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Sample records for idaho habitat evaluation

  1. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho. Dept. of Fish and Game.

    1990-03-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead and chinook in the Clearwater and Salmon subbasins since 1984. Projects included in the monitoring are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. This monitoring project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use actual and potential increases in smolt production as the best measures of benefit from a habitat improvement project. This project is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other IDFG management and research activities. The primary objective of the intensive monitoring subproject is to determine the relationships between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production in two Idaho streams; the upper Salmon River and Crooked River. Results of the intensive monitoring will be used to estimate mitigation benefits in terms of smolt production and to interpret natural production monitoring in Idaho. 30 refs., 19 figs., 34 tabs.

  2. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1987.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1988-04-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game has been monitoring and evaluating existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages over the last four years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production at full seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded attainment of full benefit of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration. According to the BPA Work Plan, project implementors have the primary responsibility for measuring physical habitat and estimating habitat change. To date, Idaho habitat projects have been implemented primarily by the US Forest Service (USFS). The Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have sponsored three projects (Bear Valley Mine, Yankee Fork, and the proposed East Fork Salmon River projects). IDFG implemented two barrier-removal projects (Johnson Creek and Boulder Creek) that the USFS was unable to sponsor at that time. The role of IDFG in physical habitat monitoring is primarily to link habitat quality and habitat change to changes in actual, or potential, fish production. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  3. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Off-Site Mitigation Record : Annual Report 1985.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1986-04-01

    Evaluation approaches to document a record of credit for mitigation were developed in 1984-1985 for most of the habitat projects. Restoration of upriver anadromous fish runs through increased passage survival at main stem Columbia and Snake River dams is essential to the establishment of an off-site mitigation record, as well as to the success of the entire Fish and Wildlife program. The mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production (i.e., yield) at full-seeding as the basic measure of benefit from a habitat project. The IDFG evaluation approach consists of three basic, integrated levels: general monitoring, standing crop evaluations, and intensive studies. Annual general monitoring of anadromous fish densities in a small number of sections for each project will be used to follow population trends and define full-seeding levels. For most projects, smolt production will be estimated indirectly from standing crop estimates by factoring appropriate survival rates from parr to smolt stages. Intensive studies in a few key production streams will be initiated to determine these appropriate survival rates and provide other basic biological information that is needed for evaluation of the Fish and Wildlife program. A common physical habitat and fish population data base is being developed for every BPA habitat project in Idaho to be integrated at each level of evaluation. Compatibility of data is also needed between Idaho and other agencies and tribes in the Columbia River basin. No final determination of mitigation credit for any Idaho habitat enhancement project has been attainable to date.

  4. Evaluation and Monitoring of Idaho Habitat Enhancement and Anadromous Fish Natural Production : Annual Report 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles E.; Holubetz, Terry B.

    1987-11-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been conducting an evaluation of existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for anadromous fish in the Clearwater River and Salmon River drainages over the last 3 years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by or proposed for funding by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority. A mitigation record is being developed to use increased smolt production (i.e., yield) at full-seeding as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed nature of upriver anadromous stocks have precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat enhancement project in Idaho. Partial benefit will be credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  5. Idaho Habitat Evaluation for Offsite Mitigation Record : Annual Report FY 1984.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrosky, Charles Edward; Holubetz, Terry

    1985-06-01

    An evaluation of existing and proposed habitat improvement projects for anadromous fish in the Clearwater River and Salmon River drainages was conducted. The Clearwater River and Salmon River drainages account for virtually all of Idaho's wild and natural production of summer steelhead and spring and summer chinook salmon, as well as a remnant run of sockeye salmon. Habitat enhancement projects are intended to either increase the amount of habitat, or increase the carrying capacity of existing (usually, degraded) habitat, or both. Migration barriers, such as waterfalls, culverts, and water diversions, can be modified to make available habitat that is not being used, or is underutilized, by anadromous fish. The objectives of this evaluation are: (1) document physical changes in habitat; (2) measure changes in steelhead and chinook production attributable to habitat enhancement projects; (3) measure changes in standing crops of resident fish species due to enhancement; and (4) determine project effectiveness, including relative costs and benefits, to establish the record of credit for mitigation and to guide future management actions. It was not possible to define the level of enhancement for any BPA project in 1984. Evaluations for all projects except three were in the pre-treatment phase during 1984. Because full benefits cannot be defined at current low seeding levels, projects must be monitored until full-seeding is approached. We obtained post-treatment information for three projects in 1984: Lolo Creek instream structures; upper Lochsa River instream structures; and screening of the irrigation diversion on Pole Creek. Of the three, only the Lolo Creek project exhibited any apparent benefits; these apparent benefits were not conclusively determined in 1984. The Lolo Creek project requires a follow-up evaluation in 1985. The Pole Creek project requires better passage for adult chinook at the irrigation diversion. 36 refs., 71 figs., 50 tabs. (ACR)

  6. Evaluating redband trout habitat in sagebrush desert basins in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoellick, B.W.; Cade, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    We estimated abundance quantiles of redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri relative to five site-specific habitat variables (stream shading, bank cover, bank stability, fine sediment in the stream substrate, and cover for adults) and one landscape variable (distance from stream headwaters) on 30 streams in southwestem Idaho during 1993-1998. In addition, the five site-specific habitat variables were used to calculate a habitat suitability rating (HSR) used by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management to determine habitat quality of sagebrush desert streams for redband trout. Variation in abundance increased significantly with increasing HSR; the highest abundances were only found with high HSRs, indicating that the HSR model correctly predicted habitat quality for redband trout. However, a model that consisted of stream shade, distance from stream headwaters, and their interaction best predicted redband trout density, explaining 36% of the variation in adult density in sagebrush desert basin streams; stream shade explained most of the variation in redband trout density. When habitat quality was modeled on shade alone, the precision in predicting adult redband trout density was similar to that of the HSR model, as evaluated with tolerance intervals that contained 80% of future observations of redband trout density with 95% confidence. Increasing stream shade in the uppermost 50 km of a stream would result in the greatest increase in redband trout density. We recommend that land managers primarily evaluate the habitat quality of sagebrush desert streams by quantifying the amount of stream shade provided by riparian shrubs and trees. Use of a multivariable habitat model should be retained for desert streams where shade from riparian plant communities is limited.

  7. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring : Annual Report 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1991-01-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) habitat improvement projects, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two subprojects: general and intensive monitoring. Primary objectives of the general monitoring subproject (Part 1) are to determine natural production increases due to habitat improvement projects in terms of parr production and to determine natural production status and trends in Idaho. The second objective is accomplished by combining parr density data from monitoring and evaluation of BPA habitat projects and from other Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) management and research activities. Primary objectives of the intensive monitoring subproject (Part 2) are to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production and to develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Field work began in 1987 in the upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). 22 refs., 10 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  9. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Pt. I: General Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Bruce A.; Scully, Richard J.; Petrosky, Charles Edward

    1992-01-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, hereafter called steelhead, and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha, hereafter called chinook, in the Clearwater and Salmon River drainages for the past seven years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. This evaluation project is also funded under the same authority (Fish and Wildlife Program, Northwest Power Planning Council). A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measure of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  10. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring Part I, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Bruce A.; Petrosky, Charles E.

    1994-02-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in the Clearwater River and Salmon River drainages on a large scale for the past 8 years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. A mitigation record is being developed using increased carrying capacity and/or survival as the best measures of benefit from a habitat enhancement project. Determination of full benefit from a project depends on completion or maturation of the project and presence of adequate numbers of fish to document actual increases in fish production. The depressed status of upriver anadromous stocks has precluded measuring full benefits of any habitat project in Idaho. Partial benefit is credited to the mitigation record in the interim period of run restoration.

  11. Landscape characteristics of disturbed shrubsteppe habitats in southwestern Idaho (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    1997-01-01

    We compared 5 zones in shrubsteppe habitats of southwestern Idaho to determine the effect of differing disturbance combinations on landscapes that once shared historically similar disturbance regimes. The primary consequence of agriculture, wildfires, and extensive fires ignited by the military during training activities was loss of native shrubs from the landscape. Agriculture created large square blocks on the landscape, and the landscape contained fewer small patches and more large shrub patches than non-agricultural areas. In contrast, fires left a more fragmented landscape. Repeated fires did not change the distribution of patch sizes, but decreased the total area of remaining shrublands and increased the distance between remaining shrub patches that provide seed sources. Military training with tracked vehicles was associated with a landscape characterized by small, closely spaced, shrub patches. Our results support the general model hypothesized for conversion of shrublands to annual grasslands by disturbance. Larger shrub patches in our region, historically resistant to fire spread and large-scale fires because of a perennial bunchgrass understory, were more fragmented than small patches. Presence of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), an exotic annual, was positively related to landscape patchiness and negatively related to number of shrub cells. Thus, cheatgrass dominance can contribute to further fragmentation and loss of the shrub patch by facilitating spread of subsequent fires, carried by continuous fuels, through the patch. The synergistic processes of fragmentation of shrub patches by disturbance, invasion and subsequent dominance by exotic annuals, and fire are converting shrubsteppe in southwestern Idaho to a new state dominated by exotic annual grasslands and high fire frequencies.

  12. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring Part II, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Lockhart, Jerald N.

    1993-10-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring and evaluating proposed and existing habitat improvement projects for rainbow-steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and chinook salmon O. tshawytscha in the Clearwater River and Salmon River drainages for the past 7 years. Projects included in the evaluation are funded by, or proposed for funding by, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) under the Northwest Power Planning Act as off-site mitigation for downstream hydropower development on the Snake and Columbia rivers. The objectives of this project are: (1) to determine the mathematical relationship between spawning escapement, parr production, and smolt production; (2) estimate carrying capacity and optimal smolt production; and (3) determine habitat factors relating to substrate, riparian, and channel quality that limit natural smolt production.

  13. Habitat restoration across large areas: Assessing wildlife responses in the Clearwater basin, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scanvara, L.K.; Servheen, G.; Melquist, W.; Davis, D.; Scott, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past century, fire suppression and prevention have altered disturbance regimes across the Pacific Northwest, resulting in a significant divergence of historical and current conditions in forested habitats. To address this continuing trend in habitat changes and begin restoring historical patterns of disturbance, the Clearwater Basin Elk Habitat Initiative (CEI) proposes relatively extensive management actions in the Clearwater basin of north-central Idaho. We attempted to evaluate potential effects of such management actions on selected wildlife species using extant data sets and suggest ways to improve such projects with respect to a multispecies and adaptive management approach. Although there is increased interest in ecosystem management over large areas, the increased scale of analysis and implementation require a substantial increase in the level of species information beyond what currently exists. We conclude that baseline information required for an effective multispecies land-management policy in the Clearwater basin does not exist for many terrestrial wildlife species. To implement a true multispecies or ecosystem approach, wildlife and land managers should cooperate to increase existing population data and modeling efforts for wildlife species in the basin and develop a sustainable monitoring program to evaluate habitat management changes and their influence on wildlife populations within the context of adaptive management theory. Management actions to restore disturbance patterns should attempt spatial and temporal scales that are biologically relevant to the population ecology of species being affected. ?? 2004 by the Society of American Foresters.

  14. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  15. Natural regeneration in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-03-01

    Natural regeneration of five conifer species was surveyed in two central Idaho grand fir habitat types. The habitat types range from warm, dry (grand fir/white spirea) to mesic (Grand fir/Mountain Maple). Four harvest-regeneration methods and four site preparation techniques were sampled. Recommendations for obtaining natural regeneration vary primarily by habitat type. Conifer seedlings in the warm, dry grand fir white spirea habitat type require site protection for establishment. In the mesic grand fir/mountain maple habitat type, tall shrub potential can reduce the opportunity to establish early seral conifer species.

  16. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and habitat use among main- and side-channel environments in the lower Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Stevens, Bryan S.; Quist, Michael; Shepard, Bradley B.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Kootenai River, Idaho, was sampled during the summers of 2012 and 2013 to evaluate its fish assemblage structure at seven sites within main- and side-channel habitats where large-scale habitat rehabilitation was undertaken. Understanding the current patterns of fish assemblage structure and their relationships with habitat is important for evaluating the effects of past and future rehabilitation projects on the river. Species-specific habitat associations were modeled, and the variables that best explained the occurrence and relative abundance of fish were identified in order to guide future habitat rehabilitation so that it benefits native species. The results indicated that the side-channel habitats supported higher species richness than the main-channel habitats and that nonnative fishes were closely associated with newly rehabilitated habitats. This research provides valuable insight on the current fish assemblages in the Kootenai River and the assemblage-level responses that may occur as a result of future rehabilitation activities.

  17. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  18. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring, Part II: Intensive Monitoring Subproject : Annual Progress Report 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Forster, Katharine A.

    1992-04-01

    Project 83-7 was established under the Northeast Power Planning Council's 1982 Fish and Wildlife Program, Measure 704 (d) (1) to monitor natural production of anadromous fish, evaluate Bonneville Power Administration habitat improvement project, and develop a credit record for off-site mitigation projects in Idaho. Project 83-7 is divided into two sub-projects: general and intensive monitoring. Results of the intensive monitoring sub-project are reported here. Results from the general monitoring sub-project will be reported in a separate document. The purpose of this intensive monitoring project is to determine the number of returning chinook and steelhead adults necessary to achieve optimal smolt production, and develop mitigation accounting based on increases in smolt production. Two locations are being intensively studied to meet these objectives. Information from this research will be applied to parr monitoring streams statewide to develop escapement objectives and determine success of habitat enhancement projects. Field work began in 1987 in upper Salmon River and Crooked River (South Fork Clearwater River tributary). Methods include using weirs to trap adults, conducting ground and aerial redd counts, snorkeling to estimate parr populations, PIT-tagging juveniles to determine parr-tosmolt survival, trapping fall and spring downstream emigrants with scoop traps, and outplanting adults to determine juvenile carrying capacity. PIT tags also provide a wide range of other information such as migration timing, effects of flow and passage conditions on smolt survival, other factors affecting smolt survival, and growth.

  19. Major Douglas-fir habitat types of central Idaho: A summary of succession and management. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.; Geier-Hayes, K.

    1995-12-01

    The report summarizes important successional aspects of seven central Idaho Douglas-fir habitat types. The habitat types and phases are grouped geographically into west-central and east-central Idaho to differentiate site potential based on ponderosa pine occurrence. The role of fire and other management activities and their influence on common seral shrubs and herbs are discussed. Common seral tree species are included with discussions of natural and planted conifer regeneration and tree growth capability.

  20. Distribution of black-tailed jackrabbit habitat determined by GIS in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Dyer, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a multivariate description of black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) habitat associations from Geographical Information Systems (GIS) signatures surrounding known jackrabbit locations in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (NCA), in southwestern Idaho. Habitat associations were determined for characteristics within a 1-km radius (approx home range size) of jackrabbits sighted on night spotlight surveys conducted from 1987 through 1995. Predictive habitat variables were number of shrub, agriculture, and hydrography cells, mean and standard deviation of shrub patch size, habitat richness, and a measure of spatial heterogeneity. In winter, jackrabbits used smaller and less variable sizes of shrub patches and areas of higher spatial heterogeneity when compared to summer observations (P 0.05), differed significantly between high and low population phase. We used the Mahalanobis distance statistic to rank all 50-m cells in a 440,000-ha region relative to the multivariate mean habitat vector. On verification surveys to test predicted models, we sighted jackrabbits in areas ranked close to the mean habitat vector. Areas burned by large-scale fires between 1980 and 1992 or in an area repeatedly burned by military training activities had greater Mahalanobis distances from the mean habitat vector than unburned areas and were less likely to contain habitats used by jackrabbits.

  1. Riparian fencing, grazing, and trout habitat preference on Summit Creek, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Charles R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1982-01-01

    In 1975, 3.2 km of Summit Creek, Idaho were fenced by the Bureau of Land Management to exclude livestock from the riparian area. Six stream sections were electrofished in 1979 to determine differences in trout abundance, size, and growth between grazed and ungrazed stream sections. Electrofishing stations were paired by habitat type. There were more trout in ungrazed sections than in grazed sections in all three habitat types sampled. With one exception, there were more catachable-sized (200 mm long or longer) rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the ungrazed area than in the grazed area. There was also evidence that the average size of the fish was less in grazed sections. Fish population data were not collected prior to fencing; therefore, it cannot be firmly concluded that the trout population increased within the livestock enclosure as a result of fencing the riparian area. However, the combined results of previous trout habitat improvements documented for Summit Creek, as a result of the fencing, and this study support the conclusion that trout prefer stream areas in ungrazed habitat over grazed habitat.

  2. Application of Landsat 5-TM and GIS data to elk habitat studies in northern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Stephen Gordon

    1999-12-01

    An extensive geographic information system (GIS) database and a large radiotelemetry sample of elk (n = 153) were used to study habitat use and selection differences between cow and bull elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Coeur d'Alene Mountains of Idaho. Significant sex differences in 40 ha area use, and interactive effects of sex and season on selection of 40 ha areas from home ranges were found. In all seasons, bulls used habitats with more closed canopy forest, more hiding cover, and less shrub and graminoid cover, than cows. Cows selected areas with shrub and graminoid cover in winter and avoided areas with closed canopy forest and hiding cover in winter and summer seasons. Both sexes selected 40 ha areas of unfragmented hiding cover and closed canopy forest during the hunting season. Bulls also avoided areas with high open road densities during the rut and hunting season. These results support present elk management recommendations, but our observations of sexual segregation provide biologists with an opportunity to refine habitat management plans to target bulls and cows specifically. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that hiding cover and canopy closure can be accurately estimated from Landsat 5-TM imagery and GIS soil data at a scale and resolution to which elk respond. As a result, our habitat mapping methods can be applied to large areas of private and public land with consistent, cost-efficient results. Non-Lambertian correction models of Landsat 5-TM imagery were compared to an uncorrected image to determine if topographic normalization increased the accuracy of elk habitat maps of forest structure in northern Idaho. The non-Lambertian models produced elk habitat maps with overall and kappa statistic accuracies as much as 21.3% higher (p < 0.0192) than the uncorrected image. Log-linear models and power analysis were used to study the dependence of commission and omission error rates on topographic normalization, vegetation type, and solar incidence angle

  3. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume III, Idaho, 1982/1983 Final and Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Jr., F.

    1984-04-01

    In 1983 and under the auspices of the Northwest Power Act, the Clearwater National Forest and Bonneville Power Administration entered into an agreement to improve anadromous fish habitat in three major tributaries of the Clearwater River in Idaho. Phase I (FY 83) habitat enhancement was initiated and completed on Lolo, Crooked Fork, and White Sand Creeks. Enhancement of Lolo Creek involved the placement of 145 structures that were designed to alter the pool/riffle structure, increase diversity and cover, and purge in-stream sediment over 8.5 miles of stream length. Log weirs, organic debris, and boulder clusters were featured in the enhancement design. For the Lolo Project, the average unit cost was $186/structure. Spring chinook salmon was the primary target species and were observed utilizing the enhanced habitat in September. Enhancement of the upper Lochsa River tributaries involved the placement of 263 structures of which 200 were felled riparian trees and 63 were anchored organic debris. Enhancement occurred over 9.1 miles of stream reaches and was designed to increase diversity, cover, and spawning habitat. Depressed stocks of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout were the focal points of the enhancement. The average cost per structure equaled $91/unit. Because of a mixed ownership pattern and in-channel variables, only 50 percent of the total stream distance was available for enhancement. 6 references, 68 figures.

  4. Sediment Characteristics and Transport in the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Critical Habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered Kootenai River population of white sturgeon require an understanding of the characteristics and transport of suspended and bedload sediment in the critical habitat reach of the river. In 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, conducted suspended- and bedload-sediment sampling in the federally designated critical habitat of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon population. Three sediment-sampling sites were selected that represent the hydraulic differences in the critical habitat. Suspended- and bedload-sediment samples along with acoustic Doppler current profiles were collected at these sites during specific river discharges. Samples were analyzed to determine suspended- and bedload-sediment characteristics and transport rates. Sediment transport data were analyzed to provide total loading estimates for suspended and bedload sediment in the critical habitat reach. Total suspended-sediment discharge primarily occurred as fine material that moved through the system in suspension. Total suspended-sediment discharge ranged from about 300 metric tons per day to more than 23,000 metric tons per day. Total suspended sediment remained nearly equal throughout the critical habitat, with the exception of a few cases where mass wasting of the banks may have caused sporadic spikes in total suspended sediment. Bedload-sediment discharge averaged 0-3 percent of the total loading. These bedload discharges ranged from 0 to 271 tons per day. The bedload discharge in the upper part of the critical habitat primarily consisted of fine to coarse gravel. A decrease in river competence in addition to an armored channel may be the cause of this limited bedload discharge. The bedload discharge in the middle part of the white sturgeon critical habitat varied greatly, depending on the extent of the backwater from Kootenay Lake. A large quantity of fine-to-coarse gravel is present in the braided

  5. Populations and habitat relationships of Piute ground squirrels in southwest Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Yensen, Eric; Kochert, Michael N.; Gage, K.

    2006-01-01

    Piute ground squirrels (Spermophilus mollis idahoensis) are normally above ground from late January until late June or early July in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho. In 2002 they were rarely seen above ground after early May. Because of the ecological importance of ground squirrels for nesting raptors and other species, we sought to determine the reasons for their early disappearance. We sampled 12 sites from January 2003 through March 2003 to determine if a population crash had occurred in 2002. Tests indicated that Piute ground squirrels had not been exposed to plague within the past year. The presence of yearlings in the population indicated that squirrels reproduced in 2002 and that at least some yearlings survived the winter. Both yearling and adult squirrels appeared to be reproducing at or above normal rates in 2003. The most plausible explanation for the early disappearance of Piute ground squirrels in 2002 is that squirrels entered seasonal torpor early in response to a late spring drought. In addition, the breeding chronology of squirrels may have shifted during the past 2 decades in response to climate change and/or habitat alteration. Shrub habitats provide a more favorable and stable environment for squirrels than grass habitats. Squirrel abundance was higher on live-trapping grids with sagebrush than on grids dominated by grass, and squirrel masses were higher at sites dominated by shrubs and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda). Densities in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) were within the ranges reported for earlier years, but densities in grass were lower than previously reported. Low densities at grassland sites in 2003 support other findings that drought affects squirrels in altered grass communities more than those in native shrub habitats. Long-term shifts in ground squirrel breeding chronology may have implications for raptors that depend on them for food.

  6. Habitat use and food selection of small mammals near a sagebrush/crested wheatgrass interface in southeastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, D.K. ); Anderson, S.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Research has been conducted on various aspects of the ecology of wildlife residing on and adjacent to the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) and one other low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho. Habitat use and food selection data were collected for deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), montane voles (Microtus montanus), Ord's kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii), and Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) near a sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)/crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum) interface. Significantly more captures occurred in the native sagebrush habitat than in areas planted in crested wheatgrass or in disturbed sites. Crested wheatgrass, a prolific seed producer, still accounted for over 30% of the total captures. Montane voles and Townsend's ground squirrels (during periods of aboveground activity) used the crested wheatgrass habitat throughout the summer, while deer mice and Ord's kangaroo rats exhibited heavy use after seed set.

  7. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects: 1998 Habitat Evaluation Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    1999-03-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from the various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories, (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were, (a) create more pools, (b) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (c) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (d) increase fencing to limit livestock access; additionally, the actions are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, and protect private property. Fish species of main concern in Asotin Creek are summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Spring chinook in Asotin Creek are considered extinct (Bumgarner et al. 1998); bull trout and summer steelhead are below historical levels and are currently as ''threatened'' under the ESA. In 1998, 16 instream habitat projects were planned by ACCD along with local landowners. The ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Snake River Lab (SRL) was contracted by the ACCD to take pre-construction measurements of the existing habitat (pools, LOD, width, depth, etc.) within each identified site, and to eventually evaluate fish use within these sites. All pre-construction habitat measurements were completed between 6 and 14 July, 1998. 1998 was the first year that this sort of evaluation has occurred. Post construction measurements of habitat structures installed in 1998, and fish usage evaluation, will be

  8. Bathymetry, morphology, and lakebed geologic characteristics of potential Kokanee salmon spawning habitat in Lake Pend Oreille, Bayview and Lakeview quadrangles, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Dux, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) are a keystone species in Lake Pend Oreille in northern Idaho, historically supporting a high-yield recreational fishery and serving as the primary prey for the threatened native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and the Gerrard-strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). After 1965, the kokanee population rapidly declined and has remained at a low level of abundance. Lake Pend Oreille is one of the deepest lakes in the United States, the largest lake in Idaho, and home to the U.S. Navy Acoustic Research Detachment Base. The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho Department of Fish and Game are mapping the bathymetry, morphology, and the lakebed geologic units and embeddedness of potential kokanee salmon spawning habitat in Lake Pend Oreille. Relations between lake morphology, lakebed geologic units, and substrate embeddedness are characterized for the shore zone, rise zone, and open water in bays and the main stem of the lake. This detailed knowledge of physical habitat along the shoreline of Lake Pend Oreille is necessary to better evaluate and develop kokanee recovery actions.

  9. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho : Annual Report 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult returns in 1995-1999 were more than ten magnitudes less than returns in the early 1960's. Human activities in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 100 years and likely the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Logging, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass and collection systems, and spillway structures at lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities including the Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, impacted Pacific lamprey populations, however, the degree of impact is unknown (1920's-early 1970's). Hydroelectric dam construction (Harpster Dam) on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed salmonid passage in the mid-1900's. Habitat alterations in the Snake River basin and Clearwater River drainage have had numerous negative effects on salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead trout O. mykiss populations (wild fish), but the magnitude of impacts on lamprey productivity and survival is unknown. Thorough understanding of Pacific lamprey habitat use and life history processes is needed to facilitate management and restoration of the species. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game began investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2000. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine where Pacific lamprey persist

  10. Relationships Between Landscape Habitat Characteristics and Relative Density Categories of Steelhead Trout and Chinook Salmon Parr in Idaho, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William L.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-09-01

    This paper is an investigation into possible relationships between landscape habitat characteristics and density categories of steelhead and spring/summer chinook parr within index streams in the Snake River drainage in Idaho.

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Welp Riparian Enhancement Fence

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of approximately 1.5 miles of post and wire fence along Valley Creek in Stanley, Idaho. The proposed fence will meet or exceed BPA's minimum requirement of a 35-foot setback from the stream. Fence posts will be driven into the ground with a post ponder. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat through exclusion fencing.

  12. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS --Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Pahsimeroi Fence Crossing

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-11

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of a fenced stream crossing over the Pahsimeroi River to enhance a livestock riparian enclosure. This structure would include up to four wood fence posts and two deadman anchors buried in the ground. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat by preventing livestock from entering the riparian area via the river. The NEPA compliance checklist for this project was completed by Carl Rudeen with the Custer Soil and Water Conservation District (August 4, 2004) and meets the standards and guidelines for the Watershed Management Program Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed species that may occur in the general vicinity of the project area are gray wolf, Canada lynx, bald eagle, Ute ladies'Tresses, Snake River chinook salmon, Snake River steelhead trout, and Columbia River Basin bull trout. It was determined that the proposed fence crossing construction project would have no effect on these species. Bald eagle, gray wolf and Canada lynx are not known to occur in the immediate project vicinity. Since the site is used primarily as livestock pasture it does not lend itself to the presence of Ute ladies'Tresses. ESA listed fish may be present in the project vicinity but will not be affected because the project does not involve instream work. Soil disturbance will be limited to the livestock pasture and to two holes that will be used to bury anchors for the suspended portion of the fence. Required river crossings will be made on foot. Requirements associated with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act were handled by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), in cooperation with staff from the U.S. Forest Service (Boise National Forest), under their existing Programmatic Agreement with the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO). A description of the Pahsimeroi

  13. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  14. Aquatic biological communities and associated habitats at selected sites in the Big Wood River Watershed, south-central Idaho, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.; Short, Terry M.

    2016-09-28

    Assessments of streamflow (discharge) parameters, water quality, physical habitat, and biological communities were completed between May and September 2014 as part of a monitoring program in the Big Wood River watershed of south-central Idaho. The sampling was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Blaine County, Trout Unlimited, the Nature Conservancy, and the Wood River Land Trust to help identify the status of aquatic resources at selected locations in the watershed. Information in this report provides a basis with which to evaluate and monitor the long-term health of the Big Wood River and its major tributaries. Sampling sites were co-located with existing U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations: three on the main stem Big Wood River and four on the North Fork Big Wood River (North Fork), Warm Springs Creek (Warm Sp), Trail Creek (Trail Ck), and East Fork Big Wood River (East Fork) tributaries.The analytical results and quality-assurance information for water quality, physical habitat, and biological community samples collected at study sites during 2 weeks in September 2014 are summarized. Water-quality data include concentrations of major nutrients, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, and fecal-coliform bacteria. To assess the potential effects of nutrient enrichment on algal growth, concentrations of periphyton biomass (chlorophyll-a and ash free dry weight) in riffle habitats were determined at each site. Physical habitat parameters include stream channel morphology, habitat volume, instream structure, substrate composition, and riparian vegetative cover. Biological data include taxa richness, abundance, and stream-health indicator metrics for macroinvertebrate and fish communities. Statistical summaries of the water-quality, habitat, and biological data are provided along with discussion of how these findings relate to the health of aquatic resources in the Big Wood River watershed.Seasonal discharge patterns using statistical

  15. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant safety document ICPP hazardous chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of a hazardous chemical evaluation performed for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). ICPP tracks chemicals on a computerized database, Haz Track, that contains roughly 2000 individual chemicals. The database contains information about each chemical, such as its form (solid, liquid, or gas); quantity, either in weight or volume; and its location. The Haz Track database was used as the primary starting point for the chemical evaluation presented in this report. The chemical data and results presented here are not intended to provide limits, but to provide a starting point for nonradiological hazards analysis.

  16. Sexual differences in the post-breeding movements and habitats selected by Western toads (Bufo boreas) in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartelt, Paul E.; Peterson, Charles R.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    We used radio-telemetry to study the movements and habitat use of Western toads (Bufo boreas) in the Targhee National Forest in southeastern Idaho. Eighteen toads (10 male and 8 female) that bred in a seasonally flooded pond, were fitted with radio-transmitters, tracked, and their movements mapped and analyzed with global positioning and geographic information systems. We also analyzed their patterns of habitat selection at micro- and macro-scales by comparing sites used by toads with randomly selected sites. After breeding, two male and six female toads left the breeding pond and used terrestrial habitats extensively. Male and female toads showed different patterns of movement and habitat use, although all toads seemed to behave in ways that reduced loss of body water (e.g., such as traveling on nights of high humidity). Male toads traveled shorter distances from the pond than females (581 ± 98 m and 1105 ± 272 m, respectively). Female toads used terrestrial habitats extensively and were selective of cover types (e.g., shrub) that provided greater protection from dehydration. Female toads also preferred certain habitat edges and open forests over forests with closed canopies or clearcuts. Information from this study can assist land managers in establishing protective buffers and managing forests for the protection of toad populations.

  17. Douglas-fir/white spirea habitat type in central Idaho: Succession and management. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.; Geier-Hayes, K.

    1994-04-01

    The report describes a taxonomic system for classifying plant succession in the Douglas-fir/white spirea habitat type in central Idaho. A total of 10 potential tree layer types, 35 shrub types, and 45 herb layer types are categorized. Diagonostic keys based on indicator species assist field identification of the types. Discussion of management implications includes pocket gopher populations, success of planted and natural tree seedlings, big-game and livestock forage preferences, and responses of major shrub and herb layer species to disturbances.

  18. Douglas-fir/pinegrass habitat type in central Idaho: Succession and management. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R.; Geier-Hayes, K.

    1993-05-01

    The report includes a taxonomic system for classifying plant succession in the Douglas-fir/Pinegrass habitat type in central Idaho. A total of 10 potential tree layer types, 32 shrub layer types, and 60 herbaceous layer types are categorized. Diagnostic keys based on indicator species provide for field identification of the types. The discussion of management implications includes pocket gopher populations, success of planted and natural tree seedlings, big-game and livestock forage preferences, and responses of major shrub and herb layer species to disturbance.

  19. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Suekawa, H.S.; Merrick, D.; Clayton, J.; Rumba, S.

    1982-07-01

    The Ashton Quadrangle, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits, using criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were carried out in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric data were evaluated, and anomalies were examined in the field. Fourteen uranium occurrences were noted in the study area. Only one environment, the phosphorites of the Permian Phosphoria Formation, is considered favorable for uranium deposition. The unfavorable environments include: limestones, sandstones, coal and carbonaceous shales, volcanics, Precambrian metamorphics, and Tertiary basins. Unevaluated areas include the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Memorial Parkway and Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, where park service regulations prohibit detailed investigations.

  20. Evaluation of a habitat suitability index model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, A.H.; Cade, B.S.; Stauffer, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    We assisted with development of a model for maternity habitat of the Indiana bat (Myotis soda/is), for use in conducting assessments of projects potentially impacting this endangered species. We started with an existing model, modified that model in a workshop, and evaluated the revised model, using data previously collected by others. Our analyses showed that higher indices of habitat suitability were associated with sites where Indiana bats were present and, thus, the model may be useful for identifying suitable habitat. Utility of the model, however, was based on a single component-density of suitable roost trees. Percentage of landscape in forest did not allow differentiation between sites occupied and not occupied by Indiana bats. Moreover, in spite of a general opinion by participants in the workshop that bodies of water were highly productive feeding areas and that a diversity of feeding habitats was optimal, we found no evidence to support either hypothesis.

  1. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Wells Quadrangle, Nevada, Idaho, and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Proffitt, J.L.; Mayerson, D.L.; Parker, D.P.; Wolverson, N.; Antrim, D.; Berg, J.; Witzel, F.

    1982-08-01

    The Wells 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Nevada, Idaho, and Utah, was evaluated using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria to delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits. Our investigation has resulted in the delineation of areas that contain Tertiary sedimentary rocks favorable for hydroallogenic deposits in the Mountain City area (Favorable Area A) and in the Oxley Peak area north of Wells (Favorable Area B). Environments considered to be unfavorable for uranium deposits include Tertiary felsic volcanic, felsic plutonic, intermediate to mafic volcanic, Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Precambrian rocks, and most Tertiary sedimentary rocks located outside the favorable areas. Present-day basins are unevaluated environments because of a paucity of adequate outcrop and subsurface data. However, the scarce data indicate that some characteristics favorable for uranium deposits are present in the Susie Creek-Tule Valley-Wild Horse basin, the Contact-Granite Range-Tijuana John stocks area, the Charleston Reservoir area, and the Wells-Marys River basin.

  2. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Baker Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, M L; Robins, J W

    1982-05-01

    The Baker Quadrangle, Oregon, and Idaho, was evaluated to identify areas containing geologic environments favorable for uranium deposits. The criteria used was developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Stream-sediment reconnaissance and detailed surface studies were augmented by subsurface-data interpretion and an aerial radiometric survey. Results indicate that lower Pliocene sedimentary rocks in the Lower Powder River Valley-Virtue Flat basin are favorable characteristics, they remain unevaluated because of lack of subsurface data. Tertiary sandstones, possibly present at depth in the Long and Cascade Valleys, also remain unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data. All remaining environments in the Baker Quadrangle are unfavorable for all classes of uranium deposits.

  3. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring Part I, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hall-Griswold, Judy A.; Leitzinger, Eric J.; Petrosky, C.E. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID

    1995-11-01

    A total of 333 stream sections were sampled in 1994 to monitor in chinook salmon and steelhead trout parr populations in Idaho. Percent carry capacity and density estimates were summarized by different classes of fish: wild A-run steelhead trout, wild B-run steelhead trout, natural A-run steelhead trout, natural B-run steelhead trout, wild spring and summer chinook salmon. These data were also summarized by cells and subbasins as defined in Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s 1992-1996 Anadromous Fish Management Plan.

  4. Digital Map of Surficial Geology, Wetlands, and Deepwater Habitats, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Jackson, Berne L.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Derkey, Pamela D.; Munts, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River channel and its floodplain in north Idaho are mostly covered by metal-enriched sediments, partially derived from upstream mining, milling and smelting wastes. Relative to uncontaminated sediments of the region, metal-enriched sediments are highly enriched in silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony and mercury, copper, cadmium, manganese, and iron. Widespread distribution of metal-enriched sediments has resulted from over a century of mining in the CdA mining district (upstream), poor mine-waste containment practices during the first 80 years of mining, and an ongoing series of over-bank floods. Previously deposited metal-enriched sediments continue to be eroded and transported down-valley and onto the floodplain during floods. The centerpiece of this report is a Digital Map Surficial Geology, Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River valley (sheets 1 and 2). The map covers the river, its floodplain, and adjacent hills, from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the CdA River to its mouth and delta front on CdA Lake, 43 linear km (26 mi) to the southwest (river distance 58 km or 36 mi). Also included are the following derivative theme maps: 1. Wetland System Map; 2. Wetland Class Map; 3. Wetland Subclass Map; 4. Floodplain Map; 5. Water Regime Map; 6. Sediment-Type Map; 7. Redox Map; 8. pH Map; and 9. Agricultural Land Map. The CdA River is braided and has a cobble-gravel bottom from the confluence to Cataldo Flats, 8 linear km (5 mi) down-valley. Erosional remnants of up to four alluvial terraces are present locally, and all are within the floodplain, as defined by the area flooded in February of 1996. High-water (overflow) channels and partly filled channel scars braid across some alluvial terraces, toward down-valley marshes and (or) oxbow ponds, which drain back to the river. Near Cataldo Flats, the river gradient flattens, and the river coalesces into a single channel with a large friction

  5. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  6. Idaho Habitat/Natural Production Monitoring Part I, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hall-Griswold, J.A.; Petrosky, C.E.

    1996-12-01

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has been monitoring trends in juvenile spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and steelhead trout, O. mykiss, populations in the Salmon, Clearwater, and lower Snake River drainages for the past 12 years. This work is the result of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. Project 91-73, Idaho Natural Production Monitoring, consists of two subprojects: General Monitoring and Intensive Monitoring. This report updates and summarizes data through 1995 for the General Parr Monitoring (GPM) database to document status and trends of classes of wild and natural chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations. A total of 281 stream sections were sampled in 1995 to monitor trends in spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss parr populations in Idaho. Percent carrying capacity and density estimates were summarized for 1985--1995 by different classes of fish: wild A-run steelhead trout, wild B-run steelhead trout, natural A-run steelhead trout, natural B-run steelhead trout, wild spring and summer chinook salmon, and natural spring and summer chinook salmon. The 1995 data were also summarized by subbasins as defined in Idaho Department of Fish and Game`s 1992--1996 Anadromous Fish Management Plan.

  7. Use of multidimensional modeling to evaluate a channel restoration design for the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, B.L.; McDonald, R.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Kinzel, P.J.; Barton, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    River channel construction projects aimed at restoring or improving degraded waterways have become common but have been variously successful. In this report a methodology is proposed to evaluate channel designs before channels are built by using multidimensional modeling and analysis. This approach allows detailed analysis of water-surface profiles, sediment transport, and aquatic habitat that may result if the design is implemented. The method presented here addresses the need to model a range of potential stream-discharge and channel-roughness conditions to best assess the function of the design channel for a suite of possible conditions. This methodology is demonstrated by using a preliminary channel-restoration design proposed for a part of the Kootenai River in northern Idaho designated as critical habitat for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and evaluating the design on the basis of simulations with the Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model. This evaluation indicated substantial problems with the preliminary design because boundary conditions used in the design were inconsistent with best estimates of future conditions. As a result, simulated water-surface levels did not meet target levels that corresponded to the designed bankfull surfaces; therefore, the flood plain would not function as intended. Sediment-transport analyses indicated that both the current channel of the Kootenai River and the design channel are largely unable to move the bed material through the reach at bankfull discharge. Therefore, sediment delivered to the design channel would likely be deposited within the reach instead of passing through it as planned. Consequently, the design channel geometry would adjust through time. Despite these issues, the design channel would provide more aquatic habitat suitable for spawning white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) at lower discharges than is currently available in the

  8. Eder Acquisition 2007 Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Eder acquisition in July 2007 to determine how many protection habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams. Baseline HEP surveys generated 3,857.64 habitat units or 1.16 HUs per acre. HEP surveys also served to document general habitat conditions. Survey results indicated that the herbaceous plant community lacked forbs species, which may be due to both livestock grazing and the late timing of the surveys. Moreover, the herbaceous plant community lacked structure based on lower than expected visual obstruction readings (VOR); likely a direct result of livestock impacts. In addition, introduced herbaceous vegetation including cultivated pasture grasses, e.g. crested wheatgrass and/or invader species such as cheatgrass and mustard, were present on most areas surveyed. The shrub element within the shrubsteppe cover type was generally a mosaic of moderate to dense shrubby areas interspersed with open grassland communities while the 'steppe' component was almost entirely devoid of shrubs. Riparian shrub and forest areas were somewhat stressed by livestock. Moreover, shrub and tree communities along the lower reaches of Nine Mile Creek suffered from lack of water due to the previous landowners 'piping' water out of the stream channel.

  9. Numerical Model of Channel and Aquatic Habitat Response to Sediment Pulses in Mountain Rivers of Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, M.; Buffington, J. M.; Thurow, R. F.; Isaak, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Mountain rivers in central Idaho receive pulsed sediment inputs from a variety of mass wasting processes (side-slope landslides, rockfalls, and tributary debris flows). Tributary debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows are particularly common due to winter "rain-on-snow" events and summer thunderstorms, the effects of which are amplified by frequent wildfire and resultant changes in vegetation, soil characteristics, and basin hydrology. Tributary confluences in the study area are commonly characterized by debris fans built by these repeated sediment pulses, providing long-term controls on channel slope, hydraulics and sediment transport capacity in the mainstem channel network. These long-term impacts are magnified during debris-flow events, which deliver additional sediment and wood debris to the fan and may block the mainstem river. These changes in physical conditions also influence local and downstream habitat for aquatic species, and can impact local human infrastructure (roads, bridges). Here, we conduct numerical simulations using a modified version of Cui's [2005] network routing model to examine bedload transport and debris-fan evolution in medium- sized watersheds (65-570 km2) of south-central Idaho. We test and calibrate the model using data from a series of postfire debris-flow events that occurred from 2003-4. We investigate model sensitivity to different controlling factors (location of the pulse within the stream network, volume of the pulse, and size distribution of the input material). We predict that on decadal time scales, sediment pulses cause a local coarsening of the channel bed in the vicinity of the sediment input, and a wave of downstream fining over several kilometers of the river (as long as the pulse material is not coarser than the stream bed itself). The grain-size distribution of the pulse influences its rate of erosion, the rate and magnitude of downstream fining, and the time required for system recovery. The effects of textural

  10. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, M R; Castor, S B; Robins, J W

    1982-04-01

    The Jordan Valley Quadrangle, Oregon and Idaho, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas favorable for uranium deposits in accordance with criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Surface radiometric reconnaissance and geochemical sampling were used for overall evaluation of the quadrangle. Detailed rock sampling, geologic mapping, and examination of uranium deposits and occurrences were performed in areas suspected to be favorable. The northeast part of the McDermitt caldera within the quadrangle is favorable for volcanogenic deposits associated with the ring-fracture zone. The favorable area contains the Aurora uranium deposit, the Bretz mercury mine, and the Cottonwood Creek occurrence. The Triangle Ranch area and the Snake River Plain, both in the northeast part of the quadrangle, have environments that may be favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone but are considered unevaluated due to lack of subsurface data and lack of detailed investigations. Rocks in the remainder of the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits because of low uranium contents, basic to intermediate compositions, or lack of favorable structures.

  11. Arboreal lichen in uncut and partially cut subalpine fir stands in woodland caribou habitat, northern Idaho and southeastern British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rominger, Eric M.; Allen-Johnson, Lydia; Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the effects of partial cutting on arboreal lichen production within woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) habitat, lichen was hand picked from 1228 branches on 307 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) trees in Idaho (ID), and in British Columbia (BC). Lichen biomass from partially cut stands was compared with biomass on trees from adjacent uncut stands at each site. Arboreal lichen biomass did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Total number of branches per tree did not differ significantly between uncut and partially cut stands. Live branches had more lichen than dead branches. Species composition of arboreal lichen changed in partially cut stands compared with adjacent uncut stands. The ratio of live to dead branches was substantially different within the BC partial cut.

  12. Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) movement in relation to water temperature, season, and habitat features in Arrowrock Reservoir, Idaho, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Schultz, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry was used to determine spring to summer (April–August) movement and habitat use of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Arrowrock Reservoir (hereafter “Arrowrock”), a highly regulated reservoir in the Boise River Basin of southwestern Idaho. Water management practices annually use about 86 percent of the reservoir water volume to satisfy downstream water demands. These practices might be limiting bull trout habitat and movement patterns. Bull trout are among the more thermally sensitive coldwater species in North America, and the species is listed as threatened throughout the contiguous United States under the Endangered Species Act. Biweekly water-temperature and dissolved-oxygen profiles were collected by the Bureau of Reclamation at three locations in Arrowrock to characterize habitat conditions for bull trout. Continuous streamflow and water temperature also were measured immediately upstream of the reservoir on the Middle and South Fork Boise Rivers, which influence habitat conditions in the riverine zones of the reservoir. In spring 2012, 18 bull trout ranging in total length from 306 to 630 millimeters were fitted with acoustic transmitters equipped with temperature and depth sensors. Mobile boat tracking and fixed receivers were used to detect released fish. Fish were tagged from March 28 to April 20 and were tracked through most of August. Most bull trout movements were detected in the Middle Fork Boise River arm of the reservoir. Fifteen individual fish were detected at least once after release. Water surface temperature at each fish detection location ranged from 6.0 to 16.2 degrees Celsius (°C) (mean=10.1°C), whereas bull trout body temperatures were colder, ranging from 4.4 to 11.6°C (mean=7.3°C). Bull trout were detected over deep-water habitat, ranging from 8.0 to 42.6 meters (m) (mean=18.1 m). Actual fish depths were shallower than total water depth, ranging from 0.0 to 24.5 m (mean=6.7 m). The last bull trout was

  13. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 2, Idaho, 1985 Annual and Final Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hair, Don

    1986-09-01

    The individual reports in this volume have been separately abstracted for inclusion in the data base. The reports describe fish habitat enhancement projects on the Lochsa River, Eldorado and Camas Creeks, and the Clearwater River. (ACR)

  14. Wildlife habitat evaluation demonstration project. [Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgoyne, G. E., Jr.; Visser, L. G.

    1981-01-01

    To support the deer range improvement project in Michigan, the capability of LANDSAT data in assessing deer habitat in terms of areas and mixes of species and age classes of vegetation is being examined to determine whether such data could substitute for traditional cover type information sources. A second goal of the demonstration project is to determine whether LANDSAT data can be used to supplement and improve the information normally used for making deer habitat management decisions, either by providing vegetative cover for private land or by providing information about the interspersion and juxtaposition of valuable vegetative cover types. The procedure to be used for evaluating in LANDSAT data of the Lake County test site is described.

  15. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume 2, Idaho, 1984 Final and Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Hair, Don

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, and under the auspices of the Northwest Power Planning Council, the Clear-water National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement to improve anadromous fish habitat in Lolo Creek. This was to be the second and final year of instream enhancement work in Lolo Creek, a major tributary to the Clearwater River. The project was again entitled Lolo Creek Habitat Improvement (No.84-6) which was scheduled from April 1, 1984, through March 31, 1985. Project costs were not to exceed $39,109. The following report is a description of the project objectives, methodology, results, and conclusions of this year's work, based on the knowledge and experience gained through 2 years of enhancement work. The primary objective was to partially mitigate the juvenile and adult anadromous fish losses accrued through hydroelectric development in the Columbia and Snake River systems by enhancing the spawning and rearing habitats of selected Clearwater River tributaries for spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout. The enhancement was designed to ameliorate the ''limiting production factors'' by the in-stream placement of habitat structures that would positively alter the pool-riffle structure and increase the quality of over-winter habitat.

  16. Spatial use and habitat selection of golden eagles in southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzluff, J.M.; Knick, Steven T.; Vekasy, M.S.; Schueck, Linda S.; Zarriello, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    We measured spatial use and habitat selection of radio-tagged Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) at eight to nine territories each year from 1992 to 1994 in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area. Use of space did not vary between years or sexes, but did vary among seasons (home ranges and travel distances were larger during the nonbreeding than during the breeding season) and among individuals. Home ranges were large, ranging from 190 to 8,330 ha during the breeding season and from 1,370 to 170,000 ha outside of the breeding season, but activity was concentrated in small core areas of 30 to 1,535 ha and 485 to 6,380 ha during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons, respectively. Eagles selected shrub habitats and avoided disturbed areas, grasslands, and agriculture. This resulted in selection for habitat likely to contain their principal prey, black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus). Individuals with home ranges in extensive shrubland (n = 3) did not select for shrubs in the placement of their core areas or foraging points, but individuals in highly fragmented or dispersed shrublands (n = 5) concentrated their activities and foraged preferentially in jackrabbit habitats (i.e. areas with abundant and large shrub patches). As home ranges expanded outside of the breeding season, individuals selected jackrabbit habitats within their range. Shrubland fragmentation should be minimized so that remaining shrub patches are large enough to support jackrabbits.

  17. Idaho Habitat and Natural Production Monitoring Part III, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schrader, W.C.; Petrosky, Charles E. (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Fisheries Research Section, Boise, ID

    1994-03-01

    Effective management of wild anadromous fisheries is partly dependent on defining relationships between escapement and production. These productivity relationships (or reproduction curves) depend on the nature of density-dependent mechanisms that control the population. Inherent is developing any relationship is specifying the fish population of interest and what is meant by escapement and production by that population. This report is a summary of sampling programs at all existing and proposed anadromous fish weirs in Idaho as of fall 1992. Only permanent or semi-permanent structures where long-term data could be collected are included. The summary is stratified by class of fish and by cell or drainage using the same classifications as the Idaho Anadromous Fish Management Plan. Included in the summary are escapement objectives above the existing and proposed weirs. Recommendations based on this summary were developed to provide coverage for all classes and most major drainages, yet minimize cost and duplication of efforts. this was a usefull approach as some chinook salmon weirs were identified that could be modified to monitor steelhead trout.

  18. Geothermometric evaluation of geothermal resources in southeastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, G.; Mattson, E. D.; McLing, T. L.; Palmer, C. D.; Smith, R. W.; Wood, T. R.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water from oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from chemical composition of thermal waters in southeastern Idaho using an inverse geochemical modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. The temperature estimates in the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho, resulted in the highest reservoir temperature estimates in the region.

  19. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement Idaho: Lolo Creek and Upper Lochsa, Clearwater National Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, F.A. Jr.; Lee, Kristine M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1983, the Clearwater National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contractual agreement to improve anadromous fish habitat in selected tributaries of the Clearwater River Basin. This agreement was drawn under the auspices of the Northwest Power Act of 1980 and the Columbia River basin Fish and Wildlife Program (section 700). The Program was completed in 1990 and this document constitutes the Final Report'' that details all project activities, costs, accomplishments, and responses. The overall goal of the Program was to enhance spawning, rearing, and riparian habitats of Lolo Creek and major tributaries of the Lochsa River so that their production systems could reach full capability and help speed the recovery of salmon and steelhead within the basin.

  20. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana ). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  1. Evaluating habitat selection with radio-telemetry triangulation error

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Kenow, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    Radio-telemetry triangulation errors result in the mislocation of animals and misclassification of habitat use. We present analytical methods that provide improved estimates of habitat use when misclassification probabilities can be determined. When misclassification probabilities cannot be determined, we use random subsamples from the error distribution of an estimated animal location to improve habitat use estimates. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the effects of this subsampling method, triangulation error, number of animal locations, habitat availability, and habitat complexity on bias and variation in habitat use estimates. Results for the subsampling method are illustrated using habitat selection by redhead ducks (Aythya americana). We recommend the subsampling method with a minimum of 50 random points to reduce problems associated with habitat misclassification.

  2. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  3. Simulation of flow and sediment transport in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Bennett, James P.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of sediment transport of the Kootenai River in the white sturgeon spawning reach is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to predict sediment-transport conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The decreasing population and spawning failure of the white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeon are found in the river today. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. A 15-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied, including the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and a 1-mile long side channel around the western side of Shorty Island. A one-dimensional sediment-transport model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to simulate the response of the hydraulic and sediment system to varying discharges and water-surface elevations. The model comprises 79 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. Bed-sediment samples collected in 2002 and additional samples collected for this study in 2004 were used in the model. The model was calibrated to discharge and water-surface elevations at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations. The model also was calibrated to suspended-sediment discharge at several sites in the study reach. The calibrated model was used to simulate six different management alternatives to assess erosion and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions at the end of 21 days of simulation. Alternative 1 was simulated with a discharge of 6,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), alternative 2 with 20,000 ft3/s, alternative 3 with 40,000 ft3/s, and alternatives 4 through 6 with 60,000 ft3/s and represents low to high discharges in the river since the construction of Libby Dam. Sediment deposition

  4. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2003-10-01

    In 2002 Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, and Middle Fork Clearwater River subbasins. Five-hundred forty-one ammocoetes were captured electroshocking 70 sites in the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River, Selway River, Middle Fork Clearwater River, Clearwater River, and their tributaries in 2002. Habitat utilization surveys in Red River support previous work indicating Pacific lamprey ammocoete densities are greater in lateral scour pool habitats compared to riffles and rapids. Presence-absence survey findings in 2002 augmented 2000 and 2001 indicating Pacific lamprey macrothalmia and ammocoetes are not numerous or widely distributed. Pacific lamprey distribution was confined to the lower reaches of Red River below rkm 8.0, the South Fork Clearwater River, Lochsa River (Ginger Creek to mouth), Selway River (Race Creek to mouth), Middle Fork Clearwater River, and the Clearwater River (downstream to Potlatch River).

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) Report for the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP), developed in 1980 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1980a, USFWS 1980b), uses a habitat/species based approach to assessing project impacts, and is a convenient tool to document the predicted effects of proposed management actions. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) endorsed the use of HEP in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to evaluate wildlife benefits and impacts associated with the development and operation of the federal Columbia River Basin hydroelectric system (NPPC 1994). The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) used HEP in 1987 to evaluate wildlife habitat losses attributed to the Albeni Falls hydroelectric facility (Martin et al. 1988). In 1992, the AFIWG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes) began implementing activities to mitigate these losses. Implementation activities include protecting, restoring and enhancing wildlife habitat. HEPs are used extensively within the NPPC's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Wildlife managers use HEP to determine habitat lost from the construction of the federal hydroelectric projects and habitat gained through NPPC mitigation program. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for each of the seven target species are used to determine habitat quality and quantity losses for representative habitat cover types for this project. Target species include Bald Eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer and yellow warbler. In 2002, a HEP team determined the habitat condition of the 164-acre Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project (Figure 1). The HEP team consisted of the following members and agencies: Roy Finley, Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD); Neil Lockwood, KNRD; Brian Merson, KNRD; Sonny Finley, KNRD; Darren Holmes, KNRD; Anna, Washington Dept. of Fish and Game (WDFW); and Scott, WDFW. Baseline Habitat Units (HU) will be credited to

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) Report for the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-05-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP), developed in 1980 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1980a, USFWS 1980b), uses a habitat/species based approach to assessing project impacts, and is a convenient tool to document the predicted effects of proposed management actions. The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) endorsed the use of HEP in its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program to evaluate wildlife benefits and impacts associated with the development and operation of the federal Columbia River Basin hydroelectric system (NPPC 1994). The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group (AFIWG) used HEP in 1987 to evaluate wildlife habitat losses attributed to the Albeni Falls hydroelectric facility (Martin et al. 1988). In 1992, the AFIWG (Idaho Department of Fish and Game; Kalispel, Coeur d'Alene, and Kootenai Tribes) began implementing activities to mitigate these losses. Implementation activities include protecting, restoring and enhancing wildlife habitat. HEPs are used extensively within the NPPC's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Wildlife managers use HEP to determine habitat lost from the construction of the federal hydroelectric projects and habitat gained through NPPC mitigation program. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for each of the seven target species are used to determine habitat quality and quantity losses for representative habitat cover types for this project. Target species include Bald Eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, white-tailed deer and yellow warbler. In 2002, a HEP team determined the habitat condition of the 436-acre Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project (Figure 1). The HEP team consisted of the following members and agencies: Roy Finley, Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD); Neil Lockwood, KNRD; Brian Merson, KNRD; Sonny Finley, KNRD; Darren Holmes, KNRD; Anna, Washington Dept. of Fish and Game (WDFW); and Scott, WDFW. Baseline Habitat Units (HU) will be credited to

  7. An evaluation of Idaho stream-gaging networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quillian, E.W.; Harenberg, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Network Analysis for Regional Information (NARI) and the Cost-Effectiveness Procedure were tested by applying them to stream-gaging networks in Idaho. NARI was used to determine network design strategies that would maximize the value of additional data. Value of data was measured as the decrease in the probable true standards error of regional regression equations. NARI indicated that no significant decrease in regression error can be achieved by the collection of additional data and that better models should be sought. No major modifications to NARI are necessary to make it widely applicable. The Cost-Effectiveness Procedure was used to determine optimal network operation strategies. It showed network uncertainty can be reduced when six- or one-visit per year minimum constraints are in force. Sensitivity to various cost factors was examined. Attempts to model networks that included sites for collection of groundwater and water-quality data were unsuccessful. (USGS)

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Beaver Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 14, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 232.26 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 136.58 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 20.02 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetland habitat provides 7.67 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 22.69 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetlands provide 35.04 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Open water provided 10.26 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Gamblin Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On August 12, 2003, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Gamblin Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2002. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Gamblin Lake Project provides a total of 273.28 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 127.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetland habitat provides 21.06 HUs for bald eagle, black-caped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow provides 78.05 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Emergent wetland habitat provides 46.25 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the Gamblin Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  10. Simulation of hydraulic characteristics in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic characterization of the Kootenai River, especially in the white sturgeon spawning habitat reach, is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to promote hydraulic conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River. The decreasing population and spawning failure of white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeons are found in the river today. Determining the location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water in the Kootenai River is a primary focus for biologists who believe that hydraulic changes at the transition affect the location where the sturgeon choose to spawn. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. The 65.6-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied. The study area encompasses the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to develop relations between hydraulic characteristics and water-surface elevation, discharge, velocity, and backwater extent. The model used 164 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. The model was calibrated to water-surface elevations at specific discharges at five gaging stations. Calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,743 to about 1,759 feet, and discharges used in calibration ranged from 5,000 to 47,500 cubic feet per second. Model calibration was considered acceptable when the difference between measured and simulated water-surface elevations was ?0.15 foot or less. Measured and simulated average velocities also were compared. These comparisons indicated agreement between measured and simulated values. The location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water was determined using the calibrated model. The model

  11. Evaluation of VICAR software capability for land information support system needs. [Elk River quadrangle, Idaho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, S. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the processing capability of the VICAR software for land information support system needs is presented. The geometric and radiometric properties of four sets of LANDSAT data taken over the Elk River, Idaho quadrangle were compared. Storage of data sets, the means of location, pixel resolution, and radiometric and geometric characteristics are described. Recommended modifications of VICAR programs are presented.

  12. Simulation of Streamflow Using a Multidimensional Flow Model for White Sturgeon Habitat, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho - Supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed, calibrated, and validated a multidimensional flow model for simulating streamflow in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River in Idaho. The model was developed as a tool to aid understanding of the physical factors affecting quality and quantity of spawning and rearing habitat used by the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and for assessing the feasibility of various habitat-enhancement scenarios to re-establish recruitment of white sturgeon. At the request of the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, the USGS extended the two-dimensional flow model developed in 2005 into a braided reach upstream of the current white sturgeon spawning reach. Many scientists consider the braided reach a suitable substrate with adequate streamflow velocities for re-establishing recruitment of white sturgeon. The 2005 model was extended upstream to help assess the feasibility of various strategies to encourage white sturgeon to spawn in the reach. At the request of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the USGS also extended the two-dimensional flow model several kilometers downstream of the white sturgeon spawning reach. This modified model can quantify the physical characteristics of a reach that white sturgeon pass through as they swim upstream from Kootenay Lake to the spawning reach. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used for the 2005 modeling effort and for this subsequent modeling effort. This report describes the model applications and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to the location of white sturgeon spawning events during 1994-2001. Model simulations also were used to report on the length and percentage of longitudinal profiles that met the minimum criteria during May and June 2006 and 2007 as stipulated in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biological Opinion.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-152) - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects – Zeigler Riparian Fence Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2004-06-30

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of approximately 600 feet of jack post and pole fence along a side channel to the Salmon River in Custer County, Idaho. In 2003 BPA funded the installation of approximately 1,300 feet of riparian fence along the Salmon River at this site. The proposed 600-foot fence addition will meet or exceed BPA’s minimum requirement of a 35-foot setback. This addition will connect with the Phase I fence and will protect a spring and side channel from livestock disturbance. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat through exclusion fencing.

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-154) - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects – Bauchman (Ives Place) Riparian Fence

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2004-07-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund the installation of approximately 5,525 feet of jack post and pole fence along the Salmon River in Custer County, Idaho. The proposed fence will greatly exceed BPA’s minimum requirement of a 35-foot setback, encompassing approximately 11.5 acres of land within the setback. This setback will also protect an existing cotton wood stand that lies between the fence and the river. The goal of this project is to enhance salmon and steelhead rearing and migration habitat through exclusion fencing.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Carey Creek, Technical Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    In August 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Carey Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in December 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Carey Creek Project provides a total of 172.95 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 4.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Forested wetlands provide 52.68 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 2.82 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. Wet meadow and grassland meadow provide 98.13 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Emergent wetlands provide 11.53 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Open water provides 2.88 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. The objective of using HEP at the Carey Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Evaluation of a predictive ground-water solute-transport model at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Barney D.; Goldstein, Flora J.

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous chemical and radioactive wastes discharged to shallow ponds and to shallow or deep wells on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since 1952 have affected the quality of the ground water in the underlying Snake River Plain aquifer. The aqueous wastes have created large and laterally dispersed concentration plumes within the aquifer. The waste plumes with the largest areal distribution are those of chloride , tritium, and with high specific conductance values. The data from eight wells drilled near the southern INEL boundary during the summer of 1980 were used to evaluate the accuracy of a predictive modeling study completed in 1973, and to simulate 1980 positions of chloride and tritium plumes. Data interpretation from the drilling program indicates that the hydrogeologic characteristics of the subsurface rocks have marked effects on the regional ground-water flow regimen and, therefore, the movement of aqueous wastes. As expected, the waste plumes projected by the computer model for 1980, extended somewhat further downgradient than indicated by well data due to conservative worst-case assumptions in the model input and inacurate approximations of subsequent waste discharge and aquifer recharge conditions. (USGS)

  17. Evaluation of field sampling and preservation methods for strontium-90 in ground water at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L.D.; Knobel, L.L.; Wegner, S.J.; Moore, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    Water from four wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer was sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey 's quality assurance program to evaluate the effect of filtration and preservation methods on strontium-90 concentrations in groundwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Water from each well was filtered through either a 0.45-micrometer membrane or a 0.1-micrometer membrane filter; unfiltered samples also were collected. Two sets of filtered and two sets of unfiltered samples was preserved in the field with reagent-grade hydrochloric acid and the other set of samples was not acidified. For water from wells with strontium-90 concentrations at or above the reporting level, 94% or more of the strontium-90 is in true solution or in colloidal particles smaller than 0.1 micrometer. These results suggest that within-laboratory reproducibility for strontium-90 in groundwater at the INEL is not significantly affected by changes in filtration and preservation methods used for sample collections. (USGS)

  18. Sensitivity of Off-Channel Salmon Rearing Habitats to Changing Base Flows in Low-Gradient Reaches of Central Idaho Mountain Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, J. A.; Thurow, R.; Tonina, D.; Isaak, D.; Bohn, C.

    2010-12-01

    Critical rearing habitats for juvenile salmon and trout are frequently in off-channel areas of shallow, low-velocity water. Typically, these are remnants of abandoned channel positions that are still hydraulically connected to the contemporary main channel. However, the size and spatial arrangement of this habitat is strongly dependent on water stage in the main channel. In two salmon-bearing streams in the Middle Fork Salmon River, Idaho, we used a high-resolution channel DEM and a 1D fluid dynamics model to define the location, depth, total area, frequency, and timing and duration of flooding of off-channel habitat. We then predicted changes in water surface elevation in the main channel over a range of low flow discharges and remapped the functional off-channel areas at each flow stage. Measurements at nearby gages indicate that average late summer and autumn low flows in these streams have declined by about 7% per decade over the prior 60 years. Modern off-channel habitat along the 20km of study streams is not uniformly arranged, even at high flows, and the distribution becomes still more restricted in space and time as flows decline. Progeny of summer- and early fall-spawning Chinook salmon rear for up to 2 years in these streams before migrating to the ocean, with much of that time spent in the off-channel habitat. Progeny of spring-spawning steelhead use the same areas for up to 3 years. While much prior research has focused on the effects of climate change on the availability and condition of spawning sites and on water temperatures, this study documents likely changes in the amount and condition of rearing habitat. Further investigation is needed to understand the ecological consequences and whether the declining anadromous fish populations may be at some risk from diminishing rearing habitat during declining base flows caused by external forces, such as a changing climate, dams, or water extractions.

  19. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River Drainage, Idaho: Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2002-12-01

    Recent decline of Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata adult migrants to the Snake River drainage has focused attention on the species. Adult Pacific lamprey counted passing Ice Harbor Dam fishway averaged 18,158 during 1962-69 and 361 during 1993-2000. Human resource manipulations in the Snake River and Clearwater River drainages have altered ecosystem habitat in the last 120 years, likely impacting the productive potential of Pacific lamprey habitat. Timber harvest, stream impoundment, road construction, grazing, mining, and community development have dominated habitat alteration in the Clearwater River system and Snake River corridor. Hydroelectric projects in the Snake River corridor impact juvenile/larval Pacific lamprey outmigrants and returning adults. Juvenile and larval lamprey outmigrants potentially pass through turbines, turbine bypass/collection systems, and over spillway structures at the four lower Snake River hydroelectric dams. Clearwater River drainage hydroelectric facilities have impacted Pacific lamprey populations to an unknown degree. The Pacific Power and Light Dam on the Clearwater River in Lewiston, Idaho, restricted chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha passage in the 1927-1940 period, altering the migration route of outmigrating Pacific lamprey juveniles/larvae and upstream adult migrants (1927-1972). Dworshak Dam, completed in 1972, eliminated Pacific lamprey spawning and rearing in the North Fork Clearwater River drainage. Construction of the Harpster hydroelectric dam on the South Fork of the Clearwater River resulted in obstructed fish passage 1949-1963. Through Bonneville Power Administration support, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game continued investigation into the status of Pacific lamprey populations in Idaho's Clearwater River drainage in 2001. Trapping, electrofishing, and spawning ground redd surveys were used to determine Pacific lamprey distribution, life history strategies, and habitat requirements in the South Fork

  20. Evaluation of seepage and discharge uncertainty in the middle Snake River, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Williams, Marshall L.; Evetts, David M.; Vidmar, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the State of Idaho, Idaho Power Company, and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, evaluated seasonal seepage gains and losses in selected reaches of the middle Snake River, Idaho, during November 2012 and July 2013, and uncertainty in measured and computed discharge at four Idaho Power Company streamgages. Results from this investigation will be used by resource managers in developing a protocol to calculate and report Adjusted Average Daily Flow at the Idaho Power Company streamgage on the Snake River below Swan Falls Dam, near Murphy, Idaho, which is the measurement point for distributing water to owners of hydropower and minimum flow water rights in the middle Snake River. The evaluated reaches of the Snake River were from King Hill to Murphy, Idaho, for the seepage studies and downstream of Lower Salmon Falls Dam to Murphy, Idaho, for evaluations of discharge uncertainty. Computed seepage was greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty for subreaches along the middle Snake River during November 2012, the non-irrigation season, but not during July 2013, the irrigation season. During the November 2012 seepage study, the subreach between King Hill and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful (greater than cumulative measurement uncertainty) seepage gain of 415 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), and the subreach between Loveridge Bridge and C J Strike Dam had a meaningful seepage gain of 217 ft3/s. The meaningful seepage gain measured in the November 2012 seepage study was expected on the basis of several small seeps and springs present along the subreach, regional groundwater table contour maps, and results of regional groundwater flow model simulations. Computed seepage along the subreach from C J Strike Dam to Murphy was less than cumulative measurement uncertainty during November 2012 and July 2013; therefore, seepage cannot be quantified with certainty along this subreach. For the uncertainty evaluation, average

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  2. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  3. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    2000-02-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995--96, triggering flooding, mass erosion, and, alteration of salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin. The storms and flooding in 1995--96 provide a prime opportunity to examine whether habitat conditions are improving, because the effects of land management activities on streams and salmon habitat are often not fully expressed until triggered by storms and floods. To address these issues, they are studying the recent storm responses of watersheds and salmon habitat in systematically selected subbasins and watersheds within the Snake River system. The study watersheds include several in the Wenaha and Tucannon subbasins in Washington and Oregon, and the watersheds of Squaw Creek (roaded) and Weir Creek (unroaded) in the Lochsa River subbasin, Idaho. The study was designed to examine possible differences in the effects of the storms in broadly comparable watersheds with differing magnitudes or types of disturbance. Watershed response is examined by comparing storm response mechanisms, such as rates of mass failure, among watersheds with similar attributes, but different levels of land management. The response of salmon habitat conditions is being examined by comparing habitat conditions before and after the storms in a stream and among streams in watersheds with similar attributes but different levels of land management. If appropriate to the results, the study will identify priority measures for reducing the severity of storm responses in watersheds within the Snake River Basin with habitat for at-risk salmon. This annual report describes the attributes of the study watersheds and the criteria and methods used to select them. The report also describes the watershed and fish habitat attributes

  4. Evaluating plant invasions from both habitat and species perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chong, G.W.; Otsuki, Y.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Guenther, D.; Evangelista, P.; Villa, C.; Waters, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present an approach to quantitatively assess nonnative plant invasions at landscape scales from both habitat and species perspectives. Our case study included 34 nonnative species found in 142 plots (0.1 ha) in 14 vegetation types within the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah. A plot invasion index, based on nonnative species richness and cover, showed that only 16 of 142 plots were heavily invaded. A species invasive index, based on frequency, cover, and number of vegetation types invaded, showed that only 7 of 34 plant species were highly invasive. Multiple regressions using habitat characteristics (moisture index, elevation, soil P, native species richness, maximum crust development class, bare ground, and rock) explained 60% of variation in nonnative species richness and 46% of variation in nonnative species cover. Three mesic habitats (aspen, wet meadow, and perennial riparian types) were particularly invaded (31 of 34 nonnative species studied were found in these types). Species-specific logistic regression models for the 7 most invasive species correctly predicted occurrence 89% of the time on average (from 80% for Bromus tectorum, a habitat generalist, to 93% for Tamarix spp., a habitat specialist). Even with such a modest sampling intensity (<0.1% of the landscape), this multiscale sampling scheme was effective at evaluating habitat vulnerability to invasion and the occurrence of the 7 most invasive nonnative species. This approach could be applied in other natural areas to develop strategies to document invasive species and invaded habitats.

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Graves Property - Yakama Nation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Graves property (140 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also documented the general ecological condition of the property. The Graves property was significantly damaged from past/present livestock grazing practices. Baseline HEP surveys generated 284.28 habitat units (HUs) or 2.03 HUs per acre. Of these, 275.50 HUs were associated with the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type while 8.78 HUs were tied to the riparian shrub cover type.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; Carl Property - Yakama Nation.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul; Muse, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    A baseline habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the Carl property (160 acres) in June 2007 to determine the number of habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to acquire the property as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of McNary Dam. HEP surveys also helped assess the general ecological condition of the property. The Carl property appeared damaged from livestock grazing and exhibited a high percentage of invasive forbs. Exotic grasses, while present, did not comprise a large percentage of the available cover in most areas. Cover types were primarily grassland/shrubsteppe with a limited emergent vegetation component. Baseline HEP surveys generated 356.11 HUs or 2.2 HUs per acre. Habitat units were associated with the following HEP models: California quail (47.69 HUs), western meadowlark (114.78 HUs), mallard (131.93 HUs), Canada goose (60.34 HUs), and mink (1.38 HUs).

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh, 2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2001-10-01

    Since the mid-1980s, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) has been participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) efforts to mitigate for the negative impacts to fish and wildlife resulting from the development and operation of the 7 Columbia Basin Federal Hydropower System. BPA's mitigation obligations were formally recognized and mandated by the Northwest Power Act of 1980 and are guided by the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC's) Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA funds fish and wildlife projects throughout the Basin to meet the habitat and population restorative goals and objectives outlined in the NWPPC's Fish and Wildlife Program and to fulfill its mitigation responsibilities under the Power Act. Impacts to wildlife resulting from hydrofacility construction/inundation were estimated using Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) in the mid and late 1980s and are documented in BPA' s Wildlife Loss Assessments (Rasmussen and Wright 1990,a,b,c,d) and in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Lower Snake River Wildlife Habitat Compensation Evaluation (ACOE 1991). The loss assessments provided estimates of lost habitat quality and quantity for the target species selected to represent the habitat cover types impacted by hydropower construction/inundation. The NWPPC incorporated these losses into their Fish and Wildlife Program, recognizing them as the unannualized losses attributable to the construction/inundation of the federal hydropower system (NWPPC 1995 and 2000, Table 1 1-4). The HEP methodology is used by wildlife managers within the Columbia Basin to determine habitat values, expressed as Habitat Units, gained through BPA-funded mitigation project work. ODFW and the other Oregon wildlife managers (i.e., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Confederated Tribes of the Warms Springs Reservation of Oregon, Burns Paiute Tribe, and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation [CTUIR]) have been working together since 1991

  8. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement. 1990 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1991-12-01

    The annual report contains three individual subproject sections detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1990. Subproject I contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject II contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. Subproject III concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho.

  9. After Action Report:Idaho National Laboratory (INL) 2014 Multiple Facility Beyond Design Basis (BDBE) Evaluated Drill October 21, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    V. Scott Barnes

    2014-12-01

    On October 21, 2014, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in coordination with local jurisdictions, and Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) conducted an evaluated drill to demonstrate the ability to implement the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System” when responding to a beyond design basis event (BDBE) scenario as outlined in the Office of Health, Safety, and Security Operating Experience Level 1 letter (OE-1: 2013-01). The INL contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), in coordination with CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI), and Idaho Treatment Group LLC (ITG), successfully demonstrated appropriate response measures to mitigate a BDBE event that would impact multiple facilities across the INL while protecting the health and safety of personnel, the environment, and property. Offsite response organizations participated to demonstrate appropriate response measures.

  10. Technology Evaluations Related to Mercury, Technetium, and Chloride in Treatment of Wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. Barnes; D. D. Taylor; S. C. Ashworth; J. B. Bosley; D. R. Haefner

    1999-10-01

    The Idaho High-Level Waste and Facility Disposition Environmental Impact Statement defines alternative for treating and disposing of wastes stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Development is required for several technologies under consideration for treatment of these wastes. This report contains evaluations of whether specific treatment is needed and if so, by what methods, to remove mercury, technetium, and chlorides in proposed Environmental Impact Statement treatment processes. The evaluations of mercury include a review of regulatory requirements that would apply to mercury wastes in separations processes, an evaluation of the sensitivity of mercury flowrates and concentrations to changes in separations processing schemes and conditions, test results from laboratory-scale experiments of precipitation of mercury by sulfide precipitation agents from the TRUEX carbonate wash effluent, and evaluations of methods to remove mercury from New Waste Calcining Facility liquid and gaseous streams. The evaluation of technetium relates to the need for technetium removal and alternative methods to remove technetium from streams in separations processes. The need for removal of chlorides from New Waste Calcining Facility scrub solution is also evaluated.

  11. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - L-9 Irrigation Diversion Modification

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-02

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a fish passage improvement project at the L-9 diversion on the Lemhi River in Lemhi County, Idaho with the Lemhi Soil and Water Conservation District. The project proposes to replace the existing rock push-up irrigation diversion dam with a single rock weir that will incorporate a geotextile membrane to create a permanent diversion. The new weir will be a v-shaped vortex weir with a six-foot wide notch for fish passage. In addition, a ramp flume will be constructed in the diversion canal between the headgate and existing fish screen to provide for water measurement. The new diversion will provide better water delivery/control and improved passage for adult and juvenile resident and anadromous fish.

  12. A Testbed for Evaluating Lunar Habitat Autonomy Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawler, Dennis G.

    2008-01-01

    A lunar outpost will involve a habitat with an integrated set of hardware and software that will maintain a safe environment for human activities. There is a desire for a paradigm shift whereby crew will be the primary mission operators, not ground controllers. There will also be significant periods when the outpost is uncrewed. This will require that significant automation software be resident in the habitat to maintain all system functions and respond to faults. JSC is developing a testbed to allow for early testing and evaluation of different autonomy architectures. This will allow evaluation of different software configurations in order to: 1) understand different operational concepts; 2) assess the impact of failures and perturbations on the system; and 3) mitigate software and hardware integration risks. The testbed will provide an environment in which habitat hardware simulations can interact with autonomous control software. Faults can be injected into the simulations and different mission scenarios can be scripted. The testbed allows for logging, replaying and re-initializing mission scenarios. An initial testbed configuration has been developed by combining an existing life support simulation and an existing simulation of the space station power distribution system. Results from this initial configuration will be presented along with suggested requirements and designs for the incremental development of a more sophisticated lunar habitat testbed.

  13. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    he U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality, developed spreadsheet mass-balance models for total phosphorus using results from three synoptic sampling periods conducted in the lower Boise River watershed during August and October 2012, and March 2013. The modeling reach spanned 46.4 river miles (RM) along the Boise River from Veteran’s Memorial Parkway in Boise, Idaho (RM 50.2), to Parma, Idaho (RM 3.8). The USGS collected water-quality samples and measured streamflow at 14 main-stem Boise River sites, two Boise River north channel sites, two sites on the Snake River upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Boise River, and 17 tributary and return-flow sites. Additional samples were collected from treated effluent at six wastewater treatment plants and two fish hatcheries. The Idaho Department of Water Resources quantified diversion flows in the modeling reach. Total phosphorus mass-balance models were useful tools for evaluating sources of phosphorus in the Boise River during each sampling period. The timing of synoptic sampling allowed the USGS to evaluate phosphorus inputs to and outputs from the Boise River during irrigation season, shortly after irrigation ended, and soon before irrigation resumed. Results from the synoptic sampling periods showed important differences in surface-water and groundwater distribution and phosphorus loading. In late August 2012, substantial streamflow gains to the Boise River occurred from Middleton (RM 31.4) downstream to Parma (RM 3.8). Mass-balance model results indicated that point and nonpoint sources (including groundwater) contributed phosphorus loads to the Boise River during irrigation season. Groundwater exchange within the Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013 was not as considerable as that measured in August 2012. However, groundwater discharge to agricultural tributaries and drains during non-irrigation season was a large source of discharge and

  14. Evaluation and Statistical Review of Idaho Supplementation Studies :1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutch, Jeffrey; Steinhorst, Kirk; Beasley, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) was developed to evaluate the utility of supplementation as a recovery tool for Snake River basin chinook salmon (Supplementation Technical Workgroup 1987), and to help define the potential role of supplementation in managing Idaho's anadromous fisheries (IDFG 1990; IDFG 1992). Supplementation as defined by the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project group is the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population (RASP 1992). Poor survival has led to the decline and continued depression of upriver chinook salmon stocks due to mainstem passage and mortality factors associated with the lower Snake and Columbia river dams. Although immediate efforts should focus on alleviating the poor passage and flow conditions, supplementation may concurrently be a viable tool to meet the Northwest Power Planning Council's interim goal of doubling anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 1987) and avoiding short-term loss of spawning aggregates.

  15. Evaluation of well-purging effects on water-quality results for samples collected from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer underlying the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, LeRoy L.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents qualitative and quantitative comparisons of water-quality data from the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, to determine if the change from purging three wellbore volumes to one wellbore volume has a discernible effect on the comparability of the data. Historical water-quality data for 30 wells were visually compared to water-quality data collected after purging only 1 wellbore volume from the same wells. Of the 322 qualitatively examined constituent plots, 97.5 percent met 1 or more of the criteria established for determining data comparability. A simple statistical equation to determine if water-quality data collected from 28 wells at the INL with long purge times (after pumping 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water) were statistically the same at the 95-percent confidence level indicated that 97.9 percent of 379 constituent pairs were equivalent. Comparability of water-quality data determined from both the qualitative (97.5 percent comparable) and quantitative (97.9 percent comparable) evaluations after purging 1 and 3 wellbore volumes of water indicates that the change from purging 3 to 1 wellbore volumes had no discernible effect on comparability of water-quality data at the INL. However, the qualitative evaluation was limited because only October-November 2003 data were available for comparison to historical data. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant stored plutonium inventory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, T.L. Jr.; Einerson, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate reported inventories of plutonium contained in stored transuranic (TRU) waste generated by the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). From 1970 to 1989, this waste was shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and placed in aboveground retrievable storage at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC)-Transuranic Storage Area (TSA). This evaluation was initiated to address potential uncertainty in quantities of stored plutonium reported in the Radioactive Waste Management Information System (RWMIS). The RWMIS includes radionuclide information from generators that shipped TRU waste to INEL for storage. Recent evaluations performed on buried TRU waste (1954-1970) resulted in significant revision to the original reported values of plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium. These evaluations were performed based on Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) Inventory Difference (ID) records. This evaluation for stored TRU waste was performed to: (1) identify if significant discrepancies exist between RWMIS reported values and RFP ID records, (2) describe the methodology used to perform the RWMIS evaluation, (3) determine a Best Estimate (BE) and 95% Upper Confidence Bound (UB) on the plutonium inventory, (4) provide conclusions based on this evaluation, and (5) identify recommendations and/or actions that might be needed.

  17. Title I, ESEA Migrant Education. [Idaho] State Annual Evaluation Report, Fiscal Year 1972 (School Year 1971-1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    The efforts of local school districts in meeting the educational requirements of children of migrant workers are summed up in the Idaho Migrant Education Evaluation Report for fiscal year 1972. Information was procured from 29 local school districts conducting educational activities, such as, experience curriculum, oral language development, and…

  18. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET`s on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO`s analyses.

  19. Augmented evaluation of the false criticality alarm at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), Defense Programs (DP) began to monitor a Criticality Alarm system (CAS) failure occurrence at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) shortly after January 11, 1992, when a false trip of the CAS in building CPP-601/602 caused a plant evacuation. Building CPP-601/602 contains the uranium fuel reprocessing denitration system, which was not operating at the time of the CAS failure occurrence. At that time DP-9 and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO), the Department of Energy (DOE) operating contractor, believed that this event may represent a potential generic safety concern for other DOE facilities. This false criticality alarm activation did not pose a significant danger to the health and safety of the public or to ICPP employees. Once the CAS was activated, the ICPP was evacuated per procedures. However, false CAS actuations are undesirable. The CAS system should be extremely reliable because of the dangers associated with criticality events and the potential for accidents and injuries resulting from prompt process termination and building evacuation. The Office of Self-Assessment then formed an Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) for an on-site diagnostic assessment of the CAS at ICPP. The AET's on-site evaluation process included briefings by ICPP management, discussions with pertinent technical supervisors and managers, an examination of relevant CAS documentation, physical examination of failed equipment, and a walk-through of the ICPP CAS. The AET judged that the most probable direct causes of the CAS failure were the heat induced failure of a low voltage power supply combined with the concurrent and/or prior failure of its back-up nickel cadium (NiCad) battery located in the CAS. The battery was not adequately maintained. These judgments are consistent with WINCO's analyses.

  20. Simulation of flow and sediment mobility using a multidimensional flow model for the White Sturgeon critical-habitat reach, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dinehart, Randal L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as an Endangered Species as a direct result of two related observations. First, biologists observed that the white sturgeon population in the Kootenai River was declining. Second, they observed a decline in recruitment of juvenile sturgeon beginning in the 1950s with an almost total absence of recruitment since 1974, following the closure of Libby Dam in 1972. This second observation was attributed to changes in spawning and (or) rearing habitat resulting from alterations in the physical habitat, including flow regime, sediment-transport regime, and bed morphology of the river. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was established to find and implement ways to improve spawning and rearing habitat used by white sturgeon. They identified the need to develop and apply a multidimensional flow model to certain reaches of the river to quantify physical habitat in a spatially distributed manner. The U.S. Geological Survey has addressed these needs by developing, calibrating, and validating a multidimensional flow model used to simulate streamflow and sediment mobility in the white sturgeon critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River. This report describes the model and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to biological or other habitat data. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 23-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River, including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho that is about 108 to 131 kilometers below Libby Dam. U.S. Geological Survey's MultiDimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to construct a flow model for the critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River white sturgeon, between river kilometers 228.4 and 245.9. Given streamflow, bed roughness, and downstream water-surface elevation

  1. Quantile equivalence to evaluate compliance with habitat management objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Johnson, Pamela R.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence estimated with linear quantile regression was used to evaluate compliance with habitat management objectives at Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge based on monitoring data collected in upland (5,781 ha; n = 511 transects) and riparian and meadow (2,856 ha, n = 389 transects) habitats from 2005 to 2008. Quantiles were used because the management objectives specified proportions of the habitat area that needed to comply with vegetation criteria. The linear model was used to obtain estimates that were averaged across 4 y. The equivalence testing framework allowed us to interpret confidence intervals for estimated proportions with respect to intervals of vegetative criteria (equivalence regions) in either a liberal, benefit-of-doubt or conservative, fail-safe approach associated with minimizing alternative risks. Simple Boolean conditional arguments were used to combine the quantile equivalence results for individual vegetation components into a joint statement for the multivariable management objectives. For example, management objective 2A required at least 809 ha of upland habitat with a shrub composition ≥0.70 sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), 20–30% canopy cover of sagebrush ≥25 cm in height, ≥20% canopy cover of grasses, and ≥10% canopy cover of forbs on average over 4 y. Shrub composition and canopy cover of grass each were readily met on >3,000 ha under either conservative or liberal interpretations of sampling variability. However, there were only 809–1,214 ha (conservative to liberal) with ≥10% forb canopy cover and 405–1,098 ha with 20–30%canopy cover of sagebrush ≥25 cm in height. Only 91–180 ha of uplands simultaneously met criteria for all four components, primarily because canopy cover of sagebrush and forbs was inversely related when considered at the spatial scale (30 m) of a sample transect. We demonstrate how the quantile equivalence analyses also can help refine the numerical specification of habitat objectives and explore

  2. Velocity estimation using a Bayesian network in a critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Todd Holland, K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2013-09-01

    Numerous numerical modeling studies have been completed in support of an extensive recovery program for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) on the Kootenai River near Bonner's Ferry, ID. A technical hurdle in the interpretation of these model results is the transfer of information from the specialist to nonspecialist such that practical decisions utilizing the numerical simulations can be made. To address this, we designed and trained a Bayesian network to provide probabilistic prediction of depth-averaged velocity. Prediction of this critical parameter governing suitable spawning habitat was obtained by exploiting the dynamic relationships between variables derived from model simulations with associated parameter uncertainties. Postdesign assessment indicates that the most influential environmental variables in order of importance are river discharge, depth, and width, and water surface slope. We demonstrate that the probabilistic network not only reproduces the training data with accuracy similar to the accuracy of a numerical model (root-mean-squared error of 0.10 m/s), but that it makes reliable predictions on the same river at times and locations other than where the network was trained (root mean squared error of 0.09 m/s). Additionally, the network showed similar skill (root mean square error of 0.04 m/s) when predicting velocity on the Apalachicola River, FL, a river of similar shape and size to the Kootenai River where a related sturgeon population is also threatened.

  3. The undersea habitat as a space station analog: Evaluation of research and training potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1985-01-01

    An evaluation is given of the utility of undersea habitats for both research and training on behavioral issues relative to the space station. The feasibility of a particular habitat, La Chalupa, is discussed.

  4. Evaluating Anthropogenic Risk of Grassland and Forest Habitat Degradation Using Land-Cover Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of landscape context on habitat quality are receiving increased attention in conservation biology. The objective of this research is to demonstrate an approach to mapping and evaluating the anthropogenic risks of grassland and forest habitat degradation by examining ...

  5. Hnt'k'wipn 2005 Habitat Evaluation Procedure Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.

    2007-02-01

    Administration funded the acquisition of the mitigation properties covered in this baseline HU assessment in accordance with the NPCC's Fish and Wildlife Program and is due the appropriate HU crediting for both protecting and enhancing that area. The mitigation property is composed of three separate property acquisitions completed in the southern portion of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation (Figure 1). These acreages are contiguous (Figure 2) and were targeted because of their potential instream, wetland and riparian habitats. The 909 acre Hanson Property was purchased fee title in December of 2004 and includes the northern and southern most parcels. The 159.7 acre Allotment 331 was purchased in February of 2005 and lies along Hangman Creek and includes the majority of the forested land. Allotments 1021, 333A and 333B, which were acquired in September of 2005, lie along Hangman Creek upstream of Allotment 331 and are 160 acres, 80 acres and 75 acres respectively. The Allotments remain in Trust but are now held by the Department of Interior for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe rather than for individual Tribal members. Approximately 174.8 acres (acreage determined by Coeur d'Alene Tribal GIS) of the Hanson Property lies south and west of U.S. Highway 95. These 174.8 acres encompass uplands along with a farmstead that includes a dwelling, several shops, storage sheds and a loft barn. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe decided at the time of purchase not to retain those uplands in the mitigation program since uplands and residential areas are not suitable to the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program. This baseline HU assessment encompasses only the contiguous acreages that lie north and east of U.S. Highway 95. This report is a summary of the 2005 baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) conducted on the 1,195.2 acres (as determined from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's GIS database) of hnt'k'wipn surrounding the confluence of Sheep Creek and Hangman Creeks on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation

  6. Defining landscapes suitable for restoration of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Troy; Mattson, D.J.; Wright, R.G.; Quigley, Howard B.

    1999-01-01

    Informed management of large carnivores depends on the timely and useful presentation of relevant information. We describe an approach to evaluating carnivore habitat that uses pre-existing qualitative and quantitative information on humans and carnivores to generate coarse-scale maps of habitat suitability, habitat productivity, potential reserves, and areas of potential conflict. We use information pertinent to the contemplated reintroduction of grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis into central Idaho to demonstrate our approach. The approach uses measures of human numbers, their estimated distribution, road and trail access, and abundance and quality of bear foods to create standardized indices that are analogues of death and birth rates, respectively; the first subtracted from the second indicates habitat suitability (HS). We calibrate HS to sightings of grizzly bears in two ecosystems in northern Idaho and develop an empirical model from these same sightings based on piece-wise treatment of the variables contained in HS. Depending on whether the empirical model or HS is used, we estimate that there is 14 800 km2 of suitable habitat in two blocks or 37 100 km2 in one block in central Idaho, respectively. Both approaches show suitable habitat in the current Evaluation Area and in an area of southeastern Idaho centered on the Palisades Reservoir. Areas of highly productive habitat are concentrated in northern and western Idaho and in the Palisades area. Future conflicts between humans and bears are most likely to occur on the western and northern margins of suitable habitat in central Idaho, rather than to the east, where opposition to reintroduction of grizzly bears is currently strongest.

  7. Evaluation of osprey habitat suitability and interaction with contaminant exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toschik, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Rattner, B.A.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) have been the focus of conservation efforts since their dramatic population decline attributed to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and related chemicals in the 1960s. Several recent studies of ospreys nesting in the United States have indicated improved reproduction. However, the density of breeding ospreys varies greatly among locations, with some areas seemingly habitable but not occupied. Because of concerns about pollution in the highly industrialized portions of the Delaware River and Bay, USA, we evaluated contaminant exposure and productivity in ospreys nesting on the Delaware River and Bay in 2002. We characterized habitat in the coastal zone of Delaware, USA, and the area around the river in Pennsylvania, USA, using data we collected as well as extant information provided by state and federal sources. We characterized habitat based on locations of occupied osprey nests in Delaware and Pennsylvania. We evaluated water clarity, water depth, land use and land cover, nest availability, and contaminants in sediment for use in a nest-occupancy model. Our results demonstrated that the presence of occupied nests was associated with water depth, water clarity, distance to an occupied osprey nest, and presence of urban land use, whereas a companion study demonstrated that hatching success was associated with the principal components derived from organochlorine-contaminant concentrations in osprey eggs (total polychlorinated biphenyls, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene, chlordane and metabolites, and heptachlor epoxide). Our study provides guidelines for resource managers and local conservation organizations in management of ospreys and in development of habitat models that are appropriate for other piscivorous and marsh-nesting birds.

  8. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement A: Habitat Enhancement Evaluation of Fish and Wash Creeks, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everest, Fred

    1984-04-01

    Habitat improvements for anadromous salmonids on Fish Creek in the upper Clackamas Basin were evaluated. The primary objectives of the evaluation effort include: (1) evaluate and quantify the changes in salmonid spawning and rearing habitat resulting from a variety of habitat improvements; (2) evaluate and quantify the changes in fish populations and biomass resulting from habitat improvements; and (3) evaluate the cost-effectiveness of habitat improvements developed with BPA and KV funds on Fish Creek. This report integrates data for the evaluation efforts collected in the Fish Creek Basin in 1982 and 1983. 3 references, 34 figures, 23 tables.

  9. Assessing critical habitat: Evaluating the relative contribution of habitats to population

    EPA Science Inventory

    A principal challenge of species conservation is to identify the specific habitats that are essential for long-term persistence or recovery of imperiled species. However, many approaches to identifying important habitats do not provide direct insight into the contribution of hab...

  10. Assessing critical habitat: Evaluating the relative contribution of habitats to population persistence

    EPA Science Inventory

    1. A principal challenge of species conservation is to identify the specific habitats that are essential for long-term persistence or recovery of species at risk. However, many commonly used approaches to identifying important habitats do not provide direct insight into the contr...

  11. A review of approaches for classifying benthic habitats and evaluating habitat quality.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Robert J; Solan, Martin; Valente, Raymond M

    2004-11-01

    We have assessed the current state of knowledge relative to methods used in assessing sub-tidal benthic habitat quality and the classification of benthic habitats. While our main focus is on marine habitat, we extensively draw on knowledge gained in freshwater systems where benthic assessment procedures are at an advanced stage of maturity. We found a broad range of sophistication/complication in terms of the methods applied in assessing and mapping benthic habitats. The simplest index or metric involved some assessment of species richness, while the most complicated required utilizing multi-variate analysis. The simplest mapping attempts equated physical substrate with benthic habitat while the most sophisticated relied on extensive environmental preference and groundtruth data for species of concern. The leading edge of methods for benthic habitat mapping involves combining the advances in optical and acoustic methods that allow for routine classifying and mapping of the seafloor with biological and habitat data for species of concern. The objective of this melding of dispirit methods is to produce benthic habitat maps with broad system wide coverage and sound biological underpinning. It is clear that the disparity in information density between the physical and biological sides of the equation currently hinder applicability and acceptability of benthic habitat mapping efforts. In addition to the lack of basic information on the biological and environmental tolerances of targeted species, the proliferation of metrics for characterizing and assessing biological conditions further clouds the usefulness of any broad scale mapping attempt. The problem of data density mismatch between physical and biological methods will likely not be solved until acoustic methods can routinely resolve the elusive biological components that make a physical substrate a habitat.

  12. Quantitative wildlife habitat evaluation using high-altitude color infrared aerial photographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettinger, Lawrence R.; Farmer, Adrian; Schamberger, Mel

    1978-01-01

    The habitat value for elk and sage grouse of two proposed phosphate strip mine sites was determined using habitat parameter measurements from high-altitude color infrared aerial photographs. Habitat suitability was assessed using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures being developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Similar results were obtained from two approaches--a remote-sensing-only approach and a mix of measurements from photo interpretation and conventional field surveys.

  13. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Grand Coulee Dam Mitigation, 1996-1999 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kieffer, B.; Singer, Kelly; Abrahamson, Twa-le

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) study was to determine baseline habitat units and to estimate future habitat units for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation projects on the Spokane Indian Reservation. The mitigation between BPA and the Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI) is for wildlife habitat losses on account of the construction of Grand Coulee Dam. Analysis of the HEP survey data will assist in mitigation crediting and appropriate management of the mitigation lands.

  14. Wildlife Impact Assessment Palisades Project, Idaho, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sather-Blair, Signe

    1985-02-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate pre- and post-construction habitat conditions of the US Bureau of Reclamation's Palisades Project in eastern Idaho. Eight evaluation species were selected with losses expressed in the number of Habitat Units (HU's). One HU is equivalent to one acre of prime habitat. The evaluation estimated that a loss of 2454 HU's of mule deer habitat, 2276 HU's of mink habitat, 2622 HU's of mallard habitat, 805 HU's of Canada goose habitat, 2331 HU's of ruffed grouse habitat, 5941 and 18,565 HU's for breeding and wintering bald eagles, and 1336 and 704 HU's for forested and scrub-shrub wetland nongame species occurred as a result of the project. The study area currently has 29 active osprey nests located around the reservoir and the mudflats probably provide more feeding habitat for migratory shore birds and waterfowl than was previously available along the river. A comparison of flow conditions on the South Fork of the Snake River below the dam between pre- and post-construction periods also could not substantiate claims that water releases from the dam were causing more Canada goose nest losses than flow in the river prior to construction. 41 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : West Beaver Lake, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 103.08 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 7.17 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Conifer forest habitat provides 95.91 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties and evaluation of property-transfer models for deep sedimentary interbeds, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kimberlie; Johnson, Brittany D.; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    During 2013–14, the USGS, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, focused on further characterization of the sedimentary interbeds below the future site of the proposed Remote Handled Low-Level Waste (RHLLW) facility, which is intended for the long-term storage of low-level radioactive waste. Twelve core samples from the sedimentary interbeds from a borehole near the proposed facility were collected for laboratory analysis of hydraulic properties, which also allowed further testing of the property-transfer modeling approach. For each core sample, the steady-state centrifuge method was used to measure relations between matric potential, saturation, and conductivity. These laboratory measurements were compared to water-retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity parameters estimated using the established property-transfer models. For each core sample obtained, the agreement between measured and estimated hydraulic parameters was evaluated quantitatively using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r). The highest correlation is for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) with an r value of 0.922. The saturated water content (qsat) also exhibits a strong linear correlation with an r value of 0.892. The curve shape parameter (λ) has a value of 0.731, whereas the curve scaling parameter (yo) has the lowest r value of 0.528. The r values demonstrate that model predictions correspond well to the laboratory measured properties for most parameters, which supports the value of extending this approach for quantifying unsaturated hydraulic properties at various sites throughout INL.

  17. Evaluation of engineered barriers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatt, R.N.; Porro, I.

    1998-02-01

    Subsurface Disposal (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex serves as the low level waste burial ground at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The low level wastes are buried in trenches, pits, and soil vaults in surficial sediments. A closure/post-closure plan must be written prior to closure of the SDA. The closure plan for the facility must include a design for an engineered barrier closure cover that will meet all applicable regulatory requirements. This paper describes the approach being followed at the INEEL to choose an appropriate cover design for the SDA closure. Regulatory requirements and performance objectives potentially applicable to closure of the SDA were identified. Technical issues related to SDA closure were identified from a literature search of previous arid site engineered barrier studies and from previous SDA closure cover evaluations. Five engineered barrier conceptual design alternatives were identified: (1) a bio/capillary barrier cover, (2) a thin soil cover, (3) a thick soil cover, (4) a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act cover, and (5) a concrete sealed surface cover. Two of these designs were chosen for in situ hydraulic testing, rather than all five, in order to maximize the amount of information generated relative to projected project costs. Testing of these two cover designs provides data to quantify hydrologic model input parameters and for verification of site specific hydrologic models for long term closure cover performance evaluation and detailed analysis of closure cover alternatives. The specific objectives of the field tests are to determine the water balance for the two covers over several years and to determine cover soil physical and hydraulic properties.

  18. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office evaluation of feasibility studies for private sector treatment of alpha and TRU mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently storing a large quantity of alpha contaminated mixed low level waste which will require treatment prior to disposal. The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) recognized that current knowledge and funding were insufficient to directly pursue services for the requisite treatment. Therefore, it was decided that private sector studies would be funded to clarify cost, regulatory, technology, and contractual issues associated with procuring treatment services. This report analyzes the three private sector studies procured and recommends a path forward for DOE in procuring retrieval, assay, characterization, and treatment services for INEL transuranic and alpha contaminated mixed low level waste. This report was prepared by a team of subject matter experts from the INEL referred to as the DOE-ID Evaluation Team.

  19. Framework for Evaluating Habitat Restoration Success with Respect to Fish Habitat- and Population-related Beneficial Use Impairments

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge of evaluating restoration progress is establishing a cause-effect relationship between observed changes in fish abundance and ongoing aquatic habitat restoration. Since 1979, fish populations within the St. Louis River Area of Concern, which were severely degrad...

  20. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Calispell Creek Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Calispell Creek property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in February 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Calispell Creek Project provides a total of 138.17 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 5.16 HUs for mallard and muskrat. Grassland provides 132.02 HUs for mallard and Canada goose. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 0.99 HUs for yellow warbler and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Calispell Creek Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  1. IDAHO WILDERNESS, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cater, Fred W.; Weldin, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys conducted in the Idaho Wilderness identified 28 areas with probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential, and 5 mines with demonstrated or inferred resources. Metals including gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and tungsten, have been extracted from deposits inside the wilderness. Current studies indicate additional areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, tungsten, mercury, rare-earth elements, and base metals related to intrusive rocks that follow structures formed by cauldron subsidence. These on-going studies also indicate that there is probable and substantiated resource potential for cobalt with copper, silver, and gold in the Precambrian rocks in the northeastern part of the wilderness in a geologic environment similar to that of the Blackbird mine that lies outside the area. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the potential for organic fuels.

  2. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : Annual Report [1991].

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Johnson, D. Chad; Scholz, Allan T.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct physical and biological surveys of streams located on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation. Surveys were designed to collect information on improving spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and access to spawning tributaries for bull trout and cutthroat trout and to evaluate the existing fish stocks. The objectives of the second year of the study were to: (1) Develop a stream ranking system to select the five streams of primary fisheries potential; (2) Conduct physical field surveys; (3) Determine population dynamics; (4) Determine growth rates of existing trout species; (5) Determine macroinvertebrate densities and diversities; and (6) Determine baseline angler utilization. The Missouri method of evaluating stream reaches was modified and utilized to rank the ten tributaries (as determined by Graves et al. 1990) associated with reservation lands. The method incorporated such data as stream bank and bed stability, condition of riparian vegetation, land use, degree of urbanization, passage barriers, water quality, flow and temperature regimes, as well as the overall habitat suitability for all life history stages of cutthroat and bull trout. This data was then combined with relative abundance data, growth rates and invertebrate densities to choose five streams, which offer the best potential habitat, for further study. Relative abundance estimates resulted in the capture of 6,138 fish from June, August, and October, 1991. A total of 427 cutthroat trout were collected from all sampled tributaries. Relative abundance of cutthroat trout for all tributaries was 6.7%. Fighting Creek had the highest abundance of cutthroat trout at 93.1%, followed by Evans Creeks at 30.8%, Lake Creek at 12.1%, Hell's Gulch at 11.1%, Alder Creek at 3.3%, Benewah Creek at 2.1% and Plummer/Little Plummer creeks at 5%. Population estimates were conducted in Benewah, Alder, Evans and Lake creeks. Estimates were: 23.5 {+-} 2.3 fish/l,922.6 m2 in Benewah Creek

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Priest River, 2004-2005 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 105.41 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 26.95 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland habitat provides 23.78 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scmb-shrub vegetation provides 54.68 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer.

  4. Use of the sediment quality triad to evaluate metal constituents in Soda Creek, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.; Simpson, J.; Kovats, Z.; Geddes, B.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from Soda Creek were evaluated using the Sediment Quality Triad as part of investigations being conducted at the Monsanto Company plant in Soda Springs, Idaho. Information collected by an ecological assessment included metal concentrations (arsenic, cadmium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, and vanadium), benthic fauna community structure, and sediment toxicity. The collected sediments were composed of sandy-silt sized particles, with 2.4% to 9.1% organic carbon. Metal concentrations at sample stations were elevated relative to sediments collected from reference stations. For example, average cadmium concentrations ranged from 13 to 48 mg/kg at sample stations and 0.72 to 3.2 mg/kg at reference stations; selenium concentrations ranged from 4.7 to 91 mg/kg at sample stations and 0.82 to 2.7 mg/kg at reference stations. Soda Creek has a relatively low flow gradient and the benthic fauna at both reference and sample stations was dominated by oligochaete worms and chironomid midge larvae. Taxonomic richness at individual sites ranged from 4.3 to 6.7 and 6 to 10.3 at reference and sample sites, respectively. There was no significant evidence of toxicity at any location sampled. Cluster analysis showed that the benthic community structure of many of the sample stations could not be distinguished from the reference stations. Canonical correlation analysis showed there was a significant relationship between benthic fauna and metal concentration, but there was not a consistent difference between sample and reference stations. For Soda Creek, local phenomena were more significant to benthic community structure than large-scale patterns of metal accumulation. Using the Triad approach, the authors concluded there has been no adverse effect of metal concentrations on the benthic community of Soda Creek.

  5. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Populations of anadromous salmonids in the Snake River basin declined precipitously following the construction of hydroelectric dams in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Raymond (1988) documented a decrease in survival of emigrating steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the Snake River following the construction of dams on the lower Snake River during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although Raymond documented some improvements in survival through the early 1980s, anadromous populations remained depressed and declined even further during the 1990s (Petrosky et al. 2001; Good et al. 2005). The effect was disastrous for all anadromous salmonid species in the Snake River basin. Coho salmon O. kisutch were extirpated from the Snake River by 1986. Sockeye salmon O. nerka almost disappeared from the system and were declared under extreme risk of extinction by authority of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1991. Chinook salmon were classified as threatened with extinction in 1992. Steelhead trout were also classified as threatened in 1997. Federal management agencies in the basin are required to mitigate for hydroelectric impacts and provide for recovery of all ESA-listed populations. In addition, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has the long-term goal of preserving naturally reproducing salmon and steelhead populations and recovering them to levels that will provide a sustainable harvest (IDFG 2007). Management to achieve these goals requires an understanding of how salmonid populations function (McElhany et al. 2000) as well as regular status assessments. Key demographic parameters, such as population density, age composition, recruits per spawner, and survival rates must be estimated annually to make such assessments. These data will guide efforts to meet mitigation and recovery goals. The Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (INPMEP) was developed to provide this information to managers. The Snake

  6. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Mike

    1989-04-01

    This project was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The annual report contains three individual subproject papers detailing tribal fisheries work completed during the summer and fall of 1989. Subproject 1 contains summaries of evaluation/monitoring efforts associated with the Bear Valley Creek, Idaho enhancement project. Subproject 2 contains an evaluation of the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River habitat enhancement project. This report has been sub-divided into two parts: Part 1; stream evaluation and Part 2; pond series evaluation. Subproject 3 concerns the East Fork of the Salmon River, Idaho. This report summarizes the evaluation of the project to date including the 1989 pre-construction evaluation conducted within the East Fork drainage. Dredge mining has degraded spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River and in Bear Valley Creek. Mining, agricultural, and grazing practices degraded habitat in the East Fork of the Salmon River. Biological monitoring of the success of habitat enhancement for Bear Valley Creek and Yankee Fork are presented in this report. Physical and biological inventories prior to habitat enhancement in East Fork were also conducted. Four series of off-channel ponds of the Yankee Fork are shown to provide effective rearing habitat for chinook salmon. 45 refs., 49 figs., 24 tabs.

  7. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-158) - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Twelvemile Creek Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Shannon C.

    2004-07-15

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a fish passage enhancement project on Twelvemile Creek in Lemhi County, Idaho with the Lemhi Soil and Water Conservation District. The goal of this project is to enhance fish passage in Twelvemile Creek by eliminating barriers and increasing flows. The project goals will be accomplished by eliminating two diversions and two pumps from Twelvemile Creek by consolidating the flow into one diversion, eliminating ditch loss with pipe, and switching one irrigator from flood to sprinkler irrigation. This project will also attach the irrigators to a fish screen that will be installed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

  8. Evaluating physical habitat condition in the National Lakes Assessment (NLA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NLA and other lake survey and monitoring efforts increasingly rely upon biological assemblage data to define lake condition. Information concerning the multiple dimensions of physical and chemical habitat is necessary to interpret this biological information and meaningfully...

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; North Eaton Lake, Technical Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-11-01

    On July 6, 2005, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the North Eaton Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in November 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The North Eaton Lake Project provides a total of 235.05 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 9.38 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Emergent wetland habitat provides 11.36 HUs for Canada goose, mallard and muskrat. Forested wetland provides 10.97 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 203.34 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the North Eaton Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Priest River Project, Technical Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Priest River property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 2001. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Priest River Project provides a total of 140.73 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Conifer forest habitat provides 60.05 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow habitat provides 7.39 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 71.13 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Open water habitat provides 2.16 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. The objective of using HEP at the Priest River Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  11. West Foster Creek 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-02-01

    A follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis was conducted on the West Foster Creek (Smith acquisition) wildlife mitigation site in May 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance and maintain the project site as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The West Foster Creek 2007 follow-up HEP survey generated 2,981.96 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for a 34% increase (+751.34 HUs) above baseline HU credit (the 1999 baseline HEP survey generated 2,230.62 habitat units or 1.13 HUs per acre). The 2007 follow-up HEP analysis yielded 1,380.26 sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) habitat units, 879.40 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) HUs, and 722.29 western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta) habitat units. Mule deer and sharp-tailed grouse habitat units increased by 346.42 HUs and 470.62 HUs respectively over baseline (1999) survey results due largely to cessation of livestock grazing and subsequent passive restoration. In contrast, the western meadowlark generated slightly fewer habitat units in 2007 (-67.31) than in 1999, because of increased shrub cover, which lowers habitat suitability for that species.

  12. [Suitability evaluation of great bustard (Otis tarda)'s wintering habitat in Baiyangdian basin].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-xuan; Yan, Deng-hua; Weng, Bai-sha; Zhang, Biao

    2011-07-01

    Based on the related researches of great bustard's wintering habitat selection as well as the advices of related experts and the distribution records of great bustard in Baiyangdian basin, 3 first class indices and 13 second indices were chosen to characterize the key factors affecting the wintering habitat selection of great bustard, and a habitat quality evaluation model was built to assess the quality of wintering habitat selection of great bustard in Baiyangdian basin. In 2005, the suitable wintering habitats of great bustard in the basin had an area of 11907.25 km2, accounting for 34.1% of the total. Of the suitable wintering habitats, the most suitable habitats had an area of 4596.25 km2, only 13.2% of the total and comparatively concentrated in two zones, i.e., Baiyangdian Wetland Natural Reserve and its peripheral area (zone I) in the east of Baiyangdian basin, and Xingtang and Quyang counties (zone II) in the southwest of Baiyangdian basin. The total area of the most suitable habitats in zone I and zone II was 2803.55 km2, accounting for 61.0% of the most suitable habitats in the basin. To protect the wintering habitat of great bustard in the basin, proper measures should be taken according to the environmental features of the two zones. PMID:22007472

  13. [Suitability evaluation of great bustard (Otis tarda)'s wintering habitat in Baiyangdian basin].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-xuan; Yan, Deng-hua; Weng, Bai-sha; Zhang, Biao

    2011-07-01

    Based on the related researches of great bustard's wintering habitat selection as well as the advices of related experts and the distribution records of great bustard in Baiyangdian basin, 3 first class indices and 13 second indices were chosen to characterize the key factors affecting the wintering habitat selection of great bustard, and a habitat quality evaluation model was built to assess the quality of wintering habitat selection of great bustard in Baiyangdian basin. In 2005, the suitable wintering habitats of great bustard in the basin had an area of 11907.25 km2, accounting for 34.1% of the total. Of the suitable wintering habitats, the most suitable habitats had an area of 4596.25 km2, only 13.2% of the total and comparatively concentrated in two zones, i.e., Baiyangdian Wetland Natural Reserve and its peripheral area (zone I) in the east of Baiyangdian basin, and Xingtang and Quyang counties (zone II) in the southwest of Baiyangdian basin. The total area of the most suitable habitats in zone I and zone II was 2803.55 km2, accounting for 61.0% of the most suitable habitats in the basin. To protect the wintering habitat of great bustard in the basin, proper measures should be taken according to the environmental features of the two zones.

  14. Dormaier and Chester Butte 2007 Follow-up Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analyses were conducted on the Dormaier and Chester Butte wildlife mitigation sites in April 2007 to determine the number of additional habitat units to credit Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for providing funds to enhance, and maintain the project sites as partial mitigation for habitat losses associated with construction of Grand Coulee Dam. The Dormaier follow-up HEP survey generated 482.92 habitat units (HU) or 1.51 HUs per acre for an increase of 34.92 HUs over baseline credits. Likewise, 2,949.06 HUs (1.45 HUs/acre) were generated from the Chester Butte follow-up HEP analysis for an increase of 1,511.29 habitat units above baseline survey results. Combined, BPA will be credited with an additional 1,546.21 follow-up habitat units from the Dormaier and Chester Butte parcels.

  15. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-06-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1997. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project provides a total of 313.91 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 16.08 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Shoreline and island habitat provide 7.36 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Wet meadow provides 117.62 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 9.78 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 140.47 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest provides 22.60 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife II Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; West Beaver Lake Project, Technical Report 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-05-01

    On September 7, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the West Beaver Lake property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in September 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, muskrat, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The West Beaver Lake Project provides a total of 82.69 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetland habitat provides 8.80 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Conifer forest habitat provides 70.33 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Open water provides 3.30 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. The objective of using HEP at the West Beaver Lake Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  17. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  18. Vertebrates of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, W.J.; Connelly, J.W.; Halford, D.K.; Reynolds, T.D.

    1984-07-01

    Abundance, habitat use, and seasonal occurrence are reported for the 5 fish, 1 amphibian, 9 reptile, 159 bird and 37 mammal species recorded on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory National Environmental Research Park in southeastern Idaho. An additional 45 species, for which site records are lacking, were listed as possibly occurring because portions of their documented range and habitat overlap the INEL. Species of special concern on the federal and state level are discussed. 41 references, 4 tables.

  19. Evaluation of a Mobile Hot Cell Technology for Processing Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    B.J. Orchard; L.A. Harvego; R.P. Miklos; F. Yapuncich; L. Care

    2009-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently does not have the necessary capabilities to process all remote-handled wastes resulting from the Laboratory’s nuclear-related missions. Over the years, various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored programs undertaken at the INL have produced radioactive wastes and other materials that are categorized as remote-handled (contact radiological dose rate > 200 mR/hr). These materials include Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), transuranic (TRU) waste, waste requiring geological disposal, low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (both radioactive and hazardous per the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA]), and activated and/or radioactively-contaminated reactor components. The waste consists primarily of uranium, plutonium, other TRU isotopes, and shorter-lived isotopes such as cesium and cobalt with radiological dose rates up to 20,000 R/hr. The hazardous constituents in the waste consist primarily of reactive metals (i.e., sodium and sodium-potassium alloy [NaK]), which are reactive and ignitable per RCRA, making the waste difficult to handle and treat. A smaller portion of the waste is contaminated with other hazardous components (i.e., RCRA toxicity characteristic metals). Several analyses of alternatives to provide the required remote-handling and treatment capability to manage INL’s remote-handled waste have been conducted over the years and have included various options ranging from modification of existing hot cells to construction of new hot cells. Previous analyses have identified a mobile processing unit as an alternative for providing the required remote-handled waste processing capability; however, it was summarily dismissed as being a potentially viable alternative based on limitations of a specific design considered. In 2008 INL solicited expressions of interest from Vendors who could provide existing, demonstrated technology that could be applied to the retrieval, sorting, treatment (as required), and

  20. Evaluation of an artificial estuarine habitat-initial stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poonai, P.

    1973-01-01

    In order to study the influence of an artificial habitat of discarded automobile tires upon the biomass in and around it, three sites were selected in the Banana River of which two will contain small groups of tires and one will not. Over a given period, the populations in and around the tires will be compared with those which existed initially or prevail on the natural site. Preliminary observations indicate that adequate numbers may be present in the lower trophic levels but that there are perhaps inadequate populations of upper level carnivores which it appears can be increased by an artificial habitat.

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Upper Trimble Project, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 13, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Upper Trimble property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in March 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Upper Trimble Project provides a total of 250.67 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Wet meadow provides 136.92 HUs for mallard, muskrat, and Canada goose. Mixed forest habitat provides 111.88 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 1.87 HUs for yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Upper Trimble Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma Creek South Project, Technical Report 2003-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray

    2005-02-01

    On July 6, 2004, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Tacoma Creek South property, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in June 2004. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Tacoma Creek South Project provides a total of 190.79 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Emergent wetlands provide 20.51 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Grassland provides 1.65 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub vegetation provides 11.76 HUs for mallard, yellow warbler, and white-tailed deer. Conifer forest habitat provides 139.92 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forest also provides 19.15 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Tacoma Creek South Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while providing additional crediting to BPA for enhanced habitat values.

  3. Idaho Fish Screening Improvements Final Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    2008-11-12

    This project funds two Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) fish habitat biologists to develop, secure funding for, and implement on-the-ground fish habitat improvement projects in the lower Clearwater River drainage and the upper Salmon River drainage. This report summarizes project activity during the first year of funding. The Clearwater Region fish habitat biologist began work on January 28, 2008 and the Salmon Region habitat biologist began on February 11, 2008.

  4. A Tool for the Automated Design and Evaluation of Habitat Interior Layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of space habitat design is to minimize mass and system size while providing adequate space for all necessary equipment and a functional layout that supports crew health and productivity. Unfortunately, development and evaluation of interior layouts is often ignored during conceptual design because of the subjectivity and long times required using current evaluation methods (e.g., human-in-the-loop mockup tests and in-depth CAD evaluations). Early, more objective assessment could prevent expensive design changes that may increase vehicle mass and compromise functionality. This paper describes a new interior design evaluation method to enable early, structured consideration of habitat interior layouts. This interior layout evaluation method features a comprehensive list of quantifiable habitat layout evaluation criteria, automatic methods to measure these criteria from a geometry model, and application of systems engineering tools and numerical methods to construct a multi-objective value function measuring the overall habitat layout performance. In addition to a detailed description of this method, a C++/OpenGL software tool which has been developed to implement this method is also discussed. This tool leverages geometry modeling coupled with collision detection techniques to identify favorable layouts subject to multiple constraints and objectives (e.g., minimize mass, maximize contiguous habitable volume, maximize task performance, and minimize crew safety risks). Finally, a few habitat layout evaluation examples are described to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method and tool to influence habitat design.

  5. Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and management implications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% of Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, P = 0.04 and r = 0.76, P = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate approximately 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology and behavior of the target species.

  6. Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and management implications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% of Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, P = 0.04 and r = 0.76, P = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate approximately 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology and behavior of the target species. PMID:25316099

  7. Statistical Analyses of Second Indoor Bio-Release Field Evaluation Study at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Amidan, Brett G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-12-17

    In September 2008 a large-scale testing operation (referred to as the INL-2 test) was performed within a two-story building (PBF-632) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The report “Operational Observations on the INL-2 Experiment” defines the seven objectives for this test and discusses the results and conclusions. This is further discussed in the introduction of this report. The INL-2 test consisted of five tests (events) in which a floor (level) of the building was contaminated with the harmless biological warfare agent simulant Bg and samples were taken in most, if not all, of the rooms on the contaminated floor. After the sampling, the building was decontaminated, and the next test performed. Judgmental samples and probabilistic samples were determined and taken during each test. Vacuum, wipe, and swab samples were taken within each room. The purpose of this report is to study an additional four topics that were not within the scope of the original report. These topics are: 1) assess the quantitative assumptions about the data being normally or log-normally distributed; 2) evaluate differences and quantify the sample to sample variability within a room and across the rooms; 3) perform geostatistical types of analyses to study spatial correlations; and 4) quantify the differences observed between surface types and sampling methods for each scenario and study the consistency across the scenarios. The following four paragraphs summarize the results of each of the four additional analyses. All samples after decontamination came back negative. Because of this, it was not appropriate to determine if these clearance samples were normally distributed. As Table 1 shows, the characterization data consists of values between and inclusive of 0 and 100 CFU/cm2 (100 was the value assigned when the number is too numerous to count). The 100 values are generally much bigger than the rest of the data, causing the data to be right skewed. There are also a significant

  8. Migrant Education Evaluation Report 1977-1978. Title I ESEA. Idaho State Department of Education. State Annual Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    Nearly 8,700 migrant students (73% at the elementary level) participated in Idaho's 1978 migrant education program which emphasized oral language, reading, and math skills for all students, and career preparation (driver training, verbal and non-verbal communication skills, GED skills) for teenagers. Of the 33 participating school districts, 30…

  9. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1986-04-01

    This report has four volumes: a Tribal project annual report (Part 1) and three reports (Parts 2, 3, and 4) prepared for the Tribes by their engineering subcontractor. The Tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved habitat and fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Valley County, Idaho that will be used to evaluate responses to ongoing habitat enhancement. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur within the traditional Treaty (Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868) fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall Reservation, Idaho. Subproject III involved habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) and habitat problem identification on the Yankee Fork of the Salmon River (including Jordan Creek). Subproject IV during 1985 involved habitat problem identification in the East Fork of the Salmon River and habitat and fish inventories (pretreatment) in Herd Creek, a tributary to the East Fork.

  10. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  11. Evaluation of Quality-Assurance/Quality-Control Data Collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Wells and Springs between the Southern Boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory and the Hagerman Area, Idaho, 1989 through 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.M.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Campbell, L.J.

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Geological (USGS) and the Idaho Department of Water Resources, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected and analyzed water samples to monitor the water quality of the Snake River Plain aquifer from the southern boundary of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Hagerman area, Idaho. Concurrently, replicate samples and blank samples were collected and analyzed as part of the quality-assurance/quality-control program. Samples were analyzed from inorganic constituents, gross radioactivity and radionuclides, organic constituents, and stable isotopes. To evaluate the precision of field and laboratory methods, analytical results of the water-quality and replicate samples were compared statistically for equivalence on the basis of the precision associated with each result. Statistical comparisons of the data indicated that 95 percent of the results of the replicate pairs were equivalent. Blank-sample analytical results indicated th at the inorganic blank water and volatile organic compound blank water from the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory and the distilled water from the Idaho Department of Water Resources were suitable for blanks; blank water from other sources was not. Equipment-blank analytical results were evaluated to determine if a bias had been introduced and possible sources of bias. Most equipment blanks were analyzed for trace elements and volatile organic compounds; chloroform was found in one equipment blank. Two of the equipment blanks were prepared after collection and analyses of the water-quality samples to determine whether contamination had been introduced during the sampling process. Results of one blank indicated that a hose used to divert water away from pumps and electrical equipment had contaminated the samples with some volatile organic compounds. Results of the other equipment blank, from the apparatus used to filter dissolved organic carbon samples, indicated that the filtering

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian

    2005-02-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team was comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The survey was conducted using the following HEP evaluation models for key species: black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types used in this survey were conifer forest, irrigated meadow, riparian meadow, upland meadow, riparian shrub, upland shrub, and mine tailings. The project generated 701.3 habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. Results for each HEP species are: (1) Black-capped chickadee habitat was good, with only isolated areas lacking snags or having low tree canopy cover. (2) Mallard habitat was poor in upland meadows and marginal elsewhere due to a lack of herbaceous/shrub cover and low herbaceous height. (3) Mink habitat was good, limited only by the lack of the shrub component. (4) Western meadowlark habitat was marginal in upland meadow and mine tailing cover types and good in irrigated meadow. Percent cover of grass and height of herbaceous variables were limiting factors. (5) White-tailed deer habitat was marginal due to relatively low tree canopy cover, reduced shrub cover, and limited browse diversity. (6) Yellow Warbler habitat was marginal due to less than optimum shrub height and the lack of hydrophytic shrubs. General ratings (poor, marginal, etc.) are described in the introduction section.

  13. The Effects of the Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Program on Targeted Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Kevin; Elmore, R. Dwayne

    2012-01-01

    Does participation in the Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Program (WHEP) help develop life skills? 4-H members and coaches who participated in the National WHEP Contest between the years 2003-2005 and 2007-2009 were asked to complete an evaluation at the end of each contest. A portion of the evaluation asked participants and coaches to determine if…

  14. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Kaniksu Unit Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    SciTech Connect

    US Fish and Wildlife Service Staff

    1999-01-01

    Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge is proposing to acquire a 706-acre property located in Stevens County, Washington. The new acquisition would be called the Kaniksu Unit. A habitat evaluation was conducted on the property using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1980). Evaluation species were black-capped chickadee, mallard, ruffed grouse and white-tailed deer. Life requisites evaluated were food and reproduction for black-capped chickadee, food, cover, and reproduction for mallard, available winter browse for white-tailed deer and fall-to-spring cover for ruffed grouse.

  15. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project; Idaho Department of Fish and Game 2007 Final Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cousins, Katherine

    2009-04-03

    The Idaho Department of Fish and Game maintained a total of about 2,743 acres of wildlife mitigation habitat in 2007, and protected another 921 acres. The total wildlife habitat mitigation debt has been reduced by approximately two percent (598.22 HU) through the Department's mitigation activities in 2007. Implementation of the vegetative monitoring and evaluation program continued across protected lands. For the next funding cycle, the IDFG is considering a package of restoration projects and habitat improvements, conservation easements, and land acquisitions in the project area.

  16. The Relationship between Habitat Loss and Fragmentation during Urbanization: An Empirical Evaluation from 16 World Cities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; He, Chunyang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization results in habitat loss and habitat fragmentation concurrently, both influencing biodiversity and ecological processes. To evaluate these impacts, it is important to understand the relationships between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation per se (HLHF) during urbanization. The objectives of this study were two-fold: 1) to quantify the different forms of the HLHF relationship during urbanization using multiple landscape metrics, and 2) to test the validity of the HLHF relations reported in the literature. Our analysis was based on a long-term urbanization dataset (1800-2000) of 16 large cities from around the world. Habitat area was represented as the percentage of non-built-up area in the landscape, while habitat fragmentation was measured using several landscape metrics. Our results show that the relationship between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation during urbanization is commonly monotonic-linear, exponential, or logarithmic, indicating that the degree of habitat fragmentation per se increases with habitat loss in general. We compared our results with 14 hypothesized HLHF relationships based on simulated landscapes found in the literature, and found that four of them were consistent with those of urbanization, whereas the other ten were not. Also, we identified six new HLHF relationships when fragmentation was measured by total core area, normalized total core area, patch density, edge density and landscape shape index, respectively. In addition, our study demonstrated that the "space-for-time" approach, frequently used in ecology and geography, generated specious HLHF relationships, suggesting that this approach is largely inappropriate for analyses of urban landscapes that are highly heterogeneous in space and unusually contingent in dynamics. Our results show both generalities and idiosyncrasies of the HLHF relationship, providing new insights for assessing ecological effects of urbanization. PMID:27124180

  17. The Relationship between Habitat Loss and Fragmentation during Urbanization: An Empirical Evaluation from 16 World Cities

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunyang

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization results in habitat loss and habitat fragmentation concurrently, both influencing biodiversity and ecological processes. To evaluate these impacts, it is important to understand the relationships between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation per se (HLHF) during urbanization. The objectives of this study were two-fold: 1) to quantify the different forms of the HLHF relationship during urbanization using multiple landscape metrics, and 2) to test the validity of the HLHF relations reported in the literature. Our analysis was based on a long-term urbanization dataset (1800–2000) of 16 large cities from around the world. Habitat area was represented as the percentage of non-built-up area in the landscape, while habitat fragmentation was measured using several landscape metrics. Our results show that the relationship between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation during urbanization is commonly monotonic—linear, exponential, or logarithmic, indicating that the degree of habitat fragmentation per se increases with habitat loss in general. We compared our results with 14 hypothesized HLHF relationships based on simulated landscapes found in the literature, and found that four of them were consistent with those of urbanization, whereas the other ten were not. Also, we identified six new HLHF relationships when fragmentation was measured by total core area, normalized total core area, patch density, edge density and landscape shape index, respectively. In addition, our study demonstrated that the “space-for-time” approach, frequently used in ecology and geography, generated specious HLHF relationships, suggesting that this approach is largely inappropriate for analyses of urban landscapes that are highly heterogeneous in space and unusually contingent in dynamics. Our results show both generalities and idiosyncrasies of the HLHF relationship, providing new insights for assessing ecological effects of urbanization. PMID:27124180

  18. The Relationship between Habitat Loss and Fragmentation during Urbanization: An Empirical Evaluation from 16 World Cities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifeng; He, Chunyang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization results in habitat loss and habitat fragmentation concurrently, both influencing biodiversity and ecological processes. To evaluate these impacts, it is important to understand the relationships between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation per se (HLHF) during urbanization. The objectives of this study were two-fold: 1) to quantify the different forms of the HLHF relationship during urbanization using multiple landscape metrics, and 2) to test the validity of the HLHF relations reported in the literature. Our analysis was based on a long-term urbanization dataset (1800-2000) of 16 large cities from around the world. Habitat area was represented as the percentage of non-built-up area in the landscape, while habitat fragmentation was measured using several landscape metrics. Our results show that the relationship between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation during urbanization is commonly monotonic-linear, exponential, or logarithmic, indicating that the degree of habitat fragmentation per se increases with habitat loss in general. We compared our results with 14 hypothesized HLHF relationships based on simulated landscapes found in the literature, and found that four of them were consistent with those of urbanization, whereas the other ten were not. Also, we identified six new HLHF relationships when fragmentation was measured by total core area, normalized total core area, patch density, edge density and landscape shape index, respectively. In addition, our study demonstrated that the "space-for-time" approach, frequently used in ecology and geography, generated specious HLHF relationships, suggesting that this approach is largely inappropriate for analyses of urban landscapes that are highly heterogeneous in space and unusually contingent in dynamics. Our results show both generalities and idiosyncrasies of the HLHF relationship, providing new insights for assessing ecological effects of urbanization.

  19. An evaluation of the use of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for grizzly bear habitat analysis. [Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varney, J. R.; Craighead, J. J.; Sumner, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Improved classification and mapping of grizzly habitat will permit better estimates of population density and distribution, and allow accurate evaluation of the potential effects of changes in land use, hunting regulation, and management policies on existing populations. Methods of identifying favorable habitat from ERTS-1 multispectral scanner imagery were investigated and described. This technique could reduce the time and effort required to classify large wilderness areas in the Western United States.

  20. Idaho's Energy Options

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  1. Fire protection review, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.

    1990-10-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, INC., Idaho Falls, Idaho, on April 24--27, April 30--May 4, June 4--8, and June 11--15, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility's fire protection program and to make recommendations according to the following criteria established by the Department of Energy: (1) Recommendations which would be made as the result of an improved risk or Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial insured facility. (2) Identification of areas which are presently not protected or are inadequately protected where provision of automatic protection would reduce a fire or explosion loss to less than $1 million. (3) Identification of areas where loss potentials exceed $50 million assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation and fire walls. (4) Evaluation of adequacy of compliance with recommendations made in prior surveys. Findings and recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the operation and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event that a loss were to occur.

  2. Guidelines for evaluating performance of oyster habitat restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baggett, Lesley P.; Powers, Sean P.; Brumbaugh, Robert D.; Coen, Loren D.; DeAngelis, Bryan M.; Greene, Jennifer K.; Hancock, Boze T.; Morlock, Summer M.; Allen, Brian L.; Breitburg, Denise L.; Bushek, David; Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Grizzle, Raymond E.; Grosholz, Edwin D.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; McGraw, Kay A.; Piehler, Michael F.; Westby, Stephanie R.; zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of degraded ecosystems is an important societal goal, yet inadequate monitoring and the absence of clear performance metrics are common criticisms of many habitat restoration projects. Funding limitations can prevent adequate monitoring, but we suggest that the lack of accepted metrics to address the diversity of restoration objectives also presents a serious challenge to the monitoring of restoration projects. A working group with experience in designing and monitoring oyster reef projects was used to develop standardized monitoring metrics, units, and performance criteria that would allow for comparison among restoration sites and projects of various construction types. A set of four universal metrics (reef areal dimensions, reef height, oyster density, and oyster size–frequency distribution) and a set of three universal environmental variables (water temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen) are recommended to be monitored for all oyster habitat restoration projects regardless of their goal(s). In addition, restoration goal-based metrics specific to four commonly cited ecosystem service-based restoration goals are recommended, along with an optional set of seven supplemental ancillary metrics that could provide information useful to the interpretation of prerestoration and postrestoration monitoring data. Widespread adoption of a common set of metrics with standardized techniques and units to assess well-defined goals not only allows practitioners to gauge the performance of their own projects but also allows for comparison among projects, which is both essential to the advancement of the field of oyster restoration and can provide new knowledge about the structure and ecological function of oyster reef ecosystems.

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report, Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife I Project, Technical Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Darren

    2003-05-01

    In 2002, the Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was used to determine baseline habitat suitability on the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project, an acquisition completed by the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in 1992. Evaluation species and appropriate models include bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, Canada goose, mallard, muskrat, and yellow warbler. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) values were visually estimated and agreed upon by all HEP team members. The Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project provides a total of 936.76 Habitat Units (HUs) for the species evaluated. Open water habitat provides 71.92 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Shoreline and island habitat provide 12.77 HUs fore Canada goose and mallard. Cattail hemi-marsh provides 308.42 HUs for Canada goose, mallard, and muskrat. Wet meadow provides 208.95 HUs for Canada goose and mallard. Scrub-shrub wetlands provide 14.43 HUs for yellow warbler, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Deciduous forested wetlands provide 148.62 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, mallard, and white-tailed deer. Grassland meadow provides 3.38 HUs for Canada goose. Conifer forest provides 160.44 HUs for bald eagle, black-capped chickadee, and white-tailed deer. The objective of using HEP at the Pend Oreille Wetlands Wildlife Project and other protected properties is to document the quality and quantity of available habitat for selected wildlife species. In this way, HEP provides information on the relative value of the same area at future points in time so that the effect of management activities on wildlife habitat can be quantified. When combined with other tools, the baseline HEP will be used to determine the most effective on-site management, restoration, and enhancement actions to increase habitat suitability for targeted species. The same process will be replicated every five years to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in improving and maintaining habitat conditions while

  5. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Burlington Bottoms, Technical Report 1993-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Beilke, Susan

    1993-08-01

    Burlington Bottoms, consisting of approximately 417 acres of riparian and wetland habitat, was purchased by the Bonneville Power Administration in November 1991. The site is located approximately 1/2 mile north of the Sauvie Island Bridge (T2N R1W Sections 20, 21), and is bound on the east side by Multnomah Channel and on the west side by the Burlington Northern Railroad right-of-way and U.S. Highway 30 (Figures 1 and 2). Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Columbia and Willamette River Basin's Fish and Wildlife Program and Amendments. Under this Program, mitigation goals were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the development and operation of Federal hydro-electric facilities in the Columbia and Willamette River Basins. In 1993, an interdisciplinary team was formed to develop and implement quantitative Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) to document the value of various habitats at Burlington Bottoms. Results of the HEP will be used to: (1) determine the current status and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area. HEP participants included; Charlie Craig, BPA; Pat Wright, Larry Rasmussen, and Ron Garst, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; John Christy, The Nature Conservancy; and Doug Cottam, Sue Beilke, and Brad Rawls, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  6. Idaho Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wildfires in Northwestern United States     ... (MISR) image of smoke plumes from devastating wildfires in the northwestern United States. This view of the Clearwater and ... at JPL August 5, 2000 - Smoke plumes from wildfires in Idaho. project:  MISR category:  ...

  7. Characterization of Habitat and Biological Communities at Fixed Sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albano, Christine M.; Giddings, Elise M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Habitat and biological communities were sampled at 10 sites in the Great Salt Lake Basins as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment program to assess the occurrence and distribution of biological organisms in relation to environmental conditions. Sites were distributed among the Bear River, Weber River, and Utah Lake/Jordan River basins and were selected to represent stream conditions in different land-use settings that are prominent within the basins, including agriculture, rangeland, urban, and forested. High-gradient streams had more diverse habitat conditions with larger substrates and more dynamic flow characteristics and were typically lower in discharge than low-gradient streams, which had a higher degree of siltation and lacked variability in geomorphic channel characteristics, which may account for differences in habitat. Habitat scores were higher at high-gradient sites with high percentages of forested land use within their basins. Sources and causes of stream habitat impairment included effects from channel modifications, siltation, and riparian land use. Effects of hydrologic modifications were evident at many sites. Algal sites where colder temperatures, less nutrient enrichment, and forest and rangeland uses dominated the basins contained communities that were more sensitive to organic pollution, siltation, dissolved oxygen, and salinity than sites that were warmer, had higher degrees of nutrient enrichment, and were affected by agriculture and urban land uses. Sites that had high inputs of solar radiation and generally were associated with agricultural land use supported the greatest number of algal species. Invertebrate samples collected from sites where riffles were the richest-targeted habitat differed in species composition and pollution tolerance from those collected at sites that did not have riffle habitat (nonriffle sites), where samples were collected in depositional areas, woody snags, or macrophyte beds

  8. Development and evaluation of bioregenerative menus for Mars habitat missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Maya R.; Catauro, Patricia; Perchonok, Michele

    2012-12-01

    Two 10-day menus were developed in preparation for a Mars habitat mission. The first was built on the assumption, as in previous menu development efforts for closed ecological systems, that the food system would be vegetarian, whereas the second menu introduced shelf-stable, prepackaged meat and entrée items from the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Both menus delivered an average of 3000 cal daily but the macronutrient proportions resulted in an excess of carbohydrates and dietary fiber per mission nutritional recommendations. Generally, the individual recipes comprising both menus were deemed acceptable by internal sensory panel (average overall acceptability=7.4). The incorporation of existing ISS entrée items did not have a significant effect on the acceptability of the menus. In a final comparison, the food system upmass, or the amount of food that is shipped from the Earth, increased by 297 kg with the addition of prepackaged entrées to the menu. However, the addition of the shipped massed was counterbalanced by a 864 kg reduction in required crops. A further comparison of the crew time required for meal preparation and farming, food system power requirements, and food processing equipment mass is recommended to definitively distinguish the menus.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  10. Evaluate the Restoration Potential of Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Habitat, Status Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, T.P.

    2009-01-08

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-038-00, Evaluate the restoration potential of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, began in FY04 (15 December 2003) and continues into FY06. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during FY04 and FY05. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). This project evaluates the restoration potential of mainstem habitats for fall Chinook salmon. The studies address two research questions: 'Are there sections not currently used by spawning fall Chinook salmon within the impounded lower Snake River that possess the physical characteristics for potentially suitable fall Chinook spawning habitat?' and 'Can hydrosystem operations affecting these sections be adjusted such that the sections closely resemble the physical characteristics of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in similar physical settings?' Efforts are focused at two study sites: (1) the Ice Harbor Dam tailrace downstream to the Columbia River confluence, and (2) the Lower Granite Dam tailrace. Our previous studies indicated that these two areas have the highest potential for restoring Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat. The study sites will be evaluated under existing structural configurations at the dams (i.e., without partial removal of a dam structure), and alternative operational scenarios (e.g., varying forebay/tailwater elevations). The areas studied represent tailwater habitat (i.e., riverine segments extending from a dam downstream to the backwater influence from the next dam downstream). We are using a reference site, indicative of current fall Chinook salmon spawning areas in tailwater habitat, against which to compare the physical characteristics of each study site. The reference site for tailwater habitats is the section extending downstream from the Wanapum Dam tailrace on the Columbia River. Escapement

  11. Evaluation of models and data for assessing whooping crane habitat in the central Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farmer, Adrian H.; Cade, Brian S.; Terrell, James W.; Henriksen, Jim H.; Runge, Jeffery T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objectives of this evaluation were to improve the performance of the Whooping Crane Habitat Suitability model (C4R) used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) for defining the relationship between river discharge and habitat availability, and to assist the Service in implementing improved model(s) with existing hydraulic files. The C4R habitat model is applied at the scale of individual river cross-sections, but the model outputs are scaledup to larger reaches of the river using a decision support “model” comprised of other data and procedures. Hence, the validity of the habitat model depends at least partially on how its outputs are incorporated into this larger context. For that reason, we also evaluated other procedures including the PHABSIM data files, the FORTRAN computer programs used to implement the model, and other parameters used to simulate the relationship between river flows and the availability of Whooping Crane roosting habitat along more than 100 miles of heterogeneous river channels. An equally important objective of this report was to fully document these related procedures as well as the model and evaluation results so that interested parties could readily understand the technical basis for the Service’s recommendations.

  12. Hearing Protection Evaluation for the Combat Arms Earplug at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    James Lovejoy

    2007-03-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) for the Department of Energy. The INL Protective Security Forces (Pro Force) are involved in training exercises that generate impulse noise by small arms fire. Force-on-force (FOF) training exercises that simulate real world scenarios require the Pro Force to engage the opposition force (OPFOR) while maintaining situational awareness through verbal communications. The Combat Arms earplug was studied to determine if it provides adequate hearing protection in accordance with the requirements of MIL-STD-1474C/D. The Combat Arms earplug uses a design that allows continuous noise through a critical orifice while effectively attenuating high-energy impulse noise. The earplug attenuates noise on a non linear scale, as the sound increases the attenuation increases. The INL studied the effectiveness of the Combat Arms earplug with a Bruel & Kjaer (B&K) head and torso simulator used with a selection of small arms to create impulse sound pressures. The Combat Arms earplugs were inserted into the B&K head and torso ears, and small arms were then discharged to generate the impulse noise. The INL analysis of the data indicates that the Combat Arms earplug does provide adequate protection, in accordance with MIL-STD-1474C/D, when used to protect against impulse noise generated by small arms fire using blank ammunition. Impulse noise generated by small arms fire ranged from 135–160 dB range unfiltered un-weighted. The Combat Arms earplug attenuated the sound pressure 10–25 dB depending on the impulse noise pressure. This assessment is consistent with the results of previously published studies on the Combat Arms earplug (see Section 5, “References”). Based upon these result, the INL intends to use the Combat Arms earplug for FOF training exercises.

  13. Evaluation of nekton use and habitat characteristics of restored Louisiana marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thom, C.S.B.; Peyre, M.K.G.L.; Nyman, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh terracing and coconut fiber mats are two wetland restoration techniques implemented at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge, Louisiana, USA. Using nekton as an indicator of habitat quality, nekton community assemblages were compared between terraced, coconut-matted, unmanaged marsh (restoration goal), and open water (pre-restoration) habitats. Using a throw trap and a 3 m ?? 2 m straight seine, 192 nekton samples were collected over four dates in 2001 and 2002 at all habitats. Nekton abundance was similar at unmanaged marsh (restoration goal), coconut mat, and terrace edge, and significantly higher than at open water (pre-restoration) sites (P < 0.05). Coconut-matted habitat and unmanaged marsh edges had significantly higher numbers of benthic dependent species than terrace edges (P < 0.05), potentially because of differences in substrate. Terraced sites had lower organic matter and siltier substrate as compared to unmanaged marsh sites. At Sabine NWR, terracing increased nekton use as compared to pre-restoration conditions (open water samples) by providing marsh edge habitat, but failed to support a nekton community similar to unmanaged marsh (restoration goals) or coconut-matted sites. Future restoration projects may evaluate the combined use of coconut mats with terracing projects in order to enhance habitat for benthic dependent nekton.

  14. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, J. R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ostrand, Kenneth G.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donley, Erin E.; Ke, Yinghai; Buenau, Kate E.; Bryson, Amanda J.; Townsend, Richard L.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the 2010 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) project EST-P-09-1, titled Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, and known as the 'Salmon Benefits' study. The primary goal of the study is to establish scientific methods to quantify habitat restoration benefits to listed salmon and trout in the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) in three required areas: habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival (Figure ES.1). The general study approach was to first evaluate the state of the science regarding the ability to quantify benefits to listed salmon and trout from habitat restoration actions in the LCRE in the 2009 project year, and then, if feasible, in subsequent project years to develop quantitative indices of habitat connectivity, early life history diversity, and survival. Based on the 2009 literature review, the following definitions are used in this study. Habitat connectivity is defined as a landscape descriptor concerning the ability of organisms to move among habitat patches, including the spatial arrangement of habitats (structural connectivity) and how the perception and behavior of salmon affect the potential for movement among habitats (functional connectivity). Life history is defined as the combination of traits exhibited by an organism throughout its life cycle, and for the purposes of this investigation, a life history strategy refers to the body size and temporal patterns of estuarine usage exhibited by migrating juvenile salmon. Survival is defined as the probability of fish remaining alive over a defined amount of space and/or time. The objectives of the 4-year study are as follows: (1) develop and test a quantitative index of juvenile salmon habitat connectivity in the LCRE incorporating structural, functional, and hydrologic components; (2) develop

  15. Evaluation of habitat quality for selected wildlife species associated with back channels.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, James T.; Zadnik, Andrew K.; Wood, Petra Bohall; Bledsoe, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    The islands and associated back channels on the Ohio River, USA, are believed to provide critical habitat features for several wildlife species. However, few studies have quantitatively evaluated habitat quality in these areas. Our main objective was to evaluate the habitat quality of back and main channel areas for several species using habitat suitability index (HSI) models. To test the effectiveness of these models, we attempted to relate HSI scores and the variables measured for each model with measures of relative abundance for the model species. The mean belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon) HSI was greater on the main than back channel. However, the model failed to predict kingfisher abundance. The mean reproduction component of the great blue heron (Ardea herodias) HSI, total common muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) HSI, winter cover component of the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) HSI, and brood-rearing component of the wood duck (Aix sponsa) HSI were all greater on the back than main channel, and were positively related with the relative abundance of each species. We found that island back channels provide characteristics not found elsewhere on the Ohio River and warrant conservation as important riparian wildlife habitat. The effectiveness of using HSI models to predict species abundance on the river was mixed. Modifications to several of the models are needed to improve their use on the Ohio River and, likely, other large rivers.

  16. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

  17. The performance of the K6 scale in a large school sample: A follow-up study evaluating measurement invariance on the Idaho Youth Prevention Survey.

    PubMed

    Peiper, Nicholas; Lee, Alexander; Lindsay, Stephanie; Drashner, Nathan; Wing, Janeena

    2016-06-01

    Since 2013, Idaho has been building capacity and infrastructure through the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant to prevent substance abuse and related problems, namely psychiatric morbidity. As this federal initiative requires states to engage in data-driven strategic planning at the state and community levels, clinically validated instruments are particularly valuable in the context of school surveys that have limited space and require timely administration. Thus, the K6 scale was included on the 2014 Idaho Youth Prevention Survey as a measure of nonspecific psychological distress. To verify the unidimensional structure of the K6, principal axis and confirmatory factor analyses were performed in a school-based sample of Idaho students (n = 12,150). A series of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were then performed to evaluate measurement invariance across gender, age, and race. Overall, the prevalence of serious psychological distress in the past 30 days was 17.2% in Idaho. Factor analyses confirmed the 1-factor solution of the K6. Four levels of measurement invariance were demonstrated across gender, age, and race. Together, these results further illustrate the construct validity of the K6 for use in adolescent populations. Other states are encouraged to include the K6 on their school surveys to facilitate policy planning and resource allocation as well as generate cross-state comparisons. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26214014

  18. A comparative evaluation of conceptual models for the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic and hydrologic data collected by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are used to evaluate the existing ground water monitoring well network completed in the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer (SRPA) beneath the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The USGS data analyzed and compared in this study include: (a) lithologic, geophysical, and stratigraphic information, including the conceptual geologic models intrawell, ground water flow measurement (Tracejector tests) and (c) dedicated, submersible, sampling group elevations. Qualitative evaluation of these data indicate that the upper portion of the SRPA is both heterogeneous and anisotropic at the scale of the ICPP monitoring well network. Tracejector test results indicate that the hydraulic interconnection and spatial configuration of water-producing zones is extremely complex within the upper portion of the SRPA. The majority of ICPP monitoring wells currently are equipped to sample ground water only the upper lithostratigraphic intervals of the SRPA, primarily basalt flow groups E, EF, and F. Depth-specific hydrogeochemical sampling and analysis are necessary to determine if ground water quality varies significantly between the various lithostratigraphic units adjacent to individual sampling pumps.

  19. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte–epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Andrew M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Marcarelli, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, root length) and population-level (number of plants, dry mass) responses of L. minor, and community-level (ash free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and chl a were also greatest in P enriched-water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes, but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water quality measures.

  20. Evaluation of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay for assessing nutrient enrichment in the Portneuf River, Idaho, USA.

    PubMed

    Ray, Andrew M; Mebane, Christopher A; Raben, Flint; Irvine, Kathryn M; Marcarelli, Amy M

    2014-07-01

    We describe and evaluate a laboratory bioassay that uses Lemna minor L. and attached epiphytes to characterize the status of ambient and nutrient-enriched water from the Portneuf River, Idaho. Specifically, we measured morphological (number of fronds, longest surface axis, and root length) and population-level (number of plants and dry mass) responses of L. minor and community-level (ash-free dry mass [AFDM] and chlorophyll a [Chl a]) responses of epiphytes to nutrient enrichment. Overall, measures of macrophyte biomass and abundance increased with increasing concentrations of dissolved phosphorus (P) and responded more predictably to nutrient enrichment than morphological measures. Epiphyte AFDM and Chl a were also greatest in P-enriched water; enrichments of N alone produced no measurable epiphytic response. The epiphyte biomass response did not directly mirror macrophyte biomass responses, illustrating the value of a combined macrophyte-epiphyte assay to more fully evaluate nutrient management strategies. Finally, the most P-enriched waters not only supported greater standing stocks of macrophyte and epiphytes but also had significantly higher water column dissolved oxygen and dissolved organic carbon concentrations and a lower pH. Advantages of this macrophyte-epiphyte bioassay over more traditional single-species assays include the use of a more realistic level of biological organization, a relatively short assay schedule (~10 days), and the inclusion of multiple biological response and water-quality measures.

  1. Evaluating the Effect of Green Infrastructure Stormwater Best Management Practices on New England Stream Habitat

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is evaluating the effectiveness of green infrastructure (GI) stormwater best management practices (BMPs) on stream habitat at the small watershed (< HUC12) scale in New England. Predictive models for thermal regime and substrate characteristics (substrate size, % em...

  2. Concept of Operations Evaluation for Mitigating Space Flight-Relevant Medical Issues in a Planetary Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina; Hurst, Victor, IV; Scheuring, Richard; Baumann, David K.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Analogue environments assist the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) in developing capabilities to mitigate high risk issues to crew health and performance for space exploration. The Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) is an analogue habitat used to assess space-related products for planetary missions. The Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) element at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tasked with developing planetary-relevant medical scenarios to evaluate the concept of operations for mitigating medical issues in such an environment. Methods: Two medical scenarios were conducted within the simulated planetary habitat with the crew executing two space flight-relevant procedures: Eye Examination with a corneal injury and Skin Laceration. Remote guidance for the crew was provided by a flight surgeon (FS) stationed at a console outside of the habitat. Audio and video data were collected to capture the communication between the crew and the FS, as well as the movements of the crew executing the procedures. Questionnaire data regarding procedure content and remote guidance performance also were collected from the crew immediately after the sessions. Results: Preliminary review of the audio, video, and questionnaire data from the two scenarios conducted within the HDU indicate that remote guidance techniques from an FS on console can help crew members within a planetary habitat mitigate planetary-relevant medical issues. The content and format of the procedures were considered concise and intuitive, respectively. Discussion: Overall, the preliminary data from the evaluation suggest that use of remote guidance techniques by a FS can help HDU crew execute space exploration-relevant medical procedures within a habitat relevant to planetary missions, however further evaluations will be needed to implement this strategy into the complete concept of operations for conducting general space medicine within similar environments

  3. HABITAT EVALUATIONS OF AQUATIC CREATURES USING HSI MODEL CONSIDERING THE RIVER WATER TEMPERATURE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukazawa, Kei; Shiraiwa, Jun-Ichi; Kazama, So

    Habitats of aquatic creatures (fishes Oncorhynchus masou masou, Plecoglossus altivelis altivel and Cyprinus carpio, fireflies Luciola cruciata and Luciola lateralis, and frogs Anura sp) in the Natori River basin located at the middle of Miyagi prefecture were evaluated dynamically using the water temperature as one of the environmental indices. HSI (Habitat Suitability Index) and WUA (Weighted Useable Area) of aquatic creatures were quantitatively calculated from numerical map information and hydrological simulation with a heat budget model. As results, general HSI of fireflies increased but of frogs decreased by adding the factor water temperature. Migration of Plecoglossus altivelis altivel could be represented by the variation of WUA.

  4. Columbia River Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report / Scotch Creek Wildlife Area, Berg Brothers, and Douglas County Pygmy Rabbit Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure study was conducted to determine baseline habitat units (HUs) on the Scotch Creek, Mineral Hill, Pogue Mountain, Chesaw and Tunk Valley Habitat Areas (collectively known as the Scotch Creek Wildlife Area) in Okanogan County, Sagebrush Flat and the Dormaler property in Douglas County, and the Berg Brothers ranch located in Okanogan County within the Colville Reservation. A HEP team comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (Appendix A) conducted baseline habitat surveys using the following HEP evaluation species: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus), pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), mink (Mustela vison), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), Lewis woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis), and Yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Results of the HEP analysis are listed below. General ratings (poor, marginal, fair, etc.,) are described in Appendix B. Mule deer habitat was marginal lacking diversity and quantify of suitable browse species. Sharp-tailed grouse habitat was marginal lacking residual nesting cover and suitable winter habitat Pygmy rabbit habitat was in fair condition except for the Dormaier property which was rated marginal due to excessive shrub canopy closure at some sites. This report is an analysis of baseline habitat conditions on mitigation project lands and provides estimated habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. In addition, information from this document could be used by wildlife habitat managers to develop management strategies for specific project sites.

  5. Critical habitat for threatened and endangered species: how should the economic costs be evaluated?

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Andrew J; Helvoigt, Ted L; Walker, Kirsten

    2014-02-15

    The designation of critical habitat is a feature of endangered species protection laws in many countries. Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, economics cannot enter into decisions to list species as threatened or endangered, but can be considered when critical habitat is designated. Areas can be excluded from proposed critical habitat if the economic cost of including them is determined to exceed the benefits of inclusion, and exclusion would not result in extinction of the species. The economic analysis done to support critical habitat exclusions has been controversial, and the focus of much litigation. We evaluate a sample of these analyses, and discuss the exclusions that were made in each case. We discuss how the methodology used to measure economic costs of critical habitat has changed over time and provide a critique of these alternative methods. We find that the approach currently in use is sound from an economic perspective. Nevertheless, quantification of the costs of critical habitat faces numerous challenges, including great uncertainty about future events, questions about the appropriate scale for the analysis, and the need to account for complex market feedbacks and values of non-market goods. For the studies we reviewed, there was no evidence that the results of the economic analyses provided information that was useful for making decisions about exemptions from critical habitat designations. If economics is to play a meaningful role in determining endangered species protections, an alternative would be to allow listing decisions to be based on economic as well as biological factors, as is typical for species conservation laws in other countries.

  6. Application and testing of a procedure to evaluate transferability of habitat suitability criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Jeff A.; Bovee, Ken D.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure designed to test the transferability of habitat suitability criteria was evaluated in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado. Habitat suitability criteria were developed for active adult and juvenile rainbow trout in the South Platte River, Colorado. These criteria were tested by comparing microhabitat use predicted from the criteria with observed microhabitat use by adult rainbow trout in the Cache la Poudre River. A one-sided X2 test, using counts of occupied and unoccupied cells in each suitability classification, was used to test for non-random selection for optimum habitat use over usable habitat and for suitable over unsuitable habitat. Criteria for adult rainbow trout were judged to be transferable to the Cache la Poudre River, but juvenile criteria (applied to adults) were not transferable. Random subsampling of occupied and unoccupied cells was conducted to determine the effect of sample size on the reliability of the test procedure. The incidence of type I and type II errors increased rapidly as the sample size was reduced below 55 occupied and 200 unoccupied cells. Recommended modifications to the procedure included the adoption of a systematic or randomized sampling design and direct measurement of microhabitat variables. With these modifications, the procedure is economical, simple and reliable. Use of the procedure as a quality assurance device in routine applications of the instream flow incremental methodology was encouraged.

  7. Evaluating water management scenarios to support habitat management for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; McKelvy, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The endangered Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, a highly diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of the six existing sparrow subpopulations; however, major uncertainties remain in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding these subpopulations, which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity. Currently, consistently suitable conditions for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow are only present in two of these subpopulations (B and E). The water management scenarios evaluated herein were intended to lower water levels and improve habitat conditions in subpopulation A and D, raise water levels to improve habitat conditions in subpopulations C and F, and minimize impacts to subpopulations B and E. Our objective in this analysis was to compare these scenarios utilizing a set of metrics (short- to long-time scales) that relate habitat suitability to hydrologic conditions. Although hydrologic outputs are similar across scenarios in subpopulation A, scenario R2H reaches the hydroperiod and depth suitability targets more than the other scenarios relative to ECB, while minimizing negative consequences to subpopulation E. However, although R2H hydroperiods are longer than those for ECB during the wet season in subpopulations C and F, depths during the breeding season are predicted to decrease in suitability (less than -50 cm) relative to existing conditions.

  8. Evaluating water management scenarios to support habitat management for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; McKelvy, Mark

    2016-06-22

    The endangered Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, a highly diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of the six existing sparrow subpopulations; however, major uncertainties remain in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding these subpopulations, which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity. Currently, consistently suitable conditions for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow are only present in two of these subpopulations (B and E). The water management scenarios evaluated herein were intended to lower water levels and improve habitat conditions in subpopulation A and D, raise water levels to improve habitat conditions in subpopulations C and F, and minimize impacts to subpopulations B and E. Our objective in this analysis was to compare these scenarios utilizing a set of metrics (short- to long-time scales) that relate habitat suitability to hydrologic conditions. Although hydrologic outputs are similar across scenarios in subpopulation A, scenario R2H reaches the hydroperiod and depth suitability targets more than the other scenarios relative to ECB, while minimizing negative consequences to subpopulation E. However, although R2H hydroperiods are longer than those for ECB during the wet season in subpopulations C and F, depths during the breeding season are predicted to decrease in suitability (less than -50 cm) relative to existing conditions.

  9. Evaluation of the Rulison drilling effluent pond as trout habitat

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-23

    The Rulison Site is located in Section 25, township 7 South, Range 95 West, Garfield County, Colorado. The site is approximately 19 kilometers (km) (12 miles [mi]) southwest of Rifle Colorado, and approximately 65 km (40 mi) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. Project Ruhson was an experiment conducted jointly by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and Austral Oil Company to test the feasibility of using a nuclear device to increase natural gas production in low permeability geological formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 meters (m) (8,426 feet [ft]) below the ground surface (DOE, 1994). The Rulison Drilling Effluent Pond (called `the pond`) is an engineered structure covering approximately 0.2 hectare (0.5 acre), which was excavated and used to store drilling fluids during drilling of the device emplacement well. The drilling fluids consisted of bentonitic drilling mud with additives such as diesel fuel and chrome lignosulfonate. Most of the drilling muds were removed from the pond when the site was decommissioned in 1976, and the pond was subsequently stocked with rainbow trout by the land owner and used as a fishing pond. In 1994 and 1995, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted sampling of the pond to evaluate residual contamination from the drilling fluids. Based on the results of this sampling, the DOE conducted a voluntary cleanup action in order to reduce the levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons and chromium in pond sediments. The cleanup was conducted between August and mid-November of 1995. At the end of cleanup activities, the pond was lined with a clay geofabric and left dry. The geofabric was covered with sod to protect it. The pond has since been refilled by snowmelt and inflow from a spring. Prior to remediation, the pond apparently had sufficient water quality and food resources to support stocked rainbow trout. The purpose of this

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types

  11. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation in Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Skillingstad, Tami; Scholz, Allan T.

    1993-10-01

    In 1987 the Northwest Power Planning Council amended the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, directing the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to fund, ``a baseline stream survey of tributaries located on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation to compile information on improving spawning habitat, rearing habitat, and access to spawning tributaries for bull trout, cutthroat trout, and to evaluate the existing fish stocks. ff justified by the results of the survey, fund the design, construction and operation of a cutthroat and bull trout hatchery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation; necessary habitat improvement projects; and a three year monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the hatchery and habitat improvement projects. If the baseline survey indicates a better alternative than construction of a fish hatchery, the Coeur d`Alene Tribe will submit an alternative plan for consideration in program amendment proceeding.`` This report contains the results of the third year of the study and the Coeur d`Alene Indian Tribes` preliminary recommendations for enhancing the cutthroat and bull trout fishery on the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation. These recommendations are based on study results from year three data and information obtained in the first two years of the study.

  12. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2002-01-01

    This report covers calendar year 2001 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate for construction losses associated with Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, Deadwood, Minidoka and Palisades hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  13. Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2001-03-01

    This report covers calendar year 2000 activities for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Shoshone Bannock Tribes wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  14. Forest loss and the biodiversity threshold: an evaluation considering species habitat requirements and the use of matrix habitats.

    PubMed

    Estavillo, Candelaria; Pardini, Renata; da Rocha, Pedro Luís Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss is the main driver of the current biodiversity crisis, a landscape-scale process that affects the survival of spatially-structured populations. Although it is well-established that species responses to habitat loss can be abrupt, the existence of a biodiversity threshold is still the cause of much controversy in the literature and would require that most species respond similarly to the loss of native vegetation. Here we test the existence of a biodiversity threshold, i.e. an abrupt decline in species richness, with habitat loss. We draw on a spatially-replicated dataset on Atlantic forest small mammals, consisting of 16 sampling sites divided between forests and matrix habitats in each of five 3600-ha landscapes (varying from 5% to 45% forest cover), and on an a priori classification of species into habitat requirement categories (forest specialists, habitat generalists and open-area specialists). Forest specialists declined abruptly below 30% of forest cover, and spillover to the matrix occurred only in more forested landscapes. Generalists responded positively to landscape heterogeneity, peaking at intermediary levels of forest cover. Open area specialists dominated the matrix and did not spillover to forests. As a result of these distinct responses, we observed a biodiversity threshold for the small mammal community below 30% forest cover, and a peak in species richness just above this threshold. Our results highlight that cross habitat spillover may be asymmetrical and contingent on landscape context, occurring mainly from forests to the matrix and only in more forested landscapes. Moreover, they indicate the potential for biodiversity thresholds in human-modified landscapes, and the importance of landscape heterogeneity to biodiversity. Since forest loss affected not only the conservation value of forest patches, but also the potential for biodiversity-mediated services in anthropogenic habitats, our work indicates the importance of proactive

  15. Using small unmanned aerial vehicle for instream habitat evaluation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Luca; Vezza, Paolo; Comoglio, Claudio; Lingua, Andrea; Spairani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in digital image collection and processing have led to the increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for river research and management. In this paper, we assess the capabilities of a small UAV to characterize physical habitat for fish in three river stretches of North-Western Italy. The main aim of the study was identifying the advantages and challenges of this technology for environmental river management, in the context of the increasing river exploitation for hydropower production. The UAV used to acquire overlapping images was a small quadcopter with a two different high-resolution (non-metric) cameras (Nikon J1™ and Go-Pro Hero 3 Black Edition™). The quadcopter was preprogrammed to fly set waypoints using a small tablet PC. With the acquired imagery, we constructed a 5-cm resolution orthomosaic image and a digital surface model (DSM). The two products were used to map the distribution of aquatic and riparian habitat features, i.e., wetted area, morphological unit distributions, bathymetry, water surface gradient, substrates and grain sizes, shelters and cover for fish. The study assessed the quality of collected data and used such information to identify key reach-scale metrics and important aspects of fluvial morphology and aquatic habitat. The potential and limitations of using UAV for physical habitat survey were evaluated and the collected data were used to initialize and run common habitat simulation tools (MesoHABSIM). Several advantages of using UAV-based imagery were found, including low cost procedures, high resolution and efficiency in data collection. However, some challenges were identified for bathymetry extraction (vegetation obstructions, white waters, turbidity) and grain size assessment (preprocessing of data and automatic object detection). The application domain and possible limitation for instream habitat mapping were defined and will be used as a reference for future studies. Ongoing activities include the

  16. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  17. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 33 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  18. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 30 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  19. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  20. Ft. Collins sugar beet germplasm evaluated for rhizomania and storage rot resistance in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-seven sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) lines from the USDA-ARS Ft. Collins sugar beet program and four check cultivars were screened for resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the causal agent of rhizomania, and storage rot. The rhizomania evaluation was conducted at the USDA-ARS...

  1. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 28 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  2. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 32 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  3. Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary, Annual Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.; Dawley, Earl M.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes the 2009 research conducted under the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps) project EST-09-P-01, titled “Evaluation of Life History Diversity, Habitat Connectivity, and Survival Benefits Associated with Habitat Restoration Actions in the Lower Columbia River and Estuary.” The research was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Science Laboratory and Hydrology Group, in partnership with the University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Columbia Basin Research, and Earl Dawley (NOAA Fisheries, retired). This Columbia River Fish Mitigation Program project, referred to as “Salmonid Benefits,” was started in FY 2009 to evaluate the state-of-the science regarding the ability to quantify the benefits to listed salmonids1 of habitat restoration actions in the lower Columbia River and estuary.

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report Wanaket Wildlife Area, Techical Report 2005-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul

    2006-02-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Wildlife Program staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Wanaket Wildlife Management Area in June 2005. The 2005 HEP investigation generated 3,084.48 habitat units (HUs) for a net increase of 752.18 HUs above 1990/1995 baseline survey results. The HU to acre ratio also increased from 0.84:1.0 to 1.16:1.0. The largest increase in habitat units occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type (California quail and western meadowlark models), which increased from 1,544 HUs to 2,777 HUs (+43%), while agriculture cover type HUs were eliminated because agricultural lands (managed pasture) were converted to shrubsteppe/grassland. In addition to the agriculture cover type, major changes in habitat structure occurred in the shrubsteppe/grassland cover type due to the 2001 wildfire which removed the shrub component from well over 95% of its former range. The number of acres of all other cover types remained relatively stable; however, habitat quality improved in the riparian herb and riparian shrub cover types. The number and type of HEP species models used during the 2005 HEP analysis were identical to those used in the 1990/1995 baseline HEP surveys. The number of species models employed to evaluate the shrubsteppe/grassland, sand/gravel/mud/cobble, and riparian herb cover types, however, were fewer than reported in the McNary Dam Loss Assessment (Rassmussen and Wright 1989) for the same cover types.

  5. Habitat evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    Ours has been a nation of rapid growth and development; our abundant water and other natural resources were quickly utilized to meet the needs of our expansion. Resources perceived to be “important” to the national interest were often exploited at the expense of others. Fish and wildlife, because of their apparent abundance and low priority status, were among those resources that historically received little attention or protection and were frequently "traded off" to other resource developments. Ours has been a nation of rapid growth and development; our abundant water and other natural resources were quickly utilized to meet the needs of our expansion. Resources perceived to be “important” to the national interest were often exploited at the expense of others. Fish and wildlife, because of their apparent abundance and low priority status, were among those resources that historically received little attention or protection and were frequently "traded off" to other resource developments.

  6. Northwest Montana Wildlife Habitat Enhancement: Hungry Horse Elk Mitigation Project: Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-12-01

    Portions of two important elk (Cervus elaphus) winter ranges totalling 8749 acres were lost due to the construction of the Hungry Horse Dam hydroelectric facility. This habitat loss decreased the carrying capacity of the both the elk and the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). In 1985, using funds from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as authorized by the Northwest Power Act, the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP) completed a wildlife mitigation plan for Hungry Horse Reservoir. This plan identified habitat enhancement of currently-occupied winter range as the most cost-efficient, easily implemented mitigation alternative available to address these large-scale losses of winter range. The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, as amended in 1987, authorized BPA to fund winter range enhancement to meet an adjusted goal of 133 additional elk. A 28-month advance design phase of the BPA-funded project was initiated in September 1987. Primary goals of this phase of the project included detailed literature review, identification of enhancement areas, baseline (elk population and habitat) data collection, and preparation of 3-year and 10-year implementation plans. This document will serve as a site-specific habitat and population monitoring plan which outlines our recommendations for evaluating the results of enhancement efforts against mitigation goals. 25 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Evaluating relative impacts of habitat loss and invasive species on an endemic songbird using spatially explicit population models

    EPA Science Inventory

    Island ecosystems maintain greater endemic biodiversity such that changes in land cover can have dramatic impacts on wildlife populations that depend on unique and limited habitat. Sustainable land use decisions that minimize habitat loss require multi-faceted evaluation of cost...

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    Land managers are often challenged with the mandate to control exotic and invasive plant species. Reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and Himalayan blackberry (Rubus discolor) are 2 such species that are currently threatening natural areas in western United States. Reed canarygrass may be native to the inland northwest (Antieau 2000), but it has invaded many wetland areas as dense, monoculture stands. Spread of this plant species is largely attributed to human disturbances, e.g., draining, farming (Antieau 2000). Reed canarygrass often dominates other emergent vegetation such as cattail (Typha spp.) and bulrush (Scirpus spp.) (Whitson et al. 1996, Apfelbaum and Sams 1987), and the resulting habitat is largely unsuitable for wetland birds. Himalayan blackberry was introduced to the United States as a garden shrub and was planted at wildlife-management areas for food and cover. It easily colonizes disturbed places, such as roadsides, ditches, and flood plains (Hoshovsky 2000). Once established, it forms a thick, impenetrable stand, which excludes native shrub species. Although Himalayan blackberry does provide food and cover for wildlife, particularly during fall and winter, it decreases habitat diversity, and therefore, may decrease wildlife diversity. Furthermore, patterns of avian nest predation may be altered in some exotic-shrub communities (Schmidt and Whelan 1999). For land managers to make sound decisions regarding invasive-plant control, it is useful to obtain information on current plant distributions in relation to targeted wildlife species, and then use models to predict how those species may respond to changes in vegetation. The Habitat Evaluations Program was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate current and future habitat conditions for fish and wildlife (Stiehl 1994). The program is based on Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models for specific wildlife species. Each model contains several variables that represent life

  9. Comparison of marine productivity among Outer Continental Shelf planning areas. Supplement: An evaluation of benthic habitat primary productivity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Balcom, B.J.; Foster, M.A.; Fourqurean, J.J.; Heine, J.N.; Leonard, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Literature on current primary productivity was reviewed and evaluated for each of nine benthic communities or habitats, estimates of daily and annual benthic primary productivity were derived within each community, the benthic primary estimates were related to an estimate of areal extent of each community within or adjacent to each OCS planning area. Direct comparisons between habitats was difficult because of the varying measures and methodologies used. Coastal marshes were the most prevalent habitat type evaluated. Mangrove and coral reef habitats were highly productive but occur within few planning areas. Benthic diatoms and blue-green algae are less productive in terms of estimated annual productivity on a per square meter basis; these habitats have the potential to occur across wide areas of the OCS and should not be overlooked.

  10. An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tavernia, Brian G; Lyons, James E.; Loges, Brian W; Wilson, Andrew; Collazo, Jaime; Runge, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.

  11. Survey and assessment of the rare vascular plants of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cholewa, A.F.; Henderson, D.M.

    1984-01-31

    A two-year study of the rare vascular plants of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated new data on the abundance, distribution, and habitat features of eight taxa presently under review at either the federal or state level, or recently proposed for such review. Astragalus ceramicus Sheld. var. apus Barneby is common on the INEL and adjacent areas and will be recommended for removal from further consideration at the federal level and placed on Idaho's Federal Watch List. Coryphanta missouriensis (Sweet) Britt and Rose is common throughout east central Idaho, but will be recommended for retainment on the State Watch List. Gymnosteris nudicaulis (H. and A.) Greene and Oxytheca dendroidea Nutt. are also recommended for retention on the State Watch List. Four taxa not previously known to occur in Idaho or not known from the southeastern part of the state (Astragalus gilviflorus Sheld., Astragalus kentrophyta Gray var. jessiae (Peck) Barneby, Gilia polycladon Torr., and Lesquerella kingii S. Watts. var. cobrensis Roll. and Shaw) were encountered and evaluated with reference to current or potential threats, and are recommended for placement on Idaho's State Watch List. 14 references, 1 figure.

  12. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: An evaluation of current approaches.

    PubMed

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, Alena; Tejedo, Miguel; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-08-01

    Many ectotherms employ diverse behavioral adjustments to effectively buffer the spatio-temporal variation in environmental temperatures, whereas others remain passive to thermal heterogeneity. Thermoregulatory studies are frequently performed on species living in thermally benign habitats, which complicate understanding of the thermoregulation-thermoconformity continuum. The need for new empirical data from ectotherms exposed to thermally challenging conditions requires the evaluation of available methods for quantifying thermoregulatory strategies. We evaluated the applicability of various thermoregulatory indices using fire salamander larvae, Salamandra salamandra, in two aquatic habitats, a forest pool and well, as examples of disparate thermally-constrained environments. Water temperatures in the well were lower and less variable than in the pool. Thermal conditions prevented larvae from reaching their preferred body temperature range in both water bodies. In contrast to their thermoregulatory abilities examined in a laboratory thermal gradient, field body temperatures only matched the mean and range of operative temperatures, showing thermal passivity of larvae in both habitats. Despite apparent thermoconformity, thermoregulatory indices indicated various strategies from active thermoregulation, to thermoconformity, and even thermal evasion, which revealed their limited applicability under thermally-constrained conditions. Salamander larvae abandoned behavioral thermoregulation despite varying opportunities to increase their body temperature above average water temperatures. Thermoconformity represents a favored strategy in these ectotherms living in more thermally-constrained environments than those examined in previous thermoregulatory studies. To understand thermal ecology and its impact on population dynamics, the quantification of thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms in thermally-constrained habitats requires the careful choice of an appropriate

  13. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: An evaluation of current approaches.

    PubMed

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, Alena; Tejedo, Miguel; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-08-01

    Many ectotherms employ diverse behavioral adjustments to effectively buffer the spatio-temporal variation in environmental temperatures, whereas others remain passive to thermal heterogeneity. Thermoregulatory studies are frequently performed on species living in thermally benign habitats, which complicate understanding of the thermoregulation-thermoconformity continuum. The need for new empirical data from ectotherms exposed to thermally challenging conditions requires the evaluation of available methods for quantifying thermoregulatory strategies. We evaluated the applicability of various thermoregulatory indices using fire salamander larvae, Salamandra salamandra, in two aquatic habitats, a forest pool and well, as examples of disparate thermally-constrained environments. Water temperatures in the well were lower and less variable than in the pool. Thermal conditions prevented larvae from reaching their preferred body temperature range in both water bodies. In contrast to their thermoregulatory abilities examined in a laboratory thermal gradient, field body temperatures only matched the mean and range of operative temperatures, showing thermal passivity of larvae in both habitats. Despite apparent thermoconformity, thermoregulatory indices indicated various strategies from active thermoregulation, to thermoconformity, and even thermal evasion, which revealed their limited applicability under thermally-constrained conditions. Salamander larvae abandoned behavioral thermoregulation despite varying opportunities to increase their body temperature above average water temperatures. Thermoconformity represents a favored strategy in these ectotherms living in more thermally-constrained environments than those examined in previous thermoregulatory studies. To understand thermal ecology and its impact on population dynamics, the quantification of thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms in thermally-constrained habitats requires the careful choice of an appropriate

  14. Idaho Community Rehabilitation Program Plan for Fiscal Year 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasenoehrl, Dale J.; Ireton, Kent

    This program plan for 1993 covers all Idaho community rehabilitation programs served by the Idaho Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (IDVR) and the Idaho Commission for the Blind (ICB), and attempts to assess client and rehabilitation service provider needs, to plan for program development, to identify needed changes, and to evaluate the…

  15. Habitat evaluation using suitability index and habitat type diversity: a case study involving a shallow forest stream in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chieh; Chuang, Ming-De

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has strongly promoted the concept of ecological engineering in the hope that doing so will encourage the maintenance of the ecosystem and its integrity. As a result, the riprap spur dike is one of the most commonly used measures for protecting stream banks. Traditionally, a spur dike is used at concave banks to prevent their scouring and/or to increase their stabilization. An additional benefit of deflector structures, like spur dikes, may be to increase the weighted usable area (WUA) for aquatic life survival during periods of increased flow (examples include typhoon, flood, etc.). A two-dimensional river habitat simulation program (River2D) coupled with a developed shallow water habitat type diversity module was used for the case study at a headwater stream in central Taiwan. The habitat suitability index for this study was established using substrate, depth, and velocity from field surveys for the fish family Cyprinidae by prepositioned area electrofisher. The ungauged flood conditions were calculated using digital elevation models within a watershed delineation and hydrological modeling system in accordance with local regulations. Simulated results indicate that the spur dikes currently in use on the stream in this study need be improved from a WUA point of view more effectively handle a flood event.

  16. Habitat evaluation using suitability index and habitat type diversity: a case study involving a shallow forest stream in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wen-Chieh; Chuang, Ming-De

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Taiwanese government has strongly promoted the concept of ecological engineering in the hope that doing so will encourage the maintenance of the ecosystem and its integrity. As a result, the riprap spur dike is one of the most commonly used measures for protecting stream banks. Traditionally, a spur dike is used at concave banks to prevent their scouring and/or to increase their stabilization. An additional benefit of deflector structures, like spur dikes, may be to increase the weighted usable area (WUA) for aquatic life survival during periods of increased flow (examples include typhoon, flood, etc.). A two-dimensional river habitat simulation program (River2D) coupled with a developed shallow water habitat type diversity module was used for the case study at a headwater stream in central Taiwan. The habitat suitability index for this study was established using substrate, depth, and velocity from field surveys for the fish family Cyprinidae by prepositioned area electrofisher. The ungauged flood conditions were calculated using digital elevation models within a watershed delineation and hydrological modeling system in accordance with local regulations. Simulated results indicate that the spur dikes currently in use on the stream in this study need be improved from a WUA point of view more effectively handle a flood event. PMID:20376557

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area, Technical Report 2000-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Kozusko, Shana

    2003-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) currently manages a 15,325 acre parcel of land known as the Precious Lands Wildlife Management Area that was purchased as mitigation for losses incurred by construction of the four lower Snake River dams. The Management Area is located in northern Wallowa County, Oregon and southern Asotin County, Washington (Figure 1). It is divided into three management parcels--the Buford parcel is located on Buford Creek and straddles the WA-OR state line, and the Tamarack and Basin parcels are contiguous to each other and located between the Joseph Creek and Cottonwood Creek drainages in Wallowa County, OR. The project was developed under the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-501), with funding from the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The acreage protected under this contract will be credited to BPA as habitat permanently dedicated to wildlife and wildlife mitigation. A modeling strategy known as Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) was developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and adopted by BPA as a habitat equivalency accounting system. Nine wildlife species models were used to evaluate distinct cover type features and provide a measure of habitat quality. Models measure a wide range of life requisite variables for each species and monitor overall trends in vegetation community health and diversity. One product of HEP is an evaluation of habitat quality expressed in Habitat Units (HUs). This HU accounting system is used to determine the amount of credit BPA receives for mitigation lands. After construction of the four lower Snake River dams, a HEP loss assessment was conducted to determine how many Habitat Units were inundated behind the dams. Twelve target species were used in that evaluation: Canada goose, mallard, river otter, downy woodpecker, song sparrow, yellow warbler, marsh wren, western meadowlark, chukar, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, and mule deer. The U.S. Army Corp of

  18. Evaluation of methods for identifying spawning sites and habitat selection for alosines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Julianne E.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of riverine spawning habitat is important for the management and restoration of anadromous alosines. We examined the relative effectiveness of oblique plankton tows and spawning pads for collecting the eggs of American shad Alosa sapidissima, hickory shad A. mediocris, and “river herring” (a collective term for alewife A. pseudoharengus and blueback herring A. aestivalis) in the Roanoke River, North Carolina. Relatively nonadhesive American shad eggs were only collected by plankton tows, whereas semiadhesive hickory shad and river herring eggs were collected by both methods. Compared with spawning pads, oblique plankton tows had higher probabilities of collecting eggs and led to the identification of longer spawning periods. In assumed spawning areas, twice-weekly plankton sampling for 15 min throughout the spawning season had a 95% or greater probability of collecting at least one egg for all alosines; however, the probabilities were lower in areas with more limited spawning. Comparisons of plankton tows, spawning pads, and two other methods of identifying spawning habitat (direct observation of spawning and examination of female histology) suggested differences in effectiveness and efficiency. Riverwide information on spawning sites and timing for all alosines is most efficiently obtained by plankton sampling. Spawning pads and direct observations of spawning are the best ways to determine microhabitat selectivity for appropriate species, especially when spawning sites have previously been identified. Histological examination can help determine primary spawning sites but is most useful when information on reproductive biology and spawning periodicity is also desired. The target species, riverine habitat conditions, and research goals should be considered when selecting methods with which to evaluate alosine spawning habitat.

  19. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1 of 2, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Carl

    1987-03-01

    The tribal project annual report contains reports for four subprojects within Project 83-359. Subproject I involved fish inventories in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, that will be used in conjunction with 1984 and 1985 fish and habitat pre-treatment (baseline) data to evaluate effects of habitat enhancement on the habitat and fish community in Bear Valley Creek overtime. Subproject II is the coordination/planning activities of the Project Leader in relation to other BPA-funded habitat enhancement projects that have or will occur in the upper-Salmon River basin. Subproject III involved fish inventories (pre-treatment) in the Yankee Fork drainage of the Salmon River, and habitat problem identification on Fivemile and Ramey Creek. Subproject IV involved baseline habitat and fish inventories on the East Fork of the Salmon River, Herd Creek and Big-Boulder Creek. Individual abstracts have been prepared for the four subproject reports. 20 refs., 37 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Instream flow characterization of upper Salmon River Basin streams, Central Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream from the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the federally listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications, as a result of irrigation practices, have directly affected the quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include the collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts in the evaluation of potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing streamflow. Instream flow characterization studies were completed on Pole, Fourth of July, Elk, and Valley Creeks during 2003. Continuous streamflow data were collected upstream from all diversions on each stream. In addition, natural summer streamflows were estimated for each study site using regression

  1. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Yakama Nation Wildlife Management Areas, Technical Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Raedeke, Kenneth; Raedeke, Dorothy

    2000-06-01

    Construction of the Dalles, Bonneville, McNary, and John Day Dams on the Columbia River by the federal government resulted in a substantial loss of riparian bottomland along the Columbia River. Impacts associated with the Mid-Columbia Projects were assessed for several wildlife species using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USDI-FWS 1980). The studies documented the loss of riparian habitat and established a baseline against which mitigation measures could be developed (USDI-FWS 1990 and USDE-BPA 1990). The impact assessments established a mitigation goal, a portion of which would be satisfied by the creation, restoration, and enhancement of riparian lands on tributaries to the Columbia River, including the Yakima Valley. The Yakama Nation (YN), the Northwest Power Planning Council, and the Bonneville Power Administration have agreed that the Yakama Nation would be funded to implement habitat restoration on lands within and adjacent to their reservation. Some of the targeted lands are owned by the Yakama Nation, some are trust lands, and some lands have been in private ownership. Since the early 1990s, the Yakama Nation has been in the process of assembling riparian lands into Wildlife Management Areas, and restoring natural hydrology and natural cover-types on these lands. The Northwest Power Planning Council, through the Bonneville Power Administration, has supported the program. HEP studies were performed by the Yakama Nation in 1990 (Bich et al. 1991) to establish baseline conditions and inventory wildlife habitat at the initiation of the restoration project. The 1990 HEP used a simplified version of the HEP to quantify baseline conditions. The present assessment is designed to evaluate the progress of the mitigation plan in meeting its stated goals. The 1999 HEP assessment has two distinct tasks: (1) Evaluation of the mitigation plan as currently implemented using the simplified YN HEP methodologies for

  2. Evaluating the provenance of fine sediment in degraded Freshwater Pearl Mussel habitats.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Haley, Steve; Goddard, Rupert; Stone, Peter; Broadhead, Kat

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater Pearl Mussels (FWPM), Margaritifera margaritifera, are among the most critically threatened freshwater bivalves worldwide. In addition to their important roles in particle processing, nutrient release, and sediment mixing, they also serve as an ideal target species for evaluation of aquatic ecosystem functioning especially in the context of their symbiotic relationship with Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and brown or sea trout Salmo trutta. Poor water quality, particularly eutrophication, and siltation are considered major contributory factors in the decline of the species hence management of diffuse water pollution from agriculture (DWPA) is a key priority in catchments that host FWPM habitats. Against this background, this study adopted a combined monitoring, surveying and sediment fingerprinting approach to determine the principal sources of fine sediment impacting FWPM habitats in the River Clun, a Special area of Conservation (SAC) for FWPMs in central western UK. Potential sediment production hotspot areas in the ca 200 km2 catchment area upstream of FWPM habitats were initially evaluated using the SCIMAP risk mapping tool. Suspended sediment monitoring was undertaken on the main stem channel where FWPM habitats are located and wet weather catchment walkover surveys undertaken along the upstream river and stream network. Within this monitoring framework, sediment fingerprinting was undertaken at two levels. The first level aimed to link primary catchment sources (cultivated and uncultivated soil, channel bank erosion, and material transported via roads and tracks) to suspended sediment output from each main tributary upstream of the FWPM beds. The second level linked silt in the FWMP beds to the main tributaries, as integrated source end-members, with the inclusion of main channel bank erosion, a notable feature of walkover surveys as an additional source. Geochemical fingerprints, determined by XRF spectroscopy, were dominated by conservative mineral

  3. An evaluation of space acquired data as a tool for management to wildlife habitat in Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vantries, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife ERTS experiment in Alaska attempts to yield information useful for three primary functions in the State. They are: (1) to test the feasibility of using ERTS data, in conjunction with aircraft acquired multispectral photography, to develop effective stratified sampling techniques, (2) to provide near real time assessment and evaluation of the quantity, quality, and distribution of waterfowl breeding habitat through frequent ERTS measurements of hydrologic, phenological and vegetational parameters, and (3) to provide basic mapping of vegetation and terrain in certain remote areas of the State for which little or no biological data now exist.

  4. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  5. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  6. Development and evaluation of habitat suitability criteria for use in the instream flow incremental methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.

    1986-01-01

    The Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) is a habitat-based tool used to evaluate the environmental consequences of various water and land use practices. As such, knowledge about the conditions that provide favorable habitat for a species, and those that do not, is necessary for successful implementation of the methodology. In the context of IFIM, this knowledge is defined as habitat suitability criteria: characteristic behavioral traits of a species that are established as standards for comparison in the decision-making process. Habitat suitability criteria may be expressed in a variety of types and formats. The type, or category, refers to the procedure used to develop the criteria. Category I criteria are based on professional judgment, with little or no empirical data. Category II criteria have as their source, microhabitat data collected at locations where target organisms are observed or collected. These are called “utilization” functions because they are based on observed locations that were used by the target organism. These functions tend to be biased by the environmental conditions that were available to the fish or invertebrates at the time they were observed. Correction of the utilization function for environmental availability creates category III, or “preference” criteria, which tend to be much less site specific than category II criteria. There are also several ways to express habitat suitability in graphical form. The binary format establishes a suitable range for each variable as it pertains to a life stage of interest, and is presented graphically as a step function. The quality rating for a variable is 1.0 if it falls within the range of the criteria, and 0.0 if it falls outside the range. The univariate curve format established both the usable range and the optimum range for each variable, with conditions of intermediate usability expressed along the portion between the tails and the peak of the curve. Multivariate probability

  7. Annual Progress Report Fish Research Project Oregon : Project title, Evaluation of Habitat Improvements -- John Day River.

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Erik A.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected in 1983 to evaluate habitat improvements in Deer, Camp, and Clear creeks, tributaries of the John Day River. The studies are designed to evaluate changes in abundance of spring chinook and summer steelhead due to habitat improvement projects and to contrast fishery benefits with costs of construction and maintenance of each project. Structure types being evaluated are: (1) log weirs, rock weirs, log deflectors, and in stream boulders in Deer Creek; (2) log weirs in Camp Creek; and (3) log weir-boulder combinations and introduced spawning gravel in Clear Creek. Abundance of juvenile steelhead ranged from 16% to 119% higher in the improved (treatment) area than in the unimproved (control) area of Deer Creek. However, abundance of steelhead in Camp Creek was not significantly different between treatment and control areas. Chinook and steelhead abundance in Clear Creek was 50% and 25% lower, respectively in 1983, than the mean abundance estimated in three previous years. The age structure of steelhead was similar between treatment and control areas in Deer and Clear creeks. The treatment area in Camp Creek, however, had a higher percentage of age 2 and older steelhead than the control. Steelhead redd counts in Camp Creek were 36% lower in 1983 than the previous five year average. Steelhead redd counts in Deer Creek were not made in 1983 because of high streamflows. Chinook redds counted in Clear Creek were 64% lower than the five year average. Surface area, volume, cover, and spawning gravel were the same or higher than the corresponding control in each stream except in Deer Creek where there was less available cover and spawning gravel in sections with rock weirs and in those with log deflectors, respectively. Pool:riffle ratios ranged from 57:43 in sections in upper Clear Creek with log weirs to 9:91 in sections in Deer Creek with rock weirs. Smolt production following habitat improvements is estimated for each stream

  8. Application of SWAT in the evaluation of salmon habitat remediation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Gerald

    2005-02-01

    Agricultural non-point source water pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients have been identified as contributing to the environmental distress of salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest. Policies to control non-point pollution from agricultural production can be classified as command and control or economic incentive policies. In application of a command and control policy, a regulator (usually a government agency) mandates a reduction in emissions or limits an agricultural production activity. Examples are a mandated reduction in nutrient application, or a reduction in emission of a nutrient to streams. Economic incentive policies are designed to achieve the same level of pollution control, while allowing some flexibility in maximizing profit.A tax on inputs is one frequently cited incentive measure. In this study, alternative policies to reduce non-point emissions from agriculture on the Columbia Plateau of Washington, Oregon and Idaho are evaluated. The environmental efficiency and effects on profits by reduction of nitrogen from fertilizer under command and control regulation and tax incentives are compared.

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Big Island - The McKenzie River, Technical Report 1998-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Sieglitz, Greg

    2001-03-01

    The Big Island site is located in the McKenzie River flood plain, containing remnant habitats of what was once more common in this area. A diverse array of flora and fauna, representing significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Stands of undisturbed forested wetlands, along with riparian shrub habitats and numerous streams and ponds, support a diversity of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory songbirds, raptors, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians (including two State-listed Sensitive Critical species). The project is located in eastern Springfield, Oregon (Figure 1). The project area encompasses 187 acres under several ownerships in Section 27 of Township 17S, Range 2W. Despite some invasion of non-native species, the site contains large areas of relatively undisturbed wildlife habitat. Over several site visits, a variety of wildlife and signs of wildlife were observed, including an active great blue heron rookery, red-Legged frog egg masses, signs of beaver, and a bald eagle, Wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals and objectives were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal hydroelectric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) will be used to: (1) determine the current habitat status of the study area and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the area.

  10. Evaluating mine reclamation habitats at the landscape level following mountain-top removal

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, S.N.

    1998-12-31

    Present-day regulations of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act were based largely on the technologies and mining methods of the late 1970`s. Thus reclamation management practices today may not fully address the landscape changes that are possible now from mountain-top removal and associated contour mining operations. This study has sought to evaluate the changes in human and natural resource systems associated with large-scale mining in the Coal River Valley region of south-central West Virginia. The Coal River Valley region was studied at a local to a landscape-scale using ground-level sampling, aerial photomaps and constructed GIS maps, starting from a site-specific-scale of natural and restored habitat types. Six watershed-drainage areas were selected for study. Three of these represented contour mining primarily and three other drainage areas encompassed mountain-top removal mining. Landscape components were characterized by overlaying slope, elevation and contour data from maps onto aerial photomaps. On-the-ground sampling was used to distinguish restoration habitat types. The site-specific measurements were obtained using transects placed across the man-made landforms (i.e., backfill, valleyfill, field, pond and drainage ditch) of the reclamation sites in each of the six watershed drainage areas. All of the measured sites had been revegetated with a seed mixture for a wildlife management plan and ranged in age from 2 to 12 years of vegetative growth at the time of the study. Percentage cover by herbaceous and woody species was determined in two-meter square quadrats placed mechanically along all transect lines to quantify the various site-specific vegetation types. Based on the site-specific evaluation, distinguishable habitats were found on each of the man-made landforms. The percentage of mountaintop removal habitats with non-native species has increased over the last decade. Percentages of total area mined in the region over thirty years were

  11. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Malheur River Wildlife Mitigation, 2000-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Wenick, Jess

    2002-02-06

    The development of hydropower systems within the Columbia and Snake River basins has affected a tremendous amount of fish and wildlife species. The dams have played a major role in the rapid extinction of anadromous runs of salmon and steelhead as well as other native salmonids. Inundation of these dams and the construction of reservoirs for irrigation have also severely impacted wildlife species. In some cases, fluctuating water levels caused by dam and reservoir operations have created barren vegetation zones that expose wildlife to predation and a reduction in recruitment. In association with hydropower activities, secondary impacts have also challenged and highly impacted a majority of wildlife species. The construction of roads, facilities, urban development, channelization, and diversions of streams and rivers often have negative long-term effects on fish, wildlife, and vegetation. In response to these concerns, the United States Congress passed the Pacific Electric Power Planning Conservation Act (Act) in 1980. The Act authorized four states (Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington) and 13 Indian Tribes (including the Burns Paiute Tribe) to create the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The role of the Council is to prepare a program in conjunction with several participants that protects, mitigates and enhances affected species within the Columbia River Basin and its tributaries. The Council's program, known as the Columbia River Basin's Fish and Wildlife Program (Program), has evolved over the years into a basin-wide approach that incorporates management plans for 52 subbasins. The Program includes a public involvement component that requires Program participants to provide the public with meaningful opportunities to comment on specific management proposals. Participants in this Program include the region's fish and wildlife agencies, Indian tribes, the public and an 11-member panel of scientists referred to as the Independent Scientific Review Panel

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 2000-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Donna

    2001-09-01

    Steigenvald Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, refuge) was established as a result of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) transferring ownership of the Stevenson tract located in the historic Steigerwald Lake site to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS, Service) for the mitigation of the fish and wildlife losses associated with the construction of a second powerhouse at the Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River and relocation of the town of North Bonneville (Public Law 98-396). The construction project was completed in 1983 and resulted in the loss of approximately 577 acres of habitat on the Washington shore of the Columbia River (USFWS, 1982). The COE determined that acquisition and development of the Steigenvald Lake area, along with other on-site project management actions, would meet their legal obligation to mitigate for these impacts (USCOE, 1985). Mitigation requirements included restoration and enhancement of this property to increase overall habitat diversity and productivity. From 1994 to 1999, 317 acres of additional lands, consisting of four tracts of contiguous land, were added to the original refuge with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds provided through the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement. These tracts comprised Straub (191 acres), James (90 acres), Burlington Northern (27 acres), and Bliss (9 acres). Refer to Figure 1. Under this Agreement, BPA budgeted $2,730,000 to the Service for 'the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of wildlife and wildlife habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River or its tributaries' in the state of Washington (BPA, 1993). Lands acquired for mitigation resulting from BPA actions are evaluated using the habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the Federal Columbia River Power

  13. Evaluation of generalized habitat criteria for assessing impacts of altered flow regimes on warmwater fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Z.H.; Freeman, Mary C.; Bovee, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    Assessing potential effects of flow regulation on southeastern warmwater fish assemblages is problematic because of high species richness and our poor knowledge of habitat requirements for most species. A previous attempt to reduce the complexity of describing habitat requirements for diverse assemblages defined five 'key habitat' types based on quantitative descriptions of depth, velocity, substrate, and cover for assessing the effects of streamflow alteration on fish communities. Our study investigated relationships between availability and temporal stability of key habitats and fish abundances at regulated and unregulated sites in the Tallapoosa River system. Fish assemblage characteristics at seven sites were quantified based on 1,400 electrofishing samples collected during 1994 and 1995. Simulations were used to model availability and temporal stability of key habitats at regulated and unregulated sites, Associations between fish assemblages and availability or stability of key habitats were identified using correlation analysis. We found that hydropeaking dam operation reduced the average length of time that shallow-water habitats were stable during the spring and summer and also reduced year-to-year variation in the stability of shallow-water habitats compared to unregulated sites. Within-site comparisons of fish and habitat variables indicated that differences in fish abundances correlated with differences in the availability and temporal stability of shallow-water habitats. Additionally, groups of stream fishes defined by taxonomy or differences in orientation to the substrate and feeding mode responded similarly to changes in key habitat availability. These findings demonstrate that the temporal and spatial availability of key habitats could serve as a useful measure of the potential effects of flow alteration on lotic fish assemblages, and suggest that both short-term temporal stability of key habitats as well as annual variation in key habitat

  14. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  15. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  16. Idaho GPW Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2001-10-01

    Idaho holds enormous resources - among the largest in theUnited States - of this clean, reliable form of energy that to date have barely been tapped. According to U.S. Geological Survey estimates, Idaho ranks seventh among the 50 states in developable geothermal energy. These resources could provide up to 20% of Idaho's heat and power needs. W h y G e o t h e r m a l ?Homegrown Energy It's here, right beneath our feet! No need to import! Current Development Idaho already boasts 70 direct-use g..

  17. An evaluation of seepage gains and losses in Indian Creek Reservoir, Ada County, Idaho, April 2010–November 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Marshall L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, conducted an investigation on Indian Creek Reservoir, a small impoundment in east Ada County, Idaho, to quantify groundwater seepage into and out of the reservoir. Data from the study will assist the Idaho Water Resources Department’s Comprehensive Aquifer Management Planning effort to estimate available water resources in Ada County. Three independent methods were utilized to estimate groundwater seepage: (1) the water-budget method; (2) the seepage-meter method; and (3) the segmented Darcy method. Reservoir seepage was quantified during the periods of April through August 2010 and February through November 2011. With the water-budget method, all measureable sources of inflow to and outflow from the reservoir were quantified, with the exception of groundwater; the water-budget equation was solved for groundwater inflow to or outflow from the reservoir. The seepage-meter method relies on the placement of seepage meters into the bottom sediments of the reservoir for the direct measurement of water flux across the sediment-water interface. The segmented-Darcy method utilizes a combination of water-level measurements in the reservoir and in adjacent near-shore wells to calculate water-table gradients between the wells and the reservoir within defined segments of the reservoir shoreline. The Darcy equation was used to calculate groundwater inflow to and outflow from the reservoir. Water-budget results provided continuous, daily estimates of seepage over the full period of data collection, while the seepage-meter and segmented Darcy methods provided instantaneous estimates of seepage. As a result of these and other difference in methodologies, comparisons of seepage estimates provided by the three methods are considered semi-quantitative. The results of the water-budget derived estimates of seepage indicate seepage to be seasonally variable in terms of the direction and magnitude

  18. 75 FR 32210 - United States v. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Antitrust Division United States v. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports.... Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine Institute, John Kloss..., Plaintiffs, vs. Idaho Orthopaedic Society, Timothy Doerr, Jeffrey Hessing, Idaho Sports Medicine...

  19. Field evaluation of a two-dimensinal hydrodynamic model near boulders for habitat calculation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, Terry

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are now widely used in aquatic habitat studies. To test the sensitivity of calculated habitat outcomes to limitations of such a model and of typical field data, bathymetry, depth and velocity data were collected for three discharges in the vicinity of two large boulders in the South Platte River (Colorado) and used in the River2D model. Simulated depth and velocity were compared with observed values at 204 locations and the differences in habitat numbers produced by observed and simulated conditions were calculated. The bulk of the differences between simulated and observed depth and velocity values were found to lie within the likely error of measurement. However, the effect of flow simulation outliers on potential habitat outcomes must be considered when using 2D models for habitat simulation. Furthermore, the shape of the habitat suitability relation can influence the effects of simulation errors. Habitat relations with steep slopes in the velocity ranges found in similar study areas are expected to be sensitive to the magnitude of error found here. Comparison of habitat values derived from simulated and observed depth and velocity revealed a small tendency to under-predict habitat values.

  20. Field evaluation of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model near boulders for habitat calculation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models are now widely used in aquatic habitat studies. To test the sensitivity of calculated habitat outcomes to limitations of such a model and of typical field data, bathmetry, depth and velocity data were collected for three discharges in the vicinity of two large boulders in the South Platte River (Colorado) and used in the River2D model. Simulated depth and velocity were compared with observed values at 204 locations and the differences in habitat numbers produced by observed and simulated conditions were calculated. The bulk of the differences between simulated and observed depth and velocity values were found to lie within the likely error of measurement. However, the effect of flow simulation outliers on potential habitat outcomes must be considered when using 2D models for habitat simulation. Furthermore, the shape of the habitat suitability relation can influence the effects of simulation errors. Habitat relations with steep slopes in the velocity ranges found in similar study areas are expected to be sensitive to the magnitude of error found here. Comparison of habitat values derived from simulated and observed depth and velocity revealed a small tendency to under-predict habitat values.

  1. Evaluation of LiDAR-Acquired Bathymetric and Topographic Data Accuracy in Various Hydrogeomorphic Settings in the Lower Boise River, Southwestern Idaho, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Elevation data in riverine environments can be used in various applications for which different levels of accuracy are required. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) - or EAARL - system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the lower Boise River, southwestern Idaho, for use in hydraulic and habitat modeling. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL data collection, real-time kinetic global positioning system and total station ground-survey data were collected in three areas within the lower Boise River basin to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived elevation data, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.082 to 0.138 m. Accuracies for bank, floodplain, and in-stream bathymetric data had root mean square errors ranging from 0.090 to 0.583 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of high levels of turbidity in the downstream ground-survey area, dense tree canopy, and horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data in steeply sloping areas such as riverbanks. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results similar to those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, indicating that the interpolation of the EAARL points to rasters did not introduce significant additional error. The mean percent error for the wetted cross-sectional areas of the two upstream ground-survey areas was 1 percent. The mean percent error increases to -18 percent if the downstream ground-survey area is included, reflecting the influence of turbidity in that area.

  2. Evaluation of wildlife-habitat relationships data base for predicting bird community composition in central California chaparral and blue oak woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Avery, M.L.; van Riper, Charles

    1990-01-01

    The California Wildlife-Habitat Relationships (WHR) database can be used to assist resource managers to evaluate effects of habitat manipulations on wildlife. The accuracy of predictions from WHR was evaluated using data from bird surveys conducted during winter and spring 1984 and 1985 in chamise (Adenostema fasciculata) chaparral, mixed chaparral and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodland. Considerable variability between habitat types was found for errors both of commission and of omission.

  3. System Analysis and Evaluation of Greenhouse Modules within Moon/Mars Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Nagendra, Narayan; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Long term settlement on different planets of the solar system is a fascination for mankind. Some researchers contemplate that planetary settlement is a necessity for the survival of the human race over millions of years. The generation of food for self sufficiency in space or on planetary bases is a vital part of this vision of space habitation. The amount of mass that can be transported in deep space missions is constrained by the launcher capability and its costs. The space community has proposed and designed various greenhouse modules to cater to human culinary requirements and act as part of life support systems. A survey of the different greenhouse space concepts and terrestrial test facilities is presented, drawing a list of measurable factors (e.g. growth area, power consumption, human activity index, etc.) for the evaluation of greenhouse modules. These factors include tangible and intangible parameters that have been used in the development of an evaluation method on greenhouse concepts as a subsystem of planetary habitats at the DLR Institute of Space Systems, Bremen.

  4. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  5. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes.

  6. Habitat evaluation of wild Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) and conservation priority setting in north-eastern China.

    PubMed

    Xiaofeng, Luan; Yi, Qu; Diqiang, Li; Shirong, Liu; Xiulei, Wang; Bo, Wu; Chunquan, Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The Amur Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is one of the world's most endangered species. Recently, habitat fragmentation, food scarcity and human hunting have drastically reduced the population size and distribution areas of Amur tigers in the wild, leaving them on the verge of extinction. Presently, they are only found in the north-eastern part of China. In this study, we developed a reference framework using methods and technologies of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), GAP analysis and Natural Break (Jenks) classification to evaluate the habitat and to set the conservation priorities for Amur tigers in eastern areas of Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces of northeast China. We proposed a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) incorporating 7 factors covering natural conditions and human disturbance. Based on the HSI values, the suitability was classified into five levels from the most to not suitable. Finally, according to results of GAP analysis, we identified six conservation priorities and designed a conservation landscape incorporating four new nature reserves, enlarging two existing ones, and creating four linkages for Amur tigers in northeast China. The case study showed that the core habitats (the most suitable and highly suitable habitats) identified for Amur tigers covered 35,547 km(2), accounting for approximately 26.71% of the total study area (1,33,093 km(2)). However, existing nature reserves protected only (7124 km(2) or) 20.04% of the identified core habitats. Thus, enlargement of current reserves is necessary and urgent for the tiger's conservation and restoration. Moreover, the establishment of wildlife corridors linking core habitats will provide an efficient reserve network for tiger conservation to maintain the evolutionary potential of Amur tigers facing environmental changes. PMID:20828917

  7. Watershed Evaluation and Habitat Response to Recent Storms : Annual Report for 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, Jonathan J.; Huntington, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Large and powerful storm systems moved through the Pacific Northwest during the wet season of 1995-96, triggering widespread flooding, mass erosion, and, possibly altering salmon habitats in affected watersheds. This project study was initiated to assess whether watershed conditions are causing damage, triggered by storm events, to salmon habitat on public lands in the Snake River basin.

  8. Habitat evaluation using GIS a case study applied to the San Joaquin Kit Fox

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerrard, R.; Stine, P.; Church, R.; Gilpin, M.

    2001-01-01

    Concern over the fate of plant and animal species throughout the world has accelerated over recent decades. Habitat loss is considered the main culprit in reducing many species' abundance and range, leading to numerous efforts to plan and manage habitat preservation. Our work uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data and modeling to define a spatially explicit analysis of habitat value, using the San Joaquin Kit Fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) of California (USA) as an example. Over the last 30 years, many field studies and surveys have enhanced our knowledge of the life history, behavior, and needs of the kit fox, which has been proposed as an umbrella or indicator species for grassland habitat in the San Joaquin Valley of California. There has yet been no attempt to convert much of this field knowledge into a model of spatial habitat value useful for planning purposes. This is a significant omission given the importance and visibility of the imperiled kit fox and increasing trends toward spatially explicit modeling and planning. In this paper we apply data from northern California to derive a small-cell GIS raster of habitat value for the kit fox that incorporates both intrinsic habitat quality and neighborhood context, as well the effects of barriers such as roads. Such a product is a useful basis for assessing the presence and amounts of good (and poor) quality habitat and for eventually constructing GIS representations of viable animal territories that could be included in future reserves. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  9. Assessing cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, T.A.; Witmer, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the method, using the potential for cumulative impacts to elk and mule deer from multiple hydroelectric development in the Salmon River Basin of Idaho. We attempted to incorporate knowledge of elk and mule deer habitat needs into a paradigm to assess cumulative impacts and aid in the regulatory decision making process. Undoubtedly, other methods could be developed based on different needs or constraints, but we offer this technique as a means to further refine cumulative impact assessment. Our approach is divided into three phases: analysis, evaluation, and documentation. 36 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-Based Fluids for Constellation Habitats and Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Two fluid life tests have been conducted to evaluate propylene glycol-based fluids for use in Constellation habitats and vehicles. The first test was conducted from November 2008 to January 2009 to help determine the compatibility of the propylene glycol-based fluid selected for Orion at the time. When the first test uncovered problems with the fluid selection, an investigation and selection of a new fluid were conducted. A second test was started in March 2010 to evaluate the new selection. For the first test, the fluid was subjected to a thermal fluid loop that had flight-like properties, as compared to Orion. The fluid loop had similar wetted materials, temperatures, flow rates, and aluminum wetted surface area to fluid volume ratio. The test was designed to last for 10 years, the life expectancy of the lunar habitat. However, the test lasted less than two months. System filters became clogged with precipitate, rendering the fluid system inoperable. Upon examination of the precipitate, it was determined that the precipitate composition contained aluminum, which could have only come from materials in the test stand, as aluminum is not part of the original fluid composition. Also, the fluid pH was determined to have increased from 10.1, at the first test sample, to 12.2, at the completion of the test. This high of a pH is corrosive to aluminum and was certainly a contributing factor to the development of precipitate. Due to the problems encountered during this test, the fluid was rejected as a coolant candidate for Orion. A new propylene glycol-based fluid was selected by the Orion project for use in the Orion vehicle. The Orion project has conducted a series of screening tests to help verify that there will be no problems with the new fluid selection. To compliment testing performed by the Orion project team, a new life test was developed to test the new fluid. The new test bed was similar to the original test bed, but with some improvements based on experience

  11. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : 1993, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward-Lillengreen, Kelly L.; Vitale, Angelo; Peters, Ronald L.

    1996-09-01

    Bull trout and cutthroat trout are two salmonid species native to the Lake Coeur d`Alene drainage. Historically these species were a critical component of the Coeur d`Alene Tribe`s annual subsistence requirements. Since 1932, the cutthroat trout population has declined significantly in the Coeur d`Alene system. The present ecosystem bears little resemblance to habitat composition, diversity and structure of the historic ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to conduct baseline stream and biological surveys of four drainages located within the Coeur d`alene Reservation and make recommendations on ways to increase the westslope cutthroat and bull trout populations on the Reservation. Data indicated that habitat degradation, specifically, water quantity and lack of habitat complexity, was limiting westslope cutthroat and bull trout populations on the Reservation. Population data indicated that cutthroat trout populations were low when compared to other similar drainages. Surveys revealed a conspicuous absence of bull trout. Recommendations included: conducting extensive habitat restoration in the study drainages; developing alternate harvest opportunities to reduce pressure on wild stocks; purchasing critical watershed areas for fisheries habitat protection; constructing and operating a trout production facility; and, implementing a five-year monitoring program to evaluate the program effectiveness.

  12. Evaluation of management practices in wetland meadows at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Pyle, W.H.; Keough, J.R.; Johnson, D.H.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed the relative values of 4 management practices (idle, late season grazing, fall prescribed burning, and rotation of idle and summer grazing) to biotic resources of the grassland-wetland meadow ecosystem at Grays Lake during 1997-2000. Three replicates of each treatment were randomly assigned to 12 experimental units that bordered the deep emergent marsh. Biotic factors examined included the breeding bird community and abundance, nesting activity and nest success, small mammal abundance, plant community, and annual plant biomass production. Fall burns achieved treatment objectives, removing most residual vegetation across a range of cover types. Objectives for grazing treatments were mostly attained; however, vegetation use levels were insufficient for consistent attainment of treatment objectives. Savannah sparrow, American coot, Canada goose, sandhill crane, mallard, and yellow-headed blackbird were the most common bird species present. Densities of 2 bird species (savannah sparrow and red-winged blackbird) were related to year effect only. The effect of unit on densities of redhead, lesser scaup, ruddy duck, sora, long-billed curlew, and common snipe likely reflects habitat differences among units. Densities of 6 species (eared grebe, canvasback, American coot, American avocet, willet, and common yellowthroat) were related to both year and unit effects. Treatment affected densities of 6 of the 29 species examined (mallard, northern shoveler, cinnamon teal, blue-winged teal, American crow, and yellow-headed blackbird); we found no common trend in response to treatments among those species. Overall, idled habitat did not stand out to be a valuable treatment, whereas grazing tended to have positive responses for a number of species. Burning was more likely to result in reduced bird densities than other treatments. We also describe the distribution of species observations among 8 different habitat types. Of the 23 nesting species sampled in the

  13. 75 FR 49944 - Notice of Public Meeting, Idaho Falls District Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... retaining critical habitat along the South Fork of the Snake River. All meetings are open to the public. The... meet in Idaho Falls, Idaho on September 21-22, 2010 for a two day meeting at the Upper Snake Field..., tours will be conducted throughout the Upper Snake Field Office area to discuss policy issues...

  14. An evaluation of water-quality data obtained at four streamflow daily-record stations in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyer, Kenneth L.

    1973-01-01

    Chemical data for four stream-gaging stations in Idaho, each having 6 to 22 years of available records, were analyzed to determine functional relations between concentrations of the major inorganic constituents, specific conductance, and stream discharge. Three of the four stations had sufficient available record for assessing changes in constituent relations with time. The records for each long-term station were subdivided into segments of approximately 5 years each. Plots and regression equations were derived for each record segment to show the relations of each major constituent value to levels of specific conductance and stream discharge. At only one stations, Boise River at Notus, was there was an apparent significant change in chemical characteristics with time. Between 1940 and 1951, the percentages of chloride and sulfate in solution at this station declined appreciably and were largely replaced by bicarbonate. In general, there were highly significant correlations between the major inorganic ions and specific conductance, although those observed at Bear River at Border were distinctly poorer than those observed for the other stations. Corresponding correlations between the major ions and discharge were almost always less significant than those observed between the same ions and specific conductance. The common ion-discharge relations observed on the Snake River near Heise were more highly correlated before 1957 than thereafter--probably because of changes induced by the construction of Palisades Dam. A similar decline in correlation of common ion-discharge relations was observed at the Snake River at King Hill station after 1957, and this also might be attributable to changes in water regulation at various upstream impoundments.

  15. Use of Landsat data to evaluate lesser prairie chicken habitats in western Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, R. W.; Knopf, Fritz L.; Pettinger, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Landsat digital data were used to evaluate lesser prairie chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) habitats in western Oklahoma. Data for 7 (4,144 ha) study areas, 4 in shinnery oak (Quercus havardii), and 3 in sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia) rangeland, were analyzed using the Interactive Digital Image Manipulation System at the EROS Center. In shinnery oak rangeland, density of displaying males was correlated positively with percentage of area in grassland classes and negatively correlated with the percentage in brushland classes. In sand sagebrush rangeland, density of displaying males was negatively, but not significantly correlated with percentage of area in bare soil and grassland classes, and positively, but not significantly correlated with percentage of area in brushland classes. The trends found between density of displaying males and the Landsat-generated resource classes closely parallel similar relationships found with field sampling techniques. Analysis of the Landsat digital data for this study cost 13.8 cents/ha. Because larger areas could have been analyzed with the same digital data, the unit cost for analysis would decline with increasingly larger areas.

  16. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Edwin C; Ford, Adriana E S; Smart, Simon M; Henrys, Peter A; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as 'positive indicator-species' (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists' assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  17. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Choose a Habitat Quality Metric for Air Pollution Policy Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Adriana E. S.; Smart, Simon M.; Henrys, Peter A.; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has had detrimental effects on species composition in a range of sensitive habitats, although N deposition can also increase agricultural productivity and carbon storage, and favours a few species considered of importance for conservation. Conservation targets are multiple, and increasingly incorporate services derived from nature as well as concepts of intrinsic value. Priorities vary. How then should changes in a set of species caused by drivers such as N deposition be assessed? We used a novel combination of qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative ranking to elucidate the views of conservation professionals specialising in grasslands, heathlands and mires. Although conservation management goals are varied, terrestrial habitat quality is mainly assessed by these specialists on the basis of plant species, since these are readily observed. The presence and abundance of plant species that are scarce, or have important functional roles, emerged as important criteria for judging overall habitat quality. However, species defined as ‘positive indicator-species’ (not particularly scarce, but distinctive for the habitat) were considered particularly important. Scarce species are by definition not always found, and the presence of functionally important species is not a sufficient indicator of site quality. Habitat quality as assessed by the key informants was rank-correlated with the number of positive indicator-species present at a site for seven of the nine habitat classes assessed. Other metrics such as species-richness or a metric of scarcity were inconsistently or not correlated with the specialists’ assessments. We recommend that metrics of habitat quality used to assess N pollution impacts are based on the occurrence of, or habitat-suitability for, distinctive species. Metrics of this type are likely to be widely applicable for assessing habitat change in response to different drivers. The novel combined

  18. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Vancouver Lowlands Shillapoo Wildlife Area, 1994-1995 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, Brian; Anderson, Eric; Ashley, Paul

    1995-01-01

    This project was conducted as part of a comprehensive planning effort for the Vancouver Lowlands project area. The study was funded by The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and carried out by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The Vancouver Lowlands is considered an area of high priority by WDFW and is being considered as a potential site for wildlife mitigation activities by BPA. The objectives of this study were to collect baseline information and determine current habitat values for the study area. A brief discussion of potential future management and a proposed listing of priorities for habitat protection are found near the end of this report. This report is a companion to a programmatic management plan being drafted for the area which will outline specific, management programs to improve habitat conditions based, in part, on this study. The following narratives, describing limiting habitat variables, carry recurring themes for each indicator species and habitat type. These recurring variables that limited habitat value include: Waterbodies that lack emergent and submerged vegetation; forest areas that lack natural shrub layers; a predominance of non-hydrophytic and less desirable non-native plants where shrubs are present; a general lack of cover for ground nesting and secure waterfowl nest sites (island type). Human disturbance was the variable that varied more than any other from site to site in the study area. One issue that the models we used do not truly deal with is the quantity and connectivity of habitat. The mallard and heron models deal with spatial relationships but for other species this may be as critical. Observation of habitat maps easily show that forested habitats are in short supply. Their continuity along Lake river and the Columbia has been broken by past development. Wetland distribution has also been affected by past development.

  19. Ecophysiological evaluation of the potential invasiveness of Rhus typhina in its non-native habitats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhanjiang; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Zhang, Huijin; Shi, Lei

    2009-11-01

    Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac) is a clonal woody species that is considered potentially invasive in its non-native habitats. It is slow growing as seedlings, but grows fast once established. Its growth in the early stages is limited by many abiotic factors, including light intensity. To evaluate its potential of becoming invasive in areas it has been introduced into, we conducted a field experiment to investigate the effects of light intensity on the physiology and growth of R. typhina. Two-month-old R. typhina seedlings were examined under five light levels, that is, 100% full sunlight (unlimited light), moderate stress (50% or 25% of full sunlight) and severe stress (10% or 5% of full sunlight), for 60 days in Hunshandak Sandland, China. Net photosynthetic rate (PN) was reduced significantly under severe light stress, but PN of the moderately stressed seedlings was unaffected. Light stress also led to a reduction in saturated light intensity of the moderately stressed seedlings by 20% and of the severely stressed seedlings by 40%, although the light saturation points were as high as 800 and 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for the moderately and severely stressed seedlings, respectively. Under severe light stress, the maximum quantum yield of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm) decreased significantly, but the minimal fluorescence yield (F0) increased compared to that of the control plants. The number of newly produced leaves and the stem height, however, decreased as the light intensity became lower. Root length and leaf area decreased, whereas specific leaf area significantly increased as light became increasingly lower. Biomass production was significantly reduced by light stress, but the allocation pattern was unaffected. Our results demonstrated that R. typhina seedlings can survive low light and grow well in other light conditions. The physiology and growth of R. typhina will likely enable it to acclimate to varying light conditions in Hunshandak Sandland, where R. typhina

  20. Salmon River Habitat Enhancement, Part 1, 1984 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Konopacky, Richard C.

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains reports on subprojects involving the determining of alternatives to enhance salmonid habitat on patented land in Bear Valley Creek, Idaho, coordination activities for habitat projects occurring on streams within fishing areas of the Shoshone-Bannock Indian Tribes, and habitat and fish inventories in the Salmon River. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual reports. (ACR)

  1. Hydraulic Characteristics of Bedrock Constrictions and Evaluation of One- and Two-Dimensional Models of Flood Flow on the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Twining, Brian V.

    2007-01-01

    A 1.9-mile reach of the Big Lost River, between the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) diversion dam and the Pioneer diversion structures, was investigated to evaluate the effects of streambed erosion and bedrock constrictions on model predictions of water-surface elevations. Two one-dimensional (1-D) models, a fixed-bed surface-water flow model (HEC-RAS) and a movable-bed surface-water flow and sediment-transport model (HEC-6), were used to evaluate these effects. The results of these models were compared to the results of a two-dimensional (2-D) fixed-bed model [Transient Inundation 2-Dimensional (TRIM2D)] that had previously been used to predict water-surface elevations for peak flows with sufficient stage and stream power to erode floodplain terrain features (Holocene inset terraces referred to as BLR#6 and BLR#8) dated at 300 to 500 years old, and an unmodified Pleistocene surface (referred to as the saddle area) dated at 10,000 years old; and to extend the period of record at the Big Lost River streamflow-gaging station near Arco for flood-frequency analyses. The extended record was used to estimate the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the magnitude of floods with return periods as long as 10,000 years. In most cases, the fixed-bed TRIM2D model simulated higher water-surface elevations, shallower flow depths, higher flow velocities, and higher stream powers than the fixed-bed HEC-RAS and movable-bed HEC-6 models for the same peak flows. The HEC-RAS model required flow increases of 83 percent [100 to 183 cubic meters per second (m3/s)], and 45 percent (100 to 145 m3/s) to match TRIM2D simulations of water-surface elevations at two paleoindicator sites that were used to determine peak flows (100 m3/s) with an estimated return period of 300 to 500 years; and an increase of 13 percent (150 to 169 m3/s) to match TRIM2D water-surface elevations at the saddle area that was used to establish the peak flow (150 m3/s) of a paleoflood

  2. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2008-11-06

    Emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) in the Missouri River Mainstem System is a critical habitat element for several federally listed bird species: the endangered interior least tern (Sterna antillarum) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). The Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River and is responsible under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to take actions within its authorities to conserve listed species. To comply with the 2000 USFWS BiOp and the 2003 amended USFWS BiOp, the Corps has created habitats below Gavins Point Dam using mechanical means. Initial monitoring indicates that constructed sandbars provide suitable habitat features for nesting and foraging least terns and piping plovers. Terns and plovers are using constructed sandbars and successfully reproducing at or above levels stipulated in the BiOp. However, whether such positive impacts will persist cannot yet be adequately assessed at this time.

  3. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland would comprise

  4. Biodiversity: Habitat Suitability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat suitability quantifies the relationship between species and habitat, and is evaluated according to the species’ fitness (i.e. proportion of birth rate to death rate). Even though it might maximize evolutionary success, species are not always in habitat that optimizes fit...

  5. Evaluation of Macroinvertebrate Communities and Habitat for Selected Stream Reaches at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    L.J. Henne; K.J. Buckley

    2005-08-12

    This is the second aquatic biological monitoring report generated by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Water Quality and Hydrology Group. The study has been conducted to generate impact-based assessments of habitat and water quality for LANL waterways. The monitoring program was designed to allow for the detection of spatial and temporal trends in water and habitat quality through ongoing, biannual monitoring of habitat characteristics and benthic aquatic macroinvertebrate communities at six key sites in Los Alamos, Sandia, Water, Pajarito, and Starmer's Gulch Canyons. Data were collected on aquatic habitat characteristics, channel substrate, and macroinvertebrate communities during 2001 and 2002. Aquatic habitat scores were stable between 2001 and 2002 at all locations except Starmer's Gulch and Pajarito Canyon, which had lower scores in 2002 due to low flow conditions. Channel substrate changes were most evident at the upper Los Alamos and Pajarito study reaches. The macroinvertebrate Stream Condition Index (SCI) indicated moderate to severe impairment at upper Los Alamos Canyon, slight to moderate impairment at upper Sandia Canyon, and little or no impairment at lower Sandia Canyon, Starmer's Gulch, and Pajarito Canyon. Habitat, substrate, and macroinvertebrate data from the site in upper Los Alamos Canyon indicated severe impacts from the Cerro Grande Fire of 2000. Impairment in the macroinvertebrate community at upper Sandia Canyon was probably due to effluent-dominated flow at that site. The minimal impairment SCI scores for the lower Sandia site indicated that water quality improved with distance downstream from the outfall at upper Sandia Canyon.

  6. Landscape evaluation in conservation: molecular sampling and habitat modeling for the Iberian lynx.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Néstor; Delibes, Miguel; Palomares, Francisco

    2006-06-01

    Conservation of endangered species requires comprehensive understanding of their distribution and habitat requirements, in order to implement better management strategies. Unfortunately, this understanding is often difficult to gather at the short term required by rapidly declining populations of many rare vertebrates. We present a spatial habitat modeling approach that integrates a molecular technique for species detection with landscape information to assess habitat requirements of a critically endangered mammalian carnivore, the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), in a poorly known population in Spain. We formulated a set of model hypotheses for habitat selection at the spatial scale of home ranges, based on previous information on lynx requirements of space, vegetation, and prey. To obtain the required data for model selection, we designed a sampling protocol based on surveys of feces and their molecular analysis for species identification. After comparing candidate models, we selected a parsimonious one that allowed (1) reliable assessment of lynx habitat requirements at the scale of home ranges, (2) prediction of lynx distribution and potential population size, and (3) identification of landscape management priorities for habitat conservation. This model predicted that the species was more likely to occur in landscapes with a higher percentage of rocky areas and higher cover of bushes typical of mature mediterranean shrubland mosaics. Its accuracy for discriminating lynx presence was approximately 85%, indicating high predictive performance. Mapping model predictions showed that only 16% of the studied areas constitute potential habitat for lynx, even though the region is dominated by large extents of well-preserved native vegetation with low human interference. Habitat was mostly clumped in two nearby patches connected by vegetation adequate for lynx dispersal and had a capacity for 28-62 potential breeding territories. The lynx population in Sierra Morena is

  7. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  8. Species, Habitats, Society: An Evaluation of Research Supporting EU's Natura 2000 Network

    PubMed Central

    Niculae, Iulian M.; Cucu, Adina L.; Hartel, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The Natura 2000 network is regarded as one of the conservation success stories in the global effort to protect biodiversity. However, significant challenges remain in Natura 2000 implementation, owing to its rapid expansion, and lack of a coherent vision for its future. Scientific research is critical for identifying conservation priorities, setting management goals, and reconciling biodiversity protection and society in the complex political European landscape. Thus, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive evaluation of published Natura 2000 research to highlight prevalent research themes, disciplinary approaches, and spatial entities. We conducted a systematic review of 572 scientific articles and conference proceedings focused on Natura 2000 research, published between 1996 and 2014. We grouped these articles into ‘ecological’ and ‘social and policy’ categories. Using a novel application of network analysis of article keywords, we found that Natura 2000 research forms a cohesive small-world network, owing to the emphasis on ecological research (79% of studies, with a strong focus on spatial conservation planning), and the underrepresentation of studies addressing ‘social and policy’ issues (typically focused on environmental impact assessment, multi-level governance, agri-environment policy, and ecosystem services valuation). ‘Ecological’ and ‘social and policy’ research shared only general concepts (e.g., Natura 2000, Habitats Directive) suggesting a disconnection between these disciplines. The UK and the Mediterranean basin countries dominated Natura 2000 research, and there was a weak correlation between number of studies and proportion of national territory protected. Approximately 40% of ‘social and policy’ research and 26% of ‘ecological’ studies highlighted negative implications of Natura 2000, while 21% of studies found positive social and biodiversity effects. We emphasize the need for designing inter- and

  9. Species, habitats, society: an evaluation of research supporting EU's Natura 2000 network.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Niculae, Iulian M; Cucu, Adina L; Hartel, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The Natura 2000 network is regarded as one of the conservation success stories in the global effort to protect biodiversity. However, significant challenges remain in Natura 2000 implementation, owing to its rapid expansion, and lack of a coherent vision for its future. Scientific research is critical for identifying conservation priorities, setting management goals, and reconciling biodiversity protection and society in the complex political European landscape. Thus, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive evaluation of published Natura 2000 research to highlight prevalent research themes, disciplinary approaches, and spatial entities. We conducted a systematic review of 572 scientific articles and conference proceedings focused on Natura 2000 research, published between 1996 and 2014. We grouped these articles into 'ecological' and 'social and policy' categories. Using a novel application of network analysis of article keywords, we found that Natura 2000 research forms a cohesive small-world network, owing to the emphasis on ecological research (79% of studies, with a strong focus on spatial conservation planning), and the underrepresentation of studies addressing 'social and policy' issues (typically focused on environmental impact assessment, multi-level governance, agri-environment policy, and ecosystem services valuation). 'Ecological' and 'social and policy' research shared only general concepts (e.g., Natura 2000, Habitats Directive) suggesting a disconnection between these disciplines. The UK and the Mediterranean basin countries dominated Natura 2000 research, and there was a weak correlation between number of studies and proportion of national territory protected. Approximately 40% of 'social and policy' research and 26% of 'ecological' studies highlighted negative implications of Natura 2000, while 21% of studies found positive social and biodiversity effects. We emphasize the need for designing inter- and transdisciplinary research in order to

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Ladd Marsh Wildlife Area, 2004-2006 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, Paul; Wagoner, Sara

    2006-05-01

    The Regional HEP Team (RHT) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) staff conducted a follow-up habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis on the Ladd Marsh Wildlife Management Area (LMWA) in May 2005. The 2005 HEP assessment resulted in a total of 647.44 HUs, or 0.76 HUs/acre. This is an increase of 420.34 HUs (0.49 HUs/acre) over 2001 HEP survey results. The most significant increase in HUs occurred on the Wallender and Simonis parcels which increased by 214.30 HUs and 177.49 HUs respectively. Transects were established at or near 2001 HEP analysis transect locations whenever possible. ODFW staff biologists assisted the RHT re-establish transect locations and/or suggested areas for new surveys. Since 2001, significant changes in cover type acreage and/or structural conditions have occurred due to conversion of agriculture cover types to emergent wetland and grassland cover types. Agricultural lands were seeded to reestablish grasslands and wetlands were restored through active management and manipulation of extant water sources including natural stream hydrology/flood regimes and available irrigation. Grasslands increased on the Wallender parcel by 21% (65 acres), 23% (71 acres) at the Simonis site, and 39% (62 acres) at Conley Lake. The emergent wetland cover type also changed significantly increasing 60% (184 acres) at Wallender and 59% (184 acres) on the Simonis tract. Today, agriculture lands (crop and grazed pasture) have been nearly eliminated from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) mitigation project lands located on the LMWA.

  11. Species, habitats, society: an evaluation of research supporting EU's Natura 2000 network.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Viorel D; Rozylowicz, Laurentiu; Niculae, Iulian M; Cucu, Adina L; Hartel, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    The Natura 2000 network is regarded as one of the conservation success stories in the global effort to protect biodiversity. However, significant challenges remain in Natura 2000 implementation, owing to its rapid expansion, and lack of a coherent vision for its future. Scientific research is critical for identifying conservation priorities, setting management goals, and reconciling biodiversity protection and society in the complex political European landscape. Thus, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive evaluation of published Natura 2000 research to highlight prevalent research themes, disciplinary approaches, and spatial entities. We conducted a systematic review of 572 scientific articles and conference proceedings focused on Natura 2000 research, published between 1996 and 2014. We grouped these articles into 'ecological' and 'social and policy' categories. Using a novel application of network analysis of article keywords, we found that Natura 2000 research forms a cohesive small-world network, owing to the emphasis on ecological research (79% of studies, with a strong focus on spatial conservation planning), and the underrepresentation of studies addressing 'social and policy' issues (typically focused on environmental impact assessment, multi-level governance, agri-environment policy, and ecosystem services valuation). 'Ecological' and 'social and policy' research shared only general concepts (e.g., Natura 2000, Habitats Directive) suggesting a disconnection between these disciplines. The UK and the Mediterranean basin countries dominated Natura 2000 research, and there was a weak correlation between number of studies and proportion of national territory protected. Approximately 40% of 'social and policy' research and 26% of 'ecological' studies highlighted negative implications of Natura 2000, while 21% of studies found positive social and biodiversity effects. We emphasize the need for designing inter- and transdisciplinary research in order to

  12. Diversity and Habitat Preferences of Cultivated and Uncultivated Aerobic Methanotrophic Bacteria Evaluated Based on pmoA as Molecular Marker

    PubMed Central

    Knief, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria are characterized by their capability to grow on methane as sole source of carbon and energy. Cultivation-dependent and -independent methods have revealed that this functional guild of bacteria comprises a substantial diversity of organisms. In particular the use of cultivation-independent methods targeting a subunit of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) as functional marker for the detection of aerobic methanotrophs has resulted in thousands of sequences representing “unknown methanotrophic bacteria.” This limits data interpretation due to restricted information about these uncultured methanotrophs. A few groups of uncultivated methanotrophs are assumed to play important roles in methane oxidation in specific habitats, while the biology behind other sequence clusters remains still largely unknown. The discovery of evolutionary related monooxygenases in non-methanotrophic bacteria and of pmoA paralogs in methanotrophs requires that sequence clusters of uncultivated organisms have to be interpreted with care. This review article describes the present diversity of cultivated and uncultivated aerobic methanotrophic bacteria based on pmoA gene sequence diversity. It summarizes current knowledge about cultivated and major clusters of uncultivated methanotrophic bacteria and evaluates habitat specificity of these bacteria at different levels of taxonomic resolution. Habitat specificity exists for diverse lineages and at different taxonomic levels. Methanotrophic genera such as Methylocystis and Methylocaldum are identified as generalists, but they harbor habitat specific methanotrophs at species level. This finding implies that future studies should consider these diverging preferences at different taxonomic levels when analyzing methanotrophic communities. PMID:26696968

  13. Southern idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bottum, Edward; Mikkelsen, Anders

    2000-04-01

    This report is for the Southern Idaho Wildlife Mitigation Implementation project. This project, implemented by IDFG and SBT wildlife mitigation staff, is designed to protect, enhance and maintain wildlife habitats to mitigate construction losses for Palisades, Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon and Minidoka hydroelectric projects. Additional project information is available in the quarterly reports.

  14. A graphical modeling tool for evaluating nitrogen loading to and nitrate transport in ground water in the mid-Snake region, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, David W.; Skinner, Kenneth D.; Pollock, David W.

    2006-01-01

    A flow and transport model was created with a graphical user interface to simplify the evaluation of nitrogen loading and nitrate transport in the mid-Snake region in south-central Idaho. This model and interface package, the Snake River Nitrate Scenario Simulator, uses the U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW 2000 and MOC3D models. The interface, which is enabled for use with geographic information systems (GIS), was created using ESRI's royalty-free MapObjects LT software. The interface lets users view initial nitrogen-loading conditions (representing conditions as of 1998), alter the nitrogen loading within selected zones by specifying a multiplication factor and applying it to the initial condition, run the flow and transport model, and view a graphical representation of the modeling results. The flow and transport model of the Snake River Nitrate Scenario Simulator was created by rediscretizing and recalibrating a clipped portion of an existing regional flow model. The new subregional model was recalibrated with newly available water-level data and spring and ground-water nitrate concentration data for the study area. An updated nitrogen input GIS layer controls the application of nitrogen to the flow and transport model. Users can alter the nitrogen application to the flow and transport model by altering the nitrogen load in predefined spatial zones contained within similar political, hydrologic, and size-constrained boundaries.

  15. An evaluation of ISOCLS and CLASSY clustering algorithms for forest classification in northern Idaho. [Elk River quadrange of the Clearwater National Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werth, L. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Both the iterative self-organizing clustering system (ISOCLS) and the CLASSY algorithms were applied to forest and nonforest classes for one 1:24,000 quadrangle map of northern Idaho and the classification and mapping accuracies were evaluated with 1:30,000 color infrared aerial photography. Confusion matrices for the two clustering algorithms were generated and studied to determine which is most applicable to forest and rangeland inventories in future projects. In an unsupervised mode, ISOCLS requires many trial-and-error runs to find the proper parameters to separate desired information classes. CLASSY tells more in a single run concerning the classes that can be separated, shows more promise for forest stratification than ISOCLS, and shows more promise for consistency. One major drawback to CLASSY is that important forest and range classes that are smaller than a minimum cluster size will be combined with other classes. The algorithm requires so much computer storage that only data sets as small as a quadrangle can be used at one time.

  16. Evaluation of free-roaming mule deer as carriers of anaplasmosis in an area of Idaho where bovine anaplasmosis is enzootic.

    PubMed

    Renshaw, H W; Vaughn, H W; Magonigle, R A; Davis, W C; Stauber, E H; Frank, F W

    1977-02-01

    Samples of blood from 87 Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) were inoculated into 3 susceptible splenectomized calves to determine the anaplasmosis carrier status of the deer. The deer were trapped along the Idaho-Utah state boundary, near Stone, Id. Acute anaplasmosis was induced in 2 of the 3 inoculated calves, and blood from the 3 calves caused anaplasmosis when inoculated into adult non-splenectomized cattle. Serum rapid card agglutination testing revealed 13 (14.9%) positive reactions among the 87 mule deer. When these seropositive samples were evaluated with the complement-fixation test, positive reactions were not found and only 3 (3.5%) serums gave suspect reactions. A serologic survey for anaplasmosis in 1,852 cattle that cohabit spring and summer rangeland areas with mule deer revealed 14.5% reactors by the serum rapid card agglutination test. The study area consisted of an ecosystem that supports cattle, free-roaming mule deer, and Dermacentor andersoni, and thus contained the elements necessary to effect interspecies transmission of Anaplasma marginale. The significance of wildlife reservoirs and their bearing on anaplasmosis control and eradication programs needs further investigation.

  17. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  18. Improvements, Evaluation, and Application of 1D Vetem Inversion and Development and Application of 3D Vetem Inversion to Waste Pits at The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Cho Chew

    2004-10-27

    The project aim was the improvement, evaluation, and application of one dimensional (1D) inversion and development and application of three dimensional (3D) inversion to processing of data collected at waste pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The inversion methods were intended mainly for the Very Early Time Electromagnetic (VETEM) system which was designed to improve the state-of-the-art of electromagnetic imaging of the shallow (0 to about 5m) subsurface through electrically conductive soils.

  19. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jennifer

    2001-03-31

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River Basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. Adult (n = 40), metamorphosed (n = 116), transforming (n = 10), and ammocoete (n = 870) stages from both species were examined in 2000. Lamprey were captured using adult fish ladders, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers, and spawning ground surveys were conducted. US Forest Service level II and strategic point-specific habitat surveys were conducted to assess habitat requirements of both adult and larval lamprey. Multivariate statistics will be applied to determine relationships between abundance and habitat.

  20. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations. PMID:25485935

  1. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Tacoma/Trimble Area Management Plan, Technical Report 2001-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray; Lockwood, Jr., Neil; Holmes, Darren

    2003-10-01

    In 2000 and 2001, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) continued to mitigate the wildlife habitat losses as part of the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project. Utilizing Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds, the Kalispel Tribe of Indians (Tribe) purchased three projects totaling nearly 1,200 acres. The Tacoma/Trimble Wildlife Management Area is a conglomeration of properties now estimated at 1,700 acres. It is the Tribe's intent to manage these properties in cooperation and collaboration with the Pend Oreille County Public Utility District (PUD) No. 1 and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to benefit wildlife habitats and associated species, populations, and guilds.

  3. Instream flow characterization of upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing streamflow. In 2004, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Salmon River and Beaver, Pole, Champion, Iron, Thompson, and Squaw Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Salmon River and Pole, Iron, Thompson, and Squaw Creeks. In addition, natural summer streamflows were

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Wildland Fire Management

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-25

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed reservation occupying about 890 square miles in southeastern Idaho. The INEEL lies within the upper Snake River Plain sagebrush steppe ecosystem. Much of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem throughout the west has been segmented and lost to development and agriculture. The remaining sagebrush steppe ecosystem and the habitat it provides is threatened with irreversible conversion to non-native annual weeds by rangeland management practices in combination with the natural fire process. The sagebrush steppe of the INEEL is now threatened and DOE must evaluate its management role and alternatives available to preserve this important component of the western ecosystem.

  5. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, and legal and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of sites to allow the making of creditable forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. A total of 1265 potential geothermal resource sites were identified from existing literature. Site selection was based upon the presence of thermal and mineral springs or wells and/or areas of recent volcanic activity and high heat flow. 250 sites were selected for detailed analysis. A methodology to rank the sites by energy potential, degree of developability, and cost of energy was developed. Resource developability was ranked by a method based on a weighted variable evaluation of resource favorability. Sites were ranked using an integration of values determined through the cost and developability analysis. 75 figs., 63 tabs.

  6. EVALUATING HABITAT AS A SURROGATE FOR POPULATION VIABILITY USING A SPATIALLY EXPLICIT POPULATION MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because data for conservation planning are always limited, surrogates are often substituted for intractable measurements such as species richness or population viability. We examined the ability of habitat quality to act as a surrogate for population performance for both Red-sho...

  7. Multilevel assessment of fish species traits to evaluate habitat degradation in streams of the upper midwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Meador, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    We used species traits to examine the variation in fish assemblages for 21 streams in the Northern Lakes and Forests Ecoregion along a gradient of habitat disturbance. Fish species were classified based on five species trait-classes (trophic ecology, substrate preference, geomorphic preference, locomotion morphology, and reproductive strategy) and 29 categories within those classes. We used a habitat quality index to define a reference stream and then calculated Euclidean distances between the reference and each of the other sites for the five traits. Three levels of species trait analyses were conducted: (1) a composite measure (the sum of Euclidean distances across all five species traits), (2) Euclidean distances for the five individual species trait-classes, and (3) frequencies of occurrence of individual trait categories. The composite Euclidean distance was significantly correlated to the habitat index (r = -0.81; P = 0.001), as were the Euclidean distances for four of the five individual species traits (substrate preference: r = -0.70, P = 0.001; geomorphic preference: r = -0.69, P = 0.001; trophic ecology: r = -0.73, P = 0.001; and reproductive strategy: r = -0.64, P = 0.002). Although Euclidean distances for locomotion morphology were not significantly correlated to habitat index scores (r = -0.21; P = 0.368), analysis of variance and principal components analysis indicated that Euclidean distances for locomotion morphology contributed to significant variation in the fish assemblages among sites. Examination of trait categories indicated that low habitat index scores (degraded streams) were associated with changes in frequency of occurrence within the categories of all five of the species traits. Though the objectives and spatial scale of a study will dictate the level of species trait information required, our results suggest that species traits can provide critical information at multiple levels of data analysis. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries

  8. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Willow Creek, Technical Report 1993-1994.

    SciTech Connect

    Beilke, Susan

    1994-09-01

    The Willow Creek site is one of the most significant remaining areas of typical native Willamette Valley habitats, with a variety of wetlands, grasslands, and woodlands. A diverse array of native flora and fauna, with significant wildlife habitats, is present on the site. Wildlife diversity is high, and includes species of mammals, songbirds, raptors, reptiles, amphibians, and one rare invertebrate. Over 200 species of native plants have been identified (including populations of six rare, threatened, or endangered species), along with significant remnants of native plant communities. Willow Creek is located in Lane County, Oregon, on the western edge of the City of Eugene (see Figure 1). The city limit of Eugene passes through the site, and the site is entirely within the Eugene Urban Growth Boundary (UGB). At present, only lands to the east and northeast of the site are developed to full urban densities. Low density rural residential and agricultural land uses predominate on lands to the northwest and south. A partially completed light industrial/research office park is located to the northwest. Several informal trails lead south from West 18th at various points into the site. The area encompasses a total of approximately 349 acres under several ownerships, in sections 3 and 4 of Township 18 South, Range 4 West. wildlife habitat values resulting from the purchase of this site will contribute toward the goal of mitigating for habitat lost as outlined in the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Mitigation and Enhancement Plan for the Willamette River Basin. Under this Plan, mitigation goals were developed as a result of the loss of wildlife habitat due to the development and operation of Federal hydro-electric facilities in the Willamette River Basin. Results of the HEP will be used to: (1) determine the current status and habitat enhancement potential of the site consistent with wildlife mitigation goals and objectives; and (2) develop a management plan for the

  9. Environmental evaluation of alternatives for long-term management of Defense high-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the selection of a strategy for the long-term management of the defense high-level wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). This report describes the environmental impacts of alternative strategies. These alternative strategies include leaving the calcine in its present form at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), or retrieving and modifying the calcine to a more durable waste form and disposing of it either at the INEL or in an offsite repository. This report addresses only the alternatives for a program to manage the high-level waste generated at the ICPP. 24 figures, 60 tables.

  10. Fisheries Habitat Evaluation on Tributaries of the Coeur d`Alene Indian Reservation : 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Suzy

    1992-02-01

    Ranking criteria were developed to rate 19 tributaries on the Coeur d`Alene Indiana Reservation for potential of habitat enhancement for westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and bull trout, Salvelinus malma. Cutthroat and bull trout habitat requirements, derived from an extensive literature review of each species, were compared to the physical and biological parameters of each stream observed during an aerial -- helicopter survey. Ten tributaries were selected for further study, using the ranking criteria that were derived. The most favorable ratings were awarded to streams that were located completely on the reservation, displayed highest potential for improvement and enhancement, had no barriers to fish migration, good road access, and a gradient acceptable to cutthroat and bull trout habitation. The ten streams selected for study were Bellgrove, Fighting, Lake, Squaw, Plummer, Little Plummer, Benewah, Alder, Hell`s Gulch and Evans creeks.

  11. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jennifer; Pirtle, Jody; Barndt, Scott A.

    2002-03-31

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River Basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River Basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. This annual report describes the activities and results of the second year of this project. Adult (n = 24), metamorphosed (n = 247), transforming (n = 4), and ammocoete (n = 387) stages from both species were examined in 2001. Lamprey were captured using adult fish ladders, lamprey pots, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers. Twenty-nine spawning ground surveys were conducted. Nine strategic point-specific habitat surveys were performed to assess habitat requirements of juvenile lamprey.

  12. Evaluation of environmental data for identification of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) aquatic larval habitats in Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Griffith, Daniel A; Mbogo, Charles M; Githeko, Andrew K; Regens, James L; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert; Beier, John C

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluates the extent to which use of environmental data acquired from field and satellite surveys enhances predictions of urban mosquito counts. Mosquito larval habitats were sampled, and multispectral thermal imager (MTI) satellite data in the visible spectrum at 5-m resolution were acquired for Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya, during February and March 2001. All entomological parameters were collected from January to May 2001, June to August 2002, and June to August 2003. In a Poisson model specification, for Anopheles funestus Giles, shade was the best predictor, whereas substrate was the best predictor for Anopheles gambiae, and vegetation for Anopheles arabensis Patton. The top predictors found with a logistic regression model specification were habitat size for An. gambiae Giles, pollution for An. arabensis, and shade for An. funestus. All other coefficients for canopy, debris, habitat nature, permanency, emergent plants, algae, pollution, turbidity, organic materials, all MTI waveband frequencies, distance to the nearest house, distance to the nearest domestic animal, and all land use land cover changes were nonsignificant. MTI data at 5-m spatial resolution do not have an additional predictive value for mosquito counts when adjusted for field-based ecological data. PMID:16365996

  13. Evaluation of environmental data for identification of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) aquatic larval habitats in Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Benjamin G; Arheart, Kristopher L; Griffith, Daniel A; Mbogo, Charles M; Githeko, Andrew K; Regens, James L; Githure, John I; Novak, Robert; Beier, John C

    2005-09-01

    This research evaluates the extent to which use of environmental data acquired from field and satellite surveys enhances predictions of urban mosquito counts. Mosquito larval habitats were sampled, and multispectral thermal imager (MTI) satellite data in the visible spectrum at 5-m resolution were acquired for Kisumu and Malindi, Kenya, during February and March 2001. All entomological parameters were collected from January to May 2001, June to August 2002, and June to August 2003. In a Poisson model specification, for Anopheles funestus Giles, shade was the best predictor, whereas substrate was the best predictor for Anopheles gambiae, and vegetation for Anopheles arabensis Patton. The top predictors found with a logistic regression model specification were habitat size for An. gambiae Giles, pollution for An. arabensis, and shade for An. funestus. All other coefficients for canopy, debris, habitat nature, permanency, emergent plants, algae, pollution, turbidity, organic materials, all MTI waveband frequencies, distance to the nearest house, distance to the nearest domestic animal, and all land use land cover changes were nonsignificant. MTI data at 5-m spatial resolution do not have an additional predictive value for mosquito counts when adjusted for field-based ecological data.

  14. Non-cultural methods of human microflora evaluation for the benefit of crew medical control in confined habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Lana, Moukhamedieva; Georgy, Osipov; Aleksey, Batov; Zoya, Soloviova; Robert, Mardanov; Yana, Panina; Anna, Gegenava

    2011-05-01

    Current control of human microflora is a great problem not only for the space medicine but also for practical health care. Due to many reasons its realization by classical bacteriological method is difficult in practical application or cannot be done. To evaluate non-cultural methods of microbial control of crews in a confined habitat we evaluated two different methods. The first method is based on digital treatment of microbial visual images, appearing after gram staining of microbial material from natural sample. This way the rate between gram-positive and gram-negative microbe could be gained as well as differentiation of rods and cocci could be attained, which is necessary for primary evaluation of human microbial cenosis in remote confined habitats. The other non-culture method of human microflora evaluation is gas chromatomass spectrometry (gcms) analysis of swabs gathered from different body sites. Gc-ms testing of swabs allows one to validate quantitative and special microflora based on specific lipid markers analysis.

  15. Asian elephants in China: estimating population size and evaluating habitat suitability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Dong, Lu; Lin, Liu; Feng, Limin; Yan, Fan; Wang, Lanxin; Guo, Xianming; Luo, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu'Er) carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe) carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure their natural

  16. Habitat Evaluation and Monitoring in the Columbia River Basin, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Everson, Larry B.; Campbell, Charles J.; Craven, Richard E.; Welsh, Thomas L.

    1986-12-01

    The law established the Northwest Power Planning Council to prepare and adopt a regional conservation and electric power plan, and a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife. The objectives are the development of regional plans and programs related to energy conservation, renewable resources, other resources, and protecting mitigating, and enhancing fish and wildlife resources and to protect, mitigate, and enhance the fish and wildlife, including related spawning grounds and habitat, of the Columbia River and its tributaries. 4 refs.

  17. Asian Elephants in China: Estimating Population Size and Evaluating Habitat Suitability

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Dong, Lu; Lin, Liu; Feng, Limin; Yan, Fan; Wang, Lanxin; Guo, Xianming; Luo, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    We monitored the last remaining Asian elephant populations in China over the past decade. Using DNA tools and repeat genotyping, we estimated the population sizes from 654 dung samples collected from various areas. Combined with morphological individual identifications from over 6,300 elephant photographs taken in the wild, we estimated that the total Asian elephant population size in China is between 221 and 245. Population genetic structure and diversity were examined using a 556-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA, and 24 unique haplotypes were detected from DNA analysis of 178 individuals. A phylogenetic analysis revealed two highly divergent clades of Asian elephants, α and β, present in Chinese populations. Four populations (Mengla, Shangyong, Mengyang, and Pu’Er) carried mtDNA from the α clade, and only one population (Nangunhe) carried mtDNA belonging to the β clade. Moreover, high genetic divergence was observed between the Nangunhe population and the other four populations; however, genetic diversity among the five populations was low, possibly due to limited gene flow because of habitat fragmentation. The expansion of rubber plantations, crop cultivation, and villages along rivers and roads had caused extensive degradation of natural forest in these areas. This had resulted in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and had formed artificial barriers that inhibited elephant migration. Using Geographic Information System, Global Positioning System, and Remote Sensing technology, we found that the area occupied by rubber plantations, tea farms, and urban settlements had dramatically increased over the past 40 years, resulting in the loss and fragmentation of elephant habitats and forming artificial barriers that inhibit elephant migration. The restoration of ecological corridors to facilitate gene exchange among isolated elephant populations and the establishment of cross-boundary protected areas between China and Laos to secure their natural

  18. Vegetation Description, Rare Plant Inventory, and Vegetation Monitoring for Craig Mountain, Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, Michael; Moseley, Robert

    1994-12-01

    The Craig Mountain Wildlife Mitigation Area was purchased by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as partial mitigation for wildlife losses incurred with the inundation of Dworshak Reservoir on the North Fork Clearwater River. Upon completion of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process, it is proposed that title to mitigation lands will be given to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Craig Mountain is located at the northern end of the Hells Canyon Ecosystem. It encompasses the plateau and steep canyon slopes extending from the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, northward to near Waha, south of Lewiston, Idaho. The forested summit of Craig Mountain is characterized by gently rolling terrain. The highlands dramatically break into the canyons of the Snake and Salmon rivers at approximately the 4,700 foot contour. The highly dissected canyons are dominated by grassland slopes containing a mosaic of shrubfield, riparian, and woodland habitats. During the 1993 and 1994 field seasons, wildlife, habitat/vegetation, timber, and other resources were systematically inventoried at Craig Mountain to provide Fish and Game managers with information needed to draft an ecologically-based management plan. The results of the habitat/vegetation portion of the inventory are contained in this report. The responsibilities for the Craig Mountain project included: (1) vegetation data collection, and vegetation classification, to help produce a GIS-generated Craig Mountain vegetation map, (2) to determine the distribution and abundance of rare plants populations and make recommendations concerning their management, and (3) to establish a vegetation monitoring program to evaluate the effects of Fish and Game management actions, and to assess progress towards meeting habitat mitigation goals.

  19. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  20. An evaluation of lake trout reproductive habitat on Clay Banks Reef, northwestern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Holey, Mark E.; Manny, Bruce A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    The extinction of the native populations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan in about 1956 has been followed by a decades-long attempt to reestablish self-sustaining populations of this valuable species in habitats it formerly occupied throughout the lake. One of the most recent management strategies designed to facilitate recovery was to make a primary management objective the establishment of sanctuaries where stocked lake trout could be protected and self-sustaining populations reestablished. In the present study we employed habitat survey and mapping techniques, field and laboratory bioassays, egg traps, sediment traps, and gill nets to examine the potential for successful natural reproduction by stocked lake trout on Clay Banks Reef in the Door-Kewaunee sanctuary in Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan. Our study revealed (1) there was suitable habitat on the reef to support the production of viable fry, (2) spawner abundance on the reef was the highest recorded in the great lakes, and (3) eggs taken from spawners on the reef and held on the reef in plexiglas incubators hatched and produced fry that survived through swim-up. We conclude that Clay Banks Reef has the potential to support successful natural reproduction by stocked lake trout.

  1. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    PubMed

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings.

  2. Using Remote Sensing Data to Evaluate Habitat Loss in the Mobile, Galveston, and Tampa Bay Watersheds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Morgan; Estes, Maurice G.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico has experienced dramatic wetland habitat area losses over the last two centuries. These losses not only damage species diversity, but contribute to water quality, flood control, and aspects of the Gulf coast economy. Overall wetland losses since the 1950s were examined using land cover/land use (LCLU) change analysis in three Gulf coast watershed regions: Mobile Bay, Galveston Bay, and Tampa Bay. Two primary causes of this loss, LCLU change and climate change, were then assessed using LCLU maps, U.S. census population data, and available current and historical climate data from NOAA. Sea level rise, precipitation, and temperature effects were addressed, with emphasis on analysis of the effects of sea level rise on salt marsh degradation. Ecological impacts of wetland loss, including fishery depletion, eutrophication, and hypoxia were addressed using existing literature and data available from NOAA. These ecological consequences in turn have had an affect on the Gulf coast economy, which was analyzed using fishery data and addressing public health impacts of changes in the environment caused by wetland habitat loss. While recent federal and state efforts to reduce wetland habitat loss have been relatively successful, this study implies a need for more aggressive action in the Gulf coast area, as the effects of wetland loss reach far beyond individual wetland systems themselves to the Gulf of Mexico as a whole.

  3. Geothermal conversion at Veterans Hospital, Boise, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, I. A.; Metzger, S. W.

    1982-02-01

    A geothermal resource near the Veterans Administration Hospital facilities in Boise, Idaho, has been used since the turn of the century for space heating of homes. A plan for using this resource in some of the Veterans Hospital facilities is discussed. Preliminary cost estimates are presented, economic evaluation criteria are given, and heating system alternatives for the facilities are compared.

  4. Evaluation of LiDAR-acquired bathymetric and topographic data accuracy in various hydrogeomorphic settings in the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers, West-Central Idaho, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    High-quality elevation data in riverine environments are important for fisheries management applications and the accuracy of such data needs to be determined for its proper application. The Experimental Advanced Airborne Research LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-or EAARL-system was used to obtain topographic and bathymetric data along the Deadwood and South Fork Boise Rivers in west-central Idaho. The EAARL data were post-processed into bare earth and bathymetric raster and point datasets. Concurrently with the EAARL surveys, real-time kinematic global positioning system surveys were made in three areas along each of the rivers to assess the accuracy of the EAARL elevation data in different hydrogeomorphic settings. The accuracies of the EAARL-derived raster elevation values, determined in open, flat terrain, to provide an optimal vertical comparison surface, had root mean square errors ranging from 0.134 to 0.347 m. Accuracies in the elevation values for the stream hydrogeomorphic settings had root mean square errors ranging from 0.251 to 0.782 m. The greater root mean square errors for the latter data are the result of complex hydrogeomorphic environments within the streams, such as submerged aquatic macrophytes and air bubble entrainment; and those along the banks, such as boulders, woody debris, and steep slopes. These complex environments reduce the accuracy of EAARL bathymetric and topographic measurements. Steep banks emphasize the horizontal location discrepancies between the EAARL and ground-survey data and may not be good representations of vertical accuracy. The EAARL point to ground-survey comparisons produced results with slightly higher but similar root mean square errors than those for the EAARL raster to ground-survey comparisons, emphasizing the minimized horizontal offset by using interpolated values from the raster dataset at the exact location of the ground-survey point as opposed to an actual EAARL point within a 1-meter distance. The

  5. Instream flow characterization of Upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model simulation results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing or decreasing streamflow. In 2005, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Big Boulder, Challis, Bear, Mill, and Morgan Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Big Boulder. Instantaneous measurements of discharge were also made at selected sites. In

  6. The Idaho Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaird, James H.

    The Idaho Consortium was established by the state board of education to remedy perceived needs involving insufficient certificated teachers, excessive teacher mobility, shortage of teacher candidates, inadequate inservice training, a low level of administrative leadership, and a lack of programs in special education, early childhood education,…

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Muskellunge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Seagrass as pasture for seacows: Landscape-level dugong habitat evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, James K.; Lawler, Ivan R.; Marsh, Helene

    2007-01-01

    A 24 km 2 seagrass meadow in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia, was confirmed as important dugong habitat by a satellite tracking study. Marine videography, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and geographic information systems (GIS) were used to survey, analyse and map seagrass species composition, nutrient profile and patch structure at high resolution (200 m). Five species of seagrass covered 91% of the total habitat area. The total above and below-ground seagrass biomass was estimated to be 222.7 ± 19.6 t dry-weight. Halodule uninervis dominated the pasture (81.8%, 162.2 t), followed by Halophila ovalis (35.3%, 16.5 t), Zostera capricorni (15.9%, 22.2 t), Halophila spinulosa (14.5%, 21.9 t), and traces of Halodule pinifolia. Because seagrass distributions overlapped, their combined percentage totalled >100% of the survey area. The seagrass formed a continuous meadow of varying density. Abiotic variables explained relatively little of the spatial patterns in the seagrass. For all seagrass species, the above-ground component (shoots and leaves) possessed greater total nitrogen than the below-ground component (roots and rhizomes), which possessed greater total starch. Because of the relatively low intraspecific variation in nutrient composition, nutrients were concentrated according to seagrass biomass density. Halodule uninervis was the most nutritious seagrass species because of its superior whole-plant nitrogen (1.28 ± 0.05% DW) and starch (6.42 ± 0.50 DW %) content. Halodule uninervis formed large, clustered patches of dense biomass across the pasture and thus nitrogen and starch were concentrated where H. uninervis was prevalent. This seagrass meadow appears to be utilised well below its potential dugong carrying capacity. The survey and analytical techniques used enabled rapid, economical and accurate quantification and characterisation of seagrass habitat at scales relevant to a large forager.

  10. Seascape as an organizing principle for evaluating walrus and seal sea-ice habitat in Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, G. Carleton; Overland, James E.; Hufford, Gary L.

    2010-10-01

    The term “seascape”, as used here, relates the natural history of ice-dependent pinnipeds to their sea-ice environments at different spatial scales, following concepts of landscape ecology. Habitats are characterized by heterogeneous but repeatable structures of sea ice. As an example, multiple mesoscale (3-50 km) seascapes present conditions for different ecological preferences of five Beringian ice-dependent pinnipeds, as observed during 2006-2009 winter-spring icebreaker cruises. Seascape partitioning concepts are important for understanding and projecting species' responses to change under climate-change scenarios.

  11. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  12. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  13. Mercury bioaccumulation in estuarine wetland fishes: evaluating habitats and risk to coastal wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Estuaries are globally important areas for methylmercury bioaccumulation because of high methylmercury production rates and use by fish and wildlife. We measured total mercury (THg) concentrations in ten fish species from 32 wetland and open bay sites in San Francisco Bay Estuary (2005–2008). Fish THg concentrations (μg/g dry weight ± standard error) differed by up to 7.4× among estuary habitats. Concentrations were lowest in open bay (0.17 ± 0.02) and tidal wetlands (0.42 ± 0.02), and highest in managed seasonal saline wetlands (1.27 ± 0.05) and decommissioned high salinity salt ponds (1.14 ± 0.07). Mercury also differed among fishes, with Mississippi silversides (0.87 ± 0.03) having the highest and longjaw mudsuckers (0.37 ± 0.01) the lowest concentrations. Overall, 26% and 12% of fish exceeded toxicity benchmarks for fish (0.20 μg/g wet weight) and piscivorous bird (0.30 μg/g wet weight) health, respectively. Our results suggest that despite managed wetlands' limited abundance within estuaries, they may be disproportionately important habitats of Hg risk to coastal wildlife.

  14. Evaluating Sentinel-2 for Lakeshore Habitat Mapping Based on Airborne Hyperspectral Data

    PubMed Central

    Stratoulias, Dimitris; Balzter, Heiko; Sykioti, Olga; Zlinszky, András; Tóth, Viktor R.

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of lakeshore ecosystems requires fine-scale information to account for the high biodiversity typically encountered in the land-water ecotone. Sentinel-2 is a satellite with high spatial and spectral resolution and improved revisiting frequency and is expected to have significant potential for habitat mapping and classification of complex lakeshore ecosystems. In this context, investigations of the capabilities of Sentinel-2 in regard to the spatial and spectral dimensions are needed to assess its potential and the quality of the expected output. This study presents the first simulation of the high spatial resolution (i.e., 10 m and 20 m) bands of Sentinel-2 for lakeshore mapping, based on the satellite’s Spectral Response Function and hyperspectral airborne data collected over Lake Balaton, Hungary in August 2010. A comparison of supervised classifications of the simulated products is presented and the information loss from spectral aggregation and spatial upscaling in the context of lakeshore vegetation classification is discussed. We conclude that Sentinel-2 imagery has a strong potential for monitoring fine-scale habitats, such as reed beds. PMID:26378538

  15. A method for assigning species into groups based on generalized Mahalanobis distance between habitat model coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.J.; Heglund, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Habitat association models are commonly developed for individual animal species using generalized linear modeling methods such as logistic regression. We considered the issue of grouping species based on their habitat use so that management decisions can be based on sets of species rather than individual species. This research was motivated by a study of western landbirds in northern Idaho forests. The method we examined was to separately fit models to each species and to use a generalized Mahalanobis distance between coefficient vectors to create a distance matrix among species. Clustering methods were used to group species from the distance matrix, and multidimensional scaling methods were used to visualize the relations among species groups. Methods were also discussed for evaluating the sensitivity of the conclusions because of outliers or influential data points. We illustrate these methods with data from the landbird study conducted in northern Idaho. Simulation results are presented to compare the success of this method to alternative methods using Euclidean distance between coefficient vectors and to methods that do not use habitat association models. These simulations demonstrate that our Mahalanobis-distance- based method was nearly always better than Euclidean-distance-based methods or methods not based on habitat association models. The methods used to develop candidate species groups are easily explained to other scientists and resource managers since they mainly rely on classical multivariate statistical methods. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  16. Ghosts of habitats past: Contribution of landscape change to current habitats used by shrubland birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, Steven T.; Rotenberry, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Models of habitat associations for species often are developed with an implicit assumption that habitats are static, even though recent disturbance may have altered the landscape. We tested our hypothesis that trajectory and magnitude of habitat change influenced observed distribution and abundance of passerine birds breeding in shrubsteppe habitats of southwestern Idaho. Birds in this region live in dynamic landscapes undergoing predominantly large-scale, radical, and unidirectional habitat change because wildfires are converting shrublands into expanses of exotic annual grasslands. We used data from field surveys and satellite image analyses in a series of redundancy analyses to partition variances and to determine the relative contribution of habitat change and current landscapes. Although current habitats explained a greater proportion of total variation, changes in habitat and measures of habitat richness and texture also contributed to variation in abundance of Horned Larks (Eremophila alpestris), Brewera??s Sparrows (Spizella breweri), and Sage Sparrows (Amphispiza belli). Abundance of birds was insensitive to scale for nonspatial habitat variables. In contrast, spatial measures of habitat richness and texture in the landscape were significant only at large spatial scales. Abundance of Horned Larks, Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta), and Brewera??s Sparrows, but not Sage Thrashers (Oreoscoptes montanus) or Sage Sparrows, was positively correlated with changes toward stable habitats. Because dominant habitat changes were toward less stable conditions, regional declines of those birds in shrubsteppe habitats reflect current landscapes as well as the history, magnitude, and trajectory of habitat change.

  17. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  18. Evaluating habitat suitability for the establishment of Monochamus spp. through climate-based niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Estay, Sergio A; Labra, Fabio A; Sepulveda, Roger D; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    Pine sawyer beetle species of the genus Monochamus are vectors of the nematode pest Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The introduction of these species into new habitats is a constant threat for those regions where the forestry industry depends on conifers, and especially on species of Pinus. To obtain information about the potential risk of establishment of these insects in Chile, we performed climate-based niche modeling using data for five North American and four Eurasian Monochamus species using a Maxent approach. The most important variables that account for current distribution of these species are total annual precipitation and annual and seasonal average temperatures, with some differences between North American and Eurasian species. Projections of potential geographic distribution in Chile show that all species could occupy at least 37% of the area between 30° and 53°S, where industrial plantations of P. radiata are concentrated. Our results indicated that Chile seems more suitable for Eurasian than for North American species.

  19. Evaluating habitat suitability for the establishment of Monochamus spp. through climate-based niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Estay, Sergio A; Labra, Fabio A; Sepulveda, Roger D; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D

    2014-01-01

    Pine sawyer beetle species of the genus Monochamus are vectors of the nematode pest Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The introduction of these species into new habitats is a constant threat for those regions where the forestry industry depends on conifers, and especially on species of Pinus. To obtain information about the potential risk of establishment of these insects in Chile, we performed climate-based niche modeling using data for five North American and four Eurasian Monochamus species using a Maxent approach. The most important variables that account for current distribution of these species are total annual precipitation and annual and seasonal average temperatures, with some differences between North American and Eurasian species. Projections of potential geographic distribution in Chile show that all species could occupy at least 37% of the area between 30° and 53°S, where industrial plantations of P. radiata are concentrated. Our results indicated that Chile seems more suitable for Eurasian than for North American species. PMID:25019408

  20. An evaluation of the use of ERTS-1 satellite imagery for grizzly bear habitat analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varney, J. R.; Craighead, J. J.; Sumner, J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner images taken by the ERTS-1 satellite in August and October, 1972, were examined to determine if they would be useful in identifying and mapping favorable habitat for grizzly bears. It was possible to identify areas having a suitable mixture of alpine meadow and timber, and to eliminate those which did not meet the isolation requirements of grizzlies because of farming or grazing activity. High altitude timbered areas mapped from satellite imagery agreed reasonably well with the distribution of whitebark pine, an important food species. Analysis of satellite imagery appears to be a valuable supplement to present ground observation methods, since it allows the most important areas to be identified for intensive study and many others to be eliminated from consideration. A sampling plan can be developed from such data which will minimize field effort and overall program cost.

  1. Evaluating Habitat Suitability for the Establishment of Monochamus spp. through Climate-Based Niche Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Estay, Sergio A.; Labra, Fabio A.; Sepulveda, Roger D.; Bacigalupe, Leonardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Pine sawyer beetle species of the genus Monochamus are vectors of the nematode pest Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The introduction of these species into new habitats is a constant threat for those regions where the forestry industry depends on conifers, and especially on species of Pinus. To obtain information about the potential risk of establishment of these insects in Chile, we performed climate-based niche modeling using data for five North American and four Eurasian Monochamus species using a Maxent approach. The most important variables that account for current distribution of these species are total annual precipitation and annual and seasonal average temperatures, with some differences between North American and Eurasian species. Projections of potential geographic distribution in Chile show that all species could occupy at least 37% of the area between 30° and 53°S, where industrial plantations of P. radiata are concentrated. Our results indicated that Chile seems more suitable for Eurasian than for North American species. PMID:25019408

  2. Variation in the population structure of Yukon River chum and coho salmon: Evaluating the potential impact of localized habitat degradation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, J.B.; Spearman, W.J.; Sage, G.K.; Miller, S.J.; Flannery, B.G.; Wenburg, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    We used microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA-restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA-RFLP) analyses to test the hypothesis that chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and coho salmon O. kisutch in the Yukon River, Alaska, exhibit population structure at differing spatial scales. If the hypothesis is true, then the risk of losing genetic diversity because of habitat degradation from a gold mine near a Yukon River tributary could differ between the two species. For each species, collections were made from two tributaries in both the Innoko and Tanana rivers, which are tributaries to the lower and middle Yukon River. The results revealed a large difference in the degree and spatial distribution of population structure between the two species. For chum salmon, the microsatellite loci (F-statistic [FST] = 0.021) and mtDNA (F ST = -0.008) revealed a low degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively large geographic scale. This large-scale population structure should minimize, although not eliminate, the risk of genetic diversity loss due to localized habitat degradation. For coho salmon, the microsatellites (FST = 0.091) and mtDNA (FST = 0.586) revealed a high degree of interpopulation genetic diversity on a relatively small geographic scale. This small-scale population structure suggests that coho salmon are at a relatively high risk of losing genetic diversity due to lo-calized habitat degradation. Our study underscores the importance of a multispecies approach for evaluating the potential impact of land-use activities on the genetic diversity of Pacific salmon.

  3. Evaluation of Limiting Climatic Factors and Simulation of a Climatically Suitable Habitat for Chinese Sea Buckthorn

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Guo, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Chinese sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis) has considerable economic potential and plays an important role in reclamation and soil and water conservation. For scientific cultivation of this species across China, we identified the key climatic factors and explored climatically suitable habitat in order to maximize survival of Chinese sea buckthorn using MaxEnt and GIS tools, based on 98 occurrence records from herbarium and publications and 13 climatic factors from Bioclim, Holdridge life zone and Kria' index variables. Our simulation showed that the MaxEnt model performance was significantly better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.93 with 10-fold cross validation. A jackknife test and the regularized gain change, which were applied to the training algorithm, showed that precipitation of the driest month (PDM), annual precipitation (AP), coldness index (CI) and annual range of temperature (ART) were the most influential climatic factors in limiting the distribution of Chinese sea buckthorn, which explained 70.1% of the variation. The predicted map showed that the core of climatically suitable habitat was distributed from the southwest to northwest of Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces, where the most influential climate variables were PDM of 1.0–7.0 mm, AP of 344.0–1089.0 mm, CI of -47.7–0.0°C, and ART of 26.1–45.0°C. We conclude that the distribution patterns of Chinese sea buckthorn are related to the northwest winter monsoon, the southwest summer monsoon and the southeast summer monsoon systems in China. PMID:26177033

  4. Evaluation of Limiting Climatic Factors and Simulation of a Climatically Suitable Habitat for Chinese Sea Buckthorn.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqing; Du, Sheng; Guo, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Chinese sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. sinensis) has considerable economic potential and plays an important role in reclamation and soil and water conservation. For scientific cultivation of this species across China, we identified the key climatic factors and explored climatically suitable habitat in order to maximize survival of Chinese sea buckthorn using MaxEnt and GIS tools, based on 98 occurrence records from herbarium and publications and 13 climatic factors from Bioclim, Holdridge life zone and Kria' index variables. Our simulation showed that the MaxEnt model performance was significantly better than random, with an average test AUC value of 0.93 with 10-fold cross validation. A jackknife test and the regularized gain change, which were applied to the training algorithm, showed that precipitation of the driest month (PDM), annual precipitation (AP), coldness index (CI) and annual range of temperature (ART) were the most influential climatic factors in limiting the distribution of Chinese sea buckthorn, which explained 70.1% of the variation. The predicted map showed that the core of climatically suitable habitat was distributed from the southwest to northwest of Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces, where the most influential climate variables were PDM of 1.0-7.0 mm, AP of 344.0-1089.0 mm, CI of -47.7-0.0°C, and ART of 26.1-45.0°C. We conclude that the distribution patterns of Chinese sea buckthorn are related to the northwest winter monsoon, the southwest summer monsoon and the southeast summer monsoon systems in China. PMID:26177033

  5. Evaluation of habitat restoration needs at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.L.

    1984-04-01

    Adverse environmental impacts due to site characterization and repository development activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, must be minimized and mitigated according to provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The natural Transition Desert ecosystem in the 27.5-sq-mi Yucca Mountain project area is now and will continue to be impacted by removal of native vegetation and topsoil and the destruction and/or displacement of faunal communities. Although it is not known at this time exactly how much land will be affected, it is estimated that about 300 to 400 acres will be disturbed by construction of facility sites, mining spoils piles, roadways, and drilling pads. Planned habitat restoration at Yucca Mountain will mitigate the effects of plant and animal habitat loss over time by increasing the rate of plant succession on disturbed sites. Restoration program elements should combine the appropriate use of native annual and perennial species, irrigation and/or water-harvesting techniques, and salvage and reuse of topsoil. Although general techniques are well-known, specific program details (i.e., which species to use, methods of site preparation with available equipment, methods of saving and applying topsoil, etc.) must be worked out empirically on a site-specific basis over the period of site characterization and any subsequent repository development. Large-scale demonstration areas set up during site characterization will benefit both present abandonments and, if the project is scaled up to include repository development, larger facilities areas including spoils piles. Site-specific demonstration studies will also provide information on the costs per acre associated with alternative restoration strategies.

  6. State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program - Final Progress Report - 01/01/1996 - 09/30/2000

    SciTech Connect

    Trever, Kathleen

    2000-09-30

    The primary goal is to maintain an independent, impartial, and qualified State of Idaho INEEL Oversight Program to assess the potential impacts of present and future Department of Energy (DOE) activities in Idaho; to assure the citizens of Idaho that all present and future DOE activities in Idaho are protective of the health and safety of Idahoans and the environment; and to communicate the findings to the citizens of Idaho in a manner which provides them the opportunity to evaluate impacts of present and future DOE activities in Idaho. This will be accomplished through primary technical work activities and providing clear, factual data and other information to the public.

  7. Evaluation Of Functional Flows To Prioritize The Restoration Of Spawning Habitat Geomorphic Units Among Three Tributaries Of The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, M. I.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2006-12-01

    Biologists have identified fish spawning habitat rehabilitation as a primary goal in the recovery of river ecosystems. Prioritization of restoration efforts in large river ecosystems is a management strategy for an efficient use of available resources. Recognizing that science-based tools to evaluate restoration actions lack the incorporation of key hydrogeomorphic and ecologic attributes of river processes, a method to prioritize salmon spawning habitat restoration efforts that explores the complex linkages among different hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecologic variables was developed. The present work summarizes the conceptual background of the method and presents applications to three tributaries of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta system to make management conclusions for those rivers. The method is based on the definition of functional flows. Within the spawning habitat context, functional flows are those flow processes that provide optimal habitat conditioning before the freshwater lifestage begins by creating pool-riffle sequences, and that grant healthy habitat throughout the freshwater lifestage by maintaining the required water depth, velocity, and substrate composition. The method incorporates hydrogeomorphic and ecologic attributes through classifying magnitude and timing of functional flows and determining their effects on the habitat. Essential variables to evaluate the status of spawning habitat (i.e. slope, grain size, discharge, channel geometry, shear stress) are non- dimensionalized to provide comparability. Feasible combinations of the variables are put into an algorithm that discloses scenarios of flow functionality for characteristic hydrographs. The method was used to evaluate the ecological functionality of individual geomorphic units along the Mokelumne, Cosumnes, and Yuba Rivers and to compare them within each river and between rivers. Ranking according to the number of days with functional flows provided a hierarchical comparison of the

  8. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; J. Keith Jewell; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury

    2004-10-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System (IEDS) was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-minute measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  9. Geothermal investigations in Idaho, Part 2, An evaluation of thermal water in the Bruneau-Grand View area, southwest Idaho - with a section on a reconnaissance audio-magnetotelluric survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, H.W.; Whitehead, R.L.; Hoover, Donald B.; Tippens, C.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Bruneau-Grand View area occupies about 1,100 square miles in southwest Idaho and is on the southern flank of the large depression (possibly a graben) in which lies the western Snake River Plain. The igneous and sedimentary rocks in the area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. They are transected by a prominent system of northwest-trending faults. For discussion purposes, the aquifers in the area have been separated into two broad units: (1) the volcanic-rock aquifers, and (2) the overlying sedimentary-rock aquifers. The Idavada Volcanics or underlying rock units probably constitute the reservoir that contains thermal water. An audio-magnetotelluric survey indicates that a large conductive zone having apparent resistivities approaching 2 ohm-metres underlies a part of the area at a relatively shallow depth. Chemical analysis of 94 water samples collected in 1973 show that the thermal waters in the area are of a sodium bicarbonate type. Although dissolved-solids concentrations of water ranged from 181 to 1,100 milligrams per litre (mg/l) in the volcanic-rock aquifers, they were generally less than 500 mg/l. Measured chloride concentrations of water in the volcanic-rock aquifers were less than 20 mg/l. Temperatures of water from wells and springs ranged from 9.5 to 83.0 degrees C. Temperatures of water from the volcanic-rock aquifers ranged from 40.0 to 83.0 degrees C, whereas temperatures of water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers seldom exceeded 35 degrees C. Aquifer temperatures at depth, as estimated by silica and sodium-potassium-calcium geochemical thermometers, probably do not exceed 150 degrees C. However, a mixed-water geochemical thermometer indicates that temperatures at depth may exceed 180 degrees C. The gas in water from the volcanic-rock aquifers is composed chiefly of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen. Methane gas (probably derived from organic material) was also found in some water from the sedimentary-rock aquifers. The thermal waters

  10. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Weig [Weir] Property Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge, Technical Report 1997-1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Maureen

    1998-02-01

    A habitat evaluation of the Weir property, an approximately 200-acre in holding of private property within the Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), was conducted using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology. The Weir property consists of two separate parcels, an upper unit of 40 acres and a 160-acre lower unit. Evaluation species were ruffed grouse and white-tailed deer. Life requisites evaluated were available browse for white-tailed deer and winter food and fall-to-spring cover for ruffed grouse. Field data were collected on October 16, 17, and 21, 1997. Approximately 37 acres of the lower 160-acre unit are currently grasslands with no shrub or tree cover, and therefore do not provide suitable ruffed grouse or white-tailed deer cover. They excluded this acreage from the HEP calculations for current conditions. This acreage was included in the HEP calculations for ruffed grouse after future management strategies were factored in. It was not included in projections for white-tailed deer. The entire property was stratified into 6 stands (2 in the upper unit and 4 in the lower unit) for data collection. Data were collected at 10 points, spaced 20 paces (approximately 16 m) apart along one randomly selected transect in each stand, for a total of six transects. A circular quadrat (.004 ha) was used at each sampling point. Within this quadratwe counted all deciduous, coniferous, and shrub stems {ge} 0.9 m in height and made an ocular estimate of shrub (< 1.5 m in height) canopy cover. We measured the height of the closest (to the center of the quadrat) three deciduous trees, conifer trees, deciduous shrubs, and lowest conifer branch. We estimated the distance to 20 aspen trees at three points along each transect. For a ruffed grouse a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) was calculated for each stand for each variable. Therefore, two HSIs were calculated for each stand, one for winter food and one for fall-to-spring cover. Weighted HSI scores

  11. State summaries: Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillerman, V.S.; Weaver, M.J.; Bennett, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho's preliminary nonfuel mineral production value jumped to $893 million in 2005. Principal minerals by value included molybdenum concentrates, phosphate rock, sand and gravel, silver and portland cement. The state ranked second in phosphate and garnet production, third in silver and pumice, fourth in molybdenum concentrate production, and 21st overall. Majority of mining increases for the year were spurred by demand for metals by China's growing economy.

  12. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters

    PubMed Central

    Tarjan, L. Max; Tinker, M. Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or “PHRE”) that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore). Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts. PMID:27003710

  13. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in restricted habitats: A new algorithm and an evaluation for sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarjan, Lily M; Tinker, M. Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or “PHRE”) that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore). Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts.

  14. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters.

    PubMed

    Tarjan, L Max; Tinker, M Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or "PHRE") that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore). Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts.

  15. Permissible Home Range Estimation (PHRE) in Restricted Habitats: A New Algorithm and an Evaluation for Sea Otters.

    PubMed

    Tarjan, L Max; Tinker, M Tim

    2016-01-01

    Parametric and nonparametric kernel methods dominate studies of animal home ranges and space use. Most existing methods are unable to incorporate information about the underlying physical environment, leading to poor performance in excluding areas that are not used. Using radio-telemetry data from sea otters, we developed and evaluated a new algorithm for estimating home ranges (hereafter Permissible Home Range Estimation, or "PHRE") that reflects habitat suitability. We began by transforming sighting locations into relevant landscape features (for sea otters, coastal position and distance from shore). Then, we generated a bivariate kernel probability density function in landscape space and back-transformed this to geographic space in order to define a permissible home range. Compared to two commonly used home range estimation methods, kernel densities and local convex hulls, PHRE better excluded unused areas and required a smaller sample size. Our PHRE method is applicable to species whose ranges are restricted by complex physical boundaries or environmental gradients and will improve understanding of habitat-use requirements and, ultimately, aid in conservation efforts. PMID:27003710

  16. Evaluating the Applicability of Phi Coefficient in Indicating Habitat Preferences of Forest Soil Fauna Based on a Single Field Study in Subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Wang, Silong; Yan, Shaokui

    2016-01-01

    Phi coefficient directly depends on the frequencies of occurrence of organisms and has been widely used in vegetation ecology to analyse the associations of organisms with site groups, providing a characterization of ecological preference, but its application in soil ecology remains rare. Based on a single field experiment, this study assessed the applicability of phi coefficient in indicating the habitat preferences of soil fauna, through comparing phi coefficient-induced results with those of ordination methods in charactering soil fauna-habitat(factors) relationships. Eight different habitats of soil fauna were implemented by reciprocal transfer of defaunated soil cores between two types of subtropical forests. Canonical correlation analysis (CCorA) showed that ecological patterns of fauna-habitat relationships and inter-fauna taxa relationships expressed, respectively, by phi coefficients and predicted abundances calculated from partial redundancy analysis (RDA), were extremely similar, and a highly significant relationship between the two datasets was observed (Pillai's trace statistic = 1.998, P = 0.007). In addition, highly positive correlations between phi coefficients and predicted abundances for Acari, Collembola, Nematode and Hemiptera were observed using linear regression analysis. Quantitative relationships between habitat preferences and soil chemical variables were also obtained by linear regression, which were analogous to the results displayed in a partial RDA biplot. Our results suggest that phi coefficient could be applicable on a local scale in evaluating habitat preferences of soil fauna at coarse taxonomic levels, and that the phi coefficient-induced information, such as ecological preferences and the associated quantitative relationships with habitat factors, will be largely complementary to the results of ordination methods. The application of phi coefficient in soil ecology may extend our knowledge about habitat preferences and distribution

  17. Evaluating the Applicability of Phi Coefficient in Indicating Habitat Preferences of Forest Soil Fauna Based on a Single Field Study in Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yang; Wang, Silong; Yan, Shaokui

    2016-01-01

    Phi coefficient directly depends on the frequencies of occurrence of organisms and has been widely used in vegetation ecology to analyse the associations of organisms with site groups, providing a characterization of ecological preference, but its application in soil ecology remains rare. Based on a single field experiment, this study assessed the applicability of phi coefficient in indicating the habitat preferences of soil fauna, through comparing phi coefficient-induced results with those of ordination methods in charactering soil fauna-habitat(factors) relationships. Eight different habitats of soil fauna were implemented by reciprocal transfer of defaunated soil cores between two types of subtropical forests. Canonical correlation analysis (CCorA) showed that ecological patterns of fauna-habitat relationships and inter-fauna taxa relationships expressed, respectively, by phi coefficients and predicted abundances calculated from partial redundancy analysis (RDA), were extremely similar, and a highly significant relationship between the two datasets was observed (Pillai's trace statistic = 1.998, P = 0.007). In addition, highly positive correlations between phi coefficients and predicted abundances for Acari, Collembola, Nematode and Hemiptera were observed using linear regression analysis. Quantitative relationships between habitat preferences and soil chemical variables were also obtained by linear regression, which were analogous to the results displayed in a partial RDA biplot. Our results suggest that phi coefficient could be applicable on a local scale in evaluating habitat preferences of soil fauna at coarse taxonomic levels, and that the phi coefficient-induced information, such as ecological preferences and the associated quantitative relationships with habitat factors, will be largely complementary to the results of ordination methods. The application of phi coefficient in soil ecology may extend our knowledge about habitat preferences and distribution

  18. Evaluating the Applicability of Phi Coefficient in Indicating Habitat Preferences of Forest Soil Fauna Based on a Single Field Study in Subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yang; Wang, Silong; Yan, Shaokui

    2016-01-01

    Phi coefficient directly depends on the frequencies of occurrence of organisms and has been widely used in vegetation ecology to analyse the associations of organisms with site groups, providing a characterization of ecological preference, but its application in soil ecology remains rare. Based on a single field experiment, this study assessed the applicability of phi coefficient in indicating the habitat preferences of soil fauna, through comparing phi coefficient-induced results with those of ordination methods in charactering soil fauna-habitat(factors) relationships. Eight different habitats of soil fauna were implemented by reciprocal transfer of defaunated soil cores between two types of subtropical forests. Canonical correlation analysis (CCorA) showed that ecological patterns of fauna-habitat relationships and inter-fauna taxa relationships expressed, respectively, by phi coefficients and predicted abundances calculated from partial redundancy analysis (RDA), were extremely similar, and a highly significant relationship between the two datasets was observed (Pillai's trace statistic = 1.998, P = 0.007). In addition, highly positive correlations between phi coefficients and predicted abundances for Acari, Collembola, Nematode and Hemiptera were observed using linear regression analysis. Quantitative relationships between habitat preferences and soil chemical variables were also obtained by linear regression, which were analogous to the results displayed in a partial RDA biplot. Our results suggest that phi coefficient could be applicable on a local scale in evaluating habitat preferences of soil fauna at coarse taxonomic levels, and that the phi coefficient-induced information, such as ecological preferences and the associated quantitative relationships with habitat factors, will be largely complementary to the results of ordination methods. The application of phi coefficient in soil ecology may extend our knowledge about habitat preferences and distribution

  19. Evaluation of quality-control data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for routine water-quality activities at the Idaho National Laboratory and vicinity, southeastern Idaho, 2002-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2014-01-01

    Quality-control (QC) samples were collected from 2002 through 2008 by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, to ensure data robustness by documenting the variability and bias of water-quality data collected at surface-water and groundwater sites at and near the Idaho National Laboratory. QC samples consisted of 139 replicates and 22 blanks (approximately 11 percent of the number of environmental samples collected). Measurements from replicates were used to estimate variability (from field and laboratory procedures and sample heterogeneity), as reproducibility and reliability, of water-quality measurements of radiochemical, inorganic, and organic constituents. Measurements from blanks were used to estimate the potential contamination bias of selected radiochemical and inorganic constituents in water-quality samples, with an emphasis on identifying any cross contamination of samples collected with portable sampling equipment. The reproducibility of water-quality measurements was estimated with calculations of normalized absolute difference for radiochemical constituents and relative standard deviation (RSD) for inorganic and organic constituents. The reliability of water-quality measurements was estimated with pooled RSDs for all constituents. Reproducibility was acceptable for all constituents except dissolved aluminum and total organic carbon. Pooled RSDs were equal to or less than 14 percent for all constituents except for total organic carbon, which had pooled RSDs of 70 percent for the low concentration range and 4.4 percent for the high concentration range. Source-solution and equipment blanks were measured for concentrations of tritium, strontium-90, cesium-137, sodium, chloride, sulfate, and dissolved chromium. Field blanks were measured for the concentration of iodide. No detectable concentrations were measured from the blanks except for strontium-90 in one source solution and one equipment blank collected in September

  20. Evaluation of quality-control data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for routine water-quality activities at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1996–2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collects surface water and groundwater samples at and near the Idaho National Laboratory as part of a routine, site-wide, water-quality monitoring program. Quality-control samples are collected as part of the program to ensure and document the quality of environmental data. From 1996 to 2001, quality-control samples consisting of 204 replicates and 27 blanks were collected at sampling sites. Paired measurements from replicates were used to calculate variability (as reproducibility and reliability) from sample collection and analysis of radiochemical, chemical, and organic constituents. Measurements from field and equipment blanks were used to estimate the potential contamination bias of constituents. The reproducibility of measurements of constituents was calculated from paired measurements as the normalized absolute difference (NAD) or the relative standard deviation (RSD). The NADs and RSDs, as well as paired measurements with censored or estimated concentrations for which NADs and RSDs were not calculated, were compared to specified criteria to determine if the paired measurements had acceptable reproducibility. If the percentage of paired measurements with acceptable reproducibility for a constituent was greater than or equal to 90 percent, then the reproducibility for that constituent was considered acceptable. The percentage of paired measurements with acceptable reproducibility was greater than or equal to 90 percent for all constituents except orthophosphate (89 percent), zinc (80 percent), hexavalent chromium (53 percent), and total organic carbon (TOC; 38 percent). The low reproducibility for orthophosphate and zinc was attributed to calculation of RSDs for replicates with low concentrations of these constituents. The low reproducibility for hexavalent chromium and TOC was attributed to the inability to preserve hexavalent chromium in water samples and high variability with the

  1. Evaluate Habitat Use and Population Dynamics of Lampreys in Cedar Creek, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtle, Jodi; Stone, Jennifer; Barndt, Scott

    2003-03-01

    Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) in the Columbia River basin have declined to a remnant of their pre-1940s populations and the status of the western brook lamprey (L. richardsoni) and river lamprey (L. ayresi) is unknown. Identifying the biological and ecological factors limiting lamprey populations is critical to their recovery, but little research has been conducted on these species within the Columbia River basin. This ongoing, multi-year study examines lamprey populations in Cedar Creek, Washington, a third-order tributary to the Lewis River. This annual report describes the activities and results of the third year of this project. Adult (n = 62), metamorphosed (n = 76), transforming (n = 4), and ammocoete (n = 315) stages of Pacific and western brook lamprey were examined in 2002. Lampreys were captured using adult fish ladders, lamprey pots, rotary screw traps, and lamprey electrofishers. In addition, fifty-four spawning ground surveys were conducted during which 124 Pacific lamprey and 13 western brook lamprey nests were identified. Stream gradient of spawning grounds were surveyed to better understand spawning habitat requirements.

  2. Movement, demographics, and occupancy dynamics of a federally-threatened salamander: evaluating the adequacy of critical habitat.

    PubMed

    Bendik, Nathan F; McEntire, Kira D; Sissel, Blake N

    2016-01-01

    Critical habitat for many species is often limited to occupied localities. For rare and cryptic species, or those lacking sufficient data, occupied habitats may go unrecognized, potentially hindering species recovery. Proposed critical habitat for the aquatic Jollyville Plateau salamander (Eurycea tonkawae) and two sister species were delineated based on the assumption that surface habitat is restricted to springs and excludes intervening stream reaches. To test this assumption, we performed two studies to understand aspects of individual, population, and metapopulation ecology of E. tonkawae. First, we examined movement and population demographics using capture-recapture along a spring-influenced stream reach. We then extended our investigation of stream habitat use with a study of occupancy and habitat dynamics in multiple headwater streams. Indications of extensive stream channel use based on capture-recapture results included frequent movements of >15 m, and high juvenile abundance downstream of the spring. Initial occupancy of E. tonkawae was associated with shallow depths, maidenhair fern presence and low temperature variation (indicative of groundwater influence), although many occupied sites were far from known springs. Additionally, previously dry sites were three times more likely to be colonized than wet sites. Our results indicate extensive use of stream habitats, including intermittent ones, by E. tonkawae. These areas may be important for maintaining population connectivity or even as primary habitat patches. Restricting critical habitat to occupied sites will result in a mismatch with actual habitat use, particularly when assumptions of habitat use are untested, thus limiting the potential for recovery.

  3. Movement, demographics, and occupancy dynamics of a federally-threatened salamander: evaluating the adequacy of critical habitat

    PubMed Central

    McEntire, Kira D.; Sissel, Blake N.

    2016-01-01

    Critical habitat for many species is often limited to occupied localities. For rare and cryptic species, or those lacking sufficient data, occupied habitats may go unrecognized, potentially hindering species recovery. Proposed critical habitat for the aquatic Jollyville Plateau salamander (Eurycea tonkawae) and two sister species were delineated based on the assumption that surface habitat is restricted to springs and excludes intervening stream reaches. To test this assumption, we performed two studies to understand aspects of individual, population, and metapopulation ecology of E. tonkawae. First, we examined movement and population demographics using capture-recapture along a spring-influenced stream reach. We then extended our investigation of stream habitat use with a study of occupancy and habitat dynamics in multiple headwater streams. Indications of extensive stream channel use based on capture-recapture results included frequent movements of >15 m, and high juvenile abundance downstream of the spring. Initial occupancy of E. tonkawae was associated with shallow depths, maidenhair fern presence and low temperature variation (indicative of groundwater influence), although many occupied sites were far from known springs. Additionally, previously dry sites were three times more likely to be colonized than wet sites. Our results indicate extensive use of stream habitats, including intermittent ones, by E. tonkawae. These areas may be important for maintaining population connectivity or even as primary habitat patches. Restricting critical habitat to occupied sites will result in a mismatch with actual habitat use, particularly when assumptions of habitat use are untested, thus limiting the potential for recovery. PMID:26998413

  4. Movement, demographics, and occupancy dynamics of a federally-threatened salamander: evaluating the adequacy of critical habitat.

    PubMed

    Bendik, Nathan F; McEntire, Kira D; Sissel, Blake N

    2016-01-01

    Critical habitat for many species is often limited to occupied localities. For rare and cryptic species, or those lacking sufficient data, occupied habitats may go unrecognized, potentially hindering species recovery. Proposed critical habitat for the aquatic Jollyville Plateau salamander (Eurycea tonkawae) and two sister species were delineated based on the assumption that surface habitat is restricted to springs and excludes intervening stream reaches. To test this assumption, we performed two studies to understand aspects of individual, population, and metapopulation ecology of E. tonkawae. First, we examined movement and population demographics using capture-recapture along a spring-influenced stream reach. We then extended our investigation of stream habitat use with a study of occupancy and habitat dynamics in multiple headwater streams. Indications of extensive stream channel use based on capture-recapture results included frequent movements of >15 m, and high juvenile abundance downstream of the spring. Initial occupancy of E. tonkawae was associated with shallow depths, maidenhair fern presence and low temperature variation (indicative of groundwater influence), although many occupied sites were far from known springs. Additionally, previously dry sites were three times more likely to be colonized than wet sites. Our results indicate extensive use of stream habitats, including intermittent ones, by E. tonkawae. These areas may be important for maintaining population connectivity or even as primary habitat patches. Restricting critical habitat to occupied sites will result in a mismatch with actual habitat use, particularly when assumptions of habitat use are untested, thus limiting the potential for recovery. PMID:26998413

  5. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  6. Gender differences in resource use and evaluation of attributes of places of resource use by Native Americans and Caucasians from Western Idaho: relevance to risk evaluations.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  7. Evaluation of quality-control data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for routine water-quality activities at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 1996–2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattray, Gordon W.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collects surface water and groundwater samples at and near the Idaho National Laboratory as part of a routine, site-wide, water-quality monitoring program. Quality-control samples are collected as part of the program to ensure and document the quality of environmental data. From 1996 to 2001, quality-control samples consisting of 204 replicates and 27 blanks were collected at sampling sites. Paired measurements from replicates were used to calculate variability (as reproducibility and reliability) from sample collection and analysis of radiochemical, chemical, and organic constituents. Measurements from field and equipment blanks were used to estimate the potential contamination bias of constituents. The reproducibility of measurements of constituents was calculated from paired measurements as the normalized absolute difference (NAD) or the relative standard deviation (RSD). The NADs and RSDs, as well as paired measurements with censored or estimated concentrations for which NADs and RSDs were not calculated, were compared to specified criteria to determine if the paired measurements had acceptable reproducibility. If the percentage of paired measurements with acceptable reproducibility for a constituent was greater than or equal to 90 percent, then the reproducibility for that constituent was considered acceptable. The percentage of paired measurements with acceptable reproducibility was greater than or equal to 90 percent for all constituents except orthophosphate (89 percent), zinc (80 percent), hexavalent chromium (53 percent), and total organic carbon (TOC; 38 percent). The low reproducibility for orthophosphate and zinc was attributed to calculation of RSDs for replicates with low concentrations of these constituents. The low reproducibility for hexavalent chromium and TOC was attributed to the inability to preserve hexavalent chromium in water samples and high variability with the

  8. SELKIRK ROADLESS AREA, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; Benham, John R.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of mineral-resource surveys the Selkirk Roadless Area, Idaho has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Molybdenum, lead, uranium, thorium, chromium, tungsten, zirconium, and several rare-earth elements have been detected in panned concentrates from samples of stream sediment, but no minerals containing the first five elements were found in place, nor were any conditions conducive to their concentration found. Zirconium, thorium, and the rare earths occur in sparsely disseminated accessory minerals in granitic rocks and no resource potential is identified. There is no history of mining in the roadless area and there are no oil, gas, mineral, or geothermal leases or current claims.

  9. Operational Evaluation of the Root Modules of the Advanced Plant Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, O.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic and growth data were collected on APH Root Module. Described Stand pipe system for active moisture control. Tested germination in wicks. Evaluated EC-5 moisture sensors. Demonstrated that Wheat plants can grow in the APH Root Module.

  10. Operational control of Eurasian watermilfoil and impacts to the native submersed aquatic macrophyte community in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lake Pend Oreille is the largest (36,000 ha or 91,000 acres) freshwater lake in Idaho. Approximately 27% or 10,000 ha of the lake is littoral zone habitat supporting aquatic plant growth. Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum L.) has invaded large areas of this littoral zone habitat, with e...

  11. Characterization and Monitoring Data for Evaluating Constructed Emergent Sandbar Habitat in the Missouri River Mainstem 2004-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Duberstein, Corey A.

    2011-04-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) provides the primary operational management of the Missouri River Main Stem Reservoir System. Management of the Missouri River has generally reduced peak river flows that form and maintain emergent sandbar habitat. Emergent sandbars provide non-vegetated nesting habitat for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum athalassos) and the threatened Northern Great Plains piping plover (Charadrius melodus). Since 2000, piping plover nesting habitat within the Gavins Point Reach, Garrison Reach, Lake Oahe, and Lake Sakakawea has fledged the majority of piping plovers produced along the Missouri River system. Habitats within Lewis and Clark Lake have also recently become important plover production areas. Mechanical construction of emergent sandbar habitat (ESH) within some of these reaches within the Missouri River began in 2004. Through 2009, 11 sandbar complexes had been constructed (10 in Gavins Point Reach, 1 in Lewis and Clarke Lake) totaling about 543 ac of piping plover and interior least tern nesting habitat. ESH Construction has resulted in a net gain of tern and plover nesting habitat. Both terns and plovers successfully nest and fledge young on constructed sandbars, and constructed habitats were preferred over natural habitats. Natural processes may limit the viability of constructed sandbars as nesting habitat. Continued research is needed to identify if changes in constructed sandbar engineering and management increase the length of time constructed habitats effectively function as nesting habitat. However, the transfer of information from researchers to planners through technical research reports may not be timely enough to effectively foster the feedback mechanisms of an adaptive management strategy.

  12. Evaluation of image-based multibeam sonar backscatter classification for benthic habitat discrimination and mapping at Stanton Banks, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGonigle, Chris; Brown, Craig; Quinn, Rory; Grabowski, Jonathan

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, efforts have increased to develop quantitative, computer-directed methods for segmentation of multibeam (MBES) backscatter data. This study utilises MBES backscatter data acquired at Stanton Banks (UK) and subsequently processed through the QTC-Multiview software environment in a bid to evaluate the program's ability to perform unsupervised classification. Statistical comparison with ground-truth data (grab, stills and video) enabled cross validation of acoustic segmentation and biological assemblages observed at the site. 132 unspecified variables were extracted from user-specified rectangular patches of the backscatter image, reduced to three vectors by PCA, then clustered and classified by the software. Multivariate analyses of ground-truth data were conducted on 75 stills images and 51 grab samples. Video footage coincident with the stills was divided into 30 s segments and coded by dominant substrate and species. Cross tabulation determined the interrelationship between software classifications, multivariate analysis of the biological assemblages and coded video segments. Multiview optimally identified 19 classes using the automated clustering engine. These were revised to 6 habitats a posteriori, using combined analysis of ground-truth data and Multiview data products. These habitats broadly correspond to major physiographic provinces within the region. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals low levels of assemblage similarity (<35%) for samples occurring within Multiview classes, irrespective of the mode of acquisition. Coded video data is more spatially appropriate than the other methods of ground-truthing investigated, although it is less well suited to the extraction of truly quantitative data. Multivariate analysis indicates assemblages within physiographically distinct Multiview classes have a low degree of biological similarity, supporting the notion that abiotic proxies may be contraindicative of benthic assemblage variations. QTC

  13. Evaluation of New Zealand's high-seas bottom trawl closures using predictive habitat models and quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Penney, Andrew J; Guinotte, John M

    2013-01-01

    United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105 on sustainable fisheries (UNGA 2007) establishes three difficult questions for participants in high-seas bottom fisheries to answer: 1) Where are vulnerable marine systems (VMEs) likely to occur?; 2) What is the likelihood of fisheries interaction with these VMEs?; and 3) What might qualify as adequate conservation and management measures to prevent significant adverse impacts? This paper develops an approach to answering these questions for bottom trawling activities in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) within a quantitative risk assessment and cost : benefit analysis framework. The predicted distribution of deep-sea corals from habitat suitability models is used to answer the first question. Distribution of historical bottom trawl effort is used to answer the second, with estimates of seabed areas swept by bottom trawlers being used to develop discounting factors for reduced biodiversity in previously fished areas. These are used in a quantitative ecological risk assessment approach to guide spatial protection planning to address the third question. The coral VME likelihood (average, discounted, predicted coral habitat suitability) of existing spatial closures implemented by New Zealand within the SPRFMO area is evaluated. Historical catch is used as a measure of cost to industry in a cost : benefit analysis of alternative spatial closure scenarios. Results indicate that current closures within the New Zealand SPRFMO area bottom trawl footprint are suboptimal for protection of VMEs. Examples of alternative trawl closure scenarios are provided to illustrate how the approach could be used to optimise protection of VMEs under chosen management objectives, balancing protection of VMEs against economic loss to commercial fishers from closure of historically fished areas. PMID:24358162

  14. Evaluation of New Zealand’s High-Seas Bottom Trawl Closures Using Predictive Habitat Models and Quantitative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Andrew J.; Guinotte, John M.

    2013-01-01

    United Nations General Assembly Resolution 61/105 on sustainable fisheries (UNGA 2007) establishes three difficult questions for participants in high-seas bottom fisheries to answer: 1) Where are vulnerable marine systems (VMEs) likely to occur?; 2) What is the likelihood of fisheries interaction with these VMEs?; and 3) What might qualify as adequate conservation and management measures to prevent significant adverse impacts? This paper develops an approach to answering these questions for bottom trawling activities in the Convention Area of the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (SPRFMO) within a quantitative risk assessment and cost : benefit analysis framework. The predicted distribution of deep-sea corals from habitat suitability models is used to answer the first question. Distribution of historical bottom trawl effort is used to answer the second, with estimates of seabed areas swept by bottom trawlers being used to develop discounting factors for reduced biodiversity in previously fished areas. These are used in a quantitative ecological risk assessment approach to guide spatial protection planning to address the third question. The coral VME likelihood (average, discounted, predicted coral habitat suitability) of existing spatial closures implemented by New Zealand within the SPRFMO area is evaluated. Historical catch is used as a measure of cost to industry in a cost : benefit analysis of alternative spatial closure scenarios. Results indicate that current closures within the New Zealand SPRFMO area bottom trawl footprint are suboptimal for protection of VMEs. Examples of alternative trawl closure scenarios are provided to illustrate how the approach could be used to optimise protection of VMEs under chosen management objectives, balancing protection of VMEs against economic loss to commercial fishers from closure of historically fished areas. PMID:24358162

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pileated woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use.with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. In situ technology evaluation and functional and operational guidelines for treatability studies at the radioactive waste management complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Donehey, A.J.; Piper, R.B.; Roy, M.W.; Rubert, A.L.; Walker, S.

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide EG G Idaho's Waste Technology Development Department with a basis for selection of in situ technologies for demonstration at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and to provide information for Feasibility Studies to be performed according to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The demonstrations will aid in meeting Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) schedules for remediation of waste at Waste Area Group (WAG) 7. This report is organized in six sections. Section 1, summarizes background information on the sites to be remediated at WAG-7, specifically, the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. Section 2 discusses the identification and screening of in situ buried waste remediation technologies for these sites. Section 3 outlines the design requirements. Section 4 discusses the schedule (in accordance with Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) scoping). Section 5 includes recommendations for the acid pit, soil vaults, and low-level pits and trenches. A listing of references used to compile the report is given in Section 6. Detailed technology information is included in the Appendix section of this report.

  17. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  19. Integrating species distributional, conservation planning, and individual based population models: A case study in critical habitat evaluation for the Northern Spotted Owl

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background / Question / Methods As part of the ongoing northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative potential critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individua...

  20. Integrating distributional, spatial prioritization, and individual-based models to evaluate potential critical habitat networks: A case study using the Northern Spotted Owl

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the northern spotted owl recovery planning effort, we evaluated a series of alternative critical habitat scenarios using a species-distribution model (MaxEnt), a conservation-planning model (Zonation), and an individual-based population model (HexSim). With this suite ...

  1. Interactions among livestock grazing, vegetation type, and fire behavior in the Murphy wildland fire complex in Idaho and Nevada, July 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of wildland fires were ignited by lightning in sagebrush and grassland communities near the Idaho-Nevada border southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho in July 2007. The fires burned for over two weeks and encompassed more than 650,000 acres. A team of scientists, habitat specialists, and land manag...

  2. Lichens of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, L.C.; Rope, S.K.

    1987-09-01

    A study begun in 1984 to evaluate the feasibility of using lichens to monitor air pollution at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has provided good baseline data on the lichen flora of the site. To date, 111 lichen taxa, including 25 genera and 110 species, have been identified. Six genera (Agrestia, Heterodermia, Microthelia, Polyblastiopsis, Teloschistes, and Verrucaria) and 49 species were previously unrecorded in Idaho. A key to the lichen species of the INEL and a general description of the genera are included as appendices to this report. Voucher specimens of lichens found at the INEL are being stored at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory. As of May 1987, 43 species have been curated in the lichen herbarium there.

  3. Evaluation of barrier treatments on native vegetation in a southern California desert habitat.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Wynn, Wayne W; Walker, Todd W; Farooq, Muhammad; Smith, Vincent L; Robinson, Cathy A; Lothrop, Branka B; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierrez, Arturo; Lothrop, Hugh D

    2009-06-01

    Treating perimeters with residual insecticides for protection from mosquito vectors has shown promise. These barrier treatments are typically evaluated in temperate or tropical areas using abundant vegetation as a substrate. However, there is an emerging interest to develop this technology to protect deployed US troops in extreme desert environments with sparse vegetation. We used a remote desert area in the Coachella Valley, California, to 1) evaluate bifenthrin barrier treatments on native xeric vegetation and 2) compare treatments applied with electrostatic and conventional spray technologies. Through a combination of laboratory bioassays on treated and control vegetation sampled at specific intervals over 63 days, synchronized with field surveillance of mosquitoes, we measured the temporal pattern of bioactivity of bifenthrin barriers under natural hot, dry, and dusty desert conditions. Regardless of spray technology, mosquito catch in treated plots was about 80% lower than the catch in control plots 1 day after treatment. This reduction in mosquito numbers in treated plots declined each week after treatment but remained at about 40% lower than control plots after 28 days. Field data were corroborated by results from bioassays that showed significantly higher mosquito mortality on treated vegetation over controls out to 28 days postspray. We concluded that barrier treatments in desert environments, when implemented as part of a suite of integrated control measures, may offer a significant level of protection from mosquitoes for deployed troops. Given the comparable performance of the tested spray technologies, we discuss considerations for choosing a barrier treatment sprayer for military scenarios.

  4. Evaluation of Hands-Free Devices for Space Habitat Maintenance Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Twyford, E.; Conlee, C. S.; Litaker, H. L.; Solemn, J. A.; Holden

    2007-01-01

    Currently, International Space Station (ISS) crews use a laptop computer to display procedures for performing onboard maintenance tasks. This approach has been determined to be suboptimal. A heuristic evaluation and two studies have been completed to test commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) "near-eye" heads up displays (HUDs) for support of these types of maintenance tasks. In both studies, subjects worked through electronic procedures to perform simple maintenance tasks. As a result of the Phase I study, three HUDs were down-selected to one. In the Phase II study, the HUD was compared against two other electronic display devices - a laptop computer and an e-book reader. Results suggested that adjustability and stability of the HUD display were the most significant acceptability factors to consider for near-eye displays. The Phase II study uncovered a number of advantages and disadvantages of the HUD relative to the laptop and e-book reader for interacting with electronic procedures.

  5. Water-quality and biological conditions in the Lower Boise River, Ada and Canyon Counties, Idaho, 1994-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2004-01-01

    Parma were higher than those in undeveloped basins sampled nationwide by the USGS. Total phosphorus concentrations at Glenwood, Middleton, and Parma also exceeded those in undeveloped basins. Macroinvertebrate and fish communities were used to evaluate the long-term integration of water-quality contaminants and loss of habitat in the lower Boise. Biological integrity of the macroinvertebrate population was assessed with the attributes (metrics) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness and metrics used in the Idaho River Macroinvertebrate Index (RMI): taxa richness; EPT richness; percent dominant taxon; percent Elmidae (riffle beetles); and percent predators. Average EPT was about 10, and RMI scores were frequently below 16, which indicated intermediate or poor water quality. The number of EPT taxa and RMI scores for the lower Boise were half those for least-impacted streams in Idaho. The fine sediment bioassessment index (FSBI) was used to evaluate macroinvertebrate sediment tolerance. The FSBI scores were lower than those for a site upstream in the Boise River Basin near Twin Springs, a site not impacted by urbanization and agriculture, which indicated that the lower Boise macroinvertebrate population may be impacted by fine sediment. Macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups and percent tolerant species, mainly at Middleton and Parma, were typical of those in areas of degraded water quality and habitat. The biological integrity of the fish population was evaluated using the Idaho River Fish Index (RFI), which consists of the 10 metrics: number of coldwater native species, percent sculpin, percent coldwater species, percent sensitive native individuals, percent tolerant individuals, number of nonindigenous species, number of coldwater fish captured per minute of electrofishing, percent of fish with deformities (eroded fins, lesions, or tumors), number of trout age classes, and percent carp. RFI scores for lower Boise sites indicated a d

  6. Evaluation of a small beach nourishment project to enhance habitat suitability for horseshoe crabs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, N.L.; Smith, D.R.; Tiyarattanachai, R.; Nordstrom, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    This field study evaluates the effect of nourishing an estuarine beach with gravel to enhance spawning rates by horseshoe crabs. A total of 564??m3 of coarse sand and gravel were emplaced in two 90??m-long treatment segments at Bowers Beach, Delaware, USA from 9 to 11 April 2002. Field data were gathered between 6 April and 24 May 2002 to characterize the two fill segments and the un-nourished segments between them as well as two control segments at the adjacent Ted Harvey Beach. Sediment samples were taken from the foreshore surface and at depth before and after the nourishment. Bay water levels, wave heights, and beach ground water characteristics were monitored over a 12-hour tidal cycle at one of the nourished (15 May 2002) and the unnourished segment (16 May 2002) at Bowers Beach and at one of the control segments at Ted Harvey Beach (21 May 2002) using piezometers and pressure transducers inserted in wells. The beaches were cored to estimate the density of horseshoe crab eggs deposited during the spawning season. Horseshoe crab eggs were buried in pouches at 0.15 to 0.20??m depth for 30 to 40??days to evaluate their survival in developing into embryo or larval stage. Bulk sediment samples were taken to evaluate moisture characteristics near locations where egg pouches were buried. Density of spawning females at Bowers Beach was 1.04??m- 2 in 2001 and 1.20??m- 2 in 2002. These rates are lower than at Ted Harvey Beach but reveal an increase in spawning while Ted Harvey Beach underwent a considerable decrease (2.63??m- 2 to 1.35??m- 2). Sediments low on the foreshore remained nearly saturated throughout the tidal cycle at both beaches. The average hydraulic conductivity on the upper foreshore at the non-treatment section at Bowers Beach (0.19??cm s- 1) was less than at Ted Harvey Beach (0.27??cm s- 1), and the finer, better sorted sediments at depth at Bowers Beach resulted in a higher porosity, creating greater moisture retention potential. Egg development was

  7. Evaluation of a small beach nourishment project to enhance habitat suitability for horseshoe crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Smith, David R.; Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Nordstrom, Karl F.

    2007-09-01

    This field study evaluates the effect of nourishing an estuarine beach with gravel to enhance spawning rates by horseshoe crabs. A total of 564 m 3 of coarse sand and gravel were emplaced in two 90 m-long treatment segments at Bowers Beach, Delaware, USA from 9 to 11 April 2002. Field data were gathered between 6 April and 24 May 2002 to characterize the two fill segments and the un-nourished segments between them as well as two control segments at the adjacent Ted Harvey Beach. Sediment samples were taken from the foreshore surface and at depth before and after the nourishment. Bay water levels, wave heights, and beach ground water characteristics were monitored over a 12-hour tidal cycle at one of the nourished (15 May 2002) and the unnourished segment (16 May 2002) at Bowers Beach and at one of the control segments at Ted Harvey Beach (21 May 2002) using piezometers and pressure transducers inserted in wells. The beaches were cored to estimate the density of horseshoe crab eggs deposited during the spawning season. Horseshoe crab eggs were buried in pouches at 0.15 to 0.20 m depth for 30 to 40 days to evaluate their survival in developing into embryo or larval stage. Bulk sediment samples were taken to evaluate moisture characteristics near locations where egg pouches were buried. Density of spawning females at Bowers Beach was 1.04 m - 2 in 2001 and 1.20 m - 2 in 2002. These rates are lower than at Ted Harvey Beach but reveal an increase in spawning while Ted Harvey Beach underwent a considerable decrease (2.63 m - 2 to 1.35 m - 2 ). Sediments low on the foreshore remained nearly saturated throughout the tidal cycle at both beaches. The average hydraulic conductivity on the upper foreshore at the non-treatment section at Bowers Beach (0.19 cm s - 1 ) was less than at Ted Harvey Beach (0.27 cm s - 1 ), and the finer, better sorted sediments at depth at Bowers Beach resulted in a higher porosity, creating greater moisture retention potential. Egg development was

  8. Raman spectroscopic detection of biomolecular markers from Antarctic materials: evaluation for putative Martian habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Newton, Emma M.; Dickensheets, David L.; Wynn-Williams, David D.

    2003-08-01

    The vital UV-protective and photosynthetic pigments of cyanobacteria and lichens (microbial symbioses) that dominate primary production in Antarctic desert ecosystems auto-fluoresce at short-wavelengths. A long wavelength (1064 nm) near infra-red laser has been used for non-intrusive Raman spectroscopic analysis of their ecologically significant compounds. There is now much interest in the construction of portable Raman systems for the analysis of cyanobacterial and lichen communities in the field; to this extent, Raman spectra obtained with laboratory-based systems operating at wavelengths of 852 and 1064 nm have been evaluated for potential fieldwork applications of miniaturised units. Selected test specimens of the cyanobacterial Nostoc commune, epilithic lichens Acarospora chlorophana, Xanthoria elegans and Caloplaca saxicola and the endolithic Chroococcidiopsis from Antarctic sites have been examined in the present study. Although some organisms gave useable Raman spectra with short-wavelength lasers, 1064 nm was the only excitation that was consistently excellent for all organisms. We conclude that a 1064 nm Raman spectrometer, miniaturised using an InGaAs detector, is the optimal instrument for in situ studies of pigmented communities at the limits of life on Earth. This has practical potential for the quest for biomolecules residual from any former surface or subsurface life on Mars.

  9. Tiger Team assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) located in Idaho Falls, Idaho. INEL is a multiprogram, laboratory site of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Overall site management is provided by the DOE Field Office, Idaho; however, the DOE Field Office, Chicago has responsibility for the Argonne National Laboratory-West facilities and operations through the Argonne Area Office. In addition, the Idaho Branch Office of the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office has responsibility for the Naval Reactor Facility (NRF) at the INEL. The assessment included all DOE elements having ongoing program activities at the site except for the NRF. In addition, the Safety and Health Subteam did not review the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. facilities and operations. The Tiger Team Assessment was conducted from June 17 to August 2, 1991, under the auspices of the Office of Special Projects, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, Headquarters, DOE. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environmental, safety, and health (ES H) disciplines; management; and contractor and DOE self-assessments. Compliance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal INEL site requirements was assessed. In addition, an evaluation of the adequacy and effectiveness of the DOE and the site contractors management of ES H/quality assurance programs was conducted.

  10. Tiger Team assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, Edward S.; Keating, John J.

    1991-08-01

    The Management Subteam conducted a management assessment of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) programs and their implementation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The objectives of the assessment were to: (1) evaluate the effectiveness of existing management functions and processes in terms of ensuring environmental compliance, and the health and safety of workers and the general public; and (2) identify probable root causes for ES H findings and concerns. Organizations reviewed were DOE-Headquarters: DOE Field Offices, Chicago (CH) and Idaho (ID); Argonne Area Offices, East (AAO-E) and West (AAO-W); Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL); Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); EG G Idaho, Inc. (EG G); Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO); Rockwell-INEL; MK-Ferguson of Idaho Company (MK-FIC); and Protection Technology of Idaho, Inc. (PTI). The scope of the assessment covered the following ES H management issues: policies and procedures; roles, responsibilities, and authorities; management commitment; communication; staff development, training, and certification; recruitment; compliance management; conduct of operations; emergency planning and preparedness; quality assurance; self assessment; oversight activities; and cost plus award fee processes.

  11. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  12. Evaluating potential effects of an industrial road on winter habitat of caribou in North-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Ryan R.; Gustine, David D.; Joly, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, some caribou (Rangifer tarandus) populations are experiencing declines due partially to the expansion of industrial development. Caribou can exhibit behavioral avoidance of development, leading to indirect habitat loss, even if the actual footprint is small. Thus, it is important to understand before construction begins how much habitat might be affected by proposed development. In northern Alaska, an industrial road that has been proposed to facilitate mining transects a portion of the Western Arctic caribou herd's winter range. To understand how winter habitat use might be affected by the road, we estimated resource selection patterns during winter for caribou in a study area surrounding the proposed road. We assessed the reductions of habitat value associated with three proposed routes at three distance thresholds for disturbance. High-value winter habitat tended to occur in locally rugged areas that have not burned recently and have a high density of lichen and early dates of spring snowmelt. We found that 1.5% to 8.5% (146-848 km2) of existing high-value winter habitat in our study area might be reduced in quality. The three alternative routes were only marginally different. Our results suggest that the road would have minimal direct effects on high-value winter habitat; however, additional cumulative impacts to caribou (e.g., increased access by recreationists and hunters) should be considered before the full effects of the road can be estimated.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  14. Influence of habitat characteristics on shore-spawning kokanee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka and kokanee (lacustrine Sockeye Salmon) commonly spawn in both lentic and lotic environments; however, the habitat requirements of shore spawners are virtually unknown relative to those of stream spawners. A laboratory experiment and an in situ incubation study were conducted to better understand the influence of habitat characteristics on the shoreline incubation success of kokanee. The laboratory experiment assessed kokanee intragravel survival, fry emergence, and fry condition in response to eight substrate treatments. The in situ study, conducted at three major shoreline spawning sites in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, evaluated the effect of depth, substrate composition, dissolved oxygen, shoreline slope, and groundwater on intragravel survival. Substrate size composition was generally a poor predictor of survival in both the laboratory experiment and in situ study; although, fry condition and counts of emerged fry in the laboratory were lowest for the substrate treatment that had the highest proportion of fine sediment. Results of the in situ study suggest that groundwater flow plays an important role in enhancing intragravel survival in habitats generally considered unsuitable for spawning.

  15. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, John; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Seifert, Gary

    2009-01-31

    This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho.

  16. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Process Efficiency improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.

    1996-03-01

    In response to decreasing funding levels available to support activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) and a desire to be cost competitive, the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company have increased their emphasis on cost-saving measures. The ICPP Effectiveness Improvement Initiative involves many activities to improve cost effectiveness and competitiveness. This report documents the methodology and results of one of those cost cutting measures, the Process Efficiency Improvement Activity. The Process Efficiency Improvement Activity performed a systematic review of major work processes at the ICPP to increase productivity and to identify nonvalue-added requirements. A two-phase approach was selected for the activity to allow for near-term implementation of relatively easy process modifications in the first phase while obtaining long-term continuous improvement in the second phase and beyond. Phase I of the initiative included a concentrated review of processes that had a high potential for cost savings with the intent of realizing savings in Fiscal Year 1996 (FY-96.) Phase II consists of implementing long-term strategies too complex for Phase I implementation and evaluation of processes not targeted for Phase I review. The Phase II effort is targeted for realizing cost savings in FY-97 and beyond.

  17. Quality of ground water in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yee, Johnson J.; Souza, William R.

    1987-01-01

    The major aquifers in Idaho are categorized under two rock types, sedimentary and volcanic, and are grouped into six hydrologic basins. Areas with adequate, minimally adequate, or deficient data available for groundwater-quality evaluations are described. Wide variations in chemical concentrations in the water occur within individual aquifers, as well as among the aquifers. The existing data base is not sufficient to describe fully the ground-water quality throughout the State; however, it does indicate that the water is generally suitable for most uses. In some aquifers, concentrations of fluoride, cadmium, and iron in the water exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's drinking-water standards. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate may cause problems in some local areas. Water-quality data are sparse in many areas, and only general statements can be made regarding the areal distribution of chemical constituents. Few data are available to describe temporal variations of water quality in the aquifers. Primary concerns related to special problem areas in Idaho include (1) protection of water quality in the Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, (2) potential degradation of water quality in the Boise-Nampa area, (3) effects of widespread use of drain wells overlying the eastern Snake River Plain basalt aquifer, and (4) disposal of low-level radioactive wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Shortcomings in the ground-water-quality data base are categorized as (1) multiaquifer sample inadequacy, (2) constituent coverage limitations, (3) baseline-data deficiencies, and (4) data-base nonuniformity.

  18. 76 FR 22076 - Bussel 484, Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Idaho, Shoshone County

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... of wildife, the Idaho Panhandle National Forests' fire management direction, recently designated... Forest Service Bussel 484, Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Idaho, Shoshone County AGENCY: Forest...: The USDA Forest Service will prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement (SEIS) for...

  19. Nationally consistent and easily-implemented approach to evaluate littoral-riparian habitat quality in lakes and reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lakes Assessment (NLA) and other lake survey and monitoring efforts increasingly rely upon biological assemblage data to define lake condition. Information concerning the multiple dimensions of physical and chemical habitat is necessary to interpret this biological ...

  20. Dillon quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Wodzicki, A.; Krason, J.

    1981-04-01

    All geologic conditions in the Dillon quadrangle (Montana and Idaho) have been thoroughly examined, and, using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, environments are favorable for uranium deposits along fractured zones of Precambrian Y metasediments, in the McGowan Creek Formation, and in some Tertiary sedimentary basins. A 9-m-wide quartz-bearing fractured zone in Precambrian Y quartzites near Gibbonsville contains 175 ppM uranium, probably derived from formerly overlying Challis Volcanics by supergene processes. The Mississippian McGowan Creek Formation consists of uraniferous, black, siliceous mudstone and chert. In the Melrose district it has been fractured by a low-angle fault, and uranium has been further concentrated by circulating ground water in the 2- to 6-m-thick brecciated zones that in outcrop contain 90 to 170 ppM uranium. The Wise River, northern Divide Creek, Jefferson River, Salmon River, Horse Prairie, Beaverhead River, and upper Ruby River Basins are considered favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone. Present are suitable uraniferous source rocks such as the Boulder batholith, rhyolitic flow breccia, laharic deposits, or strongly welded tuffs; permeable sediments, including most sandstones and conglomerates, providing they do not contain devitrified glass; suitable reductants such as lignite, pyrite, or low-Eh geothermal water; and uranium occurrences.

  1. Self-organizing thermal fluid flow in fractured crystalline rock: a geochemical and theoretical approach to evaluating fluid flow in the southern Idaho batholith, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Alan L.; Himes, Scott A.; Tingey, David G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal springs in the Idaho batholith (USA) discharge at discrete locations along a 50+ km reach of the Middle Fork of the Boise River (MFBR). Recharge water flows through Basin and Range extension fractures where it is heated by the geothermal gradient and ultimately discharges from the damage zone of the trans-Challis faults located near the bottom of the MFBR. Stable isotopes of water, 14C groundwater ages, fracture and fault orientations, fracture volume changes due to chemical evolution, and recharge area calculations suggest that the thermal springs issue from individual hydrothermal systems and that they are self-organizing. Water evolves chemically along flow paths, dissolving feldspars and precipitating secondary minerals. Secondary minerals accumulate in less-efficient fractures and are flushed from the more efficient ones. Flow-area calculations using heat-flow, exponential decay-of-porosity, and curve-intersection methods show that many of the thermal systems extend beyond their immediate topographic watershed, and that some capture water from adjacent watersheds. Geochemical/flow feedback loops that provide a mechanism for self-organization are modeled using PHREEQC, and positive and negative fracture volume changes are calculated. Criteria for identifying self-organizing granitoid thermal groundwater systems are suggested.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of hydrogeology and ground-water quality in valley sediments in the vicinity of Killarney Lake, Kootenai County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.

    1993-01-01

    Ground water near Killarney Lake in the Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho, contains arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in concentrations that would make it unsuitable for a potable (drinking water) supply. Dissolved arsenic in one well was more than six times higher than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency' s maximum contaminant level. However, ground water discharging to the Coeur d'Alene River in the area probably has minimal effects on river water quality because of poor transmissive characteristics of the fine-grained valley sediments. Hydraulic conduc- tivity values are between 1.0 x 100 and 6.3 x 100 feet per day, calculated from slug-test data from three of the six monitoring wells installed for this study; the ground-water-flow gradient is 0.0015 or less, determined from the water-level contour map; and the valley sediments are about 400 feet thick. Although the sediments near Killarney Lake do not transmit large quantifies of water, coarser grained sediments upstream from Killarney Lake. Because sediments along the Coeur d'Alene River are contaminated downstream from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River near Enaville, where mining wastes were discharged for more than 100 years, it is possible that ground water near Cataldo could contribute significant quantities of contaminants to the Coeur d'Alene River.

  3. SAWTOOTH WILDERNESS, IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Coffman, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    The Sawtooth Wilderness in Idaho consists of the former Sawtooth Primitive Area and certain contiguous tracts of land. A survey of the mineral-resource potential of the entire area disclosed hydrothermally altered and mineralized rocks at several localities, some of which have been prospected to a limited extent but none of which have produced significant quantities of ore. Sediment samples from many of the streams that drain the wilderness contained anomalous quantities of metals. At some sample sites the source of the anomalous concentrations of metals may be related to known mineralized out-crops but the source at many of the sites is unknown. The significant geochemical data, the extent of altered and mineralized rocks, and the proximity to other productive mineral districts in similar geologic environs indicate that substantial parts of the wilderness have probable mineral-resource potential. A placer deposit, in the northern part of the wilderness, has substantiated potential for rare-earth elements; an area in the southern part of the wilderness has substantiated potential for precious metals; and several mines in the wilderness have demonstrated resources of base and precious metals. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuels.

  4. Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1991-1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Bowles, Edward C.; Plaster, Kurtis

    1993-10-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho. The objectives are to monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation and; determine which supplementation strategies (broodstock and release stage) provide the quickest effects on and highest response in natural production without adverse productivity.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Flathead Catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Lawrence A.; Terrell, James W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern Wild Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Snapping turtle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Brent M.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marsh wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Spotted owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laymon, Stephen A.; Salwasser, Hal; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern wild turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Hairy Woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Swamp Rabbit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Slider turtle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morreale, Stephen J.; Gibbons, J. Whitfield

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the slider turtle (Pseudemys scripta). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Barred Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the barred owl (Strix varia). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Spotted Owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laymon, Stephen A.; Salwasser, Hal; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  19. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bigmouth buffalo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Bigmouth buffalo (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a freshwater fish. The models are scaled to produce an indices of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater areas of the continental United States. Other habitat suitability models found in the literature are also included. Habitat suitability indices (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  2. MOUNT NAOMI ROADLESS AREA, UTAH AND IDAHO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dover, James H.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical surveys, and an examination of mines and prospects were made in the Mount Naomi Roadless Area, Utah and Idaho. No significant precious-metal, base-metal, other trace-metal, or uranium anomalies are apparent in the geochemical data from the Mount Naomi Roadless Area, and no exploration targets were detected. However, a belt of probable resource potential for stratabound copper, lead, and zinc occurrences exists on the west side of the area in limestone and shale. The possibility that oil and gas concentration lie deeply buried beneath the roadless area cannot be evaluated from available data.

  3. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  4. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  5. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R.; Lucieer, Vanessa L.; Nichol, Scott L.; Dambacher, Jeffrey M.; Hill, Nicole A.; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve’s IUCN zone IV, and

  6. Mapping Habitats and Developing Baselines in Offshore Marine Reserves with Little Prior Knowledge: A Critical Evaluation of a New Approach.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Emma; Hayes, Keith R; Lucieer, Vanessa L; Nichol, Scott L; Dambacher, Jeffrey M; Hill, Nicole A; Barrett, Neville; Kool, Johnathan; Siwabessy, Justy

    2015-01-01

    The recently declared Australian Commonwealth Marine Reserve (CMR) Network covers a total of 3.1 million km2 of continental shelf, slope, and abyssal habitat. Managing and conserving the biodiversity values within this network requires knowledge of the physical and biological assets that lie within its boundaries. Unfortunately very little is known about the habitats and biological assemblages of the continental shelf within the network, where diversity is richest and anthropogenic pressures are greatest. Effective management of the CMR estate into the future requires this knowledge gap to be filled efficiently and quantitatively. The challenge is particularly great for the shelf as multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping, a key tool for identifying and quantifying habitat distribution, is time consuming in shallow depths, so full coverage mapping of the CMR shelf assets is unrealistic in the medium-term. Here we report on the results of a study undertaken in the Flinders Commonwealth Marine Reserve (southeast Australia) designed to test the benefits of two approaches to characterising shelf habitats: (i) MBES mapping of a continuous (~30 km2) area selected on the basis of its potential to include a range of seabed habitats that are potentially representative of the wider area, versus; (ii) a novel approach that uses targeted mapping of a greater number of smaller, but spatially balanced, locations using a Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified sample design. We present the first quantitative estimates of habitat type and sessile biological communities on the shelf of the Flinders reserve, the former based on three MBES analysis techniques. We contrast the quality of information that both survey approaches offer in combination with the three MBES analysis methods. The GRTS approach enables design based estimates of habitat types and sessile communities and also identifies potential biodiversity hotspots in the northwest corner of the reserve's IUCN zone IV, and in

  7. Wildlife Impact Assessment: Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects, Idaho. Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meuleman, G. Allyn

    1986-05-01

    This report presents an analysis of impacts on wildlife and their habitats as a result of construction and operation of the US Bureau of Reclamation's Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects in Idaho. The objectives were to: (1) determine the probable impacts of development and operation of the Anderson Ranch, Black Canyon, and Boise Diversion Projects to wildlife and their habitats; (2) determine the wildlife and habitat impacts directly attributable to hydroelectric development and operation; (3) briefly identify the current major concerns for wildlife in the vicinities of the hydroelectric projects; and (4) provide for consultation and coordination with interested agencies, tribes, and other entities expressing interest in the project.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red king crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jewett, Stephen C.; Onuf, Christopher P.

    1988-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for evaluating habitat of different life stages of red king crab (Paralithodes camtschatica). A model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimum habitat) in Alaskan coastal waters, especially in the Gulf of Alaska and the southeastern Bering Sea. HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Pollinators in peril? A multipark approach to evaluating bee communities in habitats vulnerable to effects from climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rykken, Jessica; Rodman, Ann; Droege, Sam; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, collaborators from the National Park Service (Ann Rodman, Yellowstone National Park), USGS (Sam Droege and Ralph Grundel), and Harvard University (Jessica Rykken) were awarded funding from the NPS Climate Change Response Program to launch just such an investigation in almost 50 units of the National Park System (fig. 1). The main objectives of this multiyear project were to: Compare bee communities in three “vulnerable” habitats (high elevation, inland arid, coastal) and paired “common” habitats, representative of the landscape matrix, in order to determine whether vulnerable habitats have a distinctive bee fauna that may be at higher risk under climate change scenarios. Inform natural resource managers at each park about the bee fauna at their paired sites, including the presence of rare and endemic species, and make suggestions for active management strategies to promote native bee habitat if warranted. Increase awareness among park natural resource staffs, interpreters, and visitors of native bee diversity and natural history, the essential role of bees in maintaining healthy ecosystems, and potential threats from climate change to pollinator-dependent ecosystems.

  10. Evaluation of strawberry sap beetle (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) use of habitats surrounding strawberry plantings as food resources and overwintering sites.

    PubMed

    Loughner, Rebecca L; Loeb, Gregory M; Demchak, Kathleen; Schloemann, Sonia

    2007-10-01

    The matrix of strawberry and alternate host crops, wooded areas, and uncultivated sections that comprises a farm landscape provides not only food resources but also habitat in both a spatial and temporal context. Reports of the strawberry sap beetle as a pest in strawberry in the northeastern United States have increased along with a trend to produce a wider diversity of fruit crops on individual farms. The three objectives of this study focused on determining which, if any, habitats outside strawberry plantings are important to consider when developing control strategies for strawberry sap beetles. First, sampling of wooded areas and multiple crops showed that strawberry sap beetles overwinter not only in wooded areas but also in blueberry and raspberry. No overwintering beetles were found in strawberry. Second, up to a 70-fold increase in mean number of strawberry sap beetles in a no-choice food source experiment indicated that considerable reproduction can occur on blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry. Third, sampling summer-bearing raspberry, peach, blueberry, and cherry in 2004 and 2005 confirmed that beetles were present, often in high densities (0.1-108.5 strawberry sap beetles/m(2)), in commercial fields with fruit or vegetable material on the ground. In summary, the beetles are able to feed, complete development, and overwinter in habitats other than strawberry. An effective integrated pest management program to control strawberry sap beetles will need to consider the type of habitat surrounding strawberry fields.

  11. A Methodological Intercomparison of Topographic and Aerial Photographic Habitat Survey Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangen, S. G.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bouwes, N.

    2011-12-01

    A severe decline in Columbia River salmonid populations and subsequent Federal listing of subpopulations has mandated both the monitoring of populations and evaluation of the status of available habitat. Numerous field and analytical methods exist to assist in the quantification of the abundance and quality of in-stream habitat for salmonids. These methods range from field 'stick and tape' surveys to spatially explicit topographic and aerial photographic surveys from a mix of ground-based and remotely sensed airborne platforms. Although several previous studies have assessed the quality of specific individual survey methods, the intercomparison of competing techniques across a diverse range of habitat conditions (wadeable headwater channels to non-wadeable mainstem channels) has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we seek to enumerate relative quality (i.e. accuracy, precision, extent) of habitat metrics and inventories derived from an array of ground-based and remotely sensed surveys of varying degrees of sophistication, as well as quantify the effort and cost in conducting the surveys. Over the summer of 2010, seven sample reaches of varying habitat complexity were surveyed in the Lemhi River Basin, Idaho, USA. Complete topographic surveys were attempted at each site using rtkGPS, total station, ground-based LiDaR and traditional airborne LiDaR. Separate high spatial resolution aerial imagery surveys were acquired using a tethered blimp, a drone UAV, and a traditional fixed-wing aircraft. Here we also developed a relatively simplistic methodology for deriving bathymetry from aerial imagery that could be readily employed by instream habitat monitoring programs. The quality of bathymetric maps derived from aerial imagery was compared with rtkGPS topographic data. The results are helpful for understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches in specific conditions, and how a hybrid of data acquisition methods can be used to build a more complete

  12. Geologic resource evaluation of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai‘i, part II: benthic habitat mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2006-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has mapped the underwater environment in and adjacent to three parks along the Kona coast on the island of Hawai‘i. This report is the second of two produced for the NPS on the geologic resource evaluation of Pu‘ukoholā Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) and presents benthic habitat mapping of the waters of Kawaihae Bay offshore of PUHE. See Part I (Richmond and others, 2006) for an overview of the regional geology, local volcanics, and a detailed description of coastal landforms in the park. PUHE boundaries do not officially extend into the marine environment; however, impacts downslope of any activity in the park are of concern to management. The area of Kawaihae Bay mapped for this report extends from the north edge of the U.S. Coast Guard Reservation north of Kawaihae Harbor approximately 3.5 km south to the north edge of the Mauna Kea Golf Course and Beach Resort at Waikoloa and from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m (130 ft), where the fore reef drops off to the sandy shelf. The waters of smaller Pelekane Bay directly offshore of the park, while not formally under NPS jurisdiction, are managed by the park under an agreement with the State. This embayment is described in greater detail because of its special resource status. PUHE lies within the Kawaihae watershed, which contributes ~75 percent of the drainage in the northern portion of the study area; the Waikoloa/Waiulaula watershed contributes ~25 percent in the southern portion of the study area. Drainages from these watersheds into the study area include Makahuna, Makeāhua, Pohaukole, Kukui, and Waikoloa/Waiulaula Gulches. The Waikoloa/Waiulaula Gulch is the only perennial stream with a year-round water flow. Only during periods of extreme rainfall will water flow in the Makeāhua and Pohaukole gulches, merge together in the park, and empty directly into Pelekane Bay. In the late 1950s the reef

  13. Using Net Energy Intake models to predict and evaluate the benefits of stream restoration to improve juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwes, N.; Wall, C. E.; Wheaton, J. M.; Bennett, S.; Jordan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration is often targeted to improve fish habitat. However, predictions or evaluations of habitat or fish population responses to these actions are rarely assessed or more often assumed. Model predictions that describe both physical and biological effects from different types of restorations can help test hypotheses to improve our understanding of fish habitat requirements, especially if restoration is treated as an experiment. In addition, models can help synthesize data to determine project effectiveness to link fish responses to physical habitat responses, promoting a mechanistic understanding that is transferrable to other systems. We are applying a mechanistic model to estimate net energy intake (NEI) potential for juvenile steelhead throughout a stream reach. NEI modeling approaches attempt to describe the quantity of food a fish can ingest at a particular site (as a function of food availability, temperature, and fish size) and the energetic costs of living there (as a function of flow patterns, temperature, and fish size). The collection of NEI estimates can be used to help understand the site's overall energetic profitability for fish and to generate an estimate of carrying capacity. We collected topographic information to create digital elevation models (DEMs) of a stream channel along with drifting invertebrates, temperature, discharge, and substrate type, before and after the addition of large wood in the Asotin watershed. This information was used to create hydraulic models to estimate water velocities and flow direction which were then used to predict delivery rates of drift, swimming costs to fish, and ultimately NEI potential throughout the reach. The model was used to predict restoration benefits based on expected geomorphic responses to large wood. In addition, the model was used to translate modest observed changes in topography from the restoration to increases in NEI and carrying capacity of the stream reach. We believe the NEI

  14. Analysis of Idaho fire service education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Walter O.

    1999-01-01

    Becoming a career fire fighter in the state of Idaho requires specialized knowledge and training. Fire science education at Idaho colleges and universities is available only to people who are affiliated with a fire department. Law enforcement curriculum, on the other hand, is available to any interested persons. A student in law enforcement can attend the Police Officers Standards and Training (POST) academy or participate in classes in one of Idaho's institutions for higher education. There are no fire academies in Idaho. Applicants wanting to become professional fire fighters in Idaho are required to compete with applicants from other states; many of whom have had prior fire education and training. Resident Idaho fire fighter applicants are at a disadvantage when applying for Idaho fire fighting positions. Because of this apparent need, I surveyed the Idaho fire chiefs, using a research instrument I developed in a graduate field research class. I wrote the research instrument to determine the educational needs of the Idaho fire service. The College of Southern Idaho (CSI) and the Idaho Fire Chiefs Association (IFCA) were the recipients of this survey. This report, Analysis of Idaho Fire Service Education, describes that research process from beginning to end.

  15. Amchitka Island Environmental Analysis at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; W. F. Bauer; J.G. Eisenmenger; C.C. Jensen; B.K. Schuetz; T. C. Sorensen; B.M. White; A. L. Freeman; M. E. McIlwain

    2005-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) provided support to Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) in their activities which is supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the impact of past nuclear testing at Amchitka Island on the ecosystemof the island and surrounding ocean. INL participated in this project in three phases, Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3.

  16. WILDLIFE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on non-fish vertebrate diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future scenarios w...

  17. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  18. Annual report -- 1992: Environmental surveillance for EG & G Idaho Waste Management Facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the 1992 environmental surveillance activities of the Environmental Monitoring Unit of EG&G Idaho, Inc., at EG&G Idaho-operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are some results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1992 environmental surveillance data with DOE derived concentration guides, and with data from previous years.

  19. Environmental surveillance for EG&G Idaho Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, R.N.; Wright, K.C.; McBride, D.W.; Borsella, B.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes calendar year 1993 environmental surveillance activities of Environmental Monitoring of EG&G Idaho, Inc., performed at EG&G Idaho operated Waste Management facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The major facilities monitored include the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility, the Mixed Waste Storage Facility, and two surplus facilities. Included are results of the sampling performed by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory and the United States Geological Survey. The primary purposes of monitoring are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to ensure compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of human health and the environment. This report compares 1993 environmental surveillance data with US Department of Energy derived concentration guides and with data from previous years.

  20. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  1. Obtaining environmental measures to facilitate vertebrate habitat modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, J.W.; Wright, N.M.; Heglund, P.J.; Scott, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Published literature generally lacks habitat information needed to adequately model the habitats of most wildlife species at large scales (>1:100,000). We searched in primary and secondary literature for occurrence of several potentially useful habitat measures for 20 species of interest to the Idaho Department of Fish and Game. We found adequate information for modeling only the habitats of certain game species and species of special interest. We suggest that many more researchers could collect simple habitat information regarding vegetation composition and structure, topographic features, soils, temperature, and distance to special landscape features such that current research expenses would not be increased significantly. We recommend that habitat data be consistently reported in peer-reviewed literature or deposited into a central data repository. This will not only help fill the gaps in our current knowledge of wildlife but also place it in a format that is readily accessible by the scientific community.

  2. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley M.; Bowling, Andrea C.; Langtimm, Catherine A.; Swain, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  3. Evaluation of habitat suitability index models by global sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: a case study for submerged aquatic vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Zuzanna; Stith, Bradley; Bowling, Andrea C; Langtimm, Catherine A; Swain, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability index (HSI) models are commonly used to predict habitat quality and species distributions and are used to develop biological surveys, assess reserve and management priorities, and anticipate possible change under different management or climate change scenarios. Important management decisions may be based on model results, often without a clear understanding of the level of uncertainty associated with model outputs. We present an integrated methodology to assess the propagation of uncertainty from both inputs and structure of the HSI models on model outputs (uncertainty analysis: UA) and relative importance of uncertain model inputs and their interactions on the model output uncertainty (global sensitivity analysis: GSA). We illustrate the GSA/UA framework using simulated hydrology input data from a hydrodynamic model representing sea level changes and HSI models for two species of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in southwest Everglades National Park: Vallisneria americana (tape grass) and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). We found considerable spatial variation in uncertainty for both species, but distributions of HSI scores still allowed discrimination of sites with good versus poor conditions. Ranking of input parameter sensitivities also varied spatially for both species, with high habitat quality sites showing higher sensitivity to different parameters than low-quality sites. HSI models may be especially useful when species distribution data are unavailable, providing means of exploiting widely available environmental datasets to model past, current, and future habitat conditions. The GSA/UA approach provides a general method for better understanding HSI model dynamics, the spatial and temporal variation in uncertainties, and the parameters that contribute most to model uncertainty. Including an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in modeling efforts as part of the decision-making framework will result in better-informed, more robust

  4. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  5. Purgeable organic compounds at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maimer, Neil V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2016-05-25

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected groundwater samples from 31 wells at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory for purgeable organic compounds (POCs). The samples were collected and analyzed for the purpose of evaluating whether purge water from wells located inside an areal polygon established downgradient of the INTEC must be treated as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act listed waste.POC concentrations in water samples from 29 of 31 wells completed in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were greater than their detection limit, determined from detection and quantitation calculation software, for at least one to four POCs. Of the 29 wells with concentrations greater than their detection limits, only 20 had concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting limit as calculated with detection and quantitation calculation software. None of the concentrations exceeded any maximum contaminant levels established for public drinking water supplies. Most commonly detected compounds were 1,1,1-trichoroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene.

  6. Purgeable organic compounds at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maimer, Neil V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2016-01-01

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected groundwater samples from 31 wells at or near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory for purgeable organic compounds (POCs). The samples were collected and analyzed for the purpose of evaluating whether purge water from wells located inside an areal polygon established downgradient of the INTEC must be treated as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act listed waste.POC concentrations in water samples from 29 of 31 wells completed in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer were greater than their detection limit, determined from detection and quantitation calculation software, for at least one to four POCs. Of the 29 wells with concentrations greater than their detection limits, only 20 had concentrations greater than the laboratory reporting limit as calculated with detection and quantitation calculation software. None of the concentrations exceeded any maximum contaminant levels established for public drinking water supplies. Most commonly detected compounds were 1,1,1-trichoroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, and trichloroethene.

  7. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Laughing Gull

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zale, Alexander V.; Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for laughing gull (Larus atricilla). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas along the Gulf of Mexico coast. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  9. Habitat suitability index models: Black crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Krieger, Douglas A.; Bacteller, Mary; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics and habitat requirements of the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) are described in a review of Habitat Suitability Index models. This is one in a series of publications to provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Numerous literature sources have been consulted in an effort to consolidate scientific data on species-habitat relationships. These data have subsequently been synthesized into explicit Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The models are based on suitability indices indicating habitat preferences. Indices have been formulated for variables found to affect the life cycle and survival of each species. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models are designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities. The HSI technique is a corollary to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures.

  10. Bathymetric surveys of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho released and implemented the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. This plan aimed to restore, enhance, and maintain the Kootenai River habitat and landscape to support and sustain habitat conditions for aquatic species and animal populations. In support of these restoration efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, conducted high-resolution multibeam echosounder bathymetric surveys in May, June, and July 2011, as a baseline bathymetric monitoring survey on the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Three channel patterns or reaches exist in the study area—braided, meander, and a transitional zone connecting the braided and meander reaches. Bathymetric data were collected at three study areas in 2011 to provide: (1) surveys in unmapped portions of the meander reach; (2) monitoring of the presence and extent of sand along planned lines within a section of the meander reach; and (3) monitoring aggradation and degradation of the channel bed at specific cross sections within the braided reach and transitional zone. The bathymetric data will be used to update and verify flow models, calibrate and verify sediment transport modeling efforts, and aid in the biological assessment in support of the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. The data and planned lines for each study reach were produced in ASCII XYZ format supported by most geospatial software.

  11. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers; Idaho Supplementation Studies, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnsberg, Billy D.

    1993-02-02

    This is the first annual summary of results for chinook salmon supplementation studies in Idaho Rivers conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Management. The Nez Perce Tribe has coordinated chinook salmon supplementation research activities with the Bonneville Power Administration, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, U. S. Forest Service, and the Shoshone Bannock Tribe. The project is a cooperative effort involving members of the Idaho Supplementation Technical Advisory Committee (ISTAC). This project has also been extensively coordinated with the Supplementation Technical Work Group (STWG) which identified specific research needs and integrated and coordinated supplementation research activities through development of a five year work plan. In this study we are assessing what strategies, both brood stock and release stage, are best for supplementing natural or depleted spring and summer chinook populations and what effect supplementation has on these populations. This research should identify which of the supplementation strategies employed are beneficial in terms of increasing adult returns and the ability of these returns to sustain themselves. Biological evaluation points will be parr density, survival to Lower Granite Dam, adult return to weirs, redd counts and presmolt and smolt yield from both treatment and control streams. Genetic monitoring of treatment and control populations will also occur. The supplementation research study has the following objectives: (1) Monitor and evaluate the effect of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon. (2) Monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation. (3) Determine which supplementation strategies (brood stock and release stage) provide the quickest and highest response in natural

  12. Geomorphic Classification and Evaluation of Channel Width and Emergent Sandbar Habitat Relations on the Lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of geomorphic characteristics extracted from aerial imagery for three broad segments of the Lower Platte River. This report includes a summary of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) and presents a new analysis of total channel width and habitat variables. Three segments on the lower 102.8 miles of the Lower Platte River are addressed in this report: the Loup River to the Elkhorn River (70 miles long), the Elkhorn River to Salt Creek (6.9 miles long), and Salt Creek to the Missouri River (25.9 miles long). The locations of these segments were determined by the locations of tributaries potentially significant to the hydrology or sediment supply of the Lower Platte River. This report summarizes channel characteristics as mapped from July 2006 aerial imagery including river width, valley width, channel curvature, and in-channel habitat features. In-channel habitat measurements were not made under consistent hydrologic conditions and must be considered general estimates of channel condition in late July 2006. Longitudinal patterns in these features are explored and are summarized in the context of the longitudinal multivariate classification in Elliott and others (2009) for the three Lower Platte River segments. Detailed descriptions of data collection and classification methods are described in Elliott and others (2009). Nesting data for the endangered interior least tern (Sternula antillarum) and threatened piping plover (Charadrius melodus) from 2006 through 2009 are examined within the context of the multivariate classification and Lower Platte River segments. The widest reaches of the Lower Platte River are located in the segment downstream from the Loup River to the Elkhorn River. This segment also has the widest valley and highest degree of braiding of the three segments and many large vegetated islands. The short segment of river between the Elkhorn River and Salt Creek has a fairly low valley

  13. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  14. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  15. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  16. Evaluating habitat associations of a fish assemblage at multiple spatial scales in a minimally disturbed stream using low-cost remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheek, Brandon D.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Bean, Preston T.; Groeschel, Jillian R.; Magnelia, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity at multiple scales is a major factor affecting fish assemblage structure. However, assessments that examine these relationships at multiple scales concurrently are lacking. The lack of assessments at these scales is a critical gap in understanding as conservation and restoration efforts typically work at these levels.A combination of low-cost side-scan sonar surveys, aerial imagery using an unmanned aerial vehicle, and fish collections were used to evaluate the relationship between physicochemical and landscape variables at various spatial scales (e.g. micro-mesohabitat, mesohabitat, channel unit, stream reach) and stream–fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in the South Llano River, a spring-fed second-order stream on the Edwards Plateau in central Texas during 2012–2013.Low-cost side-scan sonar surveys have not typically been used to generate data for riverscape assessments of assemblage structure, thus the secondary objective was to assess the efficacy of this approach.The finest spatial scale (micro-mesohabitat) and the intermediate scale (channel unit) had the greatest explanatory power for variation in fish assemblage structure.Many of the fish endemic to the Edwards Plateau showed similar associations with physicochemical and landscape variables suggesting that conservation and restoration actions targeting a single endemic species may provide benefits to a large proportion of the endemic species in this system.Low-cost side-scan sonar proved to be a cost-effective means of acquiring information on the habitat availability of the entire river length and allowed the assessment of how a full suite of riverscape-level variables influenced local fish assemblage structure.

  17. A model for assessing habitat fragmentation caused by new infrastructures in extensive territories - evaluation of the impact of the Spanish strategic infrastructure and transport plan.

    PubMed

    Mancebo Quintana, S; Martín Ramos, B; Casermeiro Martínez, M A; Otero Pastor, I

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to design a model for evaluating the impact of planned infrastructures on species survival at the territorial scale by calculating a connectivity index. The method developed involves determining the effective distance of displacement between patches of the same habitat, simplifying earlier models so that there is no dependence on specific variables for each species. A case study is presented in which the model was used to assess the impact of the forthcoming roads and railways included in the Spanish Strategic Infrastructure and Transport Plan (PEIT, in its Spanish initials). This study took into account the habitats of peninsular Spain, which occupies an area of some 500,000 km(2). In this territory, the areas deemed to provide natural habitats are defined by Directive 92/43/EEC. The impact of new infrastructures on connectivity was assessed by comparing two scenarios, with and without the plan, for the major new road and railway networks. The calculation of the connectivity index (CI) requires the use of a raster methodology based on the Arc/Info geographical information system (GIS). The actual calculation was performed using a program written in Arc/Info Macro Language (AML); this program is available in FragtULs (Mancebo Quintana, 2007), a set of tools for calculating indicators of fragmentation caused by transport infrastructure (http://topografia.montes.upm.es/fragtuls.html). The indicator of connectivity proposed allows the estimation of the connectivity between all the patches of a territory, with no artificial (non-ecologically based) boundaries imposed. The model proposed appears to be a useful tool for the analysis of fragmentation caused by plans for large territories. PMID:20096502

  18. A model for assessing habitat fragmentation caused by new infrastructures in extensive territories - evaluation of the impact of the Spanish strategic infrastructure and transport plan.

    PubMed

    Mancebo Quintana, S; Martín Ramos, B; Casermeiro Martínez, M A; Otero Pastor, I

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to design a model for evaluating the impact of planned infrastructures on species survival at the territorial scale by calculating a connectivity index. The method developed involves determining the effective distance of displacement between patches of the same habitat, simplifying earlier models so that there is no dependence on specific variables for each species. A case study is presented in which the model was used to assess the impact of the forthcoming roads and railways included in the Spanish Strategic Infrastructure and Transport Plan (PEIT, in its Spanish initials). This study took into account the habitats of peninsular Spain, which occupies an area of some 500,000 km(2). In this territory, the areas deemed to provide natural habitats are defined by Directive 92/43/EEC. The impact of new infrastructures on connectivity was assessed by comparing two scenarios, with and without the plan, for the major new road and railway networks. The calculation of the connectivity index (CI) requires the use of a raster methodology based on the Arc/Info geographical information system (GIS). The actual calculation was performed using a program written in Arc/Info Macro Language (AML); this program is available in FragtULs (Mancebo Quintana, 2007), a set of tools for calculating indicators of fragmentation caused by transport infrastructure (http://topografia.montes.upm.es/fragtuls.html). The indicator of connectivity proposed allows the estimation of the connectivity between all the patches of a territory, with no artificial (non-ecologically based) boundaries imposed. The model proposed appears to be a useful tool for the analysis of fragmentation caused by plans for large territories.

  19. Evaluation of the functional roles of fungal endophytes of Phragmites australis from high saline and low saline habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soares, Marcos Antonio; Li, Hai-Yan; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Bergen, Marshall; Torres, Monica S.; White, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native Phragmites australis decreases biodiversity and produces dense stands in North America. We surveyed the endophyte communities in the stems, leaves and roots of collections of P. australis obtained from two sites with a low and high salt concentration to determine differences in endophyte composition and assess differences in functional roles of microbes in plants from both sites. We found differences in the abundance, richness and diversity of endophytes between the low saline collections (18 species distributed in phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Stramenopiles (Oomycota); from orders Dothideales, Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Eurotiales, Cantharellales and Pythiales; Shannon H = 2.639; Fisher alpha = 7.335) and high saline collections (15 species from phylum Ascomycota; belonging to orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales, Diaporthales, Xylariales and Dothideales; Shannon H = 2.289; Fisher alpha = 4.181). Peyronellaea glomerata, Phoma macrostoma and Alternaria tenuissima were species obtained from both sites. The high salt endophyte community showed higher resistance to zinc, mercury and salt stress compared to fungal species from the low salt site. These endophytes also showed a greater propensity for growth promotion of rice seedlings (a model species) under salt stress. The results of this study are consistent with the ‘habitat-adapted symbiosis hypothesis’ that holds that endophytic microbes may help plants adapt to extreme habitats. The capacity of P. australis to establish symbiotic relationships with diverse endophytic microbes that enhance its tolerance to abiotic stresses could be a factor that contributes to its invasiveness in saline environments. Targeting the symbiotic associates of P. australis could lead to more sustainable control of non-native P. australis.

  20. Idaho National Laboratory Research & Development Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances that drive economic growth require both public and private investment. The U.S. Department of Energy’s national laboratories play a crucial role by conducting the type of research, testing and evaluation that is beyond the scope of regulators, academia or industry. Examples of such work from the past year can be found in these pages. Idaho National Laboratory’s engineering and applied science expertise helps deploy new technologies for nuclear energy, national security and new energy resources. Unique infrastructure, nuclear material inventory and vast expertise converge at INL, the nation’s nuclear energy laboratory. Productive partnerships with academia, industry and government agencies deliver high-impact outcomes. This edition of INL’s Impacts magazine highlights national and regional leadership efforts, growing capabilities, notable collaborations, and technology innovations. Please take a few minutes to learn more about the critical resources and transformative research at one of the nation’s premier applied science laboratories.

  1. Final evaluation report for Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, ARROW-PAK packaging, Docket 95-40-7A, Type A container

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the ARROW-PAK packaging. The ARROW-PAK packaging system consists of Marlex M-8000 Driscopipe (Series 8000 [gas] or Series 8600 [industrial]) resin pipe, manufactured by Phillips-Driscopipe, Inc., and is sealed with two dome-shaped end caps manufactured from the same materials. The patented sealing process involves the use of electrical energy to heat opposing faces of the pipe and end caps, and hydraulic rams to press the heated surfaces together. This fusion process produces a homogeneous bonding of the end cap to the pipe. The packaging may be used with or without the two internal plywood spacers. This packaging was evaluated and tested in October 1995. The packaging configuration described in this report is designed to ship Type A quantities of solid radioactive materials, Form No. 1, Form No. 2, and Form No. 3.

  2. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2016-01-01

    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing the designated 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  3. Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; Frost, Thomas P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2016-08-19

    Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and accompanying data releases are the products of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA). The assessment was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to evaluate the mineral-resource potential of some 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The need for this assessment arose from the decision by the Secretary of the Interior to pursue the protection of large tracts of contiguous habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. One component of the Department of the Interior plan to protect the habitat areas includes withdrawing selected lands from future exploration and development of mineral and energy resources, including copper, gold, silver, rare earth elements, and other commodities used in the U.S. economy. The assessment evaluates the potential for locatable minerals such as gold, copper, and lithium and describes the nature and occurrence of leaseable and salable minerals for seven Sagebrush Focal Areas and additional lands in Nevada (“Nevada additions”) delineated by BLM. Supporting data are available in a series of USGS data releases describing mineral occurrences (the USGS Mineral Deposit Database or “USMIN”), oil and gas production and well status, previous mineral-resource assessments that covered parts of the areas studied, and a compilation of mineral-use cases based on data provided by BLM, as well as results of the locatable mineral-resource assessment in a geographic information system. The present assessment of mineral-resource potential will contribute to a better understanding of the economic and environmental trade-offs that would result from closing approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands to mineral entry.

  4. Evaluation of airborne thermal-infrared image data for monitoring aquatic habitats and cultural resources within the Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined thermal-infrared (TIR) image data acquired using the airborne Advanced Thematic Mapper (ATM) sensor in the afternoon of July 25th, 2000 over a portion of the Colorado River corridor to determine the capability of these 100-cm resolution data to address some biologic and cultural resource requirements for GCMRC. The requirements investigated included the mapping of warm backwaters that may serve as fish habitats and the detection (and monitoring) of archaeological structures and natural springs that occur on land. This report reviews the procedure for calibration of the airborne TIR data to obtain surface water temperatures and shows the results for various river reaches within the acquired river corridor. With respect to mapping warm backwater areas, our results show that TIR data need to be acquired with a gain setting that optimizes the range of temperatures found within the water to increase sensitivity of the resulting data to a level of 0.1 °C and to reduce scan-line noise. Data acquired within a two-hour window around maximum solar heating (1:30 PM) is recommended to provide maximum solar heating of the water and to minimize cooling effects of late-afternoon shadows. Ground-truth data within the temperature range of the warm backwaters are necessary for calibration of the TIR data. The ground-truth data need to be collected with good locational accuracy. The derived water-temperature data provide the capability for rapid, wide-area mapping of warm-water fish habitats using a threshold temperature for such habitats. The collected daytime TIR data were ineffective in mapping (detecting) both archaeological structures and natural springs (seeps). The inability of the daytime TIR data to detect archaeological structures is attributed to the low thermal sensitivity (0.3 °C) of the collected data. The detection of subtle thermal differences between geologic materials requires sensitivities of at least 0.1 °C, which can be obtained by most TIR

  5. Assessment of the Geothermal System Near Stanley, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Armstrong; John Welhan; Mike McCurry

    2012-06-01

    The City of Stanley, Idaho (population 63) is situated in the Salmon River valley of the central Idaho highlands. Due to its location and elevation (6270 feet amsl) it is one of the coldest locales in the continental U.S., on average experiencing frost 290 days of the year as well as 60 days of below zero (oF) temperatures. Because of high snowfall (76 inches on average) and the fact that it is at the terminus of its rural grid, the city also frequently endures extended power outages during the winter. To evaluate its options for reducing heating costs and possible local power generation, the city obtained a rural development grant from the USDA and commissioned a feasibility study through author Roy Mink to determine whether a comprehensive site characterization and/or test drilling program was warranted. Geoscience students and faculty at Idaho State University (ISU), together with scientists from the Idaho Geological Survey (IGS) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted three field data collection campaigns between June, 2011 and November, 2012 with the assistance of author Beckwith who arranged for food, lodging and local property access throughout the field campaigns. Some of the information collected by ISU and the IGS were compiled by author Mink and Boise State University in a series of progress reports (Makovsky et al., 2011a, b, c, d). This communication summarizes all of the data collected by ISU including data that were compiled as part of the IGS’s effort for the National Geothermal Data System’s (NGDS) data compilation project funded by the Department of Energy and coordinated by the Arizona Geological Survey.

  6. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Jolley

    2006-07-27

    On November 9, 2002, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality approved the Record of Decision Experimental Breeder Reactor-I/Boiling Water Reactor Experiment Area and Miscellaneous Sites, which requires a Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan for the then Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory). This document, first issued in June 2004, fulfilled that requirement. The revision is needed to provide an update as remedial actions are completed and new areas of concern are found. This Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan is based on guidance in the May 3, 1999, EPA Region 10 Final Policy on the Use of Institutional Controls at Federal Facilities; the September 29, 2000, EPA guidance Institutional Controls: A Site Manager's Guide to Identifying, Evaluating, and Selecting Institutional Controls at Superfund and RCRA Corrective Action Cleanups; and the April 9, 2003, DOE Policy 454.1, "Use of Institutional Controls." These policies establish measures that ensure short- and long-term effectiveness of institutional controls that protect human health and the environment at federal facility sites undergoing remedial action pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and/or corrective action pursuant to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The site-specific institutional controls currently in place at the Idaho National Laboratory are documented in this Sitewide Institutional Controls Plan. This plan is being updated, along with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Comprehensive Facilities and Land Use Plan, to reflect the progress of remedial activities and changes in CERCLA sites.

  7. An evaluation of effects of groundwater exchange on nearshore habitats and water quality of western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Neff, Brian P.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the high potentiometric surface of groundwater in the Silurian/Devonian carbonate aquifer in Monroe County, MI resulted in discharge of highly mineralized, SO4-rich groundwater to the Lake Erie shoreline near both Erie State Game Area (ESGA) and Pointe Mouillee State Game Area (PMSGA). Recently, regional groundwater levels near PMSGA have been drawn down as much as 45 m below lake level in apparent response to quarry dewatering. From August to November of 2003, we conducted preliminary studies of groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities at both sites. Consistent with regional observations, groundwater flow direction in the nearshore at ESGA was upward, or toward Lake Erie, and shallow nearshore groundwater chemistry was influenced by regional groundwater chemistry. In contrast, at PMSGA, the groundwater flow potential was downward and lake water, influenced by quarry discharge seeping downward into nearshore sediments, produced a different lake and shallow groundwater chemistry than at ESGA. Although the invertebrate and young fish community was similar at the two sites, taxonomic groups tolerant of degraded water quality were more prevalent at PMSGA. Sensitive taxa were more prevalent at ESGA. We propose a conceptual model, based on well-described models of groundwater/seawater interaction along coastal margins, to describe the interconnection among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the different nearshore habitats of Lake Erie, and we identify processes that warrant further detailed study in the Great Lakes.

  8. The Habitat Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)

  9. Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory has been instrumental in establishing the Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics initiative -- i-STEM, which brings together industry, educators, government and other partners to provide K-12 teachers with support, materials and opportunities to improve STEM instruction and increase student interest in technical careers. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  11. Planning Study for North Idaho College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Raymond J.

    This three-part, long-range planning study was undertaken to assist North Idaho College (NIC) to more effectively meet the educational needs and interests of youth and adults residing in the five county Panhandle Area of Northern Idaho. Part I discusses NIC and its community; presents the results of a study of the educational plans and attitudes…

  12. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Idaho. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Minarik, R.J.; Gillerman, V.S.

    1992-09-01

    The 1990 Annual Report is on the Mineral Industry of Idaho. Idaho ranked 26th nationally for total mineral production value compared with 28th in 1989. The State was first in the Nation in antimony and garnet production; second in silver and vandaium production; and third in output of lead, molybdenum, and marketable phosphate rock.

  13. Weed hosts Globodera pallida from Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida (PCN), a restricted pest in the USA, was first reported in Bingham and Bonneville counties of Idaho in 2006. The US government and Idaho State Department of Agriculture hope to eradicate it from infested fields. Eradicating PCN will require depriving the n...

  14. Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Overview

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Idaho National Laboratory has been instrumental in establishing the Idaho Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics initiative -- i-STEM, which brings together industry, educators, government and other partners to provide K-12 teachers with support, materials and opportunities to improve STEM instruction and increase student interest in technical careers. You can learn more about INL's education programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated video shows the process of transporting, assembling and testing the Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat (HDU DSH) configuration, which will be deployed during the 2011 Des...

  16. Hood River and Pelton Ladder Monitoring and Evaluation Project and Hood River Fish Habitat Project : Annual Progress Report 1999-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-02-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat [contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000.

  17. Surface and groundwater drought evaluation with respect to aquatic habitat quality in the upper Nitra River Basin in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendekova, M.; Fendek, M.; Macura, V.; Kralova, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological drought is being broadly studied within last decades in many countries. It is because of increasing frequency of drought periods occurrence also in mild climate conditions, leading to unexpected and undesired consequences for environment and various spheres of the state economy. Drought affects water availability for plants, animals and human society. Natural conditions of drought occurrence are often combined with human activities strengthening drought consequences. Lack of water in the nature, connected to meteorological and hydrological drought occurrence, increases at the same time needs for surface and groundwater in many types of human activities (agriculture, industrial production, electric power generation…). Drought can be identified within the low flow phase of the flow regime. Flow regime is considered for one of the most important conditions influencing quality of the river ecosystems. Occurrence of meteorological, surface and groundwater droughts was analyzed for the upper part of the Nitra River catchment in Slovakia. Drought occurrence was studied in two gauging profiles on the Nitra River - in Klacno and Nedozery, both representing the headwater profiles. The threshold level method was used for groundwater drought analysis. Base flow values were separated from the discharge hydrograms using the HydroOffice 2010 statistical program package. The influence of surface water drought on groundwater level was analyzed. Habitat suitability curves derived according to IFIM methodology were constructed for different fish species at Nedozery profile. The influence of different low flow values from 600 to 150 L/s on fish amount, size and species variability was studied. In the end, the minimum flow, bellow which unfavourable life conditions occur, was estimated. The results showed the necessity of taking into account the ecological parameters when estimating the ecological status of surface water bodies. Such an approach is fully compatible with

  18. Fires in Idaho and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2000 continues to be the worst fire season in the United States in decades. By August 8, 2000, fires in Montana and Idaho had burned more than 250,000 acres. Resources were stretched so thin that Army and Marine soldiers were recruited to help fight the fires. President Clinton visited Payette National Forest to lend moral support to the firefighters. Dense smoke from Idaho and western Montana is visible stretching all the way to North and South Dakota in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The image was taken on August 7, 2000. Although the primary mission of SeaWiFS is to measure the biology of the ocean, it also provides stunning color imagery of the Earth's surface. For more information about fires in the U.S., visit the National Interagency Fire Center. To learn more about using satellites to monitor fires, visit Global Fire Monitoring and New Technology for Monitoring Fires from Space in the Earth Observatory. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Ferruginous hawk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasikoff, Thomas M.

    1982-01-01

    The ferruginous hawk inhabits grasslands, shrublands, and steppe-deserts of the Western United States. It is a common nester in Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming (Call 1978). Populations in the more Northern States tend to be migratory, spending the winter in New Mexico, Colorado, Kansas, Texas, and Oklahoma (Call 1979).Ferruginous hawks thrive in areas that favor the production of rabbits (Lagomorpha), prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), or ground squirrels (Citellus spp. and Spermophilus spp.) (Call 1979), provided that suitable nesting sites are available. Foraging habitat consists of nonforested, nonmountainous areas, such as desert shrub and grassland communities. Nesting habitat consists of communities with isolated trees, woodland edges, buttes, cliffs, and/or grassland with some relief.

  20. Gem State Hydroelectric Project, FERC No. 2952-Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    A draft environmental impact statement (EPA No. 820563D) describes the estimated effects of a proposed hydroelectric project on the Snake River in Idaho which would include a 4300 by 40 foot earthen dam, with dikes on either side, a power canal, powerhouse, and a 3.76-mile transmission line and facilities. Power generated at the site would serve Idaho Falls, which expects to double in population over the next 15 years. Local workers would fill the 250 construction jobs. The reservoir would diversify the area's recreational potential. Negative impacts would be the loss of 24,000 feet of the Snake River and associated aquatic habitat, which would affect fish populations. The higher water level would restrict larger boats to the upper reservoir. Inundation of two small dams would create some hazards to boaters and eliminate their power generating capacity. Legal mandates for the study were the DOE Organization Act of 1977, Federal Power Act, Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, and National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.

  1. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Idaho, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, infrastructure and construction management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, flood risk management, forest resources management, and other business uses. Today, high-quality light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the sources for creating elevation models and other elevation datasets. Federal, State, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data, on a national basis, that are (on average) 30 years old and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data. The new 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), responds to the growing need for high-quality topographic data and a wide range of other three-dimensional representations of the Nation’s natural and constructed features. The Idaho LiDAR Consortium provides statewide collaboration and data sharing mechanisms that can be used as a resource by State and Federal partners implementing the 3DEP initiative.

  2. Evaluations of duck habitat and estimation of duck population sizes with a remote-sensing-based system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, Lewis M.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Arnold, Phillip M.

    1995-01-01

    During 1987-90, we used high-altitude photography, aerial videography, counts, and models to estimate sizes of breeding populations of dabbling ducks (Anatinae) and duck production and to identify duck habitat on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service land and easements and on private land in the prairie pothole region of the United States. The study area contained about 3.1 million wetland basins (28,490 km2). Wetland area (ha per km2) was highest on service-owned land; wetland-basin density was greatest on service easements. Temporary and seasonal wetlands were underrepresented and lakes were overrepresented on service-owned land. Seventy-eight percent of all basins were less than 0.41 ha. Cropland dominated private land. Pond density decreased from 4.4/km2 in 1987 to 3.4/km2 in 1990 and pond area, from 7.2 ha/km2 to 2.7 ha/km2. The density of the blue-winged teal was greatest (3.4 pairs/km2) and was followed in magnitude by those of the mallard (2.1 pairs/km2), the gadwall (1.8 pairs/km2), the northern pintail (0.8 pairs/km2), and the redhead (0.8 pairs/km2). Duck density was consistently highest on service-owned land. The decline of breeding-population sizes in 1987-90 closely corresponded to losses of pond numbers and pond area. The density of breeding pairs per pond was inversely related to pond density, suggesting that breeding ducks tended to concentrate on the remaining ponds as drought intensified. The production of recruits followed the same pattern as breeding-population sizes. We estimated that 2.5% of the ducklings hatched on service-owned land, which was 1.3% of the study area; 19.6% hatched on service easements, which were 14.2% of the study area; and 77.9% hatched on private land, which was 84.6% of the study area. Various sources of bias and sampling error and improvements to the system are discussed.

  3. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Nez Perce National Forest.

    SciTech Connect

    Siddall, Phoebe

    1992-04-01

    In 1984, the Nez Perce National forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into a contractual agreement which provided for improvement of spring chinook salmon and summer steelhead trout habitat in south Fork Clearwater River tributaries. Project work was completed in seven main locations: Crooked River, Red River, Meadow Creek Haysfork Gloryhole, Cal-Idaho Gloryhole, Fisher Placer and Leggett Placer. This report describes restoration activities at each of these sites.

  4. Applying coupled flow and sediment-transport models to understanding habitat requirements and availability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between habitat requirements and the magnitude and duration of flow and sediment supply is an important component of both habitat assessment and restoration strategies. Fish habitat is often defined in terms of velocity, depth or substrate composition; locations where combinations of these factors meet habitat requirements depend on channel morphology, flow magnitude, and, in rivers with mobile beds, time-varying change in channel morphology. Because coupled multi-dimensional flow and sediment transport models provide spatially distributed information on flow and other hydraulic quantities, they permit detailed delineation of habitat. Furthermore, they can be used directly to understand how flow magnitude and duration and sediment supply control channel change and habitat availability. We present an example to illustrate how such models can be used in investigations of fish spawning habitat and availability. In the Kootenai River, Idaho, comparison of observed spawning locations with model derived spatial distributions of depths and velocities suggests that white sturgeon utilize the largest available velocity and depth within an 18-kilometer spawning reach over a range of discharges. This is a somewhat more selective criterion than a simple specification of a range of velocity or depth magnitudes, which illustrates the importance of evaluating habitat over a full range of discharge magnitudes. Observations also suggest that spawning currently occurs over a sandy substrate resulting in suffocation of eggs and little to no recruitment of juvenile sturgeon since closure of Libby Dam in 1974. Extending flow modeling to incorporate sediment- transport and bed evolution suggests that a relatively high magnitude long duration discharge can remove sandy substrate, thereby exposing a coarse gravel lag deposit in some areas and providing needed spawning substrate. These results were qualitatively validated through video surveys of channel

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Estuarine Habitats in the UK: Critical Evaluation of the Saltmarshes and Sea-Level Rise Model (SLAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylarinou, A.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Estuarine wetland environments are at risk of significant transformation and loss due to sea-level rise and there is an increasing need to model such impacts. In a UK context, the relatively small size and morphological complexity of many estuaries necessitates a high spatial resolution but models must also be capable of efficient application over time scales of decades to centuries that correspond to widely used IPCC climate change scenarios. Little previous work of this kind has been carried out to date in the UK. An exception is the EU-funded BRANCH project, which simulated the drowning of intertidal topography, due to sea-level rise, and potential mudflat and saltmarsh responses to a change in inundation regime. However, this approach neglects the interplay of sea-level rise and sedimentation. Accordingly, this study investigates the potential of a more dynamic spatial landscape model to represent meso-scale impacts of sea-level rise on UK estuary environments. It takes as a starting point the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which has been widely used in the USA. This is built around the US National Wetlands Inventory classification and adapting it to suit the tidal sedimentary environments and habitats typical of the UK requires changes to the source code. This paper presents results obtained from the application of an appropriately modified SLAMM code to contrasting estuarine environments in eastern England. The aim is to evaluate the ability of SLAMM to produce plausible projections of intertidal habitat change. The estuaries studied are covered by high-resolution altimetry data, and an extensive literature on their physical process regime allows the parameterisation of the various sub-models in SLAMM. A Matlab-based shell is used to perform an initial sensitivity analysis to better understand the nature of the modelled sea-level rise effects. This shell also provides a framework for Monte Carlo simulations forced by a set of UKCP09 sea-level rise

  6. Geophysical Investigations of Archaeological Resources in Southern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda Ringe Pace; Gail Heath; Clark Scott; Carlan McDaniel

    2005-10-01

    At the Idaho National Laboratory and other locations across southern Idaho, geophysical tools are being used to discover, map, and evaluate archaeological sites. A variety of settings are being explored to expand the library of geophysical signatures relevant to archaeology in the region. Current targets of interest include: prehistoric archaeological features in open areas as well as lava tube caves, historical structures and activity areas, and emigrant travel paths. We draw from a comprehensive, state of the art geophysical instrumentation pool to support this work. Equipment and facilities include ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic and magnetic sensors, multiple resistivity instruments, advanced positioning instrumentation, state of the art processing and data analysis software, and laboratory facilities for controlled experiments.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bald Eagle (Breeding Season)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, Allen

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black Bear, Upper Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Lynn L.; Allen, Arthur W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black bear (Ursus americanus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-spotted newt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Moose, Lake Superior Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Jordan, Peter A.; Terrell, James W.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the moose (Alces alces). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-winged blackbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black-tailed prairie dog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clippinger, Norman W.

    1989-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  14. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Black-Tailed Prairie Dog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clippinger, Norman W.

    1989-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomus ludovicianus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-Winged Blackbird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus L.). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-Spotted Newt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Winter foraging ecology of bald eagles on a regulated river in southwest Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaltenecker, Gregory S.; Steenhof, Karen; Bechard, Marc J.; Munger, James C.

    1998-01-01

    We studied Bald Eagle foraging ecology on the South Fork Boise River,Idaho, during the winters of 1990-92. We compared habitat variables at 29 foraging sites, 94 perch sites, and 131 random sites.Habitat variables included river habitat (pool, riffle, run), distance to the nearest change in river habitat, distance to nearest available perch, number and species of surrounding perches, and average river depth and flow. Eagles foraged more at pools than expected, and closer( (15 m) to changes in river habitat than expected. Where eagles foraged at riffles, those riffles were slower than riffles where they perched or riffles that were available at random. Where eagles foraged at runs, those runs were shallower than runs at either perch or random sites. Eagles perched less at riffles and more at sites where trees were available than expected. Changes in river habitat represent habitat edges where river depth and flow change, making fish more vulnerable to eagle predation. Fish are more susceptible to predation at shallower river depths and slower flows. Slower river flows may be related to decreased surface turbulence, which also increases vulnerability of fish to aerial predation.

  18. 30 CFR 912.700 - Idaho Federal program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.700 Idaho Federal program. (a) This part contains all rules that are applicable to surface coal mining operations in Idaho... Federal program. (c) The rules in this part apply to all surface coal mining operations in Idaho...

  19. Idaho Library Laws, 1999-2000. Full Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Library, Boise.

    This new edition of the Idaho Library Laws contains changes through the 1998 legislative session and includes Idaho Code sections that legally affect city, school-community or district libraries, or the Idaho State Library. These sections include the basic library laws in Idaho Code Title 33, Chapters 25, 26, and 27, additional sections of the law…

  20. Strontium Distribution Coefficients of Basalt and Sediment Infill Samples from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    M. N. Pace; R. C. Bartholomay; J. J. Rosentreter

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, are conducting a study to determine and evaluate strontium distribution coefficients (Kds) of subsurface materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The purpose of this study is to aid in assessing the variability of strontium Kds at the INEEL as part of an ongoing investigation of chemical transport of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine Kds of six basalt core samples, five samples of sediment infill of vesicles and fractures, and six standard material samples. Analyses of data from these experiments indicate that the Kds of the sediment infill samples are significantly larger than those of the basalt samples. Quantification of such information is essential of furthering the understanding of transport processes of strontium-90 in the Snake River Plain aquifer and in similar environments.

  1. Assessing the statistical relationships among water-derived climate variables, rainfall, and remotely sensed features of vegetation: implications for evaluating the habitat of ticks.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Carné, J; García-Martín, A; Estrada-Peña, A

    2015-01-01

    Ticks are sensitive to changes in relative humidity and saturation deficit at the microclimate scale. Trends and changes in rainfall are commonly used as descriptors of field observations of tick populations, to capture the climate niche of ticks or to predict the climate suitability for ticks under future climate scenarios. We evaluated daily and monthly relationships between rainfall, relative humidity and saturation deficit over different ecosystems in Europe using daily climate values from 177 stations over a period of 10 years. We demonstrate that rainfall is poorly correlated with both relative humidity and saturation deficit in any of the ecological domains studied. We conclude that the amount of rainfall recorded in 1 day does not correlate with the values of humidity or saturation deficit recorded 24 h later: rainfall is not an adequate surrogate for evaluating the physiological processes of ticks at regional scales. We compared the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a descriptor of photosynthetic activity, at a spatial resolution of 0.05°, with monthly averages of relative humidity and saturation deficit and also determined a lack of significant correlation. With the limitations of spatial scale and habitat coverage of this study, we suggest that the rainfall or NDVI cannot replace relative humidity or saturation deficit as descriptors of tick processes.

  2. Idaho Operations Office: Technology summary, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) in order to highlight research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Idaho Operations Office. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. OTD programs are designed to make new, innovative, and more cost-effective technologies available for transfer to DOE environmental restoration and waste management end-users. Projects are demonstrated, tested, and evaluated to produce solutions to current problems. Transition of technologies into more advanced stages of development is based upon technological, regulatory, economic, and institutional criteria. New technologies are made available for use in eliminating radioactive, hazardous, and other wastes in compliance with regulatory mandates. The primary goal is to protect human health and prevent further contamination. OTD`s technology development programs address three major problem areas: (1) groundwater and soils cleanup; (2) waste retrieval and processing; and (3) pollution prevention. These problems are not unique to DOE, but are associated with other Federal agency and industry sites as well. Thus, technical solutions developed within OTD programs will benefit DOE, and should have direct applications in outside markets.

  3. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts. PMID:19901399

  4. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir

    2011-01-01

    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  5. Habitat suitability index models: greater white-fronted goose (wintering). [Anser albifrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    A review and synthesis of available information were used to develop models for indexing the potential suitability of agricultural and natural wetland habitats for wintering white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons). The model is scaled to produce indices of habitat suitability from 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimal habitat) primarily for wintering habitat in southwest Louisiana and southwest Texas. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with Habitat Evaluations Procedures previously developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  6. Development of macroinvertebrate-based index for bioassessment of Idaho rivers.

    PubMed

    Royer, T V; Robinson, C T; Minshall, G W

    2001-04-01

    Theoretical constructs, such as the river continuum concept, predict that the composition of benthic fauna in rivers will be different from that of headwater streams. There exists a need to modify, for use on larger rivers, the bioassessment techniques commonly used on small streams. Using aquatic macroinvertebrates and the "reference condition" approach, we developed and tested a multimetric index for use on the rivers of Idaho. Reference sites were selected to represent the best current conditions (i.e., least impacted) among Idaho rivers. The index performed well in distinguishing reference sites from sites displaying some form of anthropogenic impairment. Individual metrics used in the index included: number of EPT taxa, total number of taxa, percent dominant taxon, percent Elmidae, and percent predators. The index we developed for Idaho rivers was essentially a modification of a framework designed for small streams, suggesting that techniques, including data analysis, currently used for streams can be adapted for use on larger rivers. Adapting these methods for use in rivers is primarily a matter of (1) selecting metrics relevant to the rivers of interest; (2) expanding the field sampling to encompass the greater habitat area and, potentially, heterogeneity of rivers; and (3) selecting an appropriate form of data analysis. The approach we describe here should be applicable to geographic regions other than Idaho.

  7. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    ScienceCinema

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2016-07-12

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  8. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  9. Spawning Success of Hatchery Spring Chinook Salmon Outplanted as Adults in the Clearwater River Basin, Idaho, 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, Steven P.; Ackerman, Nichlaus; Witty, Kenneth L.

    2002-04-16

    The study described in this report evaluated spawning distribution, overlap with naturally-arriving spawners, and pre-spawning mortality of spring chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, outplanted as adults in the Clearwater River Subbasin in 2001. Returns of spring chinook salmon to Snake River Basin hatcheries and acclimation facilities in 2001 exceeded needs for hatchery production goals in Idaho. Consequently, management agencies including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) and Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) agreed to outplant chinook salmon adults as an adaptive management strategy for using hatchery adults. Adult outplants were made in streams or stream sections that have been typically underseeded with spawners. This strategy anticipated that outplanted hatchery chinook salmon would spawn successfully near the areas where they were planted, and would increase natural production. Outplanting of adult spring chinook salmon from hatcheries is likely to be proposed in years when run sizes are similar to those of the 2001 run. Careful monitoring of results from this year's outplanting can be used to guide decisions and methods for future adult outplanting. Numbers of spring chinook salmon outplanted was based on hatchery run size, hatchery needs, and available spawning habitat. Hatcheries involved in outplanting in the Clearwater Basin included Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, Kooskia National Fish Hatchery, Clearwater Anadromous Fish Hatchery, and Rapid River Fish Hatchery. The NPT, IDFG, FWS, and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed upon outplant locations and a range of numbers of spring chinook salmon to be outplanted (Table 1). Outplanting occurred mainly in the Selway River Subbasin, but additional outplants were made in tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River and the Lochsa River (Table 1). Actual outplanting activities were carried out primarily by the NPT with supplemental outplanting done

  10. Five-year evaluation of habitat remediation in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron: Comparison of constructed reef characteristics that attract spawning lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsden, J. Ellen; Binder, Thomas R.; Johnson, James; He, Ji; Dingledine, Natalie; Adams, Janice; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Buchinger, Tyler J.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of aquatic habitats has motivated construction and research on the use of artificial reefs to enhance production of fish populations. However, reefs are often poorly planned, reef design characteristics are not evaluated, and reef assessments are short-term. We constructed 29 reefs in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, in 2010 and 2011 to mitigate for degradation of a putative lake trout spawning reef. Reefs were designed to evaluate lake trout preferences for height, orientation, and size, and were compared with two degraded natural reefs and a high-quality natural reef (East Reef). Eggs and fry were sampled on each reef for five years post-construction, and movements of 40 tagged lake trout were tracked during three spawning seasons using acoustic telemetry. Numbers of adults and spawning on the constructed reefs were initially low, but increased significantly over the five years, while remaining consistent on East Reef. Adult density, egg deposition, and fry catch were not related to reef height or orientation of the constructed reefs, but were related to reef size and adjacency to East Reef. Adult lake trout visited and spawned on all except the smallest constructed reefs. Of the metrics used to evaluate the reefs, acoustic telemetry produced the most valuable and consistent data, including fine-scale examination of lake trout movements relative to individual reefs. Telemetry data, supplemented with diver observations, identified several previously unknown natural spawning sites, including the high-use portions of East Reef. Reef construction has increased the capacity for fry production in Thunder Bay without apparently decreasing the use of the natural reef. Results of this project emphasize the importance of multi-year reef assessment, use of multiple assessment methods, and comparison of reef characteristics when developing artificial reef projects. Specific guidelines for construction of reefs focused on enhancing lake trout spawning are suggested.

  11. Aquifer tests near the Idaho Falls Foothills, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1991-10-03

    Ground water pumping tests were performed in two wells located in the foothills east of Idaho Falls to determine the aquifer characteristics at these locations. These data were used to differentiate this aquifer from the Snake River Plain aquifer. The wells were pumped at rates of 11 and 14 gallons per minute with 0.03 and 0.04 ft of drawdown measured in the pumping wells. The transmissivity is estimated to be 525,000 gpd/ft and 450,000 gpd/ft, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity is 925 ft/day and 1,070 ft/day, respectively. These hydraulic conductivities are similar to those measured in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Water level data in these wells are consistent with the water table in the Snake River Plain aquifer and indicates ground water movement from the foothills toward the Plain. The high transmissivity suggests water may move rapidly from the foothills area to mix with water in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Elevated water temperatures (76 and 70{degrees}F) and high specific conductivities in these wells indicate the presence of a foothills aquifer with characteristics that can be used to separate the two aquifer systems.

  12. 77 FR 32075 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... FR 74018), our draft economic analysis of the proposed designation, and the amended required...- and-answer period), and a public hearing on April 28, 2012, in Bonners Ferry, Idaho (77 FR 16512... proposed critical habitat rule, as described below. Previous Federal Actions On November 30, 2011 (76...

  13. 78 FR 17224 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed South Puget Sound Prairie Habitat Conservation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... (62 FR 31740). This flowering plant is known to exist in only 11 locations, including one population... on July 14, 1993 (59 FR 35860). This flowering plant is currently known from California, Idaho... of critical habitat was proposed on October 11, 2012 (77 FR 61937). This species is...

  14. A Regional Model for Malaria Vector Developmental Habitats Evaluated Using Explicit, Pond-Resolving Surface Hydrology Simulations.

    PubMed

    Asare, Ernest Ohene; Tompkins, Adrian Mark; Bomblies, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical malaria models can relate precipitation to the availability of vector breeding sites using simple models of surface hydrology. Here, a revised scheme is developed for the VECTRI malaria model, which is evaluated alongside the default scheme using a two year simulation by HYDREMATS, a 10 metre resolution, village-scale model that explicitly simulates individual ponds. Despite the simplicity of the two VECTRI surface hydrology parametrization schemes, they can reproduce the sub-seasonal evolution of fractional water coverage. Calibration of the model parameters is required to simulate the mean pond fraction correctly. The default VECTRI model tended to overestimate water fraction in periods subject to light rainfall events and underestimate it during periods of intense rainfall. This systematic error was improved in the revised scheme by including the a parametrization for surface run-off, such that light rainfall below the initial abstraction threshold does not contribute to ponds. After calibration of the pond model, the VECTRI model was able to simulate vector densities that compared well to the detailed agent based model contained in HYDREMATS without further parameter adjustment. Substituting local rain-gauge data with satellite-retrieved precipitation gave a reasonable approximation, raising the prospects for regional malaria simulations even in data sparse regions. However, fur