice, and hence in detectable currents that are measured as a function of the applied bias and the temperature (5 K - 200 K). Photodesorption products are also identified by a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and correlated with conductivity measurements. We will discuss these results in the context of expected Europa's surface photoconductivity and near-surface volatile production.References:[1] M. S. Gudipati, and L. J. Allamandola, Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2003, 596(2), L195-L198.[2] M. S. Gudipati, Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2004, 108(20), 4412-4419.[3] S. H. Cuylle, L. J. Allamandola, and H. Linnartz, Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2014, 562, A22.This work has been carried out at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and funded by NASA under Planetary Atmospheres

  1. Thermodynamic Equations of State for Aqueous Solutions Applied to Deep Icy Satellite and Exoplanet Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, S.; Brown, J. M.; Bollengier, O.; Journaux, B.; Sotin, C.; Choukroun, M.; Barnes, R.

    2014-12-01

    Supporting life in icy world or exoplanet oceans may require global seafloor chemical reactions between water and rock. Such interactions have been regarded as limited in larger icy worlds such as Ganymede and Titan, where ocean depths approach 800 km and GPa pressures (>10katm). If the oceans are composed of pure water, such conditions are consistent with the presence of dense ice phases V and VI that cover the rocky seafloor. Exoplanets with oceans can obtain pressures sufficient to generate ices VII and VIII. We have previously demonstrated temperature gradients in such oceans on the order of 20 K or more, resulting from fluid compressibility in a deep adiabatic ocean based on our experimental work. Accounting for increases in density for highly saline oceans leads to the possibility of oceans perched under and between high pressure ices. Ammonia has the opposite effect, instead decreasing ocean density, as reported by others and confirmed by our laboratory measurements in the ammonia water system. Here we report on the completed equation of state for aqueous ammonia derived from our prior measurements and optimized global b-spline fitting methods We use recent diamond anvil cell measurements for water and ammonia to extend the equation of state to 400°C and beyond 2 GPa, temperatures and pressures applicable to icy worlds and exoplanets. Densities show much less temperature dependence but comparabe high-pressure derivatives to previously published ammonia-water properties derived for application to Titan (Croft et al. 1988). Thermal expansion is in better agreement with the more self-consistent equation of state of Tillner-Roth and Friend (1998). We also describe development of a planetary NaCl equation of state using recent measurements of phase boundaries and sound speeds. We examine implications of realistic ocean-ice thermodynamics for Titan and exoplanet interiors using the methodology recently applied to Ganymede for oceans dominated by MgSO4. High

  2. Stagnant lid convection in spherical shells: parameterizations and implications for icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, C.; Deschamps, F.; Tackley, P. J.; Sanchez Valle, C.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of subsurface oceans in large icy moons has gained increasing support during the past decade, both from theoretical studies and from spacecraft missions measurements (e.g., magnetic data). The exact thickness of subsurface ocean, if present, depends on the detailed thermal evolution of each moon, and on its primordial composition. It has been shown that the presence of volatiles (including ammonia and methanol) in small volume fraction strongly opposes the cristallization of the primordial ocean. Also crucial is the heat transfer through the outer ice I layer, which controls the cooling of the satelitte interior. Convection is likely the most efficient way to transfer heat through this layer, but the regime of convection (and therefore the heat transfer) depends on the rheology of the fluid. In the case of ice, viscosity is strongly temperature dependent and thermal convection in the outer ice shell follows a stagnant lid regime: a stagnant lid forms at the top of the system, and convection is confined in a sublayer. Previous numerical studies including strongly temperature-dependent viscosities have already been performed in 2D Cartesian geometry allowing the determination of scaling laws relating the mean temperature and heat flux to the vigor of convection (described by the Rayleigh number) and the ratio of the top to the bottom viscosity, but 3D spherical geometry may provide a more accurate description of convection within the outer ice layer of icy moons. In this work, we model the heat transfer in spherical shells for a strongly temperature-dependent viscosity fluid heated from below. We use StagYY to run simulations for different ratios of the inner to outer radii of the ice layer (f), Rayleigh number (Ra), and thermal viscosity contrast (Δη). The inversion of the results of more than 30 numerical experiments allows the determination of scaling laws for the temperature of the well-mixed interior and surface heat flux. In particular, we find

  3. Estimations on the Interior of Small Icy Bodies in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubner, Ruth-Sophie; Leitner, Johannes J.; Firneis, Maria G.; Hitzenberger, Regina

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade small icy bodies have become more and more important for the search for potential habitats in the Solar System. This development was primarily attributable to the indications for Europa's subsurface ocean (e.g., Carr et al., 1998) and the detection of Enceladus' plume (Porco et al., 2006). These observations showed that liquid water can exist under certain circumstances even far beyond the classical habitable zone (Kasting et al., 1993). Additionally, the subsurface water reservoirs may contain a significant amount of ammonia which causes the fluid to stay liquid even below 0°C. If liquid water is in contact with the rocky layer, erosion or similar interaction processes will take place and enrich the water with possible nutrients for potential life forms in this habitat. Therefore, especially the water/rock boundary zone seems highly interesting for astrobiological studies. We developed a three and four layer model for the interior of small icy bodies, i.e. icy moons, TNOs, and asteroids as small as 200 km in radius. The simulations are based on three different scenarios which consider the diverse interior structures of three selected prototype satellites (Io, Europa, and Titan). On average, the water layer represents approximately 20 % of the bodies' radii for the Europa- and Titan-like model. In contrast, for the Io-like scenario, in which we do not include a global subsurface ocean, just Io, the Moon, Vesta, and Hygiea fit into the model. This may indicate that water/ice-regions or even liquid water shells are far more common in the Solar System than previously assumed. Furthermore, we estimate the bodies' dimensionless moment of inertia and compare our results to observed values as far as they are available. Moreover, the physical conditions at the bottom of the bodies' potential subsurface ocean and the thickness of each layer will be estimated. This study will give us a good overview about the distribution of potential liquid water

  4. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  5. The Structure of Analogical Models in Science.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    analogies cannot. 8. A Freudian defense might claim that the theory merely reflects the illogic of the unconscious. But a theory about an unclarified...explanatory-predictive analogy is contrasted with literary expressive metaphor. Finally, within science, good 4 explanatory analogy is contrasted with...an initial comparison. To illustrate the points, analogies of historical importance are analyzed. Although the focus is on theory , some empirical

  6. Grain-grain interaction in stationary dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lampe, Martin; Joyce, Glenn

    2015-02-15

    We present a particle-in-cell simulation study of the steady-state interaction between two stationary dust grains in uniform stationary plasma. Both the electrostatic force and the shadowing force on the grains are calculated explicitly. The electrostatic force is always repulsive. For two grains of the same size, the electrostatic force is very nearly equal to the shielded electric field due to a single isolated grain, acting on the charge of the other grain. For two grains of unequal size, the electrostatic force on the smaller grain is smaller than the isolated-grain field, and the force on the larger grain is larger than the isolated-grain field. In all cases, the attractive shadowing force exceeds the repulsive electrostatic force when the grain separation d is greater than an equilibrium separation d{sub 0}. d{sub 0} is found to be between 6λ{sub D} and 9λ{sub D} in all cases. The binding energy is estimated to be between 19 eV and 900 eV for various cases.

  7. Hegel, Analogy, and Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Joseph T.

    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel rejected the possibility of life outside of the Earth, according to several scholars of extraterrestrial life. Their position is that the solar system and specifically the planet Earth is the unique place in the cosmos where life, intelligence, and rationality can be. The present study offers a very different interpretation of Hegel's statements about the place of life on Earth by suggesting that, although Hegel did not believe that there were other solar systems where rationality is present, he did in fact suggest that planets in general, not the Earth exclusively, have life and possibly also intelligent inhabitants. Analogical syllogisms are superficial, according to Hegel, insofar as they try to conclude that there is life on the Moon even though there is no evidence of water or air on that body. Similar analogical arguments for life on the Sun made by Johann Elert Bode and William Herschel were considered by Hegel to be equally superficial. Analogical arguments were also used by astronomers and philosophers to suggest that life could be found on other planets in our solar system. Hegel offers no critique of analogical arguments for life on other planets, and in fact Hegel believed that life would be found on other planets. Planets, after all, have meteorological processes and therefore are "living" according to his philosophical account, unlike the Moon, Sun, and comets. Whereas William Herschel was already finding great similarities between the Sun and the stars and had extended these similarities to the property of having planets or being themselves inhabitable worlds, Hegel rejected this analogy. The Sun and stars have some properties in common, but for Hegel one cannot conclude from these similarities to the necessity that stars have planets. Hegel's arguments against the presence of life in the solar system were not directed against other planets, but rather against the Sun and Moon, both of which he said have a different

  8. Analogical Reasoning: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawis, Rene V.; Siojo, Luis T.

    The mathematical and philosophical origins of "analogy" are described and their influence on the thinking of intelligence theorists is traced. Theories of intelligence and cognition bearing on analogical reasoning are examined, specifically those of Spearman, Thorndike, Guilford and Piaget. The analogy test item is shown to be a paradigm…

  9. Reasoning by Analogy in Constructing Mathematical Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Lyn D.

    A powerful way of understanding something new is by analogy with something already known. An analogy is defined as a mapping from one structure, which is already known (the base or source), to another structure that is to be inferred or discovered (the target). The research community has given considerable attention to analogical reasoning in the…

  10. The Micro-Category Account of Analogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Adam E.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.; Kraemer, David J. M.; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we investigate how activation of mental representations of categories during analogical reasoning influences subsequent cognitive processing. Specifically, we present and test the central predictions of the "Micro-Category" account of analogy. This account emphasizes the role of categories in aligning terms for analogical mapping. In a…

  11. Electrical Evolution of a Dust Plume from a Low Energy Lunar Impact: A Model Analog to LCROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Jackson, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J. L.; Schultz, P. H.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Halekas, J. S.; Marshall, J. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    A Monte Carlo test particle model was developed that simulates the charge evolution of micron and sub-micron sized dust grains ejected upon low-energy impact of a moderate-size object onto a lunar polar crater floor. Our analog is the LCROSS impact into Cabeus crater. Our primary objective is to model grain discharging as the plume propagates upwards from shadowed crater into sunlight.

  12. The Early Climate History of Mars: "Warm and Wet" or "Cold and Icy"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James

    2013-04-01

    The Amazonian climate (last ~66% of history) was much like today, a cold and dry climate regime, characterized by the latitudinal migration of surface ice in response to variations in spin-axis/orbital parameters. But what characterized the Noachian climate (first ~20% of history)? Some data support a "warm and wet" early Mars, but this evidence has been challenged. New models of early Mars climate (Forget, Wordsworth et al.) find that for atmospheric pressures greater than a few hundred millibars, surface temperatures vary with altitude due to atmosphere-surface thermal coupling: an adiabatic cooling effect (ACE) results in deposition of snow and ice at high altitudes, in contrast to Amazonian conditions. Without other warming mechanisms, no combination of parameters lead to mean annual surface temperatures (MAT) consistent with widespread liquid water anywhere on the planet. The ACE causes southern highland region temperatures to fall significantly below the global average leading to a "Noachian Icy Highlands" scenario: Water is transported to the highlands from low-lying regions due to the ACE and snows out to form an extended H2O ice cap at the southern pole, and altitude-dependent snow and ice deposits down to lower southern latitudes. Could the predictions of this "Noachian Icy Highlands" model be consistent with the many lines of evidence traditionally cited for a "warm, wet" early Mars? Perturbing this predominant Noachian environment with punctuated impacts and volcanism/greenhouse gases would lead to raising of global surface temperatures toward the melting point of water, with the following consequences: 1) ice above the surface ice stability line undergoes rapid altitude/latitude dependent warming during each Mars summer; 2) meltwater runoff from the continuous ice sheet drains and flows downslope to the edge of the ice sheet, where meltwater channels encounter cratered terrain, forming closed-basin and open-basin lakes; 3) seasonal top-down heating and

  13. Analysis of Thrust Vectoring Capabilities for the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B .; Gromov, Konstantin; Murray, Emmanuell

    2005-01-01

    A strategy to mitigate the impact of the trajectory design of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) on the attitude control design is described in this paper. This paper shows how the thrust vectoring control torques, i.e. the torques required to steer the vehicle, depend on various parameters (thrust magnitude, thrust pod articulation angles, and thrust moment arms). Rather than using the entire reaction control system (RCS) system to steer the spacecraft, we investigate the potential utilization of only thrust vectoring of the main ion engines for the required attitude control to follow the representative trajectory. This study has identified some segments of the representative trajectory where the required control torque may exceed the designed ion engine capability, and how the proposed mitigation strategy succeeds in reducing the attitude control torques to within the existing capability.

  14. Cassini Finds an Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide Atmosphere at Saturn’s Icy Moon Rhea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teolis, B. D.; Jones, G. H.; Miles, P. F.; Tokar, R. L.; Magee, B. A.; Waite, J. H.; Roussos, E.; Young, D. T.; Crary, F. J.; Coates, A. J.; Johnson, R. E.; Tseng, W.-L.; Baragiola, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    The flyby measurements of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn’s moon Rhea reveal a tenuous oxygen (O2)-carbon dioxide (CO2) atmosphere. The atmosphere appears to be sustained by chemical decomposition of the surface water ice under irradiation from Saturn’s magnetospheric plasma. This in situ detection of an oxidizing atmosphere is consistent with remote observations of other icy bodies, such as Jupiter’s moons Europa and Ganymede, and suggestive of a reservoir of radiolytic O2 locked within Rhea’s ice. The presence of CO2 suggests radiolysis reactions between surface oxidants and organics or sputtering and/or outgassing of CO2 endogenic to Rhea’s ice. Observations of outflowing positive and negative ions give evidence for pickup ionization as a major atmospheric loss mechanism.

  15. Hemispheric and Topographic Asymmetry of Magnetospheric Particle Irradiation for Icy Moon Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Sturner, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    All surfaces of icy moons without significant atmospheres, i.e. all except Titan in the giant planet systems, are irradiated by hot plasma and more energetic charged particles from the local magnetospheric environments. This irradiation can significantly impact the chemical composition, albedo, and detectable presence of signs of life on the sensible surfaces, while also limiting lifetimes and science operations of orbital spacecraft for extreme radiation environments as at Europa. Planning of surface remote sensing and lander operations, and interpretation of remote sensing and in-situ measurements, should include consideration of natural shielding afforded by the body of the moon, by any intrinsic or induced magnetic fields as at Ganyrnede, and by topographic structures.

  16. Infrared Spectral Studies of the Thermally-Driven Chemistry Present on Icy Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-01-01

    Remote sensing of Jupiters icy satellites has revealed that even though their surfaces arc composed mostly of water ice, molecules such as SO2, CO2, H2O2. O2, and O3 also are present. On Europa, a high radiation flux is believed to play a role in the formation of many of the minor species detected, and numerous laboratory studies have been devoted to explore this hypothesis. In this presentation we will discuss some of our recent research on another alteration pathway, thermally-driven chemical reactions, which are also important for understanding the chemical evolution of Europa's surface and sub-surface ices. We will focus on the infrared spectra of and reactions between H2O, SO2 and H2O2, at 80 - 130 K.

  17. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  18. Phase diagram for ammonia-water mixtures at high pressures - Implications for icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cynn, H. C.; Boone, S.; Koumvakalis, A.; Nicol, M.; Stevenson, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    The (NH3)x(H2O)1-x phase diagram for X from 0 to 0.50 has been reexamined at temperatures from 125 K to 400 K and at pressures from 6.0 GPa using diamond anvil cells, and the implications of the findings for icy satellites are addressed. Titan is likely to have a thicker NH3-H2O ocean than previously suspected, because the stability field of NH3-H2O is found to be smaller than previously supposed. The implications for methane and ammonia volcanism on Titan are briefly discussed. The experimentally observed reactivity between the liquid and iron may also have implications for planetary and satellite evolution.

  19. Cassini finds an oxygen-carbon dioxide atmosphere at Saturn's icy moon Rhea.

    PubMed

    Teolis, B D; Jones, G H; Miles, P F; Tokar, R L; Magee, B A; Waite, J H; Roussos, E; Young, D T; Crary, F J; Coates, A J; Johnson, R E; Tseng, W-L; Baragiola, R A

    2010-12-24

    The flyby measurements of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn's moon Rhea reveal a tenuous oxygen (O(2))-carbon dioxide (CO(2)) atmosphere. The atmosphere appears to be sustained by chemical decomposition of the surface water ice under irradiation from Saturn's magnetospheric plasma. This in situ detection of an oxidizing atmosphere is consistent with remote observations of other icy bodies, such as Jupiter's moons Europa and Ganymede, and suggestive of a reservoir of radiolytic O(2) locked within Rhea's ice. The presence of CO(2) suggests radiolysis reactions between surface oxidants and organics or sputtering and/or outgassing of CO(2) endogenic to Rhea's ice. Observations of outflowing positive and negative ions give evidence for pickup ionization as a major atmospheric loss mechanism.

  20. Diagnosis and management of chronic ITP: comments from an ICIS expert group.

    PubMed

    Grainger, John David; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B; Godeau, Bertrand; Bussel, Jim; Donato, Hugo; Elalfy, Mohsen; Hainmann, Ina; Matzdorff, Axel; Müller-Beissenhirtz, Hannes; Rovó, Alicia; Tichelli, Andre

    2010-07-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common disorder in children and adults. In a patient with newly diagnosed ITP, the treatment strategy is relatively well defined. Second-line treatments are more controversial, and the management of chronic ITP is even more so. During the 3rd ICIS Expert Meeting on Consensus and Development of Strategies in ITP, held in Basel on September 3-5, 2009, a group of experts were tasked with reaching a consensus on some frequently asked questions relating to diagnosis and management of children and adults with chronic ITP. The content of this article is designed to provide a practical support to trained haematologists in their care of patients with chronic ITP.